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Sample records for early social isolation

  1. Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters.

    PubMed

    Keesom, Sarah M; Finton, Caitlyn J; Sell, Gabrielle L; Hurley, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities. Here, we tested the prediction that social isolation during early life would influence ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by adult male mice during same-sex social encounters. Starting at three weeks of age, male mice were housed individually or in social groups of four males for five weeks, after which they were placed in one of three types of paired social encounters. Pair types consisted of: two individually housed males, two socially housed males, or an individually housed and a socially housed male ("mixed" pairs). Vocal behavior (USVs) and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of at least one individually housed male emitted more and longer USVs, with a greater proportional use of USVs containing frequency jumps and 50-kHz components. Individually housed males in the mixed social pairs exhibited increased levels of mounting behavior towards the socially housed males. Mounting in these pairs was positively correlated with increased number and duration of USVs as well as increased proportional use of spectrally more complex USVs. These findings demonstrate that USVs are part of the suite of social behaviors influenced by early-life social isolation, and suggest that altered vocal communication following isolation reflects reduced social competence.

  2. Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Finton, Caitlyn J.; Sell, Gabrielle L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities. Here, we tested the prediction that social isolation during early life would influence ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by adult male mice during same-sex social encounters. Starting at three weeks of age, male mice were housed individually or in social groups of four males for five weeks, after which they were placed in one of three types of paired social encounters. Pair types consisted of: two individually housed males, two socially housed males, or an individually housed and a socially housed male (“mixed” pairs). Vocal behavior (USVs) and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of at least one individually housed male emitted more and longer USVs, with a greater proportional use of USVs containing frequency jumps and 50-kHz components. Individually housed males in the mixed social pairs exhibited increased levels of mounting behavior towards the socially housed males. Mounting in these pairs was positively correlated with increased number and duration of USVs as well as increased proportional use of spectrally more complex USVs. These findings demonstrate that USVs are part of the suite of social behaviors influenced by early-life social isolation, and suggest that altered vocal communication following isolation reflects reduced social competence. PMID:28056078

  3. Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Prediction from Clique Isolation, Loneliness, and Perceived Social Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11–14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. PMID:20499155

  4. Perceived social isolation moderates the relationship between early childhood trauma and pulse pressure in older adults.

    PubMed

    Norman, Greg J; Hawkley, Louise; Ball, Aaron; Berntson, Gary G; Cacioppo, John T

    2013-06-01

    Over a million children are subjected to some form of trauma in the United States every year. Early trauma has been shown to have deleterious effects on cardiovascular health in adulthood. However, the presence of strong social relationships as an adult can buffer an individual against many of the harmful effects of early trauma. Furthermore, the perception of social isolation has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and is a strong predictor of all cause mortality. One likely mechanism thought to underlie the influence of perceived isolation on health is changes in arterial stiffness. One of the more widely used measures of arterial stiffness in older individuals is pulse pressure. The goal of the present study was to determine whether early childhood trauma is associated with elevations on pulse pressure. Furthermore, this study sought to determine whether perceived social isolation moderates the relationship between early trauma and pulse pressure. Results revealed that individuals with low perceived social isolation displayed no significant relationship between early trauma and pulse pressure. However, individuals who reported higher levels of perceived isolation showed a significant positive association between early trauma and pulse pressure. Therefore, the detrimental effects of early trauma may be partially dependent upon the quality of social relationships as an adult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistent social isolation reflects identity and social context but not maternal effects or early environment.

    PubMed

    Brent, L J N; Ruiz-Lambides, A; Platt, M L

    2017-12-19

    Individuals who are well integrated into society have greater access to resources and tend to live longer. Why some individuals are socially isolated and others are not is therefore puzzling from an evolutionary perspective. Answering this question requires establishing the mix of intrinsic and contextual factors that contribute to social isolation. Using social network data spanning up to half of the median adult lifespan in a gregarious primate, we found that some measures of social isolation were modestly repeatable within individuals, consistent with a trait. By contrast, social isolation was not explained by the identity of an animal's mother or the group into which it was born. Nevertheless, age, sex and social status each played a role, as did kin dynamics and familiarity. Females with fewer close relatives were more isolated, and the more time males spent in a new group the less isolated they became, independent of their social status. These results show that social isolation results from a combination of intrinsic and environmental factors. From an evolutionary perspective, these findings suggest that social isolation could be adaptive in some contexts and partly maintained by selection.

  6. Early social isolation impairs development, mate choice and grouping behaviour of predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Schausberger, Peter; Gratzer, Marian; Strodl, Markus A.

    2017-01-01

    The social environment early in life is a key determinant of developmental, physiological and behavioural trajectories across vertebrate and invertebrate animals. One crucial variable is the presence/absence of conspecifics. For animals usually reared in groups, social isolation after birth or hatching can be a highly stressful circumstance, with potentially long-lasting consequences. Here, we assessed the effects of social deprivation (isolation) early in life, that is, absence of conspecifics, versus social enrichment, that is, presence of conspecifics, on developmental time, body size at maturity, mating behaviour and group-living in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Socially deprived protonymphs developed more slowly and were less socially competent in grouping behaviour than socially enriched protonymphs. Compromised social competence in grouping behaviour was evident in decreased activity, fewer mutual encounters and larger interindividual distances, all of which may entail severe fitness costs. In female choice/male competition, socially deprived males mated earlier than socially enriched males; in male choice/female competition, socially deprived females were more likely to mate than socially enriched females. In neither mate choice situation did mating duration or body size at maturity differ between socially deprived and enriched mating opponents. Social isolation-induced shifts in mating behaviour may be interpreted as increased attractiveness or competitiveness or, more likely, as hastiness and reduced ability to assess mate quality. Overall, many of the social isolation-induced behavioural changes in P. persimilis are analogous to those observed in other animals such as cockroaches, fruit flies, fishes or rodents. We argue that, due to their profound and persistent effects, early social deprivation or enrichment may be important determinants in shaping animal personalities. PMID:28502987

  7. Early social isolation impairs development, mate choice and grouping behaviour of predatory mites.

    PubMed

    Schausberger, Peter; Gratzer, Marian; Strodl, Markus A

    2017-05-01

    The social environment early in life is a key determinant of developmental, physiological and behavioural trajectories across vertebrate and invertebrate animals. One crucial variable is the presence/absence of conspecifics. For animals usually reared in groups, social isolation after birth or hatching can be a highly stressful circumstance, with potentially long-lasting consequences. Here, we assessed the effects of social deprivation (isolation) early in life, that is, absence of conspecifics, versus social enrichment, that is, presence of conspecifics, on developmental time, body size at maturity, mating behaviour and group-living in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis . Socially deprived protonymphs developed more slowly and were less socially competent in grouping behaviour than socially enriched protonymphs. Compromised social competence in grouping behaviour was evident in decreased activity, fewer mutual encounters and larger interindividual distances, all of which may entail severe fitness costs. In female choice/male competition, socially deprived males mated earlier than socially enriched males; in male choice/female competition, socially deprived females were more likely to mate than socially enriched females. In neither mate choice situation did mating duration or body size at maturity differ between socially deprived and enriched mating opponents. Social isolation-induced shifts in mating behaviour may be interpreted as increased attractiveness or competitiveness or, more likely, as hastiness and reduced ability to assess mate quality. Overall, many of the social isolation-induced behavioural changes in P. persimilis are analogous to those observed in other animals such as cockroaches, fruit flies, fishes or rodents. We argue that, due to their profound and persistent effects, early social deprivation or enrichment may be important determinants in shaping animal personalities.

  8. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure. PMID:26617573

  9. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic-GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP-GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP-GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP-GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP-GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  10. Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Prediction from Clique Isolation, Loneliness, and Perceived Social Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived…

  11. Early impact of social isolation and breast tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelley S; Szpunar, Mercedes J; Brown, Edward B

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from cancer patients and animal models of cancer indicates that exposure to psychosocial stress can promote tumor growth and metastasis, but the pathways underlying stress-induced cancer pathogenesis are not fully understood. Social isolation has been shown to promote tumor progression. We examined the impact of social isolation on breast cancer pathogenesis in adult female severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice using the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, a high β-adrenergic receptor (AR) expressing line. When group-adapted mice were transferred into single housing (social isolation) one week prior to MB-231 tumor cell injection into a mammary fat pad (orthotopic), no alterations in tumor growth or metastasis were detected compared to group-housed mice. When social isolation was delayed until tumors were palpable, tumor growth was transiently increased in singly-housed mice. To determine if sympathetic nervous system activation was associated with increased tumor growth, spleen and tumor norepinephrine (NE) was measured after social isolation, in conjunction with tumor-promoting macrophage populations. Three days after transfer to single housing, spleen weight was transiently increased in tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice in conjunction with reduced splenic NE concentration and elevated CD11b+Gr-1+ macrophages. At day 10 after social isolation, no changes in spleen CD11b+ populations or NE were detected in singly-housed mice. In the tumors, social isolation increased CD11b+Gr-1+, CD11b+Gr-1-, and F4/80+ macrophage populations, with no change in tumor NE. The results indicate that a psychological stressor, social isolation, elicits dynamic but transient effects on macrophage populations that may facilitate tumor growth. The transiency of the changes in peripheral NE suggest that homeostatic mechanisms may mitigate the impact of social isolation over time. Studies are underway to define the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the

  12. Early-Life Social Isolation Stress Increases Kappa Opioid Receptor Responsiveness and Downregulates the Dopamine System

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Rose, Jamie H; Weiner, Jeffrey L; Jones, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic early-life stress increases vulnerability to alcoholism and anxiety disorders during adulthood. Similarly, rats reared in social isolation (SI) during adolescence exhibit augmented ethanol intake and anxiety-like behaviors compared with group housed (GH) rats. Prior studies suggest that disruption of dopamine (DA) signaling contributes to SI-associated behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying these alterations are not fully understood. Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have an important role in regulating mesolimbic DA signaling, and other kinds of stressors have been shown to augment KOR function. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SI-induced increases in KOR function contribute to the dysregulation of NAc DA and the escalation in ethanol intake associated with SI. Our ex vivo voltammetry experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of the kappa agonist U50,488 on DA release were significantly enhanced in the NAc core and shell of SI rats. Dynorphin levels in NAc tissue were observed to be lower in SI rats. Microdialysis in freely moving rats revealed that SI was also associated with reduced baseline DA levels, and pretreatment with the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) increased DA levels selectively in SI subjects. Acute ethanol elevated DA in SI and GH rats and nor-BNI pretreatment augmented this effect in SI subjects, while having no effect on ethanol-stimulated DA release in GH rats. Together, these data suggest that KORs may have increased responsiveness following SI, which could lead to hypodopaminergia and contribute to an increased drive to consume ethanol. Indeed, SI rats exhibited greater ethanol intake and preference and KOR blockade selectively attenuated ethanol intake in SI rats. Collectively, the findings that nor-BNI reversed SI-mediated hypodopaminergic state and escalated ethanol intake suggest that KOR antagonists may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alcohol use disorders, particularly

  13. A Behavioural Case Study of Early Social Isolation of a Subadult White-Handed Gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Andrea; Montebovi, Giulia; Vitale, Augusto; Alleva, Enrico

    2018-06-06

    Our aim in this study was to analyse the effects of early social isolation on the behaviour of a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) and at the same time to improve his level of welfare. The subject was a 6-year-old male, isolated from conspecific as well as other non-human primates since he was 3 months old. We presented the gibbon with a series of species-specific vocalisations, and we then introduced a 23-year-old conspecific female into his cage. Our subject did not respond to playbacks, whereas he immediately interacted positively with the conspecific female. After 2 days of presentation, the pair started to spend time in proximity to each other and initiated grooming through the wire-mesh dividing the cages. Four days later we recorded vocal duets. No obvious ste-reotypic behaviours were observed, and the prolonged isolation did not seem to compromise the ability of the young gibbon to socialise with the female conspecific. It appears that prolonged isolation does not always compromise the possibility of recovering socially in a satisfactory manner. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The effects of voluntary running exercise coincidence with social isolation after early weaning on monoaminergic axonal development.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, J; Ishikawa, A

    2013-01-29

    The axonal development of serotonin (5-HT)-, noradrenaline (NA)-, or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing monoaminergic neurons is affected by rearing conditions during the juvenile period. Impaired monoaminergic axonal development is implicated in the pathophysiology of emotional and cognitive dysfunction. On the other hand, exercise may have beneficial effects on emotional and learning performance in adults. We have examined whether voluntary running exercise during social isolation after early weaning (early weaning/social isolation; EI) from postnatal day (PD) 14-28 could prevent the impaired monoaminergic axonal development associated with EI. Compared with control animals reared with their dam and siblings until PD28, the EI animals showed lower density of 5-HT and NA axons in the dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala and of NA- and TH-containing axons in the ventral-mPFC. These adverse effects of EI were not observed in rats taking part in voluntary running (EI+R) when these animals were compared to controls. The 5-HT axon density in the ventral-mPFC was significantly higher in the EI+R rats than that in the EI rats, although both these values were significantly lower than those in the control rats. The density of monoaminergic axons in the dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus was not affected by either EI or EI+R. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of voluntary running may be because of the modulation of monoaminergic axonal morphology. Our findings will hopefully provide the basis for future research into the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise during the juvenile period on brain development and emotional and cognitive performance. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic social isolation and chronic variable stress during early development induce later elevated ethanol intake in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Becker, Howard C

    2011-06-01

    Experience with stress situations during early development can have long-lasting effects on stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Importantly, this can also favor drug self-administration. These studies examined the effects of chronic social isolation and/or variable stress experiences during early development on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake in adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. The experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 1), chronic isolation during adulthood (Experiment 2), and chronic variable stress (CVS) alone or in combination with chronic social isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 3) on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake. Mice were born in our facility and were separated into two housing conditions: isolate housed (one mouse/cage) or group housed (four mice/cage) according to sex. Separate groups were isolated for 40 days starting either at time of weaning postnatal day 21 (PD 21) (early isolation, Experiments 1 and 3) or at adulthood (PD 60: late isolation, Experiment 2). The effects of housing condition on subsequent ethanol intake were assessed starting at around PD 65 in Experiments 1 and 3 or PD 105 days in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, starting at PD 32, isolate-housed and group-housed mice were either subjected to CVS or left undisturbed. CVS groups experienced random presentations of mild stressors for 14 days, including exposure to an unfamiliar open field, restraint, physical shaking, and forced swim, among others. All mice were tested for ethanol intake for 14 days using a two-bottle choice (ethanol 15% vol/vol vs. water) for a 2-h limited access procedure. Early social isolation resulted in greater ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 1). In contrast, social isolation during adulthood (late isolation) did not increase subsequent ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 2

  16. Early Life Stress Increases Metabolic Risk, HPA Axis Reactivity, and Depressive-Like Behavior When Combined with Postweaning Social Isolation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Javier; Junco, Mariana; Gomez, Carlos; Lajud, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Early-life stress is associated with depression and metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Such associations could be due to increased glucocorticoid levels. Periodic maternal separation in the neonate and rearing in social isolation are potent stressors that increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Moreover, social isolation promotes feed intake and body weight gain in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation; however, its effects on metabolic risks have not been described. In the present study, we evaluated whether periodic maternal separation, social isolation rearing, and a combination of these two stressors (periodic maternal separation + social isolation rearing) impair glucose homeostasis and its relation to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and depressive-like behavior. Periodic maternal separation increased basal corticosterone levels, induced a passive coping strategy in the forced swimming test, and was associated with a mild (24%) increase in fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Rearing in social isolation increased stress reactivity in comparison to both controls and in combination with periodic maternal separation, without affecting the coping strategy associated with the forced swimming test. However, social isolation also increased body weight gain, fasting glucose (120%), and insulin levels in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation. Correlation analyses showed that stress-induced effects on coping strategy on the forced swimming test (but not on metabolic risk markers) are associated with basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that maternal separation and postweaning social isolation affect stress and metabolic vulnerability differentially and that early-life stress-related effects on metabolism are not directly dependent on glucocorticoid levels. In conclusion, our study supports the cumulative stress hypothesis, which suggests that

  17. The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-01-03

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed.

  18. The Neuroendocrinology of Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P.; Cole, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed. PMID:25148851

  19. Perceived Social Isolation and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.

    2009-01-01

    Social species, from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens, fare poorly when isolated. Homo sapiens, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are, in normal circumstances, dramatically affected by perceived social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e., loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, more negativity and depressive cognition, heightened sensitivity to social threats, a confirmatory bias in social cognition that is self-protective and paradoxically self-defeating, heightened anthropomorphism, and contagion that threatens social cohesion. These differences in attention and cognition impact emotions, decisions, behaviors, and interpersonal interactions that may contribute to the association between loneliness and cognitive decline and between loneliness and morbidity more generally. PMID:19726219

  20. Early Social Isolation Stress and Perinatal NMDA Receptor Antagonist Treatment Induce Changes in the Structure and Neurochemistry of Inhibitory Neurons of the Adult Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bellés, María; Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Llorens, José Vicente; Bueno-Fernández, Clara; Ripoll-Martínez, Beatriz; Curto, Yasmina; Sebastiá-Ortega, Noelia; Sanjuan, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The exposure to aversive experiences during early life influences brain development and leads to altered behavior. Moreover, the combination of these experiences with subtle alterations in neurodevelopment may contribute to the emergence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent hypotheses suggest that imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission, especially in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, may underlie their etiopathology. In order to understand better the neurobiological bases of these alterations, we studied the impact of altered neurodevelopment and chronic early-life stress on these two brain regions. Transgenic mice displaying fluorescent excitatory and inhibitory neurons, received a single injection of MK801 (NMDAR antagonist) or vehicle solution at postnatal day 7 and/or were socially isolated from the age of weaning until adulthood (3 months old). We found that anxiety-related behavior, brain volume, neuronal structure, and the expression of molecules related to plasticity and E/I neurotransmission in adult mice were importantly affected by early-life stress. Interestingly, many of these effects were potentiated when the stress paradigm was applied to mice perinatally injected with MK801 ("double-hit" model). These results clearly show the impact of early-life stress on the adult brain, especially on the structure and plasticity of inhibitory networks, and highlight the double-hit model as a valuable tool to study the contribution of early-life stress in the emergence of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. PMID:28466069

  1. Early Social Isolation Stress and Perinatal NMDA Receptor Antagonist Treatment Induce Changes in the Structure and Neurochemistry of Inhibitory Neurons of the Adult Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Pérez-Rando, Marta; Bellés, María; Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Llorens, José Vicente; Carceller, Héctor; Bueno-Fernández, Clara; García-Mompó, Clara; Ripoll-Martínez, Beatriz; Curto, Yasmina; Sebastiá-Ortega, Noelia; Moltó, María Dolores; Sanjuan, Julio; Nacher, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The exposure to aversive experiences during early life influences brain development and leads to altered behavior. Moreover, the combination of these experiences with subtle alterations in neurodevelopment may contribute to the emergence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent hypotheses suggest that imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission, especially in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, may underlie their etiopathology. In order to understand better the neurobiological bases of these alterations, we studied the impact of altered neurodevelopment and chronic early-life stress on these two brain regions. Transgenic mice displaying fluorescent excitatory and inhibitory neurons, received a single injection of MK801 (NMDAR antagonist) or vehicle solution at postnatal day 7 and/or were socially isolated from the age of weaning until adulthood (3 months old). We found that anxiety-related behavior, brain volume, neuronal structure, and the expression of molecules related to plasticity and E/I neurotransmission in adult mice were importantly affected by early-life stress. Interestingly, many of these effects were potentiated when the stress paradigm was applied to mice perinatally injected with MK801 ("double-hit" model). These results clearly show the impact of early-life stress on the adult brain, especially on the structure and plasticity of inhibitory networks, and highlight the double-hit model as a valuable tool to study the contribution of early-life stress in the emergence of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

  2. Freedom from Social Isolation for Young Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Diane; Smith-Canter, Lora Lee; Voytecki, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, students in early childhood special education programs experience social isolation. To ameliorate the inappropriate behaviors that often contribute to this isolation, it is imperative that educators begin to include instruction in appropriate social interaction in the general education early childhood curriculum for children with…

  3. Developmental social isolation affects adult behavior, social interaction, and dopamine metabolite levels in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shams, Soaleha; Amlani, Shahid; Buske, Christine; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The zebrafish is a social vertebrate and an excellent translational model for a variety of human disorders. Abnormal social behavior is a hallmark of several human brain disorders. Social behavioral problems can arise as a result of adverse early social environment. Little is known about the effects of early social isolation in adult zebrafish. We compared zebrafish that were isolated for either short (7 days) or long duration (180 days) to socially housed zebrafish, testing their behavior across ontogenesis (ages 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 days), and shoal cohesion and whole-brain monoamines and their metabolites in adulthood. Long social isolation increased locomotion and decreased shoal cohesion and anxiety in the open-field in adult. Additionally, both short and long social isolation reduced dopamine metabolite levels in response to social stimuli. Thus, early social isolation has lasting effects in zebrafish, and may be employed to generate zebrafish models of human neuropsychiatric conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Is social isolation/alienation confounded with, and non-independent of, emotional distress in its association with early onset of coronary artery disease?

    PubMed

    Ketterer, Mark; Rose, Benjamin; Knysz, Walter; Farha, Amjad; Deveshwar, Sangita; Schairer, John; Keteyian, Steven J

    2011-03-01

    Both emotional distress (ED) and social isolation/alienation (SI/A) have been found to prospectively predict adverse cardiac events, but few studies have tested the confounding/redundancy of these measures as correlates/predictors of outcomes. In this study, 163 patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) were interviewed for multiple indices of SI/A and administered the Symptom Checklist 90 - Revised (SCL90R). A spouse or friend provided an independent rating of ED using the spouse/friend version of the Ketterer Stress Symptom Frequency Checklist (KSSFC). The measures of ED and SI/A covaried. All three scales from the KSSFC (depression, anxiety, and "AIAI" - aggravation, irritation, anger, and impatience), and three scales from the SCL90R (anxiety, depression, and psychoticism), were associated with early Age at Initial Diagnosis (AAID) of CAD. Neither three scales derived from the SCL90R (shyness, feeling abused, and feeling lonely) nor the interview indices of SI/A (married, living alone, having a confidant, self description as a lone wolf, and self-description as lonely) were associated with early AAID. Thus, it is concluded that the present results indicate that ED and SI/A are confounded and that, even when tested head-to-head in a multivariate analysis, only ED is associated with AAID.

  5. Early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, shame and abandonment are related to a history of suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Astinsadaf, Sommayyeh; Akhondi, Amineh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Jahangard, Leila; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-08-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders have an exceptionally high risk of completed or attempted suicide. This holds particularly true for patients with major depressive disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore whether patients with major depressive disorders (MDD) and a history of suicide attempts differed in their early maladaptive schemas from patients with MDD but without such a history or from healthy controls. Ninety participants took part in the study. Of these, 30 were patients with MDD who had made a recent suicide attempt; 30 were patients with MDD but no suicide attempts, and 30 were gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ- RE2R) to assess early maladaptive schemas. Experts rated patients' MDD with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients did not differ in experts' ratings of symptoms of depression. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD recorded higher scores on maladaptive schemas such as recognition seeking, negativity/pessimism, and insufficient self-control. Compared to patients without suicide attempts and healthy controls, those who had made a suicide attempt had higher scores on dimensions such as failure, mistrust, emotional inhibition, social isolation, and abandonment/instability. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD had more pronounced maladaptive schemas, but this was more marked in patients with a history of suicide attempts. The results suggest that suicide attempts and poorer psychological functioning are related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry’s newly released Aging at Home Strategy. After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person’s transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series. Aging in the Community: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based Analysis Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR) Objective of the Evidence-Based Analysis The objective was to systematically review interventions aimed at preventing or reducing social isolation and loneliness in community-dwelling seniors, that is, persons ≥ 65 years of age who are not living in long-term care institutions. The analyses focused on the following questions: Are interventions to reduce social isolation and

  7. Paying Attention to and Not Neglecting Social Withdrawal and Social Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    This commentary outlines the origins, history, and current status of research related to children's social withdrawal and social isolation. Early research related to children's peer relationships is first explored, followed by a discussion of the relative "neglect" of social withdrawal prior to the 1980s. Increased research attention since that…

  8. Preventing social isolation in older people.

    PubMed

    Cotterell, Natalie; Buffel, Tine; Phillipson, Christopher

    2018-07-01

    The extent of social isolation amongst older people has emerged as a major concern for health and social policy. Although the social and health outcomes of social isolation are well documented, evidence regarding the prevention of isolation in later life remains scarce. This article addresses this by presenting the findings from a literature review focusing on the identification, assessment, prevention, and intervention strategies relevant to social isolation in older age. The paper first addresses the issues of identification and assessment, using an ecological framework to identify the risk factors for social isolation at four levels: individual, relationship, community, and societal. It then reviews different types of interventions to reduce or prevent social isolation in later life, including one-to-one, group, service provision, technology-based, neighbourhood, and structural interventions. The paper discusses both the opportunities and the constraints associated with these different approaches. The discussion highlights future directions for research, emphasising the need for a cultural change from 'cure' to 'prevention' of social isolation across the life-course, and the importance of acknowledging greater diversity within the ageing population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods.

  10. Loneliness, Social Isolation, and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ning

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Social and demographic changes have led to an increased prevalence of loneliness and social isolation in modern society. Recent Advances: Population-based studies have demonstrated that both objective social isolation and the perception of social isolation (loneliness) are correlated with a higher risk of mortality and that both are clearly risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lonely individuals have increased peripheral vascular resistance and elevated blood pressure. Socially isolated animals develop more atherosclerosis than those housed in groups. Critical Issues: Molecular mechanisms responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk are poorly understood. In recent reports, loneliness and social stress were associated with activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Repeated and chronic social stress leads to glucocorticoid resistance, enhanced myelopoiesis, upregulated proinflammatory gene expression, and oxidative stress. However, the causal role of these mechanisms in the development of loneliness-associated CVD remains unclear. Future Directions: Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of how CVD is induced by loneliness and social isolation requires additional studies. Understanding of the pathomechanisms is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent the detrimental effects of social stress on health. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 837–851. PMID:28903579

  11. Loneliness, Social Isolation, and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning; Li, Huige

    2018-03-20

    Social and demographic changes have led to an increased prevalence of loneliness and social isolation in modern society. Recent Advances: Population-based studies have demonstrated that both objective social isolation and the perception of social isolation (loneliness) are correlated with a higher risk of mortality and that both are clearly risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lonely individuals have increased peripheral vascular resistance and elevated blood pressure. Socially isolated animals develop more atherosclerosis than those housed in groups. Molecular mechanisms responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk are poorly understood. In recent reports, loneliness and social stress were associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Repeated and chronic social stress leads to glucocorticoid resistance, enhanced myelopoiesis, upregulated proinflammatory gene expression, and oxidative stress. However, the causal role of these mechanisms in the development of loneliness-associated CVD remains unclear. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of how CVD is induced by loneliness and social isolation requires additional studies. Understanding of the pathomechanisms is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent the detrimental effects of social stress on health. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 837-851.

  12. The heterogeneity of socially isolated older adults: a social isolation typology.

    PubMed

    Machielse, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed.

  13. Effects of early weaning and social isolation on the expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mRNAs in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of piglets.

    PubMed

    Poletto, R; Steibel, J P; Siegford, J M; Zanella, A J

    2006-01-05

    Pigs weaned at young ages show more abnormal and aggressive behaviors and cognitive deficits compared to later weaned pigs. We investigated the effects of age, weaning and/or social isolation on the expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid response [glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2)] in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Early- (EW; n = 6) and conventionally-weaned (CW; n = 6) piglets were weaned at 10 and 21 days after birth, respectively. Non-weaned (NW) piglets of both ages (NW; n = 6/group) remained with their dams. Immediately before euthanasia, half of CW, EW and NW animals were socially isolated for 15 min at 12 (EW, NW) and 23 (CW, NW) days of age. Differences in amounts of 11beta-HSD1, 11beta-HSD2, GR and MR mRNA were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and data subjected to multivariate linear mixed model analysis. When compared with NW piglets at 12 days of age, the hippocampi of EW piglets showed decreased gene expression (P < 0.01). Social isolation decreased gene expression (P < 0.05) in the frontal cortex of all piglets. Twelve-day-old piglets showed higher MR mRNA in the frontal cortex (P < 0.01) and lower 11beta-HSD2 and GR mRNA (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus compared to 23-day-old animals. Results indicate that EW affected the hippocampus of piglets at 12 days of age, while social isolation affected frontal cortex regardless of age. These results may be correlated with behavioral and cognitive changes reported in EW piglets.

  14. Effects of Social Isolation on Glucocorticoid Regulation in Social Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steve W.; Capitanio, John P.; Norman, Greg J.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation and function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and glucocorticoids have been well conserved across vertebrate species. Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of physiological functions that include glucose regulation, metabolism, inflammatory control, as well as cardiovascular, reproductive, and neuronal effects. Some of these are relatively quick-acting non-genomic effects, but most are slower-acting genomic effects. Thus, any stimulus that affects HPA function has the potential to exert wide-ranging short-term and long-term effects on much of vertebrate physiology. Here, we review the effects of social isolation on the functioning of the HPA axis in social species, and on glucocorticoid physiology in social mammals in particular. Evidence indicates that objective and perceived social isolation alter HPA regulation, although the nature and direction of the HPA response differs among species and across age. The inconsistencies in the direction and nature of HPA effects have implications for drawing cross-species conclusions about the effects of social isolation, and are particularly problematic for understanding HPA-related physiological processes in humans. The animal and human data are incommensurate because, for example, animal studies of objective isolation have typically not been modeled on, or for comparability with, the subjective experience of isolation in humans. An animal model of human isolation must be taken more seriously if we want to advance our understanding of the mechanisms for the effects of objective and perceived isolation in humans. PMID:22663934

  15. Early Adolescent Social Networks and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.; Kobus, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between social network position and the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and inhalants in a sample of 1,119 sixth-grade youth. Social network analyses of peer nominations were used to categorize youth as "members" of social groups, "liaisons" between groups, or social "isolates." The results revealed that…

  16. Social Isolation and Mental Health at Primary and Secondary School Entry: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objective We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers’ and teachers’ reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers’ and teachers’ ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. Results At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Conclusion Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. PMID:25721188

  17. An Interactive, Mobile-Based Tool for Personal Social Network Data Collection and Visualization Among a Geographically Isolated and Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Population: Early-Stage Feasibility Study With Qualitative User Feedback.

    PubMed

    Eddens, Katherine S; Fagan, Jesse M; Collins, Tom

    2017-06-22

    Personal social networks have a profound impact on our health, yet collecting personal network data for use in health communication, behavior change, or translation and dissemination interventions has proved challenging. Recent advances in social network data collection software have reduced the burden of network studies on researchers and respondents alike, yet little testing has occurred to discover whether these methods are: (1) acceptable to a variety of target populations, including those who may have limited experience with technology or limited literacy; and (2) practical in the field, specifically in areas that are geographically and technologically disconnected, such as rural Appalachian Kentucky. We explored the early-stage feasibility (Acceptability, Demand, Implementation, and Practicality) of using innovative, interactive, tablet-based network data collection and visualization software (OpenEddi) in field collection of personal network data in Appalachian Kentucky. A total of 168 rural Appalachian women who had previously participated in a study on the use of a self-collected vaginal swab (SCVS) for human papillomavirus testing were recruited by community-based nurse interviewers between September 2013 and August 2014. Participants completed egocentric network surveys via OpenEddi, which captured social and communication network influences on participation in, and recruitment to, the SCVS study. After study completion, we conducted a qualitative group interview with four nurse interviewers and two participants in the network study. Using this qualitative data, and quantitative data from the network study, we applied guidelines from Bowen et al to assess feasibility in four areas of early-stage development of OpenEddi: Acceptability, Demand, Implementation, and Practicality. Basic descriptive network statistics (size, edges, density) were analyzed using RStudio. OpenEddi was perceived as fun, novel, and superior to other data collection methods or tools

  18. An Interactive, Mobile-Based Tool for Personal Social Network Data Collection and Visualization Among a Geographically Isolated and Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Population: Early-Stage Feasibility Study With Qualitative User Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jesse M; Collins, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Background Personal social networks have a profound impact on our health, yet collecting personal network data for use in health communication, behavior change, or translation and dissemination interventions has proved challenging. Recent advances in social network data collection software have reduced the burden of network studies on researchers and respondents alike, yet little testing has occurred to discover whether these methods are: (1) acceptable to a variety of target populations, including those who may have limited experience with technology or limited literacy; and (2) practical in the field, specifically in areas that are geographically and technologically disconnected, such as rural Appalachian Kentucky. Objective We explored the early-stage feasibility (Acceptability, Demand, Implementation, and Practicality) of using innovative, interactive, tablet-based network data collection and visualization software (OpenEddi) in field collection of personal network data in Appalachian Kentucky. Methods A total of 168 rural Appalachian women who had previously participated in a study on the use of a self-collected vaginal swab (SCVS) for human papillomavirus testing were recruited by community-based nurse interviewers between September 2013 and August 2014. Participants completed egocentric network surveys via OpenEddi, which captured social and communication network influences on participation in, and recruitment to, the SCVS study. After study completion, we conducted a qualitative group interview with four nurse interviewers and two participants in the network study. Using this qualitative data, and quantitative data from the network study, we applied guidelines from Bowen et al to assess feasibility in four areas of early-stage development of OpenEddi: Acceptability, Demand, Implementation, and Practicality. Basic descriptive network statistics (size, edges, density) were analyzed using RStudio. Results OpenEddi was perceived as fun, novel, and superior to

  19. Early Childhood Socialization and Social Class Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnischfeger, Annegret; And Others

    This report of family social class influences on children's characteristics is based on data from a longitudinal study of more than 1,000 children, black and white, of various social backgrounds. The sample was originally selected for another study (the St. Louis Baby Study) giving only secondary consideration to social factors. It includes a…

  20. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  1. Fostering Social Expertise in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porath, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Social competence is an essential capability to bring to school because of its relationship to academic success. Development and consolidation of social understanding in early childhood ensures that young children have a solid foundation of social expertise when they begin formal schooling. Social expertise, conceptualized within the framework of…

  2. Early Adolescents' Social Goals and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly

    2017-01-01

    What are the common types of social goals endorsed by early adolescents and how are they related to their school adjustment? This article discusses the importance of assessing students' social goals during the early adolescent developmental period when peers become increasingly important and youth experience tremendous changes to the school…

  3. Social complementation and growth advantages promote socially defective bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Susanne A; Velicer, Gregory J

    2014-04-22

    Social interactions among diverse individuals that encounter one another in nature have often been studied among animals but rarely among microbes. For example, the evolutionary forces that determine natural frequencies of bacteria that express cooperative behaviours at low levels remain poorly understood. Natural isolates of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus sampled from the same fruiting body often vary in social phenotypes, such as group swarming and multicellular development. Here, we tested whether genotypes highly proficient at swarming or development might promote the persistence of less socially proficient genotypes from the same fruiting body. Fast-swarming strains complemented slower isolates, allowing the latter to keep pace with faster strains in mixed groups. During development, one low-sporulating strain was antagonized by high sporulators, whereas others with severe developmental defects had those defects partially complemented by high-sporulating strains. Despite declining in frequency overall during competition experiments spanning multiple cycles of development, developmentally defective strains exhibited advantages during the growth phases of competitions. These results suggest that microbes with low-sociality phenotypes often benefit from interacting with more socially proficient strains. Such complementation may combine with advantages at other traits to increase equilibrium frequencies of low-sociality genotypes in natural populations.

  4. Social isolation and cognitive function in Appalachian older adults.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Wu, Bei; Scogin, Forrest

    2014-03-01

    Investigating the relation between social isolation and cognitive function will allow us to identify components to incorporate into cognitive interventions. Data were collected from 267 Appalachian older adults (M = 78.5, range 70-94 years). Overall cognitive functioning and specific cognitive domains were assessed from data of a self-assembled neuropsychological battery of frequently used tasks. Social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation were measured from the Lubben Social Network scale-6. Results indicated a significant positive association between all predictor variables (e.g., social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation) and outcome variables (e.g., overall cognitive function, memory, executive functioning, attention, and language abilities). Perceived isolation accounted for nearly double the amount of variance in overall cognitive functioning than social disconnectedness (10.2% vs. 5.7%). Findings suggest that social isolation is associated with poorer overall cognitive functioning and this remains true across varied cognitive domains. © The Author(s) 2012.

  5. Social Isolation in Later Life: Extending the Conversation.

    PubMed

    Weldrick, Rachel; Grenier, Amanda

    2018-03-01

    As Canada's population continues to age, social isolation among older people is a growing concern and national-level priority. Although much is known about individual-level risks and negative health outcomes associated with social isolation in later life, the impact of life course trajectories and the more collective experiences are seldom considered. Current definitions and program responses tend to rely on individualized approaches to social isolation. Here, we argue that the conversation be extended to consider the social and cultural aspects of social isolation among older people. Specifically, we suggest that definitions and approaches consider three particular dimensions: temporal factors, spatial factors, and the relationship between social isolation and exclusion. Doing so, we argue, would result in a more inclusive approach to social isolation in late life, and the development of capacity to address social isolation among a wide range of older people, particularly the needs of vulnerable or marginalized groups.

  6. Social Isolation, Depression, and Psychological Distress Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the impact of objective and subjective social isolation from extended family members and friends on depressive symptoms and psychological distress among a national sample of older adults. Data for older adults (55 years and above) from the National Survey of American Life ( N = 1,439) were used to assess level of objective social isolation and subjective social isolation and to test regression models examining their impact on depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) and psychological distress (Kessler 6 [K6] Scale). The majority of respondents were not socially isolated from family or friends; 5% were objectively isolated from family and friends, and less than 1% were subjectively isolated from family and friends. Regression analyses using both social isolation measures indicated that objective social isolation was unrelated to depressive symptoms and psychological distress. However, subjective social isolation from both family and friends and from friends only was associated with more depressive symptoms, and subjective social isolation from friends only was associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Assessments of social isolation among older populations should account for both subjective and objective dimensions, as well as both family and friend social networks. Social isolation from friends is an important, but understudied, issue that has significant consequences for older adult mental health.

  7. Trajectories of social isolation in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Howard, A Fuchsia; Tan de Bibiana, Jason; Smillie, Kirsten; Goddard, Karen; Pritchard, Sheila; Olson, Rob; Kazanjian, Arminee

    2014-03-01

    Long-term childhood cancer survivors may be at increased risk for poor social outcomes as a result of their cancer treatment, as well as physical and psychological health problems. Yet, important challenges, namely social isolation, are not well understood. Moreover, survivors' perspectives of social isolation as well as the ways in which this might evolve through young adulthood have yet to be investigated. The purpose of this research was to describe the trajectories of social isolation experienced by adult survivors of a childhood cancer. Data from 30 in-depth interviews with survivors (9 to 38 years after diagnosis, currently 22 to 43 years of age, 60 % women) were analyzed using qualitative, constant comparative methods. Experiences of social isolation evolved over time as survivors grew through childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Eleven survivors never experienced social isolation after their cancer treatment, nor to the present day. Social isolation among 19 survivors followed one of three trajectories; (1) diminishing social isolation: it got somewhat better, (2) persistent social isolation: it never got better or (3) delayed social isolation: it hit me later on. Knowledge of when social isolation begins and how it evolves over time for different survivors is an important consideration for the development of interventions that prevent or mitigate this challenge. Assessing and addressing social outcomes, including isolation, might promote comprehensive long-term follow-up care for childhood cancer survivors.

  8. Neonatal isolation augments social dominance by altering actin dynamics in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tada, Hirobumi; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takemoto, Kiwamu; Takase, Kenkichi; Jitsuki, Susumu; Nakajima, Waki; Koide, Mayu; Yamamoto, Naoko; Komiya, Kasane; Suyama, Kumiko; Sano, Akane; Taguchi, Akiko; Takahashi, Takuya

    2016-10-25

    Social separation early in life can lead to the development of impaired interpersonal relationships and profound social disorders. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we found that isolation of neonatal rats induced glucocorticoid-dependent social dominance over nonisolated control rats in juveniles from the same litter. Furthermore, neonatal isolation inactivated the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin in the juvenile medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Isolation-induced inactivation of ADF/cofilin increased stable actin fractions at dendritic spines in the juvenile mPFC, decreasing glutamate synaptic AMPA receptors. Expression of constitutively active ADF/cofilin in the mPFC rescued the effect of isolation on social dominance. Thus, neonatal isolation affects spines in the mPFC by reducing actin dynamics, leading to altered social behavior later in life.

  9. Neonatal isolation augments social dominance by altering actin dynamics in the medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Hirobumi; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takemoto, Kiwamu; Takase, Kenkichi; Jitsuki, Susumu; Nakajima, Waki; Koide, Mayu; Yamamoto, Naoko; Komiya, Kasane; Suyama, Kumiko; Sano, Akane; Taguchi, Akiko; Takahashi, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Social separation early in life can lead to the development of impaired interpersonal relationships and profound social disorders. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we found that isolation of neonatal rats induced glucocorticoid-dependent social dominance over nonisolated control rats in juveniles from the same litter. Furthermore, neonatal isolation inactivated the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin in the juvenile medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Isolation-induced inactivation of ADF/cofilin increased stable actin fractions at dendritic spines in the juvenile mPFC, decreasing glutamate synaptic AMPA receptors. Expression of constitutively active ADF/cofilin in the mPFC rescued the effect of isolation on social dominance. Thus, neonatal isolation affects spines in the mPFC by reducing actin dynamics, leading to altered social behavior later in life. PMID:27791080

  10. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to further elucidate the relation between pubertal timing and social anxiety, with a focus on clarifying the role of gender. Participants were 138 adolescents (ages 12-17 years) recruited from the general community. Level of social anxiety was examined as a function of gender and within-sample pubertal timing. As expected, early-maturing girls evidenced significantly higher social anxiety as compared to on-time girls and early-maturing boys, and no other differences were found as a function of gender or developmental timing. Findings and future directions are discussed in terms of forwarding developmentally-sensitive models of social anxiety etiology and prevention. PMID:21604866

  11. Social motivation in individuals with isolated cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Ellen; Koscik, Timothy R; Conrad, Amy L; Moser, David J; Nopoulos, Peg

    2013-01-01

    Social isolation is common among individuals with isolated cleft lip and palate (ICLP), but the available data on why this may be are mixed. We present a novel theory relating to reduced social motivation in ICLP, called the social abulia hypothesis. Based on this hypothesis, we predicted that reduced social motivation would lead to reduced responsiveness to negative social feedback, in terms of both explicit responses and noncontrolled, psychophysiological responses. Twenty males with ICLP and 20 normal comparison males between 13 and 25 years old participated in the study. Social motivation was examined by measuring participants' response to negative social feedback (social exclusion). Additionally, psychophysiological reactivity to positive and negative social stimuli was measured. In order to rule out other potential contributors to social isolation, we tested basic social perception, emotion recognition, and social anxiety. In line with the social abulia hypothesis, we show that negative social feedback had less of an effect on males with ICLP than on healthy male peers, which was evident in explicit responses and noncontrolled, psychophysiological responses to negative social feedback. Our results could not be attributed to problems in social perception, a lack of understanding facial expressions, or increased social anxiety, as groups did not differ on these constructs. This study suggests that current views on social isolation in ICLP may need to be reconsidered to include the possibility that isolation in this population may be the direct result of reduced social motivation.

  12. Social isolation and mental health at primary and secondary school entry: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-03-01

    We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers' and teachers' reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers' and teachers' ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disrupted cortical function underlies behavior dysfunction due to social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takase, Kenkichi; Nakajima, Waki; Tada, Hirobumi; Ohya, Daisuke; Sano, Akane; Goto, Takahisa; Hirase, Hajime; Malinow, Roberto; Takahashi, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Stressful events during early childhood can have a profound lifelong influence on emotional and cognitive behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects neonatal brain circuit formation are poorly understood. Here, we show that neonatal social isolation disrupts molecular, cellular, and circuit developmental processes, leading to behavioral dysfunction. Neonatal isolation prevented long-term potentiation and experience-dependent synaptic trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors normally occurring during circuit formation in the rodent barrel cortex. This inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking was mediated by an increase of the stress glucocorticoid hormone and was associated with reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) signaling, resulting in attenuated whisker sensitivity at the cortex. These effects led to defects in whisker-dependent behavior in juvenile animals. These results indicate that neonatal social isolation alters neuronal plasticity mechanisms and perturbs the initial establishment of a normal cortical circuit, which potentially explains the long-lasting behavioral effects of neonatal stress. PMID:22706303

  14. The Epidemiology of Social Isolation: National Health & Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Cudjoe, Thomas K M; Roth, David L; Szanton, Sarah L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Boyd, Cynthia M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2018-03-26

    Social isolation among older adults is an important but under-recognized risk for poor health outcomes. Methods are needed to identify subgroups of older adults at risk for social isolation. We constructed a typology of social isolation using data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and estimated the prevalence and correlates of social isolation among community-dwelling older adults. The typology was formed from four domains: living arrangement, core discussion network size, religious attendance, and social participation. In 2011, 24% of self-responding, community-dwelling older adults (65+ years), approximately 7.7 million people, were characterized as socially isolated, including 1.3 million (4%) who were characterized as severely socially isolated. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression indicated that being unmarried, male, having low education, and low income were all independently associated with social isolation. Black and Hispanic older adults had lower odds of social isolation compared to White older adults, after adjusting for covariates. Social isolation is an important and potentially modifiable risk that affects a significant proportion of the older adult population.

  15. Social isolation, drunkenness, and cigarette use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Niño, Michael D; Cai, Tianji; Ignatow, Gabe

    2016-02-01

    This study compares isolated to sociable youth to investigate the relations between different network types of social isolation and alcohol and cigarette use. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health we developed a network measure that includes various types of social isolation. Types of social isolation were operationalized as socially avoidant, actively isolated, and socially disinterested, with sociable youth as the reference category. Random effects ordinal logit models were fit to estimate the association between different types of social isolation and drunkenness and cigarette use. Different types of social isolation had varying effects on drunkenness and cigarette use. On the one hand, socially disinterested youth were at an increased risk for drunkenness and cigarette use. On the other hand, socially avoidant youth had lower odds of drunkenness and no significant differences in cigarette use when compared to sociable youth. Actively isolated youth showed no differences in drunkenness and cigarette use. The role played by marginalized social positions in youth substance use is an important yet overlooked problem. This study can contribute to better targeted and more effective health behavior prevention efforts for vulnerable adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  17. When Using Facebook to Avoid Isolation Reduces Perceived Social Support.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Cho, Eugene

    2018-01-01

    A survey (N = 316) examined how other-directed Facebook use driven by fear of social isolation affects users' perception of social support they possess. As predicted, those higher on fear of isolation were more likely to (a) closely monitor others' activities for self-evaluation (i.e., social comparison) and (b) regulate their self-presentation to garner social approval (i.e., other-directed self-presentation), but less likely to (c) express their true inner feelings and thoughts (i.e., inner-directed self-presentation) on Facebook. Social comparison, in turn, lowered perceived social support among heavy Facebook users, whereas inner-directed self-presentation heightened it. Other-directed self-presentation had no significant effect on perceived social support. Results indicate that the desire to avoid social isolation may paradoxically diminish perceived social support by promoting social comparison, while suppressing the expression of true self on Facebook.

  18. Social isolation and chronic handling alter endocannabinoid signaling and behavioral reactivity to context in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Sciolino, Natale R.; Bortolato, Marco; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Fu, Jin; Oveisi, Fariba; Hohmann, Andrea G.; Piomelli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Social deprivation in early life disrupts emotionality and attentional processes in humans. Rearing rats in isolation reproduces some of these abnormalities, which are attenuated by daily handling. However, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying these responses remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that post-weaning social isolation alters the endocannabinoid system, a neuromodulatory system that controls emotional responding. We characterized behavioral consequences of social isolation and evaluated whether handling would reverse social isolation-induced alterations in behavioral reactivity to context and the endocannabinoid system. At weaning, pups were single or group housed and concomitantly handled or not handled daily until adulthood. Rats were tested in emotionality- and attentional-sensitive behavioral assays (open field, elevated plus maze, startle and prepulse inhibition). Cannabinoid receptor densities and endocannabinoid levels were quantified in a separate group of rats. Social isolation negatively altered behavioral responding. Socially-isolated rats that were handled showed less deficits in the open field, elevated plus maze, and prepulse inhibition tests. Social isolation produced site-specific alterations (supraoptic nucleus, ventrolateral thalamus, rostral striatum) in cannabinoid receptor densities compared to group rearing. Handling altered the endocannabinoid system in neural circuitry controlling emotional expression. Handling altered endocannabinoid content (prefrontal and piriform cortices, nucleus accumbens) and cannabinoid receptor densities (lateral globus pallidus, cingulate and piriform cortices, hippocampus) in a region-specific manner. Some effects of social isolation on the endocannabinoid system were moderated by handling. Isolates were unresponsive to handling-induced increases in cannabinoid receptor densities (caudal striatum, anterior thalamus), but were sensitive to handling-induced increases in endocannabinoid content

  19. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2018-01-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7+/− mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight. PMID:27550962

  20. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Social Isolation Co-opts Fear and Aggression Circuits.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Romaguera, Jose; Stuber, Garret D

    2018-05-17

    Social isolation is a stressful condition that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. In this issue of Cell, Zelikowsky et al. find that chronic social isolation stress triggers an increase in neuronal tachykinin signaling across distinct brain regions that mediate fear and aggression, elucidating the neural basis of these maladaptive responses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  3. Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Smith, Timothy B; Baker, Mark; Harris, Tyler; Stephenson, David

    2015-03-01

    Actual and perceived social isolation are both associated with increased risk for early mortality. In this meta-analytic review, our objective is to establish the overall and relative magnitude of social isolation and loneliness and to examine possible moderators. We conducted a literature search of studies (January 1980 to February 2014) using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and Google Scholar. The included studies provided quantitative data on mortality as affected by loneliness, social isolation, or living alone. Across studies in which several possible confounds were statistically controlled for, the weighted average effect sizes were as follows: social isolation odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, loneliness OR = 1.26, and living alone OR = 1.32, corresponding to an average of 29%, 26%, and 32% increased likelihood of mortality, respectively. We found no differences between measures of objective and subjective social isolation. Results remain consistent across gender, length of follow-up, and world region, but initial health status has an influence on the findings. Results also differ across participant age, with social deficits being more predictive of death in samples with an average age younger than 65 years. Overall, the influence of both objective and subjective social isolation on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  5. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  6. Early Career Patterns for Social Work Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Mi Jin; Urbanski, Paul; Fortune, Anne E.; Rogers, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    This study examines master's of social work graduates' early careers. Six cohorts graduating from 2002 through 2007 (N = 246) completed a questionnaire 9-15 months after graduation. Most reported adequate or exceptional preparation on both generalist and advanced concentration practice behaviors. Almost all direct practice graduates and 2/3 of…

  7. Risk Factors for Social Isolation in Older Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Ko, Jisook; Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Miyong T

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of social ties and connectedness in the lives of older ethnic immigrants, the present study examined the prevalence of social isolation and its risk factors in older Korean Americans. Using survey data from 1,301 participants (Mage = 70.5, SD = 7.24), risk groups for marginal social ties with family and friends were identified and predictors of each type of social isolation explored. Male gender and poorer rating of health were identified as common risk factors for marginal ties to both family and friends. Findings also present specific risk factors for each type of social isolation. For example, an increased risk of having marginal ties with friends was observed among individuals with perceived financial strain, greater functional impairment, and a shorter stay in the United States. The common and specific risk factors should be incorporated in programs to reduce social isolation in older immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Social isolation associated with depression: a case report of hikikomori.

    PubMed

    Teo, Alan R

    2013-06-01

    Social isolation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A severe form of social isolation or social withdrawal, called hikikomori in Japan, has been described, but controversy over the etiology and universality of the phenomenon remains. Case report. Diagnostic assessment by structured clinical interview and psychometric tools revealed hikikomori and underlying bipolar disorder, in which the patient's social withdrawal occurred exclusively during major depressive episodes. The patient declined pharmacotherapy, but his hikikomori and depression went into remission after 25 sessions of cognitive behavioural therapy targeting his social isolation. This is the first reported case of hikikomori in the Americas. It illustrates the association between hikikomori and a mood disorder, and suggests the importance of international study of the prevalence and potential treatment strategies for severe social isolation.

  9. Social isolation and brain development in the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    PubMed

    Seid, Marc A; Junge, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Social interactions play a key role in the healthy development of social animals and are most pronounced in species with complex social networks. When developing offspring do not receive proper social interaction, they show developmental impairments. This effect is well documented in mammalian species but controversial in social insects. It has been hypothesized that the enlargement of the mushroom bodies, responsible for learning and memory, observed in social insects is needed for maintaining the large social networks and/or task allocation. This study examines the impact of social isolation on the development of mushroom bodies of the ant Camponotus floridanus. Ants raised in isolation were shown to exhibit impairment in the growth of the mushroom bodies as well as behavioral differences when compared to ants raised in social groups. These results indicate that social interaction is necessary for the proper development of C. floridanus mushroom bodies.

  10. Social isolation and brain development in the ant Camponotus floridanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seid, Marc A.; Junge, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Social interactions play a key role in the healthy development of social animals and are most pronounced in species with complex social networks. When developing offspring do not receive proper social interaction, they show developmental impairments. This effect is well documented in mammalian species but controversial in social insects. It has been hypothesized that the enlargement of the mushroom bodies, responsible for learning and memory, observed in social insects is needed for maintaining the large social networks and/or task allocation. This study examines the impact of social isolation on the development of mushroom bodies of the ant Camponotus floridanus. Ants raised in isolation were shown to exhibit impairment in the growth of the mushroom bodies as well as behavioral differences when compared to ants raised in social groups. These results indicate that social interaction is necessary for the proper development of C. floridanus mushroom bodies.

  11. Social isolation reduces serotonergic fiber density in the inferior colliculus of female, but not male, mice.

    PubMed

    Keesom, Sarah M; Morningstar, Mitchell D; Sandlain, Rebecca; Wise, Bradley M; Hurley, Laura M

    2018-05-12

    Early-life experiences, including maternal deprivation and social isolation during adolescence, have a profound influence on a range of adult social behaviors. Post-weaning social isolation in rodents influences behavior in part through the alteration of neuromodulatory systems, including the serotonergic system. Of significance to social behavior, the serotonergic system richly innervates brain areas involved in vocal communication, including the auditory system. However, the influence of isolation on serotonergic input to the auditory system remains underexplored. Here, we assess whether 4 weeks of post-weaning individual housing alters serotonergic fiber density in the inferior colliculus (IC), an auditory midbrain nucleus in which serotonin alters auditory-evoked activity. Individually housed male and female mice were compared to conspecifics housed socially in groups of three. Serotonergic projections were subsequently visualized with an antibody to the serotonin transporter, which labels serotonergic fibers with relatively high selectivity. Fiber densities were estimated in the three major subregions of the IC using line-scan intensity analysis. Individually housed female mice showed a significantly reduced fiber density relative to socially housed females, which was accompanied by a lower body weight in individually housed females. In contrast, social isolation did not affect serotonergic fiber density in the IC of males. This finding suggests that sensitivity of the serotonergic system to social isolation is sex-dependent, which could be due to a sex difference in the effect of isolation on psychosocial stress. Since serotonin availability depends on social context, this finding further suggests that social isolation can alter the acute social regulation of auditory processing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Hallucinations, loneliness, and social isolation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Jardri, Renaud; Larøi, Frank; Antoine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and functional compromise, as frequently observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), hinders communication and social interactions. One consequence of this hindrance may be a feeling of loneliness. Moreover, emptiness and boredom, as observed in social isolation and loneliness, may thus be compensated for by creating imagined stimuli. Conditions of loneliness may be viewed as potentially generating hallucinatory experiences. To assess this assumption, the present study explored the relationship between social isolation, loneliness, and hallucinations in a sample of 22 mild AD participants and 24 elderly, healthy controls. Participants were assessed using the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale, the UCLA Loneliness Scale, and a scale exploring contact with others and social participation. More hallucinatory experiences, social isolation, and loneliness were found in the AD group than in the healthy control group. Moreover, significant correlations were observed between hallucinations and loneliness and between hallucinations and social isolation in both groups. Finally, hallucinations were predicted by social isolation. Hallucinations may constitute a compensatory mechanism that aims to fulfil communication needs in lonely, elderly participants. Hallucinations may also be regarded as experiences that allow certain participants to escape the cycle of boredom, emptiness, and affective deprivation caused by social isolation.

  13. Perceived Social Isolation and Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Manemann, Sheila M; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Roger, Véronique L; Griffin, Joan M; Boyd, Cynthia M; Cudjoe, Thomas K M; Jensen, Daniel; Weston, Susan A; Fabbri, Matteo; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2018-05-23

    Perceived social isolation has been shown to have a negative impact on health outcomes, particularly among older adults. However, these relationships have not been fully examined among patients with heart failure. Residents from 11 southeast Minnesota counties with a first-ever International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision ( ICD-9 ) code 428 for heart failure between January 1, 2013, and March 31, 2015 (N=3867), were prospectively surveyed to measure perceived social isolation. A total of 2003 patients returned the survey (response rate, 52%); 1681 patients completed all questions and were retained for analysis. Among these patients (53% men; mean age, 73 years), ≈19% (n=312) had moderate perceived social isolation and 6% (n=108) had high perceived social isolation. After adjustment, patients reporting moderate perceived social isolation did not have an increased risk of death, hospitalizations, or emergency department visits compared with patients reporting low perceived social isolation; however, patients reporting high perceived social isolation had >3.5 times increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 3.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82-7.70), 68% increased risk of hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.18-2.39), and 57% increased risk of emergency department visits (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.09-2.27). Compared with patients who self-reported low perceived social isolation, patients reporting moderate perceived social isolation had a 16% increased risk of outpatient visits (rate ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31), whereas those reporting high perceived social isolation had a 26% increased risk (rate ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.53). In patients with heart failure, greater perceived social isolation is associated with an increased risk of death and healthcare use. Assessing perceived social isolation during the clinical encounter with a brief screening tool may help identify patients with heart failure at greater risk of poor outcomes.

  14. Sex differences in the outcome of juvenile social isolation on HPA axis function in rats.

    PubMed

    Pisu, M G; Garau, A; Boero, G; Biggio, F; Pibiri, V; Dore, R; Locci, V; Paci, E; Porcu, P; Serra, M

    2016-04-21

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from anxiety disorders and major depression. These disorders share hyperresponsiveness to stress as an etiological factor. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by chronic stress may account for the increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Social isolation is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors. Here we investigated the sex difference in the effects of post-weaning social isolation on acute stress sensitivity and behavior in rats. In both sexes, social isolation at weaning reduced basal levels of the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone in the brain and of corticosterone in plasma. Moreover, acute stress increased plasma corticosterone levels in both group-housed and socially isolated male and female rats; however this effect was greater in male than female rats subjected to social isolation. Intriguingly, group-housed female rats showed no change in plasma and brain levels of allopregnanolone after acute foot-shock stress. The absence of stress-induced effects on allopregnanolone synthesis might be due to the physiologically higher levels of this hormone in females vs. males. Accordingly, increasing allopregnanolone levels in male rats blunted the response to foot-shock stress in these animals. Socially isolated male, but not female, rats also display depressive-like behavior and increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The ovarian steroids could "buffer" the effect of this adverse experience in females on these parameters. Finally, the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test indicated that the chronic stress associated with social isolation impairs feedback inhibition in both sexes in which an increase in the abundance of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus was found. Altogether, these results demonstrate that social isolation affects neuroendocrine

  15. The Relationship between Affective and Social Isolation among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghraibeh, Ahmad M.; Juieed, Noof M. Bni

    2018-01-01

    We examined the correlation between social isolation and affective isolation among 457 undergraduate students using a stratified cluster sampling technique. Participants comprised 221 men and 236 women, all of whom were either first- or fourth-year students enrolled in various majors at King Saud University. Means, standard deviations, Pearson…

  16. Social isolation and sexual abuse among women who smoke crack.

    PubMed

    Young, A M; Boyd, C; Hubbell, A

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of social isolation and its relationship to sexual trauma in a sample of Black women who smoke crack cocaine. Using a convenience sample of 115 Black women with a history of smoking crack cocaine, participants were interviewed for 2 to 4 hours and asked a variety of questions about their health, relationships, sexuality, and drug use. Bivariate and multivariate logistical regressions were used to predict whether the women reported being socially isolated. While social isolation was not necessarily a common experience among the sample, it was found that women who had been sexually abused were three times more likely to report being socially isolated than women who had not been sexually abused. In addition, social isolation was more common among women who had been abused by a family member, who had been abused when they were young, and who had been abused for a long period of time. However, multivariate analyses revealed that the age at which the sexual trauma occurred was the most salient predictor of social isolation in adulthood. Implications for drug treatment are discussed.

  17. Social isolation and perceived barriers to establishing social networks among Latina immigrants.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Kaltman, Stacey

    2014-03-01

    Research has identified numerous mechanisms through which perceived social isolation and lack of social support negatively impact health. Little research attention has been dedicated to factors that influence the development of social networks, which have the potential to decrease perceptions of social isolation and provide social support. There is mixed evidence concerning the availability of supportive social networks for Latinos in the US. This study explores trauma-exposed Latina immigrants' experiences of social isolation in the US and its perceived causes. Twenty-eight Latina immigrant women participated in an interview about traumatic experiences. Informal help seeking and the availability of friendships in the US were also queried. Frequent comparisons between experiences in their home countries and in the US shaped the emerging themes of social isolation and lack of social support. Women reported feeling lonely, isolated, closed-in, and less free in the US due to family separation and various obstacles to developing and maintaining relationships. Socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial barriers were offered as explanations for their limited social networks in the US. Understanding experiences of social isolation as well as barriers to forging social networks can help inform the development of social support interventions that can contribute to improved health among Latinos.

  18. Social isolation and risk for malnutrition among older people.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Christa; Salameh, Pascale; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2017-02-01

    Social isolation and loneliness are emerging issues among the geriatric population. The relationships between both, and their impact on health and nutritional status in older people are complex. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between three components of social isolation: social network, feeling of loneliness, commensality and nutritional status. A total of 1200 randomly selected elderly individuals aged ≥65 years and living in rural areas of Lebanon participated in the present study. Data were collected during a face-to-face interview including nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment), measures of social isolation (Lubben Social Network Scale), subjective loneliness (Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale), sociodemographic conditions, and health and functional status. Both social isolation and loneliness were independently associated with a higher risk of malnutrition (OR 1.58, P = 0.011; OR 1.15, P = 0.020, respectively). However no association was found between the frequency of sharing meals and the risk of malnutrition. The present study showed that social isolation and subjective loneliness are two independent risk factors for malnutrition among older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 286-294. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Effects of resocialization on post-weaning social isolation-induced abnormal aggression and social deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Tulogdi, Aron; Tóth, Máté; Barsvári, Beáta; Biró, László; Mikics, Eva; Haller, József

    2014-01-01

    As previously shown, rats isolated from weaning develop abnormal social and aggressive behavior characterized by biting attacks targeting vulnerable body parts of opponents, reduced attack signaling, and increased defensive behavior despite increased attack counts. Here we studied whether this form of violent aggression could be reversed by resocialization in adulthood. During the first weak of resocialization, isolation-reared rats showed multiple social deficits including increased defensiveness and decreased huddling during sleep. Deficits were markedly attenuated in the second and third weeks. Despite improved social functioning in groups, isolated rats readily showed abnormal features of aggression in a resident-intruder test performed after the 3-week-long resocialization. Thus, post-weaning social isolation-induced deficits in prosocial behavior were eliminated by resocialization during adulthood, but abnormal aggression was resilient to this treatment. Findings are compared to those obtained in humans who suffered early social maltreatment, and who also show social deficits and dysfunctional aggression in adulthood. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Gillian A; Nieh, Edward H; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Halbert, Sarah A; Pradhan, Roma V; Yosafat, Ariella S; Glober, Gordon F; Izadmehr, Ehsan M; Thomas, Rain E; Lacy, Gabrielle D; Wildes, Craig P; Ungless, Mark A; Tye, Kay M

    2016-02-11

    The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-07-21

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect.

  2. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1–14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg−1 subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  3. Effects of post-weaning social isolation and environment al enrichment on exploratory behavior and ankiety in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaś, Łukasz; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Iwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early experience is generally regarded as a risk factor for both externalizing and internalizing behavioral disorders in humans. It can be modeled in rats by a post-weaning social isolation procedure. Effects of social isolation might possibly be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. In the current study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided post-weaning into four rearing conditions: control, environmental enrichment (EE), social isolation (SI) and a combination of the two experimental conditions; (EE+SI). Two observations of the effects of rearing conditions on the rate of social and object interactions were conducted during the juvenile and post-pubertal stages of development. The SI condition led to a marked increase of social interactions during the juvenile phase, but did not affect object interactions. The EE condition increased the level of social interactions during both the juvenile and post-pubertal measurements. The effects of early rearing conditions on adult exploratory behavior were less clear, with a significant difference between the groups obtained in one of three behavioral tests. Results suggest a general robustness in the development of adult exploratory behavior and anxiety when rats were exposed to early social isolation and provided brief opportunities for social play during the juvenile period. Further studies, aimed at distinguishing play-related protective factors serving against long-term adverse effects of juvenile social isolation, are suggested.

  4. A study on the social behavior and social isolation of the elderly Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Eun-Surk; Hwang, Hee-Joung

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at presenting what factors are to predict the social isolation of the elderly as an element to prevent the problem of why various matters related to old people are inevitably taking place by carefully examining the meaning of social isolation and the conditions of social isolation that the South Korean senior citizens go through after working on previous studies. This section discusses the results obtained through document analysis. First, the aspects of the elderly's social isolation arising from the changes of the South Korean society are changes of family relationship, the social structure, the economic structure and the culture. Second, the social isolation and social activity of the elderly are problems (suicide, criminals, dementia, depression and medical costs) of the elderly, change trend of the elderly issues related to social isolation and prediction factors that personal and regional. Lastly, as a role and challenges of the field of rehabilitation exercise aimed at resolving social isolation should be vitalized such as the development and provision of various relationship-building programs.

  5. A study on the social behavior and social isolation of the elderly Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Eun-Surk; Hwang, Hee-Joung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at presenting what factors are to predict the social isolation of the elderly as an element to prevent the problem of why various matters related to old people are inevitably taking place by carefully examining the meaning of social isolation and the conditions of social isolation that the South Korean senior citizens go through after working on previous studies. This section discusses the results obtained through document analysis. First, the aspects of the elderly’s social isolation arising from the changes of the South Korean society are changes of family relationship, the social structure, the economic structure and the culture. Second, the social isolation and social activity of the elderly are problems (suicide, criminals, dementia, depression and medical costs) of the elderly, change trend of the elderly issues related to social isolation and prediction factors that personal and regional. Lastly, as a role and challenges of the field of rehabilitation exercise aimed at resolving social isolation should be vitalized such as the development and provision of various relationship-building programs. PMID:26171377

  6. Social isolation in women with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Bruna H; Falcone, Ananda C M; Poli-Neto, Omero B; Rosa E Silva, Julio C; Nogueira, Antonio A; Candido-Dos-Reis, Francisco J

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the perceptions of women with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain regarding their social ties. A qualitative study was undertaken of women with chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis. Focus groups discussions among four to six participants were performed until saturation at the Clinics Hospital of Ribeirão Preto Medical School, Ribeirão Preto, southwest Brazil, between February 2013 and January 2014. Transcripts were analyzed according to the grounded theory approach and the emerging categories were coded using the WebQDA platform. Six focus group discussions took place, with a total of 29 patients. Social isolation was the main emerging theme. Social isolation was associated with a lack of understanding about endometriosis symptoms and with resignation in face of recurrent pain episodes. Avoiding partner intimacy and isolation from family and friends were components of social isolation. Women with endometriosis develop progressive social isolation after the onset of chronic pelvic pain. This finding is important for the multidisciplinary management of the disease. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Roles of Smartphone App Use in Improving Social Capital and Reducing Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships among smartphone app use, social capital, and social isolation. It focused on two different smartphone apps--communication and social networking site (SNS) apps--and their effects on bonding and bridging social capital. Generational differences in smartphone use were also considered. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that individuals' use of communication apps was helpful for increasing social capital and that this effect of using communication apps was stronger among those of the millennial generation than among older users. Moreover, bonding and bridging social capital was found to reduce individuals' social isolation significantly. These results imply the notable role of smartphone apps in reducing social isolation and improving the personal lives of individuals.

  8. Demise of faint satellites around isolated early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hyunbae; Lee, Jong Chul

    2018-02-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation scenario in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ and geometrically flat space (ΛCDM) has been very successful in explaining the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, there have been claims that ΛCDM over-predicts the number of satellite galaxies associated with massive galaxies compared with observations—the missing satellite galaxy problem1-3. Isolated groups of galaxies hosted by passively evolving massive early-type galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying the missing physics in the current theory4-11. Here, we report—based on a deep spectroscopic survey—that isolated massive and passive early-type galaxies without any signs of recent wet mergers or accretion episodes have almost no satellite galaxies fainter than the r-band absolute magnitude of about Mr = -14. If only early-type satellites are used, the cutoff is at the somewhat brighter magnitude of about Mr = -15. Such a cutoff has not been found in other nearby satellite galaxy systems hosted by late-type galaxies or those with merger features. Various physical properties of satellites depend strongly on the host-centric distance. Our observations indicate that the satellite galaxy luminosity function is largely determined by the interaction of satellites with the environment provided by their host.

  9. The social isolation of young men with quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Blake, K

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study undertaken to identify perceptions of possible social isolation among individuals who become quadriplegic as young adults. Two focus group sessions were held with 4 male participants in each group. All the young men were between the ages of 19 years and 35 years, and all had been disabled for more than 3 years. The results showed that the participants felt challenged by the environment and their resources but did not experience the feelings associated with social isolation as defined by Goffman (1963). The participants, however, identified important socially isolating stressors based on the human needs described by Maslow (1970) as existing in a hierarchy. The results of the study suggest that people with disabilities need interpersonal techniques that enable them to feel a sense of security and control of their time; rehabilitation nurses are ideally suited to assist clients in developing such techniques.

  10. Early social environment influences the behaviour of a family-living lizard

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Early social environment can play a significant role in shaping behavioural development. For instance, in many social mammals and birds, isolation rearing results in individuals that are less exploratory, shyer, less social and more aggressive than individuals raised in groups. Moreover, dynamic aspects of social environments, such as the nature of relationships between individuals, can also impact the trajectory of development. We tested if being raised alone or socially affects behavioural development in the family-living tree skink, Egernia striolata. Juveniles were raised in two treatments: alone or in a pair. We assayed exploration, boldness, sociability and aggression repeatedly throughout each juvenile's first year of life, and also assessed social interactions between pairs to determine if juveniles formed dominant–subordinate relationships. We found that male and/or the larger skinks within social pairs were dominant. Developing within this social environment reduced skink growth, and subordinate skinks were more prone to tail loss. Thus, living with a conspecific was costly for E. striolata. The predicted negative effects of isolation failed to materialize. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in behavioural traits depending on the social environment (isolated, dominant or subordinate member of a pair). Isolated skinks were more social than subordinate skinks. Subordinate skinks also became more aggressive over time, whereas isolated and dominant skinks showed invariable aggression. Dominant skinks became bolder over time, whereas isolated and subordinate skinks were relatively stable in their boldness. In summary, our study is evidence that isolation rearing does not consistently affect behaviour across all social taxa. Our study also demonstrates that the social environment plays an important role in behavioural development of a family-living lizard. PMID:28573001

  11. The Role of Social Networking Sites in Early Adolescents' Social Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L.; Schouten, Alexander P.; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of social networking sites (SNSs) in early adolescents' social lives. First, we investigated the relation between SNS use and several aspects of early adolescents' social lives (i.e., friendship quality, bridging social capital, and bonding social capital). Second, we examined whether there are…

  12. Effects of the mode of re-socialization after juvenile social isolation on medial prefrontal cortex myelination and function.

    PubMed

    Makinodan, Manabu; Ikawa, Daisuke; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Yasunori; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kimoto, Sohei; Yamauchi, Takahira; Okumura, Kazuki; Komori, Takashi; Fukami, Shin-Ichi; Yoshino, Hiroki; Kanba, Shigenobu; Wanaka, Akio; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-07-14

    Social isolation is an important factor in the development of psychiatric disorders. It is necessary to develop an effective psychological treatment, such as cognitive rehabilitation, for children who have already suffered from social isolation, such as neglect and social rejection. We used socially isolated mice to validate whether elaborate re-socialization after juvenile social isolation can restore hypomyelination in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the attendant functions manifested in socially isolated mice. While mice who underwent re-socialization with socially isolated mice after juvenile social isolation (Re-IS mice) demonstrated less mPFC activity during exposure to a strange mouse, as well as thinner myelin in the mPFC than controls, mice who underwent re-socialization with socially housed mice after juvenile social isolation (Re-SH mice) caught up with the controls in terms of most mPFC functions, as well as myelination. Moreover, social interaction of Re-IS mice was reduced as compared to controls, but Re-SH mice showed an amount of social interaction comparable to that of controls. These results suggest that the mode of re-socialization after juvenile social isolation has significant effects on myelination in the mPFC and the attendant functions in mice, indicating the importance of appropriate psychosocial intervention after social isolation.

  13. The Use of Social Media to Combat Research-Isolation.

    PubMed

    Reeve, M A; Partridge, M

    2017-09-01

    Research-isolation is a common problem affecting many researchers who are disconnected from their research communities. It can be caused by a number of factors, including physical isolation, unfamiliar research topics, diversity, and the nature of the supervisory relationship. All of these aspects can have an impact on both work and the mental health of researchers. Increasingly, researchers are turning to social media for support, by both looking for communities and for increasing the impact of their work. In this paper, we set out a brief introduction to a range of social media platforms used by researchers and present a discussion of the networks within those platforms aimed at reducing research-isolation. These examples highlight just a few of the number of small communities that have grown online to meet the needs of those seeking support through social media. We conclude with some recommendations for those affected by research-isolation and highlight the need for more research into the role of social media on mental health in academics.

  14. The Use of Social Media to Combat Research-Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Research-isolation is a common problem affecting many researchers who are disconnected from their research communities. It can be caused by a number of factors, including physical isolation, unfamiliar research topics, diversity, and the nature of the supervisory relationship. All of these aspects can have an impact on both work and the mental health of researchers. Increasingly, researchers are turning to social media for support, by both looking for communities and for increasing the impact of their work. In this paper, we set out a brief introduction to a range of social media platforms used by researchers and present a discussion of the networks within those platforms aimed at reducing research-isolation. These examples highlight just a few of the number of small communities that have grown online to meet the needs of those seeking support through social media. We conclude with some recommendations for those affected by research-isolation and highlight the need for more research into the role of social media on mental health in academics. PMID:29563645

  15. Social isolation in mental health: a conceptual and methodological review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Giacco, Domenico; Forsyth, Rebecca; Nebo, Cynthia; Mann, Farhana; Johnson, Sonia

    2017-12-01

    Social isolation and related concepts have been discussed increasingly in the field of mental health. Despite this, there is a lack of conceptual clarity and consistency in the definition and operationalisation of these terms. This review aimed to provide a clear framework for social isolation and related concepts, and to identify well-established measures in the field of mental health for each conceptual domain discussed. We used an iterative strategy of expert consultation and literature searching. A multi-disciplinary group of senior academics was consulted both before and after the literature searching to identify relevant terms, conceptual papers, or recommended measures. Our conceptual framework was also validated through expert consultation. We searched the Web of Science database using terms suggested by experts and subsequently identified further relevant studies through review articles and by reading full texts and reference lists of included studies. A narrative synthesis was conducted. We developed a model with five domains incorporating all the concepts relevant to social isolation in regular use in the mental health research literature. These five domains are: social network-quantity; social network-structure; social network-quality; appraisal of relationships-emotional; and appraisal of relationships-resources. We also identified well-developed measures suitable for assessing each of the five conceptual domains or covering multi-domains. Our review proposes a conceptual model to encompass and differentiate all terms relating to social isolation. Potential uses are in allowing researchers and intervention developers to identify precisely the intended outcomes of interventions, and to choose the most appropriate measures to use in mental health settings.

  16. Social support and depressed mood in isolated and confined environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.

    2004-05-01

    The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.

  17. Social isolation, survey nonresponse, and nonresponse bias: An empirical evaluation using social network data within an organization.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Megumi; Olson, Kristen; Falci, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Survey researchers have long hypothesized that social isolation negatively affects the probability of survey participation and biases survey estimates. Previous research, however, has relied on proxy measures of isolation, such as being a marginalized group member within a population. We re-examine the relationship between social isolation and survey participation using direct measures of social isolation derived from social network data; specifically, instrumental research and expressive friendship connections among faculty within academic departments. Using a reconceptualization of social isolation, we find that social network isolation is negatively associated with unit response. Among women (a numerical minority group within the organization), we further find that social group isolation (i.e., lacking instrumental network connections to men, the majority group in the organization) is negatively associated with survey participation. Finally, we show that some survey estimates are systematically biased due to nonparticipation from socially isolated people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutral Gas Properties of Extremely Isolated Early-type Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Trisha; Marcum, Pamela M.; Fanelli, Michael N., E-mail: trisha.l.ashley@nasa.gov, E-mail: pamela.m.marcum@nasa.gov, E-mail: michael.n.fanelli@nasa.gov

    We present the results of single-dish atomic hydrogen (H i) observations of six highly isolated early-type galaxies. These objects are a representative subset of galaxies previously studied at optical wavelengths and selected to be separated by at least 2.5 Mpc from companions brighter than M{sub V}  = −16.5 mag. Each galaxy was observed with a single pointing using the NRAO Green Bank Telescope L -band receiver. Five of these systems were strongly detected in H i. These five galaxies exhibit H i profiles with a range of properties: single Gaussian-like peaks, separate double peaks, and double horn-like profiles. The four bluestmore » galaxies ( B − V < 0.54) all contain significant gas with H i masses ranging from 1.1 × 10{sup 8} to 1.4 × 10{sup 9}.« less

  19. Upstream thinking and health promotion planning for older adults at risk of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donna M; Harris, Ashley; Hollis, Vivien; Mohankumar, Deepthi

    2011-12-01

    To raise awareness of social isolation, and provide an approach to first conceptualise and then prevent social isolation among older community-dwelling persons. Older adults comprise a vulnerable population for social isolation and its associated health risks. Literature review. Canada's Population Health Promotion Model was chosen as a comprehensive tool to understand and prevent social isolation. Research studies were sought to identify key health determinants and evidence-based options for preventing social isolation. Around 1 out of 6 older persons are socially isolated and three health determinants are of prime importance: (i) income and social status; (ii) personal health practices and coping skills and (iii) social support networks. Evidence-based interventions targeted to these health determinants are suggested. Nurses are a key group to advocate for actions needed to prevent social isolation. Nurses can play a vital role in minimising social isolation through a variety of educational, prevention and political lobbying activities. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Implementing reverse mentoring to address social isolation among older adults.

    PubMed

    Breck, Bethany M; Dennis, Cory B; Leedahl, Skye N

    2018-07-01

    Reverse mentoring is a means to address the social work Grand Challenge of social isolation. Among older adults, reverse mentoring can improve social connection by increasing the digital competence of older adults so they can use technology for social benefit, and by facilitating intergenerational connections with young adult mentors. In this paper, reverse mentoring is examined within an intergenerational program that serves older adults and utilizes the native technological knowledge and skills of young adults who mentor older adult participants. Qualitative data were collected through young adult mentor logs of each session, and through open-ended questions on the post-surveys collected from older adults and young adult mentors. Qualitative analysis revealed three themes related to social connection: (1) an increased sense of self-efficacy for older adults as they build confidence in technological use, and for young adults as they develop leadership skills through mentoring, (2) the breaking down of age-related stereotypes, and (3) intergenerational engagement and connection. The findings demonstrate that reverse mentoring can be used in various settings to decrease the social isolation of older adults by developing intergenerational connections and increasing older adult usage of technology.

  1. Early social networks predict survival in wild bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Margaret A; Mann, Janet

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental question concerning group-living species is what factors influence the evolution of sociality. Although several studies link adult social bonds to fitness, social patterns and relationships are often formed early in life and are also likely to have fitness consequences, particularly in species with lengthy developmental periods, extensive social learning, and early social bond-formation. In a longitudinal study of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.), calf social network structure, specifically the metric eigenvector centrality, predicted juvenile survival in males. Additionally, male calves that died post-weaning had stronger ties to juvenile males than surviving male calves, suggesting that juvenile males impose fitness costs on their younger counterparts. Our study indicates that selection is acting on social traits early in life and highlights the need to examine the costs and benefits of social bonds during formative life history stages.

  2. The effects of acute social isolation on long-term social recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Leser, Noam; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-10-01

    The abilities to recognize individual animals of the same species and to distinguish them from other individuals are the basis for all mammalian social organizations and relationships. These abilities, termed social recognition memory, can be explored in mice and rats using their innate tendency to investigate novel social stimuli more persistently than familiar ones. Using this methodology it was found that social recognition memory is mediated by a specific neural network in the brain, the activity of which is modulated by several molecules, such the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. During the last 15 years several independent studies have revealed that social recognition memory of mice and rats depends upon their housing conditions. Specifically, long-term social recognition memory cannot be formed as shortly as few days following social isolation of the animal. This rapid and reversible impairment caused by acute social isolation seems to be specific to social memory and has not been observed in other types of memory. Here we review these studies and suggest that this unique system may serve for exploring of the mechanisms underlying the well-known negative effects of partial or perceived social isolation on human mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Early Entrance Option: Academic and Social/Emotional Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braymen, Rebecca K. F.; Piersel, Wayne C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines how early kindergarten entrants fare academically and socially/emotionally in their schooling. Screening procedures are used to identify children with exceptional ability and to eliminate from early entrance children likely to have adjustment difficulties. The screening battery includes measurements of academic readiness, social/emotional…

  4. Professional Socialization Experiences of Early Career Urban Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara Barnard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how three physical education (PE) teachers' professional socialization programmes influenced their early careers in urban schools in the US. Using cultural relevance theory and occupational socialization theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for a period of six weeks each.…

  5. Early Childhood Socialization: Societal Context and Childrearing Values in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…

  6. Effect of social isolation on anxiety-related behaviors, cortisol, and monoamines in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shams, Soaleha; Seguin, Diane; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Social isolation can be used to study behavioral, neural, and hormonal mechanisms that regulate interactions in social animals. Although isolation effects have been reported in social mammals and various fish species, systematic studies with isolated zebrafish are rare. Here, the authors examined behavior (social and nonsocial), physiological stress (whole-body cortisol levels), and neurochemicals (serotonin, dopamine, and their metabolites), following acute and chronic social isolation in adult zebrafish. To observe how isolated fish respond behaviorally to social stimuli, they exposed zebrafish to live conspecifics or animated images after acute (24 hr) or chronic (6 months) social isolation. The authors observed that isolation did not affect locomotor activity, but acute isolation had weak nonsignificant anxiogenic effects in adult zebrafish. They also found that all isolated fish responded to both live and animated social stimuli, and the stress hormone, cortisol was lower in chronically isolated fish. Finally, neurochemical analyses showed that serotonin levels increased when fish were exposed to social stimulus after acute isolation, but its metabolite 5HIAA decreased in response to social stimulus following both acute and chronic isolation. Levels of both dopamine and its metabolite DOPAC were also reduced in fish exposed to social stimulus after acute and chronic isolation. Overall, these results show that isolation in zebrafish is an effective tool to study fundamental mechanisms controlling social interaction at behavioral and physiological levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Social isolation: unit-based activities for impaired elders.

    PubMed

    Windriver, W

    1993-03-01

    Loneliness can lead to illness and death, and is such a painful experience that a resident may not verbalize it directly. Quality nursing care requires that problems of social isolation are identified and a plan developed for adequate intervention. Impaired residents will be more successful socially when they can access a variety of interesting activities in small groups where familiar staff take initiative and establish a rapport. Institutional nurses are in a unique position to request the structural and personnel changes necessary to bring creative activities to the nursing units of impaired elders.

  8. "Doing" Social Justice in Early Childhood: The Potential of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Louise; Press, Frances; Gibson, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood education has long been connected with objectives related to social justice. Australian early childhood education and care (ECEC) has its roots in philanthropic and educational reform movements prevalent at the turn of the twentieth century. More recently, with the introduction of the National Early Childhood Reform Agenda, early…

  9. Music in the Early Years: Pathways into the Social World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Two assumptions that underlie much research in early childhood music education are that music is a social endeavor and musical participation is beneficial to children's overall social development. As members of cultural and social groups, young children engage with music in a multitude of ways and with different companions. This article examines…

  10. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  11. Assessment and Implications of Social Avoidance in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Biao; Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J.; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Feng, Xingyi

    2018-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to (a) develop and validate a new self-report measure of social avoidance for use among early adolescents in mainland China and (b) explore the links between subtypes of social withdrawal (i.e., shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance) and indices of socio-emotional difficulties in this cultural context.…

  12. Anomalous bodily experiences and perceived social isolation in schizophrenia: An extension of the Social Deafferentation Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Michael, Jamie; Park, Sohee

    2016-10-01

    Disturbances of the bodily self are fundamental to the phenomenological experience of individuals with schizophrenia, a population at risk for social isolation. Both proprioception and exteroception contribute to a sense of consistent body boundary that contains the self across time and space, and this process is influenced by self-other (social) interactions. However, the relationship between social isolation, exteroception, and in-the-moment changes in body representation has not been elucidated. We investigated susceptibility to anomalous bodily experiences with a phantom nose induction procedure that elicits a sensation that one's nose is changing (Pinocchio Illusion: PI) in relation to exteroceptive awareness and social isolation. 25 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 15 matched controls (CO) participated in a PI induction procedure to quantify susceptibility to bodily aberrations and a tactile discrimination task to assess exteroception. Clinical symptoms in SZ and schizotypy in CO were assessed, in addition to a self-report measure of perceived social isolation. Compared to CO, SZ showed increased PI and impaired tactile discriminability. SZ reported greater loneliness than CO. PI scores were correlated with increased loneliness and decreased tactile discriminability. Greater susceptibility to anomalous bodily experiences, together with reduced exteroceptive awareness and increased loneliness, is compatible with the framework of Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis, which posits that a functional "amputation" from one's social environment could lead to a reorganization of the social brain network, resulting in hallucinations and delusions. These findings underscore the importance of the relationship between social isolation and self-disturbances in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Social Isolation Among Urban Aging Adults: Informing Occupation-Based Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hand, Carri; Retrum, Jessica; Ware, George; Iwasaki, Patricia; Moaalii, Gabe; Main, Deborah S

    2017-10-01

    Socially isolated aging adults are at risk of poor health and well-being. Occupational therapy can help address this issue; however, information is needed to guide such work. National surveys characterize social isolation in populations of aging adults but fail to provide meaningful information at a community level. The objective of this study is to describe multiple dimensions of social isolation and related factors among aging adults in diverse urban neighborhoods. Community-based participatory research involving a door-to-door survey of adults 50 years and older was used. Participants ( N = 161) reported social isolation in terms of small social networks (24%) and wanting more social engagement (43%). Participants aged 50 to 64 years reported the highest levels of isolation in most dimensions. Low income, poor health, lack of transportation, and infrequent information access appeared linked to social isolation. Occupational therapists can address social isolation in similar urban communities through policy and practice that facilitate social engagement and network building.

  14. Social isolation mediated anxiety like behavior is associated with enhanced expression and regulation of BDNF in the female mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anita; Singh, Padmanabh; Baghel, Meghraj Singh; Thakur, M K

    2016-05-01

    Adverse early life experience is prominent risk factors for numerous psychiatric illnesses, including mood and anxiety disorders. It imposes serious long-term costs on the individual as well as health and social systems. Hence, developing therapies that prevent the long-term consequences of early life stress is of utmost importance, and necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms by which early life stress triggers long-lasting alterations in gene expression and behavior. Post-weaning isolation rearing of rodents models the behavioral consequences of adverse early life experiences in humans and it is reported to cause anxiety like behavior which is more common in case of females. Therefore, in the present study, we have studied the impact of social isolation of young female mice for 8weeks on the anxiety like behavior and the underlying molecular mechanism. Elevated plus maze and open field test revealed that social isolation caused anxiety like behavior. BDNF, a well-known molecule implicated in the anxiety like behavior, was up-regulated both at the message and protein level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. CREB-1 and CBP, which play a crucial role in BDNF transcription, were up-regulated at mRNA level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. HDAC-2, which negatively regulates BDNF expression, was down-regulated at mRNA and protein level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. Furthermore, BDNF acts in concert with Limk-1, miRNA-132 and miRNA-134 for the regulation of structural and morphological plasticity. Social isolation resulted in up-regulation of Limk-1 mRNA and miRNA-132 expression in the cerebral cortex. MiRNA-134, which inhibits the translation of Limk-1, was decreased in cerebral cortex by social isolation. Taken together, our study suggests that social isolation mediated anxiety like behavior is associated with up-regulation of BDNF expression and concomitant increase in the expression of CBP, CREB-1, Limk-1 and miRNA-132, and decrease

  15. Enriched environment increases neurogenesis and improves social memory persistence in socially isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Brisa M M; Moreira, Fabrício A; Massensini, André R; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-02-01

    Social memory consists of the information necessary to identify and recognize cospecifics and is essential to many forms of social interaction. Social memory persistence is strongly modulated by the animal's experiences. We have shown in previous studies that social isolation (SI) in adulthood impairs social memory persistence and that an enriched environment (EE) prevents this impairment. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of SI and EE on social memory persistence remain unknown. We hypothesized that the mechanism by which SI and EE affect social memory persistence is through their modulation of neurogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, adult mice were submitted to 7 days of one of the following conditions: group-housing in a standard (GH) or enriched environment (GH+EE); social isolation in standard (SI) or enriched environment (SI+EE). We observed an increase in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) in both GH+EE and SI+EE mice. However, this increase of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer of the OB was restricted to the GH+EE group. Furthermore, both SI and SI+EE groups showed less neurogenesis in the mitral layer of the OB. Interestingly, the performance of the SI mice in the buried food-finding task was inferior to that of the GH mice. To further analyze whether increased neurogenesis is in fact the mechanism by which the EE improves social memory persistence in SI mice, we administered the mitotic inhibitor AraC or saline directly into the lateral ventricles of the SI+EE mice. We found that the AraC treatment decreased cell proliferation in both the DG and OB, and impaired social memory persistence in the SI+EE mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that neurogenesis is what supports social memory persistence in socially isolated mice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Child physical abuse and self-perceived social isolation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Gregory C; Cunningham, Susan M; Linder, Meadow; Colangelo, Melissa; Gross, Michelle

    2005-12-01

    This research examines the connection between physical abuse and social isolation. Using data from the National Youth Survey, a measure of self-perceived social isolation was constructed indicating the extent to which respondents feel detached from their friends and from school. Those who had experienced violence were predicted to be more isolated than those who had not. Results strongly supported the hypothesis, controlling for theoretically relevant variables. Explanation is provided in terms of damage to attachment skills, social competence, and self-esteem concomitant to being a victim of abuse. Males were more socially isolated than females, and Hispanics more than Whites. Children with involved parents were less socially isolated; those whose parents experienced normlessness were more isolated. Children who recently experienced a stressful event or were from riskier neighborhoods were more isolated. The number of children in the family was positively related to isolation. Social isolation decreases between seventh and eighth grades.

  17. Structural and functional effects of social isolation on the hippocampus of rats with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Khodaie, Babak; Lotfinia, Ahmad Ali; Ahmadi, Milad; Lotfinia, Mahmoud; Jafarian, Maryam; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Coulon, Philippe; Gorji, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Social isolation has significant long-term psychological and physiological consequences. Both social isolation and traumatic brain injury (TBI) alter normal brain function and structure. However, the influence of social isolation on recovery from TBI is unclear. This study aims to evaluate if social isolation exacerbates the anatomical and functional deficits after TBI in young rats. Juvenile male rats were divided into four groups; sham operated control with social contacts, sham control with social isolation, TBI with social contacts, and TBI with social isolation. During four weeks after brain injury in juvenile rats, we evaluated the animal behaviors by T-maze and open-field tests, recorded brain activity with electrocorticograms and assessed structural changes by histological procedures in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 areas. Our findings revealed significant memory impairments and hyperactivity conditions in rats with TBI and social isolation compared to the other groups. Histological assessments showed an increase of the mean number of dark neurons, apoptotic cells, and caspase-3 positive cells in all tested areas of the hippocampus in TBI rats with and without social isolation compared to sham rats. Furthermore, social isolation significantly increased the number of dark cells, apoptotic neurons, and caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampal CA3 region in rats with TBI. This study indicates the harmful effect of social isolation on anatomical and functional deficits induced by TBI in juvenile rats. Prevention of social isolation may improve the outcome of TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Relationships and Health: The Toxic Effects of Perceived Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Research in social epidemiology suggests that the absence of positive social relationships is a significant risk factor for broad-based morbidity and mortality. The nature of these social relationships and the mechanisms underlying this association are of increasing interest as the population gets older and the health care costs associated with chronic disease escalate in industrialized countries. We review selected evidence on the nature of social relationships and focus on one particular facet of the connection continuum – the extent to which an individual feels isolated (i.e., feels lonely) in a social world. Evidence indicates that loneliness heightens sensitivity to social threats and motivates the renewal of social connections, but it can also impair executive functioning, sleep, and mental and physical well-being. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in lonely older adults. PMID:24839458

  19. Social Relationships and Health: The Toxic Effects of Perceived Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-02-01

    Research in social epidemiology suggests that the absence of positive social relationships is a significant risk factor for broad-based morbidity and mortality. The nature of these social relationships and the mechanisms underlying this association are of increasing interest as the population gets older and the health care costs associated with chronic disease escalate in industrialized countries. We review selected evidence on the nature of social relationships and focus on one particular facet of the connection continuum - the extent to which an individual feels isolated (i.e., feels lonely) in a social world. Evidence indicates that loneliness heightens sensitivity to social threats and motivates the renewal of social connections, but it can also impair executive functioning, sleep, and mental and physical well-being. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in lonely older adults.

  20. Social support and depressed mood in isolated and confined environments.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Johnson, Jeffrey C; Boster, James S

    2004-05-01

    The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood. c2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Social Cognition in Three Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Tara; Moll, Henrike; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Liszkowski, Ulf; Behne, Tanya; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The influence of culture on cognitive development is well established for school age and older children. But almost nothing is known about how different parenting and socialization practices in different cultures affect infants' and young children's earliest emerging cognitive and social-cognitive skills. In the current monograph, we report a…

  2. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  3. Neighbourhood and own social housing and early problem behaviour trajectories.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Tzatzaki, Konstantina

    2015-02-01

    To explore the roles of proportion of social rented housing in the neighbourhood ('neighbourhood social housing'), own housing being socially rented, and their interaction in early trajectories of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity symptoms. We tested three pathways of effects: family stress and maternal psychological distress, low quality parenting practices, and peer problems. We used data from 9,850 Millennium Cohort Study families who lived in England when the cohort children were aged 3. Children's emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems were measured at ages 3, 5 and 7. Even after accounting for own social housing, neighbourhood social housing was related to all problems and their trajectories. Its association with conduct problems and hyperactivity was explained by selection. Selection also explained the effect of the interaction between neighbourhood and own social housing on hyperactivity, but not why children of social renter families living in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of social housing followed a rising trajectory of emotional problems. The effects of own social housing, neighbourhood social housing and their interaction on emotional problems were robust. Peer problems explained the association of own social housing with hyperactivity. Neither selection nor the pathways we tested explained the association of own social housing with conduct problems, the association of neighbourhood social housing with their growth, or the association of neighbourhood social housing, own social housing and their interaction with emotional problems. Children of social renter families in neighbourhoods with a low concentration of social renters are particularly vulnerable to emotional problems.

  4. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Social isolation in community-dwelling seniors: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry's newly released Aging at Home Strategy.After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person's transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report.Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series.AGING IN THE COMMUNITY: Summary of Evidence-Based AnalysesPrevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based AnalysisBehavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based AnalysisCaregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based AnalysisSocial Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based AnalysisThe Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR) OBJECTIVE OF THE EVIDENCE-BASED ANALYSIS: The objective was to systematically review interventions aimed at preventing or reducing social isolation and loneliness in community-dwelling seniors, that is, persons ≥ 65 years of age who are not living in long-term care institutions. The analyses focused on the following questions: Are interventions to reduce social isolation and/or loneliness effective?Do these

  6. Social learning requires plasticity enhanced by fluoxetine through prefrontal Bdnf-TrkB signaling to limit aggression induced by post-weaning social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Umemori, Juzoh; Tóth, Máté; Biró, László; Miskolczi, Christina; Balázsfi, Diána; Zelena, Dóra; Castrén, Eero

    2017-01-01

    Escalated or abnormal aggression induced by early adverse experiences is a growing issue of social concern and urges the development of effective treatment strategies. Here we report that synergistic interactions between psychosocial and biological factors specifically ameliorate escalated aggression induced by early adverse experiences. Rats reared in isolation from weaning until early adulthood showed abnormal forms of aggression and social deficits that were temporarily ameliorated by re-socialization, but aggression again escalated in a novel environment. We demonstrate that when re-socialization was combined with the antidepressant fluoxetine, which has been shown to reactivate juvenile-like state of plasticity, escalated aggression was greatly attenuated, while neither treatment alone was effective. Early isolation induced a permanent, re-socialization resistant reduction in Bdnf expression in the amygdala and the infralimbic cortex. Only the combined treatment of fluoxetine and re-socialization was able to recover Bdnf expression via epigenetic regulation. Moreover, the behavior improvement after the combined treatment was dependent on TrkB activity. Combined treatment specifically strengthened the input from the ventral hippocampus to the mPFC suggesting that this pathway is an important mediator of the beneficial behavioral effects of the combined psychosocial and pharmacological treatment of abnormal aggression. Our findings suggest that synergy between pharmacological induction of plasticity and psychosocial rehabilitation could enhance the efficacy of therapies for pathological aggression. PMID:28685757

  7. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  8. Early Childhood Directors as Socializers of Emotional Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood centres are vibrant social communities where child and adult emotions are integral to learning. Previous research has focused on teaching practices that support children's social-emotional learning; fewer studies have attended to relevant centre-level factors, such as the emotional leadership practices of the centre director. The…

  9. Early social cognition in three cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Tara; Moll, Henrike; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Liszkowski, Ulf; Behne, Tanya; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The influence of culture on cognitive development is well established for school age and older children. But almost nothing is known about how different parenting and socialization practices in different cultures affect infants' and young children's earliest emerging cognitive and social-cognitive skills. In the current monograph, we report a series of eight studies in which we systematically assessed the social-cognitive skills of 1- to 3-year-old children in three diverse cultural settings. One group of children was from a Western, middle-class cultural setting in rural Canada and the other two groups were from traditional, small-scale cultural settings in rural Peru and India.In a first group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's most basic social-cognitive skills for understanding the intentions and attention of others: imitation, helping, gaze following, and communicative pointing.Children's performance in these tasks was mostly similar across cultural settings. In a second group of studies, we assessed 1-year-old children's skills in participating in interactive episodes of collaboration and joint attention.Again in these studies the general finding was one of cross-cultural similarity. In a final pair of studies, we assessed 2- to 3-year-old children's skills within two symbolic systems (pretense and pictorial). Here we found that the Canadian children who had much more experience with such symbols showed skills at an earlier age.Our overall conclusion is that young children in all cultural settings get sufficient amounts of the right kinds of social experience to develop their most basic social-cognitive skills for interacting with others and participating in culture at around the same age. In contrast, children's acquisition of more culturally specific skills for use in practices involving artifacts and symbols is more dependent on specific learning experiences.

  10. Measuring social isolation among older adults using multiple indicators from the NSHAP study.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Erin York; Waite, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) data contain multiple indicators of social connectedness, social participation, social support, and loneliness among older adults. We suggest that these indicators can be combined to measure two aspects of social isolation: social disconnectedness (i.e., physical separation from others) and perceived isolation (i.e., feelings of loneliness and a lack of social support). We use the NSHAP data to create scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation and examine their distribution among older adults. We assess the reliability of the scales using Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations and perform confirmatory factor analysis to test the model against the data. Finally, we test differences in scale means across subgroups to assess the distribution of social disconnectedness and perceived isolation among older adults. We find that 17 indicators combine into two reliable scales. The social disconnectedness scale has a two-factor structure, including the restricted social network dimension and the social inactivity dimension. The perceived isolation scale also comprises two dimensions: lack of support and loneliness. We find that social disconnectedness does not vary across age groups, but the oldest old feel more isolated than the young old. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are greater among those who have worse health. Discussion The creation of scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation provides one way to utilize the wide variety of indicators of social isolation collected in the NSHAP study. Although individual indicators of social connectedness or isolation are useful in their own right, these scales provide parsimonious, continuous variables that account for a variety of aspects of social isolation, which may be especially useful for inclusion in multivariate analyses predicting health outcomes.

  11. Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

    2009-01-01

    Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…

  12. From Social Integration to Social Isolation: The Relationship Between Social Network Types and Perceived Availability of Social Support in a National Sample of Older Canadians.

    PubMed

    Harasemiw, Oksana; Newall, Nancy; Shooshtari, Shahin; Mackenzie, Corey; Menec, Verena

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that social isolation is detrimental to health and well-being. What is less clear is what types of social networks allow older adults to get the social support they need to promote health and well-being. In this study, we identified social network types in a national sample of older Canadians and explored whether they are associated with perceived availability of different types of social support (affectionate, emotional, or tangible, and positive social interactions). Data were drawn from the baseline questionnaire of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging for participants aged 65-85 (unweighted n = 8,782). Cluster analyses revealed six social network groups. Social support generally declined as social networks became more restricted; however, different patterns of social support availability emerged for different social network groups. These findings suggest that certain types of social networks place older adults at risk of not having met specific social support needs.

  13. Social Isolation During Adolescence Strengthens Retention of Fear Memories and Facilitates Induction of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Hong; You, Qiang-Long; Wei, Mei-Dan; Wang, Qian; Luo, Zheng-Yi; Lin, Song; Huang, Lang; Li, Shu-Ji; Li, Xiao-Wen; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation that often manifests as abnormal behavior in adulthood. The enduring consequence of isolation might be caused by a weakened ability to forget unpleasant memories. However, it remains unclear whether isolation affects unpleasant memories. To address this, we used a model of associative learning to induce the fear memories and evaluated the influence of isolation mice during adolescence on the subsequent retention of fear memories and its underlying cellular mechanisms. Following adolescent social isolation, we found that mice decreased their social interaction time and had an increase in anxiety-related behavior. Interestingly, when we assessed memory retention, we found that isolated mice were unable to forget aversive memories when tested 4 weeks after the original event. Consistent with this, we observed that a single train of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) enabled a late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of isolated mice, whereas only an early-phase LTP was observed with the same stimulation in the control mice. Social isolation during adolescence also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, and application of a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor inhibitor ameliorated the facilitated L-LTP seen after isolation. Together, our results suggest that adolescent isolation may result in mental disorders during adulthood and that this may stem from an inability to forget the unpleasant memories via BDNF-mediated synaptic plasticity. These findings may give us a new strategy to prevent mental disorders caused by persistent unpleasant memories.

  14. Does the mortality risk of social isolation depend upon socioeconomic factors?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew C

    2016-10-01

    This study considers whether socioeconomic status influences the impact of social isolation on mortality risk. Using data from the Alameda County Study, Cox proportional hazard models indicate that having a high income worsens the mortality risk of social isolation. Education may offset risk, however, and the specific pattern that emerges depends on which measures for socioeconomic status and social isolation are included. Additionally, lonely people who earn high incomes suffer especially high risk of accidents and suicides as well as cancer. Further research is needed that contextualizes the health risks of social isolation within the broader social environment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Patients' perceived level of social isolation affects the prognosis of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V C; Ferreira, M L; Morso, L; Albert, H B; Refshauge, K M; Ferreira, P H

    2015-04-01

    Perceived social isolation is prevalent among patients with low back pain (LBP) and could be a potential prognostic factor for clinical outcomes following an episode of LBP. A secondary analysis of an original prospective cohort study, which investigated the validity of the Danish version of the STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT), investigated whether social isolation predicts the clinical outcomes of disability, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing in people with LBP. Patients with LBP of any duration (N = 204) from Middelfart, Denmark, were included. Social isolation was measured at baseline using the friendship scale (score ranges from 0 to 24, with lower values meaning higher perceived social isolation), and outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Regression models investigated whether social isolation at baseline predicted the outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Some level of social isolation was reported by 39.2% of the participants (n = 80) with 5.9% (n = 12) being very socially isolated. One-point difference on social isolation predicted one point on a 100-point disability scale (adjusted unstandardized coefficient: -0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.56 to -0.26). Social isolation predicted anxiety; however, a change of one point on the social isolation scale represents a difference of only 0.08 points on a 22-point scale in anxiety (95% CI: 0.01-0.15) and is unlikely to denote clinical importance. Social isolation did not predict pain catastrophizing or depression. Patients' perceived social isolation predicts disability related to LBP. Further understanding of the role of social isolation in LBP is warranted. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  16. Social Studies, Social Competence and Citizenship in Early Childhood Education: Developmental Principles Guide Appropriate Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, Kristen M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the nature of appropriate social studies education in the Kindergarten and Pre-Kindergarten years. The importance of social competence development as a basic foundation of the social studies in the early years of schooling is examined, with particular attention to the commonalities shared between goals and…

  17. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  18. Financial Capability in Early Social Work Practice: Lessons for Today.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Paul H

    2016-10-01

    During the profession's first decades, social workers tried to improve their clients’ financial capability (FC). This article describes the methods used by early social workers who attempted to enhance the FC of their clients, based on contemporary descriptions of their practice. Social workers initially emphasized thrift, later adding more sophisticated consideration of the cost of foods, rent, and other necessities. Social work efforts were furthered by home economists, who served as specialists in nutrition, clothing, interior design, and other topics related to homemaking. Early home economists included specialists in nutrition and family budgeting; these specialists worked with social services agencies to provide a financial basis for family budgets and assisted clients with family budgeting. Some agencies engaged home economists as consultants and as direct providers of instruction on home budgets for clients. By the 1930s, however, social work interest in family budget problems focused on the psychological meaning of low income to the client, rather than in measures to increase client FC. Consequently, social workers’ active engagement with family budget issues—engagement that characterized earlier decades—faded. These early efforts can inform contemporary practice as social workers are once again concerned about improving their clients’ FC.

  19. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans

    PubMed Central

    MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  20. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-11-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  1. A Prospective Study of Social Isolation, Loneliness, and Mortality in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tanskanen, Jussi; Anttila, Timo

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the simultaneous effects of social isolation and loneliness on mortality. We analyzed a representative Finnish sample (n = 8650) from the cross-sectional Living Conditions Survey of 1994, with a 17-year follow-up period (1995-2011), by using Cox regression models adjusted for several possible confounding variables. We examined the possible nonlinear threshold effect of social isolation on mortality. The analyses revealed that social isolation predicted mortality even after we controlled for loneliness and control variables. The connection between social isolation and mortality was linear in nature and there was no synergistic effect between social isolation and loneliness. The effect of loneliness became nonsignificant when studied simultaneously with social isolation. This study reveals strong evidence for an adverse effect of social isolation on mortality. Social isolation and loneliness seem to have distinct pathways to mortality and health. The results imply that the risk of mortality exists along a continuum, affecting not only those who experience extreme social isolation, but also those who suffer from mild to progressively increasing intensity of isolation.

  2. Longitudinal Relationship Between Loneliness and Social Isolation in Older Adults: Results From the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Johanna; Kaye, Jeffrey; Jacobs, Peter G; Quinones, Ana; Dodge, Hiroko; Arnold, Alice; Thielke, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    To understand the longitudinal relationship between loneliness and isolation. Participants included 5,870 adults 65 years and older (M = 72.89 ± 5.59 years) from the first 5 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. Loneliness was assessed using a dichotomized loneliness question. Social isolation was assessed using six items from the Lubben Social Network Scale. Yearly life events were included to assess abrupt social network changes. Mixed effects logistic regression was employed to analyze the relationship between isolation and loneliness. Higher levels of social isolation were associated with higher odds of loneliness, as was an increase (from median) in level of social isolation. Life events such as a friend dying were also associated with increased odds of loneliness. These results suggest that average level of isolation and increases in the level of isolation are closely tied to loneliness, which has implications for future assessment or monitoring of loneliness in older adult populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Social Media Use and Perceived Social Isolation Among Young Adults in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E.; Whaite, Erin O.; Lin, Liu yi; Rosen, Daniel; Colditz, Jason B.; Radovic, Ana M.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Perceived social isolation (PSI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Social media platforms, commonly used by young adults, may offer an opportunity to ameliorate social isolation. This study assessed associations between social media use (SMU) and PSI among U.S. young adults. Methods Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1787 U.S. adults aged 19–32 years. They were recruited in October–November 2014 for a cross-sectional survey using a sampling frame that represented 97% of the U.S. population. SMU was assessed using both time and frequency of using 11 social media platforms, including Facebook, Twitter, Google+, YouTube, LinkedIn, Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr, Vine, Snapchat, and Reddit. PSI was measured using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scale. In 2015, ordered logistic regression was used to assess associations between SMU and SI while controlling for eight covariates. Results In fully adjusted multivariable models that included survey weights, compared with those in the lowest quartile for SMU time, participants in the highest quartile had twice the odds of having greater PSI (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.4, 2.8). Similarly, compared with those in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of SMU frequency had more than three times the odds of having greater PSI (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=2.3, 5.1). Associations were linear (p<0.001 for all), and results were robust to all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Young adults with high SMU seem to feel more socially isolated than their counterparts with lower SMU. Future research should focus on determining directionality and elucidating reasons for these associations. PMID:28279545

  4. Social Media Use and Perceived Social Isolation Among Young Adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Whaite, Erin O; Lin, Liu Yi; Rosen, Daniel; Colditz, Jason B; Radovic, Ana; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Perceived social isolation (PSI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Social media platforms, commonly used by young adults, may offer an opportunity to ameliorate social isolation. This study assessed associations between social media use (SMU) and PSI among U.S. young adults. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1,787 U.S. adults aged 19-32 years. They were recruited in October-November 2014 for a cross-sectional survey using a sampling frame that represented 97% of the U.S. SMU was assessed using both time and frequency associated with use of 11 social media platforms, including Facebook, Twitter, Google+, YouTube, LinkedIn, Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr, Vine, Snapchat, and Reddit. PSI was measured using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scale. In 2015, ordered logistic regression was used to assess associations between SMU and SI while controlling for eight covariates. In fully adjusted multivariable models that included survey weights, compared with those in the lowest quartile for SMU time, participants in the highest quartile had twice the odds of having greater PSI (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.4, 2.8). Similarly, compared with those in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of SMU frequency had more than three times the odds of having greater PSI (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=2.3, 5.1). Associations were linear (p<0.001 for all), and results were robust to all sensitivity analyses. Young adults with high SMU seem to feel more socially isolated than their counterparts with lower SMU. Future research should focus on determining directionality and elucidating reasons for these associations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Isolated early onset anemia after rh isoimmunization: a unique presentation in 3 neonates.

    PubMed

    Louis, Deepak; Oberoi, Sapna; Sundaram, Venkataseshan; Trehan, Amita

    2010-08-01

    Rh isoimmunization manifesting as isolated early onset neonatal anemia has not been reported. We describe the presentation of 3 infants who manifested with isolated early severe anemia. All the infants presented early (3 to 7 d of age) with severe pallor. None had clinically significant jaundice. Evidence for hemolysis was present in all and their direct antiglobulin test was positive. To reduce the hemolysis, immunoglobulin was administered after which their hemoglobin improved. This report highlights the possibility of early onset anemia without significant jaundice as the sole manifestation of Rh isoimmunization and the possible beneficial role of immunoglobulin in them.

  6. Social isolation after spinal cord injury: Indicators from the Longitudinal Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Susan D; Li, Chao; Krause, James S

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a conceptual model of social isolation, incorporating social disconnectedness (objective measures) and perceived isolation (subjective appraisals) in an aging sample of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study used cross-sectional data from 768 participants from the most recent administration of the SCI Longitudinal Aging Study, which was initiated in 1973. Measures included the revised version of the Life Situation Questionnaire, items from the Craig Handicap Assessment Reporting Technique, and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Indicators of social isolation were combined into scales assessing social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. We tested the hypothesized model of social isolation, including both social disconnectedness and perceived isolation, after SCI using structural equation modeling. Results of structural equation modeling indicated good fit between the hypothesized model and data (root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.073, 90% confidence interval [0.070, 0.075]; comparative fit index = 0.949; Tucker Lewis Index = 0.946). Perceived isolation was significantly related with social disconnectedness (standardized coefficient [r] = .610). Several exogenous factors were significantly related to social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. Older participants were more likely to report lower levels of perceived isolation. Time since injury demonstrated an inverse relationship with both social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. Higher level and severity of injury were associated with higher levels of social disconnectedness. Our study establishes a stable model of social isolation to guide future research exploring the effect of social isolation on health after SCI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  8. The association between physical activity and social isolation in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Robins, Lauren M; Hill, Keith D; Finch, Caroline F; Clemson, Lindy; Haines, Terry

    2018-02-01

    Social isolation is an increasing concern in older community-dwelling adults. There is growing need to determine effective interventions addressing social isolation. This study aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between physical activity (recreational and/or household-based) and social isolation. An examination was conducted for whether group- or home-based falls prevention exercise was associated with social isolation. Cross-sectional analysis of telephone survey data was used to investigate relationships between physical activity, health, age, gender, living arrangements, ethnicity and participation in group- or home-based falls prevention exercise on social isolation. Univariable and multivariable ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted. Factors found to be significantly associated with reduced social isolation in multivariable analysis included living with a partner/spouse, reporting better general health, higher levels of household-based physical activity (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01-1.05) and feeling less downhearted/depressed. Being more socially isolated was associated with symptoms of depression and a diagnosis of congestive heart failure (pseudo R 2 = 0.104). Findings suggest that household-based physical activity is related to social isolation in community-dwelling older adults. Further research is required to determine the nature of this relationship and to investigate the impact of group physical activity interventions on social isolation.

  9. Correlates of Objective Social Isolation from Family and Friends among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Harry Owen; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of objective social isolation from extended family members and friends among older adults. The analysis is based on the older adult sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n = 1321). Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined race/ethnicity, demographics, functional health and family and friend network factors as correlates of objective isolation from family and friends. Only 4.47% of respondents were objectively isolated from both their extended family and friends, 10.82% were isolated from their friends, and 7.43% were isolated from their family members. Men were more likely to be objectively isolated from both family and friends and older adults who live with others were significantly more likely to be objectively isolated from their friends. When controlling for subjective social isolation, the two measures of functional health were significantly associated with objective social isolation. In particular, higher levels of self-care impairment decreased the risk of being objectively isolated from friends only, whereas higher mobility impairment was associated with an increased likelihood of being objectively isolated from friends only. Subjective evaluations of social isolation from family and friends were consistently associated with being objectively isolated from family and friends. There were no significant differences between African-Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites in objective isolation. These and other findings are discussed in detail. PMID:29510504

  10. Correlates of Objective Social Isolation from Family and Friends among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Nicklett, Emily J; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2018-03-03

    This study examined the correlates of objective social isolation from extended family members and friends among older adults. The analysis is based on the older adult sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life ( n = 1321). Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined race/ethnicity, demographics, functional health and family and friend network factors as correlates of objective isolation from family and friends. Only 4.47% of respondents were objectively isolated from both their extended family and friends, 10.82% were isolated from their friends, and 7.43% were isolated from their family members. Men were more likely to be objectively isolated from both family and friends and older adults who live with others were significantly more likely to be objectively isolated from their friends. When controlling for subjective social isolation, the two measures of functional health were significantly associated with objective social isolation. In particular, higher levels of self-care impairment decreased the risk of being objectively isolated from friends only, whereas higher mobility impairment was associated with an increased likelihood of being objectively isolated from friends only. Subjective evaluations of social isolation from family and friends were consistently associated with being objectively isolated from family and friends. There were no significant differences between African-Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites in objective isolation. These and other findings are discussed in detail.

  11. Exploring relationships among social integration, social isolation, self-rated health, and demographics among Latino day laborers.

    PubMed

    Steel, Kenneth C; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Atkinson, John S; Taylor, Wendell C

    2018-05-01

    Research indicates social integration and social isolation are related to health, and Latino day laborers (LDLs) tend to be socially isolated and, thus, at high risk for adverse health consequences. relationships among social isolation, social integration, self-rated health (SRH), and demographics were examined in a sample of LDLs to contribute to the literature on social networks and health in this and other migrant populations. We analyzed data from 324 LDLs who participated in Proyecto SHILOS (Salud del Hombre Inmigrante Latino), a Houston-based survey of Latino immigrant men's health. Based on the literature, we hypothesized SRH would be (1) positively associated with social integration and (2) negatively associated with social isolation. All proposed measures were first entered into a correlation matrix to identify significant bivariate relationships (p ≤ .05, two-tailed). Associations between variables that were directly correlated with SRH and variables that were, in turn, proximally associated with these variables were then used to develop a structural equation path model of SRH. Individual paths in the model were measured for significance, and goodness of fit was assessed by the model chi-square, the Comparative Fit Index, and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. Inconsistent with the first hypothesis, SRH was negatively associated with social integration, as measured by the number of trusted friends. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SRH was negatively associated with social isolation, as measured by needing someone to talk to. More frequent contact with family was also negatively associated with social isolation. Our findings suggest social integration may not always protect and promote health. Therefore, assessing the quality of LDLs' different relationships, not just the quantity, is vital. Future studies should further analyze the effects that social resources have on perceptions of social isolation and health in LDLs and other

  12. Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, A; Clark, D M; McManus, F

    2000-06-01

    A recent model [Clark, D. M. & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. Heimberg, M. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 69-93). New York: Guildford Press] suggests that a distorted image of one's public self lies at the heart of social phobia. A previous study of spontaneous imagery [Hackmann, A., Surawy, C. & Clark, D. M. (1998) Seeing yourself through others' eyes: a study of spontaneously occurring images in social phobia. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 26, 3-12] confirmed that patients with social phobia frequently report experiencing negative, distorted, observer-perspective images when in anxiety provoking social situations. In the present study, 22 patients with social phobia were given a semistructured interview which aimed to further explore the nature of social phobic imagery. All participants were able to identify negative spontaneous images that were recurrent in the sense that their content appeared to be relatively stable over time and across different feared social situations. Most recurrent images involved several sensory modalities. Most recurrent images were linked to memories of adverse social events that clustered in time around the onset of the disorder. Taken together, the results suggest that in patients with social phobia, early unpleasant experiences may lead to the development of excessively negative images of their social selves that are repeatedly activated in subsequent social situations and fail to update in the light of subsequent, more favourable experiences. Implications of the findings for the understanding and treatment of social phobia are discussed.

  13. Involvement of decreased muscarinic receptor function in prepulse inhibition deficits in mice reared in social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Koda, K; Ago, Y; Yano, K; Nishimura, M; Kobayashi, H; Fukada, A; Takuma, K; Matsuda, T

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We have previously reported that galantamine, a weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, improves prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits in mice reared in social isolation. ACh receptors are involved in the underlying mechanism of PPI, but whether rearing in social isolation causes dysfunction of the cholinergic system is unknown. In this study, we examined the involvement of muscarinic receptors in the improvement of PPI deficits induced by galantamine, and whether the cholinergic system is altered in mice reared in isolation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Three-week-old male ddY mice were housed in isolated cages for 6 weeks before the initiation of experiments to create PPI deficits. Cholinergic functions were determined by measuring the behavioural and neurochemical responses to nicotinic and muscarinic receptor agonists. KEY RESULTS The improvement by galantamine of social isolation-induced PPI deficits was blocked by scopolamine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, and telenzepine, a preferential M1 receptor antagonist. Activation of M1 receptors improved social isolation-induced PPI deficits. Social isolation did not affect choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but it reduced the locomotor-suppressive response to muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, but not to nicotine. The isolation also attenuated the M1 receptor agonist N-desmethylclozapine-induced increase in prefrontal dopamine release. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Galantamine improves PPI deficits of mice reared in social isolation via activation of M1 receptors. Social isolation reduces the muscarinic, especially M1, receptor function and this is involved in PPI deficits. PMID:20958289

  14. Loneliness and social isolation among young and late middle-age adults: Associations with personal networks and social participation.

    PubMed

    Child, Stephanie T; Lawton, Leora

    2017-11-24

    Associations between social networks and loneliness or social isolation are well established among older adults. Yet, limited research examines personal networks and participation on perceived loneliness and social isolation as distinct experiences among younger adults. Accordingly, we explore relationships among objective and subjective measures of personal networks with loneliness and isolation, comparing a younger and older cohort. The UC Berkeley Social Networks Study offers unique cohort data on young (21-30 years old, n = 472) and late middle-age adults' (50-70 years old, n = 637) personal network characteristics, social participation, network satisfaction, relationship status, and days lonely and isolated via online survey or in-person interview. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between social network characteristics, loneliness, and isolation by age group. Young adults reported twice as many days lonely and isolated than late middle-age adults, despite, paradoxically, having larger networks. For young adults, informal social participation and weekly religious attendance were associated with fewer days isolated. Among late middle-age adults, number of close kin and relationship status were associated with loneliness. Network satisfaction was associated with fewer days lonely or isolated among both age groups. Distinct network characteristics were associated with either loneliness or isolation for each cohort, suggesting network factors are independently associated with each outcome, and may fluctuate over time. Network satisfaction was associated with either loneliness or isolation among both cohorts, suggesting perceptions of social networks may be equally important as objective measures, and remain salient for loneliness and isolation throughout the life course.

  15. Self-efficacy reduces the impact of social isolation on medical student's rural career intent.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Vivian; Pit, Sabrina Winona; McLachlan, Craig S

    2018-03-20

    Social isolation in medical students is a subjective experience that may influence medical career decision making. Rural self-efficacy has been shown to influence rural career intentions following a rural clinical placement, however its impact on social isolation during a rural clinical placement has not been previously modeled. The objective of this study is to explore whether self-perception of social isolation is associated with rural career intent in rural medical students. Secondly, to determine whether self-efficacy influences the association between social isolation and rural career intent. 2015 data, from a cross-sectional survey of the National Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) study. Among 619 medical students attending rural clinical schools (RCS), rural career intent was assessed. This included intended rural location for either postgraduate medical specialist or generalist training or completion of that training. Self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice were based on a validated scale consisting of six questions. Social isolation was measured asking students whether they felt socially isolated during their RCS placement. 31.3% of surveyed students self-reported feeling socially isolated during their rural placement. Social isolation was associated with reduced rural career intent after controlling for gender, rural background, RCS preference, RCS support and wellbeing. In step-wise logistic regression the association between social isolation and rural intent disappeared with the inclusion of rural self-efficacy. Social isolation during a rural clinical placement is commonly reported and is shown to reduce rural career intent. High levels of rural clinical self-efficacy reduce the effects of social isolation on future rural workforce intentions.

  16. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  17. Gender and the Social Order in Early Modern England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amussen, Susan Dwyer

    The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…

  18. Social Network Profiles of Children in Early Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Jennifer A.; Locke, Jill J.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized the social network roles and peer relationship features of early elementary school-age children from kindergarten to 2nd grade. Children were asked to identify who they liked and did not like to play with and peer groups who played together from their classroom. Consistent with the literature, we found similar patterns for…

  19. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  20. Parental Management of Peer Relationships and Early Adolescents' Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…

  1. Male Teachers in Early Childhood Education: Self & Social Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaham, Dan

    Noting that men make up only a small percentage of early childhood and day care educators, a study was conducted to assess male teachers' points of view and attitudes. The self- and social-perceptions of 5 male preschool teachers between the ages of 22 and 50 were determined through ethnographic interviews. It was found that, as a group, the male…

  2. Precedents of perceived social support: personality and early life experiences.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Kijima, N; Watanabe, K; Takezaki, Y; Tanaka, E

    1999-12-01

    In order to examine the effects of personality and early life experiences on perceived social support, a total of 97 young Japanese women were investigated. Current interpersonal relationships were measured by an interview modified from Henderson et al.'s Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI). Personality was measured by Cloninger et al.'s Temperament and Character Inventory. Early life experiences at home and outside of home were also identified in the interview. The number of sources of perceived support was correlated with self-directness, while satisfaction with perceived support was correlated with novelty seeking and with low harm avoidance. No early life experiences--early loss of a parent, perceived parenting, childhood abuse experiences, experiences of being bullied and/or other life events--showed significant correlations with the number or satisfaction of supportive people. The quantity and quality of perception of social support differ in their link to personality, and perceived social support may, to some extent, be explainable in terms of personality.

  3. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  4. How does social functioning in the early stages of psychosis relate to depression and social anxiety?

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, Catherine; Naismith, Sharon L; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hermens, Daniel F; Hodge, M Antoinette Redoblado; Hickie, Ian B

    2011-08-01

    The study aims to compare social functioning in young people considered to be at risk of psychosis with those meeting criteria for first episode psychosis (FEP) and controls, and to determine the association between social functioning and positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. This study examined social functioning in 20 individuals at risk of psychosis, 20 FEP patients and 20 healthy controls. Social functioning was measured using the Social Functioning Scale and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale. Psychiatric variables were also measured using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Brief Social Phobia Scale, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. At-risk individuals had comparable social deficits to the FEP group, and both patient groups had significantly poorer social functioning than controls. Importantly, social functioning was most strongly associated with depressive and social anxiety symptoms and to a lesser extent with positive symptoms. However, negative symptoms did not appear to relate to social functioning. Social functioning impairments precede the onset of full-threshold psychosis and may therefore be a significant marker for the illness. Additionally, associated psychiatric symptoms such as depression and social anxiety may provide an avenue for early interventions of social functioning deficits in psychosis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. An Examination of the Social Networks and Social Isolation in Older and Younger Adults Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…

  6. Brain regional differences in social encounter-induced Fos expression in male and female rats after post-weaning social isolation.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Megan; Goodell, Dayton J; Adams, Jessica; Bland, Sondra T

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity has been related to a number of psychological disorders including mood and other disorders that can manifest as inappropriate or aggressive responses to social challenges. The present study used post-weaning social isolation (PSI) in rats, a model of early life adversity, to examine its effects on Fos protein expression produced by exposure to a novel social encounter. We have previously reported that the social encounter-induced increase in Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex observed in group-housed controls (GRP) was attenuated in rats that had experienced PSI. Here we assessed Fos expression in other brain regions thought to be involved in emotion regulation and social behavior. Male and female rats were housed in same-sex groups or in isolation (ISO) for 4 weeks beginning on postnatal day (P) 21 and were exposed to a single 15 min social encounter with a novel same-sex conspecific on P49. Fos positive cells were assessed using immunohistochemistry in 16 regions within the forebrain. Exposure to a novel conspecific increased Fos expression in the forebrain of GRP rats in a region- and sex-specific fashion. This increase was blunted or absent in ISO rats within many regions including cortical regions, thalamus, habenula, dentate gyrus, lateral septum, and basolateral amygdala. In several regions, the increase in Fos was greater in male than in female group housed rats. Negative relationships were observed between social interactions and Fos in some regions. Forebrain hypofunction produced by early-life adversity may be involved in socially inappropriate behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Child Physical Abuse and Self-Perceived Social Isolation among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Gregory C.; Cunningham, Susan M.; Linder, Meadow; Colangelo, Melissa; Gross, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This research examines the connection between physical abuse and social isolation. Using data from the National Youth Survey, a measure of self-perceived social isolation was constructed indicating the extent to which respondents feel detached from their friends and from school. Those who had experienced violence were predicted to be more isolated…

  8. Treadmill exercise ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through neuronal generation in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung-Wan; Jung, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Sam-Jun; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Dae-Young

    2017-12-01

    Social isolation is known to induce emotional and behavioral changes in animals and humans. The effect of treadmill exercise on depression was investigated using social isolated rat pups. The rat pups in the social isolation groups were housed individually. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on treadmill for 30 min once a day from postnatal day 21 to postnatal day 34. In order to evaluate depression state of rat pups, forced swimming test was performed. Newly generated cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. We examined the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe using immunofluorescence. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) was detected by Western blot analysis. The present results demonstrated that social isolation increased resting time and decreased mobility time. Expression of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe and expression of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus were decreased by social isolation. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was suppressed by social isolation. Treadmill exercise decreased resting time and increased mobility in the social isolated rat pups. Expression of 5-HT, TPH, BDNF, and TrkB was increased by treadmill exercise. The present results suggested that treadmill exercise may ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through increasing neuronal generation.

  9. Social isolation in childhood and adult inflammation: evidence from the National Child Development Study.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Bartley, Mel

    2014-12-01

    Social isolation is known to be associated with poorer health amongst adults, including coronary heart disease. It is hypothesized that this association may be mediated by inflammation. There has been little prospective research on the long-term impact of social isolation in childhood on adult health or the pathways which might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social isolation in childhood is associated with increased adult inflammation and the mechanisms involved across the life course. This study used multiply-imputed data on 7462 participants of the National Child Development Study in Great Britain. The association between child social isolation (7-11 yrs) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in middle age (44 yrs) was examined. We additionally investigated the role of adult social isolation, psychological distress, health behaviors and socioeconomic factors as potential mediators using path analysis and concurrent measurements made across the life course. Socially isolated children had higher levels of C-reactive protein in mid-life (standardized coefficient=0.05, p≤0.001). In addition, children who were socially isolated tended to have lower subsequent educational attainment, be in a less advantaged social class in adulthood, were more likely to be psychologically distressed across adulthood and were more likely to be obese and to smoke. All of these factors partially explained the association between childhood social isolation and CRP. However, this association remained statistically significant after considering all mediators simultaneously. Social isolation in childhood is associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein in mid-life. This is explained in part through complex mechanisms acting across the life course. Identification and interventions targeted toward socially isolated children may help reduce long-term adult health risk. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Social isolation, health literacy, and mortality risk: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Samuel G; Jackson, Sarah E; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Steptoe, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the relationships between social isolation, health literacy, and all-cause mortality, and the modifying effect of social isolation on the latter relationship. Data were from 7731 adults aged ≥50 years participating in Wave 2 (2004/2005) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Social isolation was defined according to marital/cohabiting status and contact with children, relatives, and friends, and participation in social organizations. Scores were split at the median to indicate social isolation (yes vs. no). Health literacy was assessed as comprehension of a medicine label and classified as "high" (≥75% correct) or "low" (<75% correct). The outcome was all-cause mortality up to February 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, health status, health behaviors, and cognitive function. Mortality rates were 30.3% versus 14.3% in the low versus high health literacy groups, and 23.5% versus 13.7% in the socially isolated versus nonisolated groups. Low health literacy (adj. HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.45 vs. high) and social isolation (adj. HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.50) were independently associated with increased mortality risk. The multiplicative interaction term for health literacy and social isolation was not statistically significant (p = .81). Low health literacy and high social isolation are risk factors for mortality. Social isolation does not modify the relationship between health literacy and mortality. Clinicians should be aware of the health risks faced by socially isolated adults and those with low health literacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Alcohol use disorder due to social isolation after a nuclear disaster in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomohiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Hori, Arinobu; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-06-21

    It is well-known that a nuclear disaster causes health problems including cancer, however, information on mental disorders linked to a nuclear disaster is limited. On 11 March 2011, there was a serious nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima, Japan. Subsequently, in October 2012, a 78-year-old man living 31 km from the plant was admitted to the hospital with head trauma. This was his third physical trauma since the nuclear accident. A thorough interview revealed that his alcohol intake had increased after the disaster, suggesting that his injuries might be related to alcohol use. The diagnosis of alcohol use disorder was established based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. He had been exposed to social isolation after evacuation of his neighbourhood. Using education and intervention, he was successfully treated. We should recognise that a nuclear disaster might cause social isolation among the elderly, leading to mental disorders and alcohol use disorder. Early diagnosis and intervention might be beneficial for individuals presenting the above symptoms. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Alcohol use disorder due to social isolation after a nuclear disaster in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Tomohiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Hori, Arinobu; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that a nuclear disaster causes health problems including cancer, however, information on mental disorders linked to a nuclear disaster is limited. On 11 March 2011, there was a serious nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima, Japan. Subsequently, in October 2012, a 78-year-old man living 31 km from the plant was admitted to the hospital with head trauma. This was his third physical trauma since the nuclear accident. A thorough interview revealed that his alcohol intake had increased after the disaster, suggesting that his injuries might be related to alcohol use. The diagnosis of alcohol use disorder was established based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. He had been exposed to social isolation after evacuation of his neighbourhood. Using education and intervention, he was successfully treated. We should recognise that a nuclear disaster might cause social isolation among the elderly, leading to mental disorders and alcohol use disorder. Early diagnosis and intervention might be beneficial for individuals presenting the above symptoms. PMID:26101299

  13. Social isolation, loneliness and their relationships with depressive symptoms: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lixia; Yap, Chun Wei; Ong, Reuben; Heng, Bee Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To assess the relationship between various social isolation indicators and loneliness, and to examine the differential associations that social isolation indicators, loneliness have with depressive symptoms. Baseline data for 1,919 adults (aged 21 years and above) from a representative health survey in the Central region of Singapore was used for this study. The association between social isolation indicators (marital status, living arrangement, social connectedness with relatives and friends) and loneliness (the three-item UCLA Loneliness) were assessed, and their differential associations with depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) were examined using multiple linear regression, controling for relevant covariates. There was significant overlap between loneliness and social isolation. Social connectedness with relatives and friends were mildly correlated with loneliness score (|r| = 0.14~0.16). Social isolation in terms of weak connectedness with relatives and with friends and loneliness were associated with depressive symptoms even after controling for age, gender, employment status and other covariates. The association of loneliness with depressive symptoms (β = 0.33) was independent of and stronger than that of any social isolation indicators (|β| = 0.00~0.07). The results of the study establishes a significant and unique association of different social isolation indicators and loneliness with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling adults aged 21 and above.

  14. Early Social Fear Predicts Kindergarteners' Socially Anxious Behaviors: Direct Associations, Moderation by Inhibitory Control, and Differences from Nonsocial Fear

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Although social and nonsocial fear are discernable as early as preschool, little is known about their distinct associations with developmental outcomes. For example, fear has been identified as a predictor of social anxiety problems, but no work has examined whether social and nonsocial fear make independent contributions to risk. We investigated the extent to which early social and non-social fear were associated with socially anxious behaviors during kindergarten. To do this, we identified distinct trajectories of social and nonsocial fear across toddlerhood and preschool. Only social fear was associated with socially anxious behaviors at ages 2 and 5. Because the ability to regulate fear contributes to the degree to which fearful children are at risk for anxiety problems, we also tested whether an early-developing aspect of self-regulation modulated associations between early fear and kindergarten socially anxious behaviors. Specifically, we tested whether inhibitory control differentially modulated associations between early levels of social and nonsocial fear and socially anxious behaviors during kindergarten. Associations between trajectories of early social fear and age 5 socially anxious behaviors were moderated by individual differences in inhibitory control. Consistent with previous research showing associations between overcontrol and anxiety symptoms, more negative outcomes were observed when stable, high levels of social fear across childhood were coupled with high levels of inhibitory control. Results suggest that the combination of social fear and overcontrol reflect a profile of early risk for the development of social inhibition and social anxiety problems. PMID:27213729

  15. Preference for Solitude, Social Isolation, Suicidal Ideation, and Self-Harm in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kaori; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Yamasaki, Syudo; Usami, Satoshi; Okazaki, Yuji; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Richards, Marcus; Hatch, Stephani; Nishida, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    Social isolation is associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and self-harm (SH) among adolescents. However, the association between preference for solitude (PfS), SI, and SH is unknown. The prevalence of adolescents who have both of PfS and social isolation and the risks for SI and SH among them are also unknown. Information on PfS, social isolation, SI, and SH was collected in a large-scale school-based survey on adolescents, using a self-report questionnaire. Associations between PfS, SI, and SH were examined by logistic regression analysis. The interactions between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH were also investigated. The odds of SI and SH were examined for groups defined by presence of PfS and social isolation. Responses from 17,437 students (89.3% of relevant classes) were available. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and social isolation, PfS was associated with increased odds of SI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1) and SH (OR = 1.9). There was no interaction between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the odds for SI (OR = 8.6) and SH (OR = 3.8) were highest among adolescents with both PfS and social isolation (8.4% of all respondents). PfS was associated with increased odds of SI and SH in adolescents. No interaction effect between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH was found, but adolescents with PfS and social isolation had the highest risk for SI and SH. Parents and professionals should pay attention to suicide risk in adolescents with PfS. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of social isolation on behavioral health in elderly: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hanbyul; Irwin, Michael R; Cho, Hyong Jin

    2015-12-22

    To examine and compare the effects of subjective and objective social isolation on behavioral health in elderly adults. A systematic search of PubMed was performed for original research articles from peer-reviewed journals examining one of the following topics: "Social isolation and sleep disturbance", "social isolation and depression", or "social isolation and fatigue in older adults". Studies were selected following the criteria established based on the aim of this review. Data were extracted from the articles by two independent reviewers. Due to the heterogeneity in study designs and outcome measures of the included studies, qualitative and narrative analyses were conducted. The set criteria were used to select a total of 16 studies for the review. Of the 16, 13 were cross-sectional studies. The characteristics of study populations were identified as follows. A total of 12 studies randomly selected subjects irrespective of pre-existing health conditions. Consequently, an unspecified number of the study subjects had chronic diseases in the studies compared. In addition, cultural and ethnic backgrounds of studies in this review were diverse, and included subjects living in North America, South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Both subjective and objective types of social isolation increased behavioral symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, depressive symptoms, and fatigue in older adults. Furthermore, a few recent studies reported stronger effects of subjective social isolation than objective social isolation on sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Social isolation affects behavioral health in older adults. Compared to the objective social isolation, subjective social isolation contributes more significantly to sleep disturbance and depression.

  17. A daily diary study of perceived social isolation, dietary restraint, and negative affect in binge eating.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J

    2016-02-01

    Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early-life social experiences in mice affect emotional behaviour and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    PubMed

    Ros-Simó, Clara; Valverde, Olga

    2012-09-01

    Early-life stressful experiences are associated to alterations in behavioural responses and development of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. In rodents, individual housing is considered as a stressful condition whilst enriched environment can protect against stress and its negative consequences. Neuroendocrine responses to stress can also be altered by early-life experiences and seem to contribute to behavioural alterations induced by changes in housing conditions. To develop an improved procedure of social isolation throughout development (from pre-adolescence to adulthood) in CD1 mice and to elucidate its effects on behavioural parameters related to stress and neuroendocrine responses compared to enriched or social conditions. CD1 male mice (PND 21) were housed in social/standard conditions, enriched conditions or isolated conditions during seven weeks. After that, different relevant behaviours were evaluated, including locomotor activity, anxiety-like and despair behaviour. Levels of plasma corticosterone were also analysed before and after a stressful event. CD1 mice exposed to an isolated environment exhibited higher locomotion and anxiety-like responses than animals exposed to social or enriched conditions. In addition, isolated animals showed lower basal plasma corticosterone than social or enriched ones but after a stressful event the elevation of plasma corticosterone was higher, suggesting an enhanced response of the HPA axis to a novel and stressful situation. Social interaction is an important feature to display an appropriate behavioural and neuronal development. Habituation to novel stimuli is impaired in subjects exposed to social isolation and induces increased excitability response to stressful events. Social deprivation increases the possibility of altered neuronal function and could facilitate the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate the proconvulsant effect of juvenile social isolation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amini-khoei, Hossein; Momeny, Majid; Shirzadian, Armin; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Azizi, Romina; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei

    2016-03-01

    Experiencing psychosocial stress in early life, such as social isolation stress (SIS), is known to have negative enduring effects on the development of the brain and behavior. In addition to anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, we previously showed that juvenile SIS increases susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice through enhancing the nitrergic system activity in the hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in proconvulsant effects of juvenile SIS. Applying 4 weeks of SIS to juvenile male mice at postnatal day 21-23, we observed an increased susceptibility to PTZ as well as anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in adult mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of NMDA receptor antagonists, MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) and ketamine (0.5mg/kg), reversed the proconvulsant effects of SIS in Isolated (and not social) housed animals. Co-administration of non-effective doses of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, 7NI (25mg/kg) and L-NAME (10mg/kg), with NMDA receptor antagonists, MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg) and ketamine (0.1mg/kg) attenuated the proconvulsant effects of juvenile SIS only in isolated housed mice. Also, using real time RT-PCR, we showed that hippocampal upregulation of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor may play a critical role in proconvulsant effects of juvenile SIS by dysregulation of NMDA/NO pathway. In conclusion, results of present study revealed that experiencing SIS during adolescence predisposes the co-occurrence of seizure disorders with psychiatric comorbidities and also, alteration of NMDA receptor structure and function in hippocampus plays a role in proconvulsant effects of juvenile SIS through enhancing the NMDA/NO pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Isolation and Social Cohesion: The Effects of K-12 Neighborhood and School Segregation on Intergroup Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Gonzalez, Amaryllis Del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: The United States is becoming increasingly racially and ethnically diverse, and increasingly racially isolated across race-ethnic boundaries. Researchers have argued that both diversity and racial isolation serve to undermine the social cohesion needed to bind American citizens to one another and to society at large. Focus of…

  1. [Predictors of social isolation among older people living in urban area: a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Ejiri, Manami; Kawai, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ihara, Kazushige; Hirano, Hirohiko; Kojima, Motonaga; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate the predictors of social isolation among older people living in urban area.Methods A mail survey was sent out to 7,015 elderly subjects living in nine districts of Itabashi ward. At baseline (2012), 3,696 subjects and at follow-up (2014) 2,375 replied to the self-administered questionnaire. We defined social isolation as seeing friends or relatives less than two or three times a month. Gender, age, self-rated health, present illnesses, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), frequency of going out, frequency of social participation, family structure, and perceived financial status were also investigated. A t-test, a chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were conducted to examine the predictors of social isolation in a follow-up study.Results Of the 1,791 subjects who were analyzed for social isolation, 348 (19.4%) were found to be socially isolated in 2014. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that men (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.50) were significantly more likely to be isolated than women. Being older (1.03, 1.01-1.06) was also a significant predictor of isolation. Subjects who participated in group activities one to three times a month (1.62, 1.04-2.53) were significantly more likely to be isolated than those who participated in them more than once a week. Subjects who rated their financial status as low (1.67, 1.20-2.32) were more likely to be isolated than those who rated it as high. Subjects who were isolated (10.24, 7.60-13.81), and those who did not respond to questions about isolation (8.15, 3.76-17.67), were significantly more likely to be isolated than those who were not isolated at baseline. Among the subjects who were not isolated at baseline, being male (2.39, 1.57-3.64) and lower self-rated health (3.99, 1.33-11.94) were predictors of social isolation.Conclusion Participation in social activities is effective in preventing social isolation among

  2. Isolated Early-type Galaxies in the 2dFGRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, Christopher R.; Lamir, C.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated galaxies are systems that have experienced limited external perturbations, thus the properties of these galaxies are largely due to internal processes. The features of isolated early-type galaxies (IEGs) provide a baseline from which to compare early-type systems residing in higher-density environments. We use the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED) to identify IEGs in the nearby universe. Search criteria in the 2dFGRS were chosen to insure that the IEGs have remained separated from neighboring galaxies for the majority of their lifetimes. Isolated galaxies are chosen utilizing a minimum projected physical separation of 1 Mpc from any neighboring non-dwarf galaxy brighter than Mb = -16.5 mags. A minimum redshift separation of 350 km/s between a candidate galaxy and a neighboring was imposed to further insure the candidate’s isolation. Early results of the search for isolated early-type galaxies in the southern sky are presented.

  3. Social anxiety and perception of early parenting among American, Chinese American, and social phobic samples.

    PubMed

    Leung, A W; Heimberg, R G; Holt, C S; Bruch, M A

    1994-01-01

    Emotionally distant and controlling child-rearing attitudes have been reported to characterize the parents of American or western European social phobics in previous research. However, the notion that these parental attitudes may be associated with social anxiety only in some cultures has not been investigated. The present study examined social anxiety among American social phobics and American and Chinese/Chinese American volunteer samples and how it may relate to their parents' child-rearing attitudes. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed overall group differences. Both volunteer samples reported lower levels of anxiety than social phobics. Parents of Chinese/Chinese Americans and social phobics were reported to be similar in their (1) isolation of children from social activities; (2) over-emphasis of others' opinions; and (3) use of shame tactics for discipline (more so than American volunteers' parents). However, parents of nonsocial phobics were more likely to attend family social activities than social phobics' parents. Overall, the association between a reported parenting style emphasizing others' opinions and shame tactics and social anxiety in their adult children was more evident in both American samples than among Chinese/Chinese Americans.

  4. Early adolescent symptoms of social phobia prospectively predict alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Dahne, Jennifer; Banducci, Anne N; Kurdziel, Gretchen; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined whether social phobia (SP) symptoms in early adolescence prospectively predicted alcohol use through middle adolescence in a community sample of youth. Data from an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 277) of mechanisms of HIV-related risk behaviors in youth were used to assess the extent to which SP symptoms in early adolescence (mean [SD] age = 11.00 years [0.81]) would predict alcohol use across five annual assessment waves. Adolescents completed measures of SP symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use at each wave. Higher SP symptoms at baseline predicted higher average odds of alcohol consumption during subsequent waves but did not significantly predict an increase in the odds of alcohol use as a function of time. Within a lagged model, SP symptoms measured at a prior assessment point (1 year earlier) predicted greater odds of drinking alcohol at the following assessment point. Importantly, alcohol use did not significantly predict SP symptoms over time. These results suggest that early SP symptoms are an important risk factor for increased odds of subsequent alcohol use. The present findings highlight that elevated SP symptoms place adolescents at risk for early alcohol use. Early interventions targeting SP symptoms may be crucial for the prevention of problematic alcohol use in early to mid-adolescence. Implications for prevention and treatment approaches are discussed.

  5. Social conversational skills development in early implanted children.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Murri, Alessandra; Fabrizi, Enrico; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; Cuda, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Social conversational skills are a salient aspect of early pragmatic development in young children. These skills include two different abilities, assertiveness and responsiveness. This study investigated the development of these abilities in early implanted children and their relationships with lexical development and some language-sensitive variables. Prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Participants included 28 children with congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. The mean age at device activation was 13.3 months (standard deviation [SD] ±4.2). The Social-Conversational Skills Rating Scale was used to evaluate assertiveness and responsiveness. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences form) was used to analyze the lexical development. The device experience was 12 months for each child, and the mean age at testing was 25.9 months (SD ±4.6). Assertiveness and responsiveness scores were within the normal range of normal-hearing age-matched peers. Age at cochlear implant activation exerted a significant impact, with the highest scores associated to the youngest patients. The residual correlations between assertiveness and responsiveness with the lexical development were positive and strongly significant (r = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). Preoperative hearing threshold demonstrated an associated significant coefficient on the assertiveness score. Age at diagnosis and maternal education level were not correlated with the social conversational skills. Early-implanted children developed social conversational skills that are similar to normal-hearing peers matched for age 1 year after device activation. Social conversational skills and lexical development were strongly correlated, but the present study design cannot specify the direction of this relationship. Children with better preoperative residual hearing exhibited better assertive ability. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2098-2105, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological

  6. Social Isolation and Physical Barriers in the Houses of Stroke Survivors in Rural China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifang; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Li, Kun; Gao, Yan

    2016-12-01

    To describe the home barriers and social isolation of stroke survivors in the rural areas of China and to explore which home barriers are associated with social isolation. Cross-sectional survey. Structured interviews and observation in the participants' homes. Community-dwelling stroke survivors in the rural areas of China (N=818). Not applicable. Physical barriers in rural homes were surveyed using a home fall hazards assessment. Social isolation was identified if ≥2 of the following indicators were observed: low frequency of getting out of the home, lacking leisure activities, and living alone in the previous 3 months. The prevalence rates of 18 among 30 home barriers were >20%, and the highest was 93% (lack of handrails in the bathroom). The prevalence of social isolation was 30%. Three home barriers were independently related to social isolation. These were a distant toilet (odds ratio [OR], 2.363; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.527-3.658; P<.001), unsuitable seating (OR, 1.571; 95% CI, 1.026-2.404; P=.038), and inaccessible light switches (OR, 1.572; 95% CI, 1.064-2.324; P=.023). Many barriers exist in the houses of stroke survivors in rural China. Some of them are related to social isolation. Eliminating or decreasing home barriers could be a feasible and effective approach to reducing social isolation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Depression, Social Isolation, and the Lived Experience of Dancing in Disadvantaged Adults.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Graor, Christine Heifner

    2016-02-01

    This qualitative study described the lived experience of dancing as it related to depression and social isolation in 16 disadvantaged adults who completed a 12-week dance intervention. It is the first qualitative study to explore the experience of dance as an adjunct therapy, depression, and social isolation. A descriptive phenomenological framework consisted of two focus groups using semi-structured interviews. A Giorgian approach guided thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (1) dance for myself and health, (2) social acceptance, (3) connection with others: a group, and (4) not wanting to stop: unexpected benefits from dancing. As the participants continued to dance, they developed a sense of belonging and group identity, which may have maintained group involvement and contributed to reducing depression and social isolation. Thus, dancing is a complementary therapy that should be considered when working with adults with depression and social isolation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impaired glucocorticoid-mediated HPA axis negative feedback induced by juvenile social isolation in male rats.

    PubMed

    Boero, Giorgia; Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Biggio, Francesca; Muredda, Laura; Carta, Gianfranca; Banni, Sebastiano; Paci, Elena; Follesa, Paolo; Concas, Alessandra; Porcu, Patrizia; Serra, Mariangela

    2018-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that socially isolated rats at weaning showed a significant decrease in corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, associated with an enhanced response to acute stressful stimuli. Here we shown that social isolation decreased levels of total corticosterone and of its carrier corticosteroid-binding globulin, but did not influence the availability of the free active fraction of corticosterone, both under basal conditions and after acute stress exposure. Under basal conditions, social isolation increased the abundance of glucocorticoid receptors, while it decreased that of mineralocorticoid receptors. After acute stress exposure, socially isolated rats showed long-lasting corticosterone, ACTH and corticotrophin releasing hormone responses. Moreover, while in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of group-housed rats glucocorticoid receptors expression increased with time and reached a peak when corticosterone levels returned to basal values, in socially isolated rats expression of glucocorticoid receptors did not change. Finally, social isolation also affected the hypothalamic endocannabinoid system: compared to group-housed rats, basal levels of anandamide and cannabinoid receptor type 1 were increased, while basal levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol were decreased in socially isolated rats and did not change after acute stress exposure. The present results show that social isolation in male rats alters basal HPA axis activity and impairs glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback after acute stress. Given that social isolation is considered an animal model of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, these data could contribute to better understand the alterations in HPA axis activity observed in these disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of social isolation and re-socialization on cognition and ADAR1 (p110) expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; An, Dong; Xu, Hong; Cheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Shiwei; Yu, Weizhi; Yu, Deqin; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Yiping; Deng, Wuguo; Tang, Yiyuan; Yin, Shengming

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that social isolation stress could be a key factor that leads to cognitive deficit for both humans and rodent models. However, detailed mechanisms are not yet clear. ADAR1 (Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) is an enzyme involved in RNA editing that has a close relation to cognitive function. We have hypothesized that social isolation stress may impact the expression of ADAR1 in the brain of mice with cognitive deficit. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the cognition ability of mice isolated for different durations (2, 4, and 8 weeks) using object recognition and object location tests; we also measured ADAR1 expression in hippocampus and cortex using immunohistochemistry and western blot. Our study showed that social isolation stress induced spatial and non-spatial cognition deficits of the tested mice. In addition, social isolation significantly increased both the immunoreactivity and protein expression of ADAR1 (p110) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Furthermore, re-socialization could not only recover the cognition deficits, but also bring ADAR1 (p110) immunoreactivity of hippocampus and frontal cortex, as well as ADAR1 (p110) protein expression of hippocampus back to the normal level for the isolated mice in adolescence. In conclusion, social isolation stress significantly increases ADAR1 (p110) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of the mice with cognitive deficit. This finding may open a window to better understand the reasons (e.g., epigenetic change) that are responsible for social isolation-induced cognitive deficit and help the development of novel therapies for the resulted diseases.

  10. Effects of Isolate and Social Toys on the Social Interactions of Preschoolers in an Inclusive Head Start Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Shannon Renee; Vail, Cynthia O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of manipulating toy sets on the social verbal interaction that occurs between preschool-age children with disabilities and their typically developing peers. A single-subject alternating-treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of manipulating social toy sets and isolate toy sets on…

  11. Interaction Effect of Social Isolation and High Dose Corticosteroid on Neurogenesis and Emotional Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jackie N-M; Lee, Jada C-D; Lee, Sylvia S P; Hui, Katy K Y; Chan, Alan H L; Fung, Timothy K-H; Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda I; Lau, Benson W-M; Ngai, Shirley P-C

    2017-01-01

    Hypercortisolemia is one of the clinical features found in depressed patients. This clinical feature has been mimicked in animal studies via application of exogenous corticosterone (CORT). Previous studies suggested that CORT can induce behavioral disturbance in anxious-depressive like behavior, which is associated with suppressed neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in adult cognitive and behavioral regulation. Its suppression may thus lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. Similar to the effects of CORT on the animals' depression-like behaviors and neurogenesis, social deprivation has been regarded as one factor that predicts poor prognosis in depression. Furthermore, social isolation is regarded as a stressor to social animals including experimental rodents. Hence, this study aims to examine if social isolation would induce further emotional or anxiety-like behavior disturbance and suppress neurogenesis in an experimental model that was repeatedly treated with CORT. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to determine the effects of different housing conditions, either social isolated or group housing, in vehicle-treated control and CORT-treated animals. Forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT) and social interaction test (SIT) were used to assess depression-like, anxiety-like and social behaviors respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to quantify the number of proliferative cells and immature neurons in the hippocampus, while dendritic maturation of immature neurons was analyzed by Sholl analysis. Social isolation reduced latency to immobility in FST. Furthermore, social isolation could significantly reduce the ratio of doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cells of the neurogenesis assay under CORT-treated condition. The current findings suggested that the behavioral and neurological effect of social isolation is dependent on the condition of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, social isolation may

  12. Progesterone pretreatment increases the stress response to social isolation in ewes.

    PubMed

    Freitas-de-Melo, Aline; Damián, Juan Pablo; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, progesterone (P4) pretreatment increases anxiety and response to stressors. Social isolation is a stressor that generates physiological and behavioural stress responses in sheep. The aim of the study was to compare the stress response of anoestrous ewes previously treated or not with P4 to the social isolation test. Ten ewes received P4 treatment during 13 d (group P4-W) and another 10 remained untreated as controls (group Con). The ewes were individually isolated in a novel place during 10 min, 24 h after the end of P4 pretreatment and their behaviours were recorded. Cortisol and P4 concentrations as well as body surface temperature were recorded before and after the test. Ewes of the P4-W group presented higher cortisol levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after the social isolation and had greater area under the curve of cortisol compared to Con ewes (41,785%±4,156% vs. 25,682%±4,565% during 75 min). Progesterone and body surface temperature increased after social isolation, with no differences between P4-W and Con ewes. There were no differences in behavioural responses to social isolation. P4 pretreatment appears to augment the stress response to social isolation in anoestrous ewes.

  13. Social Isolation in Chinese Older Adults: Scoping Review for Age-Friendly Community Planning.

    PubMed

    Syed, M Anum; McDonald, Lynn; Smirle, Corinne; Lau, Karen; Mirza, Raza M; Hitzig, Sander L

    2017-06-01

    Chinese older adults may be at increased risk of social isolation and loneliness, and a fragmented understanding exists about the challenges they face for social participation in their neighbourhoods and communities. A scoping review was undertaken to describe the current knowledge on social isolation and loneliness in urban-dwelling Chinese older adults living in Western societies to inform future research, practice, and policy in Canada. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The World Health Organization's age-friendly community framework contextualized the study findings. Studies identified issues related to (1) social participation; (2) community support and health services; (3) housing; (4) community and information; (5) respect and social inclusion; (6) outdoor spaces and public buildings; (7) civic participation and employment; and (8) transportation. Social isolation and loneliness is a growing concern in this population in Canada, and additional research is needed to identify its scope and effective interventions.

  14. Social Isolation and Adult Mortality: The Role of Chronic Inflammation and Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang Claire; McClintock, Martha K.; Kozloski, Michael; Li, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The health and survival benefits of social embeddedness have been widely documented across social species, but the underlying biophysiological mechanisms have not been elucidated in the general population. We assessed the process by which social isolation increases the risk for all-cause and chronic disease mortality through proinflammatory mechanisms. Using the 18-year mortality follow-up data (n = 6,729) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–2006) on Social Network Index and multiple markers of chronic inflammation, we conducted survival analyses and found evidence that supports the mediation role of chronic inflammation in the link between social isolation and mortality. A high-risk fibrinogen level and cumulative inflammation burden may be particularly important in this link. There are notable sex differences in the mortality effects of social isolation in that they are greater for men and can be attributed in part to their heightened inflammatory responses. PMID:23653312

  15. Brief Social Isolation in the Adolescent Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model of Endogenous Depression Alters Corticosterone and Regional Monoamine Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Reshma A; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-05-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) model has been suggested as a model of adult and adolescent depression though face, predictive and construct validities of the model to depression remain equivocal. The suitability of the WKY as a diathesis model that tests the double-hit hypothesis, particularly during critical periods of brain and behavioural development remains to be established. Here, effects of post-weaning social isolation were assessed during early adolescence (~30pnd) on behavioural despair and learned helplessness in the forced swim test (FST), plasma corticosterone levels and tissue monoamine concentrations in brain areas critically involved in depression, such as prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus. Significantly increased immobility in the FST was observed in socially-isolated, adolescent WKY with a concomitant increase in corticosterone levels over and above the FST-induced stress. WKY also demonstrated a significantly increased release and utilization of dopamine, as manifested by levels of metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in nucleus accumbens, indicating that the large dopamine storage pool evident during adolescence induces greater dopamine release when stimulated. The serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid was also significantly increased in nucleus accumbens, indicating increased utilization of serotonin, along with norepinephrine levels which were also signficantly elevated in socially-isolated adolescent WKY. Differences in neurochemistry suggest that social or environmental stimuli during critical periods of brain and behavioural development can determine the developmental trajectories of implicated pathways.

  16. Early olfactory environment influences social behaviour in adult Octodon degus.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5-7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus.

  17. 'No man is an island'. Testing the specific role of social isolation in formal thought disorder.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Paulo; Spray, Amy; Sellwood, William; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-12-15

    Recent work has focused on the role of the environment in psychosis with emerging evidence that specific psychotic experiences are associated with specific types of adversity. One risk factor that has been often associated with psychosis is social isolation, with studies identifying isolation as an important feature of prodromal psychosis and others reporting that social networks of psychotic patients are smaller and less dense than those of healthy individuals. In the present study, we tested a prediction that social isolation would be specifically associated with formal thought disorder. 80 patients diagnosed with psychosis-spectrum disorder and 30 healthy participants were assessed for formal thought disorder with speech samples acquired during an interview that promoted personal disclosure and an interview targeting everyday topics. Social isolation was significantly associated with formal thought disorder in the neutral interview and in the salient interview, even when controlling for comorbid hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness. Hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness were not associated with social isolation when formal thought disorder was controlled for. Formal thought disorder is robustly and specifically associated with social isolation. Social cognitive mechanisms and processes are discussed which may explain this relationship as well as implications for clinical practice and future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Costs of Poverty; Leisure Time Socializing and the Subjective Experience of Social Isolation among 13-16-Year-Old Norwegians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sletten, Mira Aaboen

    2010-01-01

    The article examines leisure time socializing and the subjective experience of social isolation among Norwegian 13-16-year-olds in poor families. The empirical analyses use data from a representative survey in Norway in 2002 and show the likelihood of participation in leisure time socializing with peers to be lower among 13-16-year-olds in poor…

  19. Interventions to reduce social isolation and loneliness among older people: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Clare; Geldenhuys, Gideon; Gott, Merryn

    2018-03-01

    Loneliness and social isolation are major problems for older adults. Interventions and activities aimed at reducing social isolation and loneliness are widely advocated as a solution to this growing problem. The aim of this study was to conduct an integrative review to identify the range and scope of interventions that target social isolation and loneliness among older people, to gain insight into why interventions are successful and to determine the effectiveness of those interventions. Six electronic databases were searched from 2003 until January 2016 for literature relating to interventions with a primary or secondary outcome of reducing or preventing social isolation and/or loneliness among older people. Data evaluation followed Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre guidelines and data analysis was conducted using a descriptive thematic method for synthesising data. The review identified 38 studies. A range of interventions were described which relied on differing mechanisms for reducing social isolation and loneliness. The majority of interventions reported some success in reducing social isolation and loneliness, but the quality of evidence was generally weak. Factors which were associated with the most effective interventions included adaptability, a community development approach, and productive engagement. A wide range of interventions have been developed to tackle social isolation and loneliness among older people. However, the quality of the evidence base is weak and further research is required to provide more robust data on the effectiveness of interventions. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to further develop theoretical understandings of how successful interventions mediate social isolation and loneliness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Social Isolation among Caregivers of Court-Involved Youths: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsbrey, April D.; Frabutt, James M.; Smith, Heather L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methodology to examine the lives of caregivers of court-involved youths. Caregiver social isolation, including overall lack of support, lack of school support, and isolation from self, emerged as a salient theme across 7 domains. Implications for counselors are discussed, and brief descriptions of several…

  1. Action Learning Sets and Social Capital: Ameliorating the Burden of Clergy Isolation in One Rural Diocese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskett, Judith A.; Village, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rural clergy often lack colleagues and may struggle with isolation, especially if over-extended in multi-parish benefices. Theory suggests that this sense of isolation could be addressed by launching clergy action learning sets, which have the potential to establish a peer support network through the formation of social capital as a by-product of…

  2. Social isolation, vital exhaustion, and incident heart failure: findings from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Cené, Crystal W; Loehr, Laura; Lin, Feng-Chang; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Foraker, Randi E; Rose, Kathryn; Mosley, Thomas; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2012-07-01

    Prospective studies have shown that social isolation (i.e. lack of social contacts) predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD), but it is unclear whether it predicts incident heart failure (HF) and what factors might mediate this association. HF patients may be more susceptible to social isolation as they tend to be older and may have disrupted social relationships due to life course factors (e.g. retirement or bereavement). We prospectively examined whether individuals with higher vs. low social isolation have a higher incidence of HF and determined whether this association is mediated by vital exhaustion. We estimated incident HF hospitalization or death among 14 348 participants from Visit 2 (1990-1992) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study using Cox proportional hazard models which were sequentially adjusted for age, race/study community, gender, current smoking, alcohol use, and co-morbidities. We conducted mediation analyses according to the Baron and Kenny method. After a median follow-up of 16.9 person-years, 1727 (13.0%) incident HF events occurred. The adjusted hazard of incident HF was greater for those in the higher vs. low social isolation risk group (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.35). Our data suggest that vital exhaustion strongly mediates the association between higher social isolation and incident HF (the percentage change in beta coefficient for higher vs. low social isolation groups after adjusting for vital exhaustion was 36%). These data suggest that greater social isolation is an independent risk factor for incident HF, and this association appears to be strongly mediated by vital exhaustion.

  3. Hyperphagia and depression-like behavior by adolescence social isolation in female rats.

    PubMed

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Yoo, Sang Bae; Ryu, Vitaly; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of adolescence social isolation on food intake and psycho-emotional behaviors of female rats. Female littermates were either single-caged (social isolation) or group-caged (control) from postnatal day 28, and then subjected to behavioral sessions during postnatal day 50-53. Body weight gain of the isolates was accelerated during the experimental period and food intake was persistently greater than group-caged controls from postnatal day 35. Isolated females showed a selective increase in cookie intake when they had additional cookie access to standard chow. The isolates exhibited hyperactivity with increased ambulatory counts and rearings during the activity test as compared with group-caged controls. Behavioral scores of the elevated plus maze test did not differ between the isolates and group-caged controls; however, immobility time during the forced swim test was significantly increased in the isolates. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone were elevated, but the corticosterone increase responding to an acute stress was blunted, in the isolates compared with group-caged ones. Results suggest that adolescence social isolation induces hyperphagia and depression-like behaviors in female rats and a tonic increase of plasma corticosterone may be implicated in its underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alone on the Inside: The Impact of Social Isolation and Helping Others on AOD Use and Criminal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Byron R.; Pagano, Maria E.; Lee, Matthew T.; Post, Stephen G.

    2018-01-01

    Because addiction is a socially isolating disease, social support for recovery is an important element of treatment planning. This study examines the relationship between social isolation, giving and receiving social support in Alcoholics Anonymous during treatment, and post-treatment outcomes among juvenile offenders court-referred to addiction…

  5. The Effects of Geographic Isolation and Social Support on the Health of Wisconsin Women.

    PubMed

    Tittman, Sarah M; Harteau, Christy; Beyer, Kirsten M M

    2016-04-01

    Rural residents are less likely to receive preventive health screening, more likely to be uninsured, and more likely to report fair to poor health than urban residents. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are known to be negative predictors of self-rated physical health; however, the direct effects of geographic isolation and social support on overall health have not been well elucidated. A cross-sectional survey of women (n = 113) participating in Wisconsin Rural Women's initiative programming was conducted, which included measures of geographic isolation, an assessment of overall health, and social support using the validated Interpersonal Support Evaluation List with 3 subscales, including belonging support, tangible support, and appraisal support. Geographic isolation was shown to be a negative predictor of belonging support (P = .0064) and tangible support (P = .0349); however, geographic isolation was not a statistically significant predictor of appraisal support. A strong and direct relationship was observed between social support and self-perceived health status among this population of Wisconsin women, and hospital access based on geographic proximity was positively correlated (P = .028) with overall health status. The direct relationship between social support and overall health demonstrated here stresses the importance of developing and maintaining strong social support networks, which can be improved through rural support groups that have the unique ability to assist rural residents in fostering social support systems, advocating stress management techniques, and achieving a greater sense of well-being.

  6. Prospective associations of social isolation and loneliness with poor sleep quality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Steptoe, Andrew; Niu, Kaijun; Ku, Po-Wen; Chen, Li-Jung

    2018-03-01

    There is evidence for negative associations between social isolation and loneliness and sleep quality in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent these two factors independently affect sleep quality. This study examined the simultaneous associations of social isolation and loneliness with sleep quality in a longitudinal study of older adults. Data were analyzed from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study in Taiwan collected in 2000 and 2006, involving a cohort of 639 participants (mean age = 66.14, SD 7.26). Poisson regression models were conducted to examine the association of social isolation and/or loneliness with sleep quality at follow-up after adjusting for multiple confounding variables. Univariate analysis showed that sleep quality was inversely associated with both social isolation and loneliness. After demographic, health, cognitive factors, and depressive symptoms were controlled in multivariable analysis, social isolation at the baseline still predicted poor sleep quality 6 years later (incident rate ratio, IRR 1.14; 95% CI 1.04-1.24; p < 0.01), while the association between loneliness and sleep quality was no longer significant (IRR 1.08; 95% CI 0.94-1.23; p = 0.27). The results were unchanged when participants who had poor sleep quality at the baseline were excluded from the analysis. These findings confirm an adverse effect of social isolation on the sleep quality of older adults, but indicate that this effect is independent of loneliness. Social isolation and loneliness seem to have distinct pathways in affecting the sleep quality of older adults.

  7. Hearing difficulties and feelings of social isolation among Canadians aged 45 or older.

    PubMed

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L

    2016-11-16

    Social isolation is associated with reduced health-related quality of life, increased morbidity, and mortality. Social isolation can be a concern for older Canadians, especially those with conditions that interfere with making and maintaining social connections. The 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA) collected data from a population-based sample of Canadians aged 45 or older living in private households. Frequencies, cross-tabulations and logistic regression were used to examine the prevalence of hearing difficulties and social isolation, and associations between them when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, other functional limitations (for example, vision, mobility, and cognition), incontinence, and fear of falling. Social isolation was more common among 45- to 59-year-olds than among people aged 60 or older. Women were more likely than men to be socially isolated (16% versus 12%), but they were less likely to report hearing difficulties (5% versus 7%). Hearing difficulties were more prevalent at older ages: 25% of men and 18% of women at age 75 or older. When sociodemographic factors (age, education, living arrangements, regular driver, workforce participation), incontinence, fear of falling, and functional limitations were taken into account, the odds of being socially isolated increased with the severity of the hearing impairment among women but not among men (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.09). Hearing difficulties are associated with age, and therefore, a growing public health concern as Canada's population ages. For women, hearing difficulties were found to be associated with social isolation.

  8. Fostering a Social Child with Autism: A Moment-by-Moment Sequential Analysis of an Early Social Engagement Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ty W.

    2014-01-01

    Young children with autism often experience limited social motivation and responsiveness that restricts establishment of crucial social momentum. These characteristics can lead to decreased opportunities for parental engagement and the social learning associated with these moments. Early social interventions that capitalize on pre-existing…

  9. Socially Isolated Mice Exhibit a Blunted Homeostatic Sleep Response to Acute Sleep Deprivation Compared to Socially Paired Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Navita; Nair, Deepti; Gozal, David; Ramesh, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is an important physiological process underlying maintenance of physical, mental and emotional health. Consequently, sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with adverse consequences and increases the risk for anxiety, immune, and cognitive disorders. SD is characterized by increased energy expenditure responses and sleep rebound upon recovery that are regulated by homeostatic processes, which in turn are influenced by stress. Since all previous studies on SD were conducted in a setting of social isolation, the impact of the social contextual setting is unknown. Therefore, we used a relatively stress-free SD paradigm in mice to assess the impact of social isolation on sleep, wakefulness and delta electroencephalogram (EEG) power during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Paired or isolated C57BL/6J adult chronically-implanted male mice were exposed to SD for 6 hours and telemetric polygraphic recordings were conducted, including 18 hours recovery. Recovery from SD in the paired group showed a significant decrease in wake and significant increase in NREM sleep and rapid eye movement (REM), and a similar, albeit less robust response occurred in the isolated mice. Delta power during NREM sleep was increased in both groups immediately following SD, but paired mice exhibited significantly higher delta power throughout the dark period. The increase in body temperature and gross motor activity observed during the SD procedure was decreased during the dark period. In both open field and elevated plus maze tests, socially isolated mice showed significantly higher anxiety than paired mice. The homeostatic processes altered by SD are differentially affected in paired and isolated mice, suggesting that the social context of isolation stress may adversely affect the quantity and quality of sleep in mice. PMID:22498175

  10. Social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in an older sample: ethnic and gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; Baker, Patricia Sawyer; Bodner, Eric V.; Allman, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships that exist between social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in older black and white women and men. The paper reports on 1000 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging, a longitudinal observational study of mobility among older black and white participants in the USA. Black women were at greatest nutritional risk; and black women and men were the groups most likely to be socially isolated and to possess the least amounts of social support and social capital. For all ethnic–gender groups, greater restriction in independent life–space (an indicator of social isolation) was associated with increased nutritional risk. For black women and white men, not having adequate transportation (also an indicator of social isolation) was associated with increased nutritional risk. Additionally, for black and white women and white men, lower income was associated with increased nutritional risk. For white women only, the perception of a low level of social support was associated with increased nutritional risk. For black men, not being married (an indicator of social support) and not attending religious services regularly, restricting activities for fear of being attacked, and perceived discrimination (indicators of social capital) were associated with increased nutritional risk. Black females had the greatest risk of poor nutritional health, however more indicators of social isolation, support, and capital were associated with nutritional risk for black men. Additionally, the indicators of social support and capital adversely affecting nutritional risk for black men differed from those associated with nutritional risk in other ethnic–gender groups. This research has implications for nutritional policies directed towards older adults. PMID:15571893

  11. Adolescent social isolation affects schizophrenia-like behavior and astrocyte biomarkers in the PFC of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lan; Min, Li; Zhou, Hao; Li, Man; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2017-08-30

    Social isolation is regarded as a cause of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Animal models of schizophrenia are constructed by repeated early environment deprivation as an important paradigm to reveal its pathological mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to either social-rearing (SR) or isolated-rearing (IR) groups during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. On PND 56, all rats underwent behavioral testing including locomotor activity, anxiety-related behaviors in an open field and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Then, the rats were sacrificed and prefrontal cortex (PFC) tissues were separated for high-throughput proteomics analysis and Western blot validation. Rats of the IR group showed increased spontaneous locomotion, increased anxiety-like behavior and disrupted PPI compared with rats of the SR group. Based on proteomics analysis, a total of 124 PFC proteins were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the SR group and the IR group, the most remarkable of which were glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Annexin A2 (ANXA2) and vimentin (VIM), three astrocyte biomarkers. Further Western blot measurement confirmed that the levels of GFAP, ANXA2 and VIM were increased significantly in IR rats. Adolescent social isolation induced schizophrenia-like behaviors and significantly different expression of 124 PFC proteins in adult rats, especially GFAP, ANXA2 and VIM, which suggests that astrocyte development might be involved in the neural mechanism of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    PubMed

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  13. Course of Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder From Early Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guyon-Harris, Katherine L; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2018-05-01

    Disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) is poorly understood beyond early childhood. The course of DSED signs in a sample of children who experienced severe, early deprivation from early childhood to early adolescence was examined using variable-centered (linear mixed modeling) and person-centered (growth mixture modeling) approaches. The study included 124 children with a history of institutional care from a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care and 69 community comparison children matched by age and sex. DSED signs were assessed at baseline (mean age 22 months), 30, 42, and 54 months of age, and 8 and 12 years of age using a validated caregiver report of disturbed attachment behavior. Variable-centered analyses based on intent-to-treat groups indicated that signs of DSED decreased sharply for children randomized to foster care and decreased slightly but remained high for children randomized to care as usual. Person-centered analyses showed 4 profiles (i.e., elevated, persistent modest, early decreasing, and minimal). Elevated and persistent modest courses were associated with greater placement disruptions (F 3,99  = 4.29, p = .007, partial eta-squared [η 2 ] = 0.12), older age at placement into foster care (F 3,56  = 3.41, p < .05, partial η 2  = 0.16), and more time in institutional care (F 3,115  = 11.91, p < .001, partial η 2  = 0.24) compared with decreasing and minimal courses. Early and sustained placement into families after deprivation is associated with minimal or decreasing signs of DSED across development. Shortening the amount of time children spend in institutions and preserving placements could help decrease signs of DSED into early adolescence in previously institutionalized children. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Friendship Moderates Prospective Associations between Social Isolation and Adjustment Problems in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…

  15. Social Recovery of Monkeys Isolated for the First Year of Life: 1. Rehabilitation and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, M. A.; Harlow, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    This experiment demonstrated that 12-month-old monkeys reared in social isolation developed appropriate species-typical behavior through the use of adaptation, self pacing of visual input and exposure to younger "therapist" monkeys. A critical period of socialization is not indicated in the rhesus monkey. (GO)

  16. Non-Aggressive Isolated and Rejected Students: School Social Work Interventions to Help Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    Approximately half of children and adolescents who are socially unpopular are not aggressive. Some voluntarily isolate themselves from the peer group, whereas others are intentionally excluded and often victimized. Although school social workers regularly provide services to this population, there is little reported research on effective…

  17. Music Therapy in the Treatment of Social Isolation in Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourgey, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the use of music therapy with visually impaired and socially isolated children. Describes ways that music therapy can help the child explore his environment, modify blindisms (stereotypic, autistic-like behaviors), and encourage social awareness and interaction with other children. (DB)

  18. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  19. Social isolation after stroke leads to depressive-like behavior and decreased BDNF levels in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Lena M; Doran, Sarah J; Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Laetitia; Conti, Lisa H; Venna, Venugopal R; McCullough, Louise D

    2014-03-01

    Social isolation prior to stroke leads to poorer outcomes after an ischemic injury in both animal and human studies. However, the impact of social isolation following stroke, which may be more clinically relevant as a target for therapeutic intervention, has yet to be examined. In this study, we investigated both the sub-acute (2 weeks) and chronic (7 weeks) effects of social isolation on post-stroke functional and histological outcome. Worsened histological damage from ischemic injury and an increase in depressive-like behavior was observed in isolated mice as compared to pair-housed mice. Mice isolated immediately after stroke showed a decrease in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These changes, both histological and behavioral, suggest an overall negative effect of social isolation on stroke outcome, potentially contributing to post-stroke depression and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who have perceived isolation post-stroke to hopefully prevent this exacerbation of histological damage and subsequent depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social isolation, loneliness and health in old age: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Courtin, Emilie; Knapp, Martin

    2017-05-01

    The health and well-being consequences of social isolation and loneliness in old age are increasingly being recognised. The purpose of this scoping review was to take stock of the available evidence and to highlight gaps and areas for future research. We searched nine databases for empirical papers investigating the impact of social isolation and/or loneliness on a range of health outcomes in old age. Our search, conducted between July and September 2013 yielded 11,736 articles, of which 128 items from 15 countries were included in the scoping review. Papers were reviewed, with a focus on the definitions and measurements of the two concepts, associations and causal mechanisms, differences across population groups and interventions. The evidence is largely US-focused, and loneliness is more researched than social isolation. A recent trend is the investigation of the comparative effects of social isolation and loneliness. Depression and cardiovascular health are the most often researched outcomes, followed by well-being. Almost all (but two) studies found a detrimental effect of isolation or loneliness on health. However, causal links and mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate, and further investigation is warranted. We found a paucity of research focusing on at-risk sub-groups and in the area of interventions. Future research should aim to better link the evidence on the risk factors for loneliness and social isolation and the evidence on their impact on health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. In vivo neurometabolic profiling to characterize the effects of social isolation and ketamine-induced NMDA antagonism: a rodent study at 7.0 T.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Antonio; Shah, Khalid; Schubert, Mirjam I; Porkess, Veronica; Fone, Kevin C F; Auer, Dorothee P

    2014-05-01

    Continued efforts are undertaken to develop animal models of schizophrenia with translational value in the quest for much needed novel drugs. Existing models mimic specific neurobiological aspects of schizophrenia, but not its full complexity. Here, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to assess the metabolic profile in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of two established models, rearing in social isolation and acute N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonism and their combination. Rats reared in social isolation or group housed underwent (1)H-MRS at baseline and dynamically after ketamine challenge (25mg/kg, intraperitoneal) under isoflurane anesthesia. A 7 T animal scanner was used to perform spectra acquisition from the anterior cingulate/medial PFC. LCModel was used for metabolite quantification and effects of rearing and ketamine injection were analyzed. Social isolation did not lead to significant differences in the metabolic profile of the PFC at baseline. Ketamine induced a significant increase in glutamine in both groups with significance specifically reached by the group-housed animals alone. Only rats reared in social isolation showed a significant 11% γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) decrease. This study provides preliminary evidence that social interactions in early life predict the glutamatergic and GABAergic response to acute NMDA-R blockade. The similarity between the prefrontal GABA reduction in patients with schizophrenia and in rats reared as social isolates after challenge with ketamine suggests good potential translational value of this combined animal model for drug development.

  2. In Vivo Neurometabolic Profiling to Characterize the Effects of Social Isolation and Ketamine-Induced NMDA Antagonism: A Rodent Study at 7.0 T

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Continued efforts are undertaken to develop animal models of schizophrenia with translational value in the quest for much needed novel drugs. Existing models mimic specific neurobiological aspects of schizophrenia, but not its full complexity. Here, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to assess the metabolic profile in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of two established models, rearing in social isolation and acute N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonism and their combination. Rats reared in social isolation or group housed underwent ​1H-MRS at baseline and dynamically after ketamine challenge (25mg/kg, intraperitoneal) under isoflurane anesthe sia. A 7 T animal scanner was used to perform spectra acquisition from the anterior cingulate/medial PFC. LCModel was used for metabolite quantification and effects of rearing and ketamine injection were analyzed. Social isolation did not lead to significant differences in the metabolic profile of the PFC at baseline. Ketamine induced a significant increase in glutamine in both groups with significance specifically reached by the group-housed animals alone. Only rats reared in social isolation showed a significant 11% γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) decrease. This study provides preliminary evidence that social interactions in early life predict the glutamatergic and GABAergic response to acute NMDA-R blockade. The similarity between the prefrontal GABA reduction in patients with schizophrenia and in rats reared as social isolates after challenge with ketamine suggests good potential translational value of this combined animal model for drug development. PMID:23671195

  3. The effects of social isolation on steroid hormone levels are modulated by previous social status and context in a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Galhardo, L; Oliveira, R F

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major stressor which impacts the physiology, behaviour and health of individuals in gregarious species. However, depending on conditional and contextual factors, such as social status and group composition, social isolation may be perceived differently by different individuals or even by the same individuals at different times. Here we tested the effects of social status (territorial vs. non-territorial) and previous group composition (i.e. type of social group: mixed sex group with two territorial males, TT vs. mixed sex group with one territorial and one non-territorial male, TnT) on the hormonal response (androgens and cortisol) to social isolation in a cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The different steroid hormones measured responded differentially to social isolation, and their response was modulated by social factors. Social isolation elicited a decrease of 11-keto formation only in territorial males, whereas non-territorial males present a non-significant trend for increasing KT levels. Testosterone did not respond to social isolation. Cortisol only increased in isolated individuals from TnT groups irrespective of social status (i.e. both in territorials and non-territorials). These results suggest that it is the perception of social isolation and not the objective structure of the situation that triggers the hormonal response to isolation. © 2013.

  4. "You get old. You get invisible": Social isolation and the challenge of communicating with aging women.

    PubMed

    Walkner, Tammy J; Weare, Andrea M; Tully, Melissa

    2017-04-04

    Social isolation is a problem facing many older women. Isolation can contribute to poor health as adults age without social support. Increased and tailored communication offers service organizations more opportunities to provide social support to these adults. This research examines perceptions of aging to explore communication behaviors, barriers, and opportunities for improved communication and service provision for aging women. Using data from focus groups and interviews, this study finds that participants from community organizations rely on word of mouth and traditional media to communicate with their aging constituents, despite opportunities to use digital communication and to develop communication plans for this population.

  5. Immediate and delayed anxiety- and depression-like profiles in the adolescent Wistar-Kyoto rat model of endogenous depression following postweaning social isolation.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Reshma A; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand links that exist between inherited risk or predisposition, brain and behavioural development, endocrine regulation and social/environmental stimuli, animal models are crucial. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been shown to have validity as a model of adult and adolescent depression. While sex- and age-specific differences in some of the face, predictive and construct validities of the model such as depression-like behaviours have been established, anhedonia and anxiety using other induced anxiety paradigms such as elevated plus maze remain equivocal. First, post-weaning social isolation effects on inherent and induced anxiety behaviours were tested during two critical time periods, early- and mid-adolescence. Isolation induced immediate effects on novel environment-induced hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours. Adolescent WKYs demonstrated reduced 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations suggesting agoraphobia-like behaviours. Second, isolated rats, despite being subsequently social-/group-housed demonstrated longer lasting effects on social interaction measures and anhedonia. This establishes that the depression-like profile observed during early- and mid-adolescence persists into late adolescence and early adulthood in WKY. Further, that interventions at a later stage during adolescence may not be able to reverse early adolescent effects in the context of pre-disposition, thus highlighting the irreversibility of being double-hit during critical time periods of brain and behavioural development and maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Connecting Socially Isolated Older Rural Adults with Older Volunteers through Expressive Arts.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation.

  7. Ethics in Evaluating a Sociotechnical Intervention With Socially Isolated Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Waycott, Jenny; Morgans, Amee; Pedell, Sonja; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Vetere, Frank; Kulik, Lars; Davis, Hilary

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider how ethical principles can inform the effective design and implementation of technology-based interventions that aim to promote the well-being of socially isolated older adults. We evaluated a new iPad application with small groups of older adults. In this article, we reflect on the ethical issues encountered at each stage of the research process. Drawing on the ethical principles of beneficence, research merit and integrity, justice, and respect, we identify key issues to consider in the future design and implementation of social isolation interventions that use new technologies. Key issues include (a) providing sufficient support to facilitate ongoing social interactions, (b) managing older adults' expectations, (c) providing encouragement without coercion, and (d) responding to individual needs. We conclude that it is important to report on ethical challenges incurred when evaluating social isolation interventions to inform future research in this important area. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Social Isolation Shortens Telomeres in African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus)

    PubMed Central

    Aydinonat, Denise; Penn, Dustin J.; Smith, Steve; Moodley, Yoshan; Hoelzl, Franz; Knauer, Felix; Schwarzenberger, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres, the caps of eukaryotic chromosomes, control chromosome stability and cellular senescence, but aging and exposure to chronic stress are suspected to cause attrition of telomere length. We investigated the effect of social isolation on telomere length in the highly social and intelligent African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Our study population consisted of single-housed (n = 26) and pair-housed (n = 19) captive individuals between 0.75 to 45 years of age. Relative telomere length of erythrocyte DNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. We found that telomere length declined with age (p<0.001), and socially isolated parrots had significantly shorter telomeres compared to pair-housed birds (p<0.001) – even among birds of similar ages. Our findings provide the first evidence that social isolation affects telomere length, which supports the hypothesis that telomeres provide a biomarker indicating exposure to chronic stress. PMID:24705445

  9. The Effects of Early Socialization Experiences on Content Mastery and Outcomes: A Mediational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Howard J.; Fan, Jinyan; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This field study examined how early socialization experiences affect new employee mastery of socialization content and socialization outcomes. New employees reported the realism of their preentry knowledge and the helpfulness of socialization agents. A follow-up survey assessed mastery of socialization content along with role clarity, job…

  10. Do You "Want" to Play? Distinguishing between Conflicted Shyness and Social Disinterest in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Prakash, Kavita; O'Neil, Kim; Armer, Mandana

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to distinguish two types of social withdrawal in early childhood: (a) one based on social fear and anxiety despite a desire to interact socially (conflicted shyness) and (b) one based on the lack of a strong motivation to engage in social interaction (social disinterest). Two samples of preschoolers (n = 119 and n = 127) 3-5…

  11. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals

  12. Older people's perceived causes of and strategies for dealing with social isolation.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Donovan, Robert; Boldy, Duncan; Newton, Robert

    2014-09-01

    To explicate lay theories relating to social isolation and to identify instances of positive deviance to inform future efforts to encourage older people to participate in protective behaviors. Twelve focus groups and 20 individual interviews were conducted with Australians aged 40 years and older. Data were collected in metropolitan and regional areas. The age threshold was based on the need to generate formative research to inform interventions to encourage people to engage in preventive behaviors prior to reaching older age when they become more susceptible to social isolation. Two primary lay theories were identified in the data. These are related to the recognized importance of social connection and the belief that forming new social connections becomes more difficult with age due to a range of individual and external factors. Examples of positive deviance that were identified included viewing overcoming social isolation as an incremental process, being prepared to be the instigator of social interaction, and adopting an external focus. The findings suggest that the provision of a broad range of group activities may need to be combined with a focused approach to targeting and approaching those most at risk to reduce the burden of social isolation at a population level.

  13. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Skelly, M. J.; Chappell, A. E.; Carter, E.; Weiner, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress. PMID:26044636

  15. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  16. Let's Go Toy Shopping! Exploring Early Anticipatory Socialization for Careers and Gender Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Bodie, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Gender Communication, Communication and Careers, Organizational Communication. Objectives: At the end of the activity, students will be able: to identify and analyze the socialization of gender expectations, to recognize and describe how early this type of socialization can occur, to critique the early socialization of gendered career…

  17. Study of Different Social Rewards Used in Down's Syndrome Children's Early Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the results obtained with two types of social rewards used in early stimulation of Down's syndrome children. In the study we focus on the efficiency of the employment of the social rewards or reinforcements used in the early stimulation, bearing in mind that the children with Down's syndrome possess a social development…

  18. Social isolation, loneliness and depression in young adulthood: a behavioural genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Odgers, Candice L; Ambler, Antony; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the association between social isolation and loneliness, how they relate to depression, and whether these associations are explained by genetic influences. We used data from the age-18 wave of the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 1116 same-sex twin pairs born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. Participants reported on their levels of social isolation, loneliness and depressive symptoms. We conducted regression analyses to test the differential associations of isolation and loneliness with depression. Using the twin study design, we estimated the proportion of variance in each construct and their covariance that was accounted for by genetic and environmental factors. Social isolation and loneliness were moderately correlated (r = 0.39), reflecting the separateness of these constructs, and both were associated with depression. When entered simultaneously in a regression analysis, loneliness was more robustly associated with depression. We observed similar degrees of genetic influence on social isolation (40 %) and loneliness (38 %), and a smaller genetic influence on depressive symptoms (29 %), with the remaining variance accounted for by the non-shared environment. Genetic correlations of 0.65 between isolation and loneliness and 0.63 between loneliness and depression indicated a strong role of genetic influences in the co-occurrence of these phenotypes. Socially isolated young adults do not necessarily experience loneliness. However, those who are lonely are often depressed, partly because the same genes influence loneliness and depression. Interventions should not only aim at increasing social connections but also focus on subjective feelings of loneliness.

  19. Interventions targeting loneliness and social isolation among the older people: An update systematic review.

    PubMed

    Poscia, Andrea; Stojanovic, Jovana; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Duplaga, Mariusz; Grysztar, Marcin; Moscato, Umberto; Onder, Graziano; Collamati, Agnese; Ricciardi, Walter; Magnavita, Nicola

    2018-02-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize and update the current knowledge on the effectiveness of the existing interventions for alleviating loneliness and social isolation among older persons. A search of PubMed, ISI Web of science, SCOPUS, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases was performed. The terminology combined all possible alternatives of the following keywords: social isolation, loneliness, old people, intervention and effectiveness. Eligible studies were published between January 2011 and February 2016 in English or Italian language and regarded the implementation of loneliness/social isolation interventions among the older generations. Outcome measures in terms of the intervention effects needed to be reported. In total, 15 quantitative and five qualitative studies were ultimately included in this review. Eighteen interventions were reported across the quantitative studies. Six out of 11 group interventions (55%), one out of four mixed interventions (25%) and all three individual interventions reported at least one significant finding related to loneliness or social isolation. Our review suggested that new technologies and community engaged arts might be seen as a promising tool for tackling social isolation and loneliness among the older individuals. Future studies need to work on methodological quality and take into consideration the suggestions of the present literature in order to provide firm evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between physical activity, participation in Physical Education classes, and social isolation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Santos, Simone José dos; Hardman, Carla Menêses; Barros, Simone Storino Honda; Santos da Franca, Carolina; Santos, Carolina da F B F; Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the association between physical activity, participation in Physical Education classes, and indicators of social isolation among adolescents. This was an epidemiological study based on secondary analysis of data from a representative sample of students (14-19 years) from public high schools (n=4,207). Data were collected through the questionnaire Global School-based Student Health Survey. The independent variables were the level of physical activity and enrollment in Physical Education classes, while the dependent variables were two indicators of social isolation (feeling of loneliness and having few friends). Descriptive and inferential procedures were used in the statistical analysis. Most of the adolescents were classified as insufficiently active (65.1%) and reported not attending Physical Education classes (64.9%). Approximately two in each ten participants reported feeling of loneliness (15.8%) and, in addition, about one in each five adolescents reported have only one friend (19.5%). In the bivariate analysis, a significantly lower proportion of individuals reporting social isolation was observed among adolescents who referred higher enrollment in Physical Education classes. After adjustment for confounding variables, binary logistic regression showed that attending Physical Education classes was identified as a protective factor in relation to the indicator of social isolation 'having few friends,' but only for girls. It was concluded that participation in Physical Education classes is associated with reduced social isolation among female adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Food insecurity and mental illness: disproportionate impacts in the context of perceived stress and social isolation.

    PubMed

    Martin, M S; Maddocks, E; Chen, Y; Gilman, S E; Colman, I

    2016-03-01

    Food insecurity is associated with elevated risk of mental illness. This risk may be further compounded by stressful life events and by social isolation. This study investigated whether the risk of mental illness is higher among individuals experiencing food insecurity along with greater stress and social isolation. Cross-sectional self-report survey data from the 2009-10 Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 100,401). We estimated prevalence differences of the risk of self-reported mental illness associated with food insecurity alone and in combination with stressful life events and social isolation. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on a sub-sample who completed a structured diagnostic interview. Overall, the prevalence of mental illness was 18.4% [95% CI 16.7-20.1] higher for women and 13.5% higher [95% CI 11.9, 15.2] for men in severely food insecure households compared to those reporting food security. The increased risk of mental illness associated with food insecurity was more pronounced among females and those reporting higher stress and social isolation. Individuals reporting food insecurity are at increased risk of mental illness. This increased risk is further exacerbated in high stress and socially isolated environments. Policies, clinical and public health interventions must address broader constellations of risks that exist when food insecurity is present. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Loneliness, social isolation and social relationships: what are we measuring? A novel framework for classifying and comparing tools.

    PubMed

    Valtorta, Nicole K; Kanaan, Mona; Gilbody, Simon; Hanratty, Barbara

    2016-04-18

    We present a novel way of classifying and comparing measures of social relationships to help readers interpret the growing literature on loneliness and social isolation and to provide researchers with a starting point to guide their choice of measuring tool. Measures of social relationships used in epidemiological studies were identified from two systematic reviews-one review on the association between social relationships and health and social care service use, and a second review on the association between social relationships and health. Questions from each measure were retrieved and tabulated to derive a classification of social relationship measures. We present a classification of measures according to two dimensions: (1) whether instruments cover structural or functional aspects of social relationships and (2) the degree of subjectivity asked of respondents. We explain how this classification can be used to clarify the remit of the many questionnaires used in the literature and to compare them. Different dimensions of social relationships are likely to have different implications for health. Our classification of social relationship measures transcends disciplinary and conceptual boundaries, allowing researchers to compare tools that developed from different theoretical perspectives. Careful choice of measures is essential to further our understanding of the links between social relationships and health, to identify people in need of help and to design appropriate prevention and intervention strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Loneliness, social isolation and social relationships: what are we measuring? A novel framework for classifying and comparing tools

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Mona; Gilbody, Simon; Hanratty, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We present a novel way of classifying and comparing measures of social relationships to help readers interpret the growing literature on loneliness and social isolation and to provide researchers with a starting point to guide their choice of measuring tool. Methods Measures of social relationships used in epidemiological studies were identified from two systematic reviews—one review on the association between social relationships and health and social care service use, and a second review on the association between social relationships and health. Questions from each measure were retrieved and tabulated to derive a classification of social relationship measures. Results We present a classification of measures according to two dimensions: (1) whether instruments cover structural or functional aspects of social relationships and (2) the degree of subjectivity asked of respondents. We explain how this classification can be used to clarify the remit of the many questionnaires used in the literature and to compare them. Conclusions Different dimensions of social relationships are likely to have different implications for health. Our classification of social relationship measures transcends disciplinary and conceptual boundaries, allowing researchers to compare tools that developed from different theoretical perspectives. Careful choice of measures is essential to further our understanding of the links between social relationships and health, to identify people in need of help and to design appropriate prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:27091822

  4. Anticipatory smiling: Linking early affective communication and social outcome

    PubMed Central

    Parlade, Meaghan Venezia; Messinger, Daniel S.; Delgado, Christine E.F.; Kaiser, Marygrace Yale; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    In anticipatory smiles, infants appear to communicate pre-existing positive affect by smiling at an object and then turning the smile toward an adult. We report two studies in which the precursors, development, and consequences of anticipatory smiling were investigated. Study 1 revealed a positive correlation between infant smiling at 6 months and the level of anticipatory smiling at 8 and 10 months during joint attention episodes, as well as a positive correlation between anticipatory smiling and parent-rated social expressivity scores at 30 months. Study 2 confirmed a developmental increase in the number of infants using anticipatory smiles between 9 and 12 months that had been initially documented in the Study 1 sample [Venezia, M., Messinger, D. S., Thorp, D., & Mundy, P. (2004). The development of anticipatory smiling. Infancy, 6(3), 397–406]. Additionally, anticipatory smiling at 9 months positively predicted parent-rated social competence scores at 30 months. Findings are discussed with regard to the importance of anticipatory smiling in early socioemotional development. PMID:19004500

  5. Early-onset schizophrenia: Symptoms and social class of origin.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Bernard J; Jones, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    The genesis of schizophrenia is multifactorial, including biological and environmental risk factors. We tested for an interactive effect between early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and social class of origins (socioeconomic status (SES)). Data were further analyzed for a possible connection to type of schizophrenic symptoms. Sampling/Methods: Data for the study are taken from the medical records of 642 patients from a large state hospital in the northeastern United States. Clinical assessments were divided into positive and negative symptomatology through application of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Detailed information about age of onset and SES of origin was obtained through Social Service Assessment interviews. We uncovered a significant impact of EOS among the poor that elevates risk for negative symptomatology. Poor SES alone does not increase the likelihood of EOS, but it magnifies the deleterious effect of EOS on negative symptoms. Future research on these variables may inform the relative contribution of each.

  6. An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness.

    PubMed

    Leigh-Hunt, N; Bagguley, D; Bash, K; Turner, V; Turnbull, S; Valtorta, N; Caan, W

    2017-11-01

    Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with ill health and are common in the developed world. A clear understanding of their implications for morbidity and mortality is needed to gauge the extent of the associated public health challenge and the potential benefit of intervention. A systematic review of systematic reviews (systematic overview) was undertaken to determine the wider consequences of social isolation and loneliness, identify any differences between the two, determine differences from findings of non-systematic reviews and to clarify the direction of causality. Eight databases were searched from 1950 to 2016 for English language reviews covering social isolation and loneliness but not solely social support. Suitability for inclusion was determined by two or more reviewers, the methodological quality of included systematic reviews assessed using the a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR) checklist and the quality of evidence within these reviews using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations (GRADE) approach. Non-systematic reviews were sought for a comparison of findings but not included in the primary narrative synthesis. Forty systematic reviews of mainly observational studies were identified, largely from the developed world. Meta-analyses have identified a significant association between social isolation and loneliness with increased all-cause mortality and social isolation with cardiovascular disease. Narrative systematic reviews suggest associations with poorer mental health outcomes, with less strong evidence for behavioural and other physical health outcomes. No reviews were identified for wider socio-economic or developmental outcomes. This systematic overview highlights that there is consistent evidence linking social isolation and loneliness to worse cardiovascular and mental health outcomes. The role of social isolation and loneliness in other conditions and their socio

  7. I get so lonely, baby: The effects of loneliness and social isolation on romantic dependency.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Michelle; Clark, Eddie M

    2017-01-01

    Individuals lacking fulfilling interpersonal interactions may experience feelings of loneliness. Consequently, these individuals may over-rely on their romantic partners to fulfill the need to belong. This study examined the effects of loneliness and social isolation on dependency on a romantic partner in a sample of college students (N = 104). Participants who were in a romantic relationship completed measures of loneliness, social isolation, and romantic dependency near the beginning of the semester (Time 1) and approximately 6 weeks later toward the end of the semester (Time 2). Toward the beginning of the semester, there were no significant predictors of dependency. Toward the end of the semester, individuals who reported higher social isolation reported higher levels of dependency. Time 1 dependency also predicted Time 2 dependency. Future methodological directions and suggestions regarding the examination of perceptions of loneliness and relationship expectations are discussed.

  8. Myeloid differentiation architecture of leukocyte transcriptome dynamics in perceived social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Capitanio, John P.; Chun, Katie; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Cacioppo, John T.

    2015-01-01

    To define the cellular mechanisms of up-regulated inflammatory gene expression and down-regulated antiviral response in people experiencing perceived social isolation (loneliness), we conducted integrative analyses of leukocyte gene regulation in humans and rhesus macaques. Five longitudinal leukocyte transcriptome surveys in 141 older adults showed up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), monocyte population expansion, and up-regulation of the leukocyte conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). Mechanistic analyses in a macaque model of perceived social isolation confirmed CTRA activation and identified selective up-regulation of the CD14++/CD16− classical monocyte transcriptome, functional glucocorticoid desensitization, down-regulation of Type I and II interferons, and impaired response to infection by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). These analyses identify neuroendocrine-related alterations in myeloid cell population dynamics as a key mediator of CTRA transcriptome skewing, which may both propagate perceived social isolation and contribute to its associated health risks. PMID:26598672

  9. Social Engagement and Adaptive Functioning during Early Childhood: Identifying and Distinguishing among Subgroups Differing with Regard to Social Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brian E.; Santos, António J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Shin, Nana; Daniel, João R.; Krzysik, Lisa; Pinto, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that social engagement (SE) with peers is a fundamental aspect of social competence during early childhood. Relations between SE and a set of previously validated social competence indicators, as well as additional variables derived from observation and sociometric interviews were assessed using both…

  10. Reduced Sleep During Social Isolation Leads to Cellular Stress and Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marishka K; Strus, Ewa; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2017-07-01

    Social isolation has a multitude of negative consequences on human health including the ability to endure challenges to the immune system, sleep amount and efficiency, and general morbidity and mortality. These adverse health outcomes are conserved in other social species. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation leads to increased aggression, impaired memory, and reduced amounts of daytime sleep. There is a correlation between molecules affected by social isolation and those implicated in sleep in Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that acute sleep loss in flies and mice induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive signaling pathway. One mechanism indicating UPR upregulation is elevated levels of the endoplasmic reticular chaperone BiP/GRP78. We previously showed that BiP overexpression in Drosophila led to increased sleep rebound. Increased rebound sleep has also been demonstrated in socially isolated (SI) flies. D. melanogaster were used to study the effect of social isolation on cellular stress. SI flies displayed an increase in UPR markers; there were higher BiP levels, increased phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α, and increased splicing of xbp1. These are all indicators of UPR activation. In addition, the effects of isolation on the UPR were reversible; pharmacologically and genetically altering sleep in the flies modulated the UPR. The reduction in sleep observed in SI flies is a cellular stressor that results in UPR induction. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society]. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Social attention: a possible early indicator of efficacy in autism clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For decades, researchers have sought to clarify the nature of the social communication impairments in autism, highlighting impaired or atypical 'social attention' as a key measurable construct that helps to define the core impairment of social communication. In this paper, we provide an overview of research on social attention impairments in autism and their relation to deficiencies in neural circuitry related to social reward. We offer a framework for considering social attention as a potential moderator or mediator of response to early behavioral intervention, and as an early indicator of efficacy of behavioral and/or pharmacological treatments aimed at addressing the social impairments in autism. PMID:22958480

  12. Efficient and Rapid Isolation of Early-stage Embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Raissig, Michael T.; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays. PMID:23770918

  13. Social isolation alters central nervous system monoamine content in prairie voles following acute restraint.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Neal; Anderson, Eden M; Moenk, Deirdre; Trahanas, Diane; Matuszewich, Leslie; Grippo, Angela J

    2018-04-01

    Animal models have shown that social isolation and other forms of social stress lead to depressive- and anxiety-relevant behaviors, as well as neuroendocrine and physiological dysfunction. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prior social isolation on neurotransmitter content following acute restraint in prairie voles. Animals were either paired with a same-sex sibling or isolated for 4 weeks. Plasma adrenal hormones and ex vivo tissue concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites were measured following an acute restraint stressor in all animals. Isolated prairie voles displayed significantly increased circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, as well as elevated serotonin and dopamine levels in the hypothalamus, and potentially decreased levels of serotonin in the frontal cortex. However, no group differences in monoamine levels were observed in the hippocampus or raphe. The results suggest that social stress may bias monoamine neurotransmission and stress hormone function to subsequent acute stressors, such as restraint. These findings improve our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the consequences of social stress.

  14. Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Murray; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shy children display wariness in unfamiliar social situations and often experience feelings of social anxiety. This study explored the potential mediating role of cognitive biases in the link between shyness and social anxiety in early adolescence. In particular, we focused on judgments of the probability and cost of negative social situations…

  15. Social Anxiety and Peer Relations in Early Adolescence: Behavioral and Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with social anxiety during early adolescence using multiple informants, including self and peer perspectives, teacher ratings, and direct observations. Negative social performance expectations, maladaptive coping strategies, and social skill deficits were examined as correlates of social anxiety and…

  16. The relationship between social skills and early resignation in Japanese novice nurses.

    PubMed

    Niitsuma, Mayuko; Katsuki, Takeshi; Sakuma, Yumiko; Sato, Chifumi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between social skills and early resignation in Japanese novice nurses. The early resignation of novice nurses has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the personal sociality of novice nurses and their early resignation. We surveyed 272 nurses with 1-3 years of experience. Instances of early resignation were studied by using a questionnaire, and their social skills were measured using Kikuchi's Scale of Social Skills:18 items (KiSS-18), a tool developed by Kikuchi to estimate sociality. Nurses with low sociality were more likely to resign than those with higher sociality. The lack of advanced social skills was closely associated with a higher likelihood of early resignation. The presence of advanced social skills appeared to potentially prevent resignation among novice nurses. Further investigation is needed to determine the causal relationship between sociality and early resignation. Social skills training for novice nurses may be of benefit in preventing early resignation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Museum-based programs for socially isolated older adults: Understanding what works.

    PubMed

    Todd, Carolyn; Camic, Paul M; Lockyer, Bridget; Thomson, Linda J M; Chatterjee, Helen J

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents research findings that help to understand how museum programs created opportunities to enhance wellbeing and health, and changed experiences of social isolation in older adults. The research conceptualized how program elements enabled both individual experiences and relational processes to occur. These components operated within a context that was enriched by the museum as a place to support wellbeing and enhance social interaction. To meaningfully support socially isolated older people as part of local public health strategies, museums need to be accessible and engaging places that purposively support social interaction by involving people and objects, participating in multiple sessions over time, that are facilitated by skilled and knowledgeable staff. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of social isolation on the health status and health-related quality of life of older people.

    PubMed

    Hawton, Annie; Green, Colin; Dickens, Andy P; Richards, Suzanne H; Taylor, Rod S; Edwards, Rachel; Greaves, Colin J; Campbell, John L

    2011-02-01

    To investigate for socially isolated older people, and older people at risk of social isolation: (1) health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL); (2) the relationship between social isolation and health status/HRQL; (3) the relationship between two alternative measures of health status/HRQL. Older people at risk of social isolation (n = 393) completed the EQ-5D and the SF-12. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between levels of social isolation and health status/HRQL, controlling for demographic/clinical characteristics. The agreement between EQ-5D and SF-6D (SF-12) scores was explored using descriptive psychometric techniques. Health status and health state values were much lower than UK general population age-matched norms. After controlling for depression, physical co-morbidities, age, gender, living alone status, employment and accommodation, social isolation was significantly associated, to a degree that was clinically relevant, with EQ-5D DSI, SF-6D (SF-12) and SF-12 MCS scores. The potential for ceiling effects on the EQ-5D with this population was identified. This work highlights the burden that social isolation may have on the health and well-being of older people. The potential HRQL gains from addressing social isolation may be considerable, with those at risk of social isolation also a key target group.

  19. Odor-enriched environment rescues long-term social memory, but does not improve olfaction in social isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Isabela D; Monteiro, Brisa M M; Cornélio, Guilherme O S; Fonseca, Cristina S; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2012-03-17

    Prolonged permanence of animals under social isolation (SI) arouses a variety of psychological symptoms like aggression, stress, anxiety and depression. However, short-term SI is commonly used to evaluate social memory. Interestingly, the social memory cannot be accessed with delays higher than 30min in SI mice. Our hypothesis is that SI with intermediate duration, like one week (1w), impairs the long-term storage of new social information (S-LTM), without affecting anxiety or other types of memories, because the SI compromises the olfactory function of the animal. Our results demonstrated that SI impaired S-LTM, without affecting other kinds of memory or anxiety. In addition, the SI increased the latency in the buried-food finding task, but did not affect the habituation or the discrimination of odors. Next, we postulated that if continuous input to the olfactory system is fundamental for the maintenance of the olfactory function and social memory persistence, isolated mice under odor-enriched environment (OEE) should behave like group-housed (GH) animals. In fact, the OEE prevented the S-LTM deficit imposed by the SI. However, OEE did not restore the SI mice olfaction to the GH mice level. Our results suggest that SI modulates olfaction and social memory persistence, probably, by independent mechanisms. We also showed for the first time that OEE rescued S-LTM in SI mice through a mechanism not necessarily involved with olfaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Short post-weaning social isolation induces long-term changes in the dopaminergic system and increases susceptibility to psychostimulants in female rats.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Carine; Arcego, Danusa Mar; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; Dos Santos Vieira, Aline; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Krolow, Rachel; Garcia, Emily; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Childhood and adolescence are sensitive periods of development, marked by high brain maturation and plasticity. Exposure to early life stress, such as social isolation, is able to prompt changes in sensitive brain circuitries, essentially in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and increase the risk for addictive behaviors later in life. Post-weaning social isolation can stimulate the consumption of rewarding substances, like drugs of abuse and palatable foods. However, most studies analyze long periods of social isolation and very little is known about the effects of a brief social isolation in a sensitive period of development and its association with palatable food on the reward system sensitization. Furthermore, females are more susceptible to the reinforcing effect of drugs than males. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a short post-weaning social isolation combined with a free access to a chronic high sugar diet (HSD) on the dopaminergic system, oxidative status and behavioral response to an amphetamine-like drug in adulthood. We used female Wistar rats that were socially isolated from post-natal days (PD) 21 to 35 and received free access to a HSD until PD 60. On PD 65, animals were submitted to a challenge with diethylpropion (DEP), an amphetamine-like drug and different responses were analyzed: locomotor activity, immmunocontent of dopamine related proteins, and the oxidative status in the striatum, before and after the DEP challenge. We showed that a short post-weaning social isolation (SI) increased the locomotor response to DEP, when compared with previous saline administration. Social isolation also increased dopamine transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase, and decreased dopamine D2 receptor immunocontent. Additionally, SI increased the overall oxidative status parameters after the challenge with DEP. Interestingly, the exposure to a HSD prevented the SI effects on locomotor response, but did not interfere in the dopaminergic

  1. Social Isolation and Social Support as Correlates of Television Viewing Motivations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Seth; Gorr, Mary Beth

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationships between motivations for television viewing, including shyness, loneliness, self-esteem, and three measures of social support. Suggests viewing motivations are related to needs arising from two distinct sources: social compensation and mood management. (MS)

  2. [Influence of social environment on caries prevalence in early childhood].

    PubMed

    Tusek, Ivan; Carević, Momir; Tusek, Jasmina

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Backa area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and chi2 (p < 0.05) test, as well as interdependence of ECC and single characteristics that could be a predictor of the disease by the logistic regression. The prevalence of ECC was 30.5%. The highest disease frequency was found in children of male sex (35.1%), out of kindergardens (54.2%), in the third and the next born child in the family (46.9%) and in part-time employed mothers (47.2%) who had only elementary education (59.3%) and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1%) of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%). The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.

  3. Social networks and links to isolation and loneliness among elderly HCBS clients.

    PubMed

    Medvene, Louis J; Nilsen, Kari M; Smith, Rachel; Ofei-Dodoo, Samuel; DiLollo, Anthony; Webster, Noah; Graham, Annette; Nance, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the network types of HCBS clients based on the structural characteristics of their social networks. We also examined how the network types were associated with social isolation, relationship quality and loneliness. Forty personal interviews were carried out with HCBS clients to assess the structure of their social networks as indicated by frequency of contact with children, friends, family and participation in religious and community organizations. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to identify network types. Four network types were found including: family (n = 16), diverse (n = 8), restricted (n = 8) and religious (n = 7). Family members comprised almost half of participants' social networks, and friends comprised less than one-third. Clients embedded in family, diverse and religious networks had significantly more positive relationships than clients embedded in restricted networks. Clients embedded in restricted networks had significantly higher social isolation scores and were lonelier than clients in diverse and family networks. The findings suggest that HCBS clients' isolation and loneliness are linked to the types of social networks in which they are embedded. The findings also suggest that clients embedded in restricted networks are at high risk for negative outcomes.

  4. Social isolation and loneliness: Prospective associations with functional status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Aparna; McMunn, Anne; Demakakos, Panayotes; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    The present analysis aimed to examine the associations of isolation and loneliness, individually as well as simultaneously, with 2 measures of functional status (gait speed and difficulties in activities of daily living) in older adults over a 6-year period using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and to assess if these associations differ by SES. Loneliness was measured using the short form of the Revised UCLA scale, and an index of social isolation was computed incorporating marital status; frequency of contact with friends, family, and children; and participation in social activities. Measures of functional status were assessed identically at baseline and 6 years later for 3070 participants (mean age 69 years). Wealth was used as an indicator of SES. In fully and mutually adjusted models, social isolation and loneliness were found to be associated with a decrease in gait speed at follow-up, with stronger effects among more disadvantaged individuals. Loneliness was associated with an increase in difficulties with activities of daily living. Isolation and loneliness were adversely associated with different aspects of functional status. Interventions to reduce isolation and loneliness may be particularly beneficial for individuals in disadvantaged groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Social Media and Health Education: What the Early Literature Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Robyn; Carter, Lorraine; Nowrouzi, Behdin; McLean, Natalie; Guimond, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Social media allows for a wealth of social interactions. More recently, there is a growing use of social media for the purposes of health education. Using an adaptation of the Networked student model by Drexler (2010) as a conceptual model, this article conducts a literature review focusing on the use of social media for health education purposes.…

  6. Constructions of Social Inclusion within Australian Early Childhood Education and Care Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Sandie; Turner, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Social inclusion discourses have been powerful in informing early childhood policy contexts, both internationally and in Australia (the context of the current study) for the past decade or so. But little research has examined the productive aspects of social inclusion discourses particularly within early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy…

  7. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Social Emotional Assessment and Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribble, Lois Marie

    2013-01-01

    Social emotional competence is an essential developmental skill recognized as the most critical for school and later success. Rising rates in behavioral referrals and preschool expulsion have brought increased attention to the importance of helping children develop social-emotional skills in the early years. In early childhood education a central…

  8. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal…

  9. Immediate early gene expression reveals interactions between social and nicotine rewards on brain activity in adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    Goenaga, Julianna; Hatch, Kayla N.; Henricks, Angela; Scott, Samantha; Hood, Lauren E.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking initiation predominantly occurs during adolescence, often in the presence of peers. Therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the rewarding effects of nicotine and social stimuli is vital. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we measured immediate early gene (IEG) expression in animals following exposure either to a reward-conditioned environment or to the unconditioned stimuli (US). Adolescent, male rats were assigned to the following CPP US conditions: (1) Saline + Isolated, (2) Nicotine + Isolated, (3) Saline + Social, or (4) Nicotine + Social. For Experiment 1, brain tissue was collected 90 min following the CPP expression test and processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. We found that rats conditioned with nicotine with or without a social partner exhibited CPP; however, we found no group differences in Fos expression in any brain region analyzed, with the exception of the nucleus accumbens core that exhibited a social-induced attenuation in Fos expression. For Experiment 2, brain tissue was collected 90 min following US exposure during the last conditioning session. We found social reward-induced increases in IEG expression in striatal and amydalar subregions. In contrast, nicotine reduced IEG expression in prefrontal and striatal subregions. Reward interactions were also found in the dorsolateral striatum, basolateral amygdala, and ventral tegmental area where nicotine alone attenuated IEG expression and social reward reversed this effect. These results suggest that in general social rewards enhance, whereas nicotine attenuates, activation of mesocorticolimbic regions; however, the rewards given together interact to enhance activation in some regions. The findings contribute to knowledge of how a social environment influences nicotine effects. PMID:27435419

  10. Immediate early gene expression reveals interactions between social and nicotine rewards on brain activity in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Bastle, Ryan M; Peartree, Natalie A; Goenaga, Julianna; Hatch, Kayla N; Henricks, Angela; Scott, Samantha; Hood, Lauren E; Neisewander, Janet L

    2016-10-15

    Smoking initiation predominantly occurs during adolescence, often in the presence of peers. Therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the rewarding effects of nicotine and social stimuli is vital. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we measured immediate early gene (IEG) expression in animals following exposure either to a reward-conditioned environment or to the unconditioned stimuli (US). Adolescent, male rats were assigned to the following CPP US conditions: (1) Saline+Isolated, (2) Nicotine+Isolated, (3) Saline+Social, or (4) Nicotine+Social. For Experiment 1, brain tissue was collected 90min following the CPP expression test and processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. We found that rats conditioned with nicotine with or without a social partner exhibited CPP; however, we found no group differences in Fos expression in any brain region analyzed, with the exception of the nucleus accumbens core that exhibited a social-induced attenuation in Fos expression. For Experiment 2, brain tissue was collected 90min following US exposure during the last conditioning session. We found social reward-induced increases in IEG expression in striatal and amydalar subregions. In contrast, nicotine reduced IEG expression in prefrontal and striatal subregions. Reward interactions were also found in the dorsolateral striatum, basolateral amygdala, and ventral tegmental area where nicotine alone attenuated IEG expression and social reward reversed this effect. These results suggest that in general social rewards enhance, whereas nicotine attenuates, activation of mesocorticolimbic regions; however, the rewards given together interact to enhance activation in some regions. The findings contribute to knowledge of how a social environment influences nicotine effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions following early life stress is associated with impaired social functioning.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-10-01

    Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Pro-social 50-kHz ultrasonic communication in rats: post-weaning but not post-adolescent social isolation leads to social impairments—phenotypic rescue by re-socialization

    PubMed Central

    Seffer, Dominik; Rippberger, Henrike; Schwarting, Rainer K. W.; Wöhr, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Rats are highly social animals and social play during adolescence has an important role for social development, hence post-weaning social isolation is widely used to study the adverse effects of juvenile social deprivation and to induce behavioral phenotypes relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia. Communication is an important component of the rat's social behavior repertoire, with ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) serving as situation-dependent affective signals. High-frequency 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations and induce approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls; however, post-weaning isolation effects on the behavioral changes displayed by the receiver in response to USV have yet to be studied. We therefore investigated the impact of post-weaning isolation on socio-affective information processing as assessed by means of our established 50-kHz USV radial maze playback paradigm. We showed that post-weaning social isolation specifically affected the behavioral response to playback of pro-social 50-kHz but not alarm 22-kHz USV. While group-housed rats showed the expected preference, i.e., approach, toward 50-kHz USV, the response was even stronger in short-term isolated rats (i.e., 1 day), possibly due to a higher level of social motivation. In contrast, no approach was observed in long-term isolated rats (i.e., 4 weeks). Importantly, deficits in approach were reversed by peer-mediated re-socialization and could not be observed after post-adolescent social isolation, indicating a critical period for social development during adolescence. Together, these results highlight the importance of social experience for affiliative behavior, suggesting a critical involvement of play behavior on socio-affective information processing in rats. PMID:25983681

  14. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.

  15. Longitudinal association between time-varying social isolation and psychological distress after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    The association between social isolation and psychological distress among disaster survivors is inconclusive. In addition, because these previous studies were cross-sectional in design, the longitudinal association between time-varying social isolation and psychological distress was not clear. The present study examined the longitudinal association between social isolation and psychological distress after the Great East Japan Earthquake. We analyzed longitudinal data for 959 adults who had responded to the self-report questionnaires about Lubben Social Network Scale-6 (LSNS-6) and K6 in both a community-based baseline survey (2011) and a follow-up survey (2014) after the disaster. Participants were categorized into four groups according to changes in the presence of social isolation (<12/30 of LSNS-6) at two time points (2011 and 2014): "remained socially isolated", "became not socially isolated", "remained not socially isolated", and "became socially isolated". We defined a K6 score of ≥ 10/24 as indicating the presence of psychological distress. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to indicate how the change in social isolation was related to changes in psychological distress over 3 years. Among the participants who had not shown psychological distress at the baseline, the rates of deterioration of psychological distress were significantly lower in participants who "became not socially isolated" (multivariate OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.08-0.70) and "remained not socially isolated" (multivariate OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27-0.91), compared with participants who "remained socially isolated". Among the participants who had psychological distress at the baseline, the rate of improvement of psychological distress was significantly higher in participants who "remained not socially isolated" (multivariate OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.08-6.44). The present findings suggest that prevention of social

  16. Social Isolation During Postweaning Development Causes Hypoactivity of Neurons in the Medial Nucleus of the Male Rat Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2016-06-01

    Children exposed to neglect or social deprivation are at heightened risk for psychiatric disorders and abnormal social patterns as adults. There is also evidence that prepubertal neglect in children causes abnormal metabolic activity in several brain regions, including the amygdala area. The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) is a key region for performance of social behaviors and still undergoes maturation during the periadolescent period. As such, the normal development of this region may be disrupted by social deprivation. In rodents, postweaning social isolation causes a range of deficits in sexual and agonistic behaviors that normally rely on the posterior MeA (MeAp). However, little is known about the effects of social isolation on the function of MeA neurons. In this study, we tested whether postweaning social isolation caused abnormal activity of MeA neurons. We found that postweaning social isolation caused a decrease of in vivo firing activity of MeAp neurons, and reduced drive from excitatory afferents. In vitro electrophysiological studies found that postweaning social isolation caused a presynaptic impairment of excitatory input to the dorsal MeAp, but a progressive postsynaptic reduction of membrane excitability in the ventral MeAp. These results demonstrate discrete, subnucleus-specific effects of social deprivation on the physiology of MeAp neurons. This pathophysiology may contribute to the disruption of social behavior after developmental social deprivation, and may be a novel target to facilitate the treatment of social disorders.

  17. Social Isolation During Postweaning Development Causes Hypoactivity of Neurons in the Medial Nucleus of the Male Rat Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Thomas; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to neglect or social deprivation are at heightened risk for psychiatric disorders and abnormal social patterns as adults. There is also evidence that prepubertal neglect in children causes abnormal metabolic activity in several brain regions, including the amygdala area. The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) is a key region for performance of social behaviors and still undergoes maturation during the periadolescent period. As such, the normal development of this region may be disrupted by social deprivation. In rodents, postweaning social isolation causes a range of deficits in sexual and agonistic behaviors that normally rely on the posterior MeA (MeAp). However, little is known about the effects of social isolation on the function of MeA neurons. In this study, we tested whether postweaning social isolation caused abnormal activity of MeA neurons. We found that postweaning social isolation caused a decrease of in vivo firing activity of MeAp neurons, and reduced drive from excitatory afferents. In vitro electrophysiological studies found that postweaning social isolation caused a presynaptic impairment of excitatory input to the dorsal MeAp, but a progressive postsynaptic reduction of membrane excitability in the ventral MeAp. These results demonstrate discrete, subnucleus-specific effects of social deprivation on the physiology of MeAp neurons. This pathophysiology may contribute to the disruption of social behavior after developmental social deprivation, and may be a novel target to facilitate the treatment of social disorders. PMID:26677945

  18. Chronic social isolation in the prairie vole induces endothelial dysfunction: implications for depression and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Peuler, Jacob D.; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L.; Phelps, Laura E.; McNeal, Neal; Grippo, Angela J.

    2012-01-01

    Humans with depression show impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, one recent demonstration of which was in the form of a reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of adrenergically-precontracted small arteries biopsied from older depressed patients. Results from such uses of ACh in general have been validated as the most predictive marker of endothelium-related cardiovascular diseases. Accordingly, we examined vascular reactivity to ACh in the socially isolated prairie vole, a new animal model relevant to human depression and cardiovascular disease. Thoracic aortas were carefully dissected from female prairie voles after one month of social isolation (versus pairing with a sibling). Only aortas that contracted to the adrenergic agent phenylephrine (PE) and then relaxed to ACh were evaluated. Among those, ACh-induced relaxations were significantly reduced by social isolation (p<0.05), with maximum relaxation reaching only 30% (of PE-induced precontraction) compared to 47% in aortas from paired (control) animals. Experimental removal of the endothelium from an additional set of aortic tissues abolished all ACh relaxations including that difference. In these same tissues, maximally-effective concentrations of the nitric oxide-donor nitroprusside still completely relaxed all PE-induced precontraction of the endothelial-free smooth muscle, and to the same degree in tissues from isolated versus paired animals. Finally, in the absence of PE-induced precontraction ACh did not relax but rather contracted aortic tissues, and to a significantly greater extent in tissues from socially isolated animals if the endothelium was intact (p<0.05). Thus, social isolation in the prairie vole may 1) impair normal release of protective anti-atherosclerotic factors like nitric oxide from the vascular endothelium (without altering the inherent responsiveness of the vascular smooth muscle to such factors) and 2) cause the endothelium to release contracting factors. To our

  19. Long-term voluntary exercise prevents post-weaning social isolation-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Okudan, Nilsel; Belviranlı, Muaz

    2017-09-30

    This study aimed to determine the effect of exercise on locomotion, anxiety-related behavior, learning, and memory in socially isolated post-weaning rats, as well as the correlation between exercise and the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group; the social isolation group; the social isolation plus exercise (SIE) group. Social isolation conditions, with or without exercise were maintained for 90d, and then multiple behavioral tests, including the open-field test, elevated plus maze test, and Morris water maze (MWM) test were administered. Following behavioral assessment, hippocampal tissue samples were obtained for measurement of BDNF and NGF. There wasn't a significant difference in locomotor activity between the groups (P>0.05). Anxiety scores were higher in the socially isolated group (P<0.05) than in the SIE group (P<0.05). According to the probe trial session of the MWM test results, exercise training improved platform crossings' number in the socially isolated rats (P<0.05). Exercise training ameliorated social isolation-induced reduction in hippocampal BDNF and NGF content (P<0.05). These findings suggest that exercise training improves cognitive functions via increasing hippocampal BDNF and NGF concentrations in socially isolated post-weaning rats. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  1. The Effect of Information Communication Technology Interventions on Reducing Social Isolation in the Elderly: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ru Regina; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-28

    The aging of the population is an inexorable change that challenges governments and societies in every developed country. Based on clinical and empirical data, social isolation is found to be prevalent among elderly people, and it has negative consequences on the elderly's psychological and physical health. Targeting social isolation has become a focus area for policy and practice. Evidence indicates that contemporary information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to prevent or reduce the social isolation of elderly people via various mechanisms. This systematic review explored the effects of ICT interventions on reducing social isolation of the elderly. Relevant electronic databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SSCI, Communication Studies: a SAGE Full-Text Collection, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) were systematically searched using a unified strategy to identify quantitative and qualitative studies on the effectiveness of ICT-mediated social isolation interventions for elderly people published in English between 2002 and 2015. Narrative synthesis was performed to interpret the results of the identified studies, and their quality was also appraised. Twenty-five publications were included in the review. Four of them were evaluated as rigorous research. Most studies measured the effectiveness of ICT by measuring specific dimensions rather than social isolation in general. ICT use was consistently found to affect social support, social connectedness, and social isolation in general positively. The results for loneliness were inconclusive. Even though most were positive, some studies found a nonsignificant or negative impact. More importantly, the positive effect of ICT use on social connectedness and social support seemed to be short-term and did not last for more than six months after the intervention. The results for self-esteem and control over one's life

  2. Multitasking during social interactions in adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Kathryn L.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11–17 and 22–30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking. PMID:26715991

  3. Multitasking during social interactions in adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-11-01

    Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11-17 and 22-30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking.

  4. Adolescent social isolation stress unmasks the combined effects of adolescent exercise and adult inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior.

    PubMed

    Hueston, Cara M; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2017-12-04

    Hippocampal neurogenesis and associated cognitive behaviors are regulated by a number of factors including stress, inflammation, and exercise. However, the interplay between these factors remains relatively unexplored, especially across the lifespan. In the current study, the effect of social isolation stress during the adolescent period on neurogenesis and hippocampal-dependent cognitive behaviors was examined. This period of the lifespan has been demonstrated to be an important time for hippocampal growth and plasticity, during which changes to hippocampal neurogenesis may have long lasting effects. Additionally, we aimed to determine whether a 'dual-hit' of adolescent stress and adult chronic neuroinflammation would potentiate any negative effects of either insult alone. Lastly, the potential positive effects of exercise during adolescence was examined to determine whether exercise could attenuate any negative impacts of these insults on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior. The results from the current study demonstrate that social isolation stress during adolescence followed by intra-hippocampal exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in early adulthood produces deficits in both spontaneous alternations and novel object recognition. Exercise attenuated deficits in neurogenesis and novel object recognition in mice that had been exposed to the 'dual-hit' of stress and neuroinflammation. These findings indicate that adolescence represents a key period of the lifespan during which external factors such as stress and exercise can impact on hippocampal development, and may alter the response to challenges such as neuroinflammation in later life. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. It is known that individuals near the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner during the course of an outbreak, on average, than those at the periphery. Unfortunately, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals who might be monitored for infection is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, simply monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students who were either members of a group of randomly chosen individuals or a group of their friends. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 13.9 days (95% C.I. 9.9–16.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significant lead time (p<0.05) on day 16 of the epidemic, a full 46 days before the peak in daily incidence in the population as a whole. This sensor method could provide significant additional time to react to epidemics in small or large populations under surveillance. The amount of lead time will depend on features of the outbreak and the network at hand. The method could in principle be generalized to other biological, psychological, informational, or behavioral contagions that spread in networks. PMID:20856792

  6. Anxiolytic-like effects of oleamide in group-housed and socially isolated mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiu Yan; Yang, Jing Yu; Dong, Ying Xu; Wu, Chun Fu

    2007-08-15

    Oleamide (cis-9,10-octadecenoamide) is an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid and prototypic member of a new class of biological signaling molecules identified in recent years. In the present study, the anxiolytic-like effect of oleamide was studied in several experimental models of anxiety in group-housed and socially isolated mice. As the results show, socially isolated mice exhibited an anxiogenic-like profile in the elevated plus-maze test, the light/dark test, and the hole-board test, which could be significantly reversed by oleamide (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, oleamide significantly reduced the anxiety levels in grouped-housed mice. In the isolation-induced aggressive test, oleamide markedly reduced the attacking duration and increased the attacking latency. It is concluded that oleamide has an anxiolytic-like effect in socially isolated or group-housed mice, which suggests that fatty acid amides might be involved in the regulation of anxiety-related behavior in mice.

  7. Rat pup social motivation: A critical component of early psychological development

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, Howard Casey

    2011-01-01

    Examining the role of the offspring in early social dynamics is especially difficult. Human developmental psychology has found infant behavior to be a vital part of the early environmental setting. In the rodent model, the different ways that a rodent neonate or pup can influence social dynamics are not well known. Typically, litters of neonates or pups offer complex social interactions dominated by behavior seemingly initiated and maintained by the primary caregiver (e.g., the dam). Despite this strong role for the caregiver, the young most likely influence the litter dynamics in many powerful ways including communication signals, discrimination abilities and early approach behavior. Nelson and Panksepp (1996) developed a preference task to examine early rodent pup social motivation. We have used the same task to examine how variations in maternal care or different environmental perturbations could alter the rat pup preferences for social-related stimuli. Rat pups receiving low levels of maternal licking and grooming were impaired in maternal odor cue learning and emitted lower levels of 22 kHz ultrasounds compared to pups from the high licking and grooming cohort. Prenatal stress or early exposure to a toxicant (polychlorinated biphenyl) altered early social preferences in the rat pup in different ways indicating that diverse strategies are expressed and specific to the type of perturbation exposure. A greater focus on the offspring motivation following early ‘stressors’ will allow for more complete understanding of the dynamics in behavior during early social development. PMID:21251926

  8. Chronic social isolation enhances reproduction in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Carter, C Sue; Cushing, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stressors are generally considered to disrupt reproduction and inhibit mating. Here we test the hypothesis that a chronic stressor, specifically social isolation, can facilitate adaptive changes that enhance/accelerate reproductive effort. In general, monogamous species display high levels of prosociality, delayed sexual maturation, and greater parental investment in fewer, higher quality offspring compared with closely related polygynous species. We predicted that chronic social isolation would promote behavioral and neurochemical patterns in prairie voles associated with polygyny. Male and female prairie voles were isolated for four weeks and changes in mating behavior, alloparental care, estrogen receptor (ER) α expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in brain regions regulating sociosexual behavior were examined. In males, isolation accelerated copulation, increased ERα in the medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpm), and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on alloparental behavior. In females, isolation resulted in more rapid estrus induction and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on estradiol sensitivity or ERα expression. The results support the hypothesis that ERα expression in the MEApd and BSTpm is a critical determinant of male copulatory behavior and/or mating system. The lack of change in alloparental behavior suggests that changes in prosocial behavior are selective and regulated by different mechanisms. The results also suggest that TH in the MEApd and BSTpm may play a critical role in determining mating behavior in both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic Social Isolation Enhances Reproduction in the Monogamous Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Adam N.; Carter, C. Sue; Cushing, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stressors are generally considered to disrupt reproduction and inhibit mating. Here we test the hypothesis that a chronic stressor, specifically social isolation, can facilitate adaptive changes that enhance/accelerate reproductive effort. In general, monogamous species display high levels of prosociality, delayed sexual maturation, and greater parental investment in fewer, higher quality offspring compared with closely related polygynous species. We predicted that chronic social isolation would promote behavioral and neurochemical patterns in prairie voles associated with polygyny. Male and female prairie voles were isolated for four weeks and changes in mating behavior, alloparental care, estrogen receptor (ER) α expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in brain regions regulating sociosexual behavior were examined. In males, isolation accelerated copulation, increased ERα in the medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpm), and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on alloparental behavior. In females, isolation resulted in more rapid estrus induction and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on estradiol sensitivity or ERα expression. The results support the hypothesis that ERα expression in the MEApd and BSTpm is a critical determinant of male copulatory behavior and/or mating system. The lack of change in alloparental behavior suggests that changes in prosocial behavior are selective and regulated by different mechanisms. The results also suggest that TH in the MEApd and BSTpm may play a critical role in determining mating behavior in both sexes. PMID:26939085

  10. Assessing and Improving Early Social Engagement in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Singh, Anjileen K.; Koegel, Robert L.; Hollingsworth, Jessica R.; Bradshaw, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies have documented a variety of social abnormalities in infancy that indicate risk for later social and behavioral difficulties. There is very little research illustrating the presence of such behavioral vulnerabilities with frequent repeated measures, and the feasibility of designing interventions for improving social engagement in…

  11. Change and Consistency in Social Participation during Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Harry T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A total of 113 adults from 26 to 31 years of age who had participated in previous social interaction studies while in college kept detailed records of social activity for 2 weeks. Found that from college to adulthood opposite-sex socializing increased, whereas same-sex, mixed-sex, and group interactions decreased. (MDM)

  12. Teaching Social and Emotional Competence in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Rita Coombs; Myran, Steve P.; Tonelson, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a social skills curriculum on the social behaviors of students in two pre-kindergarten classrooms. Participating were 30 students in a program based at a university child study center. The average age of the participants was four years ten months. The income levels of the families varied from low social economic…

  13. Social Investment or Private Profit? Diverging Notions of "Investment" in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Elizabeth; Brennan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many OECD countries have adopted the notion of "social investment" to reframe traditional approaches to social welfare. Social investment strategies and policies focus on employment rather than welfare and promote public expenditure on skills and education throughout the life course, starting with early childhood…

  14. Evaluating the Social Validity of the Early Start Denver Model: A Convergent Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Emily; McCrudden, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    An intervention has social validity to the extent that it is socially acceptable to participants and stakeholders. This pilot convergent mixed methods study evaluated parents' perceptions of the social validity of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a naturalistic behavioral intervention for children with autism. It focused on whether the parents…

  15. Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence and Learning in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Williams, Brittney V.; May, Tanginia

    2018-01-01

    The promotion of social-emotional competence and implementation of social-emotional learning programs have increased substantially in schools; however, little is known about teachers' perceptions of such programs. This qualitative study explored early childhood (3 to 8 years old) teachers' perceptions of classroom-based social-emotional learning…

  16. Functioning of Social Skills from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsolnai, Anikó; Kasik, László

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the social skills that crucially affect children's social behaviour in the school. Our objective was to gather information about the functioning of social skills from middle childhood to early adolescence. The sample consisted of 7-, 9-, and 11-year-old Hungarian students (N = 1398). Based on…

  17. Early Childhood Teachers' Socialization of Emotion: Contextual and Individual Contributors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Miller, Susanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preschoolers' emotional competence is of prime importance in their concurrent and later social and academic success. Parents are primary socializers of these abilities, but more and more early childhood educators are also important in their development. However, their means of socializing emotional competence are understudied, and…

  18. Early social fear in relation to play with an unfamiliar peer: Actor and partner effects.

    PubMed

    Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Fox, Nathan A; Henderson, Heather A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between maternal reports of social fear at 24 months and social behaviors with an unfamiliar peer during play at 36 months, using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 1999). The APIM model was used to not only replicate previous findings of direct effects of early social fear on children's own social behavior (i.e., actor effects), but also to extend these findings by examining whether children's early social fear relates to an unfamiliar peer's behavior at 36 months (i.e., partner effects). Results revealed that social fear was associated with lower levels of children's own social engagement as well as less social engagement and dysregulated behavior in their play partners. These findings show that toddlers' social interactive behaviors are interdependent and reflect unique contributions of both the individual and their social partner's characteristics. In contrast, social fear was associated with children's own social wariness with the unfamiliar peer, but not their play partners' wariness. We discuss findings in terms of the influence of early social fear on young children's interpersonal environments and the potential role of these altered environments in supporting continuity of social fear and wariness over time. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. "Relating through sameness": a qualitative study of friendship and social isolation in chronic traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Salas, Christian E; Casassus, Martin; Rowlands, Leanne; Pimm, Steve; Flanagan, Desmond A J

    2016-11-01

    Social isolation has been described as a common problem among traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors during the chronic phase. Due to physical, cognitive and behavioural changes, survivors become less socially active and experience a marked decrease in the number of friends. The goal of this investigation is to explore TBI survivors' subjective account of the challenges encountered in sustaining friendships, as well as gaining insight into their particular understanding of such difficulties. Using a thematic analysis approach, 11 survivors of TBI were interviewed in relation to their experience of social isolation and friendship during the chronic stage. Four main themes emerged from the interviews: (1) The impact of long-term cognitive and behavioural problems on relationships; (2) Loss of old friends; (3) Difficulties making new friends, and (4) Relating to other survivors in order to fight social isolation (sameness). Clinical implications of these findings, as well as their relevance in the design of long-term rehabilitation programmes, are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the need to acknowledge the value of relating to other survivors, as a way of resisting cultural discourses about disability, and as a source of self-cohesion in the process of identity re-construction.

  20. Reducing social isolation and loneliness in older people: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Landeiro, Filipa; Barrows, Paige; Nuttall Musson, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Social isolation and loneliness affect approximately one-third to one-half of the elderly population and have a negative impact on their physical and mental health. Group-based interventions where facilitators are well trained and where the elderly are actively engaged in their development seem to be more effective, but conclusions have been limited by weak study designs. We aim to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of health promotion interventions on social isolation or loneliness in older people. Methods and analysis A systematic review was conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, LILACS, OpenGrey and the Cochrane Library on peer-reviewed studies and doctoral theses published between 1995 and 2016 evaluating the impact of health promotion interventions on social isolation and/or loneliness for individuals aged 60 and over. Two reviewers will independently assess each study for inclusion and disagreements will be resolved by a third reviewer. Data will be extracted using a predefined pro forma following best practice. Study quality will be assessed with the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. A narrative synthesis of all studies will be presented by type of outcome (social isolation or loneliness) and type of intervention. If feasible, the effectiveness data will be synthesised using appropriate statistical techniques. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review is exempt from ethics approval because the work is carried out on published documents. The findings of the review will be disseminated in a related peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences. They will also contribute to a DPhil thesis. Trial registration number CRD42016039650 PMID:28515187

  1. Reducing social isolation and loneliness in older people: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Landeiro, Filipa; Barrows, Paige; Nuttall Musson, Ellen; Gray, Alastair M; Leal, José

    2017-05-17

    Social isolation and loneliness affect approximately one-third to one-half of the elderly population and have a negative impact on their physical and mental health. Group-based interventions where facilitators are well trained and where the elderly are actively engaged in their development seem to be more effective, but conclusions have been limited by weak study designs. We aim to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of health promotion interventions on social isolation or loneliness in older people. A systematic review was conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, LILACS, OpenGrey and the Cochrane Library on peer-reviewed studies and doctoral theses published between 1995 and 2016 evaluating the impact of health promotion interventions on social isolation and/or loneliness for individuals aged 60 and over. Two reviewers will independently assess each study for inclusion and disagreements will be resolved by a third reviewer. Data will be extracted using a predefined pro forma following best practice. Study quality will be assessed with the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. A narrative synthesis of all studies will be presented by type of outcome (social isolation or loneliness) and type of intervention. If feasible, the effectiveness data will be synthesised using appropriate statistical techniques. This systematic review is exempt from ethics approval because the work is carried out on published documents. The findings of the review will be disseminated in a related peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences. They will also contribute to a DPhil thesis. CRD42016039650. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Assessing social isolation in motor neurone disease: a Rasch analysis of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Chris J; Thornton, Everard W; Ealing, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Talbot, Kevin; Tennant, Alan; Young, Carolyn A

    2013-11-15

    Social withdrawal is described as the condition in which an individual experiences a desire to make social contact, but is unable to satisfy that desire. It is an important issue for patients with motor neurone disease who are likely to experience severe physical impairment. This study aims to reassess the psychometric and scaling properties of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale (MND-SWS) domains and examine the feasibility of a summary scale, by applying scale data to the Rasch model. The MND Social Withdrawal Scale was administered to 298 patients with a diagnosis of MND, alongside the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The factor structure of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Model fit, category threshold analysis, differential item functioning (DIF), dimensionality and local dependency were evaluated. Factor analysis confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution suggested by the original authors. Mokken scale analysis suggested the removal of item five. Rasch analysis removed a further three items; from the Community (one item) and Emotional (two items) withdrawal subscales. Following item reduction, each scale exhibited excellent fit to the Rasch model. A 14-item Summary scale was shown to fit the Rasch model after subtesting the items into three subtests corresponding to the Community, Family and Emotional subscales, indicating that items from these three subscales could be summed together to create a total measure for social withdrawal. Removal of four items from the Social Withdrawal Scale led to a four factor solution with a 14-item hierarchical Summary scale that were all unidimensional, free for DIF and well fitted to the Rasch model. The scale is reliable and allows clinicians and researchers to measure social withdrawal in MND along a unidimensional construct. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Do you "want" to play? Distinguishing between conflicted shyness and social disinterest in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Coplan, Robert J; Prakash, Kavita; O'Neil, Kim; Armer, Mandana

    2004-03-01

    This study attempted to distinguish two types of social withdrawal in early childhood: (a) one based on social fear and anxiety despite a desire to interact socially (conflicted shyness) and (b) one based on the lack of a strong motivation to engage in social interaction (social disinterest). Two samples of preschoolers (n = 119 and n = 127) 3-5 years of age participated. Their mothers completed the newly developed Child Social Preference Scale, which was designed to assess conflicted shyness and social disinterest. Maternal ratings of child temperament, parenting style, and social goals, teacher ratings of child social adjustment, observations of child free-play behaviors, and child interview assessments of perceived competence and preference for playing with peers were also collected. Distinct patterns of associations were found between conflicted shyness and social disinterest and outcome variables. Implications for the motivational underpinnings and adjustment outcomes of shyness and social disinterest are explored. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  4. Contemporary Perspectives on Social Learning in Early Childhood Education. Contemporary Perspectives in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia, Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Social epistemology is a broad set of approaches to the study of knowledge and to gain information about the social dimensions. This intellectual movement of wide cross-disciplinary sources reconstructs the problems of epistemology when knowledge is considered to be intrinsically social. In the first chapter, "Social Epistemology and Social…

  5. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship—as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)—with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary–adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a ‘lonely’ phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. PMID:25870400

  6. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  7. Early life family conflict, Social interactions and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    John-Henderson, Neha A.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean Intima-Media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Methods Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean age: 42.8 years [SD=7.3]). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Results Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β=0.08, t(447)=2.13, p=0.034, R2=0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and EMA reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001, 95% CI, 0.0001–0.0014 and β=0.001, 95% CI, 0.0002–0.0015, respectively). Conclusions These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions. PMID:26809109

  8. Isolation, purification and partial characterization of early pregnancy factor (EPF) from sera of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Haq, A; Mothi, B A; Al-Hussein, K; Al-Tufail, M; Hollanders, J; Jaroudi, K; Al-Waili, N; Shabani, M

    2001-05-29

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a pregnancy protein, which is secreted into the maternal serum 12-16 hours after fertilization. It is thought to be an immunosuppressive molecule. EPF is detected in pregnant woman's serum by the rosette inhibition assay (RIA). In this study, EPF was purified from the pregnant woman's sera by using ion exchange chromatography and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteins which showed a positive result with the RIA, were found to be 35 kDa and 17 kDa molecular weights. The biological activities of these proteins were stable upon heat treatment at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Proteins isolated and purified in this study might be of great significance to the field of human reproduction with particular reference to pregnancy and recurrent abortion.

  9. Clinical symptoms predict concurrent social and global functioning in an early psychosis sample.

    PubMed

    Cacciotti-Saija, Cristina; Langdon, Robyn; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Guastella, Adam J

    2018-04-01

    Although well established in chronic schizophrenia, the key determinants of functioning remain unknown during the early phase of a psychotic disorder. The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine the social cognitive, basic neurocognitive and clinical predictors of concurrent social functioning and global functioning in an early psychosis sample. This study examined the relationship between social cognition, basic neurocognition and clinical symptoms with concurrent functioning in 51 early psychosis individuals. Assessments included a range of self-report, observational and clinician-rated measures of cognitive, symptom severity and functioning domains. Results revealed a significant association between self-reported social function and lower levels of both social interaction anxiety and negative psychotic symptoms. A significant association was also observed between lower levels of negative psychotic symptoms and observed social functioning. Lastly, results demonstrated a significant association between reduced negative psychotic symptoms and clinician-rated global functioning. Clinical domains such as negative symptoms and social interaction anxiety significantly contribute to an optimal model predicting outcome during the early phase of a psychotic disorder. These clinical features may also provide useful markers of an individual's capacity for social participation. Clinical implications include the need for early targeted intervention to address social anxiety and negative psychotic symptoms to facilitate optimum patient outcome. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Social isolation and loneliness among older people: issues and future challenges in community and residential settings.

    PubMed

    Grenade, Linda; Boldy, Duncan

    2008-08-01

    Although often associated with older age, loneliness and social isolation are not well understood in terms of their prevalence, risk and protective factors. Evidence suggests that only a minority of community-dwelling older people are "severely" lonely or isolated, however a number of factors need to be considered to fully understand the extent and significance of the problem. Community-based studies have identified a variety of risk factors for loneliness/isolation including widowhood, no (surviving) children, living alone, deteriorating health, and life events (eg, loss and bereavement). Having a confidant has been identified as a protective factor for loneliness. However, evidence is often unclear or inconclusive, especially within residential settings. We identified the need to conduct more residential care-focused research; the importance of addressing a variety of methodological concerns; and the need for practitioners to develop intervention programs that are appropriately targeted, evidence-based and evaluated.

  11. Post-weaning social isolation of female rats, anxiety-related behavior, and serotonergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Lukkes, Jodi L.; Engelman, Glenn H.; Zelin, Naomi S.; Hale, Matthew W.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that post-weaning social isolation of male rats leads to sensitization of serotonergic systems and increases in anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Although studies in humans suggest that females have an increased sensitivity to stress and risk for the development of neuropsychiatric illnesses, most studies involving laboratory rats have focused on males while females have been insufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of post-weaning social isolation on subsequent responses of an anxiety-related dorsal raphe nucleus (DR)-basolateral amygdala system to pharmacological challenge with the anxiogenic drug, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142; a partial inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine allosteric site on the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor). Juvenile female rats were reared in isolation or in groups of three for a 3-week period from weaning to mid-adolescence, after which all rats were group-reared for an additional 2 weeks. We then used dual immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and tryptophan hydroxylase in the DR or single immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos in the basolateral amygdala. Isolation-reared rats, but not group-reared rats, injected with FG-7142 had increased c-Fos expression within the basolateral amygdala and in serotonergic neurons in the dorsal, ventrolateral, caudal and interfascicular parts of the DR relative to appropriate vehicle-injected control groups. These data suggest that post-weaning social isolation of female rats sensitizes a DR-basolateral amygdala system to stress-related stimuli, which may lead to an increased sensitivity to stress- and anxiety-related responses in adulthood. PMID:22297173

  12. Linking Magazine Exposure to Social Appearance Anxiety: The Role of Appearance Norms in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Trekels, Jolien; Eggermont, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Early adolescents (N = 1,591; M age  = 11.698; SD = 0.892) participated in a two-wave panel study (6-month interval) to examine the longitudinal association between appearance-focused magazine exposure and social appearance anxiety. We revealed that magazine exposure positively correlated with the internalization of appearance ideals and the attribution of social rewards to attractiveness which, in turn, related to social appearance anxiety. Internalization and attribution of social rewards formed a reinforcing spiral; once internalized, early adolescents associate positive things with appearance ideals (e.g., peer acceptance) and the perception of rewards increases early adolescents' inclination to internalize ideals. Given the adverse consequences of social appearance anxiety, the findings warrant research on the role of media in the occurrence of social appearance anxiety. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  13. Vocational Preferences of Early Adolescents: Their Development in Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondracek, Fred W.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias; Wiesner, Margit

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the timing of early vocational preferences in young adolescents from former East Germany and West Germany. Results suggested that as the memory of the Communist system fades and as younger adolescents have had less exposure to it, East-West differences tend to disappear. The formation of early vocational preferences was…

  14. Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S W; Bechara, A; Damasio, H; Tranel, D; Damasio, A R

    1999-11-01

    The long-term consequences of early prefrontal cortex lesions occurring before 16 months were investigated in two adults. As is the case when such damage occurs in adulthood, the two early-onset patients had severely impaired social behavior despite normal basic cognitive abilities, and showed insensitivity to future consequences of decisions, defective autonomic responses to punishment contingencies and failure to respond to behavioral interventions. Unlike adult-onset patients, however, the two patients had defective social and moral reasoning, suggesting that the acquisition of complex social conventions and moral rules had been impaired. Thus early-onset prefrontal damage resulted in a syndrome resembling psychopathy.

  15. Increased Drinking following Social Isolation Rearing: Implications for Polydipsia Associated with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hawken, Emily R.; Delva, Nicholas J.; Beninger, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary polydipsia, excessive drinking without known medical cause, is especially associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. We used animal models of schizophrenia-like symptoms to examine the effects on schedule-induced polydipsia: post-weaning social isolation rearing, subchronic MK-801 treatment (an NMDA-receptor antagonist) or the two combined. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats reared in groups or in isolation beginning at postnatal day 21 were further divided to receive subchronic MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg twice daily) or saline for 7 days beginning on postnatal day 62. Following a 4-day withdrawal period, all groups were trained on a schedule-induced polydipsia paradigm. Under food-restriction, animals reared in isolation and receiving food pellets at 1-min intervals developed significantly more drinking behavior than those reared with others. The addition of subchronic MK-801 treatment did not significantly augment the amount of water consumed. These findings suggest a predisposition to polydipsia is a schizophrenia-like behavioral effect of post-weaning social isolation. PMID:23441161

  16. Systematic review of interventions addressing social isolation and depression in aged care clients.

    PubMed

    Franck, Linél; Molyneux, Natalie; Parkinson, Lynne

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review was undertaken of studies reporting interventions for reducing social isolation and depression in older people receiving aged care services (community or residential). Gray literature and relevant electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published in English between January 2009 and December 2013. Two reviewers independently screened studies for selection using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and independently completed methodological quality review at study level. Studies of poor methodological quality were excluded. Data were extracted at study level by one reviewer and independently checked by a second reviewer, using a standardized form. The results across studies were qualitatively synthesized with outcomes described and summarized at last follow-up. Although the original objective was to review rural studies, no intervention studies based in rural areas met criteria for inclusion in the review, and only urban studies could be reviewed. Of 403 articles, six articles representing five studies with moderate-to-low risk of bias were included for review. All study participants were older adults ranging in age from 77 to 86 years. All studies had small sample sizes, ranging from 26 to 113 participants. Three of the five included intervention studies successfully reduced social isolation; one also successfully reduced depression. Only one intervention, group-based reminiscence therapy, was reported as successful in reducing both social isolation and depression in older people within an urban aged care setting. More research is needed to explore transferability of interventions across different aged care settings and into rural areas.

  17. The Neuropeptide Tac2 Controls a Distributed Brain State Induced by Chronic Social Isolation Stress.

    PubMed

    Zelikowsky, Moriel; Hui, May; Karigo, Tomomi; Choe, Andrea; Yang, Bin; Blanco, Mario R; Beadle, Keith; Gradinaru, Viviana; Deverman, Benjamin E; Anderson, David J

    2018-05-17

    Chronic social isolation causes severe psychological effects in humans, but their neural bases remain poorly understood. 2 weeks (but not 24 hr) of social isolation stress (SIS) caused multiple behavioral changes in mice and induced brain-wide upregulation of the neuropeptide tachykinin 2 (Tac2)/neurokinin B (NkB). Systemic administration of an Nk3R antagonist prevented virtually all of the behavioral effects of chronic SIS. Conversely, enhancing NkB expression and release phenocopied SIS in group-housed mice, promoting aggression and converting stimulus-locked defensive behaviors to persistent responses. Multiplexed analysis of Tac2/NkB function in multiple brain areas revealed dissociable, region-specific requirements for both the peptide and its receptor in different SIS-induced behavioral changes. Thus, Tac2 coordinates a pleiotropic brain state caused by SIS via a distributed mode of action. These data reveal the profound effects of prolonged social isolation on brain chemistry and function and suggest potential new therapeutic applications for Nk3R antagonists. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN CREATINE CONCENTRATIONS UNDER LONG-TERM SOCIAL ISOLATION (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY).

    PubMed

    Koshoridze, N; Kuchukashvili, Z; Menabde, K; Lekiashvili, Sh; Koshoridze, M

    2016-02-01

    Stress represents one of the main problems of modern humanity. This study was done for understanding more clearly alterations in creatine content of the brain under psycho-emotional stress induced by long-term social isolation. It was shown that under 30 days social isolation creatine amount in the brain was arisen, while decreasing concentrations of synthesizing enzymes (AGAT, GAMT) and creatine transporter protein (CrT). Another important point was that such changes were accompanied by down-regulation of creatine kinase (CK), therefore the enzyme's concentration was lowered. In addition, it was observed that content of phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP were also reduced, thus indicating down-regulation of energy metabolism of brain that is really a crucial point for its normal functioning. To sum up the results it can be underlined that long-term social isolation has negative influence on energy metabolism of brain; and as a result reduce ATP content, while increase of free creatine concentration, supposedly maintaining maximal balance for ATP amount, but here must be also noted that up-regulated oxidative pathways might have impact on blood brain barrier, resulting on its permeability.

  19. Social isolation increases number of newly proliferated cells in hippocampus in female flinders sensitive line rats.

    PubMed

    Bjørnebekk, Astrid; Mathé, Aleksander A; Gruber, Susanne H M; Brené, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Genetic background influences the responsiveness to stress and plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of depression. In an animal model of depression, Flinders Sensitive Line rats, and Sprague Dawley controls we analyzed if 7 weeks of social isolation of adult animals affect the number of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus or mRNAs of Neuropeptide Y (NPY), the NPY-Y1 receptor, nociceptin, BDNF, and the serotonin 5HT1A and 5HT2A receptors, which are molecules involved in hippocampal plasticity. Since depressive illness more frequently affects women than men, and females seem to respond differently to stressful experiences than males, female rats were used in this study. Bromodeoxyuridine, which is a thymidin analogue that is incorporated into the DNA of newly formed cells, was administered during 9 days to even out the effects of hormonal fluctuations. Social isolation increased the number of newly proliferated Bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive cells in the Flinders Sensitive Line rats, whereas it had no impact on the number of cells in the Sprague Dawley strain. Group housed Sprague Dawley rats had a higher expression of BDNF, NPY, and the serotonin 5HT2A receptor mRNA than "depressed" Flinders Sensitive Line. Social isolation downregulated these molecules in Sprague Dawley but not in Flinders Sensitive Line rats thereby eliminating the differences between the two strains. We demonstrate strain and gender specific responses to stress induced regulation of factors important for hippocampal plasticity. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Importance of hypertension and social isolation in causing sleep disruption in dementia.

    PubMed

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah Hassan; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), heart disease, social isolation, and sociodemographic factors on sleep in the elderly patients with dementia. Samples included 1210 noninstitutionalized, Malaysian elderly patients with dementia. The multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of sleep disturbances among respondents. Approximately 41% of the patients experienced sleep problems. The results showed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02), social isolation (OR = 1.33), and HT (OR = 1.53) significantly increased sleep disruption in respondents (P <.05). Furthermore, education (OR =.63) and non-Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.63) significantly decreased sleep problems (P <.05). It was found that DM, heart disease, sex differences, and marital status were not significant predictors of sleep disturbances (P >.05). It was concluded that age, social isolation, and HT increased sleep disruption but education and ethnic non-Malay reduced the risk of sleep problems. Moreover, HT was the most important variable to increase sleep disturbances in the elderly patients with dementia.

  1. The Health and Social Isolation of American Veterans Denied Veterans Affairs Disability Compensation.

    PubMed

    Fried, Dennis Adrian; Passannante, Marian; Helmer, Drew; Holland, Bart K; Halperin, William E

    2017-02-01

    Authors comparatively analyzed health and social isolation between U.S. military veterans denied Veterans Affairs (VA) disability compensation and veterans awarded VA disability compensation. The 2001 National Survey of Veterans was used to create a sample of 4,522 veterans denied or awarded VA disability compensation. Using the Andersen health services utilization model as a conceptual framework, multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess relationships between VA disability compensation award status, three separate domains of health, and correlates of social isolation. Results indicate that denied applicants were more likely than those awarded to have poor overall health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23, 1.70), and limitations in activities of daily living (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21). Denied applicants' physical functioning (40.3) and mental functioning (41.2) composite summary scores were not clinically different from those of awarded applicants (39.0 and 40.1, respectively), indicating that both were comparably impaired. Veterans denied VA disability compensation had poor health and functional impairments. They also experienced poverty and isolation, suggesting that they may be in need of additional supportive services. Connecting veterans to community resources could be a vital service to provide to all veterans applying for disability compensation. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  2. Social Anxiety and Onset of Drinking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Cummins, Kevin M.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines several types of social anxiety that may be associated with the onset of alcohol use in middle school students, and whether the relationship differs by sex and grade. Students in the seventh and eighth grades (N = 2,621) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a measure of lifetime drinking via schoolwide…

  3. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  4. The Carpool: An Uninvestigated Setting for Early Childhood Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Peter; Adler, Patricia S.

    Numerous childhood activities and relationships have been studied within the context of socialization, but one form of interpersonal experience has not yet been investigated by social researchers: the carpool. This paper investigates the types of interaction which take place within the carpool setting, both between children and adults and among…

  5. A Review of Peer Social Development in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goin, Robin P.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the literature on young children's peer social development. Addresses implications of social learning theory and empirical research. Discusses recurring themes, including child/peer versus child/adult interactions, incorporation of toys and games, influence of mothers, and gender peer preferences. Considers areas lacking empirical support…

  6. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in…

  7. Effects of Social and Isolate Toys on Social Play in an Inclusive Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivory, Jennifer J.; McCollum, Jeanette A.

    1999-01-01

    A study evaluated whether the availability of particular types of toys would influence the level of interactive play achieved by eight preschool children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool classroom. Results indicated that cooperative play was significantly more likely when social toys were available. (Author/CR)

  8. Social position, early deprivation and the development of attachment.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Head, Jenny; Bartley, Mel; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The effects of childhood social adversity on developing parent/child attachments may partially explain the effects of less advantaged childhood social position on adulthood mental health. Associations between social position, retrospectively recalled parental style and childhood emotional and physical deprivation and attachment were examined in 7,276 civil servants from the Whitehall II Study. Depressive symptoms were associated with insecure attachment style. Social position was not associated with attachment styles. However, fathers' social class was strongly associated with material and emotional deprivation. In turn, deprivation was associated with lower parental warmth. High parental warmth was associated with decreased risk of insecure attachment styles. Despite the methodological shortcomings of retrospective childhood data the results suggest material and emotional adversity influence the development of attachment through parental style, notably parental warmth.

  9. Trajectories of social withdrawal from middle childhood to early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H; Bowker, Julie C; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2008-05-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behavior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability and quality, best friend's withdrawal and exclusion/victimization) and group- (exclusion/victimization) level characteristics were used to define growth trajectories from the final year of elementary school, across the transition to middle school, and then to the final year of middle school (fifth-to-eighth grades). Three distinct trajectory classes were identified: low stable, increasing, and decreasing. Peer exclusion, prosocial behavior, and mutual friendship involvement differentiated class membership. Friendlessness, friendship instability, and exclusion were significant predictors of social withdrawal for the increasing class, whereas lower levels of peer exclusion predicted a decrease in social withdrawal for the decreasing class.

  10. Prospective associations between prosocial behavior and social dominance in early childhood: are sharers the best leaders?

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Jamie M; Guzzo, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study during early childhood (N = 96; M = 42.80; SD = 7.57) investigated the concurrent and prospective association between prosocial behavior and social dominance. Time-intensive school-based focal child sampling with continuous recording observations of prosocial behavior to peers were conducted and teacher-reports of social dominance were collected. The study documents significant prospective links between prosocial behavior to peers and increases in social dominance over time. Social dominance was not associated with changes in prosocial behavior. The findings extend past empirical work in early childhood and future directions are discussed.

  11. Social Isolation Modulates CLOCK Protein and Beta-Catenin Expression Pattern in Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neurons in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chuin Hau; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2017-01-01

    Postweaning social isolation reduces the amplitude of the daily variation of CLOCK protein in the brain and induces lower reproductive activity. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) acts as an inhibitor in the reproductive system and has been linked to stress. Social isolation has been shown to lower neuronal activity of GnIH-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). The exact mechanism by which social isolation may affect GnIH is still unclear. We investigated the impact of social isolation on regulatory cellular mechanisms in GnIH neurons. We examined via immunohistochemistry the expression of CLOCK protein at four different times throughout the day in GnIH cells tagged with enhanced fluorescent green protein (EGFP-GnIH) in 9-week-old adult male rats that have been raised for 6 weeks under postweaning social isolation and compared them with group-raised control rats of the same age. We also studied the expression of β-catenin-which has been shown to be affected by circadian proteins such as Bmal1-in EGFP-GnIH neurons to determine whether it could play a role in linking CLOCK in GnIH neurons. We found that social isolation modifies the pattern of CLOCK expression in GnIH neurons in the DMH. Socially isolated rats displayed greater CLOCK expression in the dark phase, while control rats displayed increased CLOCK expression in the light phase. Furthermore, β-catenin expression pattern in GnIH cells was disrupted by social isolation. This suggests that social isolation triggers changes in CLOCK and GnIH expression, which may be associated with an increase in nuclear β-catenin during the dark phase.

  12. Use of Antihistamine Medications During Early Pregnancy and Isolated Major Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Strickland, Matthew J.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Werler, Martha M.; Correa, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Antihistamines are commonly used during pregnancy. There is little evidence that they have teratogenic effects, but there are knowledge gaps with respect to newer products, as well as the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. METHODS Using the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2003), the authors examined associations between maternal use of 14 antihistamines during early pregnancy and 26 isolated major birth defects. A Bayesian analysis incorporating prior knowledge about the relationships between the antihistamines, birth defects, and measured covariates was conducted. RESULTS Of the 364 associations investigated, 24 had 95% posterior intervals excluding 1.0. All 24 associations were positive; 23 associations were of weak to moderate magnitude (posterior odds ratio [OR] < 3.0) and one was strong (OR > 6.0) but very imprecise. Of the 24 associations, 20 were with non-cardiac defects. Eight associations involved the antihistamine diphenhydramine. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study generally were consistent with no association between birth defects and antihistamine use during early pregnancy. Several of the findings might warrant further investigation, although the observed elevated associations should be interpreted in the context of the number of associations investigated and the analysis of retrospective, self-reported data. PMID:19161158

  13. Early plasma transfusion is associated with improved survival after isolated traumatic brain injury in patients with multifocal intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ronald; Folkerson, Lindley E; Sloan, Duncan; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Kitagawa, Ryan S; Choi, H Alex; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2017-02-01

    Plasma-based resuscitation improves outcomes in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock, while large-animal and limited clinical data suggest that it also improves outcomes and is neuroprotective in the setting of combined hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. However, the choice of initial resuscitation fluid, including the role of plasma, is unclear for patients after isolated traumatic brain injury. We reviewed adult trauma patients admitted from January 2011 to July 2015 with isolated traumatic brain injury. "Early plasma" was defined as transfusion of plasma within 4 hours. Purposeful multiple logistic regression modeling was performed to analyze the relationship of early plasma and inhospital survival. After testing for interaction, subgroup analysis was performed based on the pattern of brain injury on initial head computed tomography: epidural hematoma, intraparenchymal contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, or multifocal intracranial hemorrhage. Of the 633 isolated traumatic brain injury patients included, 178 (28%) who received early plasma were injured more severely coagulopathic, hypoperfused, and hypotensive on admission. Survival was similar in the early plasma versus no early plasma groups (78% vs 84%, P = .08). After adjustment for covariates, early plasma was not associated with improved survival (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.96). On subgroup analysis, multifocal intracranial hemorrhage was the largest subgroup with 242 patients. Of these, 61 (25%) received plasma within 4 hours. Within-group logistic regression analysis with adjustment for covariates found that early plasma was associated with improved survival (odds ratio 3.34, 95% confidence interval 1.20-9.35). Although early plasma transfusion was not associated with improved in-hospital survival for all isolated traumatic brain injury patients, early plasma was associated with increased in-hospital survival in those with multifocal intracranial

  14. [Prevalence and characteristics of social isolation in the elderly in a dormitory suburb according to household composition].

    PubMed

    Saito, Masashige; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Erika; Fukaya, Taro; Nishi, Mariko; Shinkai, Syoji

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the prevalence and characteristics of social isolation in elderly individuals living alone or with others in a dormitory suburb, and to examine the characteristics of non-responders to questions concerning social isolation. Data were obtained from a survey of 978 elderly (aged 65 and over) individuals living alone and 1,529 elderly individuals living together in Wako-shi, Saitama. The frequencies of contacts with non-co-resident children, relatives, friends, and neighbors were used to operationally define social isolation. Based on these responses, those who had contact with any of the above groups less than 2 or 3 times a month were termed "isolated elderly", those who had contact with these more than once a week were termed "non-isolated elderly", and those who did not answer these questions were termed "nonresponders". In addition, a logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine differences among the characteristics of isolated elderly between these households. Also, a multiple comparison analysis was performed to clarify the characteristics of non-responders. The major findings were as follows: 1) rates of prevalence of the isolated elderly were 24.01% for elderly living alone, and 28.7% for elderly living with others, respectively; 2) the elderly who were male, childless or living distant from children, and of lower income tended to be more socially isolated whether they were living alone or not; 3) a difference in isolation was noted between living alone and together in that divorced and unmarried elderly tended to be isolated when living alone while older and frail elderly tended to be isolated even when living together; 4) the characteristics of "nonresponders" were similar to those of the isolated elderly for both those living alone and living together. These findings suggest that social support for the socially isolated elderly should be adequately planned considering differences in the characteristics of

  15. Effect of social isolation on 24-h pattern of stress hormones and leptin in rats.

    PubMed

    Perelló, Mario; Chacon, Fernando; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2006-03-13

    This work analyzes the effect of social isolation of growing male rats on 24-h changes of plasma prolactin, growth hormone, ACTH and leptin, and on plasma and adrenal corticosterone concentrations. At 35 days of life, rats were either individually caged or kept in groups (6-8 animals per cage) under a 12:12 h light/dark schedule (lights on at 08:00 h). A significant arrest of body weight gain regardless of unchanged daily food intake was found in isolated rats after 2 weeks of isolation. On the 4th week, rats were killed at 6 time intervals during a 24-h cycle, beginning at 09:00 h. In isolated rats the 24-h pattern of all parameters tested became distorted, as assessed by Cosinor analysis. When analyzed as a main factor in a factorial analysis of variance, isolation decreased plasma prolactin and growth hormone, increased plasma leptin and corticosterone while decreased adrenal corticosterone. Plasma corticosterone levels correlated significantly with plasma ACTH and with adrenal corticosterone levels in group-caged rats only. These changes can be attributed to an effect of mild stress on the endogenous clock that modulates the circadian hormone release.

  16. Early Childhood Intervention and Early Adolescent Social and Emotional Competence: Second-Generation Evaluation Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Michael D.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Background: To explore whether social or emotional outcomes for high-risk early adolescent youth that attended an established preventive intervention called the Chicago Child-Parent Center Preschool Program (CPC) are moderated by individual, family and program variations. Purpose: Two questions are addressed: (1) Do the effects of CPC preschool…

  17. Early Validation of Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery Design Using Heterogeneous Modelling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plas, Peter; Guerriero, Suzanne; Cristiano, Leorato; Rugina, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Modelling and simulation can support a number of use cases across the spacecraft development life-cycle. Given the increasing complexity of space missions, the observed general trend is for a more extensive usage of simulation already in the early phases. A major perceived advantage is that modelling and simulation can enable the validation of critical aspects of the spacecraft design before the actual development is started, as such reducing the risk in later phases.Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) is one of the areas with a high potential to benefit from early modelling and simulation. With the increasing level of required spacecraft autonomy, FDIR specifications can grow in such a way that the traditional document-based review process soon becomes inadequate.This paper shows that FDIR modelling and simulation in a system context can provide a powerful tool to support the FDIR verification process. It is highlighted that FDIR modelling at this early stage requires heterogeneous modelling tools and languages, in order to provide an adequate functional description of the different components (i.e. FDIR functions, environment, equipment, etc.) to be modelled.For this reason, an FDIR simulation framework is proposed in this paper. This framework is based on a number of tools already available in the Avionics Systems Laboratory at ESTEC, which are the Avionics Test Bench Functional Engineering Simulator (ATB FES), Matlab/Simulink, TASTE, and Real Time Developer Studio (RTDS).The paper then discusses the application of the proposed simulation framework to a real case-study, i.e. the FDIR modelling of a satellite in support of actual ESA mission. Challenges and benefits of the approach are described. Finally, lessons learned and the generality of the proposed approach are discussed.

  18. Sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of inflammation: Moderating influences of social integration and social isolation in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyong Jin; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lauderdale, Diane S; Irwin, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Both sleep disturbance and social isolation increase the risk for morbidity and mortality. Systemic inflammation is suspected as a potential mechanism of these associations. However, the complex relationships between sleep disturbance, social isolation, and inflammation have not been examined in a population-based longitudinal study. This study examined the longitudinal association between sleep disturbance and systemic inflammation, and the moderating effects of social isolation on this association. The CARDIA study is a population-based longitudinal study conducted in four US cities. Sleep disturbance - i.e., insomnia complaints and short sleep duration - was assessed in 2962 African-American and White adults at baseline (2000-2001, ages 33-45years). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured at baseline and follow-up (2005-2006). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and subjective and objective social isolation (i.e., feelings of social isolation and social network size) were measured at follow-up. Sleep disturbance was a significant predictor of inflammation five years later after full adjustment for covariates (adjusted betas: 0.048, P=0.012 for CRP; 0.047, P=0.017 for IL-6). Further adjustment for baseline CRP revealed that sleep disturbance also impacted the longitudinal change in CRP levels over five years (adjusted beta: 0.044, P=0.013). Subjective social isolation was a significant moderator of this association between sleep disturbance and CRP (adjusted beta 0.131, P=0.002). Sleep disturbance was associated with heightened systemic inflammation in a general population over a five-year follow-up, and this association was significantly stronger in those who reported feelings of social isolation. Clinical interventions targeting sleep disturbances may be a potential avenue for reducing inflammation, particularly in individuals who feel socially isolated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Social Class, Family Formation, and Delinquency in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.; Swisher, Raymond R.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests increasing heterogeneity in the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. This study considers how this heterogeneity may influence delinquency between these two developmental periods. We focus on the role of family transitions, educational attainment, and employment in predicting risk of nonviolent delinquency and substance use, as well as disparities in transitions across socioeconomic status subgroups. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We find that family and neighborhood advantage are negatively associated with transitions into marriage, cohabitation, and parenthood, yet positively associated with educational attainment. In addition, adolescent family and neighborhood advantage are associated with a continuation of delinquent behavior and substance use during early adulthood. In multivariate analyses, accounting for family transitions in early adulthood largely attenuates the relationship between neighborhood advantage in adolescence and delinquency in early adulthood. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for developmental criminology. PMID:27418713

  20. Integrative review of older adult loneliness and social isolation in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Neville, Stephen; Forsyth, Vanessa; White, Lindsey; Napier, Sara

    2017-06-01

    To conduct an integrative review of empirical studies of loneliness for older people in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Loneliness is a risk factor for older people's poor physical and cognitive health, serious illness and mortality. A national survey showed loneliness rates vary by gender and ethnicity. A systematic search of health and social science databases was conducted. Of 21 scrutinised articles, nine were eligible for inclusion and subjected to independent quality appraisal. One qualitative and eight quantitative research articles were selected. Reported levels and rates of loneliness vary across age cohorts. Loneliness was significantly related to social isolation, living alone, depression, suicidal ideation, being female, being Māori and having a visual impairment. Qualitatively, older Korean immigrants experienced loneliness and social isolation, along with language and cultural differences. Amongst older New Zealanders loneliness is commonly experienced by particular ethnic groups, highlighting a priority for targetted health and social services. © 2017 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of AJA Inc.

  1. Social roles and the evolution of networks in extreme and isolated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the evolution of network structure as it relates to formal and informal social roles in well-bounded, isolated groups. Research was conducted at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Data were collected on crewmembers' networks of social interaction over each of three winter-over periods, when the station is completely isolated. In addition, data were collected on the informal roles played by crewmembers (e.g., instrumental leadership, expressive leadership). The study found that globally coherent networks in winter-over groups were associated with group consensus on the presence of critically important informal social roles (e.g., expressive leadership) where global coherence is the extent to which a network forms a single group composed of a unitary core and periphery as opposed to being factionalized into two or more subgroups. Conversely, the evolution of multiple subgroups was associated with the absence of consensus on critical informal social roles, above all the critically important role of instrumental leader.

  2. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy programs. In previous research, we have found that imagery rescripting was superior to a control condition in terms of its beneficial effects on negative beliefs, image and memory distress, fear of negative evaluation, and anxiety in social situations. In this article, we describe our imagery rescripting procedure. We consider the importance of updating negative imagery in social phobia, the theoretical basis for imagery rescripting, directions for future research, and how to conduct imagery rescripting, including potential problems and their solutions. PMID:22298942

  3. Analysis of Clonality and Antibiotic Resistance among Early Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus faecium in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Galloway-Peña, Jessica R.; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Arias, Cesar A.; Eliopoulos, George M.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Enterococcus faecium genogroup, referred to as clonal complex 17 (CC17), seems to possess multiple determinants that increase its ability to survive and cause disease in nosocomial environments. Methods Using 53 clinical and geographically diverse US E. faecium isolates dating from 1971 to 1994 we determined the multi-locus sequence type, the presence of 16 putative virulence genes (hylEfm, espEfm and fms genes), resistance to ampicillin (AMPR), vancomycin (VANR) and high-levels of gentamicin and streptomycin. Results Overall, 16 different sequence types (STs), mostly CC17 isolates, were identified in 9 different regions of the US. The earliest CC17 isolates were part of an outbreak in 1982 in Richmond, VA. Characteristics of CC17 isolates included increases in AMPR, the presence of hylEfm and espEfm, emergence of VANR and the presence of at least 13/14 fms genes. Eight out of forty-one of the early AMPR isolates, however, were not within CC17. Conclusions While not all early US AMPR isolates were clonally related, E. faecium CC17 isolates have been circulating in the US since at least 1982 and appear to have progressively acquired additional virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants, perhaps explaining the recent success of this species in the hospital environment. PMID:19821720

  4. "I Feel Trapped": The Tension Between Personal and Structural Factors of Social Isolation and the Desire for Social Integration Among Older Residents of a High-Crime Neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Portacolone, Elena; Perissinotto, Carla; Yeh, Jarmin Christine; Greysen, S Ryan

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors contributing to the social isolation of older residents of a high-crime neighborhood through the in-depth examination of their lived experiences. A deeper understanding of factors contributing to social isolation can allow policymakers and health care providers to create policies and programs to alleviate the social isolation of these vulnerable and understudied individuals. Participants were recruited through the support of the Housing Authority and Police and Fire Departments of Richmond, California, a town with a high-crime rate. Fifty-nine ethnographic interviews were conducted with 20 individuals of 58-95 years of age. Transcripts and fieldnotes were analyzed with a focus on the specific factors contributing the social isolation of participants. An overarching theme of tension between personal and structural factors of social isolation and desire for social integration emerged from qualitative content analysis. A tension emerged between a longing to participate in society and the immersion in a reality so dense with obstacles that made participation in society difficult to attain. Four specific themes also emerged. Three themes demonstrated underlying factors of social isolation stemming from the personal sphere and the physical and social environment. The fourth theme illustrated participants' desire for social integration. Findings demonstrate the salience of interventions and programs to make neighborhoods safe and accessible to older residents. Findings also suggest a need to reframe the conceptual framework for social isolation to better measure and alleviate this public health problem. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Alone on the Inside: The Impact of Social Isolation and Helping Others on AOD Use and Criminal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Byron R.; Pagano, Maria E.; Lee, Matthew T.; Post, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    Because addiction is a socially isolating disease, social support for recovery is an important element of treatment planning. This study examines the relationship between social isolation, giving and receiving social support in Alcoholics Anonymous during treatment, and post-treatment outcomes among juvenile offenders court-referred to addiction treatment. Adolescents (N = 195) aged 14 to 18 years were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment discharge. The influence of social isolation variables on relapse and severe criminal activity in the 12-months post-treatment was examined using negative binomial logistic regressions and event history methods. Juveniles entering treatment with social estrangement were significantly more likely to relapse, be incarcerated, and commit a violent crime in the 12-months post-treatment. Giving help to others in Alcoholics Anonymous during treatment significantly reduced the risk of relapse, incarceration, and violent crime in the 12-months post-treatment whereas receiving help did not. PMID:29628533

  6. Trajectory of social isolation following hip fracture: an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort.

    PubMed

    Smith, Toby O; Dainty, Jack R; MacGregor, Alex

    2018-01-01

    social isolation is defined as a lack of meaningful and sustained communication or interactions with social networks. There is limited understanding on the prevalence of social isolation and loneliness in people following hip fracture and no previous understanding of how this changes over time. to determine the prevalence and trajectory of social isolation and loneliness before a hip fracture, during the recovery phase and a minimum of 2 years post-hip fracture in an English population. data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort (2004/5-2014/15). The sample comprised of 215 participants who had sustained a hip fracture. Measures of social isolation and loneliness were analysed through multilevel modelling to determine their trajectories during three-time intervals (pre-fracture; interval at hip fracture and recovery; minimum 2 years post-fracture). The prevalence of social isolation and loneliness were determined pre- and post-fracture. prevalence of social isolation was 19% post-hip fracture and loneliness 13% post-hip fracture. There was no statistically significant change in social isolation pre-fracture compared to a minimum of 2 years post-fracture (P = 0.78). Similarly, there was no statistically significant change in loneliness pre-fracture compared to a minimum of 2 years post-fracture (P = 0.12). this analysis has determined that whilst social isolation and loneliness do not change over time following hip fracture, these remain a significant problem for this population. Interventions are required to address these physical and psychological health needs. This is important as they may have short and longer term health benefits for people post-hip fracture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Cumulative Social Risk and Obesity in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Chambers, Earle C.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between cumulative social adversity and childhood obesity among preschool-aged children (N = 1605) in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. METHODS: Maternal reports of intimate partner violence, food insecurity, housing insecurity, maternal depressive symptoms, maternal substance use, and father’s incarceration were obtained when the child was 1 and 3 years of age. Two cumulative social risk scores were created by summing the 6 factors assessed at ages 1 and 3 years. Child height and weight were measured at 5 years of age. Logistic regression models stratified according to gender were used to estimate the association between cumulative social risk and obesity, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of children were obese at age 5 years, and 57% had at least 1 social risk factor. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, girls experiencing high cumulative social risk (≥2 factors) at age 1 year only (odds ratio [OR]: 2.1 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–4.1]) or at 3 years only (OR: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.2–4.2]) were at increased odds of being obese compared with girls with no risk factors at either time point. Those experiencing high cumulative risk at age 1 and 3 years were not at statistically significant odds of being obese (OR: 1.9 [95% CI: 0.9–4.0]). No significant associations were noted among boys. CONCLUSIONS: There seems to be gender differences in the effects of cumulative social risk factors on the prevalence of obesity at 5 years of age. Understanding the social context of families could make for more effective preventive efforts to combat childhood obesity. PMID:22508921

  8. Long term treadmill exercise performed to chronic social isolated rats regulate anxiety behavior without improving learning.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Ozge Selin; Sahin, Leyla; Tamer, Lulufer

    2018-05-01

    The type and duration of exposure to stress is an important influence on emotional and cognitive functions. Learning is the adaptive response of the central nervous system that occurs in hippocampus which affects from environmental factors like exercise. In this study, we investigated effects of long term treadmill exercise on learning and behavior on chronic social isolated rat. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) randomly assigned into four groups: control, exercised, social isolation, social isolation + exercise during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. Social isolation protocol was applied during 14 days by placing rat in a cage one by one. Rats were exercised during 5 days, days were chosen randomly for overall 4 weeks (20, 30, 50, 60 min respectively). Finally, learning performance was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM). Anxiety behavior was evaluated by Open field and elevated plus maze test. At the end of learning and behavior tests, the rats were decapitated to collect blood samples via intracardiac puncture and corticosterone analysis was performed with ELISA method. Animal weights and water consumption did not change significantly but food intake differed among groups. Corticosterone level did not change between groups. The frequency of entering to the target quadrant increased in exercised rat significantly. However, there was no difference in learning and memory in rats. Treadmill exercise reduced anxiety behavior significantly. Taken together these findings may point out that, long term treadmill exercise did not change learning and memory but reduced anxiety level of rat without changing corticosterone level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social isolation and cancer management after the 2011 triple disaster in Fukushima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Akihiko; Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Saji, Shigehira; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro; Tsukada, Manabu; Ohira, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer patients may present with patient delay or experience provider delay—2 factors which can lead to a late-stage diagnosis and poor prognosis. Mass disasters drastically change social structures, and have the potential to contribute to these delays. However, there is little information available on patient and provider delay related to cancer after disasters. In March 2011, an earthquake, followed by a tsunami and nuclear accident struck Fukushima, Japan. In July 2014, a 59 year-old Japanese widow, living alone, presented to our hospital with a lump and pain in her right breast, which had originally appeared in April 2011 and continuously deteriorated for 3 years and 3 months. She was diagnosed with stage IIIB right breast cancer. Detailed history revealed that she was exposed to social isolation in the aftermath of the disasters due to evacuation of her friends and daughter. Although she regularly saw her general practitioner, she did not disclose her breast symptoms for 1 year and 5 months, at which time she was falsely diagnosed with intercostal neuralgia. She did not seek further medical attention for the breast symptoms for another 1 year and 10 months, despite multiple clinic visits for unrelated reasons. The present disasters, particularly the nuclear disaster, seem to have led to the social isolation of local residents, reducing their opportunities to discuss health concerns with others and seek subsequent medical attention. This case highlights that social isolation may contribute to patient and provider delay in breast cancer patients, as accentuated in this disaster setting. PMID:27368025

  10. Effects of social isolation, re-socialization and age on cognitive and aggressive behaviors of Kunming mice and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    An, Dong; Chen, Wei; Yu, De-Qin; Wang, Shi-Wei; Yu, Wei-Zhi; Xu, Hong; Wang, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Yi-Ping; Wu, Jun-Cheng; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Yin, Sheng-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Both Kunming (KM) mice and BALB/c mice have been widely used as rodent models to investigate stress-associated mental diseases. However, little is known about the different behaviors of KM mice and BALB/c mice after social isolation, particularly cognitive and aggressive behaviors. In this study, the behaviors of KM and BALB/c mice isolated for 2, 4 and 8 weeks and age-matched controls were evaluated using object recognition, object location and resident-intruder tests. The recovery of behavioral deficits by re-socialization was also examined for the isolated mice in adolescence. Our study showed that isolation for 2, 4 and 8 weeks led to cognitive deficits and increased aggressiveness for both KM and BALB/c mice. An important finding is that re-socialization could completely recover spatial/non-spatial cognitive deficits resulted from social isolation for both KM and BALB/c mice. In addition, age only impacted aggressiveness of KM mice. Moreover, isolation duration showed different impacts on cognitive and aggressive behaviors for both KM and BALB/c mice. Furthermore, BALB/c mice showed weak spatial/non-spatial memory and low aggressiveness when they were at the same age and isolation duration, compared to KM mice. In conclusion, KM mice and BALB/c mice behaved characteristically under physiology and isolation conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N=392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behavior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability and quality, best friend’s withdrawal and exclusion/victimization) and group- (exclusion/victimization) level characteristics were used to define growth trajectories from the final year of elementary school, across the transition to middle school, and then to the final year of middle school (fifth-to-eighth grades). Three distinct trajectory classes were identified: low stable, increasing, and decreasing. Peer exclusion, prosocial behavior, and mutual friendship involvement differentiated class membership. Friendlessness, friendship instability, and exclusion were significant predictors of social withdrawal for the increasing class, whereas lower levels of peer exclusion predicted a decrease in social withdrawal for the decreasing class. PMID:18193479

  12. Early social-emotional development in blind infants.

    PubMed

    Tröster, H; Brambring, M

    1992-01-01

    In order to study the impact of blindness on social and emotional development during the first year of life, the level of social-emotional development was compared in blind and sighted 9- and 12-month-old infants. The five 9-month-old and the 17 12-month-old blind infants were completely blind from birth and exhibited no further serious disabilities. Social-emotional development was assessed with a scale from the Bielefeld Developmental Test for Blind Infants and Preschoolers containing three subscales on emotions, social interaction and impulse control. Compared to non-disabled infants, blind infants exhibited a more limited repertoire of facial expressions and less responsiveness. They less frequently attempted to initiate contact with their mothers (self-initiated interactions) or comply with simple requests and prohibitions than sighted infants. These differences in the social-emotional development of blind and sighted infants are traced back to the effects of blindness on the mother-child interaction. The lack of visual perception appears to impede particularly the acquisition of a dialogue concept.

  13. Resources on Social and Emotional Development and Early Learning Standards. CEELO FastFacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, L.

    2013-01-01

    In this "FastFacts," a state's Department of Education requests information from the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) on how the research defines skills in social-emotional development, approaches to learning, and executive function, to inform planned revisions to the early childhood indicators of progress for children…

  14. Distress and Violent Victimization among Young Adolescents: Early Puberty and the Social Interactionist Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Christopher J.; Burek, Melissa W.; Stewart, Eric A.; Miller, J. Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the empirical validity of the Social Interactionist (SI) perspective as an explanation of violent victimization. An additional goal is to explain why early puberty among adolescents is connected to violent victimization. Using SI, we theorize that early puberty creates unusually high levels of distress for adolescents (more…

  15. The Typical Developmental Trajectory of Social and Executive Functions in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood…

  16. Theorizing an Early Childhood Educator's Authority for the Advancement of Social Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Authority is an uncomfortable subject for early childhood educators. This article outlines some tensions between the theory and practice of an early childhood educator's authority and the implications of these tensions for educators themselves and the social changes they envisage. Drawing on a range of feminist educational philosophers and…

  17. Social Confidence in Early Adulthood among Young People with and without a History of Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to test the predictions that lower self-esteem and higher shyness in individuals with a history of language impairment (LI) would continue from adolescence into early adulthood and that those with LI would have lower social self-efficacy in early adulthood. Method: Participants were young people with a…

  18. Social Status of Adolescents with an Early Onset of Externalizing Behavior: The SNARE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). Building on Moffitt's dual-taxonomy model, it was hypothesized that early onset adolescents were more popular, but not necessarily more…

  19. Predicting Academic Achievement and Attainment: The Contribution of Early Academic Skills, Attention Difficulties, and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Godwin, Jennifer; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Research predicting academic achievement from early academic, attention, and socioemotional skills has largely focused on elementary school outcomes and rarely included peer assessments of social competence. We examined associations between these early child characteristics and academic outcomes into young adulthood using the Fast Track normative…

  20. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallourd, Pierre, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution from France is based on recently-published documents and in particular on the "Report on the Public Infancy Service for Early Childhood," published in February 2007 by a department of the Prime Minister's Office, the Centre of Strategic Analysis, Social Affairs Section and "Early Childhood Education and Care, a…

  1. The Effect of Early Noncognitive Skills on Social Outcomes in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…

  2. Social Identity, Autism and Visual Impairment (VI) in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how visual impairment might impact on early social and emotional development including self-awareness and communication with others. Some children show a "developmental setback" and other worrying developmental trajectories in the early years, including autistic related behaviours and autistic spectrum disorders.…

  3. Early Childhood Practitioner Judgments of the Social Validity of Performance Checklists and Parent Practice Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from three field tests evaluations of early childhood intervention practitioner performance checklists and three parent practice guides are reported. Forty-two practitioners from three early childhood intervention programs reviewed the checklists and practice guides and made (1) social validity judgments of both products, (2) judgments of…

  4. The Social Experience of Early Childhood for Children with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion, Competence and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Flewitt, Rosie; Payler, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells of the social experiences of three four-year-old children with learning disabilities as they negotiate their daily lives in their homes and early education settings in England. We apply a social model of childhood disability to the relatively unexplored territory of young children and use vignettes drawn from video observation to…

  5. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  6. Social Validity: Perceptions of Check and Connect with Early Literacy Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltich Lyst, Aimee; Gabriel, Stacey; O'Shaughnessy, Tam E.; Meyers, Joel; Meyers, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article underscores the potential advantages of qualitative methods to illustrate the depth and complexity of social validity. This investigation evaluates the social validity of Check and Connect with Early Literacy Support (CCEL), through the perspectives of teachers and caregivers whose children participated in the intervention. Teachers…

  7. Somatic Complaints in Early Adolescence: The Role of Parents' Emotion Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Christiane E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Harley, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parent emotion socialization and youth somatic complaints (SC) in an early adolescent sample using a longitudinal experimental design. An emotion-focused parenting intervention, which taught parent's skills to improve their emotional competence and emotion socialization, was used to examine whether…

  8. Everyone Is Doing It! Managing Social Media in the Early Childhood Ecosystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Fran

    2011-01-01

    Everyone's doing it: Tweeting, "friending," blogging, linking, texting, and otherwise zipping around all over the social media landscape. Social media has become more than just a pastime. It is officially now another important communication medium early childhood educators use to establish and enhance meaningful relationships with parents,…

  9. Naturalistic Observations of Schoolyard Social Participation: Marker Variables for Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…

  10. Early Social Documentary Photography: The Photographs of "Charities," 1897-1909.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethune, Beverly M.

    The preliminary development of social documentary photography can be traced in the early issues of "Charities," a journal established in 1897 by the New York Charity Organization Society. During the journal's earliest years, 1897 to 1902, photography was already associated with social work in the minds of the public; but…

  11. Friendship and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Multilevel Social Network Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…

  12. The Crucible: Adding Complexity to the Question of Social Justice in Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mevawalla, Zinnia

    2013-01-01

    As an ideology, the concept of social justice has long been a worthy, if slightly volatile, companion of early childhood theorists and researchers. Whilst the majority of the literature has valorised social justice, discontented questions regarding "what" the construct entails and "how" it might be tamed to work still remain.…

  13. Early Adolescent Family Experiences and Perceived Social Support in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayman, Mathew D.; Turner, R. Jay; Cislo, Andrew M.; Eliassen, A. Henry

    2011-01-01

    Although the protective role of social support is well established in the health literature, antecedents of perceived social support are not well understood. Research on family experiential factors during early adolescence, an important psychosocial developmental period in the life course, represents a promising line of inquiry. Using a sample of…

  14. An Observational Study of the Interactions of Socially Withdrawn/Anxious Early Adolescents and Their Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The friendships of socially withdrawn/anxious children and early adolescents have been found to lack critical rewarding qualities. Observational research may help elucidate the obstacles they face in forming and maintaining high-quality friendships with sociable peers. Method: We observed the interactions of 38 socially withdrawn early…

  15. Early Childhood Education and Care Content for the Social Work Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan; Herman-Smith, Robert; Allen, Susan F.; Fram, Maryah Stella

    2013-01-01

    Social workers are poised to play an important role in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings; however, they need the knowledge and skills necessary to make a meaningful contribution. This article presents learning activities that infuse ECEC content, centered on the following four areas for social work education: (1) history of the…

  16. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  17. Selective and Efficient Neural Coding of Communication Signals Depends on Early Acoustic and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noopur; Gastpar, Michael; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural processing of communication sounds such as species-specific song, in the primary auditory cortex analog of adult zebra finches. Our electrophysiological recordings reveal that neural tuning to simple frequency-based synthetic sounds is initially established in all the laminae independent of patterned acoustic experience; however, we provide the first evidence that early exposure to patterned sound statistics, such as those found in native sounds, is required for the subsequent emergence of neural selectivity for complex vocalizations and for shaping neural spiking precision in superficial and deep cortical laminae, and for creating efficient neural representations of song and a less redundant ensemble code in all the laminae. Our study also provides the first causal evidence for ‘sparse coding’, such that when the statistics of the stimuli were changed during rearing, as in noise-rearing, that the sparse or optimal representation for species-specific vocalizations disappeared. Taken together, these results imply that a layer-specific differential development of the auditory cortex requires patterned acoustic input, and a specialized and robust sensory representation of complex communication sounds in the auditory cortex requires a rich acoustic and social environment. PMID:23630587

  18. Peripubertal viral-like challenge and social isolation mediate overlapping but distinct effects on behaviour and brain interferon regulatory factor 7 expression in the adult Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Lukasz, Bartlomiej; O'Sullivan, Niamh C; Loscher, Jennifer S; Pickering, Mark; Regan, Ciaran M; Murphy, Keith J

    2013-01-01

    A range of adverse, early life environmental influences such as viral infection and social deprivation are thought to increase risk of psychiatric illness later in life. Here, we used peripheral administration of the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C) to compare the consequences of peripubertal infection and isolation rearing. Isolation rearing induced deficits in sensorimotor gating and recognition memory while no changes in social interaction or spatial learning were observed. PolyI:C injection during the peripubertal period markedly increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes (Ifit2, Prkr, Mx2 and Irf7) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus demonstrating that peripheral administration of the viral mimic in the adolescent animal does have direct effects in the brain. Peripubertal infection mimicry induced a similar but later emerging behavioural deficit in prepulse inhibition implying the existence of a peripubertal window of opportunity for viral-mediated cytokine increases to impact brain development and function. PolyI:C treatment also impaired novel object recognition but did not alter spatial reference memory or social interaction. Combining the polyI:C challenge with social isolation did not exacerbate the behavioural deficits seen with isolation rearing alone. Using Irf7 as a marker, peripubertal viral infection mimicry, isolation rearing and a combination of both were all seen to produce a long-lasting molecular imprint on the interferon-associated signalling pathway in the principal neuron population of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The data suggest that the sensitivity of brain structure and function to disruption by viral infection extends into the peripubertal period. Moreover, augmented interferon signalling in hippocampus may represent a common molecular imprint of environmental insults associated with neuropsychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

    2007-01-01

    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  20. Helping Families Connect Early Literacy with Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…

  1. Pedagogical Silences in Australian Early Childhood Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheeseman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Growing international interest in the early childhood years has been accompanied by an expansion of public programs in Australia targeting young children and their families. This article explores some of the influences and rhetoric that frame these initiatives. It encourages critical examination of the discourses that shape the nature of early…

  2. Survival after pathogen exposure in group-living insects: don't forget the stress of social isolation!

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, P; Holländer, K; Meunier, J

    2016-09-01

    A major cost of group-living is its inherent risk of pathogen infection. To limit this risk, many group-living animals have developed the capability to prophylactically boost their immune system in the presence of group members and/or to mount collective defences against pathogens. These two phenomena, called density-dependent prophylaxis and social immunity, respectively, are often used to explain why, in group-living species, individuals survive better in groups than in isolation. However, this survival difference may also reflect an alternative and often overlooked process: a cost of social isolation on individuals' capability to fight against infections. Here, we disentangled the effects of density-dependent prophylaxis, social immunity and stress of social isolation on the survival after pathogen exposure in group-living adults of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. By manipulating the presence of group members both before and after pathogen exposure, we demonstrated that the cost of being isolated after infection, but not the benefits of social immunity or density-dependent prophylaxis, explained the survival of females. Specifically, females kept constantly in groups or constantly isolated had higher survival rates than females that were first in groups and then isolated after infection. Our results also showed that this cost of social isolation was absent in males and that social isolation did not reduce the survival of noninfected individuals. Overall, this study gives a new perspective on the role of pathogens in social evolution, as it suggests that an apparently nonadaptive, personal immune process may promote the maintenance of group-living under pathogenic environments. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Early Inherited Risk for Anxiety Moderates the Association between Fathers’ Child-Centered Parenting and Early Social Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Alto, Kathleen M.; Marceau, Kristine; Najjar, Reema; Leve, Leslie D.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the role of the early environment in shaping children’s risk for anxiety problems have produced mixed results. It is possible that inconsistencies in previous findings result from a lack of consideration of a putative role for inherited influences moderators on the impact of early experiences. Early inherited influences not only contribute to vulnerabilities for anxiety problems throughout the lifespan, but can also modulate the ways that the early environment impacts child outcomes. In the current study, we tested the effects of child-centered parenting behaviors on putative anxiety risk in young children who differed in levels of inherited vulnerability. We tested this using a parent-offspring adoption design and a sample in which risk for anxiety problems and parenting behaviors were assessed in both mothers and fathers. Inherited influences on anxiety problems were assessed as anxiety symptoms in biological parents. Child-centered parenting was observed in adoptive mothers and fathers when children were 9 months old. Social inhibition, an early temperament marker of anxiety risk, was observed at child ages 9 and 18 months. Inherited influences on anxiety problems moderated the link between paternal child-centered parenting during infancy and social inhibition in toddlerhood. For children whose birth parents reported high levels of anxiety symptoms, greater child-centered parenting in adoptive fathers was related to greater social inhibition 9 months later. For children whose birth parents reported low levels of anxiety symptoms, greater child-centered parenting in adoptive fathers was related to less social inhibition across the same period. PMID:27572913

  4. Early inherited risk for anxiety moderates the association between fathers' child-centered parenting and early social inhibition.

    PubMed

    Brooker, R J; Alto, K M; Marceau, K; Najjar, R; Leve, L D; Ganiban, J M; Shaw, D S; Reiss, D; Neiderhiser, J M

    2016-12-01

    Studies of the role of the early environment in shaping children's risk for anxiety problems have produced mixed results. It is possible that inconsistencies in previous findings result from a lack of consideration of a putative role for inherited influences moderators on the impact of early experiences. Early inherited influences not only contribute to vulnerabilities for anxiety problems throughout the lifespan, but can also modulate the ways that the early environment impacts child outcomes. In the current study, we tested the effects of child-centered parenting behaviors on putative anxiety risk in young children who differed in levels of inherited vulnerability. We tested this using a parent-offspring adoption design and a sample in which risk for anxiety problems and parenting behaviors were assessed in both mothers and fathers. Inherited influences on anxiety problems were assessed as anxiety symptoms in biological parents. Child-centered parenting was observed in adoptive mothers and fathers when children were 9 months old. Social inhibition, an early temperament marker of anxiety risk, was observed at child ages 9 and 18 months. Inherited influences on anxiety problems moderated the link between paternal child-centered parenting during infancy and social inhibition in toddlerhood. For children whose birth parents reported high levels of anxiety symptoms, greater child-centered parenting in adoptive fathers was related to greater social inhibition 9 months later. For children whose birth parents reported low levels of anxiety symptoms, greater child-centered parenting in adoptive fathers was related to less social inhibition across the same period.

  5. Social-cognitive functioning and social skills in patients with early treated phenylketonuria: a PKU-COBESO study.

    PubMed

    Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francjan J; de Sonneville, Leo M J; van der Meere, Jaap J; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Hofstede, Floris C; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Langendonk, Janneke G; Huijbregts, Stephan C J

    2016-05-01

    Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Ninety five PKU-patients (mean age 21.6 ± 10.2 years) and 95 healthy controls (mean age 19.6 ± 8.7 years) were compared on performance of computerized and paper-and-pencil tasks measuring social-cognitive abilities and on parent- and self-reported social skills, using multivariate analyses of variance, and controlling for general cognitive ability (IQ-estimate). Further comparisons were made between patients using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, N = 30) and patients not using BH4. Associations with Phe-levels on the day of testing, during childhood, during adolescence and throughout life were examined. PKU-patients showed poorer social-cognitive functioning and reportedly had poorer social skills than controls (regardless of general cognitive abilities). Quality of social-cognitive functioning was negatively related to recent Phe-levels and Phe-levels between 8 and 12 years for adolescents with PKU. Quality of social skills was negatively related to lifetime phenylalanine levels in adult patients, and specifically to Phe-levels between 0 and 7, and between 8 and 12 years. There were no differences with respect to social outcome measures between the BH4 and non-BH4 groups. PKU-patients have Phe-related difficulties with social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Problems seem to be more evident among adolescents and adults with PKU. High Phe-levels during childhood and early adolescence seem to be of greater influence than current and recent Phe-levels for these patients.

  6. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Victoria

    This keynote address first briefly reviews the historical nature and structure of education in Zimbabwe prior to independence. Then, the theme of the seminar (integrated education as a preparation for social development), as well as related policy issues are stated. Educational goals of the government of Zimbabwe are discussed. Concluding remarks…

  7. Examining the role of social cues in early word learning.

    PubMed

    Briganti, Alicia M; Cohen, Leslie B

    2011-02-01

    Infants watched a video of an adult pointing towards two different objects while hearing novel labels. Analyses indicated that 14- and 18-month-olds looked longer at the target object, but only 18-month-olds showed word learning. The results suggest that different types of social cues are available at different ages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Child Care, Parenting Education, and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Risk factors affecting infants and young children, such as mother's drug addiction or teenage pregnancy, are discussed. Four major groups of risk factors are considered: (1) sociocultural and demographic factors; (2) biomedical risks; (3) personal-social risk factors; and (4) family history factors. These risk factors intersect to increase…

  9. Family-School Connectedness and Children's Early Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpell, Zewelanji N.; Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of the frequency of parent-teacher contacts and quality of parent-teacher relationships in prekindergarten were associated with teachers' perceptions of the quality of their relationship with children and children's social development. Participants were a diverse sample of 2966 four-year-olds…

  10. Cambodian Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement: The Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Sothy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of parents' cultural beliefs and attitudes with respect to fate, traditional gender roles, aspirations, and involvement in children's academic achievement in Cambodia. Based on Coleman's social capital theory, a good parent-child relationship enables children's school success because resources are created as a…

  11. The Role of Early Visual Attention in Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Luyster, Rhiannon J.; Yim, Jung Yeon; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Faces convey important information about the social environment, and even very young infants are preferentially attentive to face-like over non-face stimuli. Eye-tracking studies have allowed researchers to examine which features of faces infants find most salient across development, and the present study examined scanning of familiar (i.e.,…

  12. Early Childhood Teachers as Socializers of Young Children's Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…

  13. Physiological Reactivity, Social Support, and Memory in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.; Bauer, Amy; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The interactive effects of physiological reactivity and social support on children's memory were examined. Four- to 6-year-olds completed a laboratory protocol during which autonomic responses and salivary cortisol were measured. Memory was assessed shortly afterward and 2 weeks later. During the second interview, children were questioned by a…

  14. Romantic Partner Selection and Socialization during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and…

  15. Children's Social Behaviour, Language and Literacy in Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, UK representative sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, the present study examined longitudinal variations in parent ratings of child social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and prosocial behaviour (preschool to end of Key Stage 1); the magnitude of parent-teacher agreement regarding behaviour ratings; and…

  16. Early Predictors of Impaired Social Functioning in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Laura A.; Seil, Shannon K.; Calonder, Laura A.; Madrid, Jesus E.; Bone, Kyle J.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Garner, Joseph P.; Capitanio, John P.; Parker, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social cognition impairments but its basic disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the absence of animal models that manifest behavioral phenotypes relevant to ASD. Rhesus monkeys are an ideal model organism to address this barrier to progress. Like humans, rhesus monkeys are highly social, possess complex social cognition abilities, and exhibit pronounced individual differences in social functioning. Moreover, we have previously shown that Low-Social (LS) vs. High-Social (HS) adult male monkeys exhibit lower social motivation and poorer social skills. It is not known, however, when these social deficits first emerge. The goals of this study were to test whether juvenile LS and HS monkeys differed as infants in their ability to process social information, and whether infant social abilities predicted later social classification (i.e., LS vs. HS), in order to facilitate earlier identification of monkeys at risk for poor social outcomes. Social classification was determined for N = 25 LS and N = 25 HS male monkeys that were 1–4 years of age. As part of a colony-wide assessment, these monkeys had previously undergone, as infants, tests of face recognition memory and the ability to respond appropriately to conspecific social signals. Monkeys later identified as LS vs. HS showed impairments in recognizing familiar vs. novel faces and in the species-typical adaptive ability to gaze avert to scenes of conspecific aggression. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression using infant social ability measures perfectly predicted later social classification of all N = 50 monkeys. These findings suggest that an early capacity to process important social information may account for differences in rhesus monkeys’ motivation and competence to establish and maintain social relationships later in life. Further development of this model will facilitate identification of novel biological targets

  17. The Impact of Social Isolation on Pain Interference: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Karayannis, Nicholas V; Baumann, Isabel; Sturgeon, John A; Melloh, Markus; Mackey, Sean C

    2018-04-12

    Evidence suggests social interactions play an important role in pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether social isolation (SI) in people with persistent pain determines pain interference (PI) and physical function over time. Patients seeking care at a tertiary pain management referral center were administered the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) SI, PI, physical function, depression, and average pain intensity item banks at their initial consultation and subsequent visits as part of their routine clinical care. We used a post hoc simulation of an experiment using propensity score matching (n = 4,950) and carried out a cross-lagged longitudinal analysis (n = 312) of retrospective observational data. Cross-lagged longitudinal analysis showed that SI predicted PI at the next time point, above and beyond the effects of pain intensity and covariates, but not vice versa. These data support the importance of SI as a factor in pain-related appraisal and coping and demonstrate that a comprehensive assessment of the individuals' social context can provide a better understanding of the differential trajectories for a person living with pain. Our study provides evidence that the impact of pain is reduced in individuals who perceive a greater sense of inclusion from and engagement with others. This study enhances the understanding of how social factors affect pain and have implications for how the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions may be improved. Therapeutic interventions aimed at increasing social connection hold merit in reducing the impact of pain on engagement with activities.

  18. The Neutral Gas Properties of Extremely Isolated Early-type Galaxies. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Trisha; Marcum, Pamela M.; Fanelli, Michael N.

    2018-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study of isolated early-type galaxies (IEG), we present neutral hydrogen (H I) observations of six IEGs obtained with the Green Bank Telescope. Two of the six IEGs presented in this paper have detected H I emission (KIG 870 and SDSS J102145.89+383249.8). KIG 870 has an H I emission profile that is strongly asymmetric about the optical systemic velocity with a redshifted double-horned profile and a blueshifted single-peaked component. KIG 870 is likely an advanced merger system. SDSS J102145.89+383249.8 has a Gaussian-like profile, indicating that the H I is not strongly rotating, is in a face-on disk, or is in a thick-disk similar to a dwarf galaxy. Our parent sample of H I observations is composed of 12 IEGs, 7 of which have now been detected in H I. The dwarf and luminous IEGs in our parent sample have median H I-mass-to-blue-luminosity ratios that are each three times larger than that of their non-cluster ETG counterparts, indicating that IEGs in our sample are significantly more gas rich than non-cluster ETGs.

  19. Adolescent Social Isolation as a Model of Heightened Vulnerability to Comorbid Alcoholism and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Tracy R.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Jones, Sara R.; Weiner, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with anxiety-related illnesses are at increased risk of developing alcoholism, exhibit a telescoped progression of this disease and fare worse in recovery, relative to alcoholics that do not suffer from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Similarly, preclinical evidence supports the notion that stress and anxiety represent major risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Despite the importance of understanding the link between anxiety and alcoholism, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates underlying this relationship. One stumbling block has been the lack of animal models that reliably reproduce the spectrum of behaviors associated with increased vulnerability to these diseases. Here, we review the literature that has examined the behavioral and neurobiological outcomes of a simple rodent adolescent social isolation procedure and discuss its validity as a model of vulnerability to comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that adolescent social isolation of male rats leads to the expression of a variety of behaviors linked with increased vulnerability to anxiety and/or AUD, including deficits in sensory gating and fear extinction, and increases in anxiety measures and ethanol drinking. Neurobiological studies are beginning to identify mesolimbic adaptations that may contribute to the behavioral phenotype engendered by this model. Some of these changes include increased excitability of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and pyramidal cells in the basolateral amygdala and significant alterations in baseline and stimulated catecholamine signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that adolescent social isolation may represent a reliable rodent model of heightened vulnerability to anxiety disorders and alcoholism in male rats. These studies provide initial support for the face, construct, and predictive validity of this model and highlight its utility in

  20. Adolescent Social Isolation as a Model of Heightened Vulnerability to Comorbid Alcoholism and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Butler, Tracy R; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Jones, Sara R; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Individuals diagnosed with anxiety-related illnesses are at increased risk of developing alcoholism, exhibit a telescoped progression of this disease and fare worse in recovery, relative to alcoholics that do not suffer from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Similarly, preclinical evidence supports the notion that stress and anxiety represent major risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Despite the importance of understanding the link between anxiety and alcoholism, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates underlying this relationship. One stumbling block has been the lack of animal models that reliably reproduce the spectrum of behaviors associated with increased vulnerability to these diseases. Here, we review the literature that has examined the behavioral and neurobiological outcomes of a simple rodent adolescent social isolation procedure and discuss its validity as a model of vulnerability to comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that adolescent social isolation of male rats leads to the expression of a variety of behaviors linked with increased vulnerability to anxiety and/or AUD, including deficits in sensory gating and fear extinction, and increases in anxiety measures and ethanol drinking. Neurobiological studies are beginning to identify mesolimbic adaptations that may contribute to the behavioral phenotype engendered by this model. Some of these changes include increased excitability of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and pyramidal cells in the basolateral amygdala and significant alterations in baseline and stimulated catecholamine signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that adolescent social isolation may represent a reliable rodent model of heightened vulnerability to anxiety disorders and alcoholism in male rats. These studies provide initial support for the face, construct, and predictive validity of this model and highlight its utility in

  1. Using Mobile Sensing to Test Clinical Models of Depression, Social Anxiety, State Affect, and Social Isolation Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Philip I; Fua, Karl; Huang, Yu; Bonelli, Wesley; Xiong, Haoyi; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-01-01

    Background Research in psychology demonstrates a strong link between state affect (moment-to-moment experiences of positive or negative emotionality) and trait affect (eg, relatively enduring depression and social anxiety symptoms), and a tendency to withdraw (eg, spending time at home). However, existing work is based almost exclusively on static, self-reported descriptions of emotions and behavior that limit generalizability. Despite adoption of increasingly sophisticated research designs and technology (eg, mobile sensing using a global positioning system [GPS]), little research has integrated these seemingly disparate forms of data to improve understanding of how emotional experiences in everyday life are associated with time spent at home, and whether this is influenced by depression or social anxiety symptoms. Objective We hypothesized that more time spent at home would be associated with more negative and less positive affect. Methods We recruited 72 undergraduate participants from a southeast university in the United States. We assessed depression and social anxiety symptoms using self-report instruments at baseline. An app (Sensus) installed on participants’ personal mobile phones repeatedly collected in situ self-reported state affect and GPS location data for up to 2 weeks. Time spent at home was a proxy for social isolation. Results We tested separate models examining the relations between state affect and time spent at home, with levels of depression and social anxiety as moderators. Models differed only in the temporal links examined. One model focused on associations between changes in affect and time spent at home within short, 4-hour time windows. The other 3 models focused on associations between mean-level affect within a day and time spent at home (1) the same day, (2) the following day, and (3) the previous day. Overall, we obtained many of the expected main effects (although there were some null effects), in which higher social anxiety was

  2. Early Social Deprivation and the Social Buffering of Cortisol Stress Responses in Late Childhood: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Johnson, Anna E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of early social deprivation in shaping the effectiveness of parent support to alleviate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis-stress responses of children (ages 8.9-11, M = 9.83 years, SD = 0.55). The sample was equally divided between children who had been adopted internationally from…

  3. Mental health and social networks in early adolescence: a dynamic study of objectively-measured social interaction behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Mark C; Ozer, Emily J; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    How are social interaction dynamics associated with mental health during early stages of adolescence? The goal of this study is to objectively measure social interactions and evaluate the roles that multiple aspects of the social environment--such as physical activity and food choice--may jointly play in shaping the structure of children's relationships and their mental health. The data in this study are drawn from a longitudinal network-behavior study conducted in 2012 at a private K-8 school in an urban setting in California. We recruited a highly complete network sample of sixth-graders (n = 40, 91% of grade, mean age = 12.3), and examined how two measures of distressed mental health (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) are positionally distributed in an early adolescent interaction network. We ascertained how distressed mental health shapes the structure of relationships over a three-month period, adjusting for relevant dimensions of the social environment. Cross-sectional analyses of interaction networks revealed that self-esteem and depressive symptoms are differentially stratified by gender. Specifically, girls with more depressive symptoms have interactions consistent with social inhibition, while boys' interactions suggest robustness to depressive symptoms. Girls higher in self-esteem tended towards greater sociability. Longitudinal network behavior models indicate that gender similarity and perceived popularity are influential in the formation of social ties. Greater school connectedness predicts the development of self-esteem, though social ties contribute to more self-esteem improvement among students who identify as European-American. Cross-sectional evidence shows associations between distressed mental health and students' network peers. However, there is no evidence that connected students' mental health status becomes more similar in their over time because of their network interactions. These findings suggest that mental health during early

  4. Countermeasures to Mitigate the Negative Impact of Sensory Deprivation and Social Isolation in Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachman, Katharine Ridgeway OBrien; Otto, Christian; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space flight presents several challenges to the behavioral health of crew members. The environment that they are likely to experience will be isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) and, as such, crew members will experience extreme sensory deprivation and social isolation. The current paper briefly notes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective consequences of psychological stress induced by ICE environments and proposes nine countermeasures aimed at mitigating the negative effects of sensory deprivation and social isolation. Implementation of countermeasures aims to maintain successful crew performance and psychological well-being in a long-duration space flight mission.

  5. [Study on the association between social isolation and cognitive function among elderly in Daqing city, Heilongjiang province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y H; Huang, F Y; Zheng, Y; Shi, G S; Wang, L; Liao, S S

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To examine the association between social isolation and cognitive function among the elderly living in the communities of Daqing city. Methods: A total of 981 community residents aged 60 years or over, were surveyed with a questionnaire. Both Lubben Social Network Scale-6 (LSNS-6) and Montreal Congnitive Assessment (MoCA) Changsha Versions were used to respectively screen the status of social isolation and cognitive function, on these elderly. Results: The average age was 71 years old for the 981 study participants. 10.60 % (104/981) of the participants were assessed as having the status of social isolation, 9.48 % (93/981) as having marginal family ties and 13.97 % (137/981) as having marginal friendship ties. Results from the multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that participants with higher scores of LSNS-6 presenting better cognitive function score, with a partial regression coefficient as 0.10 ( P <0.01). The MoCA scores in participants with social isolation (20.38±5.54) were significantly lower than the ones without social isolation (22.10±5.01) and the difference was statistically significant ( P <0.01). Social isolation was significantly related to the domain scores on visuo-spatial constructional executive functions ( P =0.02), naming ( P =0.03), language ( P =0.01) and delayed memory functions ( P <0.01), but not with other domains as concentration ( P =0.33), orientation ( P =0.27) or abstraction ( P =0.49). Conclusion: The findings suggested that social isolation was mainly caused by the lack of friendship ties and associated with cognitive function and among the elderly in Daqing city, Heilongjiang province.

  6. Perceived neighborhood social resources as determinants of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Perkins, Douglas D; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo; Mazzardis, Sonia

    2012-09-01

    The present study aims to develop an integrative model that links neighborhood behavioral opportunities and social resources (neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood friendship and neighborhood attachment) to prosocial (sharing, helping, empathic) behavior in early adolescence, taking into account the potential mediating role of perceived support of friends. Path analysis was used to test the proposed theoretical model in a sample of 1,145 Italian early adolescents (6th through 8th graders). More perceived opportunities and social resources in the neighborhood are related to higher levels of adolescent prosocial behavior, and this relationship is partially mediated by perceived social support from friends. The results offer promising implications for future research and intervention programs that aim to modify social systems to improve child and adolescent social competencies.

  7. Early alterations of social brain networks in young children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Kojovic, Nada; Rihs, Tonia Anahi; Jan, Reem Kais; Franchini, Martina; Plomp, Gijs; Vulliemoz, Serge; Eliez, Stephan; Michel, Christoph Martin; Schaer, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Social impairments are a hallmark of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but empirical evidence for early brain network alterations in response to social stimuli is scant in ASD. We recorded the gaze patterns and brain activity of toddlers with ASD and their typically developing peers while they explored dynamic social scenes. Directed functional connectivity analyses based on electrical source imaging revealed frequency specific network atypicalities in the theta and alpha frequency bands, manifesting as alterations in both the driving and the connections from key nodes of the social brain associated with autism. Analyses of brain-behavioural relationships within the ASD group suggested that compensatory mechanisms from dorsomedial frontal, inferior temporal and insular cortical regions were associated with less atypical gaze patterns and lower clinical impairment. Our results provide strong evidence that directed functional connectivity alterations of social brain networks is a core component of atypical brain development at early stages of ASD. PMID:29482718

  8. Measurement of alienation among adolescents: construct validity of three scales on powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation.

    PubMed

    Rayce, Signe Boe; Kreiner, Svend; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Nielsen, Tine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2017-01-01

    Psychological alienation is an important concept in the study of adolescents' health and behavior but no gold standard for measuring alienation among adolescents exists. There is a need for new scales with high validity for use in adolescent health and social research. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate alienation scales in accordance with Seeman's conceptualization of alienation focusing on three independent variants specifically relevant in adolescent health research: powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation. Cross-sectional data from 3083 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years from the Danish contribution to the cross-national study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) were used. We identified and developed items, addressed content and face validity through interviews, and examined the criterion-related construct validity of the scales using graphical loglinear Rasch models (GLLRM). The three scales each comprised three to five face valid items. The powerlessness scale reflected the adolescent's expectancy as to whether his/her behavior can determine the outcome or reinforcement he/she seeks. The meaninglessness scale reflected the expectancy as to whether satisfactory predictions regarding the effects of one's behavior are possible. Finally, the social isolation scale reflected whether the adolescent had a low expectancy for inclusion and social acceptance. All scales contained some uniform local dependency and differential item functioning. However, only to a limited degree, which could be accounted for using GLLRM. Thus the scales fitted GLLRMs and can therefore be considered to be essentially construct valid and essentially objective. The three alienation scales appear to be content and face valid and fulfill the psychometric properties of a good construct valid reflective scale. This suggests that the scales may be appropriate in future large-scale surveys to examine the relation between alienation and a range of

  9. Social stress in early adolescents' daily lives: Associations with affect and loneliness.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation has the opposite effects on mood compared with either condition alone due to changes in the central norepinephrine system.

    PubMed

    Mitsuya, Hironori; Omata, Naoto; Kiyono, Yasushi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Mita, Kayo; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional and social environmental problems during the early stages of life are closely associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as depression. Disruption or dysfunction of the central norepinephrine (NE) system is also considered to play a role in mood disorders. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of zinc deficiency and/or social isolation on mood and changes in the central NE system using rats. Compared with the controls, the rats subjected to zinc deficiency or social isolation alone exhibited increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and greater depression-like behavior in the forced swim test. However, the co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation resulted in decreased anxiety-related behavior and control levels of depression-like behavior. Social isolation alone decreased the rats' cerebral NE concentrations. The expression of the NE transporter was not affected by social isolation alone, but its expression in the locus coeruleus was markedly decreased by the co-occurrence of social isolation and zinc deficiency, and this change was accompanied by an increase in the blood concentration of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, which is a marker of central NE system activity. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency or social isolation alone induce anxious or depressive symptoms, but the presence of both conditions has anxiolytic or antidepressive effects. Furthermore, these opposing effects of mood-related behaviors were found to be associated with changes in the central NE system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential influence of social versus isolate housing on vicarious fear learning in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory rodents can adopt the pain or fear of nearby conspecifics. This phenotype conceptually lies within the domain of empathy, a bio-psycho-social process through which individuals come to share each other's emotion. Using a model of cue-conditioned fear, we show here that the expression of vicarious fear varies with respect to whether mice are raised socially or in solitude during adolescence. The impact of the adolescent housing environment was selective: (a) vicarious fear was more influenced than directly acquired fear, (b) "long-term" (24-h postconditioning) vicarious fear memories were stronger than "short-term" (15-min postconditioning) memories in socially reared mice whereas the opposite was true for isolate mice, and (c) females were more fearful than males. Housing differences during adolescence did not alter the general mobility of mice or their vocal response to receiving the unconditioned stimulus. Previous work with this mouse model underscored a genetic influence on vicarious fear learning, and the present study complements these findings by elucidating an interaction between the adolescent social environment and vicarious experience. Collectively, these findings are relevant to developing models of empathy amenable to mechanistic exploitation in the laboratory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach.

    PubMed

    Hawkley, Louise C; Capitanio, John P

    2015-05-26

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship--as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)--with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary-adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a 'lonely' phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Early social deprivation negatively affects social skill acquisition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mulenga, Innocent Chitalu; Chidester, Diana Lisensky

    2014-03-01

    In a highly social species like chimpanzees, the process by which individuals become attuned to their social environment may be of vital importance to their chances of survival. Typically, this socialization process, defined by all acquisition experiences and fine-tuning efforts of social interaction patterns during ontogeny, occurs in large part through parental investment. In this study, we investigated whether maternal presence enhances the socialization process in chimpanzees by comparing the social interactions of orphaned and mother-reared individuals at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust in Zambia. As response variables, we selected social interactions during which an elaborate level of fine-tuning is assumed to be necessary for sustaining the interaction and preventing escalation: social play. Comparing orphaned (n = 8) to sex- and age-matched mother-reared juvenile chimpanzees (n = 9), we hypothesized that the orphaned juveniles would play less frequently than the mother-reared and would be less equipped for fine-tuning social play (which we assayed by rates of aggression) because of the lack of a safe and facilitating social environment provided by the mother. First, contrary to our hypothesis, results showed that the orphaned juveniles engaged in social play more frequently than the mother-reared juveniles, although for significantly shorter amounts of time. Second, in support of our hypothesis, results showed that social play of the orphaned juveniles more often resulted in aggression than social play of the mother-reared juveniles. In conjunction, these results may indicate that, just like in humans, chimpanzee mothers provide their offspring with adequate social skills that might be of pivotal importance for future challenges like successful group-living and securing competitive fitness advantages.

  14. Early Social Enrichment Improves Social Motivation and Skills in a Monogenic Mouse Model of Autism, the Oprm1 (-/-) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Garbugino, Luciana; Centofante, Eleonora; D'Amato, Francesca R

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been proven to have positive effects on both behavioral and physiological phenotypes in rodent models of mental and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study, we used mice lacking the µ-opioid receptor gene (Oprm1 (-/-)), which has been shown to have deficits in social competence and communication, to assess the hypothesis that early enrichment can ameliorate sociability during development and adulthood. Due to the immaturity of sensory-motor capabilities of young pups, we chose as environmental stimulation a second lactating female, who provided extra maternal care and stimulation from birth. The results show that double mothering normalized the abnormal response to maternal separation in Oprm1 (-/-) pups and increased social motivation in juveniles and adult knockout mice. Additionally, we observed that Oprm1 (-/-) mice act as less attractive social partners than wild types, which suggests that social motivation can be modulated by the stimulus employed. This experiment supports previous findings suggesting that early social environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects, encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of social defects in neurodevelopmental diseases.

  15. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    PubMed Central

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  16. The Effect of Information Communication Technology Interventions on Reducing Social Isolation in the Elderly: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Background The aging of the population is an inexorable change that challenges governments and societies in every developed country. Based on clinical and empirical data, social isolation is found to be prevalent among elderly people, and it has negative consequences on the elderly’s psychological and physical health. Targeting social isolation has become a focus area for policy and practice. Evidence indicates that contemporary information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to prevent or reduce the social isolation of elderly people via various mechanisms. Objective This systematic review explored the effects of ICT interventions on reducing social isolation of the elderly. Methods Relevant electronic databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SSCI, Communication Studies: a SAGE Full-Text Collection, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) were systematically searched using a unified strategy to identify quantitative and qualitative studies on the effectiveness of ICT-mediated social isolation interventions for elderly people published in English between 2002 and 2015. Narrative synthesis was performed to interpret the results of the identified studies, and their quality was also appraised. Results Twenty-five publications were included in the review. Four of them were evaluated as rigorous research. Most studies measured the effectiveness of ICT by measuring specific dimensions rather than social isolation in general. ICT use was consistently found to affect social support, social connectedness, and social isolation in general positively. The results for loneliness were inconclusive. Even though most were positive, some studies found a nonsignificant or negative impact. More importantly, the positive effect of ICT use on social connectedness and social support seemed to be short-term and did not last for more than six months after the intervention. The results for

  17. Blindness and social trust: The effect of early visual deprivation on judgments of trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C; Vecchi, T; Merabet, L B; Cattaneo, Z

    2017-10-01

    Investigating the impact of early visual deprivation on evaluations related to social trust has received little attention to date. This is despite consistent evidence suggesting that early onset blindness may interfere with the normal development of social skills. In this study, we investigated whether early blindness affects judgments of trustworthiness regarding the actions of an agent, with trustworthiness representing the fundamental dimension in the social evaluation. Specifically, we compared performance between a group of early blind individuals with that of sighted controls in their evaluation of trustworthiness of an agent after hearing a pair of two positive or two negative social behaviors (impression formation). Participants then repeated the same evaluation following the presentation of a third (consistent or inconsistent) behavior regarding the same agent (impression updating). Overall, blind individuals tended to give similar evaluations compared to their sighted counterparts. However, they also valued positive behaviors significantly more than sighted controls when forming their impression of an agent's trustworthiness. Moreover, when inconsistent information was provided, blind individuals were more prone to revise their initial evaluation compared to controls. These results suggest that early visual deprivation may have a dramatic effect on the evaluation of social factors such as trustworthiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural activity in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices of freely moving rats during social interaction: Effect of isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Minami, Chihiro; Shimizu, Tomoko; Mitani, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Sociability promotes a sound daily life for individuals. Reduced sociability is a central symptom of various neuropsychiatric disorders, and yet the neural mechanisms underlying reduced sociability remain unclear. The prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) have been suggested to play an important role in the neural mechanisms underlying sociability because isolation rearing in rats results in impairment of social behavior and structural changes in the PL and IL. One possible mechanism underlying reduced sociability involves dysfunction of the PL and IL. We made a wireless telemetry system to record multiunit activity in the PL and IL of pairs of freely moving rats during social interaction and examined the influence of isolation rearing on this activity. In group-reared rats, PL neurons increased firing when the rat showed approaching behavior and also contact behavior, especially when the rat attacked the partner. Conversely, IL neurons increased firing when the rat exhibited leaving behavior, especially when the partner left on its own accord. In social interaction, the PL may be involved in active actions toward others, whereas the IL may be involved in passive relief from cautionary subjects. Isolation rearing altered social behavior and neural activity. Isolation-reared rats showed an increased frequency and decreased duration of contact behavior. The increased firing of PL neurons during approaching and contact behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was preserved in isolation-reared rats, whereas the increased firing of IL neurons during leaving behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was suppressed in isolation-reared rats. This result indicates that isolation rearing differentially alters neural activity in the PL and IL during social behavior. The differential influence of isolation rearing on neural activity in the PL and IL may be one of the neural bases of isolation rearing-induced behavior.

  19. Childhood physical maltreatment, perceived social isolation, and internalizing symptoms: a longitudinal, three-wave, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    A number of cross-sectional studies have consistently shown a correlation between childhood physical maltreatment, perceived social isolation and internalizing symptoms. Using a longitudinal, three-wave design, this study sought to assess the mediating role of perceived social isolation in adulthood in the association between childhood physical maltreatment and internalizing symptoms in adulthood. The study has a three-wave design. We used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Perceived social isolation was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and internalizing symptoms were measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. The difference-in-coefficients method was used to assess the indirect effects and the proportion (%) of mediated effects. Childhood physical maltreatment was associated with an up to 68% [relative risk (RR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-2.13] higher risk of perceived social isolation in adulthood. Childhood physical maltreatment and perceived social isolation in adulthood were associated with greater levels of internalizing symptoms in adulthood (p < 0.01). A dose-response association was observed between childhood physical maltreatment and internalizing symptoms in adulthood (p < 0.001). Perceived social isolation in adulthood mediated up to 14.89% (p < 0.05) of the association between childhood physical maltreatment and internalizing symptoms in adulthood. The results of this study indicate the need to take perceived social isolation into account when considering the impact of childhood physical maltreatment on internalizing symptoms.

  20. Conceptual Foundations and Components of a Contextual Intervention to Promote Student Engagement during Early Adolescence: The Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Success (SEALS) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Hall, Cristin M.; Murray, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research indicate that many early adolescents are at risk for developing significant school adjustment problems in the academic, behavioral, and social domains during the transition to middle school. The Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Success (SEALS) model has been developed as a professional development and…

  1. Depression-like behavior and stressor-induced neuroendocrine activation in female prairie voles exposed to chronic social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.; Cushing, Bruce S.; Carter, C. Sue

    2010-01-01

    Objective Previous evidence suggests that responses to social stressors may play a mechanistic role in the behavioral and physiological changes associated with affective disorders such as depression. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that share features of social behavior with humans, and therefore might provide a useful model for examining social regulation of behaviors and physiological responses related to depression. In the present study we hypothesized that social isolation in female prairie voles would induce depression-relevant behaviors and altered neuroendocrine responses to an acute social stressor. Methods Twenty adult female prairie voles were exposed to either 60 days of social isolation or paired (control) housing, and tested for a depression-like behavior (anhedonia), numbers of corticotropin-releasing factor- and oxytocin-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and circulating levels of hormones and peptide in response to an acute social stressor (resident-intruder test). Results Chronic social isolation produced anhedonia, measured by a reduction in sucrose intake and sucrose preference relative to paired animals. Compared to paired animals, isolated prairie voles displayed increased plasma hormone and peptide levels (oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, and corticosterone) following a 5-minute resident-intruder test, mirrored by an increased number of oxytocin- and corticotropin-releasing factor-immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Conclusions These findings suggest that isolation in a socially monogamous rodent model induces both behavioral and neuroendocrine changes that are relevant to depression, and may provide insight into the mechanisms that underlie the development and/or maintenance of depressive disorders in humans. PMID:17289829

  2. Neurological Development of Children With Isolated Robin Sequence Treated With Nasopharyngeal Intubation in Early Infancy.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Tatiane Romanini Rodrigues; Marques, Ilza Lazarini; Bertucci, Alvaro; Prado-Oliveira, Rosana

    2017-05-01

    The study assessed the neurodevelopment of children with isolated Robin sequence (IRS) and evaluated if children treated exclusively with nasopharyngeal intubation (NPI) present delay in neurological development. The prospective and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, Brazil. Children with IRS were divided into two groups according to the type of treatment in early infancy: 38 were treated with NPI (more severe cases) and 24 with postural treatment (less severe cases). Regarding interventions, children were assessed at 2 to 6 years of age using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test (Denver II) and Neurological Evolutionary Examination (NEE). According to Denver II, 73.7% in the NPI group and 79.2% in the postural group presented normal development. This result was similar to the results of different studies in the literature with typical population. Considering all areas of development, there were no significant differences in Denver II between the NPI and postural groups (P = .854). In the NPI group, 89.5% of children and 87.5% in the postural group presented normal development in NEE. Language was the most affected area, as 18.4% and 20.8% of children in NPI and postural group, respectively, presented risk for delay in the Denver II. The increased risk for delay in language area was probably due to anatomical conditions of the muscles involved in speech, and to hearing oscillations, as 47.4% in NPI group and 58.3% in postural group underwent myringotomy. IRS treated with NPI had neurological development similar to those in less severe cases. Children treated exclusively with NPI did not present delay in neurological development.

  3. A novel protein kinase D inhibitor attenuates early events of experimental pancreatitis in isolated rat acini.

    PubMed

    Thrower, Edwin C; Yuan, Jingzhen; Usmani, Ashar; Liu, Yannan; Jones, Courtney; Minervini, Samantha N; Alexandre, Martine; Pandol, Stephen J; Guha, Sushovan

    2011-01-01

    Novel protein kinase C isoforms (PKC δ and ε) mediate early events in acute pancreatitis. Protein kinase D (PKD/PKD1) is a convergent point of PKC δ and ε in the signaling pathways triggered through CCK or cholinergic receptors and has been shown to activate the transcription factor NF-κB in acute pancreatitis. For the present study we hypothesized that a newly developed PKD/PKD1 inhibitor, CRT0066101, would prevent the initial events leading to pancreatitis. We pretreated isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells with CRT0066101 and a commercially available inhibitor Gö6976 (10 μM). This was followed by stimulation for 60 min with high concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK, 0.1 μM), carbachol (CCh, 1 mM), or bombesin (10 μM) to induce initial events of pancreatitis. PKD/PKD1 phosphorylation and activity were measured as well as zymogen activation, amylase secretion, cell injury and NF-κB activation. CRT0066101 dose dependently inhibited secretagogue-induced PKD/PKD1 activation and autophosphorylation at Ser-916 with an IC(50) ∼3.75-5 μM but had no effect on PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the PKD/PKD1 activation loop (Ser-744/748). Furthermore, CRT0066101 reduced secretagogue-induced zymogen activation and amylase secretion. Gö6976 reduced zymogen activation but not amylase secretion. Neither inhibitor affected basal zymogen activation or secretion. CRT0066101 did not affect secretagogue-induced cell injury or changes in cell morphology, but it reduced NF-κB activation by 75% of maximal for CCK- and CCh-stimulated acinar cells. In conclusion, CRT0066101 is a potent and specific PKD family inhibitor. Furthermore, PKD/PKD1 is a potential mediator of zymogen activation, amylase secretion, and NF-κB activation induced by a range of secretagogues in pancreatic acinar cells.

  4. Role of human cytomegalovirus in the proliferation and invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts isolated from early placentae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zheng, Xiaofei; Li, Qin; Chen, Juanjuan; Yin, Zongzhi; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Dandan; Li, Wei; Qiao, Yuan; Chen, Suhua

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and its mechanism in extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) proliferation and invasion in vitro. Methods: Differential enzymatic digestion combined with gradient centrifugation, was used to isolate primary EVT from human chorionic villi collected from early placentae of healthy pregnant women. HCMV infection was determined by immunofluorescence staining of HCMVpp65 antigen expression. An MTT assay was used to examine the role of HCMV in the proliferation of EVT. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemical staining and Western blots were carried out in a control group (EVT) and a virus group (EVT+HCMV) to examine the expression of major genes and protein in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways in EVT 48 h after inoculation with HCMV. An in vitro cell invasion assay was performed to analyze the influence of HCMV on EVT invasion. Results: HCMV significantly inhibited the proliferation of EVT 48 h after viral infection (P < 0.05). The expression of TGF-β1, Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad5 genes was significantly increased (P < 0.05), but that of TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TGFβRI, TGFβRII, Smad7, MMP2, and MMP9 was significantly decreased in the virus group 48 h after HCMV infection (P < 0.05). Smad7, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels were significantly decreased and the TGF-β1 protein level was significantly increased in infected EVT (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: HCMV may act on multiple steps of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway to impede EVT proliferation and invasion. PMID:26770317

  5. Scale dependency in effectiveness, isolation, and social-ecological spillover of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ament, Judith M; Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-08-01

    Protected areas are considered vital for the conservation of biodiversity. Given their central role in many conservation strategies, it is important to know whether they adequately protect biodiversity within their boundaries; whether they are becoming more isolated from other natural areas over time; and whether they play a role in facilitating or reducing land-cover change in their surroundings. We used matching methods and national and local analyses of land-cover change to evaluate the combined effectiveness (i.e., avoided natural-cover loss), isolation (i.e., changes in adjacent areas), and spillover effects (i.e., impacts on adjacent areas) of 19 national parks in South Africa from 2000 to 2009. All parks had either similar or lower rates of natural-cover loss than matched control samples. On a national level, mean net loss of natural cover and mean net gain of cultivation cover decreased with distance from park boundary, but there was considerable variation in trends around individual parks, providing evidence for both increased isolation and buffering of protected areas. Fourteen parks had significant positive spillover and reduced natural-cover loss in their surroundings, whereas five parks experienced elevated levels of natural-cover loss. Conclusions about social-ecological spillover effects from protected areas depended heavily on the measures of land-cover change used and the scale at which the results were aggregated. Our findings emphasize the need for high-resolution data when assessing spatially explicit phenomena such as land-cover change and challenge the usefulness of large-scale (coarse grain, broad extent) studies for understanding social-ecological dynamics around protected areas. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. An observational study of the interactions of socially withdrawn/anxious early adolescents and their friends.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barry H

    2009-07-01

    The friendships of socially withdrawn/anxious children and early adolescents have been found to lack critical rewarding qualities. Observational research may help elucidate the obstacles they face in forming and maintaining high-quality friendships with sociable peers. We observed the interactions of 38 socially withdrawn early adolescents with their friends and compared them to a community control group. In negotiating the sharing of an object, the socially withdrawn, anxious group was more passive than controls. The socially withdrawn, anxious participants engaged less actively in a fast-paced game involving miniature cars. While completing a quiet drawing task, the socially anxious, withdrawn participants tended to refrain from comparing their work to that of their friends. In all three of our closed-field situations, the socially withdrawn, anxious participants displayed relatively neutral affect in comparison with the control group. These results suggest that the social withdrawal and social anxiety of children with social phobia are very evident even within the confines of their close friendships. Therefore, therapeutic interventions at the level of the dyad may be indicated.

  7. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  8. Exploring the Role of Social Memory of Floods for Designing Flood Early Warning Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Grabs, Thomas; Halldin, Sven; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems are an important tool for natural disaster mitigation practices, especially for flooding events. Warnings rely on near-future forecasts to provide time to take preventive actions before a flood occurs, thus reducing potential losses. However, on top of the technical capacities, successful warnings require an efficient coordination and communication among a range of different actors and stakeholders. The complexity of integrating the technical and social spheres of warning systems has, however, resulted in system designs neglecting a number of important aspects such as social awareness of floods thus leading to suboptimal results. A better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks among the different elements of early warning systems is therefore needed to improve their efficiency and therefore social resilience. When designing an early warning system two important decisions need to be made regarding (i) the hazard magnitude at and from which a warning should be issued and (ii) the degree of confidence required for issuing a warning. The first decision is usually taken based on the social vulnerability and climatic variability while the second one is related to the performance (i.e. accuracy) of the forecasting tools. Consequently, by estimating the vulnerability and the accuracy of the forecasts, these two variables can be optimized to minimize the costs and losses. Important parameters with a strong influence on the efficiency of warning systems such as social awareness are however not considered in their design. In this study we present a theoretical exploration of the impact of social awareness on the design of early warning systems. For this purpose we use a definition of social memory of flood events as a proxy for flood risk awareness and test its effect on the optimization of the warning system design variables. Understanding the impact of social awareness on warning system design is important to make more robust warnings that can

  9. Studies into the anxiolytic actions of agomelatine in social isolation reared rats: Role of corticosterone and sex.

    PubMed

    Regenass, Wilmie; Möller, Marisa; Harvey, Brian H

    2018-02-01

    Anxiety disorders are severely disabling, while current pharmacological treatments are complicated by delayed onset, low remission rates and side-effects. Sex is also noted to contribute towards illness severity and treatment response. Agomelatine is a melatonin (MT 1 /MT 2 ) agonist and serotonin (5-HT 2C ) antagonist purported to be anxiolytic in clinical and some pre-clinical studies. We undertook a detailed analysis of agomelatine's anxiolytic activity in a neurodevelopmental model of anxiety, the social isolation reared rat. Rats received sub-chronic treatment with vehicle or agomelatine (40 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally at 16:00 h for 16 days), with behaviour analysed in the open field test, social interaction test and elevated plus maze. The contribution of corticosterone and sex was also studied. Social isolation rearing increased locomotor activity and reduced social interaction in the social interaction test, and was anxiogenic in the elevated plus maze in males and females. Agomelatine reversed these behaviours. Male and female social isolation reared rats developed anxiety-like behaviours to a similar degree, although response to agomelatine was superior in male rats. Social isolation rearing decreased plasma corticosterone in both sexes and tended to higher levels in females, although agomelatine did not affect corticosterone in either sex. Concluding, agomelatine is anxiolytic in SIR rats, although correcting altered corticosterone could not be implicated. Sex-related differences in the response to agomelatine are evident.

  10. The role of social isolation in ethanol effects on the preweanling rat

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrey P.; Nizhnikov, Michael; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    The present experiments investigated the effects of acute ethanol exposure on voluntary intake of 0.1% saccharin or water as well as behavioral and nociceptive reactivity in twelve–day-old (P12) rats exposed to differing levels of isolation. The effects of ethanol emerged only during short-term social isolation (STSI) with different patterns observed in males and females and in pups exposed to saccharin or water. The 0.5 g/kg ethanol dose selectively increased saccharin intake in females, decreased rearing activity in males and attenuated isolation-induced analgesia (IIA) in all water-exposed pups. Ingestion of saccharin decreased IIA, and the 0.5 g/kg ethanol dose further reduced IIA. The 1.0 g/kg ethanol dose, administered either intragastrically or intraparentionally, also decreased IIA in P12 females, but not in P9 pups. A significant correlation between voluntary saccharin intake and baseline nociceptive reactivity was revealed in saline injected animals, saccharin intake was inversely correlated with behavioral activation and latency of reaction to noxious heat after 0.5 g/kg ethanol in females. The 0.5 g/kg ethanol dose did not affect plasma corticosterone (CORT) measured 5 hours after maternal separation or 20 minutes after ethanol injection. Female pups CORT level was inversely correlated with magnitude of IIA that accompanied the first episode of STSI (pretest isolation) 1.5–2 hours before CORT measurement. The present findings suggest that the anxiolytic properties of ethanol are responsible for enhancement of saccharin intake during STSI. Furthermore, differential reactivity of P12 males and females to STSI plays an important role in ethanol effects observed at this age. PMID:22051944

  11. Histone deacetylase 5 modulates the effects of social adversity in early life on cocaine-induced behavior.

    PubMed

    Valzania, Alessandro; Catale, Clarissa; Viscomi, Maria Teresa; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Carola, Valeria

    2017-03-15

    Psychostimulants induce stable changes in neural plasticity and behavior in a transcription-dependent manner. Further, stable cellular changes require transcription that is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms that alter chromatin structure, such as histone acetylation. This mechanism is typically catalyzed by enzymes with histone acetyltransferase or histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Class IIa HDACs are notable for their high expression in important regions of the brain reward circuitry and their neural activity-dependent shuttling in and out of the cell nucleus. In particular, HDAC5 has an important modulatory function in cocaine-induced behaviors and social defeat stress-induced effects. Although a mutation in HDAC5 has been shown to cause hypersensitive responses to chronic cocaine use whether this response worsens during chronic early life stress has not been examined yet. In this study, we exposed mouse pups to two different early life stress paradigms (social isolation, ESI, and social threat, EST) to determine whether the heterozygous null mutation in HDAC5 (HDAC5+/-) moderated the effects of exposure to stress in early life on adult cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Notably, HDAC5+/- mice that had been exposed to ESI were more susceptible to developing cocaine-induced CPP and more resistant to extinguishing this behavior. The same effect was not observed for HDAC5+/- mice experiencing EST, suggesting that only ESI induces behavioral changes by acting precisely through HDAC5-related biological pathways. Finally, an analysis of c-Fos expression performed to discover the neurobiological substrates that mediated this phenotype, identified the dorsolateral striatum as an important structure that mediates the interaction between HDAC5 mutation and ESI. Our data demonstrate that decreased HDAC5 function is able to exacerbate the long-term behavioral effects of adverse rearing environment in mouse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Effects of chronic social isolation on Wistar rat behavior and brain plasticity markers.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Ana; Adzic, Miroslav; Radojcic, Marija B

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is a contributing risk factor in the development of psychiatric illnesses, including depressive disorders. The mechanisms of their psychopathology are multifaceted and include, besides others, alterations in the brain plasticity. Previously, we investigated the effects of chronic social stress in the limbic brain structures of Wistar rats (hippocampus, HIPPO, and prefrontal cortex, PFC) and found multiple characteristics that resembled alterations described in some clinical studies of depression. We extended our investigations and followed the behavior of stressed animals by the open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST), and the expression and polysialylation of synaptic plasticity markers, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and L1, in the HIPPO and PFC. We also determined the adrenal gland mass and plasma corticosterone (CORT) as a terminal part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Our data indicated that stressed animals avoided the central zone in the OFT and displayed decreased swimming, but prolonged immobility in the FST. The animals exhibited marked hypertrophy of the adrenal gland cortex, in spite of decreased serum CORT. Simultaneously, the stressed animals exhibited an increase in NCAM mRNA expression in the HIPPO, but not in the PFC. The synaptosomal NCAM of the HIPPO was markedly polysialylated, while cortical PSA-NCAM was significantly decreased. The results showed that chronic social isolation of Wistar rats causes both anxiety-like and depression-like behavior. These alterations are parallel with molecular changes in the limbic brain, including diminished NCAM sialylation in the PFC. Together with our previous results, the current observations suggest that a chronic social isolation model may potentially be used to study molecular mechanisms that underlie depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Efficient isolation of human metapneumovirus using MNT-1, a human malignant melanoma cell line with early and distinct cytopathic effects.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ko; Watanabe, Oshi; Ohmiya, Suguru; Chiba, Fumiko; Suzuki, Akira; Okamoto, Michiko; Younghuang, Jiang; Hata, Akihiro; Nonaka, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Setsuko; Nagai, Yukio; Kawamura, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Masahiro; Kumaki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tamio; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2017-11-01

    Isolation of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) from clinical specimens is currently inefficient because of the lack of a cell culture system in which a distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) occurs. The cell lines LLC-MK2, Vero and Vero E6 are used for isolation of HMPV; however, the CPE in these cell lines is subtle and usually requires a long observation period and sometimes blind passages. Thus, a cell line in which an early and distinct CPE occurs following HMPV inoculation is highly desired by clinical virology laboratories. In this study, it was demonstrated that, in the human malignant melanoma cell line MNT-1, obvious syncytium formation occurs shortly after inoculation with HMPV-positive clinical specimens. In addition, the growth and efficiency of isolation of HMPV were greater using MNT-1 than using any other conventional cell line. Addition of this cell line to our routine viral isolation system for clinical specimens markedly enhanced isolation frequency, allowing isolation-based surveillance. MNT-1 has the potential to facilitate clinical and epidemiological studies of HMPV. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Quality of life and social isolation in Greek adolescents with primary focal hyperhidrosis treated with botulinum toxin type A: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kouris, Anargyros; Armyra, Kalliopi; Stefanaki, Christina; Christodoulou, Christos; Karimali, Polixeni; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis, although extensively documented in adults, typically has onset that dates back to early childhood. It is an unpleasant and socially disabling problem for the affected child, but little attention has been paid to the disease in adolescents. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) in adolescents with primary palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis and to determine its effect on quality of life and social isolation. Thirty-five individuals (17 girls, 18 boys) with moderate to severe palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis were treated with BTXA (onabotulinum). Patients were examined at baseline and 6 months after treatment. The Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) was used to evaluate disease severity and the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) was used to assess quality of life. The University of California at Los Angeles loneliness scale (UCLA version 3) was used to assess personal perception of loneliness and social isolation. The median age of the participants was 14 years, and 48.6% were female. Twenty-one had palmar hyperhidrosis, and 14 had axillary hyperhidrosis. Total CDLQI and social isolation scores decreased significantly after treatment with BTXA (both p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment levels of severity of hyperhidrosis. No statistically significant difference was documented for CDLQI and UCLA scores between boys and girls. Treatment of hyperhidrosis with BTXA resulted in improvement in quality of life, social skills, and activities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Social Anxiety and Socioemotional Functioning during Early Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Best Friend Emotion Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borowski, Sarah K.; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara

    2018-01-01

    Best friend expected emotion socialization responses were examined as a potential explanation for the link between social anxiety and youths' friendship quality and dysfunctional emotion regulation (ER). A community sample of 202 young adolescents ([X-bar][subscript age] = 12.66; 52.5% girls, 75.7% White) within 101 same-sex, reciprocated best…

  16. Birth Weight and Social Trust in Adulthood: Evidence for Early Calibration of Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Social trust forms the fundamental basis for social interaction within societies. Understanding the cognitive architecture of trust and the roots of individual differences in trust is of key importance. We predicted that one of the factors calibrating individual levels of trust is the intrauterine flow of nutrients from mother to child as indexed by birth weight. Birth weight forecasts both the future external environment and the internal condition of the individual in multiple ways relevant for social cognition. Specifically, we predicted that low birth weight is utilized as a forecast of a harsh environment, vulnerable condition, or both and, consequently, reduces social trust. The results of the study reported here are consistent with this prediction. Controlling for many confounds through sibling and panel designs, we found that lower birth weight reduced social trust in adulthood. Furthermore, we obtained tentative evidence that this effect is mitigated if adult environments do not induce stress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Romantic Partner Selection and Socialization during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th–8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and partners were significantly alike on popularity, physical attraction, and depressive symptoms. Controlling for initial similarity, partners' popularity, depressive symptoms, relational aggression and relational victimization significantly predicted changes in adolescents' functioning in these areas over time. However, the magnitude and direction of change varied according to adolescents' and partners' pre-relationship functioning. In general, adolescents who dated high-functioning partners changed more than those who dated low-functioning partners, and partner characteristics predicted greater change among low versus high-functioning adolescents. Results were consistent even when controlling for best friend characteristics. The current findings are among the first to demonstrate unique contributions of romantic partner characteristics to adolescents' psychosocial functioning. PMID:19037942

  18. Influence of hope, social support, and self-esteem in early stage dementia.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Valerie T; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W; Fisher, Kathleen; Richards, Kathy C

    2018-02-01

    Background People in the early stages of dementia adjust to the illness through stages of awareness, coping, and evaluation. Studies have found that hope, social support, and self-esteem facilitate coping, adjustment, and adaptation in chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationships between hope, social support, and self-esteem in individuals with early stage dementia. Methods Data were obtained from 53 individuals with early stage dementia. The scores on the Herth Hope Index, Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and the State Self-Esteem Scale were analyzed using linear regression. Results Hope was moderately associated with self-esteem ( r = .49, p < .001). Hope accounted for 25% of the variance in self-esteem and was a key component in predicting self-esteem. No significant relationship was found between social support and self-esteem. Conclusion Findings suggest that hope may be an important factor to help individuals manage potential threats to self-esteem in the experience of early stage dementia. Strategies to inspire hope and then enhance self-esteem are promising for individuals living with early stage dementia.

  19. Exogenous testosterone affects early threat processing in socially anxious and healthy women.

    PubMed

    van Peer, Jacobien M; Enter, Dorien; van Steenbergen, Henk; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in social threat processing. Recent evidence suggests that testosterone administration has socially anxiolytic effects, but it remains unknown whether this involves early vigilance or later, more sustained, processing-stages. We investigated the acute effects of testosterone administration on social threat processing in 19 female patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and 19 healthy controls. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an emotional Stroop task with subliminally presented faces. Testosterone induced qualitative changes in early ERPs (<200ms after stimulus onset) in both groups. An initial testosterone-induced spatial shift reflected a change in the basic processing (N170/VPP) of neutral faces, which was followed by a shift for angry faces suggesting a decrease in early threat bias. These findings suggest that testosterone specifically affects early automatic social information processing. The decreased attentional bias for angry faces explains how testosterone can decrease threat avoidance, which is particularly relevant for SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential effects of social isolation in adolescent and adult mice on behavior and cortical gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lander, Sharon S; Linder-Shacham, Donna; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2017-01-01

    Intact function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function relies on proper development of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal populations and on integral myelination processes. Social isolation (SI) affects behavior and brain circuitry in adulthood, but previous rodent studies typically induced prolonged (post-weaning) exposure and failed to directly compare between the effects of SI in adolescent and adulthood. Here, we assessed the impact of a 3-week SI period, starting in mid-adolescence (around the onset of puberty) or adulthood, on a wide range of behaviors in adult male mice. Additionally, we asked whether adolescent SI would differentially affect the expression of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal markers and myelin-related genes in mPFC. Our findings indicate that mid-adolescent or adult SI increase anxiogenic behavior and locomotor activity. However, SI in adolescence uniquely affects the response to the psychotomimetic drug amphetamine, social and novelty exploration and performance in reversal and attentional set shifting tasks. Furthermore, adolescent but not adult SI increased the expression of glutamate markers in the adult mPFC. Our results imply that adolescent social deprivation is detrimental for normal development and may be particularly relevant to the investigation of developmental psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Warning Signals of Social Transformation: A Case Study from the US Southwest.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Katherine A; Peeples, Matthew A; Glowacki, Donna M; Dugmore, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in ecology suggests that generic indicators, referred to as early warning signals (EWS), may occur before significant transformations, both critical and non-critical, in complex systems. Up to this point, research on EWS has largely focused on simple models and controlled experiments in ecology and climate science. When humans are considered in these arenas they are invariably seen as external sources of disturbance or management. In this article we explore ways to include societal components of socio-ecological systems directly in EWS analysis. Given the growing archaeological literature on 'collapses,' or transformations, in social systems, we investigate whether any early warning signals are apparent in the archaeological records of the build-up to two contemporaneous cases of social transformation in the prehistoric US Southwest, Mesa Verde and Zuni. The social transformations in these two cases differ in scope and severity, thus allowing us to explore the contexts under which warning signals may (or may not) emerge. In both cases our results show increasing variance in settlement size before the transformation, but increasing variance in social institutions only before the critical transformation in Mesa Verde. In the Zuni case, social institutions appear to have managed the process of significant social change. We conclude that variance is of broad relevance in anticipating social change, and the capacity of social institutions to mitigate transformation is critical to consider in EWS research on socio-ecological systems.

  2. Beyond naïve cue combination: salience and social cues in early word learning.

    PubMed

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Frank, Michael C

    2017-03-01

    Children learn their earliest words through social interaction, but it is unknown how much they rely on social information. Some theories argue that word learning is fundamentally social from its outset, with even the youngest infants understanding intentions and using them to infer a social partner's target of reference. In contrast, other theories argue that early word learning is largely a perceptual process in which young children map words onto salient objects. One way of unifying these accounts is to model word learning as weighted cue combination, in which children attend to many potential cues to reference, but only gradually learn the correct weight to assign each cue. We tested four predictions of this kind of naïve cue combination account, using an eye-tracking paradigm that combines social word teaching and two-alternative forced-choice testing. None of the predictions were supported. We thus propose an alternative unifying account: children are sensitive to social information early, but their ability to gather and deploy this information is constrained by domain-general cognitive processes. Developmental changes in children's use of social cues emerge not from learning the predictive power of social cues, but from the gradual development of attention, memory, and speed of information processing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Beyond Naïve Cue Combination: Salience and Social Cues in Early Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yurovsky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Children learn their earliest words through social interaction, but it is unknown how much they rely on social information. Some theories argue that word learning is fundamentally social from its outset, with even the youngest infants understanding intentions and using them to infer a social partner’s target of reference. In contrast, other theories argue that early word learning is largely a perceptual process in which young children map words onto salient objects. One way of unifying these accounts is to model word learning as weighted cue-combination, in which children attend to many potential cues to reference, but only gradually learn the correct weight to assign each cue. We tested four predictions of this kind of naïve cue-combination account, using an eye-tracking paradigm that combines social word-teaching and two-alternative forced-choice testing. None of the predictions were supported. We thus propose an alternative unifying account: children are sensitive to social information early, but their ability to gather and deploy this information is constrained by domain-general cognitive processes. Developmental changes in children’s use of social cues emerge not from learning the predictive power of social cues, but from the gradual development of attention, memory, and speed of information processing. PMID:26575408

  4. Early emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L; Sullivan, Kathleen R; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2016-08-23

    Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants' reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents' intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals. Infants' reasoning about food preferences is fundamentally social: They generalize food preferences across individuals who affiliate, or who speak a common language, but not across individuals who socially disengage or who speak different languages. Importantly, infants' reasoning about food preferences is flexibly calibrated to their own experiences: Tests of bilingual babies reveal that an infant's sociolinguistic background influences whether she will constrain her generalization of food preferences to people who speak the same language. Additionally, infants' systems for reasoning about food is differentially responsive to positive and negative information. Infants generalize information about food disgust across all people, regardless of those people's social identities. Thus, whereas food preferences are seen as embedded within social groups, disgust is interpreted as socially universal, which could help infants avoid potentially dangerous foods. These studies reveal an early-emerging system for thinking about food that incorporates social reasoning about agents and their relationships, and allows infants to make abstract, flexible, adaptive inferences to interpret others' food choices.

  5. Early Warning Signals of Social Transformation: A Case Study from the US Southwest

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in ecology suggests that generic indicators, referred to as early warning signals (EWS), may occur before significant transformations, both critical and non-critical, in complex systems. Up to this point, research on EWS has largely focused on simple models and controlled experiments in ecology and climate science. When humans are considered in these arenas they are invariably seen as external sources of disturbance or management. In this article we explore ways to include societal components of socio-ecological systems directly in EWS analysis. Given the growing archaeological literature on ‘collapses,’ or transformations, in social systems, we investigate whether any early warning signals are apparent in the archaeological records of the build-up to two contemporaneous cases of social transformation in the prehistoric US Southwest, Mesa Verde and Zuni. The social transformations in these two cases differ in scope and severity, thus allowing us to explore the contexts under which warning signals may (or may not) emerge. In both cases our results show increasing variance in settlement size before the transformation, but increasing variance in social institutions only before the critical transformation in Mesa Verde. In the Zuni case, social institutions appear to have managed the process of significant social change. We conclude that variance is of broad relevance in anticipating social change, and the capacity of social institutions to mitigate transformation is critical to consider in EWS research on socio-ecological systems. PMID:27706200

  6. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    PubMed

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Social isolation and loneliness as risk factors for the progression of frailty: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; Westbury, Leo; Cooper, Cyrus

    2018-05-01

    loneliness and social isolation have been associated with mortality and with functional decline in older people. We investigated whether loneliness or social isolation are associated with progression of frailty. participants were 2,817 people aged ≥60 from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Loneliness was assessed at Wave 2 using the Revised UCLA scale (short version). A social isolation score at Wave 2 was derived from data on living alone, frequency of contact with friends, family and children, and participation in social organisations. Frailty was assessed by the Fried phenotype of physical frailty at Waves 2 and 4, and by a frailty index at Waves 2-5. high levels of loneliness were associated with an increased risk of becoming physically frail or pre-frail around 4 years later: relative risk ratios (95% CI), adjusted for age, sex, level of frailty and other potential confounding factors at baseline were 1.74 (1.29, 2.34) for pre-frailty, and 1.85 (1.14, 2.99) for frailty. High levels of loneliness were not associated with change in the frailty index-a broadly based measure of general condition-over a mean period of 6 years. In the sample as a whole, there was no association between social isolation and risk of becoming physically frail or pre-frail, but high social isolation was associated with increased risk of becoming physically frail in men. Social isolation was not associated with change in the frailty index. older people who experience high levels of loneliness are at increased risk of becoming physically frail.

  8. The accumulation of reproductive isolation in early stages of divergence supports a role for sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Martin, M D; Mendelson, T C

    2016-04-01

    Models of speciation by sexual selection propose that male-female coevolution leads to the rapid evolution of behavioural reproductive isolation. Here, we compare the strength of behavioural isolation to ecological isolation, gametic incompatibility and hybrid inviability in a group of dichromatic stream fishes. In addition, we examine whether any of these individual barriers, or a combined measure of total isolation, is predicted by body shape differences, male colour differences, environmental differences or genetic distance. Behavioural isolation reaches the highest values of any barrier and is significantly greater than ecological isolation. No individual reproductive barrier is associated with any of the predictor variables. However, marginally significant relationships between male colour and body shape differences with ecological and behavioural isolation are discussed. Differences in male colour and body shape predict total reproductive isolation between species; hierarchical partitioning of these two variables' effects suggests a stronger role for male colour differences. Together, these results suggest an important role for divergent sexual selection in darter speciation but raise new questions about the mechanisms of sexual selection at play and the role of male nuptial ornaments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. The typical developmental trajectory of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood (Barker, Andrade, Morton, Romanowski, & Bowles, 2010; Lebel, Walker, Leemans, Phillips, & Beaulieu, 2008), although social cognition functions are also associated with widely distributed networks. Previously, nonlinear development has been reported around puberty on an emotion match-to-sample task (McGivern, Andersen, Byrd, Mutter, & Reilly, 2002) and for IQ in midadolescence (Ramsden et al., 2011). However, there are currently little data on the typical development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, 98 participants completed tests of social cognition and executive function, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983), and measures of pubertal development and demographics at ages 17, 18, and 19. Nonlinear age differences for letter fluency and concept formation executive functions were found, with a trough in functional ability in 18-year-olds compared with other groups. There were no age group differences on social cognition measures. Gender accounted for differences on 1 scale of concept formation, 1 dynamic social interaction scale, and 2 empathy scales. The clinical, developmental, and educational implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Mobile Sensing to Test Clinical Models of Depression, Social Anxiety, State Affect, and Social Isolation Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Chow, Philip I; Fua, Karl; Huang, Yu; Bonelli, Wesley; Xiong, Haoyi; Barnes, Laura E; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-03-03

    Research in psychology demonstrates a strong link between state affect (moment-to-moment experiences of positive or negative emotionality) and trait affect (eg, relatively enduring depression and social anxiety symptoms), and a tendency to withdraw (eg, spending time at home). However, existing work is based almost exclusively on static, self-reported descriptions of emotions and behavior that limit generalizability. Despite adoption of increasingly sophisticated research designs and technology (eg, mobile sensing using a global positioning system [GPS]), little research has integrated these seemingly disparate forms of data to improve understanding of how emotional experiences in everyday life are associated with time spent at home, and whether this is influenced by depression or social anxiety symptoms. We hypothesized that more time spent at home would be associated with more negative and less positive affect. We recruited 72 undergraduate participants from a southeast university in the United States. We assessed depression and social anxiety symptoms using self-report instruments at baseline. An app (Sensus) installed on participants' personal mobile phones repeatedly collected in situ self-reported state affect and GPS location data for up to 2 weeks. Time spent at home was a proxy for social isolation. We tested separate models examining the relations between state affect and time spent at home, with levels of depression and social anxiety as moderators. Models differed only in the temporal links examined. One model focused on associations between changes in affect and time spent at home within short, 4-hour time windows. The other 3 models focused on associations between mean-level affect within a day and time spent at home (1) the same day, (2) the following day, and (3) the previous day. Overall, we obtained many of the expected main effects (although there were some null effects), in which higher social anxiety was associated with more time or greater

  12. Early life experience alters behavior during social defeat: focus on serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Gardner, K L; Thrivikraman, K V; Lightman, S L; Plotsky, P M; Lowry, C A

    2005-01-01

    Early life experience can have prolonged effects on neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of early life experience on behavior during social defeat, as well as on associated functional cellular responses in serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus, a structure which plays an important role in modulation of stress-related physiology and behavior. Male Long Evans rat pups were exposed to either normal animal facility rearing or 15 min or 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14. As adults, these rats were exposed to a social defeat protocol. Differences in behavior were seen among the early life treatment groups during social defeat; rats exposed to 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14 displayed more passive-submissive behaviors and less proactive coping behaviors. Analysis of the distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase and c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in control rats exposed to a novel cage and rats exposed to social defeat revealed that, independent of the early life experience, rats exposed to social defeat showed an increase in the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in serotonergic neurons in the middle and caudal parts of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus and caudal part of the ventral dorsal raphe nucleus, regions known to contain serotonergic neurons projecting to central autonomic and emotional motor control systems. This is the first study to show that the dorsomedial part of the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus is engaged by a naturalistic stressor and supports the hypothesis that early life experience alters behavioral coping strategies during social conflict; furthermore, this study is consistent with the hypothesis that topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons principally within the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal part of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus modulate stress

  13. Social-Emotional Correlates of Early Stage Social Information Processing Skills in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M; McKown, Clark; Johnson, Jason K; Allen, Adelaide W; Evans-Smith, Bernadette; Fogg, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Difficulty processing social information is a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet the failure of children with ASD to process social information effectively is poorly understood. Using Crick and Dodge's model of social information processing (SIP), this study examined the relationship between social-emotional (SE) skills of pragmatic language, theory of mind, and emotion recognition on the one hand, and early stage SIP skills of problem identification and goal generation on the other. The study included a sample of school-aged children with and without ASD. SIP was assessed using hypothetical social situations in the context of a semistructured scenario-based interview. Pragmatic language, theory of mind, and emotion recognition were measured using direct assessments. Social thinking differences between children with and without ASD are largely differences of quantity (overall lower performance in ASD), not discrepancies in cognitive processing patterns. These data support theoretical models of the relationship between SE skills and SIP. Findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms giving rise to SIP deficits in ASD and may ultimately inform treatment development for children with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Early identification: Language skills and social functioning in deaf and hard of hearing preschool children.

    PubMed

    Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Korver, Anna M H; Konings, Saskia; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Dekker, Friedo W; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-12-01

    Permanent childhood hearing impairment often results in speech and language problems that are already apparent in early childhood. Past studies show a clear link between language skills and the child's social-emotional functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the level of language and communication skills after the introduction of early identification services and their relation with social functioning and behavioral problems in deaf and hard of hearing children. Nationwide cross-sectional observation of a cohort of 85 early identified deaf and hard of hearing preschool children (aged 30-66 months). Parents reported on their child's communicative abilities (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III), social functioning and appearance of behavioral problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Receptive and expressive language skills were measured using the Reynell Developmental Language Scale and the Schlichting Expressive Language Test, derived from the child's medical records. Language and communicative abilities of early identified deaf and hard of hearing children are not on a par with hearing peers. Compared to normative scores from hearing children, parents of deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower social functioning and more behavioral problems. Higher communicative abilities were related to better social functioning and less behavioral problems. No relation was found between the degree of hearing loss, age at amplification, uni- or bilateral amplification, mode of communication and social functioning and behavioral problems. These results suggest that improving the communicative abilities of deaf and hard of hearing children could improve their social-emotional functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic social isolation suppresses proplastic response and promotes proapoptotic signalling in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ana; Adzic, Miroslav; Djordjevic, Jelena; Radojcic, Marija B

    2010-08-15

    Successful adaptation to stress involves synergized actions of glucocorticoids and catecholamines at several levels of the CNS, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Inside the PFC, hormonal signals trigger concerted actions of transcriptional factors, such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), culminating in a balanced, proadaptive expression of their common genes, such as proplastic NCAM and/or apoptotic Bax and Bcl-2. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic stress may compromise the balance between GR and NFkappaB signals and lead to an altered/maladaptive expression of their cognate genes in the PFC. Our results obtained with Wistar rats exposed to chronic social isolation indicated alterations of the GR relative to the NFkappaB, in favor of the GR, in both the cytoplasmic and the nuclear compartments of the PFC. Although these alterations did not affect the induction of proplastic NCAM gene, they decreased the NCAM sialylation necessary for plastic response and caused marked relocation of the mitochondrial membrane antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein to its cytoplasmic form. Moreover, the compromised PSA-NCAM plastic response found under chronic stress was sustained after exposure of animals to the subsequent acute stress, whereas the proapoptotic signals were further emphasized. It is concluded that chronic social isolation of Wistar animals leads to a maladaptive response of the PFC, considering the diminishment of its plastic potential and potentiating of apoptosis. Such conditions in the PFC are likely to compromise its ability to interact with other CNS structures, such as the hippocampus, which is necessary for successful adaptation to stress. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Early childhood social disadvantage is associated with poor health behaviours in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Non, Amy L.; Román, Jorge Carlos; Gross, Christopher L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual health behaviours are considered important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. These behaviours may be socially patterned by early exposure to social disadvantage, but few studies have prospectively tested this hypothesis empirically. Aim We investigated whether childhood social disadvantage was associated with likelihood of engaging in less healthy behaviours 40 years later. Subjects and Methods Prospective data were analysed from the New England Family Study, a 2005–2007 adult follow-up of a cohort initiated in 1959–1966 (n=565). Childhood social environment (birth-age 7) was assessed using a cumulative index of socioeconomic and family stability factors. Logistic regression models evaluated associations between social disadvantage and each health-related behaviour and obesity in adulthood. Results Relative to low disadvantage, higher disadvantage was associated with 3.6-fold greater odds of smoking (95% CI: 1.9, 7.0), 4.8-fold greater odds (in women only) of excess alcohol consumption (95% CI: 1.6, 14.2), and 2.7-fold greater odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.3, 5.5), but was not associated with unhealthy diet or physical inactivity. Conclusion These findings suggest childhood social disadvantage may contribute to adult cardiometabolic disease by predisposing children to adopt certain unhealthy behaviours. If replicated, such findings may support intervention strategies that target social environmental factors and behavioural pathways that are established early in life. PMID:26727037

  17. Immediate relativity: EEG reveals early engagement of comparison in social information processing.

    PubMed

    Ohmann, Katharina; Stahl, Jutta; Mussweiler, Thomas; Kedia, Gayannée

    2016-11-01

    A wide array of social decisions relies on social comparisons. As such, these decisions require fast access to relative information. Therefore, we expect that signatures of the comparative process should be observable in electrophysiological components at an early stage of information processing. However, to date, little is known about the neural time course of social target comparisons. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in 2 electroencephalography (EEG) studies using a social distance effect paradigm. The distance effect capitalizes on the fact that stimuli close on a certain dimension take longer to compare than stimuli clearly differing on this dimension. Here, we manipulated the distance of face characteristics regarding their levels of attractiveness (Study 1) and trustworthiness (Study 2), 2 essential social dimensions. In both studies, size comparisons served as a nonsocial control condition. In Study 1, distance related effects were apparent 170 ms (vertex positive potential, VPP) and 200 ms (N2) after stimulus onset for attractiveness comparisons. In Study 2, trustworthiness comparisons took effect already after 100 ms (N1) and likewise carried over to an event-related N2. Remarkably, we observed a similar temporal pattern for social (attractiveness, trustworthiness) and nonsocial (size) dimensions. These results speak in favor of an early encoding of comparative information and emphasize the primary role of comparison in social information processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Deletion of TLX and social isolation impairs exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adolescent hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kozareva, Danka A; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period of neurodevelopment during which life experiences can have profound effects on the brain. Hippocampal neurogenesis, the neurodevelopmental process of generating functional new neurons from neural stem cells, occurs throughout the lifespan and has been shown to play a role in learning, memory and in mood regulation. In adulthood it is influenced by extrinsic environmental factors such as exercise and stress. Intrinsic factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis include the orphan nuclear receptor TLX (Nr2e1) which is primarily expressed in the neurogenic niches of the brain. While mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been widely studied, less is known on how hippocampal neurogenesis is affected during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both TLX and isolation stress on exercise-induced increases in neurogenesis in running and sedentary conditions during adolescence. Single- (isolation stress) wild type and Nr2e1 -/- mice or pair-housed wild type mice were housed in sedentary conditions or allowed free access to running wheels for 3 weeks during adolescence. A reduction of neuronal survival was evident in mice lacking TLX, and exercise did not increase hippocampal neurogenesis in these Nr2e1 -/- mice. This suggests that TLX is necessary for the pro-neurogenic effects of exercise during adolescence. Interestingly, although social isolation during adolescence did not affect hippocampal neurogenesis, it prevented an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis in the ventral hippocampus. Together these data demonstrate the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in promoting an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis at this key point in life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Relationships between social isolation, neighborhood poverty, and cancer mortality in a population-based study of US adults.

    PubMed

    Fleisch Marcus, Andrea; Illescas, Alex H; Hohl, Bernadette C; Llanos, Adana A M

    2017-01-01

    Social isolation is an important determinant of all-cause mortality, with evidence suggesting an association with cancer-specific mortality as well. In this study, we examined the associations between social isolation and neighborhood poverty (independently and jointly) on cancer mortality in a population-based sample of US adults. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994), NHANES III Linked Mortality File (through 2011) and 1990 Census, we estimated the relationship between social isolation and high neighborhood poverty and time-to-cancer death using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. We examined the associations of each factor independently and explored the multiplicative and additive interaction effects on cancer mortality risk and also analyzed these associations by sex. Among 16 044 US adults with 17-23 years of follow-up, there were 1133 cancer deaths. Social isolation (HR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54) and high neighborhood poverty (HR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60) were associated with increased risk of cancer mortality adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity; in sex-specific estimates this increase in risk was evident among females only (HR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86). These associations were attenuated upon further adjustment for socioeconomic status. There was no evidence of joint effects of social isolation and high neighborhood poverty on cancer mortality overall or in the sex-stratified models. These findings suggest that social isolation and higher neighborhood poverty are independently associated with increased risk of cancer mortality, although there is no evidence to support our a priori hypothesis of a joint effect.

  20. Relationships between social isolation, neighborhood poverty, and cancer mortality in a population-based study of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Illescas, Alex H.; Hohl, Bernadette C.; Llanos, Adana A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Social isolation is an important determinant of all-cause mortality, with evidence suggesting an association with cancer-specific mortality as well. In this study, we examined the associations between social isolation and neighborhood poverty (independently and jointly) on cancer mortality in a population-based sample of US adults. Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–1994), NHANES III Linked Mortality File (through 2011) and 1990 Census, we estimated the relationship between social isolation and high neighborhood poverty and time-to-cancer death using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. We examined the associations of each factor independently and explored the multiplicative and additive interaction effects on cancer mortality risk and also analyzed these associations by sex. Results Among 16 044 US adults with 17–23 years of follow-up, there were 1133 cancer deaths. Social isolation (HR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.54) and high neighborhood poverty (HR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08–1.60) were associated with increased risk of cancer mortality adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity; in sex-specific estimates this increase in risk was evident among females only (HR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04–1.86). These associations were attenuated upon further adjustment for socioeconomic status. There was no evidence of joint effects of social isolation and high neighborhood poverty on cancer mortality overall or in the sex-stratified models. Conclusions These findings suggest that social isolation and higher neighborhood poverty are independently associated with increased risk of cancer mortality, although there is no evidence to support our a priori hypothesis of a joint effect. PMID:28273125

  1. Social Isolation-Induced Territorial Aggression in Male Offspring Is Enhanced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Satoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Moriya, Nozomu; Takeda, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are a major component of ambient particulate matter, and concern about the health effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter is growing. Previously, we found that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affected locomotor activity and motor coordination, but there are also indications that such exposure may contribute to increased aggression in offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of prenatal diesel exhaust exposure on social isolation-induced territorial aggression. Pregnant mice were exposed to low concentrations of diesel exhaust (DE; mass concentration of 90 μg/m3: DE group: n = 15) or clean air (control group: n = 15) for 8 h/day during gestation. Basal locomotion of male offspring was measured at 10 weeks of age. Thereafter, male offspring were individually housed for 2 weeks and subsequently assessed for aggression using the resident−intruder test at 12 weeks of age, and blood and brain tissue were collected from the male offspring on the following day for measuring serum testosterone levels and neurochemical analysis. There were no significant differences in locomotion between control and DE-exposed mice. However, DE-exposed mice showed significantly greater social isolation-induced territorial aggressive behavior than control mice. Additionally, socially-isolated DE-exposed mice expressed significantly higher concentrations of serum testosterone levels than control mice. Neurochemical analysis revealed that dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex an