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Sample records for early stage heterosis

  1. Genetic analysis of Upland cotton dynamic heterosis for boll number per plant at multiple developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Cai, Shihu; Ma, Lingling; Liu, Fang; Chen, Zhiwen; Su, Ying; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Yield is an important breeding target. As important yield components, boll number per plant (BNP) shows dynamic character and strong heterosis in Upland cotton. However, the genetic basis underlying the dynamic heterosis is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for BNP and heterosis at multiple developmental stages and environments using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and two corresponding backcross populations. By the single-locus analysis, 23 QTLs were identified at final maturity, while 99 QTLs were identified across other three developmental stages. A total of 48 conditional QTLs for BNP were identified for the adjacent stages. QTLs detected at later stage mainly existed in the partial dominance to dominance range and QTLs identified at early stage mostly showed effects with the dominance to overdominance range during plant development. By two-locus analysis, we observe that epistasis played an important role not only in the variation of the performance of the RIL population but also in the expression of heterosis in backcross population. Taken together, the present study reveals that the genetic basis of heterosis is dynamic and complicated, and it is involved in dynamic dominance effect, epistasis and QTL by environmental interactions. PMID:27748451

  2. Heterosis in early maize ear inflorescence development: a genome-wide transcription analysis for two maize inbred lines and their hybrid.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiping; Qin, Cheng; Luo, Xirong; Li, Lujiang; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Jian; Lin, Haijian; Shen, Yaou; Zhao, Maojun; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang

    2014-08-11

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, contributes to superior agronomic performance of hybrids compared to their inbred parents. Despite its importance, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis. Early maize ear inflorescences formation affects grain yield, and are thus an excellent model for molecular mechanisms involved in heterosis. To determine the parental contributions and their regulation during maize ear-development-genesis, we analyzed genome-wide digital gene expression profiles in two maize elite inbred lines (B73 and Mo17) and their F1 hybrid using deep sequencing technology. Our analysis revealed 17,128 genes expressed in these three genotypes and 22,789 genes expressed collectively in the present study. Approximately 38% of the genes were differentially expressed in early maize ear inflorescences from heterotic cross, including many transcription factor genes and some presence/absence variations (PAVs) genes, and exhibited multiple modes of gene action. These different genes showing differential expression patterns were mainly enriched in five cellular component categories (organelle, cell, cell part, organelle part and macromolecular complex), five molecular function categories (structural molecule activity, binding, transporter activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity and catalytic activity), and eight biological process categories (cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, regulation of biological process, establishment of localization, cellular component organization or biogenesis, response to stimulus and localization). Additionally, a significant number of genes were expressed in only one inbred line or absent in both inbred lines. Comparison of the differences of modes of gene action between previous studies and the present study revealed only a small number of different genes had the same modes of gene action in both maize seedlings and ear inflorescences. This might be an indication that in

  3. Disaggregating polyploidy, parental genome dosage and hybridity contributions to heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fort, Antoine; Ryder, Peter; McKeown, Peter C; Wijnen, Cris; Aarts, Mark G; Sulpice, Ronan; Spillane, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Heterosis is the phenomenon whereby hybrid offspring of genetically divergent parents display superior characteristics compared with their parents. Although hybridity and polyploidy can influence heterosis in hybrid plants, the differential contributions of hybridity vs polyploidy to heterosis effects remain unknown. To address this question, we investigated heterosis effects on rosette size and growth rate of 88 distinct F1 lines of Arabidopsis thaliana consisting of diploids, reciprocal triploids and tetraploids in isogenic and hybrid genetic contexts. 'Heterosis without hybridity' effects on plant size can be generated in genetically isogenic F1 triploid plants. Paternal genome excess F1 triploids display positive heterosis, whereas maternal genome excess F1 s display negative heterosis effects. Paternal genome dosage increases plant size in F1 hybrid triploid plants by, on average, 57% (in contrast with 35% increase displayed by F1 diploid hybrids). Such effects probably derive from differential seed size, as the growth rate of triploids was similar to diploids. Tetraploid plants display a lower growth rate compared with other ploidies, whereas hybrids display increased early stage growth rate. By disaggregating heterosis effects caused by hybridity vs genome dosage, we advance our understanding of heterosis in plants and facilitate novel paternal genome dosage-based strategies to enhance heterosis effects in crop plants.

  4. Relationship between differences of gene expression in early developing seeds of hybrid versus parents and heterosis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Zhong-Fu; Meng, Fan-Rong; Wu, Li-Min; Wang, Zhang-Kui; Sun, Qi-Xin

    2003-03-01

    In order to understand molecular basis of heterosis, mRNA differential display was used to analyze the differences in gene expression between seeds of 18 reciprocal hybrids and their 6 parents at 6th day after pollination. The relationship between gene expression patterns and heterosis was determined. Only bands that can be repeated in duplicate PCR were used for analysis so as to reduce false positive bands. Among the total of 2,025 bands displayed, 1,386 bands (68.43%) were reproducible. Eight patterns (fifteen kinds) of gene expression were observed, which include: (1) bands occurring in only one parent (two kinds); (2) bands observed in both hybrids and one parent (two kinds); (3) bands detected in parents and one hybrid (two kinds); (4) bands displayed in only one hybrid (two kinds); (5) bands revealed in one hybrid and its corresponding female (two kinds) or male (two kinds) parent; (6) bands visualized in only both hybrids (one kind); (7) bands occurring in only parents (one kind); (8) bands observed in parents and both hybrids (one kind). Our results indicate that differences of gene expression between hybrids and their parents are very obvious. The percentages of bands observed in only both hybrids and in only both parents are lower. The analysis shows that bands observed in parents and both hybrids are not correlated with all nine agronomic traits, which indicates differentially expressed genes are mainly responsible for the observed heterosis. At least one pattern of differential gene expression is significantly correlated with nine agronomic traits. Silenced bands in hybrid (which include bands occurring in only one parent, bands detected in both parents and one hybrid and bands in only parents) and bands present in one hybrid and its corresponding female or male parent are likely to play important roles in heterosis. These results suggest that early seed development could be closely related to heterosis.

  5. Early stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-12-14

    Evidence has now accumulated that colonoscopy and removal of polyps, especially during screening and surveillance programs, is effective in overall risk reduction for colon cancer. After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced adenomas and new early stage metachronous cancers. Early stage colon cancer can be defined as disease that appears to have been completely resected with no subsequent evidence of involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. This differs from the clinical setting of an apparent "curative" resection later pathologically upstaged following detection of malignant cells extending into adjacent organs, peritoneum, lymph nodes or other distant sites, including liver. This highly selected early stage colon cancer group remains at high risk for subsequent colon polyps and metachronous colon cancer. Precise staging is important, not only for assessing the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for patient selection for continued surveillance. With advanced stages of colon cancer and a more guarded outlook, repeated surveillance should be limited. In future, novel imaging technologies (e.g., confocal endomicroscopy), coupled with increased pathological recognition of high risk markers for lymph node involvement (e.g., "tumor budding") should lead to improved staging and clinical care.

  6. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Yumei; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Liu, Fang; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton. PMID:27565885

  7. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lianguang; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Yumei; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Liu, Fang; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-10-13

    Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.

  8. Heterosis for horticultural traits in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Hale, Anna L; Farnham, Mark W; Nzaramba, M Ndambe; Kimbeng, Collins A

    2007-08-01

    Over the last three decades, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica Group) hybrids made by crossing two inbred lines replaced open-pollinated populations to become the predominant type of cultivar. The change to hybrids evolved with little or no understanding of heterosis or hybrid vigor in this crop. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine levels of heterosis expressed by a set of hybrids derived by crossing relatively elite, modern inbreds (n = 9). An additional objective was to determine if PCR-based marker derived genetic similarities among the parents can be useful to predict heterosis in this crop. Thirty-six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design involving nine parents were evaluated for five horticultural characters including the head characteristics of head weight, head stem diameter, and maturity (e.g., days from transplant to harvest), and the plant vigor characteristics of plant height, and plant width in four environments. A total of 409 polymorphic markers were generated by 24 AFLP, 23 SRAP and 17 SSR primer combinations. Euclidean distances between parents were determined based on phenotypic traits. About half of the hybrids exhibited highparent heterosis for head weight (1-30 g) and stem diameter (0.2-3.5 cm) when averaged across environments. Almost all hybrids showed highparent heterosis for plant height (1-10 cm) and width (2-13 cm). Unlike other traits, there was negative heterosis for maturity, indicating that heterosis for this character in hybrids is expressed as earliness. Genetic similarity estimates among the nine parental lines ranged from 0.43 to 0.71 and were significantly and negatively correlated with highparent heterosis for all traits except for stem diameter and days from transplant to harvest. Euclidean distances were not correlated with heterosis. With modern broccoli inbreds, less heterosis was observed for head characteristics than for traits that measured plant vigor. In addition, genetic similarity

  9. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  10. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  11. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  12. The regulatory network mediated by circadian clock genes is related to heterosis in rice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guojing; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Xing, Yongzhong

    2015-03-01

    Exploitation of heterosis in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has contributed greatly to global food security. In this study, we generated three sets of reciprocal F1 hybrids of indica and japonica subspecies to evaluate the relationship between yield heterosis and the circadian clock. There were no differences in trait performance or heterosis between the reciprocal hybrids, indicating no maternal effects on heterosis. The indica-indica and indica-japonica reciprocal F1 hybrids exhibited pronounced heterosis for chlorophyll and starch content in leaves and for grain yield/biomass. In contrast, the japonica-japonica F1 hybrids showed low heterosis. The three circadian clock genes investigated expressed in an above-high-parent pattern (AHP) at seedling stage in all the hybrids. The five genes downstream of the circadian clock, and involved in chlorophyll and starch metabolic pathways, were expressed in AHP in hybrids with strong better-parent heterosis (BPH). Similarly, three of these five genes in the japonica-japonica F1 hybrids showing low BPH were expressed in positive overdominance, but the other two genes were expressed in additive or negative overdominance. These results indicated that the expression patterns of circadian clock genes and their downstream genes are associated with heterosis, which suggests that the circadian rhythm pathway may be related to heterosis in rice. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Heterosis or Neutrality?

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Various statistics have been proposed on an ad hoc basis to test whether alleles at a locus are selectively neutral. By considering population models in which selection operates, this paper shows that the population homozygosity is a powerful test statistic for testing departures from neutrality, in the direction of heterozygote advantage or disadvantage. The sample homozygosity plays a similar role when only sample data are available. Some numerical examples are included, showing the application of the test.—An analysis is made of the effect of heterosis on such quantities as the expected number of alleles in the population or sample, the effective number of alleles, the expected homozygosity, and on the population and sample allele frequency distributions generally. PMID:863245

  14. Proteomic patterns associated with heterosis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jiewen; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2016-08-01

    Heterosis is characterized by higher seed yields, plant biomass or other traits in heterozygotes or hybrids compared with their genetically divergent parents, which are often homozygous. Despite extensive investigation of heterosis and its wide application in crops such as maize, rice, wheat and sorghum, its molecular basis is still enigmatic. In the past century, some pioneers have proposed multigene models referring to the complementation of allelic and gene expression variation, which is likely to be an important contributor to heterosis. In addition, there are potential interactions of epigenetic variation involved in heterosis via novel mechanisms. At the level of gene expression, many recent studies have revealed that the heterosis phenomenon can be deciphered not only at the transcriptional level but also at the proteomic level. This review presents an update on the information supporting the involvement of proteomic patterns in heterosis and a possible future direction of the field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock.

  15. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  16. Progress toward understanding heterosis in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Schnable, Patrick S; Springer, Nathan M

    2013-01-01

    Although heterosis, or hybrid vigor, is widely exploited in agriculture, a complete description of its molecular underpinnings has remained elusive despite extensive investigation. It appears that there is not a single, simple explanation for heterosis. Instead, it is likely that heterosis arises in crosses between genetically distinct individuals as a result of a diversity of mechanisms. Heterosis generally results from the action of multiple loci, and different loci affect heterosis for different traits and in different hybrids. Hence, multigene models are likely to prove most informative for understanding heterosis. Complementation of allelic variation, as well as complementation of variation in gene content and gene expression patterns, is likely to be an important contributor to heterosis. Epigenetic variation has the potential to interact in hybrid genotypes via novel mechanisms. Several other intriguing hypotheses are also under investigation. In crops, heterosis must be considered within the context of the genomic impacts of prior selection for agronomic traits.

  17. The Early Stages of Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John

    The stages of interlanguage, the speech of beginning second language learners as they progress toward second language fluency, are described. Examples are drawn from the speech of Spanish speaking students of English as a second language. The continuum of interlanguage development from native language forms to target language forms includes three…

  18. Understanding rice heterosis using deep sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterosis is a complex biological phenomenon where the offspring show better performance compared to the inbred parents. Although rice breeders have used heterosis in hybrid rice production for nearly 40 years, the genetic and molecular mechanism underlying the heterosis in rice is still poorly und...

  19. Estimation and Testing of Gene Expression Heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Nettleton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, also known as the hybrid vigor, occurs when the mean phenotype of hybrid off-spring is superior to that of its two inbred parents. The heterosis phenomenon is extensively utilized in agriculture though the molecular basis is still unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers have begun to compare expression levels of thousands of genes between parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis. Standard statistical approaches for separately analyzing expression data for each gene can produce biased and highly variable estimates and unreliable tests of heterosis. To address these shortcomings, we develop a hierarchical model to borrow information across genes. Using our modeling framework, we derive empirical Bayes estimators and an inference strategy to identify gene expression heterosis. Simulation results show that our proposed method outperforms the more traditional strategy used to detect gene expression heterosis. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:25435758

  20. Estimation and Testing of Gene Expression Heterosis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Tieming; Liu, Peng; Nettleton, Dan

    2014-09-01

    Heterosis, also known as the hybrid vigor, occurs when the mean phenotype of hybrid off-spring is superior to that of its two inbred parents. The heterosis phenomenon is extensively utilized in agriculture though the molecular basis is still unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers have begun to compare expression levels of thousands of genes between parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis. Standard statistical approaches for separately analyzing expression data for each gene can produce biased and highly variable estimates and unreliable tests of heterosis. To address these shortcomings, we develop a hierarchical model to borrow information across genes. Using our modeling framework, we derive empirical Bayes estimators and an inference strategy to identify gene expression heterosis. Simulation results show that our proposed method outperforms the more traditional strategy used to detect gene expression heterosis. This article has supplementary material online.

  1. Heterosis in switchgras: spaced plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Population and specific hybrids were made between populations and genotypes of switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., and their progeny were evaluated for heterosis in space-transplanted field trials in eastern Nebraska for a three year period. ‘Kanlow’ (lowland tetraploid) x ‘Summer’ (upland tetraploid...

  2. Liquid biopsy in early stage lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramírez, Cristina; Robles, Ana I.; Molina, Miguel Ángel; Faus-Dáder, María José; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths worldwide. Surgery is the standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, 30% to 80% of these patients will die within 5 yearS of diagnosis. Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) harbors pathologic characteristics of the original tumor, such as gene mutations or epigenetic alterations. Analysis of cfDNA has revolutionized the clinical care of advanced lung cancer patients undergoing targeted therapies. However, the low concentration of cfDNA in the blood of early-stage NSCLC patients has hampered its use for management of early disease. Continuing development of more specific and sensitive techniques for detection and analysis of cfDNA will soon enable its leverage in early stage and, perhaps, even screening settings. Therefore, cfDNA analysis may become a tool used for routine NSCLC diagnosis and for monitoring tumor burden, as well as for identifying hidden residual disease. In this review, we will focus on the current evidence of cfDNA in patients with early-stage NSCLC, new and upcoming approaches to identify circulating-tumor biomarkers, their clinical applications and future directions. PMID:27826533

  3. Treatment of early stage vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, G.

    1989-03-01

    The cure rates for early stage vocal cord cancer are excellent with primary radiotherapy. Voice quality remains as good or becomes better than prior to treatment. For the local failures that do occur, surgical salvage will yield ultimate cure rates of about 95% for T1 and 90% for T2 tumors.

  4. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: the lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed.

  5. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: the lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed. PMID:27445872

  6. Allozyme-Associated Heterosis in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Houle, D.

    1989-01-01

    Two large experiments designed to detect allozyme-associated heterosis for growth rate in Drosophila melanogaster were performed. Heterosis associated with allozyme genotypes may be explained either by functional overdominance at the allozyme loci, or closely linked loci; or by genotypic correlations between allozyme loci and loci at which deleterious recessive alleles segregate. Such genotypic correlations would be favored by consanguineous mating, small effective population size, population mixing and strong natural or artificial selection. D. melanogaster is outbred, has large effective population size and there is little evidence for genotypic disequilibria. Therefore it would be unlikely to show allozyme heterosis due to genotypic correlations. In the first experiment I estimated the genotypic values of 97 replicated genotypes. In the second experiment, 500 individuals were raised in a fluctuating, stressful environment. In neither experiment was there any consistent evidence for allozyme heterosis in size or development rate, fluctuating asymmetry for size or in tendency to deviate from the population mean. In the first experiment, heterosis explained less than 5.6% of the genetic variance in growth characters. In the second, heterosis explained less than 0.1% of the phenotypic variance in growth characters. Outside of the molluscs, species which show allozyme heterosis have population structures or histories which tend to promote genotypic correlations. There is little evidence that functional overdominance is responsible for observations of allozyme-associated heterosis. PMID:2482224

  7. Early stages of arthrospore maturation in Streptomyces.

    PubMed Central

    Manzanal, M B; Hardisson, C

    1978-01-01

    In the sporogenesis of Streptomyces, two basic stages can be considered: sporulation septum synthesis and arthrospore maturation. Most of the information about the ultrastructural changes accompanying the sporogenesis refer to the first stage of the process, but nothing has been published about the evolution of the sporulation septum during maturation. In a previous paper, proposed three basic types of sporulation septum formation in Streptomyces. Our ultrastructural study on the evolution of the sporulation septum during the early stages of arthrospore maturation in seven species of Streptomyces indicates correlation between the sporulation septum type and its evolution during the arthrospore maturation. In types I and II the material of the annuli was incorporated into the lateral walls of the arthrospore, whereas in types II and III the deposits were lysed during the maturation. Only in type III was the arthrospore wall synthesized de novo. In type I there was total integration and in type II there was partial integration of the septum into the arthrospore wall. Images PMID:618842

  8. Temporal Shift of Circadian-Mediated Gene Expression and Carbon Fixation Contributes to Biomass Heterosis in Maize Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dae Kwan; Rohozinski, Dominica; Song, Qingxin; Taylor, Samuel H; Juenger, Thomas E; Harmon, Frank G; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the molecular mechanism for this remains largely elusive. In Arabidopsis hybrids and allopolyploids, increased photosynthetic and metabolic activities are linked to altered expression of circadian clock regulators, including CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1). It is unknown whether a similar mechanism mediates heterosis in maize hybrids. Here we report that higher levels of carbon fixation and starch accumulation in the maize hybrids are associated with altered temporal gene expression. Two maize CCA1 homologs, ZmCCA1a and ZmCCA1b, are diurnally up-regulated in the hybrids. Expressing ZmCCA1 complements the cca1 mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis, and overexpressing ZmCCA1b disrupts circadian rhythms and biomass heterosis. Furthermore, overexpressing ZmCCA1b in maize reduced chlorophyll content and plant height. Reduced height stems from reduced node elongation but not total node number in both greenhouse and field conditions. Phenotypes are less severe in the field than in the greenhouse, suggesting that enhanced light and/or metabolic activities in the field can compensate for altered circadian regulation in growth vigor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis reveals a temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets to the early morning in the hybrids, suggesting that activation of morning-phased genes in the hybrids promotes photosynthesis and growth vigor. This temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets correlated with nonadditive and additive gene expression in early and late stages of seedling development. These results could guide breeding better hybrid crops to meet the growing demand in food and bioenergy.

  9. Temporal Shift of Circadian-Mediated Gene Expression and Carbon Fixation Contributes to Biomass Heterosis in Maize Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qingxin; Juenger, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the molecular mechanism for this remains largely elusive. In Arabidopsis hybrids and allopolyploids, increased photosynthetic and metabolic activities are linked to altered expression of circadian clock regulators, including CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1). It is unknown whether a similar mechanism mediates heterosis in maize hybrids. Here we report that higher levels of carbon fixation and starch accumulation in the maize hybrids are associated with altered temporal gene expression. Two maize CCA1 homologs, ZmCCA1a and ZmCCA1b, are diurnally up-regulated in the hybrids. Expressing ZmCCA1 complements the cca1 mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis, and overexpressing ZmCCA1b disrupts circadian rhythms and biomass heterosis. Furthermore, overexpressing ZmCCA1b in maize reduced chlorophyll content and plant height. Reduced height stems from reduced node elongation but not total node number in both greenhouse and field conditions. Phenotypes are less severe in the field than in the greenhouse, suggesting that enhanced light and/or metabolic activities in the field can compensate for altered circadian regulation in growth vigor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis reveals a temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets to the early morning in the hybrids, suggesting that activation of morning-phased genes in the hybrids promotes photosynthesis and growth vigor. This temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets correlated with nonadditive and additive gene expression in early and late stages of seedling development. These results could guide breeding better hybrid crops to meet the growing demand in food and bioenergy. PMID:27467757

  10. Relationships between differential gene expression and heterosis in cotton hybrids developed from the foundation parent CRI-12 and its pedigree-derived lines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinxia; Ainijiang; Zhang, Yuanming; Guo, Wangzen; Zhang, Tian-Zhen

    2011-02-01

    CRI-12, an Upland cotton variety with high yield, elite fiber quality and disease resistance, is further characterized by its high heritability, combining ability and genetic stability. CRI-12 and its pedigree-derived lines were used to develop increased heterosis cotton hybrids, including CRI-28, CRI-29, XZM 2 and Jimian18. CRI-12 was chosen as the cotton foundation parent and analyzed by gene differential expressions between hybrids and their corresponding parents at seedling, squaring and flowering stages. The following approaches were considered the most viable candidates to elucidate the molecular basis of CRI-12: cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphisms (cDNA-AFLPs), gene differential expression ratios, and vegetative growth heterosis and yield heterosis for correlation analysis. The results indicated that CRI-12 plays a predominant role in vegetative heterosis in CRI-28, CRI-29 and Jimian18 hybrids at the seedling and squaring stages; the percentage of dominant expression in single parents was greater than other patterns; downregulated expression in single parents was higher than upregulated expression in hybrids, and downregulated expression in hybrids was the lowest of the four patterns in the three growth stage cumulative totals. The gene differential expression ratio of hybrids and parents varied for the three growth stages, suggesting gene differential expression changes over time. Further analysis of differential gene expression ratios, vegetative growth and yield heterosis correlation revealed upregulated expression in hybrids were correlated with vegetative heterosis at the seedling and squaring stages, which play an important role in yield heterosis at the flowering stage. Downregulated expression in the maternal parent (CRI-12 and its pedigree-derived lines) suggested benefits in vegetative heterosis at the squaring stage, but a possible hybrid yield decrease at the flowering stage. These results provided evidence that CRI-12 and its pedigree

  11. Virtual exploration of early stage atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Andy L; González Ballester, Miguel A; Noailly, Jérôme

    2016-12-15

    Biological mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. The early stage of atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized by the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) droplets, leading to the creation of foam cells (FC). To address the difficulty to explore the dynamics of interactions that controls this process, this study aimed to develop a model of agents and infer on the most influential cell- and molecule-related parameters. FC started to accumulate after six to eight months of simulated hypercholesterolemia. A sensitivity analysis revealed the strong influence of LDL oxidation rate on the risk of FC creation, which was exploited to model the antioxidant effect of statins. Combined with an empirical simulation of the drug ability to decrease the level of LDL, the virtual statins treatment led to reductions of oxidized LDL levels similar to reductions measured in vivo. An Open source software was used to develop the agent-based model of early AS. Two different concentrations of LDL agents were imposed in the intima layer to simulate healthy and hypercholesterolemia groups of 'virtual patients'. The interactions programmed between molecules and cells were based on experiments and models reported in the literature. A factorial sensitivity analysis explored the respective effects of the less documented model parameters as (i) agent migration speed, (ii) LDL oxidation rate and (iii) concentration of autoantibody agents. Finally, the response of the model to known perturbations was assessed by introducing statins agents, able to reduce the oxidation rate of LDL agents and the LDL boundary concentrations. jerome.noailly@upf.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Predictive Heterosis in Multibreed Evaluations Using Quantitative and Molecular Approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterosis is the extra genetic boost in performance obtained by crossing two cattle breeds. It is an important tool for increasing the efficiency of beef production. It is also important to adjust data used to calculate genetic evaluations for differences in heterosis. Good estimates of heterosis...

  13. Heterosis is Prevalent for Multiple Traits in Diverse Maize Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterosis describes the superior phenotypes observed in hybrids relative to their inbred parents. Maize is a model system for studying heterosis due to the high levels of yield heterosis and commercial use of hybrids. The inbred lines from an association mapping panel were crossed to a common inbr...

  14. Identification of candidate genes associated with heterosis in rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybrid rice due to heterosis has played an important role for ensuring stable rice production in the USA and globally. Heterosis is a complex biological phenomenon in which the offspring show superior performance compared to their inbred parents. The heterosis can be positive or negative based on b...

  15. Very early stages of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyunina, Tatiana

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this thesis work is to investigate the initial conditions and the early phases of the formation of high-mass stars by means of dedicated observational studies. We consider two object classes: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), and a subsequent stage characterized by the presence of young embedded (proto-)stellar clusters. First, we estimate masses and column densities for a completely new sample of southern IRDCs, utilizing our own millimeter continuum emission maps as well as Spitzer satellite data. The parameters we derive show that IRDCs from our sample have the potential to form not only low- and intermediate-mass stars, but can also be the birth places of massive stars. In particular, the comparison of our results with previously obtained data for low-mass starless cores shows a clear trend for IRDCs to have systematically higher column densities. The interpolated IRDC peak column densities exceed the threshold for the onset of massive star formation previously advocated by theoretical studies. We also critically evaluate the limitations of the applied emission and extinction methods. Second, we investigate the physical conditions and the chemical composition of the dense gas within the IRDCs of our sample by means of a multi-line molecular spectroscopy analysis. All the clouds have complex HCO+ line pro les, and we detect SiO emission in some clouds. These ndings mark the presence of infall and out ow motions in at least some parts of the IRDCs, and hence, ongoing star formation. In comparison with low-mass starless cores, the IRDCs have broader and more intense lines. Thus, they may be characterised by more turbulent conditions. Nevertheless, we nd a tendency for the IRDCs to have molecular abundances similar to the case of low-mass starless cores. This indicates similar chemical initial conditions for low- and high-mass star-forming regions. Finally, we study the stellar composition and environmental conditions in the young embedded cluster IRAS

  16. What is crop heterosis: new insights into an old topic.

    PubMed

    Fu, Donghui; Xiao, Meili; Hayward, Alice; Jiang, Guanjie; Zhu, Longrong; Zhou, Qinghong; Li, Jiqiang; Zhang, Min

    2015-02-01

    Heterosis (or hybrid vigor) refers to a natural phenomenon whereby hybrid offspring of genetically diverse individuals out-perform their parents in multiple traits including yield, adaptability and resistances to biotic and abiotic stressors. Innovations in technology and research continue to clarify the mechanisms underlying crop heterosis, however the intrinsic relationship between the biological basis of heterosis remain unclear. In this review, we aim to provide insight into the molecular genetic basis of heterosis by presenting recent advances in the 'omics' of heterosis and the role of non-coding regions, particularly in relation to energy-use efficiency. We propose that future research should focus on integrating the expanding datasets from different species and hybrid combinations, to mine key heterotic genes and unravel interactive 'omics' networks associated with heterosis. Improved understanding of heterosis and the biological basis for its manipulation in agriculture should help to streamline its use in enhancing crop productivity.

  17. Heterosis: emerging ideas about hybrid vigour.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Mikkilineni, Venugopal; Zehr, Usha Barwale; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2012-11-01

    Perceived by Charles Darwin in many vegetable plants and rediscovered by George H Shull and Edward M East in maize, heterosis or hybrid vigour is one of the most widely utilized phenomena, not only in agriculture but also in animal breeding. Although, numerous studies have been carried out to understand its genetic and/or molecular basis in the past 100 years, our knowledge of the underlying molecular processes that results in hybrid vigour can best be defined as superficial. Even after century long deliberations, there is no consensus on the relative/individual contribution of the genetic/epigenetic factors in the manifestation of heterosis. However, with the recent advancements in functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics-related technologies, the riddle of heterosis is being reinvestigated by adopting systems-level approaches to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. A number of intriguing hypotheses are converging towards the idea of a cumulative positive effect of the differential expression of a variety of genes, on one or several yield-affecting metabolic pathways or overall energy-use efficiency, as the underlying mechanism for the manifestation of heterosis. Presented here is a brief account of clues gathered from various investigative approaches targeted towards better scientific understanding of this process.

  18. Heterosis of Arabidopsis hybrids between C24 and Col is associated with increased photosynthesis capacity.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Ryo; Taylor, Jennifer M; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2012-05-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana shows hybrid vigor (heterosis) in progeny of crosses between Columbia-0 and C24 accessions. Hybrid vigor was evident as early as mature seeds and in seedlings 3 d after sowing (DAS). At 3 DAS, genes encoding chloroplast-located proteins were significantly overrepresented (187) among the 724 genes that have greater than midparent values of expression in the hybrid. Many of these genes are involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis. The rate of photosynthesis was constant per unit leaf area in parents and hybrids. Larger cell sizes in the hybrids were associated with more chloroplasts per cell, more total chlorophyll, and more photosynthesis. The increased transcription of the chloroplast-targeted genes was restricted to the 3-7 DAS period. At 10 DAS, only 118 genes had expression levels different from the expected midparent value in the hybrid, and only 12 of these genes were differentially expressed at 3 DAS. The early increase in activity of genes involved in photosynthesis and the associated phenomena of increases in cell size and number through development, leading to larger leaf areas of all leaves in the hybrid, suggest a central role for increased photosynthesis in the production of the heterotic biomass. In support of this correlation, we found that an inhibitor of photosynthesis eliminated heterosis and that higher light intensities enhanced both photosynthesis and heterosis. In hybrids with low-level heterosis (Landsberg erecta x Columbia-0), chloroplast-targeted genes were not up-regulated and leaf areas were only marginally increased.

  19. Proteomic analysis of heterosis during maize seed germination.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhiyuan; Jin, Xining; Ding, Dong; Li, Yongling; Fu, Zhongjun; Tang, Jihua

    2011-04-01

    Heterosis is observed for most phenotypic traits and developmental stages in many plants. In this study, the embryos, from germinating seeds after 24 h of soaking, for five elite maize hybrids and their parents were selected to unravel the genetic basis of heterosis using 2-D proteomic method. In total, 257 (80.06%), 363 (58.74%), 351 (79.95%), 242 (54.50%), and 244 (46.30%) nonadditively expressed proteins were identified in hybrids Zhengdan 958, Nongda 108, Yuyu 22, Xundan 20, and Xundan 18, respectively. The nonadditive proteins were divided into above high-parent (++; 811, 55.66%), high-parent (+; 121, 8.30%), partial dominance (+-; 249, 17.09%), low-parent (-; 30, 2.06%), below low-parent (- -; 62, 4.26%), and D (different; 184, 12.63%) expression patterns. The observed patterns indicate the important roles of dominance, partial dominance, and overdominance in regulating seed germination in maize. Additionally, 54 different proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into nine functional groups: metabolism (9), cell detoxification (8), unknown functional proteins (8), chaperones (7), signal transduction (6), development process (5), other (5), transporter (3), and stress response (3). Of these, the most interesting are those involved with germination-related hormone signal transduction and the abscisic acid and gibberellin regulation networks.

  20. Hierarchical additive effects on heterosis in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Zhiwu; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Guoxin; Zhu, Renshan; Huang, Wenchao; Zhu, Yingguo

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of heterosis in crops has contributed greatly to improvement in global food and energy production. In spite of the pervasive importance of heterosis, a complete understanding of its mechanisms has remained elusive. In this study, a small test-crossed rice population was constructed to investigate the formation mechanism of heterosis for 13 traits. The results of the relative mid-parent heterosis and modes of inheritance of all investigated traits demonstrated that additive effects were the foundation of heterosis for complex traits in a hierarchical structure, and multiplicative interactions among the component traits were the framework of heterosis in complex traits. Furthermore, new balances between unit traits and related component traits provided hybrids with the opportunity to achieve an optimal degree of heterosis for complex traits. This study dissected heterosis of both reproductive and vegetative traits from the perspective of hierarchical structure for the first time. Additive multiplicative interactions of component traits were proven to be the origin of heterosis in complex traits. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to component traits, rather than complex traits, in the process of revealing the mechanism of heterosis. PMID:26442051

  1. Genetic Components of Heterosis for Seedling Traits in an Elite Rice Hybrid Analyzed Using an Immortalized F2 Population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Zhou, Gang; Xu, Caiguo; Zhang, Qifa

    2016-02-20

    Utilization of heterosis has greatly contributed to rice productivity in China and many Asian countries. Superior hybrids usually show heterosis at two stages: canopy development at vegetative stage and panicle development at reproductive stage resulting in heterosis in yield. Although the genetic basis of heterosis in rice has been extensively investigated, all the previous studies focused on yield traits at maturity stage. In this study, we analyzed the genetic basis of heterosis at seedling stage making use of an "immortalized F2" population composed of 105 hybrids produced by intercrossing recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63, the parents of Shanyou 63, which is an elite hybrid widely grown in China. Eight seedling traits, seedling height, tiller number, leaf number, root number, maximum root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and total dry weight, were investigated using hydroponic culture. We analyzed single-locus and digenic genetic effects at the whole genome level using an ultrahigh-density SNP bin map obtained by population re-sequencing. The analysis revealed large numbers of heterotic effects for seedling traits including dominance, overdominance and digenic dominance (epistasis) in both positive and negative directions. Overdominance effects were prevalent for all the traits, and digenic dominance effects also accounted for a large portion of the genetic effects. The results suggested that cumulative small advantages of the single-locus effects and two-locus interactions, most of which could not be detected statistically, could explain the genetic basis of seedling heterosis of the F1 hybrid.

  2. An actuarial approach to comparing early stage and late stage lung cancer mortality and survival.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sara W; Mulshine, James L; Hagstrom, Dale; Pyenson, Bruce S

    2010-02-01

    Comparing the mortality characteristics of different cohorts is an essential process in the life insurance industry. Pseudodisease, lead-time bias, and length bias, which are critical to determining the value of cancer screening, have close analogues in life insurance company management, including the temporal impact of underwriting. Ratios of all-cause mortality rates for cancer cohorts relative to standard population mortality rates can provide insights into early stage and late stage mortality differences, differences by age, sex, race, and histology, and allow modeling of biases associated with early stage detection or screening protocols. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data set has characteristics that allow efficient application of actuarial techniques. We show the mortality burden associated with treated early stage lung cancer and that identifying all lung cancers at early stage could reduce US lung cancer deaths by over 70,000 per year.

  3. Critical pneumonia complicating early-stage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mercieri, Marco; Di Rosa, Roberta; Pantosti, Annalisa; De Blasi, Roberto Alberto; Pinto, Giovanni; Arcioni, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia, Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, in a woman at 14 weeks of pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reporting this critical lung infection occurring during an early phase of pregnancy. This case study alerts physicians to the increasing worldwide spread of these uncommon yet virulent and potentially lethal infections. In our patient, antibiotic therapy with linezolid plus rifampin started at 14 weeks of pregnancy had a successful outcome without inducing toxicity or teratogenesis in the fetus.

  4. A Four Stage Approach to Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Julian S.

    This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…

  5. Discovering colorons at the early stage LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Dicus, Duane A.; Kao, Chung; Sayre, Joshua; Nandi, S.

    2011-05-01

    Prospects are investigated for the discovery of massive hypergluons using data from the early runs of the Large Hadron Collider. A center of mass energy of 7 TeV and an integrated luminosity of 1 fb{sup -1} or 5 fb{sup -1} are assumed. A phenomenological Lagrangian is adopted to evaluate the cross section of a pair of colored vector bosons (colorons, {rho}-tilde) decaying into four colored scalar resonances (hyperpions, {pi}-tilde), which then decay into eight gluons. The dominant eight-jet background from the production of 8g, 7g1q, 6g2q, and 5g3q is included. We find an abundance of signal events and that realistic cuts reduce the background enough to establish a 5{sigma} signal for the coloron mass of up to 733 GeV with 1 fb{sup -1} or 833 GeV with 5 fb{sup -1}.

  6. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  7. [Cognitive rehabilitation in early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kasper, E; Thöne-Otto, A; Bürger, K; Schröder, S G; Hoffmann, W; Schneider, W; Teipel, S

    2016-07-01

    Dementia impairs the coping with routine daily tasks and social relationships due to an increasing degeneration of cognitive abilities. An appropriate treatment must adequately consider the effects of declined cognitive abilities on patients and their environment. Therefore, in recent times, integrative procedures for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) have become increasingly important for the therapy of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia (MD). CR approaches provide compensatory possibilities for clearly defined routine challenges and the individual needs of those affected. This overview article in the form of a selective review elaborates factors for the effectiveness of CR on the basis of the currently available literature: 1) individuality - consideration of personal needs and targets, 2) compensation - mediation of skills and strategies to compensate for cognitive impairments, 3) interaction - inclusion of relatives and environmental conditions and 4) integration - integration of various therapeutic disciplines and methods. On the basis of this assessment with regards to the content, a critical analysis of the methods of short and long-term therapeutic effects on MCD and MD was carried out. Although the resulting factors were of high long-term relevance for the improvement of depression and quality of life, effects on cognition were more pronounced for MCI than for MD, which emphasizes the importance of beginning therapy as early as possible. The results show that future studies on effectiveness must employ endpoints relevant for routine daily life, and that the possibility of an implementation of therapeutic concepts in a healthcare system should be considered as an essential criterion.

  8. Heterosis in normal versus dwarf laying hens.

    PubMed

    Merat, P; Minvielle, F; Bordas, A; Coquerelle, G

    1994-01-01

    The effect of genotype at the sex-linked dwarf locus on heterosis in crosses between a White Leghorn and a brown egg line for body weight, egg production, and related traits was studied. Heterozygous Dw/dw males were used to produce normal and dwarf pullets in each of the pure lines and their reciprocal crosses (eight genotype-line combinations). There were 54 pullets per combination. Line differences were significant for shank length, body weights at 8, 17, and 52 wk, age at first egg, egg number, clutch length, rate of lay, and egg weight. Heterosis was observed for all of these traits. Body weight as a covariate was not important in analyses of egg number, clutch length, and egg weight. The egg production reduction associated with the dw gene in pure lines was smaller in F1 hens. This discovery may be adequate to warrant use of dwarf crossbred hens for egg production.

  9. Weight loss in the early stage of progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Ayako; Kaneko, Satoshi; Wate, Reika; Oki, Mitsuaki; Nagashima, Masato; Asayama, Shinya; Nakamura, Masataka; Fujita, Kengo; Saito, Akemi; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2017-02-01

    To clarify whether weight change in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is caused by the disease itself or secondarily by other factors. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 51 patients with PD and 14 patients with PSP, especially during the early stage of their diseases. All patients were independent in terms of their activities of daily living and did not have any feeding difficulty. The body mass index measured within 3 years after the disease onset did not show a significant difference between the two diseases. However, the subsequent weight was stable in patients with PD and significantly decreased in patients with PSP. Weight loss begins in the early stage of PSP, whereas dopaminergic treatment may contribute to keep weight in the early stage of PD through reduction of energy expenditure and/or improvement in appetite.

  10. Unraveling Mixed Hydrate Formation: Microscopic Insights into Early Stage Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kyle Wm; Zhang, Zhengcai; Kusalik, Peter G

    2016-12-29

    The molecular-level details of mixed hydrate nucleation remain unclear despite the broad implications of this process for a variety of scientific domains. Through analysis of mixed hydrate nucleation in a prototypical CH4/H2S/H2O system, we demonstrate that high-level kinetic similarities between mixed hydrate systems and corresponding pure hydrate systems are not a reliable basis for estimating the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Moreover, we show that solution compositions prior to and during nucleation are not necessarily effective proxies for the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Rather, microscopic details, (e.g., guest-host interactions and previously neglected cage types) apparently play key roles in determining early stage behavior of mixed hydrates. This work thus provides key foundational concepts and insights for understanding mixed hydrate nucleation.

  11. Surgical staging of early invasive epithelial ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, E; Querleu, D; Narducci, F; Chauvet, M P; Chevalier, A; Lesoin, A; Vennin, P; Taieb, S

    2000-01-01

    Early stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma is defined pathologically as a tumor strictly limited to one or both ovaries without any extra-ovarian disease (i.e., Stage IA or B of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification). This diagnosis can be obtained only after an exhaustive surgical staging procedure, performed as soon as the diagnosis of epithelial invasive ovarian carcinoma is established. This staging surgery currently encompasses a peritoneal cytology, the thorough inspection of all the visceral and parietal peritoneal surfaces with biopsy of any abnormality, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH + BSO), random peritoneal biopsies, omentectomy, appendectomy and bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomies, up to the left renal vein. The results of this staging procedure and its indications are discussed. In all of the cases, the radical removal of the pathologic adnexa is indicated, along with the complete peritoneal and retroperitoneal staging. While fertility-sparing surgery (avoiding hysterectomy and contralateral adnexectomy, if possible) seems to be safe for young women, a TAH + BSO is the rule for the others. Adjuvant chemotherapy can be omitted in well-differentiated tumors with a negative staging operation, but currently it remains indicated in all other cases. Indeed, the ultimate goal in early stage ovarian carcinoma is to not impair by inadequate management the high chance of a cure. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Radical Hysterectomy for Early Stage Cervical Cancer: Laparoscopy Versus Laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    McBee, William C.; Richard, Scott D.; Edwards, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Gynecologic oncologists have recently begun using laparoscopic techniques to treat early stage cervical cancer. We evaluated a single institution's experience of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and staging compared with laparotomy. Methods: A retrospective chart review identified stage IA2 and IB1 cervical cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection from July 2003 to April 2009. A 2:1 cohort of patients treated with laparotomy were matched by stage. Results: Nine laparoscopic patients (3 stage IA2, 6 stage IB1) with 18 matched controls (6 and 12) were identified. Demographics for each group were similar. None had positive margins or lymph nodes. An average of 11.2 vs.13.9 pelvic lymph nodes (P=0.237) were removed. Average operating time was 231.7 vs. 207.2 minutes (P=0.434), and average estimated blood loss was 161.1 vs. 394.4mL (P=0.059). Average length of stay was 2.9 vs. 5.5 days (P=0.012). No transfusions or operative complications were noted in the laparoscopic group vs. 3 each in the open group (P=0.194). No laparoscopic patients and 5 open patients had a postoperative wound infection (P=0.079). No recurrences were noted. Conclusions: Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy is a feasible alternative to laparotomy for early stage cervical cancer. Similar surgical outcomes are achieved with significantly less morbidity. PMID:21902978

  13. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  14. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  15. Radiation Plus Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not

  16. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  17. Radiation Plus Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not

  18. [The conservative treatment of early-stage benign prostatic hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Kumanov, Kh; Stoianova, V; Lilov, A; Kaloianov, D

    1993-01-01

    After outlining the methods currently used in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment, data defining some etiological aspects of the disease are briefly analyzed. Initial experience had with the treatment of early stage BPH using Permixon--a drug exerting effect on alpha-2 reductase--is described. The results in a series of twenty-seven patients presenting BPH are encouraging.

  19. Signatures of unfolding in the early stages of protein denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.

    2012-04-01

    A comparative study of the early stages of unfolding of five proteins: cyt c, c-b 562, cyt c‧, azurin, and lysozyme is reported. From crystallographic data, helical regions and intervening non-helical (or 'turning') regions are identified in each. Exploiting a previously introduced geometrical model, the paper describes quantitatively the stepwise extension of a polypeptide chain subject to the geometrical constraint that the spatial relationship among the residues of each triplet is fixed by native-state crystallographic data. Despite differences among the above-cited proteins, remarkable universality of behavior is found in the early stages of unfolding. At the very earliest stages, internal residues in each helical region have a common unfolding history; the terminal residues, however, are extraordinarily sensitive to structural perturbations. Residues in non-helical sections of the polypeptide unfold after residues in the internal helical regions, but with increasing steric perturbation playing a dominant role in advancing denaturation.

  20. Management of Early-stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Practice Guideline.

    PubMed

    Herst, J; Crump, M; Baldassarre, F G; MacEachern, J; Sussman, J; Hodgson, D; Cheung, M C

    2017-01-01

    In the past, treatment for patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma consisted mainly of radiotherapy. Now, chemotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy are treatment options. These guidelines aim to provide recommendations on the optimal management of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a systematic review searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and other literature sources from 2003 to 2015, and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Two authors independently reviewed and selected studies, and appraised the evidence quality. The document underwent internal and external review by content, methodology experts, a patient representative and clinicians in Ontario. We have issued recommendations for patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma and with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; with favourable and unfavourable prognosis; and for the use of positron emission tomography to direct treatment. We have provided our interpretation of the evidence and considerations for implementation. Examples of recommendations are: 'Patients with early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma should not be treated with radiotherapy alone'; 'chemotherapy plus radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone are recommended treatment options for patients with early-stage non-bulky Hodgkin lymphoma'; 'The Working Group does not recommend the use of a negative interim positron emission tomography scan alone to identify patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma for whom radiotherapy can be omitted without a reduction in progression-free survival'. Through the use of GRADE, recommendations were geared towards patient important outcomes and their strength reflected the available evidence and its interpretation from the patients' point of view. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  2. Prediction of Heterosis from DNA Fingerprints in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Gavora, J. S.; Fairfull, R. W.; Benkel, B. F.; Cantwell, W. J.; Chambers, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the value of DNA fingerprints for the prediction of heterosis in chickens, retrospective analyses of data from three crossbreeding experiments and DNA fingerprints (DFP) of parental strains were conducted using two minisatellite and one middle-repetitive DNA probes. DFP bands were assessed on pooled DNA samples of 10-15 individuals per parental genetic group. The number of DFP bands evaluated in the experiments ranged from 81 to 139. The probes varied in their predictive value, but predictability of heterosis generally increased with multiple probes. Highly significant correlations (0.68-0.87) between band sharing ratios (SH) and heterosis were found in 25 crosses of White Leghorns in the first egg production cycle for age at sexual maturity, egg production, and mature body weight: traits with heterosis of 10% or more of the means. Regressions of SH explained 78.4% of the variation in heterosis in age at sexual maturity, 60.2% in egg production and 46.4% in mature body weight. For ``broiler'' traits with heterosis of <1%, none of the correlations, based on 13 crosses, were significant. It was concluded that multilocus probe DFP of pooled DNA samples show promise as predictors of heterosis. PMID:8889538

  3. Genetic composition of yield heterosis in an elite rice hybrid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Chen, Ying; Yao, Wen; Zhang, Chengjun; Xie, Weibo; Hua, Jinping; Xing, Yongzhong; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2012-09-25

    Heterosis refers to the superior performance of hybrids relative to the parents. Utilization of heterosis has contributed tremendously to the increased productivity in many crops for decades. Although there have been a range of studies on various aspects of heterosis, the key to understanding the biological mechanisms of heterotic performance in crop hybrids is the genetic basis, much of which is still uncharacterized. In this study, we dissected the genetic composition of yield and yield component traits using data of replicated field trials of an "immortalized F(2)" population derived from an elite rice hybrid. On the basis of an ultrahigh-density SNP bin map constructed with population sequencing, we calculated single-locus and epistatic genetic effects in the whole genome and identified components pertaining to heterosis of the hybrid. The results showed that the relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits. Overdominance/pseudo-overdominance is the most important contributor to heterosis of yield, number of grains per panicle, and grain weight. Dominance × dominance interaction is important for heterosis of tillers per plant and grain weight and has roles in yield and grain number. Single-locus dominance has relatively small contributions in all of the traits. The results suggest that cumulative effects of these components may adequately explain the genetic basis of heterosis in the hybrid.

  4. [Mechanism on differential gene expression and heterosis formation].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen-Lu; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Shou-Gong

    2013-06-01

    Despite the rediscovery of heterosis about a century ago and the suggestion of various genetic models to explain this phenomenon, little consensus has yet been reached about the genetic basis of heterosis. Following the genome organization variation and gene effects, an understanding of gene differential expression in hybrids and its parents provides a new opportunity to speculate on mechanisms that might lead to heterosis. Investigation on allele-specific gene expression in hybrid and gene differential expression between hybrids and its parents might contribute to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of heterosis and eventually guide breeding practices. In this review, we discussed the recent researches on allelic-specific expression in hybrid which was frequently observed in recent studies and analyzed its regulatory mechanism. All possible modes of gene action, including additivity, high- and low-parent dominance, underdominance, and over-dominance, were observed when investigating gene differential expression between hybrids and its parents. Data from transcriptomic studies screened several heterosis-associated genes and highlighted the importance of certain key biochemical pathways that may prove to be quintessential for the manifestation of heterosis. So far, no uniform global expression pat-terns were observed in these gene expression studies. Most heterosis-associated gene expression analyses have not revealed a predominant functional category to which differentially expressed genes belong. However, these gene expression profiling studies represent a first step towards the definition of the complex gene expression networks that might be relevant in the context of heterosis. New technique on gene expression profile and advancements in bioinformatics will facilitate our understanding of the genetic basis of heterosis at the gene-expression level.

  5. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Chen, Shuhong; Liu, Qiqi; Zhang, Bei; He, Xiaomin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Chenzhen; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minli; Li, Qing; Cao, Bangwei; Bai, Zhigang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongtao; Zhu, Shengtao; Zheng, Jiasheng; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong; Wang, Shengqi; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing protein antigens of the candidate TAAs. Analyses were done by using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to calculate diagnostic accuracy. Findings Twenty-two candidate TAAs were assessed by protein microarray analysis in 914 participants with serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) available. Twelve candidate TAAs were statistically different in signal intensity between HCC and controls. Among them, CENPF, HSP60 and IMP-2 showed AUC (area under the curve) values of 0.826, 0.764 and 0.796 respectively for early HCC. The highest prevalence of autoantibody positivity was observed in HCC cases with BCLC tumor stage A, well-differentiated histology and Child-Pugh grade C. Specifically, 73.6% or 79.3% cases of early HCC with negative AFP were positive for autoantibody to CENPF or HSP60. Interpretation Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC. PMID:26137588

  6. Folding of Polymer Chains in Early Stage of Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shichen; Miyoshi, Toshikazu

    Understanding the structural formation of long polymer chains in the early stage of crystallization is one of the long-standing problems in polymer science. Using solid state NMR, we investigated chain trajectory of isotactic polypropylene in the mesomorphic nano-domains formed via rapid and deep quenching. Comparison of experimental and simulated 13C-13C Double Quantum (DQ) buildup curves demonstrated that instead of random re-entry models and solidification models, individual chains in the mesomorphic form iPP adopt adjacent reentry sequences with an average folding number of = 3-4 (assuming an adjacent re-entry fraction of of 100%) during mesomorphic formation process via nucleation and growth in the early stage. This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant DMR-1105829 and 1408855) and startup funds from the UA.

  7. TCM tongue diagnosis index of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo, Lun-Chien; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Yi-Jing; Natsagdorj, Sainbuyan; Chiang, John Y

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates discriminating tongue features to distinguish between early stage breast cancer (BC) patients and non-breast cancer individuals through non-invasive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) tongue diagnosis. The tongue features for 67 patients with 0 and 1 stages of BC, and 70 non-breast cancer individuals are extracted by the automatic tongue diagnosis system (ATDS). A total of nine tongue features, namely, tongue color, tongue quality, tongue fissure, tongue fur, red dot, ecchymosis, tooth mark, saliva, and tongue shape are identified for each tongue. Features extracted are further sub-divided according to the areas located, i.e., spleen-stomach, liver-gall-left, liver-gall-right, kidney, and heart-lung areas. This study focuses on deriving significant tongue features (p<0.05) to discriminate early-stage BC patients from non-breast cancer individuals. The Mann-Whitney test shows that the amount of tongue fur (p=0.024), maximum covering area of tongue fur (p=0.009), thin tongue fur (p=0.009), the average area of red dot (p=0.049), the maximum area of red dot (p=0.009), red dot in the spleen-stomach area (p=0.000), and red dot in the heart-lung area (p=0.000) demonstrate significant differences. The data collected are further classified into two groups. The training group consists of 57 early-stage BC patients and 60 non-breast cancer individuals, while the testing group is composed of 10 early-stage BC patients and 10 non-breast cancer individuals. The logistic regression by utilizing these 7 tongue features with significant differences in Mann-Whitney test as factors is performed. In order to reduce the number of tongue features employed in prediction, tongue features with the least amount of significant difference, namely, maximum area of red dot and average area of red dot, are removed progressively. The tongue features of the testing group are employed in the aforementioned three models to test the power of significant tongue features

  8. Maternal warming affects early life stages of an invasive thistle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Gallagher, R S; Shea, K

    2012-09-01

    Maternal environment can influence plant offspring performance. Understanding maternal environmental effects will help to bridge a key gap in the knowledge of plant life cycles, and provide important insights for species' responses under climate change. Here we show that maternal warming significantly affected the early life stages of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Seeds produced by plants grown in warmed conditions had higher germination percentages and shorter mean germination times than those produced by plants under ambient conditions; this difference was most evident at suboptimal germination temperatures. Subsequent seedling emergence was also faster with maternal warming, with no cost to seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Our results suggest that maternal warming may accelerate the life cycle of this species via enhanced early life-history stages. These maternal effects on offspring performance, together with the positive responses of the maternal generation, may exacerbate invasions of this species under climate change.

  9. Early-stage Alzheimer disease represents increased suicidal risk in relation to later stages.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wee Shiong; Rubin, Eugene H; Coats, Mary; Morris, John C

    2005-01-01

    The level of risk for suicide in individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) generally is considered to be low. It is important to recognize, however, that suicide can occur in early-stage Alzheimer disease on the background of a distinct high-risk profile. The objective of this report is to describe the clinical profiles of individuals with very mild Alzheimer disease who either attempted or completed suicide. We describe two participants in a longitudinal study of early-stage Alzheimer disease who were in the ninth decade of life and had very mild Alzheimer disease. Consistent with earlier cases reported in the literature, both displayed the following high-risk phenotype predisposing to suicidal risk: male gender, highly educated professional, preserved insight, dysthymic symptoms that did not meet criteria for major depression and post-dated the onset of cognitive decline, and suicidal ideation. Neuropathological examination confirmed histologic Alzheimer disease in both cases. These cases, taken together, emphasize the need for awareness that early-stage Alzheimer disease may present a unique suicidal risk compared with later stages.

  10. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hiroshi; Todo, Yukiharu; Watari, Hidemichi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review is to address the current status of adjuvant chemotherapy alone in early-stage cervical cancer treatments in the literature. At present, the therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone after radical surgery (RS) has not yet been established, and radiation therapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recommended as the standard adjuvant therapy after RS for early-stage cervical cancer in various guidelines. The main purpose of adjuvant therapy after RS, however, should be to reduce extrapelvic recurrence rather than local recurrence, although adjuvant RT or CCRT has survival benefits for patients with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence. Moreover, several studies reported that adjuvant therapies including RT were associated with a higher incidence of complications, such as lymphedema, bowel obstruction and urinary disturbance, and a lower grade of long-term quality of life (QOL) or sexual functioning than adjuvant chemotherapy alone. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone for early-stage cervical cancer with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence were not fully investigated in prospective studies, but several retrospective studies suggest that the adjuvant effects of chemotherapy alone are at least similar to that of RT or CCRT in terms of recurrence rate, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS) with lower incidence of complications. Whereas cisplatin based combination regimens were used in these studies, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) regimen, which is currently recognized as a standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with metastatic, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), had also survival benefit as an adjuvant therapy. Therefore, it may be worth considering a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adjuvant chemotherapy alone using TP regimen versus adjuvant RT as an alternative adjuvant therapy. Because early-stage cervical cancer is a curable

  11. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  12. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Hiroshi; Todo, Yukiharu; Watari, Hidemichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to address the current status of adjuvant chemotherapy alone in early-stage cervical cancer treatments in the literature. At present, the therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone after radical surgery (RS) has not yet been established, and radiation therapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recommended as the standard adjuvant therapy after RS for early-stage cervical cancer in various guidelines. The main purpose of adjuvant therapy after RS, however, should be to reduce extrapelvic recurrence rather than local recurrence, although adjuvant RT or CCRT has survival benefits for patients with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence. Moreover, several studies reported that adjuvant therapies including RT were associated with a higher incidence of complications, such as lymphedema, bowel obstruction and urinary disturbance, and a lower grade of long-term quality of life (QOL) or sexual functioning than adjuvant chemotherapy alone. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone for early-stage cervical cancer with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence were not fully investigated in prospective studies, but several retrospective studies suggest that the adjuvant effects of chemotherapy alone are at least similar to that of RT or CCRT in terms of recurrence rate, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS) with lower incidence of complications. Whereas cisplatin based combination regimens were used in these studies, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) regimen, which is currently recognized as a standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with metastatic, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), had also survival benefit as an adjuvant therapy. Therefore, it may be worth considering a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adjuvant chemotherapy alone using TP regimen versus adjuvant RT as an alternative adjuvant therapy. Because early-stage cervical cancer is a curable

  13. Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S.; Costa, Matthew L.; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A.; Winyard, Paul G.; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C.; Thornalley, Paul J.; Rabbani, Naila

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti–CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity. PMID:25788417

  14. Acoustic determination of early stages of intravascular blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Uzlova, Svetlana G; Guria, Konstantin G; Guria, Georgy Th

    2008-10-13

    The blood coagulation system (BCS) is a complex biological system playing a principal role in the maintenance of haemostasis. Insufficient activity of the BCS may lead to bleeding and blood loss (e.g. in the case of haemophilia). On the other hand, excessive activity may cause intravascular blood coagulation, thromboses and embolization. Most of the methods currently used for BCS monitoring suffer from the major disadvantage of being invasive. The purpose of the present work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonic methods for non-invasive registration of the early stages of blood coagulation processes in intensive flows. With this purpose, a special experimental set-up was designed, facilitating the simultaneous detection of optical and acoustic signals during the clotting process. It was shown that (i) as microemboli appear in the flow during the early stage of blood coagulation, the intensity of the Doppler signal increases twofold, and (ii) microemboli formation in the early stages of blood clotting always reveals itself through an acoustic contrast. Both of these effects are well defined, so we hope that they may be used for non-invasive BCS monitoring in clinical practice.

  15. Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S; Costa, Matthew L; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A; Winyard, Paul G; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C; Thornalley, Paul J; Rabbani, Naila

    2015-03-19

    There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti-CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity.

  16. Oral propranolol in early stages of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Bancalari, Aldo; Schade, Ricardo; Muñoz, Tomás; Lazcano, Carolina; Parada, Rodrigo; Peña, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    To assess the effect of oral propranolol on the progression of early stages of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We analyzed VLBW infants with ROP (stages 2-3, zones II-III). Newborns received oral propranolol (0.5 mg/kg/dose q8h), and were monitored throughout the treatment period for possible side effects. Propranolol was administered until regression of ROP. A historic control group of patients with equivalent ROP was used. We compared characteristics of both groups and the progression of retinopathy. Forty-seven newborns were included, 20 in the propranolol group and 27 in the control group. There were no significant differences in gestational age, birthweight or gender. The mean duration of treatment with propranolol was 58.2±17.6 days. Most patients started treatment with stage 2 disease (65.0%), and had zone III involvement (55.0%). In the treated group, 90.0% (18/20) of patients did not require intervention with laser or bevacizumab, compared to 51.8% in the control group (P<0.005). No cases of bradycardia, hypotension or hypoglycemia were observed. Oral propranolol in early stages of ROP could prevent disease progression and reduce the need for invasive rescue therapy with laser or bevacizumab. No significant side effects were reported.

  17. High-throughput quantification of early stages of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeremy Changyu; Wall, Adam Alexander; Stow, Jennifer Lea; Hamilton, Nicholas Ahti

    2013-09-01

    Phagocytosis--the engulfment of cells and foreign bodies--is an important cellular process in innate immunity, development, and disease. Quantification of various stages of phagocytosis, especially in a rapid screening fashion, is an invaluable tool for elucidating protein function during this process. However, current methods for assessing phagocytosis are largely limited to flow cytometry and manual image-based assays, providing limited information. Here, we present an image-based, semi-automated phagocytosis assay to rapidly quantitate three distinct stages during the early engulfment of opsonized beads. Captured images are analyzed using the image-processing software ImageJ and quantified using a macro. Modifications to this method allowed quantification of phagocytosis only in fluorescently labeled transfected cells. Additionally, the time course of bead internalization could be measured using this approach. The assay could discriminate perturbations to stages of phagocytosis induced by known pharmacological inhibitors of filamentous actin and phosphoinositol-3-kinase. Our methodology offers the ability to automatically categorize large amounts of image data into the three early stages of phagocytosis within minutes, clearly demonstrating its potential value in investigating aberrant phagocytosis when manipulating proteins of interest in drug screens and disease.

  18. Can we learn from heterosis and epigenetics to improve photosynthesis?

    PubMed

    Offermann, Sascha; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Heterosis is the increase in fitness and yield of F1 hybrids derived from a cross between distantly related genotypes. The use of heterosis is one of the most successful crop breeding strategies, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly defined. There is ample evidence that heterosis is associated with increased rates of photosynthesis and recent analyses have shed light on the underlying biochemical principles. In parallel, the importance of epigenetic chromatin modifications in heterosis has now been established. The first direct links between epigenetic changes and improved photosynthesis have also been demonstrated. As epigenetic engineering is now possible, we discuss the feasibility of altering the epigenetic code to enhance photosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic and epigenetic insights into the molecular bases of heterosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2013-07-01

    Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigour, is widespread in plants and animals, but the molecular bases for this phenomenon remain elusive. Recent studies in hybrids and allopolyploids using transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, epigenomic and systems biology approaches have provided new insights. Emerging genomic and epigenetic perspectives suggest that heterosis arises from allelic interactions between parental genomes, leading to altered programming of genes that promote the growth, stress tolerance and fitness of hybrids. For example, epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes in hybrids and allopolyploids can alter complex regulatory networks of physiology and metabolism, thus modulating biomass and leading to heterosis. The conceptual advances could help to improve plant and animal productivity through the manipulation of heterosis.

  20. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E; Neimat, Joseph S; Molinari, Anna L; Tramontana, Michael G; Finder, Stuart G; Gill, Chandler E; Bliton, Mark J; Kao, Chris; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M; Cannard, Kevin R; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50-75, on medication ≥6 months but ≤4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n = 15) or DBS + ODT (n = 15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. Medication requirements in the DBS + ODT group were lower at all time points with a maximal difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS + ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group.

  2. Gibberellins and Heterosis in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Stewart B.; Blake, Terence J.; Pharis, Richard P.

    1983-01-01

    Two maize inbreds, CM7 and CM49, and CM7 × CM49, their F1 hybrid (which displayed significant heterosis), were examined with regard to response to exogenous gibberellin A3 (GA3), and in their ability to metabolize GA20, a native GA of maize. The leaf sheath elongation response to GA3 was far greater for the imbreds than for their hybrid. The inbreds also displayed significant elongation of the leaf blades in response to GA3, whereas the hybrid was unaffected. Promotion of cell division in the leaf sheath of CM7 and the hybrid was effected by GA3, but no promotion of cell elongation was observed in CM49, even though significant leaf sheath elongation occurred. Shoot dry weight of both inbreds was significantly increased by GA3, but response by the hybrid in this parameter was slight and variable. Root dry weight of CM7 was significantly increased by GA3, but was unchanged in CM49 and the hybrid. Thus, inbred shoot dry weight increases effected by GA3 were not at the expense of the root system. Rapid metabolism of [2,3-3H]GA20 occurred in all genotypes, although genotypic differences were observed. The hybrid had the highest rates of metabolism to GA glucosyl conjugate-like substances. Oxidative metabolism was also fastest in the hybrid, followed by CM7, and slowest in CM49, the slowest-growing inbred. Thus, rate of GA20 metabolism is under genetic control in normal (i.e. not dwarfed) maize genotypes. These results, taken together with previous reports that the hybrid has significantly enhanced levels of endogenous GA-like substances, suggest that GA play a role in the expression of heterosis in maize. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662881

  3. Neural changes underlying early stages of L2 vocabulary acquisition.

    PubMed

    Pu, He; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown neural changes following second language (L2) acquisition after weeks or months of instruction. But are such changes detectable even earlier than previously shown? The present study examines the electrophysiological changes underlying the earliest stages of second language vocabulary acquisition by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) within the first week of learning. Adult native English speakers with no previous Spanish experience completed less than four hours of Spanish vocabulary training, with pre- and post-training ERPs recorded to a backward translation task. Results indicate that beginning L2 learners show rapid neural changes following learning, manifested in changes to the N400 - an ERP component sensitive to lexicosemantic processing and degree of L2 proficiency. Specifically, learners in early stages of L2 acquisition show growth in N400 amplitude to L2 words following learning as well as a backward translation N400 priming effect that was absent pre-training. These results were shown within days of minimal L2 training, suggesting that the neural changes captured during adult second language acquisition are more rapid than previously shown. Such findings are consistent with models of early stages of bilingualism in adult learners of L2 (e.g. Kroll and Stewart's RHM) and reinforce the use of ERP measures to assess L2 learning.

  4. Involvement of 15-lipoxygenase in early stages of atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase which is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions is implicated in the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins during atherogenesis. To obtain experimental in vivo evidence for this hypothesis, we analyzed the structure of oxygenated lipids isolated from the aorta of rabbits fed with a cholesterol-rich diet for different time periods and compared the pattern of oxygenation products with that isolated from low density lipoproteins treated in vitro with the pure rabbit 15-lipoxygenase and with oxygenated lipids isolated from advanced human atherosclerotic lesions. In early atherosclerotic lesions (12-wk cholesterol feeding), specific lipoxygenase products were detected whose structure was similar to those isolated from lipoxygenase-treated low density lipoproteins. The appearance of these products did coincide with the lipid deposition in the vessel wall. In later stages of atherogenesis (26-wk cholesterol feeding) the degree of oxidative modification of the tissue lipids did increase but the share of specific lipoxygenase products was significantly lower, suggesting an increasing overlay of the specific lipoxygenase products by nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation. In advanced human atherosclerotic lesions, large amounts of oxygenation products were detected whose structure suggests a nonenzymatic origin. These data suggest that the arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is of pathophysiological importance during the early stages of atherogenesis. In later stages of plaque development nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation becomes more relevant. PMID:8195716

  5. Early stages of irradiation induced dislocations in urania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, A.; Onofri, C.; Van Brutzel, L.; Sabathier, C.; Dorosh, O.; Jagielski, J.

    2016-10-01

    The early stages of nucleation and growth of dislocations by irradiation in urania is clarified based on the combination of experiments and atomistic calculations. It is established that irradiation induced dislocations follow a five stage process: (i) point defects are first created by irradiation, (ii) they aggregate into clusters, (iii) from which nucleate Frank loops, (iv) which transform into unfaulted loops via Shockley that in turn grow, and (v) finally reorganize into forest dislocations. Stages (i)-(iii) participate in the lattice expansion while the onset of lattice contraction starts with stage (iv), i.e., when unfaulted loops nucleate. Irradiation induced dislocations operate in the spontaneous recombination regime, to be opposed to the thermal diffusion regime. Body of arguments collaborates to this statement, the main one is the comparison between characteristic distances estimated from the dose rate (Vat/(K0×τ ) ) 1/3 and from the diffusion coefficient (D×τ ) 1/2 . Such a comparison identifies materials under irradiation as belonging either into the recombination regime or not.

  6. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-κB and TNF-α expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results suggest that genistein supplementation reduces oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant capacity and modulating proinflammatory cytokine expression during the early stage of wound healing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  8. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma.

  9. Inflammation in the early stages of neurodegenerative pathology

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Preeti J.; Herman, Alexander M.; Moussa, Charbel E-H

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is secondary to protein accumulation in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Emerging evidence indicate sustained inflammatory responses, involving microglia and astrocytes in animal models of neurodegeneration. It is unknown whether inflammation is beneficial or detrimental to disease progression and how inflammatory responses are induced within the CNS. Persistence of an inflammatory stimulus or failure to resolve sustained inflammation can result in pathology, thus, mechanisms that counteract inflammation are indispensable. Here we review studies on inflammation mediated by innate and adaptive immunity in the early stages of neurodegeneration and highlight important areas for future investigation. PMID:21820744

  10. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  11. Prognostic factors in early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Germana; Carnazza, Mario; Ragnoli, Monica; Calza, Stefano; Ferrari, Federico; Gambino, Angela; Zizioli, Valentina; Notaro, Sara; Sostegni, Benedetta; Sartori, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main prognostic factors in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were extracted from 222 patients with initial stage (I–IIA) invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with primary surgery followed or not followed by adjuvant therapy, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008, at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; the median follow-up was 79 months (SD ± 35,945, range 20–250 months). The negative prognostic factors that were statistically significant (p<0.050) in univariate analysis were grade 2, 3, and X (clear cell in our study); stage IB, IC, IIA; positive peritoneal cytology, age equal to/greater than 54; dense adhesions; capsule rupture (pre-operative or intra-operative) and endometrioid histotype (only for disease-free survival (DFS)). Positive cytology was strongly associated with peritoneal relapses, while adhesions were associated with pelvic relapses. A positive prognosis was associated with the mucinous histotype. Conservative treatment had been carried out in 52% of patients under 40 years of age, and we detected only two relapses and three completions of surgery after a few weeks among 31 women in total. Our study indicated a possible execution in patients with patients with cancer stage IA G1–G2 (p=0.030) or IC G1 (p=0.050), provided well staged. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of cancers that were not IA G1. The positive prognostic role of taxanes must be emphasised, when used in combination with platino. PMID:23781280

  12. The effect of breed and individual heterosis on the feed efficiency, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Retallick, K M; Faulkner, D B; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nkrumah, J D; Shike, D W

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate maternal breed effects, direct breed effects, and individual heterosis on subsequent steer performance, carcass, and feed efficiency traits. This was a consecutive 2-yr trial using 158 steers. The same dam breeds, Angus (AN) and purebred Simmental (SM), were used both years. Also, the same AN and SM sires (n=11) were used both years. Steers were AN, SM, or AN×SM breed composition. Steers were managed similarly before weaning and early weaned at 56±9 d of age. Steers were then randomly allotted to pens and fed a common finishing ration. Contrasts were written to evaluate direct and maternal breed effects and individual heterosis in the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) using dam breed, sire breed, and year as fixed effects. Simmental direct breed effect resulted in a 26 kg heavier initial BW (P<0.05) and a 46 kg heavier final BW (P<0.05). Simmental maternal breed effect increased initial BW by 43.5 kg (P<0.05). Dry matter intake was not impacted by direct breed effects, maternal breed effects, or individual heterosis. Individual heterosis did improve G:F 3.4% (P<0.05) and residual BW gain 0.048 kg/d (P<0.05). Residual intake and BW gain tended (P=0.07) to improve as a result of individual heterosis. Residual feed intake (RFI) was impacted by direct breed effect with SM cattle having a more desirable RFI (P=0.05). Angus direct breed effect increased backfat (P<0.05) and improved marbling score by 126 units (P<0.05). Simmental direct breed effect increased LM area (P<0.05), had the highest HCW at 410 kg (P<0.05), and had the most desirable yield grade at 2.74 (P<0.05). Individual heterosis improved marbling score (P=0.05). Maternal breed effect increased HCW (P<0.05) as a result of the SM dam. Direct breed effects were present for performance, feed efficiency measures, and carcass traits. Overall, heterosis impacted feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and feed efficiency, which impacts beef

  13. Early stages during plasma nitriding of pure iron

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, M.D.; Martinez, O.; Oseguera, J.

    1995-12-31

    The sequence of nitride formation during the early stages of plasma nitriding of pure iron was studied by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and x-ray diffraction. Plasma nitriding at {approximately}490 C in a 25 vol.%H{sub 2} + 75 vol.%N{sub 2} mixture starts with the formation of {gamma}{prime}-Fe{sub 4}N after 40s. Once {gamma}{prime} nucleates, it mainly spreads laterally due to diffusion shortcuts in the discontinuous surface nitride layer. Before {gamma}{prime} is continuous on the surface, {epsilon} nucleates on top of it shortly after 40S. Epsilon is then observed to grow, both inwardly and laterally along with {gamma}{prime}. A compact {gamma}{prime}/{epsilon} bilayer forms on the surface at around 100s. The kinetics of nucleation, growth and compactation of the nitrides observed in the present work was significantly more rapid than in any of the nitriding process reported in the literature, including plasma nitriding. The acceleration of the nitriding kinetics in the early stages of plasma nitriding may be attributed to enhanced diffusion resulting from a high nitrogen flux from the plasma atmosphere. The results presented are consistent with the findings of a companion work on modeling the kinetics of nitride layer growth.

  14. Early stage of nanodroplet impact on solid wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Konno, Kazuki; Yaguchi, Hisao; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Masao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated nanodroplet spreading at the early stage after the impact using molecular dynamics simulations by changing the magnitude of the intermolecular force between the liquid and wall molecules. We showed that the droplet deformation after the impact greatly depends on the intermolecular force. The temporal evolution of the spreading diameters was measured by the cylindrical control volume for several molecular layers in the vicinity of the wall. At the early stage of the nanodroplet impact, the normalized spreading radius of the droplet is proportional to the square root of the normalized time, t ˆ . This result is understood by the geometrical consideration presented by Rioboo et al. ["Time evolution of liquid drop impact onto solid, dry surfaces," Exp. Fluids 33, 112-124 (2002)]. In addition, we found that as the intermolecular force between the liquid and wall becomes stronger, the normalized spreading diameter of the first molecular layer on the wall remains less dependent on the impact velocity. Furthermore, the time evolution of the droplet spreading changes from √{ t ˆ } to log t ˆ with time.

  15. Understanding early-stage dune development: morphodynamics of aeolian protodunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddock, Matthew; Wiggs, Giles; Nield, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    For such a fundamental aspect of bedform development, the initiation and early-stage growth of sand dunes remain poorly understood. Protodunes are bedforms within the continuum of early-stage depositional aeolian features that exist between flat sand patches and small dunes. As transitory bedforms with the potential to develop into dunes, the detailed study of protodune morphodynamics can provide significant insights into nascent dune development. As part of a multi-annual study investigating bedform change through repeat morphological surveys of bedforms with differing maturity, measurements of near-surface airflow and sand transport were conducted over a protodune in a small Namibian barchan dune field. The protodune was approximately 85 m in length and 1 m high, and was without a slipface. Data show that over the course of a week, patterns of airflow and transport flux variation were linked with accretion at the crest, and erosion of the leeside edge showing an increase in protodune height, and providing evidence of the dune's vertical development. Surveys reveal the longer term evolution of the protodune, in the context of changes exhibited by nearby, fully developed barchan dunes, and long term monitoring of wind regime at the site.

  16. Early stage of Superradiance from Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Lukas

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of matter and optical waves at the early stage of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates, an instance of four-wave-mixing of matter and optical waves. Our analysis is within a spatially dependent model which treats the matter-waves as well as the optical end-fire modes quantum mechanically and is capable of providing analytic solutions for the operators of interest. In particular, we study the statistical properties of the outgoing scattered light which provide insight into the rich internal dynamics of the system at this early stage. Furthermore, we investigate coherence properties of pairs of counter propagating atomic sidemodes produced during the process. It is shown that these clouds exhibit long-range spatial coherence and strong nonclassical density cross-correlations due to entanglement between the clouds. These findings make this scheme a promising candidate for the production of highly directional nonclassically correlated atomic pulses. Our prediction of number difference squeezing between the clouds was observed in another instance of a four-wave mixing process using metastable helium. Work performed at IESL-FORTH in Crete, Greece

  17. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for early stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniela D; Medeiros, Lídia RF; Edelweiss, Maria I; Pohlmann, Paula R; Stein, Airton T

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3. Most women with early cervical cancer (stages I to IIA) are cured with surgery or radiotherapy, or both. We performed this review originally because it was unclear whether cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgery, radiotherapy or both, in women with early stage disease with risk factors for recurrence, was associated with additional survival benefits or risks. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of platinum-based chemotherapy after radical hysterectomy, radiotherapy, or both in the treatment of early stage cervical cancer. Search methods For the original 2009 review, we searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and CancerLit, the National Research Register and Clinical Trials register, with no language restriction. We handsearched abstracts of scientific meetings and other relevant publications. We extended the database searches to November 2011 for this update. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (after radical surgery, radiotherapy or both) with no adjuvant chemotherapy, in women with early stage cervical cancer (stage IA2-IIA) with at least one risk factor for recurrence. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data independently. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, with death and disease progression as outcomes. Main results For this updated version, we identified three additional ongoing trials but no new studies for inclusion. Three trials including 368 evaluable women with early cervical cancer were included in the meta-analyses. The median follow-up period in these trials ranged from 29 to 42 months. All women had undergone surgery first. Two trials

  19. Sensorimotor Cortical Neuroplasticity in the Early Stage of Bell's Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Minhui; Xuan, Lihua; Cao, Zhijian; Zhou, Sisi; Lang, Courtney; Lv, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is a common phenomenon in the human brain following nerve injury. It is defined as the brain's ability to reorganize by creating new neural pathways in order to adapt to change. Here, we use task-related and resting-state fMRI to investigate neuroplasticity in the primary sensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) in patients with acute Bell's palsy (BP). We found that the period directly following the onset of BP (less than 14 days) is associated with significant decreases in regional homogeneity (ReHo), fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) values in the contralateral S1/M1 and in ReHo and ICC values in the ipsilateral S1/M1, compared to healthy controls. The regions with decreased ReHo, fALFF, and ICC values were in both the face and hand region of S1/M1 as indicated by resting-state fMRI but not task-related fMRI. Our results suggest that the early stages of BP are associated with functional neuroplasticity in both the face and hand regions of S1/M1 and that resting-state functional fMRI may be a sensitive tool to detect these early stages of plasticity in patient populations. PMID:28299208

  20. Metamorphic density controls on early-stage subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Oberhänsli, Roland; Bousquet, Romain

    2013-04-01

    Subduction is primarily driven by the densification of the downgoing oceanic slab, due to dynamic P-T-fields in subduction zones. It is crucial to unravel slab densification induced by metamorphic reactions to understand the influence on plate dynamics. By analyzing the density and metamorphic structure of subduction zones, we may gain knowledge about the driving, metamorphic processes in a subduction zone like the eclogitization (i.e., the transformation of a MORB to an eclogite), the breakdown of hydrous minerals and the release of fluid or the generation of partial melts. We have therefore developed a 2D subduction zone model down to 250 km that is based on thermodynamic equilibrium assemblage computations. Our model computes the "metamorphic density" of rocks as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition using the Theriak-Domino software package at different time stages. We have used this model to investigate how the hydration, dehydration, partial melting and fractionation processes of rocks all influence the metamorphic density and greatly depend on the temperature field within subduction systems. These processes are commonly neglected by other approaches (e.g., gravitational or thermomechanical in nature) reproducing the density distribution within this tectonic setting. The process of eclogitization is assumed as being important to subduction dynamics, based on the very high density (3.6 g/cm3) of eclogitic rocks. The eclogitization in a MORB-type crust is possible only if the rock reaches the garnet phase stability field. This process is primarily temperature driven. Our model demonstrates that the initiation of eclogitization of the slab is not the only significant process that makes the descending slab denser and is responsible for the slab pull force. Indeed, our results show that the densification of the downgoing lithospheric mantle (due to an increase of pressure) starts in the early subduction stage and makes a significant

  1. Widespread tau seeding activity at early Braak stages.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jennifer L; Vaquer-Alicea, Jaime; White, Charles L; Cairns, Nigel J; Nelson, Peter T; Diamond, Marc I

    2017-01-01

    Transcellular propagation of tau aggregates may underlie the progression of pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Braak staging (B1, B2, B3) is based on phospho-tau accumulation within connected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (B1); hippocampus/limbic system (B2); and frontal and parietal lobes (B3). We previously developed a specific and sensitive assay that uses flow cytometry to quantify tissue seeding activity based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in cells that stably express tau reporter proteins. In a tauopathy mouse model, we have detected seeding activity far in advance of histopathological changes. It remains unknown whether individuals with AD also develop seeding activity prior to accumulation of phospho-tau. We measured tau seeding activity across four brain regions (hippocampus, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cerebellum) in 104 fresh-frozen human AD brain samples from all Braak stages. We observed widespread seeding activity, notably in regions predicted to be free of phospho-tau deposition, and in detergent-insoluble fractions that lacked tau detectable by ELISA. Seeding activity correlated positively with Braak stage and negatively with MMSE. Our results are consistent with early transcellular propagation of tau seeds that triggers subsequent development of neuropathology. The FRET-based seeding assay may also complement standard neuropathological classification of tauopathies.

  2. The surgical management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Salicrú, Sabina R; de la Torre, Javier F V; Gil-Moreno, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The main objective is to update the literature data in the last year which may support a surgical approach to early cervical cancer [ECC; Stage International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IA-IB1-IIA1]. Radical hysterectomy remains the gold standard by most international guidelines because surgical treatment has hardly changed in recent decades, except for stage IA1. Trends in clinical research in the past 12-18 months involve minimal invasive surgery (with laparoscopic surgery or robotic-assisted surgery), fertility preservation (in the initial stages and in the absence of bad prognostic factors), nerve-sparing and sentinel node techniques. Some institutions have published studies in specific groups such as older, obese or pregnant women. There is a growing trend to practice less aggressive surgery in order to preserve fertility in young women and avoid an excess of treatment in some selected patients. Therefore, nerve-sparing techniques can help to improve the quality of life. More studies are needed to demonstrate oncologic results of the sentinel node technique. Laparoscopic and robotic-assisted surgery can substitute open surgical treatment.

  3. [Prediction of retained heterosis and evaluation on breeding effects of composite livestock populations].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2009-08-01

    A composite population is a breed made up of two or more component breeds and designed to benefit from hybrid vigor without crossing with other breeds, and is thus regarded as an alternative method for heterosis utilization. The breeding effects depend on retained heterosis in livestock composites. This paper reviews prediction methods of retained heterosis, relative production efficiency and production performance, and evaluation methods of breeding effects of composite populations. A composite population contains all three types of heterosis. If inbreeding can be avoided, it can retain heterosis to a certain extent. The retained heterosis depends on the number of contributing breeds and their proportions in the composite. The production performance rests both on average breeding values of contributing breeds and on retained heterosis of the composite itself. Breeding effects of composite population can be evaluated by theoretical prediction, actual estimation of retained heterosis, examination of genetic variation and/or comparison with other relevant breeds.

  4. Laparoscopic Versus Laparotomic Surgical Staging for Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gallotta, Valerio; Petrillo, Marco; Conte, Carmine; Vizzielli, Giuseppe; Fagotti, Anna; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Fanfani, Francesco; Costantini, Barbara; Carbone, Vittoria; Scambia, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (eOC) managed by laparoscopy or laparotomy in a single high-volume gynecologic cancer center. Retrospective case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Catholic University of the Sacred Hearth, Rome, Italy. Data of consecutive women with eOC undergoing comprehensive laparoscopic staging between 2007 and 2013 were matched with a cohort of patients undergoing open surgery between 2000 and 2011. Four-year survival outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Sixty women undergoing staging via laparoscopy were compared with a cohort of 120 patients undergoing open surgery. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Seventy percent of patients underwent adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy without differences between the 2 groups. Operative time (p = .01), estimated blood loss (p = .032), and median hospital stay (p = .001) were higher in patients submitted to laparotomic versus laparoscopic staging. As of October 2015, median duration of follow-up was 38 months (range, 24 -48), recurrent disease was documented in 16 patients (13.3%) in the laparotomic group and in 5 patients (8.3%) in the laparoscopic group (p = .651), without differences in the pattern of recurrence presentation. Four-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 89% and 92% in the laparoscopic group, respectively, and 81% and 91% in the laparotomic group, without any statistical significant difference between the groups (4-year PFS p = .651; 4-year OS p = .719). The findings of the present study suggests that in the surgical treatment of FIGO stage I ovarian cancer, laparoscopy is associated with equivalent oncologic outcome compared with a conventional abdominal approach. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 13 CFR 107.1181 - Interest reserve requirements for Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Special Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1181 Interest reserve requirements for Early Stage SBICs. (a) Reserve requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding Leverage, for...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1180 - Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Special Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1180 Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs. (a) Distribution requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding Leverage, you...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1181 - Interest reserve requirements for Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Special Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1181 Interest reserve requirements for Early Stage SBICs. (a) Reserve requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding Leverage, for...

  8. 13 CFR 107.1180 - Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Special Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1180 Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs. (a) Distribution requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding Leverage, you...

  9. Nationwide trends in mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kummerow, Kristy L; Du, Liping; Penson, David F; Shyr, Yu; Hooks, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    Accredited breast centers in the United States are measured on performance of breast conservation surgery (BCS) in the majority of women with early-stage breast cancer. Prior research in regional and limited national cohorts suggests a recent shift toward increasing performance of mastectomy in patients eligible for BCS. To examine whether mastectomy rates in patients eligible for BCS are increasing over time nationwide, and are associated with coincident increases in breast reconstruction and bilateral mastectomy for unilateral disease. We performed a retrospective cohort study of temporal trends in performance of mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer using multivariable logistic regression modeling to adjust for pertinent covariates and interactions. We studied more than 1.2 million adult women treated at centers accredited by the American Cancer Society and the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, using the National Cancer Data Base. Year of breast cancer diagnosis. Proportion of women with early-stage breast cancer who underwent mastectomy. Secondary outcome measures include temporal trends in breast reconstruction and bilateral mastectomy for unilateral disease. A total of 35.5% of the study cohort underwent mastectomy. The adjusted odds of mastectomy in BCS-eligible women increased 34% during the most recent 8 years of the cohort, with an odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.31-1.38) in 2011 relative to 2003. Rates of increase were greatest in women with clinically node-negative disease (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.34-1.41) and in situ disease (odds ratio, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.95-2.15). In women undergoing mastectomy, rates of breast reconstruction increased from 11.6% in 1998 to 36.4% in 2011 (P < .001 for trend). Rates of bilateral mastectomy for unilateral disease increased from 1.9% in 1998 to 11.2% in 2011 (P < .001). In the past decade, there have been marked trends toward higher proportions of BCS

  10. Axial differentiation and early gastrulation stages of the pig embryo.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Romia; Schwartz, Peter; Feistel, Kerstin; Blum, Martin; Viebahn, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Differentiation of the principal body axes in the early vertebrate embryo is based on a specific blueprint of gene expression and a series of transient axial structures such as Hensen's node and the notochord of the late gastrulation phase. Prior to gastrulation, the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) of the mouse egg-cylinder or the anterior marginal crescent (AMC) of the rabbit embryonic disc marks the anterior pole of the embryo. For phylogenetic and functional reasons both these entities are addressed here as the mammalian anterior pregastrulation differentiation (APD). However, mouse and rabbit show distinct structural differences in APD and the molecular blueprint, making the search of general rules for axial differentiation in mammals difficult. Therefore, the pig was analysed here as a further species with a mammotypical flat embryonic disc. Using light and electron microscopy and in situ hybridisation for three key genes involved in early development (sox17, nodal and brachyury), two axial structures of early gastrulation in the pig were identified: (1) the anterior hypoblast (AHB) characterised by increased cellular height and density and by sox17 expression, and (2) the early primitive streak characterised by a high pseudostratified epithelium with an almost continuous but unusually thick basement membrane, by localised epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and by brachyury expression in the epiblast. The stepwise appearance of these two axial structures was used to define three stages typical for mammals at the start of gastrulation. Intriguingly, the round shape and gradual posterior displacement of the APD in the pig appear to be species-specific (differing from all other mammals studied in detail to date) but correlate with ensuing specific primitive streak and extraembryonic mesoderm development. APD and, hence, the earliest axial structure presently known in the mammalian embryo may thus be functionally involved in shaping extraembryonic membranes and

  11. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    PubMed

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterosis and correlation in interspecific and intraspecific hybrids of cotton.

    PubMed

    Munir, S; Hussain, S B; Manzoor, H; Quereshi, M K; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Shehzad, A N; Rasul, S; Manzoor, S A

    2016-06-24

    Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids show varying degrees of heterosis for yield and yield components. Yield-component traits have complex genetic relationships with each other. To determine the relationship of yield-component traits and fiber traits with seed cotton yield, six lines (Bt. CIM-599, CIM-573, MNH-786, CIM-554, BH-167, and GIZA-7) and three test lines (MNH-886, V4, and CIM-557) were crossed in a line x tester mating design. Heterosis was observed for seed cotton yield, fiber traits, and for other yield-component traits. Heterosis in interspecific hybrids for seed cotton yield was more prominent than in intraspecific hybrids. The interspecific hybrid Giza-7 x MNH-886 had the highest heterosis (114.77), while among intraspecific hybrids, CIM-554 x CIM-557 had the highest heterosis (61.29) for seed cotton yield. A major trait contributing to seed cotton yield was bolls/plant followed by boll weight. Correlation studies revealed that bolls/plant, boll weight, lint weight/boll, lint index, seed index, lint/seed, staple length, and staple strength were significantly and positively associated with seed cotton yield. Selection based on boll weight, boll number, lint weight/boll, and lint index will be helpful for improving cotton seed yield.

  13. Genomic architecture of heterosis for yield traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuehui; Yang, Shihua; Gong, Junyi; Zhao, Qiang; Feng, Qi; Zhan, Qilin; Zhao, Yan; Li, Wenjun; Cheng, Benyi; Xia, Junhui; Chen, Neng; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Danlin; Chen, Jiaying; Zhou, Congcong; Lu, Yiqi; Weng, Qijun; Han, Bin

    2016-09-29

    Increasing grain yield is a long-term goal in crop breeding to meet the demand for global food security. Heterosis, when a hybrid shows higher performance for a trait than both parents, offers an important strategy for crop breeding. To examine the genetic basis of heterosis for yield in rice, here we generate, sequence and record the phenotypes of 10,074 F2 lines from 17 representative hybrid rice crosses. We classify modern hybrid rice varieties into three groups, representing different hybrid breeding systems. Although we do not find any heterosis-associated loci shared across all lines, within each group, a small number of genomic loci from female parents explain a large proportion of the yield advantage of hybrids over their male parents. For some of these loci, we find support for partial dominance of heterozygous locus for yield-related traits and better-parent heterosis for overall performance when all of the grain-yield traits are considered together. These results inform on the genomic architecture of heterosis and rice hybrid breeding.

  14. Contingency Table Browser − prediction of early stage protein structure

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table − this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them − analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity. PMID:26664034

  15. Research on the early planet formation stages with IPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingo von Borstel, Olaf; Blum, Jurgen; Schraepler, Rainer

    The early stages of planet formation are characterized by growth of fractal aggregates, starting from (sub-)micrometer-sized grains to (fractal) aggregates of roughly mm size. In the last 20 years a number of experiments on the behaviour and growth mechanisms of aggregates has been carried out. Laboratory experiments are limited due to sedimentation (e.g. Heim and Blum 1998, Wurm et al 2001). Previous long-term microgravity experiments CODAG (Blum et al 2000) and CODAG-SRE (Krause and Blum 2004) were mainly limited by the diffusion of particles, a fact which IPE tries to overcome by means of a particle trap. We present how IPE will help to extend these experimental boundaries and how we plan to utilize IPE. Finally we outline the expectations on the facility from a planet formation point of view in the domain of the mutual interactions, evolution, growth and morphology of fractal aggregates.

  16. SBRT in operable early stage lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Johannes; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Since decades the gold standard for treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical lobectomy plus mediastinal lymph node dissection. Patients in worse health status are treated with sublobar resection or radiation treatment. With development of stereotactic-body-radiotherapy (SBRT), outcome of patients treated with radiation was substantially improved. Comparison of SBRT and surgical techniques is difficult due to the lack of randomized trials. However, all available evidence in form of case control studies of population based studies show equivalence between sublobar resection and SBRT indicating that SBRT-when performed by a trained and experienced team-should be offered to all high-risk surgical patients. For patients not willing to take the risk of lobectomy and therefore refusing surgery, SBRT is an excellent treatment option.

  17. SBRT in operable early stage lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Since decades the gold standard for treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical lobectomy plus mediastinal lymph node dissection. Patients in worse health status are treated with sublobar resection or radiation treatment. With development of stereotactic-body-radiotherapy (SBRT), outcome of patients treated with radiation was substantially improved. Comparison of SBRT and surgical techniques is difficult due to the lack of randomized trials. However, all available evidence in form of case control studies of population based studies show equivalence between sublobar resection and SBRT indicating that SBRT—when performed by a trained and experienced team—should be offered to all high-risk surgical patients. For patients not willing to take the risk of lobectomy and therefore refusing surgery, SBRT is an excellent treatment option. PMID:25806303

  18. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  19. Discovery of potent wall teichoic acid early stage inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Labroli, Marc A; Caldwell, John P; Yang, Christine; Lee, Sang Ho; Wang, Hao; Koseoglu, Sandra; Mann, Paul; Yang, Shu-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Garlisi, Charles G; Tan, Christopher; Roemer, Terry; Su, Jing

    2016-08-15

    The widespread emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has dramatically eroded the efficacy of current β-lactam antibiotics and created an urgent need for novel treatment options. Using an S. aureus phenotypic screening strategy, we have identified small molecule early stage wall teichoic acid (WTA) pathway-specific inhibitors predicted to be chemically synergistic with β-lactams. These previously disclosed inhibitors, termed tarocins, demonstrate by genetic and biochemical means inhibition of TarO, the first step in WTA biosynthesis. Tarocins demonstrate potent bactericidal synergy in combination with broad spectrum β-lactam antibiotics across diverse clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. The synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a tarocin series will be detailed. Tarocins and other WTA inhibitors may provide a rational strategy to develop Gram-positive bactericidal β-lactam combination agents active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flame acceleration in the early stages of burning in tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Fru, Gordon; Petchenko, Arkady; Akkerman, V'yacheslav; Eriksson, Lars-Erik

    2007-09-15

    Acceleration of premixed laminar flames in the early stages of burning in long tubes is considered. The acceleration mechanism was suggested earlier by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105 (1996) 225]. Acceleration happens due to the initial ignition geometry at the tube axis when a flame develops to a finger-shaped front, with surface area growing exponentially in time. Flame surface area grows quite fast but only for a short time. The analytical theory of flame acceleration is developed, which determines the growth rate, the total acceleration time, and the maximal increase of the flame surface area. Direct numerical simulations of the process are performed for the complete set of combustion equations. The simulations results and the theory are in good agreement with the previous experiments. The numerical simulations also demonstrate flame deceleration, which follows acceleration, and the so-called ''tulip flames''. (author)

  1. Cell proliferation during the early stages of human eye development.

    PubMed

    Bozanić, Darka; Saraga-Babić, Mirna

    2004-08-01

    The distribution as well as the ultrastructural and biochemical characteristics of proliferating cells in the human eye were investigated in five conceptuses of 5-9 postovulatory weeks, using morphological techniques and Ki-67 immunostaining. The Ki-67 nuclear protein was used as a proliferation marker because of its expression in all phases of the cell cycle except the resting phase (G0). The labelling indices of Ki-67-positive cells were analysed by means of the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. In the 5th week, mitotic cells were the most numerous between the two layers of the optic cup, the optic cup and stalk, and between the lens pit and the surface ectoderm. During the 6th week, cells were observed in the lens epithelium covering the whole cavity of the lens vesicle as well as in the neuroblast zone and the pigmented epithelium of the retina. At later stages (7th-9th weeks), Ki-67-positive cells were restricted to the anterior lens epithelium, the outer neuroblast zone, and the pigmented retina. Throughout all stages examined, mitotic figures were found lying exclusively adjacent to the intraretinal space. Early in the lens pit, they were confined to the free epithelial surface, and later were facing the cavity of the lens vesicle. The proliferative activity was the most intensive in the 6th week, whereas it decreased significantly in the later stages. Additionally, when proliferative activities were compared, the peripheral retina appeared to be less mature than the central before the 9th week. In the earliest analysed stage, cell proliferation might be associated with the sculpturing of the optic cup and stalk, the cornea, and the lens. In the 6th week, the most intensive proliferation seems to be involved not only in the further morphogenesis of the optic cup and the lens vesicle but also in the retinal neurogenesis. At later stages, the decreased proliferation might participate in the neurogenesis of the outer neuroblast zone

  2. Identification of candidate genes associated with positive and negative heterosis in rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterosis is a complex biological phenomenon in which the offspring show superior performance compared to the inbred parents. Heterosis can be positive or negative. To identify the genes related to positive and negative heterosis, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) libraries were constru...

  3. Locomotor function in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Crenna, Paolo; Calabrese, Elena; Rabuffetti, Marco; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Nemni, Raffaello; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2007-12-01

    The cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been widely investigated with particular reference to abnormalities of steady-state walking. The great majority of studies, however are related to severe forms of PD patients (phases > = 3 of Hoehn and Yahr scale), where locomotor abnormalities are clearly manifested. Goal of the present study was to quantitatively describe locomotor symptoms in subjects with mild PD. Accordingly, a multitask protocol involving instrumental analysis of steady-state linear walking, initiation of gait, and turning while walking was applied to a group of patients with idiopathic PD in their early clinical stage (phases 1 and 2 of Hoehn and Yahr scale), as well as in age-matched elderly controls. Kinematic, kinetic, and myoelectric measures were obtained by optoelectronic motion analysis, force platform, and telemetric electromyography. Results in PD patients showed a tendency to bradykinetic gait, with reduction of walking speed and cadence. Impairments of gait initiation consisted in reduction of the backward shift of the center of pressure (CoP) and prolongation of the stepping phase. Alterations of the turning task were more consistent and included delayed reorientation of the head toward the new direction, altered head-upper trunk rotational strategy, and adoption of a greater number of steps to complete the turning. It is concluded that patients in the early stage of PD reveal mild alterations of steady-state linear walking and more significant anomalies in the transitional conditions, especially during changes in the travel direction. Quantitative analysis of nonstationary locomotor tasks might be a potentially useful starting point for further studies on the pathophysiology of PD.

  4. White matter development in the early stages of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Peters, Bart D; Karlsgodt, Katherine H

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been conceptualized as a disorder of both neurodevelopment and a disorder of connectivity. One important aspect of the neurodevelopmental hypothesis is that schizophrenia is no longer thought to have discrete illness time points, but rather a long trajectory of brain changes, spanning many years, across a series of stages of the disease including the prodrome, first episode, and chronic period. As the disease progresses, there is a complex relationship between age related changes and disease related changes. Therefore, neural changes, and specifically white matter based connectivity changes, in schizophrenia may be best conceptualized based on a lifespan trajectory. In this selective review, we discuss healthy changes in white matter integrity that occur with age, as well as changes that occur across illness stages. We further propose a set of models that might explain lifespan changes in white matter integrity in schizophrenia, with the conclusion that the evidence most strongly supports a pattern of disrupted maturation during adolescence, with the potential for later changes that may be a result of disease neurotoxicity, abnormal or excessive aging effects, as well as medication, cohort or other effects. Thus, when considering white matter integrity in psychosis, it is critical to consider age in addition to other contributing factors including disease specific effects. Discovery of the factors driving healthy white matter development across the lifespan and deviations from the normal developmental trajectory may provide insights relevant to the discovery of early treatment interventions.

  5. Longitudinal trajectories of awareness in early-stage dementia.

    PubMed

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Martyr, Anthony; Whitaker, Christopher J; Marková, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that awareness decreases as dementia severity increases, there is limited evidence regarding changes in awareness over time. We examined awareness in 101 individuals with early-stage dementia (PwD) and their carers; 66 were reassessed after 12 months and 51 were seen again at 20 months. Awareness was assessed in relation to memory, everyday activities, and socio-emotional functioning using discrepancies between PwD and carer ratings on parallel questionnaires. PwD completed neuropsychological tests and measures of mood and quality of life. Carers completed measures of mood and stress. At initial assessment, discrepancies were greatest for activities of daily living, moderate for memory, and least pronounced for socio-emotional functioning. Discrepancy scores did not change over time. PwD self-ratings indicated perceived poorer functioning in everyday activities over time, but no change for memory and socio-emotional functioning. Carer ratings indicated perceived decline in everyday activities and socio-emotional functioning, but no change for memory. PwD declined in neuropsychological functioning, but self-ratings of depression, anxiety, and quality of life remained stable over time. Carer mood and stress levels also remained stable. At least in the earlier stages of dementia, it should not be assumed that awareness will inevitably decrease as dementia progresses.

  6. Minimally invasive surgical staging in early stage ovarian carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Indini, Alice; Ferrero, Simone; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-02-18

    Few studies investigated the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for the treatment of early stage epithelial ovarian cancer (eEOC). In this context, we aimed to review the current evidence comparing laparoscopy and laparotomic approach for staging procedures in eEOC This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Review. Overall, 3,065 patients were included: 1,450 undergoing laparoscopy and 1,615 undergoing laparotomic staging. Patients undergoing laparoscopy experienced a longer (but not statistically significant) operative time (WMD: 28.3 minutes; 95%CI: -2.59, 59.2), lower estimated blood loss (WMD: -156.5 ml; 95%CI: -216.4, -96.5), shorter length of hospital stay (WMD: -3.7 days; 95%CI: -5.2, -2.1) and lower postoperative complication rate (OR: 0.48; 95%CI: 0.29, 0.81) than patients undergoing laparotomy. Upstaging (OR: 0.81; 95%CI: 0.55, 1.20) and cysts' rupture (OR: 1.32; 95%CI: 0.52, 3.38) rates were similar between groups. Laparoscopic staging is associated with a shorter time to chemotherapy than laparotomic procedures (WMD: -5.16 days; 95%CI: -8.68, -1.64). Survival outcomes were not influence by route of surgery. Pooled data suggested that MIS approach is equivalent to laparotomy for the treatment of eEOC and may be superior in terms of perioperative outcomes. However, owing to the low level of evidence of the included studies, further prospective randomized trials are warranted.

  7. Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Raemaekers, John

    2016-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such as the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) HD10 study demonstrated, that even two cycles of ABVD followed by 20 Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) are sufficient and result in more than 90% of patients being cured. The current treatment for early unfavorable patients is either four cycles of ABVD plus 30 Gy IF-RT or two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline followed by two cycles of ABVD plus IF-RT. Here, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) demonstrated that in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive patients after two cycles of ABVD, treatment switched to two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline plus radiotherapy results in significantly improved outcomes. Other aspects including attempts to further reduce intensity of treatment will be discussed.

  8. Caregiver burden and coping in early-stage Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Zucchella, Chiara; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Pasotti, Chiara; Chiapella, Laura; Sinforiani, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study was set out to describe caregiver-perceived burden and coping in early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD). A total of 163 consecutive pairs of patients with AD and their principal caregivers were initially recruited. The caregivers completed the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) and the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale, and also provided sociodemographic information; the patients with AD were assessed by means of the Mini Mental State Examination and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Data from 126 patient-caregiver pairs were analyzed. The caregivers (mean age 56.11±12.37 y) were mainly women (76%); 64% were the patient's offspring; 39% lived with the patient. From the CBI data, it emerged that caregivers perceived loss of personal time (objective burden, 33%) and the feeling of missing out on opportunities (developmental burden, 25%) as their main stressors. Total CBI score was negatively correlated with Mini Mental State Examination (P=0.005). As regards coping strategies, the caregivers predominantly used problem-oriented strategies associated with a positive attitude. The use of dysfunctional strategies was predictive of caregiver burden. It is important to be aware that avoidance and dysfunctional coping strategies predispose caregivers of patients with AD to higher level of distress, whereas successful caregiving seems to be based on the use of problem-oriented strategies early in the disease when solutions are still available.

  9. Clonal forestry, heterosis and advanced-generation breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report discusses the clonal planting stock offers many advantages to the forest products industry. Advanced-generation breeding strategies should be designed to maximize within-family variance and at the same time allow the capture of heterosis. Certainly there may be a conflict in the choice of breeding strategy based on the trait of interest. It may be that the majority of the traits express heterosis due to overdominance. Alternatively, disease resistance is expressed as the lack of a specific metabolite or infection court then the homozygous recessive genotype may be the most desirable. Nonetheless, as the forest products industry begins to utilize the economic advantages of clonal forestry, breeding strategies will have to be optimized for these commercial plant materials. Here, molecular markers can be used to characterize the nature of heterosis and therefore define the appropriate breeding strategy.

  10. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R(2)  = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non-cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after

  11. Increased heterosis in selfing populations of a perennial forb

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Christopher G.; Spoelhof, Jonathan P.; Schemske, Douglas W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the importance of random genetic drift in natural populations is central to understanding the potential limits to natural selection. One approach is to estimate the magnitude of heterosis, the increased fitness of progeny derived from crosses between populations relative to crosses within populations caused by the heterozygous masking of deleterious recessive or nearly recessive alleles that have been fixed by drift within populations. Self-fertilization is expected to reduce the effective population size by half relative to outcrossing, and population bottlenecks may be common during the transition to selfing. Therefore, chance fixation of deleterious alleles due to drift in selfing populations should increase heterosis between populations. Increased homozygosity due to fixation or loss of alleles should also decrease inbreeding depression within populations. Most populations of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata are self-incompatible (SI), but several have evolved self-compatibility and are highly selfing. We quantified heterosis and inbreeding depression in two predominantly self-compatible (SC) and seven SI populations in a field common garden experiment within the species' native range and examined the correlation between these metrics to gauge the similarity in their genetic basis. We measured proportion germination in the lab, and survival and fecundity (flower and seed production) for 2 years in the field, and calculated estimates of cumulative fitness. We found 7.2-fold greater heterosis in SC compared with SI populations, despite substantial heterosis in SI populations (56 %). Inbreeding depression was >61 %, and not significantly different between SC and SI populations. There was no correlation between population estimates of heterosis and inbreeding depression, suggesting that they have somewhat different genetic bases. Combined with other sources of information, our results suggest a history of bottlenecks in all of these

  12. Gibberellins Promote Brassinosteroids Action and Both Increase Heterosis for Plant Height in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Songlin; Wang, Cuiling; Sanchez, Darlene L.; Lipka, Alexander E.; Liu, Peng; Yin, Yanhai; Blanco, Michael; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and Gibberellins (GAs) are two classes of plant hormones affecting plant height (PHT). Thus, manipulation of BR and GA levels or signaling enables optimization of crop grain and biomass yields. We established backcross (BC) families, selected for increased PHT, in two elite maize inbred backgrounds. Various exotic accessions used in the germplasm enhancement in maize project served as donors. BC1-derived doubled haploid lines in the same two elite maize inbred backgrounds established without selection for plant height were included for comparison. We conducted genome-wide association studies to explore the genetic control of PHT by BR and GA. In addition, we used BR and GA inhibitors to compare the relationship between PHT, BR, and GA in inbred lines and heterozygotes from a physiological and biological perspective. A total of 73 genomic loci were discovered to be associated with PHT, with seven co-localized with GA, and two co-localized with BR candidate genes. PHT determined in field trials was significantly correlated with seedling stage BR and GA inhibitor responses. However, this observation was only true for maize heterozygotes, not for inbred lines. Path analysis results suggest that heterozygosity increases GA levels, which in turn promote BR levels. Thus, at least part of heterosis for PHT in maize can be explained by increased GA and BR levels, and seedling stage hormone inhibitor response is promising to predict heterosis for PHT. PMID:28676808

  13. Native language change during early stages of second language learning

    PubMed Central

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The co-activation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as the second language (L2). The present study asked whether L1 change can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how it is modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared to noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. Additionally, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that the L2 affects the L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact the L1 early in the development of L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  14. Taste function in early stage treated and untreated Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Nsoesie, Michael T; Chung, Inna; Osman, Allen; Pawasarat, Ian; Caulfield, Julie; Hurtig, Howard; Silas, Jonathan; Dubroff, Jacob; Duda, John E; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Tekeli, Hakan; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2015-03-01

    Since brain stem regions associated with early Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology encroach upon those involved in taste function, the ability to taste may be compromised in PD. However, studies on this point have been contradictory. We administered well-validated whole-mouth and regional taste tests that incorporated multiple concentrations of sucrose, citric acid, caffeine, and sodium chloride to 29 early stage PD patients and 29 age-, sex-, and race-matched controls. Electrogustometry was also performed on the anterior tongue. The PD cohort was tested both on and off dopamine-related medications in counterbalanced test sessions. While whole-mouth taste identification test scores for all stimuli were, on average, nominally lower for the PD patients than for the controls, a trend in the opposite direction was noted for the intensity ratings at the lower stimulus concentrations for all stimuli except caffeine. Moreover, regional testing found that PD subjects tended to rate the stimuli, relative to the controls, as more intense on the anterior tongue and less intense on the posterior tongue. No significant associations were evident between taste test scores and UPDRS scores, L-DOPA medication equivalency values, or [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging of dopamine transporter uptake within the striatum and associated regions. Our findings suggest that suprathreshold measures of taste function are influenced by PD and that this disease differentially influences taste function on anterior (CN VII) and posterior (CN IX) tongue regions. Conceivably PD-related damage to CN IX releases central inhibition on CN VII at the level of the brainstem, resulting in enhanced taste intensity on the anterior tongue.

  15. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  16. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  17. Silicon: The key element in early stages of biocalcification.

    PubMed

    Matsko, Nadejda B; Znidaršič, Nada; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Dittrich, Maria; Grogger, Werner; Strus, Jasna; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2011-04-01

    Biocalcification is a widespread process of forming hard tissues like bone and teeth in vertebrates. It is also a topic connecting life sciences and earth sciences: calcified skeletons and shells deposited as sediments represent the earth's fossil record and are of paramount interest for biogeochemists trying to get an insight into the past of our planet. This study reports on the role of silicon in the early biocalcification steps, where silicon and calcium were detected on the surface of cyanobacteria (initial stage of lacustrine calcite precipitation) and in crustacean cuticles. By using innovative methodological approaches of correlative microscopy (AFM in combination with analytical TEM: EFTEM, EELS) the chemical form of silicon in biocalcifying matrices and organic-inorganic particles is determined. Previously, silicon was reported to be localized in active growth areas in the young bone of vertebrates. We have found evidence that biocalcification in evolutionarily distant organisms involves very similar initial phases with silicon as a key element at the organic-inorganic interface.

  18. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  19. Endoscopic mucosal resection of early stage colon neuroendocrine carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Yasushi; Uedo, Noriya; Ishihara, Ryu; Tomita, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Early stage colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma is rare. A small colon tumour was found in a 56-year-old man during diagnostic colonoscopy performed after a positive faecal occult blood test, and he was referred for treatment. A slightly reddish superficial elevated lesion with a shallow depression 10 mm in size was found in the transverse colon. Magnifying narrow-band imaging revealed disrupted irregular microvessels and the absence of a surface pattern in the depressed area. En bloc endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of the tumour was undertaken. The tumour was positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin, and had a mitotic rate of >20/10 high-power fields and a Ki-67 proliferative index of >50%; it was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma. The tumour minimally invaded the submucosa (300 μm) without lymphovascular involvement. The patient was followed up carefully, and at 1 year after EMR, no recurrence was found using colonoscopy and CT scans. PMID:25737221

  20. Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Evgeniya; Zinger, Assaf; da Silva, Dana; Yaari, Zvi; Kajal, Ashima; Vardi-Oknin, Dikla; Goldfeder, Mor; Schroeder, Josh E; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Hershkovitz, Dov; Schroeder, Avi

    2017-10-27

    Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

  1. Blood biomarkers in the early stage of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Maestrini, I; Ducroquet, A; Moulin, S; Leys, D; Cordonnier, C; Bordet, R

    2016-03-01

    In ischemic stroke patients, blood-based biomarkers may be applied for the diagnosis of ischemic origin and subtype, prediction of outcomes and targeted treatment in selected patients. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia has led to the evaluation of proteins, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids and lipids as potential biomarkers. The present report focuses on the role of blood-based biomarkers in the early stage of ischemic stroke-within 72h of its onset-as gleaned from studies published in English in such patients. Despite growing interest in their potential role in clinical practice, the application of biomarkers for the management of cerebral ischemia is not currently recommended by guidelines. However, there are some promising clinical biomarkers, as well as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) peptide and NMDA-receptor (R) autoantibodies that appear to identify the ischemic nature of stroke, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that might be able to discriminate between acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, genomics and proteomics allow the characterization of differences in gene expression, and protein and metabolite production, in ischemic stroke patients compared with controls and, thus, may help to identify novel markers with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Additional studies to validate promising biomarkers and to identify novel biomarkers are needed.

  2. Isolation and transplantation of sturgeon early-stage germ cells.

    PubMed

    Pšenička, Martin; Saito, Taiju; Linhartová, Zuzana; Gazo, Ievgeniia

    2015-04-01

    We report, for the first time, a series of baseline techniques comprising isolation and transplantation of female and male early-stage germ cells in sturgeon to generate a germline chimera as a potential tool for surrogate reproduction and gene banking. Cells were dissociated from testis, characterized by mostly spermatogonia, and from ovary, exclusively comprising oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes, of Acipenser baerii, using 0.3% trypsin (2 hours, 23 °C) dissolved in PBS, isotonic with blood plasma. The dissociated germ cells were sorted by Percoll gradient centrifugation followed by immunolabeling with germ cell-specific vasa antibody DDX4, while 10% to 30% Percoll solution contained 79.4% and 70.8% labeled testicular and ovarian cells. Sorted germ cells were transplanted into a cavity close to a presumptive genital ridge of newly hatched heterospecific Acipenser ruthenus larvae with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled endogenous primordial germ cells. The transplanted germ cells were randomly distributed in the body cavity through 30-day posttransplantation (dpt). Subsequently, the cells were organized into genital ridges 50 dpt and proliferated 90 dpt. The number of both transplanted and endogenous germ cells significantly increased from 18.1, 22.2, and 29.1 (30 dpt) to 108.5, 90.8, and 118.5 (90 dpt) in ovarian, testicular, and endogenous germ cells, respectively (P < 0.05). The efficiency of transplantation was 60% (counted 90 dpt). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Affective motives for smoking among early stage smokers.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Amanda R; Wahlquist, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16-20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR - NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Leukocyte emigration in the early stages of laminitis.

    PubMed

    Black, Samuel J; Lunn, D Paul; Yin, Cailing; Hwang, Misako; Lenz, Stephen D; Belknap, James K

    2006-01-15

    The mechanisms that initiate the pathophysiologic changes in the digital laminae in equine laminitis are poorly understood. Due to the fact that (1) the horse at risk of laminitis has many similarities clinically to the human sepsis patient and (2) our recent finding of marked laminar proinflammatory cytokine expression at the developmental time point of the black walnut extract (BWE) model of laminitis, we tested the possibility that, similar to organ damage in human sepsis, leukocyte emigration is an early event in laminitis. Using immunoperoxidase methods with an anti-equine CD13 monoclonal antibody that recognizes neutrophils and monocytes, we discovered that, whereas the dermal microvasculature of the skin commonly has a marginal pool of leukocytes, the normal laminar dermal microvasculature has minimal to no perivascular leukocytes. However, increases in leukocyte numbers occurred around the dermal vasculature of both the laminae and the skin in the majority of BWE-treated horses in the developmental stage and at the onset of clinical signs of lameness in the BWE model. These findings indicate that, similar to organ failure in human sepsis, leukocyte emigration is likely to play a significant role in initiating numerous pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to the development of laminitis.

  5. Cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to the early stages of speciation.

    PubMed

    Barnard-Kubow, Karen B; So, Nina; Galloway, Laura F

    2016-12-01

    Genetic incompatibility is a hallmark of speciation. Cytonuclear incompatibilities are proposed to be among the first genetic barriers to arise during speciation. Accordingly, reproductive isolation (RI) within species should be heavily influenced by interactions between the organelle and nuclear genomes. However, there are few clear examples of cytonuclear incompatibility within a species. Here, we show substantial postzygotic RI in first-generation hybrids between differentiated populations of an herbaceous plant (up to 92% reduction in fitness). RI was primarily due to germination and survival, with moderate RI for pollen viability. RI for survival was asymmetric and caused by cytonuclear incompatibility, with the strength of incompatibility linearly related to chloroplast genetic distance. This cytonuclear incompatibility may be the result of a rapidly evolving plastid genome. Substantial asymmetric RI was also found for germination, but was not associated with cytonuclear incompatibility, indicating endosperm or maternal-zygote incompatibilities. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to RI within species, suggesting that initial rates of speciation could be influenced by rates of organelle evolution. However, other genetic incompatibilities are equally important, indicating that even at early stages, speciation can be a complex process involving multiple genes and incompatibilities.

  6. The Early Stages of Groundwater-fed River Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, R.; Seybold, H. F.; Gibbins, G.; Rothman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work shows, both theoretically and empirically, that river networks fed by subsurface flow bifurcate on average at an angle of 2π/5 [1]. However, the network's existence within a complex natural framework obscures the emergence of this pattern. Fortunately, this ambiguity betrays the presence of processes that have had some effect on the channels during the network's long history. In particular, we concern ourselves with the signature of the third dimension - the topographic relief - on the early stages of channel bifurcation. While, on average, channels grow in a direction dictated by the shape of the groundwater table, we hypothesize that the valley relief plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and its relaxation to 2π/5 in this regime. A network-wide averaging of several thousand channel bifurcations driven by subsurface flow on the Florida Panhandle reveals that rivers on average branch initially at an angle wider than 2π/5, yet quickly relax to 2π/5 after a few meters. We hypothesize that this initial wide growth direction is governed by the shape of the topography. As these channels form independent valleys, the Laplacian field prevails, yielding an emergent 2π/5 branching angle. Our results therefore suggest that the path-selection of incipient channels fed by subsurface flow is coupled both to the local topography and the surrounding groundwater field. 1. Devauchelle, Olivier, et al. "Ramification of stream networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.51 (2012): 20832-20836.

  7. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  8. Heterosis May Result in Selection Favouring the Products of Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, João; Potts, Brad M.; Lopez, Gustavo A.

    2014-01-01

    Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP) with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials located within the species native range in southern Tasmania, and their survival and diameter growth were monitored over a 13-year-period. The survival and growth performances of all controlled cross types exceeded those of the OP progenies, consistent with inbreeding depression due to a combination of selfing and bi-parental inbreeding. The poorer survival of the northern regional (♀N♂N) outcrosses compared with the local southern regional outcrosses (♀S♂S) indicated differential selection against the former. Despite this mal-adaptation of the non-local ♀N♂N crosses at both southern sites, the survival of the inter-regional hybrids (♀N♂S and ♀S♂N) was never significantly different from that of the local ♀S♂S crosses. Significant site-dependent heterosis was detected for the growth of the surviving long-distance hybrids. This was expressed as mid-parent heterosis, particularly at the more northern planting site. Heterosis increased with age, while the difference between the regional ♀N♂N and ♀S♂S crosses remained insignificant at any age at either site. Nevertheless, the results for growth suggest that the fitness of individuals derived from long-distance crossing may be better at the more northern of the planting sites. Our results demonstrate the potential for early-age assessments of pollen dispersal to underestimate realised gene flow, with local inbreeding under natural open-pollination resulting in selection favouring the products of

  9. Heterosis may result in selection favouring the products of long-distance pollen dispersal in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Costa E Silva, João; Potts, Brad M; Lopez, Gustavo A

    2014-01-01

    Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP) with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials located within the species native range in southern Tasmania, and their survival and diameter growth were monitored over a 13-year-period. The survival and growth performances of all controlled cross types exceeded those of the OP progenies, consistent with inbreeding depression due to a combination of selfing and bi-parental inbreeding. The poorer survival of the northern regional (♀N♂N) outcrosses compared with the local southern regional outcrosses (♀S♂S) indicated differential selection against the former. Despite this mal-adaptation of the non-local ♀N♂N crosses at both southern sites, the survival of the inter-regional hybrids (♀N♂S and ♀S♂N) was never significantly different from that of the local ♀S♂S crosses. Significant site-dependent heterosis was detected for the growth of the surviving long-distance hybrids. This was expressed as mid-parent heterosis, particularly at the more northern planting site. Heterosis increased with age, while the difference between the regional ♀N♂N and ♀S♂S crosses remained insignificant at any age at either site. Nevertheless, the results for growth suggest that the fitness of individuals derived from long-distance crossing may be better at the more northern of the planting sites. Our results demonstrate the potential for early-age assessments of pollen dispersal to underestimate realised gene flow, with local inbreeding under natural open-pollination resulting in selection favouring the products of

  10. Genomic dosage effects on heterosis in triploid maize.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Dogra Gray, Anjali; Auger, Donald L; Birchler, James A

    2013-02-12

    The genetic basis of hybrid vigor or heterosis has been debated for more than a century. A popular hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is that there are different slightly deleterious recessive homozygous alleles in the two parents and that these alleles are complemented in the hybrid so that the biomass and fertility exceed both parents. To address the complementation hypothesis in a direct manner, heterosis was examined in diploid inbreds and reciprocal hybrids and compared with matched triploid inbred derivatives and two types of triploid hybrids that differ in the number of genomes from the different parents. Complementation of recessive mutations would occur equally in the two types of triploid hybrids predicting that, if this complementation were the sole basis of the heterotic response, the two types of triploid hybrids would be equivalent for hybrid vigor. However, the reciprocal diploid hybrids were similar for six of nine measured traits, but the two types of triploid hybrids differed significantly for eight of the same traits. Importantly, the triploid hybrids differed in the level of high-parent heterosis relative to the derived triploid inbreds. Also, the differences observed between the reciprocal triploid hybrids correlated strongly with differences observed between the inbreds, either at the diploid or triploid level, in a manner explicable by genome dosage rather than parent of origin effects. The findings of this study suggest that a major component of heterosis is a mechanism that is modulated by dosage-sensitive factors that involves allelic diversity across the genome.

  11. The Secular Rise in IQ: Giving Heterosis a Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingroni, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Although most discussions today start from the assumption that the secular rise in IQ must be environmental in origin, three reasons warrant giving the genetic phenomenon heterosis a closer look as a potential cause. First, it easily accounts for both the high heritability and low shared environmental effects seen in IQ, findings that are…

  12. DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0194 TITLE: DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0194 5c...tasks Major Task 1: Obtain DNA samples from consortium specimens • Subtask 1 Pathological review of 592 early-stage high-grade ovarian cancer specimens

  13. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for inoperable early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Robert; Paulus, Rebecca; Galvin, James; Michalski, Jeffrey; Straube, William; Bradley, Jeffrey; Fakiris, Achilles; Bezjak, Andrea; Videtic, Gregory; Johnstone, David; Fowler, Jack; Gore, Elizabeth; Choy, Hak

    2010-03-17

    Patients with early stage but medically inoperable lung cancer have a poor rate of primary tumor control (30%-40%) and a high rate of mortality (3-year survival, 20%-35%) with current management. To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy in a high-risk population of patients with early stage but medically inoperable lung cancer. Phase 2 North American multicenter study of patients aged 18 years or older with biopsy-proven peripheral T1-T2N0M0 non-small cell tumors (measuring <5 cm in diameter) and medical conditions precluding surgical treatment. The prescription dose was 18 Gy per fraction x 3 fractions (54 Gy total) with entire treatment lasting between 1(1/2) and 2 weeks. The study opened May 26, 2004, and closed October 13, 2006; data were analyzed through August 31, 2009. The primary end point was 2-year actuarial primary tumor control; secondary end points were disease-free survival (ie, primary tumor, involved lobe, regional, and disseminated recurrence), treatment-related toxicity, and overall survival. A total of 59 patients accrued, of which 55 were evaluable (44 patients with T1 tumors and 11 patients with T2 tumors) with a median follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 4.8-49.9 months). Only 1 patient had a primary tumor failure; the estimated 3-year primary tumor control rate was 97.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.3%-99.7%). Three patients had recurrence within the involved lobe; the 3-year primary tumor and involved lobe (local) control rate was 90.6% (95% CI, 76.0%-96.5%). Two patients experienced regional failure; the local-regional control rate was 87.2% (95% CI, 71.0%-94.7%). Eleven patients experienced disseminated recurrence; the 3-year rate of disseminated failure was 22.1% (95% CI, 12.3%-37.8%). The rates for disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years were 48.3% (95% CI, 34.4%-60.8%) and 55.8% (95% CI, 41.6%-67.9%), respectively. The median overall survival was 48.1 months (95% CI, 29.6 months to not

  14. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes.

  15. Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

    2013-01-28

    A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

  16. Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

    2013-01-01

    A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and outcomes following early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Calip, Gregory S; Malone, Kathleen E; Gralow, Julie R; Stergachis, Andy; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Boudreau, Denise M

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing, and numerous components of MetS are associated with increased primary breast cancer (BC) risk. However, less is known about the relationship of MetS to BC outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether MetS, characterized by increased weight, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, high triglycerides, and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, is associated with risk of second breast cancer events (SBCE) and BC-specific mortality. Retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed with incident early-stage (I-II) BC between 1990 and 2008, enrolled in an integrated health plan. Outcomes of interest were SBCE, defined as recurrence or second primary BC, and BC-specific mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for time-varying exposure to MetS components while accounting for potential confounders and competing risks. Among 4,216 women in the cohort, 26% had ≥3 MetS components and 13% developed SBCE during median follow-up of 6.3 years. Compared to women with no MetS components, presence of MetS (≥3 components) was associated with increased risk of SBCE (HR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.08-2.07) and BC-specific mortality (HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.02-2.69). Of the individual components, only increased weight was associated with increased risk of SBCE (HR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.49). MetS is associated with modestly increased risk of SBCE and BC-specific mortality. Given the growing population of BC survivors, further research in larger and more diverse populations is warranted.

  18. The heritability theory of heterosis and its meaning for global agriculture.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhong-Xian

    2003-03-01

    This paper begins with the overthrow of the concept of combining ability in crossbreeding by the concept of heritability. The reason is that general combining ability changes with the number and kind of pure strains in the foundation stock and hence special combining ability changes also, so that work with different kinds of pure strains in the foundation stock cannot be compared. Hence combining ability is useless as a parameter to predict the amount of heterosis expected in the next generation. On the other hand, since each cross has a separate heritability, it can be applied to a cross population just as successfully as in purebreeding. Since the same concept holds in both cases, resort to any other concept would be superfluous. That's why combining ability must be rejected. Another reason (not given in the full text) is, an infinite number of pure strains would be required in the foundation stock for its results to be comparable with those of the heritability theory, which disposes of its utility altogether. The main content of the thesis is then the centennial enigma of heterosis can be resolved by Descarte's theoretic method of deduction. Accordingly we start from the definition of heterosis. [formula: see text] where H is heterosis, F1 is the first generation offspring, MP is the mean of the parents or midparent, and from the use of a binomial random variable and its extension to the multinomial case derive the basic relations of heterosis with its components. Starting with second degree statistics, we obtain [formula: see text] where V and cov stand for variance and covariance. The equations of heterosis are [formula: see text] where N is number of genes controlling a trait, a = (Pi - Pj)/2, d is deviation from midparent, while the variance components are all indicated by their names under the respective terms. It turns out that all these can be easily computed from the data so that the problem becomes a simple one which any college student may solve. In

  19. Early surgical treatment benefits early staged pediatric moyamoya disease--single case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Go; Aihara, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Koji; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kawashima, Akitsugu; Kawamata, Takakazu; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-07-01

    Surgical revascularization for pediatric moyamoya disease improves cerebral blood flow (CBF) and consequently may prevent further ischemic events. However, the timing of the treatment is controversial especially for patients with no ischemic symptom and normal CBF. The purpose of this case report is to inform and infer the surgical treatment timing for pediatric moyamoya disease patients. A 10-year-old female patient with unilateral moyamoya disease complaining of only headache as a symptom and whose Suzuki stage was II or in transition to III by angiography and CBF was almost normal was admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital. We performed superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) double anastomoses for the patient because we estimated her headache was derived from low perfusion in the brain. STA-MCA bypass surgery was not only effective for relief of her severe headache but also valid for her cerebral perfusion. Her angiography showed much supply from external carotid artery to intracranial arteries via bypass grafts in 7 months. Our case showed early surgical treatment was beneficial for relief of severe headache even for early staged pediatric moyamoya disease patients by improving perfusion pressure and cerebral circulation.

  20. [Effects of early growth stage shading on rice flag leaf physiological characters and grain growth at grain-filling stage].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-hua; Zhou, Xue-biao; Yang, Lian-qun; Li, Tian; Zhang, Jian-jun

    2009-09-01

    In a pot experiment, rice plants were shaded during the period from transplanting to booting, aimed to study the effects of early growth stage shading on the rice growth at grain-filling stage. Comparing with the control, early growth stage shading decreased the tiller number by 26.72%, but increased the flag leaf area and soluble sugar content by 33.86% and 30.23%, respectively. The filled-grain number per panicle, 1000-grain mass, ultimate brown rice mass, and maximum and average grain-filling rates decreased by 8.65%, 4.81%, 9.74%, 20.22%, and 19.13%, and the effective panicle number and grain yield declined by 25.26% and 39.56%, respectively. The peak time of grain-filling rate (Tm) advanced 1.66 days, while the grain-filling time (T99) prolonged 6.80 days. For shading-tolerance variety, its flag leaf Chl a, Chl b, and Chl (a + b) contents at early and mid grain-filling stages, and the protein N and soluble sugar contents and Chl a/b in its flag leaves at grain-filling stage all increased under early growth stage shading, and the ultimate brown rice mass and 1000-grain mass maintained at the similar levels as the control. Consequently, its grain yield reduction rate was lower than that of shading-sensitive variety.

  1. Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S.; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C.

    1997-02-01

    The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

  2. To Stay or to Go? Narratives of Early-Stage Sociologists about Persisting in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wöhrer, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyses of life course questionnaires, semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group interviews carried out with early-stage sociologists over a period of 8 years, this paper presents analyzes of continuity and change in the decisions made by early-stage researchers in regard to their work and careers. The longitudinal approach…

  3. To Stay or to Go? Narratives of Early-Stage Sociologists about Persisting in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wöhrer, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyses of life course questionnaires, semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group interviews carried out with early-stage sociologists over a period of 8 years, this paper presents analyzes of continuity and change in the decisions made by early-stage researchers in regard to their work and careers. The longitudinal approach…

  4. 77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... intends to issue commitments for Early Stage debenture leverage only until the end of fiscal year 2016... increasing program risk. In general, at the end of the initial 24 months, an Early Stage SBIC with ``expiring... than the base fee until all debenture leverage has been repaid and no further leverage will be issued...

  5. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  6. Stigma in families of individuals in early stages of psychotic illness: family stigma and early psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Celine; Davidson, Larry; Anglin, Deirdre; Link, Bruce; Gerson, Ruth; Malaspina, Dolores; McGlashan, Thomas; Corcoran, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Aim Stigma is pervasive among families of individuals with psychotic disorders and includes both general and ‘associative’ stigma – that is, the process by which a person is stigmatized by virtue of association with another stigmatized individual. These forms of stigma may present a barrier to help seeking. However, little is known about stigma in the early stages of evolving psychotic disorder. Methods Family members of 11 individuals at clinical high risk and of nine patients with recent-onset psychosis were evaluated for generalized and associative stigma using the Opinions about Mental Illness (modified) and the Family Experiences Interview Schedule. Results In this small study, the level of stigma was low, as families endorsed many supportive statements, for example, patients should be encouraged to vote, patients want to work, mental illness should be protected legally as a disability and parity should exist in insurance coverage. Families also endorsed that both talking and a belief in God and prayer can help someone get better. Only ethnic minority families of individuals with recent-onset psychosis endorsed a sense of shame and need to conceal the patient's illness. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that family stigma is low in the early stages of psychotic disorder, a finding that requires further investigation in a larger and more representative sample. This may be an opportune time to engage young people and families, so as to reduce duration of untreated illness. Ethnic differences in stigma, if replicated, highlight the need for cultural sensitivity in engaging individuals and their families in treatment. PMID:19777087

  7. Quantitative Proteomics of Zea mays Hybrids Exhibiting Different Levels of Heterosis.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Diwakar; Newton, Kathleen J; Mooney, Brian P

    2016-08-05

    Maize hybrids exhibiting heterosis (hybrid vigor) were generated from inbred parents with increasing genetic distance. B73 was used as the common female parent in crosses with N192 (low heterosis), MO17 (high-heterosis 1), and NC350 (high-heterosis 2). Total and mitochondria-enriched proteomes were analyzed from ear shoots of field-grown hybrids and their inbred parents. GeLCMS (1D SDS-PAGE fractionation, trypsin digestion, LTQ Orbitrap nano-RP-LC MS/MS) was used to analyze proteins, and spectral counting was used for quantitation. In total, 3,568 proteins were identified and quantified in hybrids including 2,489 in the mitochondria-enriched fraction and 2,162 in the total protein fraction. Sixty-one proteins were differentially abundant (p < 0.05) in one or both of the high-heterosis hybrids compared with the low-heterosis hybrid. For the total proteome, eight of these showed similar trends in abundance in both of the higher-heterosis hybrids. Nine proteins showed this heterosis-correlated pattern in the mitochondrial proteome, including a mitochondria-associated target of rapamycin (TOR) protein. Although differentially abundant proteins belong to various pathways, protein, and RNA metabolism, and stress responsive proteins were the major classes changed in response to increasing heterosis.

  8. Staging of primary breast cancer is not indicated in asymptomatic patients with early tumor stages.

    PubMed

    Debald, Manuel; Wolfgarten, Matthias; Kreklau, Pia; Abramian, Alina; Kaiser, Christina; Höller, Tobias; Leutner, Claudia; Keyver-Paik, Mignon-Denise; Braun, Michael; Kuhn, Walther

    2014-01-01

    The routinely practiced staging for distant metastasis in patients with primary breast cancer has been increasingly questioned. Data from 742 patients with breast cancer who had completed staging (chest x-ray, liver ultrasound, and bone scan) were retrospectively analyzed. Present findings were transferred to a dataset of a voluntarily monitored benchmarking project by the West German Breast Center that included patient data of 179 breast cancer centers. Routine staging examinations revealed in 1.2% (n = 9) distant metastasis and in 38.8% (n = 288) suspicious results. In total, 15 patients (2%) had distant metastases confirmed by additional diagnostics. The existence of distant metastases correlated with tumor size, nodal state, and lymphatic vessel spread. Tumor size and nodal state were independent predictors for disseminated disease. The risk of exhibiting distant metastases was 0.77% for patients with tumor stage pT1 pN1. Based on these findings, in 159,310 patients 41,728 chest x-rays, 43,950 liver ultrasounds, and 39,037 bone scans could have been avoided. Asymptomatic patients with tumor stages ≤ pT1 pN1 do not benefit from staging of primary breast cancer. Suspending staging examinations for these patients could reduce cost without restricting oncologic safety. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low

  10. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

  11. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  12. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  13. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

  14. Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Efficient embryonic culture method for the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, and its early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Atsushi; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The morphogenesis of snake embryos is an elusive yet fascinating research target for developmental biologists. However, few data exist on development of early snake embryo due to limited availability of pregnant snakes, and the need to harvest early stage embryos directly from pregnant snakes before oviposition without knowing the date of fertilization. We established an ex vivo culture method for early snake embryos using the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata. This method, which we named "sausage-style (SS) culture", allows us to harvest snake embryos at specific stages for each experiment. Using this SS culture system, we calculated somite formation rate at early stages before oviposition. The average somite formation rate between 6/7 and 12/13 somite stages was 145.9 min, between 60/70 and 80/91 somite stages 42.4 min, and between 113-115 and 126/127 somite stages 71 min. Thus, somite formation rate that we observed during early snake embryogenesis was changed over time. We also describe a developmental staging series for E. quadrivirgata. This is the first report of a developmental series of early snake embryogenesis prior to oviposition by full-color images with high-resolution. We propose that the SS culture system is an easy method for treating early snake embryos ex vivo.

  16. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    PubMed

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Years Foundation Stage: How Much Does It Count?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The final report of the Williams committee (DCSF, 2008: 68) argues that the revised mathematics Framework (DfES, 2006) "should be reconsidered to achieve a more suitable, user-friendly form." It might also have added that there is not much help and support in it for early years teachers. A much more useful document is the "Practice guidance for…

  18. ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

  19. ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

  20. [Peculiarities of rhodopsin photoconversion at the early stages of photolysis].

    PubMed

    Fel'dman, T B; Fedorovich, I B; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2003-02-01

    The primary stages of rhodopsin photolysis were studied with the low temperature absorption spectroscopy technique. Digitonin extract of bovine rhodopsin was irradiated at -155 degrees C with blue light (436 nm). The following changes of the dark spectrum were recorded in the course of slow rise of the temperature in 1-3 degrees C steps. Simultaneous appearance of more than one spectral product was revealed throughout the batho- to lumirhodopsin transition. An intermediate product transformed along with bathorhodopsin to a next product known as a "blue-shifted intermediate", was observed. The data suggest that appearance of more than one intermediate at each stage of the rhodopsin photolysis reflects existence of multiple conformation states of the rhodopsin molecule in the course of its photoconversion.

  1. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in early stage Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tubiana, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; van der Werf-Messing, B.; Henry, J.; Abbatucci, J.; Burgers, M.; Hayat, M.; Somers, R.; Laugier, A.; Carde, P.

    1985-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was carried out with a Cox model on 1,139 patients with clinical Stage I + II Hodgkin's disease included in three controlled clinical trials. The following indicators had been prospectively registered: aged, sex, systemic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation, results of staging laparotomy when performed, as well as the date and type of treatment. A linear logistic analysis showed that most of the indicators are interrelated. This emphasizes the necessity of a multivariate analysis in order to assess the independent influence of each of them. The two main prognostic indicators for relapse-free survival are systemic symptoms and/or ESR and number of involved areas. The only significant factor for survival after relapse is age. Sex has a small but significant influence on relapse-free survival. The relative influence of each indicator varies with the type of treatment and these variations may help in understanding the biologic significance of the indicators.

  2. CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2006-12-01

    Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds Ntot˜59, there is a 10% 20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2% 4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l2. The suppression is much smaller for Ntot>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound Ntot˜59.

  3. CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de; Sanchez, N. G.

    2006-12-15

    Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds N{sub tot}{approx}59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l{sup 2}. The suppression is much smaller for N{sub tot}>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound N{sub tot}{approx}59.

  4. Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

  5. [Anxiety-phobic disorders in the early childhood stage].

    PubMed

    Volkova, O M; Kozlovskaia, G V; Proselkova, M O

    2012-01-01

    The complex of such phenomena as anxiety and fear in children of the early age and their relationship with risk factors for psychic pathology were investigated. Eighty cases of anxiety-phobic disorders in children of the first five years of life were studied. The types of behavioral and somatic reactions that allowed to reveal not only the clinically expressed phenomena of anxiety and fear but the higher readiness to them were described. The first anxiety-phobic reactions appeared at the age when emotional functions were not completely formed and might be considered as the presentations of emotional dysontogenesis. The authors assume that characteristics of fear expression in the early age allow to suspect a mental disease which might be timely diagnosed in case of its manifestation. The conclusions made in the paper may be useful for clinical practice of pediatricians, children neurologists, psychologists and psychiatrists.

  6. Early cyanosis after stage II palliation for single ventricle physiology: etiologies and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zampi, Jeffrey D; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C; Armstrong, Aimee K

    2013-10-01

    In the early postoperative period after stage II palliation, patients with single ventricle physiology can have cyanosis due to a variety of causes. This cyanosis can be significant and necessitate cardiac catheterization to determine etiology and attempt treatment. Our objective was to determine the etiology of early postoperative cyanosis and outcomes in patients referred to the catheterization laboratory from the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) after stage II palliation. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients referred for cardiac catheterization from the CICU for evaluation of early cyanosis after stage II palliation. Etiology for hypoxemia, treatment strategy, and patient outcomes were examined for each patient. Between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, 244 patients underwent stage II palliation of which 22 required cardiac catheterization during the early postoperative period because of severe cyanosis. The etiologies for cyanosis were venovenous collaterals (n = 12), cavopulmonary pathway thrombosis (n = 3), hemi-Fontan pathway baffle leak (n = 2), and undetermined (n = 5). Overall, transplant-free survival to hospital discharge was 50% and survival to hospital discharge with stage II physiology was 32%. Venovenous collateral occlusion, cavopulmonary anastomosis takedown, and addition of a second source of pulmonary blood flow were not associated with improved outcome. Regardless of the etiology or treatment strategy, severe cyanosis in the early postoperative period after stage II palliation imparts high mortality and usually indicates failing stage II physiology. Venovenous collateral occlusion and thrombectomy are usually futile, and those who survive have a low likelihood of having stage II physiology at hospital discharge.

  7. [Feedback of ultrasound and RMI in the staging of endometrial carcinoma in early stage].

    PubMed

    Buhler, J; Routiot, T; Polet-Lefebvre, K; Morel, O

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in France. The therapeutic management is based on preoperative staging. The recommended imaging examination remains the MRI. This is to evaluate ultrasound and MRI in the staging for localized cancers. This is a retrospective observational study, conducted from July 2012 to July 2014, at the University Hospital of Nancy, on all patients care for endometrial cancer stage I, who underwent a pelvic ultrasound and MRI for the assessment of myometrial infiltration. Twenty-nine patients were included with a mean age of 69 years and a BMI of 30 kg/m(2). Using ultrasound, we have a sensitivity of 58%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 70% and an accuracy of 75%. Using MRI, we have a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 83%, a VPN of 88%, and an accuracy of 86%. Transvaginal sonography should be performed before post-menopausal bleeding. It remains possible in the staging of localized cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Pregnancy outcome after blastocyst stage transfer comparing to early cleavage stage embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Aziminekoo, Elham; Mohseni Salehi, Maryam Sadat; Kalantari, Vahid; Shahrokh Tehraninejad, Ensieh; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Zandieh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Blastocyst transfer has been introduced as an alternative for improving the chance for in vitro fertilizations (IVF) implantation. The present study was to evaluate pregnancy rates when embryo transfer was performed either on day 2-3 (cleavage stage) or on day 4-5 (blastocyst stage). This randomized clinical trial included 118 infertile women. All the study subjects underwent controlled ovarian stimulation using a long protocol and randomized into two groups. BS group (n = 57), the culture was extended to day 5 (blastocyst stage) and in the CS-group (n = 61), embryo culture was continued to day 3 (cleavage stage). Ongoing pregnancies, abortion, implantation rate were evaluated. No significant differences were seen in the pregnancy rate between the two groups (33.3% in the BS group versus 27.9% in the CS group; p = 0.519). Abortion, implantation rate in two groups are not significant. Despite the lack of statistical difference between the two study groups, our data suggest that blastocyst transfer may be associated with a higher pregnancy and an overall better implantation rates. However, further studies with larger sample size are mandatory to confirm these findings.

  9. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398-3559, and IRAS 16253-2429 at resolutions of ˜100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398-3559 and IRAS 16253-2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398-3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253-2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398-3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253-2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  10. Estramustine phosphate reversibly inhibits an early stage during adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Everitt, E; Ekstrand, H; Boberg, B; Hartley-Asp, B

    1990-01-01

    Estramustine phosphate, an estradiol-mustard conjugate, was shown to reversibly inhibit a stage during the first hour of productive adenovirus 2 infection of HeLa cells. This drug, employed in the therapy of advanced prostatic cancer, specifically interacts with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) of the cytoskeleton. The results obtained under physiological conditions in vivo suggest a MAPs-interference with the microtubule-mediated vectorial migration of the virus inoculum to the nucleus. Virus attachment, uncoating kinetics and the appearance of established uncoating intermediates were not affected.

  11. Features controlling the early stages of creep deformation of Waspaloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A.; Wilson, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    A model has been presented for describing primary and second stage creep. General equations were derived for the amount and time of primary creep. It was shown how the model can be used to extrapolate creep data. Applicability of the model was demonstrated for Waspaloy with gamma prime particle sizes from 75 - 1000 A creep tested in the temperature range 1000 - 1400 F (538 - 760 C). Equations were developed showing the dependence of creep parameters on dislocation mechanism, gamma prime volume fraction and size.

  12. Dietary intervention in older adults with early-stage Alzheimer dementia: early lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Shatenstein, B; Kergoat, M -J; Reid, I; Chicoine, M E

    2008-01-01

    In older adults, an adequate diet depends on their ability to procure and prepare food and eat independently or the availability of dietary assistance when needed. Inadequate food intake or increased nutritional requirements lead to poor nutritional status, which is considered a key determinant of morbidity, increased risk of infection, and mortality in elderly individuals. Weight loss among seniors also heralds increased morbidity and mortality. Dietary behaviour disorders affecting food consumption, nutrition status and maintenance of body weight are common in older adults, and have a substantial impact on nutritional status and quality of life among older adults with Alzheimer Dementia (AD). The Nutrition Intervention Study (NIS) is ongoing. It employs a quasi-experimental pre-post intervention design in physically-well, community-dwelling early stage AD patients aged 70 y or older. To date, 34 intervention group patients and 25 control group participants have been recruited with their primary caregivers (CG) from 6 hospital-based memory and geriatric clinics in Montreal. The NIS uses clinical dietetics principles to develop and offer tailored dietary strategies to patients and their CG. This paper reports on the application of dietary intervention strategies in two intervention group participants; one was deemed successful while the other was considered unsuccessful. The report documents challenges encountered in assessing and counselling this clientele, and seeks to explain the outcome of intervention in these patients.

  13. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  14. 77 FR 74908 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... addressing barriers to success for entrepreneurs and small businesses. II. Management Assessment... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...

  15. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a clinical trial.

  16. Dutasteride May Slow the Growth of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    For men who are undergoing active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer, the drug dutasteride (Avodart) could help control the disease and prevent the need for more aggressive treatments. |

  17. New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going through ...

  18. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  19. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  20. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  1. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a clinical trial.

  2. Analysis on Gene Expression Profile in Oncospheres and Early Stage Metacestodes from Echinococcus multilocularis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Zhisheng; Suzuki, Yutaka; Horiuchi, Terumi; Yagi, Kinpei; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Irie, Takao; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis of great public health concern. Analysis of genome data for Echinococcus multilocularis has identified antigen families that can be used in diagnostic assays and vaccine development. However, little gene expression data is available for antigens of the egg and early larval stages. To address this information gap, we used a Next-Generation Sequencing approach to investigate three different stages (non-activated and activated oncospheres, and early stage metacestodes) of E. multilocularis (Nemuro strain). Transcriptome data analysis revealed that some diagnostic antigen gp50 isoforms and the antigen Eg95 family dominated in activated oncospheres, and the antigen B family dominated in early stage metacestodes. Furthermore, heat shock proteins and antigen II/3 are constantly expressed in the three stages. The expression pattern of various known antigens in E. multilocularis may give fundamental information for choosing candidate genes used in diagnosis and vaccine development. PMID:27092774

  3. Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

    2011-01-01

    Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

  4. Fully compressible solutions for early stage Richtmyer–Meshkov instability

    DOE PAGES

    Margolin, Len G.; Reisner, Jon Michael

    2016-10-27

    Here, we will consider the effects of compressibility and viscosity on the early dynamics of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI). In particular, we will combine theory, scaling, and high resolution simulation of RMI to probe the details of the initial compression and the subsequent viscous damping as a shock interacts with a density discontinuity. We will propose a refinement of the classic 1D model for the linear regime of RMI that, for small initial perturbation wavelengths, more accurately reproduces the 2D dynamics of a fully resolved numerical simulation.

  5. Fully compressible solutions for early stage Richtmyer–Meshkov instability

    SciTech Connect

    Margolin, Len G.; Reisner, Jon Michael

    2016-10-27

    Here, we will consider the effects of compressibility and viscosity on the early dynamics of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI). In particular, we will combine theory, scaling, and high resolution simulation of RMI to probe the details of the initial compression and the subsequent viscous damping as a shock interacts with a density discontinuity. We will propose a refinement of the classic 1D model for the linear regime of RMI that, for small initial perturbation wavelengths, more accurately reproduces the 2D dynamics of a fully resolved numerical simulation.

  6. Genetic dissection of heterosis using epistatic QTL mapping in partial NCII mating design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterosis refers to the phenomenon in which hybrid F1 exhibits enhanced growth or agronomic performance. However, theoretical studies on the genetic basis of heterosis were based on bi-parental segregation populations instead of multiple-parental hybrid F1 populations. In simulation study, we mapped...

  7. Heterosis in Sweet Sorghum and Selection of a New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid for Use in Syrup

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum x sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorg...

  8. Problem solving, impulse control and planning in patients with early- and late-stage Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mörkl, Sabrina; Müller, Nicole J; Blesl, Claudia; Wilkinson, Leonora; Tmava, Adelina; Wurm, Walter; Holl, Anna K; Painold, Annamaria

    2016-10-01

    Sub-domains of executive functions, including problems with planning, accuracy, impulsivity, and inhibition, are core features of Huntington's disease. It is known that the decline of cognitive function in Huntington's disease is related to the anatomical progression of pathology in the basal ganglia. However, it remains to be determined whether the severity of executive dysfunction depends on the stage of the disease. To examine the severity of sub-domains of executive dysfunction in early- and late-stage Huntington's disease, we studied performance in the Tower of London task of two groups of Huntington's disease patients (Group 1: early, n = 23, and Group 2: late stage, n = 29), as well as a third group of age, education, and IQ matched healthy controls (n = 34). During the task, we measured the total number of problems solved, total planning time, and total number of breaks taken. One aspect of executive function indexed by the number of solved problems seems to progress in the course of the disease. Late-stage Huntington's disease patients scored significantly worse than early-stage patients and controls, and early-stage patients scored significantly worse than controls on this measure of accuracy. In contrast, late- and early-stage HD patients did not differ in terms of planning time and number of breaks. Early- and late-stage HD pathology has a different impact on executive sub-domains. While accuracy differs between early- and late-stage HD patients, other domains like planning time and number of breaks do not. Striatal degeneration, which is a characteristic feature of the disease, might not affect all aspects of executive function in HD.

  9. Do Deregulated Cas Proteins Induce Genomic Instability in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Genomic Instability in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Erica A. Golemis, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: Institute for Cancer Research Philadelphia PA 19111-2434 REPORT DATE: December 2006 TYPE OF REPORT...SUBTITLE Do Deregulated Cas Proteins Induce Genomic Instability in Early-Stage Ovarian 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0073

  10. Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    0521 TITLE: Identification of a genomic signature predicting for recurrence in early stage ovarian cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael...Identification of a genomic signature predicting for recurrence in early stage ovarian 5b. GRANT NUMBER cancer 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...obtained IRB approval for using these cancer FFPE samples to identify molecular features that distinguish recurrent and non-recurrent tumors through RNA

  11. Shipboard Electrical System Modeling for Early-Stage Design Space Exploration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Shipboard Electrical System Modeling for Early -Stage Design Space Exploration Aaron M. Cramer, Hanling Chen Department of Electrical and Computer...Department United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD, USA Email: zivi@usna.edu Abstract—In early -stage design exploration, it has been found that...involved the use of linear programming to model the action of the power system [6]. In this approach, the mechanical dynamics associated with prime movers

  12. Early Stage Expansion and Time-Resolved Spectral Emission of Laser-Induced Plasma from Polymer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    thus its interaction with ambient air. These influences can significantly alter spectral emission of the plasma. For organic samples especially...to the analysis of organic materials. In this paper, we report observations of early stage expansion and interaction with ambient air of the plasma...ablation interaction is absent. Subsequent to the early stage expansion, we observe for each studied ablation regime, spectral emission from CN, a typical

  13. Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    RNAseq of 400 training specimens (Months 12-18) 2. Import raw data into public databases (Months 12-18) 3. Generate preliminary gene signature through...This included sequencing a sample test of 10 tumors and comparing the sequencing results of these early stage samples with publicly available RNAseq ...addressed and fulfill an important unmet need. KEYWORDS: Early Stage Ovarian Cancer, genomic predictive signature, recurrence, RNAseq Research

  14. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO2 as well as N2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’ ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.

  15. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO2 as well as N2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’ ocean. Wemore » used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  16. Microbial Diversity within Early-Stage Cultured Panulirus ornatus Phyllosomas▿

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Matthew S.; Hall, Mike R.; Sly, Lindsay; Bourne, David G.

    2007-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the microorganisms and pathogens associated with the larval stage of the tropical ornate rock lobster, Panulirus ornatus, is required to overcome disease outbreaks that currently block aquaculture attempts. This study used microscopy in addition to culture and molecularly based microbiological techniques to characterize the bacterial community associated with cultured, developmental stage PI to PII P. ornatus phyllosomas. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated colonization of phyllosomas by filamentous, rod-shaped, and coccus-shaped bacteria. A clone library constructed from dead phyllosomas sampled from the larval rearing tank on day 10 was dominated by Thiothrix-affiliated sequences (56% of clones). A comparable library from live phyllosomas also contained Thiothrix-affiliated sequences, though these only represented 19% of clones within the library. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed identification of the filamentous bacteria as Thiothrix sp., being present on dead phyllosomas. FISH also identified Leucothrix sp. and Vibrio sp., as well as a range of other rod- and coccus-shaped bacteria, colonizing both live and dead phyllosomas. The development of the microbial community associated with phyllosomas was monitored through a standard larval rearing run using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Vibrio sp.-affiliated bands dominated the profiles of live animals through the rearing period and dead phyllosomas sampled on selected days. The population of Vibrio sp. associated with phyllosomas was monitored with culture-based analysis on selective media and demonstrated to increase significantly on day 7, coinciding with the beginning of the larval molt. An isolated Vibrio harveyi strain demonstrated an identical 16S rRNA sequence with retrieved DGGE and clone library sequences. Colonization of phyllosomas with filamentous bacterial species potentially hinders the ability of the animals to molt and, combined

  17. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  18. Serum markers in early-stage and locally advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lugowska, Iwona; Kowalska, Maria; Fuksiewicz, Małgorzata; Kotowicz, Beata; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Koseła-Paterczyk, Hanna; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The identification of prognostic factors in cutaneous melanoma allows choosing the most effective treatment, especially in group of patients with locoregional disease. Markers related to carcinogenesis and angiogenesis in particular have effect on the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical utility of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and YKL-40 in serum of melanoma patients at pathological stages I-III. We included 148 adult patients with melanoma. The median follow-up was 40 months. Disease recurrence was observed in 43 patients; 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 71.7%; 35 patients died; and the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 85%. Concentrations of VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and YKL-40 were measured by ELISA kits. VEGF, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and YKL-40 were significantly higher in group of patients than in controls. Increased concentrations of TIMP-1 were related to patient survival, which in the group of lower and increased TIMP-1, disease-free survival amounted to 81 vs. 61% (p = 0.014) and overall survival -88 vs. 82% (p = 0.050), respectively. An increased concentration of YKL-40 was observed in 59% of patients with ulceration and in 26% of patients without ulceration (p = 0.012). We have found a clinically significant correlation between YKL-40 and MMP-9 (rho = 0.363; p = 0.004) as well as YKL-40 and VEGF (rho = 0.306; p = 0.018). In melanoma patients at stages I-III, the high concentrations of TIMP-1 in serum predicted adverse prognosis. YKL-40 was associated with ulceration of primary tumor, which is a very important prognostic factor.

  19. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  20. Confidence Interval Estimation for Sensitivity to the Early Diseased Stage Based on Empirical Likelihood.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tuochuan; Tian, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Many disease processes can be divided into three stages: the non-diseased stage: the early diseased stage, and the fully diseased stage. To assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests for such diseases, various summary indexes have been proposed, such as volume under the surface (VUS), partial volume under the surface (PVUS), and the sensitivity to the early diseased stage given specificity and the sensitivity to the fully diseased stage (P2). This paper focuses on confidence interval estimation for P2 based on empirical likelihood. Simulation studies are carried out to assess the performance of the new methods compared to the existing parametric and nonparametric ones. A real dataset from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is analyzed.

  1. Familiarity and Emotional Expression Influence an Early Stage of Face Processing: An Electrophysiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caharel, Stephanie; Courtay, Nolwenn; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Recent data indicate that the familiarity and the emotional expression of faces occur at an early stage of information processing. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these two aspects interact at the structural encoding stage as reflected by the N170 component of event-related potentials in tasks requiring the subjects either…

  2. The Serum Glycome to Discriminate between Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Benign Ovarian Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Braicu, Elena Iona; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths in women because the diagnosis occurs mostly when the disease is in its late-stage. Current diagnostic methods of EOC show only a moderate sensitivity, especially at an early-stage of the disease; hence, novel biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnosis. We recently reported that serum glycome modifications observed in late-stage EOC patients by MALDI-TOF-MS could be combined as a glycan score named GLYCOV that was calculated from the relative areas of the 11 N-glycan structures that were significantly modulated. Here, we evaluated the ability of GLYCOV to recognize early-stage EOC in a cohort of 73 individuals comprised of 20 early-stage primary serous EOC, 20 benign ovarian diseases (BOD), and 33 age-matched healthy controls. GLYCOV was able to recognize stage I EOC whereas CA125 values were statistically significant only for stage II EOC patients. In addition, GLYCOV was more sensitive and specific compared to CA125 in distinguishing early-stage EOC from BOD patients, which is of high relevance to clinicians as it is difficult for them to diagnose malignancy prior to operation. PMID:25183900

  3. Hydrogenation of iron in the early stage of Earth's evolution

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka-Oku, Riko; Yagi, Takehiko; Gotou, Hirotada; Okuchi, Takuo; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami

    2017-01-01

    Density of the Earth's core is lower than that of pure iron and the light element(s) in the core is a long-standing problem. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the solar system and thus one of the important candidates. However, the dissolution process of hydrogen into iron remained unclear. Here we carry out high-pressure and high-temperature in situ neutron diffraction experiments and clarify that when the mixture of iron and hydrous minerals are heated, iron is hydrogenized soon after the hydrous mineral is dehydrated. This implies that early in the Earth's evolution, as the accumulated primordial material became hotter, the dissolution of hydrogen into iron occurred before any other materials melted. This suggests that hydrogen is likely the first light element dissolved into iron during the Earth's evolution and it may affect the behaviour of the other light elements in the later processes. PMID:28082735

  4. Detecting early stage osteoarthritis by optical coherence tomography?

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Holger; Brill, Nicolai; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of our joints, manifested by a dynamically increasing degeneration of hyaline articular cartilage (AC). While currently no therapy can reverse this process, the few available treatment options are hampered by the inability of early diagnosis. Loss of cartilage surface, or extracellular matrix (ECM), integrity is considered the earliest sign of OA. Despite the increasing number of imaging modalities surprisingly few imaging biomarkers exist. In this narrative review, recent developments in optical coherence tomography are critically evaluated for their potential to assess different aspects of AC quality as biomarkers of OA. Special attention is paid to imaging surface irregularities, ECM organization and the evaluation of posttraumatic injuries by light-based modalities. PMID:26862954

  5. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms."

  6. Hydrogenation of iron in the early stage of Earth's evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka-Oku, Riko; Yagi, Takehiko; Gotou, Hirotada; Okuchi, Takuo; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami

    2017-01-01

    Density of the Earth's core is lower than that of pure iron and the light element(s) in the core is a long-standing problem. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the solar system and thus one of the important candidates. However, the dissolution process of hydrogen into iron remained unclear. Here we carry out high-pressure and high-temperature in situ neutron diffraction experiments and clarify that when the mixture of iron and hydrous minerals are heated, iron is hydrogenized soon after the hydrous mineral is dehydrated. This implies that early in the Earth's evolution, as the accumulated primordial material became hotter, the dissolution of hydrogen into iron occurred before any other materials melted. This suggests that hydrogen is likely the first light element dissolved into iron during the Earth's evolution and it may affect the behaviour of the other light elements in the later processes.

  7. Current developments in the treatment of early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Borchmann, Sven; von Tresckow, Bastian; Engert, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    After presenting the current treatment recommendations for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, we give an overview on recently published clinical trials in this setting. Furthermore, the potential influence of current trials on the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma and integration of newly emerging drugs into treatment protocols will be discussed. Trials attempting treatment de-escalation and omission of radiotherapy on the basis of early interim PET-scans have been disappointing so far, but results of some large trials employing this strategy are still awaited. In contrast, a more defensive strategy of starting treatment with less aggressive doxorubicine, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy and intensifying treatment in early interim PET-positive patients has shown encouraging results. New drugs such as brentuximab vedotin and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising results in relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical trials of brentuximab vedotin in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma have been initiated. Additionally, biomarker-based treatment de-escalation might be a possible route for future improvements. The challenge for future clinical research in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma is to continue to cure the majority of patients with first-line treatment while reducing long-term toxicity. New strategies to achieve that goal are currently being developed and will further refine treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

  8. Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

  9. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  10. Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

  11. Involvement of lysosomes in the early stages of axon degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Yan, Tingting; Feng, Yan; Zhai, Qiwei

    2010-02-01

    Axon degeneration is a common hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Lysosomes are involved in some neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Whether lysosomes are involved in axon degeneration is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found only about 10% lysosomes remained in axons of cultured superior cervical ganglia (SCGs) after transection for 4h when stained with LysoTracker. Furthermore, we found that lysosomal disruption occurred earlier than morphological changes and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the well-known axon-protective protein Wld(S) delayed injury-induced axon degeneration from both morphological changes and lysosomal disruption. Lysosomal inhibitors including chloroquine and ammonium chloride induced axon degeneration in cultured SCGs, and Wld(S) also slowed down the axon degeneration induced by lysosomal inhibitors. All these data suggest that lysosomal disruption is an early marker of axon degeneration, and inhibition of lysosome induces axon degeneration in a Wld(S)-protectable way. Thus, maintenance of normal lysosomal function might be an important approach to delay axon degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Accelerated versus conventional radiation fractionation in early stage carcinoma larynx.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Perween, R; Siddiqui, S A

    2016-01-01

    In our study, we have treated cases of early glottic carcinoma by two different dose-fractionation schedules in relation to overall treatment time. This is an analysis of 29 patients with invasive, previously untreated T1and T2squamous cell carcinoma of true vocal cord that was treated by radical radiation therapy. All patients were treated with a continuous course of radiation therapy with once-daily fractionation. All the patients were treated 5 days a week from Monday to Friday. The fractionation regime was either: (1) 62.5 Gy/25fractions/5 weeks at 2.5 Gy fractions (Regimen 1), (2) 70 Gy/35 fractions/7 weeks at 2 Gy/fraction (Regimen 2). Regimen 1 included 15/29 patients (51.72%) and Regimen 2 included 14/29 patients (48.27%). Patients were evaluated for: (1) Locoregional control, (2) acute and late radiation toxicities, (3) quality of voice. There was no significant difference in terms of locoregional control rate, acute and late radiation toxicities in both groups. Voice quality during and after radiation was comparable in both arms. Use of high dose per fraction schedule with shorter duration of treatment results in comparable local control as well as the quality of voice to the protracted course of radiotherapy without increase in treatment-related toxicities. Shorter overall treatment time can be of great advantage in terms of time, cost, comfort, and acceptability by the patients.

  13. [Small partial laryngectomy for early-stage glottic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Xicheng; Pan, Xinliang; Luan, Xinyong; Xu, Fenglei; Lei, Dapeng; Zhang, Liqiang; Liu, Dayu; Zhang, Qingquan

    2004-06-01

    To explore the surgery way for T1, T2 glottic carcinoma. Small partial laryngectomy were performed to 112 patients with T1, T2 (T1 N0 M0, T2 N0 M0) glottic carcinoma. The surgery method, effect and treatment advantage was summarized and compared with laser therapy and radiotherapy, the dynamic follow-up of arytaenoidea cartilage movement, glottidis rimae conformation and voice change was analyzed. The preoperative and postoperative voice quality was compared with the software of Dr. speech system for windows. All incisions were healed one stage in 6 or 7 days, the mean time in hospital is 9.76 days; all patients took food with mouth after 2 or 3 days, all trachea cannula was removed successfully during in hospital, the mean time with cannula is 7.32 days and the rate of removing cannula 100%. Arytaenoidea cartilago movement of 47 cases 1 week after surgery weakened and gradually improved, glottidis rimae conformation is close to be normal after 2 months. There is no significant difference of Shimmer and NNE between preoperative and postoperative 1 week (P > 0.05), but there is a significant difference between preoperative and postoperative 2 months, half a year, and also is between postoperative 1 week and 2 months, half a year (P < 0.01). All 76 cases survive during 3 years' follow-up, 35 of 36 cases in 5 years' follow-up survive (1 case died without definite cause), and there is 2 cases for recurrence. Small partial laryngectomy can provide large operative view, resect the tumor completely, make diet and speech recover in shorter time and improve the voice quality, so the surgery is available.

  14. Biology of early life stages in cephalopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    von Boletzky, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent literature on embryonic and post-embryonic development, biology and behavioural ecology of juvenile cephalopods is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on biological processes. Life-history patterns and phylogenetic systematics, which are important for a proper understanding of the evolutionary history of the cephalopods, are only briefly touched upon. Egg sizes in cephalopods range from less than 1 mm to about 30 mm in diameter, so the hatchlings emerging from the largest eggs are bigger than the adults of pygmy squid, the smallest known cephalopods. Developmental durations from spawning to hatching range from a few days (for very small eggs developing at high temperatures) to one or possibly several years (for very large eggs developing at low temperatures). Such important differences notwithstanding, the morphogenetic processes are very similar in all cephalopod embryos, the major variant being the size of the so-called outer yolk sac, which may be rudimentary in extremely small embryos. Several questions concerning the timing of hatching in relation to the developmental stage attained, especially in terms of yok absorption, need clarification. These questions concern the elimination of the transient closure of the mouth, the final differentiation of digestive gland cells, and the removal of the tranquilliser effect of the perivitelline fluid necessary for the onset of the hatching behaviour. Cephalopod hatchlings are active predators. They refine their behavioural repertoires by learning from individual experience in dealing with prey and would-be predators. There is no truly larval phase, and the ecologically defined term paralarva should be used with caution. Given the considerable resource potential of cephalopods, investigations into dispersal and recruitment are of particular interest to fishery biology, but they are also important for ecological biogeography. The related studies of feeding and growth involve field sampling and tentative age determination

  15. Prospective Double-Blind Study of Zidovudine (AZT) in Early Stage HIV infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    FRONT COVER FUNDING NO. 87PP7875 S L. TITLE: Prospective Double-Blind Study of Zidovudine (AZT) in Early Stage HIV Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Prospective Double-Blind Study of Zidovudine (AZT) in Early State HIV Infection 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Shannon M. Harrison 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b...COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUBGROUP HIV , Zidovudine, Early, Infection 06

  16. Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than the late-diverged population, and that trait differences acquired early are maintained over time.

  17. Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jerald B.

    2016-01-01

    How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than the late-diverged population, and that trait differences acquired early are maintained over time. PMID:26979559

  18. Outcomes of invasive mediastinal nodal staging versus positron emission tomography staging alone for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Schonewolf, Caitlin A; Verma, Vivek; Post, Carl M; Berman, Abigail T; Frick, Melissa A; Vachani, Anil; Lin, Chi; Simone, Charles B

    2017-07-14

    The benefit of invasive mediastinal nodal staging (IMNS) in addition to positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is undefined for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This multi-institutional investigation aimed to evaluate outcomes and patterns of failure in patients staged with PET/CT with or without additional IMNS. Two academic centers assessed all consecutive patients staged with PET/CT for early-stage, primary lung NSCLC (cT1-2aN0M0) treated with SBRT. Local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), nodal recurrence-free survival (NRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling addressed factors associated with outcomes. Overall, 180 patients (199 lesions) were staged with PET/CT alone and 56 patients (58 lesions) underwent additional IMNS. Among patients receiving IMNS, 52 (93%) underwent EBUS and 4 (7%) underwent mediastinoscopy. At a median follow-up of 33.5 months (range, 1.9-80.9 months), there was no significant difference in LRFS (37 vs. 47 months, p=0.309), NRFS (34 vs. 42 months p=0.370), DMFS (36 vs. 47 months, p=0.234) or OS (37 vs. 47 months, p=0.236) between patients undergoing PET/CT-only versus PET/CT+IMNS staging, respectively. Receipt of IMNS did not correlate with any outcome on either univariate or multivariate analysis (p>0.05). Patterns of failure in both groups were similar, including crude isolated nodal failure rates (8% PET/CT-only versus 14% PET+IMNS group, p=0.202). Patients undergoing IMNS had similar survival and patterns of recurrence as those receiving PET/CT alone. Further study, ideally prospectively, is needed to determine which subgroups might benefit from IMNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic alterations associated with early stages of breast tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Patney, Heather L; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Love, Brad; Shriver, Craig D

    2008-07-01

    Molecular studies suggest that acquisition of metastatic potential occurs early in the development of breast cancer; mechanisms by which cells disseminate from the primary carcinomas and successfully colonize foreign tissues are, however, largely unknown. Thus, we examined levels and patterns of chromosomal alterations in primary breast tumors from node-negative (n = 114) and node-positive (n = 115) patients to determine whether specific genomic changes are associated with tumor metastasis. Fifty-two genetic markers representing 26 chromosomal regions commonly altered in breast cancer were examined in laser microdissected tumor samples to assess levels and patterns of allelic imbalance (AI). Real time-PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to determine expression levels of candidate genes. Data was analyzed using exact unconditional and Student's t-tests with significance values of P < 0.05 and P < 0.002 used for the clinicopathological and genomic analyses, respectively. Overall levels of AI in primary breast tumors from node-negative (20.8%) and node-positive (21.9%) patients did not differ significantly (P = 0.291). When data were examined by chromosomal region, only chromosome 8q24 showed significantly higher levels (P < 0.0005) of AI in node-positive primary tumors (23%) versus node-negative samples (6%). c-MYC showed significantly higher levels of gene expression in primary breast tumors from patients with lymph node metastasis. Higher frequencies of AI at chromosome 8q24 in patients with positive lymph nodes suggest that genetic changes in this region are important to the process of metastasis. Because overexpression of c-MYC has been associated with cellular dissemination as well as development of the premetastatic niche, alterations of the 8q24 region, including c-MYC, may be key determinants in the development of lymph node metastasis.

  20. Efficient harvesting methods for early-stage snake and turtle embryos.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Reptile development is an intriguing research target for understating the unique morphogenesis of reptiles as well as the evolution of vertebrates. However, there are numerous difficulties associated with studying development in reptiles. The number of available reptile eggs is usually quite limited. In addition, the reptile embryo is tightly adhered to the eggshell, making it a challenge to isolate reptile embryos intact. Furthermore, there have been few reports describing efficient procedures for isolating intact embryos especially prior to pharyngula stage. Thus, the aim of this review is to present efficient procedures for obtaining early-stage reptilian embryos intact. We first describe the method for isolating early-stage embryos of the Japanese striped snake. This is the first detailed method for obtaining embryos prior to oviposition in oviparous snake species. Second, we describe an efficient strategy for isolating early-stage embryos of the soft-shelled turtle. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  1. [An unexpected stage of alkalosis in the dynamics of the early posthemorrhagic period].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, A V

    2000-01-01

    A study was made on acid-base metabolism in early posthemorrhagic period as exemplified by examination of patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It has been ascertained that hemorrhage is accompanied by a mixed variant of the acid-base state (ABS) deviation, namely metabolic lactate-acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. In the time-related course of posthemorrhagic period such deviations persist in patients with lethal outcome; with the disease running a favourable course the above deviations are found to return to normal quite soon. The development of complications leads to staging in ABC, its stages being as follows: stage I--the initial stage, stage II--persisting metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis, stage III--alkalosis, stage IV--normalization, with stage III of ABS being encouraged by hypocapnia caused by function disorders of the lungs in early posthemorrhagic period, normalization of cell metabolism, increase in the rate of urination as a reflection of the third earlier identified stage of water metabolism, with the H+ excretion in the urine at the previous level. The identified ABS stage III threatens coming trouble, being accompanied by metabolic deviations together with a risk of function disorder of the myocardium.

  2. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  3. The Memory Club: Providing support to persons with early-stage dementia and their care partners.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, Joseph E; Gallagher-Winker, Karen; Kehrberg, Kathy; Lunde, Angela M; Marsolek, Connie M; Ringham, Kathryn; Thompson, Gerise; Barclay, Michelle

    2011-05-01

    There is a growing emphasis on delivering services for persons with early-stage dementia (ie, ''persons with memory loss,'' or PWMLs) and their family members (care partners). The goal of this evaluation was to determine whether participation in the Memory Club, a 10- to 13-session joint support group, would result in decreased distress, enhanced preparation for care, and improved feelings of confidence managing the challenges of early-stage dementia. The single group, pre-/post-test evaluation included 63 PWMLs and 61 care partners who participated in three Memory Club sites in Minnesota. Paired T-test results found that care partners reported significant (P < .05) increases in preparation activities, feelings of preparation, and confidence in managing memory loss. The results suggest that the Memory Club can fill an important gap in early-stage dementia care by offering care partners the opportunity to plan, prepare, and increase coping skills in the face of early dementia progression.

  4. Integrative Protein-Based Prognostic Model for Early Stage Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Werner, Henrica M.J.; Li, Jie; Westin, Shannon N.; Lu, Yiling; Halle, Mari K.; Trovik, Jone; Salvesen, Helga B.; Mills, Gordon B.; Liang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) is the major histological type of endometrial cancer, the most prevalent gynecologic malignancy in USA. EEC recurrence or metastasis is associated with a poor prognosis. Early-stage EEC is generally curable, but a subset has high risk of recurrence or metastasis. Prognosis estimation for early-stage EEC mainly relies on clinicopathological characteristics, but is unreliable. We aimed to identify patients with high-risk early-stage EEC who are most likely to benefit from more extensive surgery and adjuvant therapy by building a prognostic model that integrates clinical variables and protein markers. Experimental Design We employed two large, independent early-stage EEC datasets as training (n = 183) and validation cohorts (n = 333), and generated the levels of 186 proteins and phosphoproteins using reverse-phase protein arrays. By applying an initial filtering and the elastic net to the training samples, we developed a prognostic model for overall survival containing two clinical variables and 18 protein markers and optimized the risk group classification. Results Kaplan-Meier survival analyses in the validation cohort confirmed an improved discriminating power of our prognostic model for patients with early-stage EEC over key clinical variables (log-rank test p-value = 0.565 for disease stage, 0.567 for tumor grade, 1.3×10−4 for the integrative model). Compared with clinical variables (stage, grade, and patient age), only the risk groups defined by the integrative model were consistently significant in both univariate and multivariate analyses across both cohorts. Conclusions Our prognostic model is potentially of high clinical value for stratifying patients with early-stage EEC and improving their treatment strategies. PMID:26224872

  5. Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-12-01

    We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective

  6. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Laparoscopy and Laparotomy in Surgical Staging of Apparent Early Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qi; Qu, Hong; Liu, Chongdong; Wang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the safety and morbidity of laparoscopic versus laparotomic comprehensive staging of apparent early stage ovarian cancer. In this retrospective study, the outcomes of patients with apparent stage I ovarian cancer who underwent laparoscopic or laparotomic comprehensive surgical staging from January 2002 to January 2014 were evaluated. The long-term survival of patients with early ovarian cancer was compared. Forty-two patients were treated by laparoscopy, and 50 were treated by laparotomy. The median operative time was 200 minutes in the laparoscopy group and 240 minutes in the laparotomy group (P >0.05). The median length of hospital stay was 3 days in the laparoscopy group and 7 days in the laparotomy group (P <0.05). Following laparoscopic and laparotomic staging, the cancer was upstaged for 9 (21.4%) and 10 (20.0%) women, respectively. The median follow-up time was 82 months in the laparoscopic and laparotomic groups, respectively. Excluding the upstaged patients, no recurrence was observed in the present study, and the overall survival and 5-year survival rates were 100% in both the laparoscopy and laparotomy groups. Laparoscopic and laparotomic comprehensive staging of early ovarian cancer were similar in terms of staging adequacy, accuracy and survival rate. Laparoscopic staging was associated with a significantly reduced hospital stay. Prospective randomized trials are required to evaluate the overall oncologic outcomes. PMID:27196468

  8. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  9. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  10. Transvaginal Sonography Versus Cystoscopy for Detecting Urinary Bladder Invasion in Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zutshi, Vijay; Garg, Anju; Batra, Swaraj

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality from cancer among women. In it’s early stage pre operative staging with cystoscopy is a standard procedure for the detection of urinary bladder involvement. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to compare the efficacy of Transvaginal Sonography (TVS) and cystoscopy in diagnosing bladder involvement in early stage cervical cancer patients by confirming it intraoperatively and further by histopathologic examination. Materials and Methods A prospective partially blinded study was conducted between March 2006 and September 2008 on 30 patients with early stage cervical cancer (Stage I and IIa) who were planned to undergo radical hysterectomy. Pre operatively, these patients underwent both TVS and cystoscopy to diagnose bladder involvement. Presence or absence of bladder involvement was then confirmed intra operatively and by histopathologic examination. Results In all the 30 patients studied, no bladder involvement was seen on cystoscopy where as TVS showed bladder involvement in three patients. Involvement of the bladder in these three patients was confirmed intra operatively and by histopathologic examination. Thus, in our study, TVS was 100% sensitive in detecting bladder involvement. Conclusion TVS is highly sensitive in diagnosing bladder involvement in early stage cervical cancer and could potentially detect cases missed with a cystoscopy.

  11. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  12. Structural neuroimaging across early-stage psychosis: Aberrations in neurobiological trajectories and implications for the staging model.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Cropley, Vanessa L; Wannan, Cassandra; Di Biase, Maria; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2017-05-01

    This review critically examines the structural neuroimaging evidence in psychotic illness, with a focus on longitudinal imaging across the first-episode psychosis and ultra-high-risk of psychosis illness stages. A thorough search of the literature involving specifically longitudinal neuroimaging in early illness stages of psychosis was conducted. The evidence supporting abnormalities in brain morphology and altered neurodevelopmental trajectories is discussed in the context of a clinical staging model. In general, grey matter (and, to a lesser extent, white matter) declines across multiple frontal, temporal (especially superior regions), insular and parietal regions during the first episode of psychosis, which has a steeper trajectory than that of age-matched healthy counterparts. Although the ultra-high-risk of psychosis literature is considerably mixed, evidence indicates that certain volumetric structural aberrations predate psychotic illness onset (e.g. prefrontal cortex thinning), while other abnormalities present in ultra-high-risk of psychosis populations are potentially non-psychosis-specific (e.g. hippocampal volume reductions). We highlight the advantages of longitudinal designs, discuss the implications such studies have on clinical staging and provide directions for future research.

  13. Extensive heterosis in growth of yeast hybrids is explained by a combination of genetic models

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, R; Levy, T; Shaked, S; Fridman, E; David, L

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigor, is the superior performance of a heterozygous hybrid relative to its homozygous parents. Despite the scientific curiosity of this phenotypic phenomenon and its significance for food production in agriculture, its genetic basis is insufficiently understood. Studying heterosis in yeast can potentially yield insights into its genetic basis, can allow one to test the different hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon and allows better understanding of how to take advantage of this phenomenon to enhance food production. We therefore crossed 16 parental yeast strains to form 120 yeast hybrids, and measured their growth rates under five environmental conditions. A considerable amount of dominant genetic variation was found in growth performance, and heterosis was measured in 35% of the hybrid–condition combinations. Despite previous reports of correlations between heterosis and measures of sequence divergence between parents, we detected no such relationship. We used several analyses to examine which genetic model might explain heterosis. We found that dominance complementation of recessive alleles, overdominant interactions within loci and epistatic interactions among loci each contribute to heterosis. We concluded that in yeast heterosis is a complex phenotype created by the combined contribution of different genetic interactions. PMID:24690755

  14. Intraspecific Arabidopsis hybrids show different patterns of heterosis despite the close relatedness of the parental genomes.

    PubMed

    Groszmann, Michael; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Greaves, Ian K; Wang, Li; Huen, Amanda K; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2014-09-01

    Heterosis is important for agriculture; however, little is known about the mechanisms driving hybrid vigor. Ultimately, heterosis depends on the interactions of specific alleles and epialleles provided by the parents, which is why hybrids can exhibit different levels of heterosis, even within the same species. We characterize the development of several intraspecific Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) F1 hybrids that show different levels of heterosis at maturity. We identify several phases of heterosis beginning during embryogenesis and culminating in a final phase of vegetative maturity and seed production. During each phase, the hybrids show different levels and patterns of growth, despite the close relatedness of the parents. For instance, during the vegetative phases, the hybrids develop larger leaves than the parents to varied extents, and they do so by exploiting increases in cell size and cell numbers in different ratios. Consistent with this finding, we observed changes in the expression of genes known to regulate leaf size in developing rosettes of the hybrids, with the patterns of altered expression differing between combinations. The data show that heterosis is dependent on changes in development throughout the growth cycle of the hybrid, with the traits of mature vegetative biomass and reproductive yield as cumulative outcomes of heterosis at different levels, tissues, and times of development.

  15. Extensive heterosis in growth of yeast hybrids is explained by a combination of genetic models.

    PubMed

    Shapira, R; Levy, T; Shaked, S; Fridman, E; David, L

    2014-10-01

    Heterosis, also known as hybrid vigor, is the superior performance of a heterozygous hybrid relative to its homozygous parents. Despite the scientific curiosity of this phenotypic phenomenon and its significance for food production in agriculture, its genetic basis is insufficiently understood. Studying heterosis in yeast can potentially yield insights into its genetic basis, can allow one to test the different hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon and allows better understanding of how to take advantage of this phenomenon to enhance food production. We therefore crossed 16 parental yeast strains to form 120 yeast hybrids, and measured their growth rates under five environmental conditions. A considerable amount of dominant genetic variation was found in growth performance, and heterosis was measured in 35% of the hybrid-condition combinations. Despite previous reports of correlations between heterosis and measures of sequence divergence between parents, we detected no such relationship. We used several analyses to examine which genetic model might explain heterosis. We found that dominance complementation of recessive alleles, overdominant interactions within loci and epistatic interactions among loci each contribute to heterosis. We concluded that in yeast heterosis is a complex phenotype created by the combined contribution of different genetic interactions.

  16. Effects of education on the progression of early- versus late-stage mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Seo, Sang Won; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Hong, Chang Hyung; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Moon, So Young; Kim, Sangyun; Han, Seol-Heui; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Na, Duk L

    2013-04-01

    Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education. A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (-1.5 to -1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below -1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated. Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores. Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.

  17. Studies on heterosis in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and A. callei (A. Chev) stevels cultivars during shorter day photoperiods in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Udengwu, Obi Sergius

    2009-11-01

    Better parent heterosis was studied in direct and reciprocal crosses using 9 early and late okra cultivars which belonged to the Early-early, Early-late, Late-early and Late-late okra flowering types. The ANOVA for length of pod, circumference of pod, number of locules per pod, number of seeds per pod, Number of pods per plant, weight of 1000 seeds, density of seeds, weight of pods per plant, days to flower opening, plant height and circumference of stem at 10 cm above soil level, showed almost very highly significant differences-an indication that the cultivars are genetically diverse. Very highly significant, narrow and intermediate, heterosis was recorded for most of the direct and reciprocal crosses, showing that selections could be made from the hybrids to meet desired local okra qualities. A cross between an Early-late and Late-early parents, using early okra as the maternal parent, gave rise to a stable viable bridge hybrid which outperformed the better parent in many respects thereby overcoming the hitherto strong barrier to gene flow in interspecific hybridization studies involving the two okra types and also indicating the existence of maternal effects. Consequently with this development, the window has been opened for possible accelerated transfer of several desirable genes from late okra types to many promising but vulnerable early okra types. This could result to minimizing the further erosion of such early okra germplasm still in the custody of the local farmers.

  18. Postoperative surveillance recommendations for early stage colon cancer based on results from the clinical outcomes of surgical therapy trial.

    PubMed

    Tsikitis, Vassiliki L; Malireddy, Kishore; Green, Erin A; Christensen, Brent; Whelan, Richard; Hyder, Jace; Marcello, Peter; Larach, Sergio; Lauter, David; Sargent, Daniel J; Nelson, Heidi

    2009-08-01

    Intensive postoperative surveillance is associated with improved survival and recommended for patients with late stage (stage IIB and III) colon cancer. We hypothesized that stage I and IIA colon cancer patients would experience similar benefits. Secondary analysis of data from the Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Therapy trial was performed by analyzing results according to TNM stage; early (stage I and IIA, 537 patients) and late (stage IIB and III, 254 patients) stage disease. Five-year recurrence rates were higher in patients with late (35.7%) versus early stage disease (9.5%). Early and late stage salvage rates, recurrence patterns and methods of first detection were compared by chi(2) test. Salvage rates for early- and late-stage disease patients with recurrence were the same (35.9% v 37%; P = .9, respectively). Median survival after second surgery after recurrence was 51.2 and 35.8 months for early- and late-stage patients, respectively. Single sites of first recurrence did not significantly differ between early and late stage, but multiple sites of recurrence occurred less often in early-stage patients (3.6% v 28.6%, for early v late, respectively; P < .001). METHODS of first detection of recurrence were not significantly different: carcinoembryonic antigen (29.1% v 37.4%), computed tomography scan (23.6% v 26.4%), chest x-ray (7.3% v 12.1%), and colonoscopy (12.7% v 8.8%), for early versus late stage disease, respectively. Patients with early-stage colon cancer have similar sites of recurrence, and receive similar benefit from postrecurrence therapy as late-stage patients; implementation of surveillance guidelines for early-stage patients is appropriate.

  19. Using Spirituality to Cope with Early Stage Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Victoria T.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s. PMID:19282270

  20. Optimal adaptive two-stage designs for early phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Wilding, Gregory E; Hutson, Alan D; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2016-04-15

    Simon's optimal two-stage design has been widely used in early phase clinical trials for Oncology and AIDS studies with binary endpoints. With this approach, the second-stage sample size is fixed when the trial passes the first stage with sufficient activity. Adaptive designs, such as those due to Banerjee and Tsiatis (2006) and Englert and Kieser (2013), are flexible in the sense that the second-stage sample size depends on the response from the first stage, and these designs are often seen to reduce the expected sample size under the null hypothesis as compared with Simon's approach. An unappealing trait of the existing designs is that they are not associated with a second-stage sample size, which is a non-increasing function of the first-stage response rate. In this paper, an efficient intelligent process, the branch-and-bound algorithm, is used in extensively searching for the optimal adaptive design with the smallest expected sample size under the null, while the type I and II error rates are maintained and the aforementioned monotonicity characteristic is respected. The proposed optimal design is observed to have smaller expected sample sizes compared to Simon's optimal design, and the maximum total sample size of the proposed adaptive design is very close to that from Simon's method. The proposed optimal adaptive two-stage design is recommended for use in practice to improve the flexibility and efficiency of early phase therapeutic development.

  1. Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of information technology in nursing practice has become a trend in healthcare. The impact of this technology on users has been widely studied, but little attention has been given to its influence at the beginning stage of implementation. Knowing the barriers to adopting technology could shorten this transition stage and minimize its negative influences. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences in the early stage of implementing a nursing information system. Focus groups were used to collect data at a medical center in Taiwan. The results showed that nurses had problems with the system's content design, had insufficient training, were concerned about data security, were stressed by added work, and experienced poor interdisciplinary cooperation. To smooth this beginning stage, the author recommends involving nurses early in the system design, providing sufficient training in keyboard entry skills, redesigning workflow, and improving interdisciplinary communication.

  2. A chart review of patients with early stage mycosis fungoides treated with psoralen plus UVA (PUVA).

    PubMed

    Soung, Jennifer; Muigai, Wangui; Amin, Nilam; Stern, Dana K; Lebwohl, Mark G

    2005-01-01

    PUVA has become a common form of treatment for early stage mycosis fungoides (MF). The purpose of this retrospective study was to review the clinical data of 51 MF patients (96% stage IA or IB) treated with PUVA at the Mt. Sinai MF clinic over the past 20 years. We analyzed the efficacy, safety, and remission duration in patients who were treated with a modified PUVA regimen. Forty-four of 51 patients (86%) achieved complete clinical clearing for all stages after initial PUVA therapy. The mean duration of remission with maintenance treatment was more than 27 months (range: 3 weeks to 130 months). The mean duration of disease from start of first PUVA therapy for all patients was 4.8 years (range: 0.7 to 130 months). PUVA for patients with early-stage MF is a safe and effective therapeutic modality with prolonged disease-free remissions, however, PUVA alone was not adequate for more advanced disease.

  3. Identification of Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Using Sulcal Morphology and Other Common Neuroimaging Indices

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Kunpeng; Xu, Hong; Guan, Hao; Zhu, Wanlin; Jiang, Jiyang; Cui, Yue; Zhang, Jicong; Liu, Tao; Wen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at its early stage is of major interest in AD research. Previous studies have suggested that abnormalities in regional sulcal width and global sulcal index (g-SI) are characteristics of patients with early-stage AD. In this study, we investigated sulcal width and three other common neuroimaging morphological measures (cortical thickness, cortical volume, and subcortical volume) to identify early-stage AD. These measures were evaluated in 150 participants, including 75 normal controls (NC) and 75 patients with early-stage AD. The global sulcal index (g-SI) and the width of five individual sulci (the superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure) were extracted from 3D T1-weighted images. The discriminative performances of the other three traditional neuroimaging morphological measures were also examined. Information Gain (IG) was used to select a subset of features to provide significant information for separating NC and early-stage AD subjects. Based on the four modalities of the individual measures, i.e., sulcal measures, cortical thickness, cortical volume, subcortical volume, and combinations of these individual measures, three types of classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machine) were applied to compare the classification performances. We observed that sulcal measures were either superior than or equal to the other measures used for classification. Specifically, the g-SI and the width of the Sylvian fissure were two of the most sensitive sulcal measures and could be useful neuroanatomical markers for detecting early-stage AD. There were no significant differences between the three classifiers that we tested when using the same neuroanatomical features. PMID:28129351

  4. Factors that influence 12 or more harvested lymph nodes in early-stage colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chao-Wen; Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Wang, Jui-Ho; Wang, Hsin-Tai; Ou, Wen-Chieh; King, Tai-Ming

    2009-02-01

    The number of lymph nodes required for accurate staging is a critical component in early-stage (stage A and B) colorectal cancer (CRC). Current guidelines demand at least 12 lymph nodes to be retrieved. Results of previous studies were contradictory in factors, which influenced the number of harvested lymph nodes. This study was designed to determine the factors that influence the number of harvested lymph nodes (> or =12) in early-stage CRC in a single institution. Between 2003 and 2007, data on patients who underwent surgery for early-stage CRC were analyzed retrospectively. Data for a total of 470 patients were collected and all the tumor-bearing specimens were fixed with node identification performed. Several possible factors that influence 12 or more harvested lymph nodes were investigated and classified into four aspects: (1) operating surgeon, (2) examining pathologist, (3) patient (age, sex, and body mass index), and (4) disease (maximal length of tumor, length of specimen, tumor localization, tumor cell differentiation, Dukes stage, type of resection, and type of tumor). A total of 289 patients (61.5%) with 12 or more harvested lymph nodes and 181 patients (38.5%) with < 12 lymph nodes were analyzed. The results demonstrate that within a single institution the maximal length of tumor, tumor localization, and depth of tumor invasion according to Dukes stage were independent influencing factors of 12 or more harvested lymph nodes. Maximal length of tumor was associated with more harvested lymph nodes (P < 0.001). Neither the operating surgeon nor the examining pathologist had significant influence on the number of harvested lymph nodes. The number of harvested lymph nodes was highly variable in patients who underwent resection of early-stage CRC. Neither the operating surgeon nor the examining pathologist had significant influence on the number of harvested lymph nodes. Therefore, from the viewpoint of the surgeons, disease itself is the most important

  5. Transcriptome analysis of neo-tetraploid rice reveals specific differential gene expressions associated with fertility and heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Haibin; Mendrikahy, Jean Nestor; Xie, Lei; Deng, Junfeng; Lu, Zijun; Wu, Jinwen; Li, Xiang; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Liu, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Polyploid rice hybrids have a powerful biological and yield potential that may become a new way for rice breeding; however, low fertility is major hindrance in commercial utilization. Here, we developed a neo-tetraploid rice that could overcome the sterility of autotetraploid rice and produce high heterosis. Transcriptome analysis of F1 hybrid developed by crossing neo-tetraploid with autotetraploid rice displayed 807, 663 and 866 differentially expressed genes that uniquely associated with F1 and specific to (DEGFu-sp) anther, ovary and leaf, respectively. Of the DEGFu-sp, 1224 genes displayed nonadditive expression; 44 and 10 genes were annotated as TFs and methyltransferase or hydroxymethyltransferase, respectively. Gene ontology enrichment and co-expression analysis revealed specific differential gene expressions in the DEGFu-sp to leaf, anther and ovary, such as genes related to photosynthesis, metabolic process and transport, and co-expression network including fertility, resistance and epigenetic elements. Of the DEGFu-sp to anther, 42 meiosis stage-specific genes, eight meiosis-related genes, such as RAD51 and SMC2, were identified. We identified 38 miRNAs from DEGFu-sp to anther, and their targets were associated with pollen fertility and retrotransposon protein. Our study provides new germplasm for polyploid rice breeding, and revealed complex regulatory mechanisms that might be associated with heterosis and fertility. PMID:28071676

  6. Heterosis and combining ability: a diallel cross of three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuewen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan; Wu, Fucun

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a complete diallel cross among three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino to determine the heterosis and the combining ability of growth traits at the spat stage. The three populations were collected from Qingdao (Q) and Dalian (D) in China, and Miyagi (M) in Japan. We measured the shell length, shell width, and total weight. The magnitude of the general combining ability (GCA) variance was more pronounced than the specific combining ability (SCA) variance, which is evidenced by both the ratio of the genetic component in total variation and the GCA/SCA values. The component variances of GCA and SCA were significant for all three traits ( P<0.05), indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects in determining the expression of these traits. The reciprocal maternal effects (RE) were also significant for these traits ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that population D was the best general combiner in breeding programs to improve growth traits. The DM cross had the highest heterosis values for all three traits.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of neo-tetraploid rice reveals specific differential gene expressions associated with fertility and heterosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haibin; Mendrikahy, Jean Nestor; Xie, Lei; Deng, Junfeng; Lu, Zijun; Wu, Jinwen; Li, Xiang; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Liu, Xiangdong

    2017-01-10

    Polyploid rice hybrids have a powerful biological and yield potential that may become a new way for rice breeding; however, low fertility is major hindrance in commercial utilization. Here, we developed a neo-tetraploid rice that could overcome the sterility of autotetraploid rice and produce high heterosis. Transcriptome analysis of F1 hybrid developed by crossing neo-tetraploid with autotetraploid rice displayed 807, 663 and 866 differentially expressed genes that uniquely associated with F1 and specific to (DEGFu-sp) anther, ovary and leaf, respectively. Of the DEGFu-sp, 1224 genes displayed nonadditive expression; 44 and 10 genes were annotated as TFs and methyltransferase or hydroxymethyltransferase, respectively. Gene ontology enrichment and co-expression analysis revealed specific differential gene expressions in the DEGFu-sp to leaf, anther and ovary, such as genes related to photosynthesis, metabolic process and transport, and co-expression network including fertility, resistance and epigenetic elements. Of the DEGFu-sp to anther, 42 meiosis stage-specific genes, eight meiosis-related genes, such as RAD51 and SMC2, were identified. We identified 38 miRNAs from DEGFu-sp to anther, and their targets were associated with pollen fertility and retrotransposon protein. Our study provides new germplasm for polyploid rice breeding, and revealed complex regulatory mechanisms that might be associated with heterosis and fertility.

  8. Photons from the early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, L.; Ruggieri, M.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Peng, G. X.; Greco, V.

    2017-07-01

    We present results about photon-production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The main novelty of our study is the calculation of the contribution of the early-stage photons to the photon spectrum. The initial stage is modeled by an ensemble of classical gluon fields which decay to a quark-gluon plasma via the Schwinger mechanism, and the evolution of the system is studied by coupling classical field equations to relativistic kinetic theory; photon production is then computed by including the pertinent collision processes into the collision integral. We find that the contribution of the early-stage photons to the direct photon spectrum is substantial for pT≈2 GeV and higher, the exact value depending on the collision energy; therefore, we identify this part of the photon spectrum as the sign of the early stage. Moreover, the amount of photons produced during the early stage is not negligible with respect to those produced by a thermalized quark-gluon plasma: We support the idea that there is no dark age in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  9. Outcomes in Patients With Early-Stage Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Ito, Yoshinori; Asai, Masao; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Itami, Jun

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in patients with early-stage hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between February 1988 and February 2007, 77 patients with Stage I or Stage II HPC underwent definitive RT in the Division of Radiation Oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital. Eleven of the patients received local irradiation, and the other 66 patients received elective bilateral neck irradiation and booster irradiation to the primary lesion. The median follow-up period for all the patients was 33 months from the start of RT, ranging from 3 to 229 months. Results: The rates of overall survival, HPC-specific survival, HPC recurrence-free survival, and local control with laryngeal voice preservation for the 77 patients at 5 years were 47%, 74%, 57%, and 70%, respectively. The survival rates were not affected by the patient characteristics or treatment factors, but the RT field was significantly correlated with local control in a multivariate analysis. Seven of the patients had Grade 3 or greater complications, but these complications occurred after salvage surgery in 6 of the patients. Of the 77 patients, 83% had synchronous or metachronous malignancies, but these malignancies did not influence the survival of the patients if the malignancies were detected at an early stage. Conclusion: RT is an appropriate treatment method for early-stage HPC. However, because synchronous or metachronous malignancies occur at a relatively high frequency, careful follow-up and the early detection of such malignancies are critical.

  10. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Early-Stage Lung Cancer: From Innovation to Standard of Care.

    PubMed

    White, Abby; Swanson, Scott J

    2016-11-15

    The era of minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer follows decades of research; the collection and interpretation of countless qualitative and quantitative data points; and tireless efforts by a few pioneering thoracic surgeons who believed they could deliver a safe and oncologically sound operation with less tissue trauma, an improved physiologic profile, and fewer complications than traditional open surgery. This review highlights those efforts and the role of minimally invasive surgery for early-stage lung cancer in light of evolving technology, the emerging understanding of the biology of early-stage lung cancer, and lung cancer screening.

  11. Charcot stage 0: A review and consideratons for making the correct diagnosis early.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Crystal; Schmidt, Brian; Munson, Michael; Wrobel, James S

    2015-01-01

    Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy (CN) is a rare disease (NIDDK, NIH Summary Report Charcot Workshop, 2008) that causes significant morbidity and mortality for affected patients. The disease can result in severe deformities of the foot and ankle that contribute to the development of ulcerations and amputations. Medical advances have failed to find ways to stop the progression of the disease. However, it is known that early detection of the CN has a substantial impact on patient outcomes. CN in the earliest stage is very difficult to recognize and differentiate from other similar presenting diseases. We intend to outline clinical considerations practitioners can use when evaluating a patient with early stage suspected CN.

  12. Highly-accurate metabolomic detection of early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gaul, David A.; Mezencev, Roman; Long, Tran Q.; Jones, Christina M.; Benigno, Benedict B.; Gray, Alexander; Fernández, Facundo M.; McDonald, John F.

    2015-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry was employed to interrogate the serum metabolome of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC) patients and age-matched control women. The resulting spectral features were used to establish a linear support vector machine (SVM) model of sixteen diagnostic metabolites that are able to identify early-stage OC with 100% accuracy in our patient cohort. The results provide evidence for the importance of lipid and fatty acid metabolism in OC and serve as the foundation of a clinically significant diagnostic test. PMID:26573008

  13. [Changes in radiotherapy indication for early-stage operated endometrial cancer. Revised staging, predictive factors. Conclusions from our own results].

    PubMed

    Póti, Zsuzsa; Katona, Csilla; Szalai, Tibor; Mayer, Árpád

    2016-07-03

    Optimal postoperative radiotherapy indications for early-stage operated endometrial cancers have drastically changed with the new imaging generation (magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography) and more detailed pathomorphology. The depth and growth of tumor invasion, presence or absence of the lymph node metastases, grading and lymphovascular invasion are the most important factors to predict the progression and to influence the prognosis. In 2016, on the basis of these, the European Gynecologist Oncology and Radiotherapy Society published a report in which they proposed unanimously indications for postoperative radio- and/or radiochemotherapy. The basis of their work was prospective multilevel randomized investigations which could avoid over- or undertreatment hazards. The results obtained by the authors of this article from 164 operated patients in early-stage endometrium carcinoma seem to be acceptable, in spite of the fact that their earlier radiotherapy indication was different and in the pathological description lymphovascular invasion was not included and the grading was not always applied.

  14. Confidence interval estimation of the difference between two sensitivities to the early disease stage.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tuochuan; Kang, Le; Hutson, Alan; Xiong, Chengjie; Tian, Lili

    2014-03-01

    Although most of the statistical methods for diagnostic studies focus on disease processes with binary disease status, many diseases can be naturally classified into three ordinal diagnostic categories, that is normal, early stage, and fully diseased. For such diseases, the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is the most commonly used index of diagnostic accuracy. Because the early disease stage is most likely the optimal time window for therapeutic intervention, the sensitivity to the early diseased stage has been suggested as another diagnostic measure. For the purpose of comparing the diagnostic abilities on early disease detection between two markers, it is of interest to estimate the confidence interval of the difference between sensitivities to the early diseased stage. In this paper, we present both parametric and non-parametric methods for this purpose. An extensive simulation study is carried out for a variety of settings for the purpose of evaluating and comparing the performance of the proposed methods. A real example of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is analyzed using the proposed approaches.

  15. Speech acoustic markers of early stage and prodromal Huntington's disease: a marker of disease onset?

    PubMed

    Vogel, Adam P; Shirbin, Christopher; Churchyard, Andrew J; Stout, Julie C

    2012-12-01

    Speech disturbances (e.g., altered prosody) have been described in symptomatic Huntington's Disease (HD) individuals, however, the extent to which speech changes in gene positive pre-manifest (PreHD) individuals is largely unknown. The speech of individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene is a behavioural/motor/cognitive marker demonstrating some potential as an objective indicator of early HD onset and disease progression. Speech samples were acquired from 30 individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene (13 PreHD, 17 early stage HD) and 15 matched controls. Participants read a passage, produced a monologue and said the days of the week. Data were analysed acoustically for measures of timing, frequency and intensity. There was a clear effect of group across most acoustic measures, so that speech performance differed in-line with disease progression. Comparisons across groups revealed significant differences between the control and the early stage HD group on measures of timing (e.g., speech rate). Participants carrying the mutant HTT gene presented with slower rates of speech, took longer to say words and produced greater silences between and within words compared to healthy controls. Importantly, speech rate showed a significant correlation to burden of disease scores. The speech of early stage HD differed significantly from controls. The speech of PreHD, although not reaching significance, tended to lie between the performance of controls and early stage HD. This suggests that changes in speech production appear to be developing prior to diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Haemoglobin degradation underpins the sensitivity of early ring stage Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinins

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Stanley C.; Dogovski, Con; Hanssen, Eric; Chiu, Francis; Yang, Tuo; Crespo, Maria P.; Stafford, Che; Batinovic, Steven; Teguh, Silvia; Charman, Susan; Klonis, Nectarios; Tilley, Leann

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current first-line artemisinin antimalarials are threatened by the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Decreased sensitivity is evident in the initial (early ring) stage of intraerythrocytic development, meaning that it is crucial to understand the action of artemisinins at this stage. Here, we examined the roles of iron (Fe) ions and haem in artemisinin activation in early rings using Fe ion chelators and a specific haemoglobinase inhibitor (E64d). Quantitative modelling of the antagonism accounted for its complex dependence on the chemical features of the artemisinins and on the drug exposure time, and showed that almost all artemisinin activity in early rings (>80%) is due to haem-mediated activation. The surprising implication that haemoglobin uptake and digestion is active in early rings is supported by identification of active haemoglobinases (falcipains) at this stage. Genetic down-modulation of the expression of the two main cysteine protease haemoglobinases, falcipains 2 and 3, renders early ring stage parasites resistant to artemisinins. This confirms the important role of haemoglobin-degrading falcipains in artemisinin activation, and shows that changes in the rate of artemisinin activation could mediate high-level artemisinin resistance. PMID:26675237

  17. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko )

    1989-09-01

    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  18. Hydrodynamic instability of elastic-plastic solid plates at the early stage of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piriz, A. R.; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.

    2015-03-01

    A model is presented for the linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place at the early stage of acceleration of an elastic-plastic solid, when the shock wave is still running into the solid and is driven by a time varying pressure on the interface. When the the shock is formed sufficiently close to the interface, this stage is considered to follow a previous initial phase controlled by the Ritchmyer-Meshkov instability that settles new initial conditions. The model reproduces the behavior of the instability observed in former numerical simulation results and provides a relatively simpler physical picture than the currently existing one for this stage of the instability evolution.

  19. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    PubMed

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA.

  20. Reduced fractional anisotropy in early-stage cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kenichi; Konishi, Junya; Mori, Susumu; Ishihara, Hiroyuki; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Fujii, Masahiko; Kanda, Fumio

    2009-04-01

    In patients with the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C), reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in several brain areas. However, since previous studies have employed predetermined regions of interest (ROI), the brain areas showing the earliest alterations in FA are unknown. The sensitivity of detecting early-stage MSA-C and the time course of the FA reduction are also unknown. The purpose was to address these issues to determine the diagnostic value of FA for early diagnosis. Twenty-one patients with MSA-C were investigated. Voxel-based FA analysis and morphometry were used to detect the differences between early-stage MSA-C and normal controls. An ROI-based FA analysis was also used to clarify the temporal profile. From the early-stage, MSA-C patients exhibited reduced FA and white matter atrophy in the middle cerebellar peduncle, the inferior cerebellar peduncle, and the ventral pons. The FA of these areas decreased rapidly during the first few years after onset, after which a rather gradual reduction occurred. The receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed a high sensitivity and specificity for discriminating early MSA-C from normal controls. FA measurement could potentially be used to make an early diagnosis and monitor progression in MSA-C patients.

  1. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  2. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  3. Heterosis as Investigated in Terms of Polyploidy and Genetic Diversity Using Designed Brassica juncea Amphiploid and Its Progenitor Diploid Species

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Payal; Banga, Shashi; Banga, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB) as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB). Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11) and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10) and B. nigra (9×9) were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47) of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis. PMID:22363404

  4. Heterosis as investigated in terms of polyploidy and genetic diversity using designed Brassica juncea amphiploid and its progenitor diploid species.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Payal; Banga, Shashi; Banga, S S

    2012-01-01

    Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB) as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA) and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB). Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11) and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10) and B. nigra (9×9) were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47) of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis.

  5. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection.

  6. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  7. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix stage IB and early stage II. Prognostic value of the histological tumor regression after initial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Calais, G.; Le Floch, O.; Chauvet, B.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P. )

    1989-12-01

    In our center limited centro pelvic invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix (less than 4 cm) are treated with brachytherapy and surgery. With these therapeutic modalities no residual carcinoma was observed for 80% of the patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our results with this treatment, and to evaluate the prognostic value of the pathological status of the cervix. From 1976 to 1987 we have treated 115 patients with these modalities. Staging system used was the FIGO classification modified for Stage II (divided in early Stage II and late Stage II). Patients were Stage IB (70 cases) and early Stage II (45 cases); 60 Gy were delivered with utero vaginal brachytherapy before any treatment. Six weeks later a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Twenty-one patients with positive nodes received a pelvic radiotherapy (45 to 55 Gy). Local control rate was 97% (100% for Stage IB and 93% for early Stage II). Uncorrected 10-year actuarial survival rate was 96% for Stage IB and 80% for early Stage II patients. No treatment failure was observed for Stage IB patients. Ninety-two patients (80%) had no residual carcinoma in the cervix (group 1) and 23 patients (20%) had a residual tumor (group 2). The sterilization rate of the cervix was 87% for Stage IB tumors versus 69% for early Stage II, and was 82% for N- patients versus 68% for N+ patients. Ten year actuarial survival rate was 92% for group 1 and 78% for group 2 (p = 0, 1). Grade 3 complications rate was 6%. We conclude that brachytherapy + surgery is a safe treatment for limited centro pelvic carcinomas of the uterine cervix (especially Stage IB) and that pathological status of the cervix after brachytherapy is not a prognostic factor.

  8. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  9. Patient Perspectives on Deep Brain Stimulation Clinical Research in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Heusinkveld, Lauren; Hacker, Mallory; Turchan, Maxim; Bollig, Madelyn; Tamargo, Christina; Fisher, William; McLaughlin, Lauren; Martig, Adria; Charles, David

    2017-01-01

    The FDA has approved a multicenter, double-blind, Phase III, pivotal trial testing deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 280 people with very early stage Parkinson's disease (PD; IDE#G050016). In partnership with The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, we conducted a survey to investigate motivating factors, barriers, and gender differences among potentially eligible patients for participation in a trial testing DBS in early PD compared to standard medical treatment. The majority of survey respondents (72%) indicated they would consider learning more about participating. Early PD patients are therefore likely to consider enrolling in trials of invasive therapies that may slow symptom progression and help future patients.

  10. [Correlations between specific combining ability, heterosis and genetic distance in hybrid rice].

    PubMed

    Ni, Xian-Lin; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Kai-Feng; Yang, Li; Yang, Qian-Hua; Cao, Ying-Jiang; Wen, Chun-Yang; Zheng, Jia-Kui

    2009-08-01

    Hybrid rice breeding is the combining ability breeding. Screening hybrid rice combinations with high special combining ability (SCA) is able to breed strong superiority combinations with practical values. In this study, the genetic distances (GD) of nine three-line hybrid rice (5 CMS lines and 4 restorer lines) were examined using SSR markers. Based on yield performances of 20 hybrid crosses (5 x 4 NCII), the relationships between SCA, heterosis and GD were studied. The correlations of yield SCA with the control heterosis (r1=0.5609) and the average heterosis (r2=0.541) were significant, but not significant with GD (r=0.2143). Thus, the heterosis can be reflected by SCA; the hybrid parents selected in this study can be used to develop strong superiority combinations; but the SCA cannot be reflected by GD, which needs further study.

  11. Combining ability and heterosis in diallel crosses of maize.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, B S; Singh, J

    1977-05-01

    The present investigation involved crosses among 20 elite yellow maize populations. These were evaluated in four environments in a randomized block design with four replications in each environment. Variety Cuba was observed to be the best general combiner for grain yield, followed by St Croix and Prolific. No clear association could be discerned between general combining ability (GCA) effects for grain yield and its components, and mean grain yield performance and GCA effects. Heterosis was observed in general and all the crosses involving Cuba yielded better than the midparent. The five hybrids, Kisan × Cuba, Antigua 3D × St Croix, Prolific × St Croix, Vijay × Antigua Gr. I and A 23 × Cuba, yielded more than the standard check. Significant yield superiority of these varietal hybrids over the best commercial composite (Jawahar) suggested the possibility of their commercial exploitation.

  12. 13 CFR 107.1182 - Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based on Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Special Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1182 Valuation... designated by SBA. Conditional Commitments by SBA To Reserve Leverage for a Licensee...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1182 - Valuation requirements for Early Stage SBICs based on Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Special Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1182 Valuation... designated by SBA. Conditional Commitments by SBA To Reserve Leverage for a Licensee...

  14. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public Webinars. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) announces that it is holding a series of public Webinars regarding its...

  15. Patients with Old Age or Proximal Tumors Benefit from Metabolic Syndrome in Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Results Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P = 0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P = 0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P = 0.052 in univariate analysis). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors. PMID:24599168

  16. Alternatives to Mechanical Drills for the Early Stages of Language Practice in Foreign Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aski, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that mechanical drills do not facilitate the development of explicit or implicit knowledge. This study identifies the inadequate aspects of mechanical drills and offers alternative activities for the early stages of language practice, whose formats and features comply with recent research in the…

  17. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  18. Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

    2008-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

  19. Association Between Increased Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS in Early-stage NPDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vu, Amanda C.; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Knecht, Brenda E.; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K. V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Our hypothesis predicts that retinal blood vessels increase in density during early-stage progression to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of DR and in the function of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), a critical bone marrow-derived population that is instrumental in vascular repair.

  20. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  1. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  2. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  3. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  4. The Night before the LHC -thoughts about expectations in the early stage and beyond-

    SciTech Connect

    Nojiri, Mihoko M.

    2008-11-23

    I review recent developments on the use of m{sub T2} variables for SUSY parameter study, which might be useful for analyses of the data in the early stage of the LHC experiments. I will also mention some of recent interesting studies relevant to the SUSY analysis.

  5. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  6. Prostatic Fatty Acids and Cancer Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Results from some observational studies suggest that diet and energy balance influence the clinical course of early-stage prostate cancer. To evaluate possible mechanisms, we prospectively examined the relation between prostatic concentrations of fatty acids at diagnosis and cancer recurr...

  7. Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

  8. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  9. Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

    2008-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

  10. Assessing Children's Play: Reality or Illusion? The Case of Early Years Foundation Stage in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in England in 2008, assessment of children has taken a formal and standardized measurable approach. Such an approach goes against most findings of play-oriented research. Thus, the project reported here employed participatory action research with practitioners in order to identify…

  11. Arthroscopic core decompression of the lunate in early stage Kienbock disease of the lunate.

    PubMed

    Bain, Gregory I; Smith, Michael L; Watts, Adam C

    2011-03-01

    Since the first description of Kienbock disease in 1910, the etiology and treatment have remained controversial topics. Core decompression is an accepted treatment option in early-stage avascular necrosis of the femoral head, and more recently the humeral head. This paper reports the technique of arthroscopic fluoroscopically guided core decompression of the lunate with 6-year results.

  12. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  13. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  14. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  15. Endoscopic submucosal dissection with the pulley method for early-stage gastric cancer (with video).

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Hsien; Chen, Peng-Jen; Chu, Heng-Cheng; Huang, Tien-Yu; Shih, Yu-Lueng; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Using EMR techniques, physicians frequently remove tumors >15 mm by piecemeal resection, which is associated with an increased rate of disease recurrence and difficulty in histologically evaluating the specimen. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early-stage gastric cancer improves the rate of successful en bloc resection, but it is associated with more complications, such as bleeding and perforation, than conventional EMR. To describe a simple technique that uses the pulley method to facilitate ESD procedures in the excision of large early-stage gastric cancers. Case series. Tertiary medical center in Taiwan. Eleven patients with early-stage gastric cancers or adenomas >20 mm underwent ESD. The pulley method with standard clips and dental floss was used to provide traction to improve visualization of the dissection plane during ESD. Proportion with complete en bloc resection. En bloc resection of the lesion was achieved in 11 patients. No perforation or emergent surgery was noted. One endoscopist performed all procedures, and only 11 patients were studied in an uncontrolled manner. The pulley method seems to facilitate en bloc ESD of early-stage gastric cancers >20 mm. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  17. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  18. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  19. Towards a Conceptualization of the Early Career Stage of Principalship: Current Research, Idiosyncrasies and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This review aims at providing a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of the early career stage of principalship by documenting the experiences and tasks of new principals (NPs) in the first three years in the post, and their personal and organizational determinants. The synthesis is based on empirical research…

  20. Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

  1. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  2. Test Design Optimization in CAT Early Stage with the Nominal Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.

    2007-01-01

    The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…

  3. Implementation of the TMS in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Guekht, A; Selikhova, M; Serkin, G; Gusev, E

    2005-01-01

    47 PD patients were investigated with the single-pulse TMS to find out changes in motor evoked potential and motor conduction related to the stage of minimal motor symptoms and its further deterioration in groups with the different clinical types of the disease. The investigation revealed a markedly longer MEP duration along with the increased number of phases, than in controls, which were bilateral and advanced despite the minimal unilateral motor symptoms. There was also increased MEP amplitude in facilitation, with a higher degree of asymmetry, compared to controls. Patients with predominant rigid clinical forms had the further MEP duration and amplitude increase proportionally to bradikinesia and rigidity in the early stages of the disease. Patients with tremor predominant forms had no further changes in the MEP duration and amplitude, but had their motor CCT decreased in the early stages. Patients with the akinetic form were characterized by the asymmetric increase in the MEP Amplitude in relaxation and motor CCT shortening. Thus, TMS allows us to diagnose early the possible central motor changes secondary to Parkinson's disease, reveals the difference in compensational capacity according to the clinical type of the disease and helps in monitoring of the severity of motor changes in early stages.

  4. Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Pallara, Tiziano; Cagli, Barbara; Schena, Emiliano; Giurazza, Francesco; Faiella, Elio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Persichetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs) in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients. PMID:24818019

  5. ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; Iijima, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas. Array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated frequent amplification at chromosome 3q26. Of the seven genes located in this region, we focused on the epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) oncogene, as ECT2 amplification was detected only in invasive adenocarcinoma, and not in in situ carcinoma. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses also detected overexpression of ECT2 in invasive adenocarcinoma, and this was correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index. In addition, it was associated with disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results were verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas resected at another hospital. Abnormality of the ECT2 gene occurs at a relatively early stage of lung adenocarcinogenesis and would be applicable as a new biomarker for prognostication of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24484057

  6. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  7. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  8. Alternatives to Mechanical Drills for the Early Stages of Language Practice in Foreign Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aski, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that mechanical drills do not facilitate the development of explicit or implicit knowledge. This study identifies the inadequate aspects of mechanical drills and offers alternative activities for the early stages of language practice, whose formats and features comply with recent research in the…

  9. Patients with old age or proximal tumors benefit from metabolic syndrome in early stage gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-li; Qiu, Miao-zhen; Lin, Huan-xin; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P=0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P=0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P=0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P=0.052 in univariate analysis). Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors.

  10. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  11. Dominance and epistasis are the main contributors to heterosis for plant height in rice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guojing; Zhan, Wei; Chen, Huaxia; Xing, Yongzhong

    2014-02-01

    The genetic basis of heterosis has been debated for over 100 years regarding whether dominance or overdominance plays a more important role and the answer is still unclear. The major limitation to assess the contribution of a single locus has been the genetic background noise due to genome-wide segregation of multiple loci. To dissect the genetic basis of heterosis at a single locus for plant height, we developed a set of 202 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) of an elite hybrid, Shanyou 63, the best hybrid rice in China in the 1990s. Fifteen CSSLs had varied plant heights within lines. A total of 15 partial dominance QTLs for plant height were detected in these 15 CSSL-F2 populations. All hybrids between the 15 CSSLs and the recurrent parent, Zhenshan 97, were shorter than the corresponding CSSLs, but taller than Zhenshan 97. These indicated that these 15 QTLs were also heterosis loci (HLs) contributed to heterosis acted in dominance. Each HL contributed from -7.4 to 14.4% of midparent heterosis. Additive by additive (AA) and additive by dominance (AD) interactions were detected in the Tetra-F2 population segregating at the four major QTLs with the largest effects on plant height. Substantial negative AA effects were detected between two major QTLs QPH7.2 and QPH7.3, which increased heterosis in the study. Thus we concluded that dominance and epistasis are the major genetic basis of plant height heterosis, which could explain the better parent heterosis in Shanyou 63.

  12. Genome-wide transcript analysis of maize hybrids: allelic additive gene expression and yield heterosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei; Rupe, Mary A; Yang, Xiaofeng; Crasta, Oswald; Zinselmeier, Christopher; Smith, Oscar S; Bowen, Ben

    2006-09-01

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, has been widely exploited in plant breeding for many decades, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we applied genome-wide transcript profiling to gain a global picture of the ways in which a large proportion of genes are expressed in the immature ear tissues of a series of 16 maize hybrids that vary in their degree of heterosis. Key observations include: (1) the proportion of allelic additively expressed genes is positively associated with hybrid yield and heterosis; (2) the proportion of genes that exhibit a bias towards the expression level of the paternal parent is negatively correlated with hybrid yield and heterosis; and (3) there is no correlation between the over- or under-expression of specific genes in maize hybrids with either yield or heterosis. The relationship of the expression patterns with hybrid performance is substantiated by analysis of a genetically improved modern hybrid (Pioneer hybrid 3394) versus a less improved older hybrid (Pioneer hybrid 3306) grown at different levels of plant density stress. The proportion of allelic additively expressed genes is positively associated with the modern high yielding hybrid, heterosis and high yielding environments, whereas the converse is true for the paternally biased gene expression. The dynamic changes of gene expression in hybrids responding to genotype and environment may result from differential regulation of the two parental alleles. Our findings suggest that differential allele regulation may play an important role in hybrid yield or heterosis, and provide a new insight to the molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms of heterosis.

  13. Following iron speciation in the early stages of magnetite magnetosome biomineralization

    DOE PAGES

    Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Olszewska, Agata; ...

    2016-02-26

    Understanding magnetosome magnetite biomineralization is of fundamental interest to devising the strategies for bioinspired synthesis of magnetic materials at the nanoscale. Thus, we investigated the early stages of magnetosome formation in this work and correlated the size and emergent crystallinity of magnetosome nanoparticles with the changes in chemical environment of iron and oxygen by utilizing advanced analytical electron microscopy techniques. We observed that magnetosomes in the early stages of biomineralization with the sizes of 5–10 nm were amorphous, with a majority of iron present as Fe3+, indicative of ferric hydroxide. The magnetosomes with intermediate sizes showed partially crystalline structure withmore » a majority of iron present as Fe3+ and trace amounts of Fe2+. The fully maturated magnetosomes were indexed to magnetite. Furthermore, our approach provides spatially resolved structural and chemical information of individual magnetosomes with different particle sizes, attributed to magnetosomes at different stages of biomineralization.« less

  14. Following iron speciation in the early stages of magnetite magnetosome biomineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Olszewska, Agata; Faivre, Damien; Prozorov, Tanya

    2016-02-26

    Understanding magnetosome magnetite biomineralization is of fundamental interest to devising the strategies for bioinspired synthesis of magnetic materials at the nanoscale. Thus, we investigated the early stages of magnetosome formation in this work and correlated the size and emergent crystallinity of magnetosome nanoparticles with the changes in chemical environment of iron and oxygen by utilizing advanced analytical electron microscopy techniques. We observed that magnetosomes in the early stages of biomineralization with the sizes of 5–10 nm were amorphous, with a majority of iron present as Fe3+, indicative of ferric hydroxide. The magnetosomes with intermediate sizes showed partially crystalline structure with a majority of iron present as Fe3+ and trace amounts of Fe2+. The fully maturated magnetosomes were indexed to magnetite. Furthermore, our approach provides spatially resolved structural and chemical information of individual magnetosomes with different particle sizes, attributed to magnetosomes at different stages of biomineralization.

  15. The δ-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

    We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the δ-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the δ1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the δ3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the δ1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

  16. Impact of early stage non-equilibrium dynamics on photon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, L.; Ruggieri, M.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

    2017-04-01

    In this study we discuss our results on the spectrum of photons emitted from the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies. Simulating the space-time evolution of the fireball by solving the relativistic Boltzmann transport equation and including two-particle scattering processes with photon emission allows us to make a first step in the description of thermal photons from the QGP as well as of those produced in the pre-equilibrium stage. Indeed, we consider not only a standard Glauber initial condition but also a model in which quarks and gluons are produced in the very early stage through the Schwinger mechanism by the decay of an initial color-electric field. In the latter approach relativistic kinetic equations are coupled in a self-consistent way to field equations. We aim at spotting the impact of early stage non-equilibrium dynamics on the photon production.

  17. Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2005-11-01

    During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

  18. Early-stage primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun

    2013-06-28

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum detected at an early stage is very rare; most cases are detected at an advanced stage. Therefore, its prognosis is poorer than that of ordinary colorectal cancer. A 56-year-old Korean man was seen at this hospital for management of signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon. Colonoscopic examination revealed a IIa-like, ill-defined and flatly elevated 9-mm residual tumor in the cecum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was preformed. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed signet ring cell carcinoma that had invaded the lamina propria without venous or perineural invasion. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and positron CT showed no evidence of primary lesions or distant metastasis. An additional laparoscopic right-hemicolectomy was performed; no residual tumor or lymph node metastasis was found. We report a case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon detected at an early stage and provide a review of the literature.

  19. Extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy and use of adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy for early-stage endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Machida, Hiroko; Ragab, Omar M; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Pham, Huyen Q; Roman, Lynda D

    2017-03-01

    To examine trends of adjuvant radiotherapy choice and to examine associations between pelvic lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy choice for women with early-stage endometrial cancer. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify surgically treated stage I-II endometrial cancer between 1983 and 2012 (type 1 n=79,474, and type 2 n=25,020). Piecewise linear regression models were used to examine temporal trends of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) and whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) use, pelvic lymphadenectomy rate, and sampled node counts. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors for ICBT use. There was a significant increase in ICBT use and decrease in WPRT use during the study period. ICBT use exceeded WPRT use in 2003 for type 1 stage IA, and in 2007 for type 1 stage IB and type 2 stage IA diseases. In addition, number of sampled pelvic nodes significantly increased over time in type 1-2 stage I-II diseases (mean, 7.0-12.7 in 1988 to 15.2-17.6 in 2012, all P<0.001). On multivariable analysis, extent of sampled pelvic nodes was significantly associated with ICBT use for type 1 cancer: adjusted-odds ratios for 1-10 and >10 nodes versus no lymphadenectomy in stage IA (1.38/2.40), IB (2.75/6.32), and II (1.36/2.91) diseases. Similar trends were observed for type 2 cancer: adjusted-odds ratios for stage IA (1.69/3.73), IB (2.25/5.65), and II (1.36/2.19) diseases. Our results suggest that surgeons and radiation oncologists are evaluating the extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy when counseling women with early-stage endometrial cancer for adjuvant radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Decreased numbers of endothelial progenitor cells in patients in the early stages of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Andrigueti, Fernando V; Arismendi, Maria I; Ebbing, Pâmela C C; Kayser, Cristiane

    2015-03-01

    Microangiopathy and endothelial dysfunction are present in the early stages of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Defective vasculogenesis mediated by bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might be involved in the vascular abnormalities found in SSc. To evaluate the circulating EPC levels and EPC subtypes via flow cytometry and early outgrowth colony-forming units (CFUs) in patients with SSc compared to healthy subjects. Thirty-nine female SSc patients (30 in the early stages of SSc) and 44 age-matched healthy women were included. Peripheral blood EPCs were quantified using flow cytometry and by counting the early outgrowth CFUs. The EPCs quantified with flow cytometry and the CFU numbers were significantly lower in SSc patients than in control subjects (155.1 ± 95.1 vs. 241.3 ± 184.2 EPC/10(6) lymphomononuclear cells, p=0.011; 15.4 ± 8.6 vs. 23.5 ± 10.9 CFU, p<0.001; respectively), as well as in the group of patients in the early stages of SSc compared to the controls. Patients with digital ulcers had significantly higher CFU counts than those without ulcers (p=0.013). Among patients with the scleroderma pattern on nailfold capillaroscopy, patients with the late pattern had significantly lower EPC levels than those with the early and active patterns (p=0.046). There were no significant correlations of EPCs or CFU levels with RP duration. The present study revealed decreased EPCs in SSc patients, including those with early disease onset. These findings suggest that defective vasculogenesis occurs in the early phases of the disease. Therefore, EPCs might be an important therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular complications in SSc patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, California 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Danielle N; Torruellas, Cara; Cress, Rosemary D

    2016-03-01

    California Cancer Registry data were used to explore the impact of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance on patient outcomes. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the trend in diagnosis of early-stage HCC in California from 1988 to 2010. Patients 20+ years old, diagnosed with early HCC during 1988-2010 in California, were included. Stratified proportions of early HCC were evaluated to estimate any trends and significant disparities. The primary endpoint was the average annual percent change (AAPC) of the proportion of early-stage HCC; 2- and 5-year survival trends were calculated for age, sex, race, SES, and stage. A total of 13,855 patients were diagnosed with early HCC. The proportion of patients diagnosed early increased from 19.2 to 49.2 % between 1988 and 2010, at an AAPC of 4.3 %. The proportion of cases diagnosed with early HCC increased in all demographic groups. Both the 2- and 5-year cause-specific survival analyses showed that survival among HCC patients has been increasing since 1988. The proportion of HCC cases diagnosed early, and the 2- and 5-year survival trends of all HCC patients have increased in California since 1988. It is not entirely clear whether better diagnostic imaging or better surveillance has led to these findings and whether earlier diagnosis has led to improved patient survival. This increase in survival among patients with HCC may be correlated with the innovation of new treatments and most importantly that patients are being diagnosed earlier to receive such treatments.

  2. Aquaporin expression in the cerebral cortex is increased at early stages of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Esther; Barrachina, Marta; Rodríguez, Agustín; Torrejón-Escribano, Benjamín; Boada, Mercé; Hernández, Isabel; Sánchez, Marisa; Ferrer, Isidre

    2007-01-12

    Abnormalities in the cerebral microvasculature are common in Alzheimer disease (AD). Expression levels of the water channels aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 4 (AQP1, AQP4) were examined in AD cases by gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, and densitometric values normalized with beta-actin were compared with corresponding values in age-matched controls processed in parallel. In addition, samples of cases with Pick disease (PiD) were examined for comparative purposes. A significant increase in the expression levels of AQP1 was observed in AD stage II (following Braak and Braak classification). Individual variations were seen in advanced stages which resulted in non-significant differences between AD stages V-VI and age-matched controls. No differences in AQP1 levels were observed between familial AD cases (FAD, all of them at advanced stages) and corresponding age-matched controls. Immunohistochemistry showed increased AQP1 in astrocytes at early stages of AD. Double-labelling immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy disclosed AQP1 immunoreactivity at the cell surface of astrocytes which were recognized with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies. No differences in the levels of AQP4 were observed in AD, FAD and PiD when compared with corresponding controls. These results indicate abnormal expression of AQP1 in astrocytes in AD, and they add support to the idea that abnormal regulation of mechanisms involved in the control of water fluxes occurs at early stages in AD.

  3. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Early Discontinuation in Aromatase Inhibitor-Treated Postmenopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kadakia, Kunal C; Snyder, Claire F; Kidwell, Kelley M; Seewald, Nicholas J; Flockhart, David A; Skaar, Todd C; Desta, Zereunesay; Rae, James M; Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Storniolo, Anna M; Hayes, Daniel F; Stearns, Vered; Henry, N Lynn

    2016-05-01

    Early discontinuation of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is common and leads to poor outcomes but is challenging to predict. In the Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetics trial, a high rate of early discontinuation due to intolerance was observed. We hypothesized that early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) predict AI discontinuation and that biochemical factors are associated with changes in PROs. Postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer enrolled in a prospective randomized trial of exemestane versus letrozole completed questionnaires at baseline and serially over 24 months to assess overall quality of life (EuroQOL Visual Analog Scale [VAS]); mood; and multiple symptoms, including a musculoskeletal symptom cluster. A joint mixed-effects/survival model was used to estimate the effect of the change in PROs on AI discontinuation. Associations between biochemical factors and change in PROs were examined. A total of 490 patients were analyzed. Worsening of EuroQOL VAS and the musculoskeletal cluster were associated with the highest risk for early discontinuation (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.72-2.81; p = .015]; HR, 4.39 [95% CI, 2.40-8.02; p < .0001], respectively). Pharmacokinetics and estrogen metabolism were not consistently associated with change in PRO measures. No clinically significant differences in any PRO between AIs were observed. Changes in PROs early during AI therapy were associated with treatment discontinuation. Identification of these changes could be used to target interventions in patients at high risk for early discontinuation. Early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) can predict nonpersistence to aromatase inhibitor therapy. If used in clinical practice, PROs might identify women at highest risk for early discontinuation and allow for interventions to improve tolerance before significant toxicities develop. Further research is needed to improve capturing PROs in routine clinical practice.

  4. Apathy in untreated early-stage Parkinson disease: relationship with other non-motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Kathy; Langlois, Carole; Plomhause, Lucie; Carette, Anne-Sophie; Delliaux, Marie; Duhamel, Alain; Defebvre, Luc

    2014-12-01

    Apathy is a frequent and disabling behavioral disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Its prevalence in treatment-naive patients with early-stage PD has not been extensively investigated. Moreover, whether apathy is related to other non-motor symptoms in early-stage PD is unknown. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and features of apathy and associated factors in a group of treatment-naive patients with early-stage PD. Ninety-five treatment-naive patients with early-stage PD participated in the study. Apathy, depression, motor symptoms, and overall cognitive efficiency were assessed. The presence of the main non-motor symptoms was checked during a detailed clinical interview. Group comparisons were carried out to investigate the association with apathy. Eighteen patients (18.95%) were diagnosed as apathetic, and five of the latter had concomitant depression. Apathetic patients had significantly more severe motor symptoms (P < 0.001) and a lower cognitive status (P = 0.032) than non-apathetic patients. When considering non-motor symptoms, apathy was significantly associated only with fatigue (P = 0.007) and anhedonia (P = 0.010), both of which were more prevalent in apathetic patients than in non-apathetic patients. In treatment-naive patients with early-stage PD, apathy was significantly associated with more severe motor symptoms and a lower cognitive status. After adjustment for these factors, apathy appeared to be a relatively isolated, independent symptom because the only other associated non-motor symptoms were fatigue and anhedonia.

  5. [Application of peloidotherapy at the early stage of rehabilitation after cerebral ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, F E; Penionzhkevich, D Iu; Kotenko, E P

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate clinical efficiency of peloidotherapy in the early reconvalescence period following cerebral ischemic stroke. A rationale for the application of peloidotherapy is presented based on the results of follow-up of 60 patients (26 men and 34 women) aged from 43 to 70 years at the early stage of recovery (within 10 weeks and more after stroke). Special attention was given to clinical dynamics of the post-stroke condition and the influence of peloidotherapy on the mechanisms underlying formation of cerebral hemodynamic effects, adaptive changes in the functional systems of hemostasis and microcirculation, and development of pathophysiological cascade of metabolic processes in the brain. All therapeutic procedures were fairly well tolerated by the patients. Neither allergic reactions nor other adverse effects of the treatment were documented which testifies to the safety of peloidotherapy at the early stage of rehabilitation after cerebral ischemic stroke.

  6. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  7. Early stages of probable Alzheimer disease are associated with changes in platelet amyloid precursor protein forms.

    PubMed

    Borroni, B; Colciaghi, F; Corsini, P; Akkawi, N; Rozzini, L; Del Zotto, E; Talarico, G; Cattabeni, F; Lenzi, G L; Di Luca, M; Padovani, A

    2002-12-01

    Previous findings demonstrated an altered pattern of amyloid precursor protein (APP) forms in platelets of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, compared both with healthy control subjects or patients with non-Alzheimer-type dementia. The present study aims to evaluate whether platelet APP form ratio (APPr) is altered in patients with early stage AD. We selected 40 patients with early stage AD and 40 age-matched healthy controls. Compared with controls (mean+/-SD=0.91+/-0.3), mean APPr was decreased in AD (mean+/-SD=0.46+/-0.26, p<0.0001). Sixteen very mild AD patients (clinical dementia rating=0.5), identified among the AD group, showed a significant decrease of APPr values (mean+/-SD=0.50+/-0.3, p<0.0001). These findings indicate that alteration of APP processing in platelets is an early event and suggest that this assay might be of diagnostic value in differentiating mild AD from normal ageing.

  8. Effects of prometryne on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of prometryne to early life stages of common carp was assessed. On the basis of accumulated mortality in the experimental groups lowest observed-effect concentration (LOEC) was estimated as 1100 µg/l; and no observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 850 µg/l. Fulton's condition factor was significantly lower than in controls in fish exposed to 4000 µg/l after 7, 14, and 21 days. By day 14, fish exposed to 4000 µg/l prometryne showed significantly lower mass and total length compared to controls. Fish exposed the 1200 and 4000 µg/l showed delay in development, severe hyperaemia in gill, liver, and caudal and cranial kidney. Subchronic prometryne exposure of early-life stages of common carp at concentrations of 1200 and 4000 µg/l affected their survival, growth rate, early ontogeny, and histology.

  9. Heterosis: Many Genes, Many Mechanisms—End the Search for an Undiscovered Unifying Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Kaeppler, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    Heterosis is the increase in vigor that is observed in progenies of matings of diverse individuals from different species, isolated populations, or selected strains within species or populations. Heterosis has been of immense economic value in agriculture and has important implications regarding the fitness and fecundity of individuals in natural populations. Genetic models based on complementation of deleterious alleles, especially in the context of linkage and epistasis, are consistent with many observed manifestations of heterosis. The search for the genes and alleles that underlie heterosis, as well as for broader allele-independent, genomewide mechanisms, has encompassed many species and systems. Commonmore » themes across these studies indicate that sequence diversity is necessary but not sufficient to produce heterotic phenotypes, and that the molecular pathways that produce heterosis involve chromatin modification, transcriptional control, translation and protein processing, and interactions between and within developmental and biochemical pathways. Taken together, there are many and diverse molecular mechanisms that translate DNA into phenotype, and it is the combination of all these mechanisms across many genes that produce heterosis in complex traits.« less

  10. Exploring the mechanistic bases of heterosis from the perspective of macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Veitia, Reiner A; Vaiman, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Heterosis is defined as greater biomass, fertility or other traits in heterozygotes, polyploids or hybrids compared to their genetically divergent (often homozygous) parents. Heterosis was noticed by various civilizations and scientifically reported by Darwin himself. Despite the importance of heterosis, its molecular bases are still enigmatic. Several genetic models have been proposed but fail to give mechanistic insights. Here we show how dominant negative interactions might give rise to heterotic responses. We also explore a biochemical model of gene dosage effects in macromolecular complexes in a similar context. With the help of heuristic examples and computer simulations we find that heterotic individuals display higher allelic diversity and smaller average multimer concentrations than nonheterotic ones. As intuitively expected, the existence of heterosis involving multimeric complexes arises when the inbred parents have on average smaller genetic values than the maximum possible. Despite its simplicity, the dosage model accounts for the puzzling phenomenon of "progressive heterosis" in which polyploids with increasing genetic diversity exhibit progressively greater heterosis.

  11. The relationship between clinical phenotype and early staged bilateral deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Sung, Victor W; Watts, Ray L; Schrandt, Christian J; Guthrie, Stephanie; Wang, Deli; Amara, Amy W; Guthrie, Barton L; Walker, Harrison C

    2013-12-01

    While many centers place bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems simultaneously, unilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS followed by a staged contralateral procedure has emerged as a treatment option for many patients. However, little is known about whether the preoperative phenotype predicts when staged placement of a DBS electrode in the opposite STN will be required. The authors aimed to determine whether preoperative clinical phenotype predicts early staged placement of a second STN DBS electrode in patients who undergo unilateral STN DBS for Parkinson disease (PD). Eighty-two consecutive patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral STN DBS contralateral to the most affected hemibody and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined preoperative characteristics that predicted staged placement of a second electrode in the opposite STN. Preoperative measurements included aspects of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), motor asymmetry index, and body weight. At 2-year follow-up, 28 (34%) of the 82 patients had undergone staged placement of a contralateral electrode while the remainder chose to continue with unilateral stimulation. Statistically significant improvements in UPDRS total and Part 3 scores were retained at the end of the 2-year follow-up period in both subsets of patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most important predictors for early staged placement of a second subthalamic stimulator were low asymmetry index (OR 13.4, 95% CI 2.8-64.9), high tremor subscore (OR 7.2, CI 1.5-35.0), and low body weight (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.4-22.3). This single-center study provides evidence that elements of the preoperative PD phenotype predict whether patients will require early staged bilateral STN DBS. These data may aid in the management of patients with advanced PD who undergo STN DBS.

  12. Use and duration of chemotherapy and its impact on survival in early-stage ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Dinkelspiel, Helen E; Tergas, Ana I; Zimmerman, Lilli A; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Chen, Ling; Hillyer, Grace; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2015-05-01

    Although 5-year survival for early-stage ovarian cancer is favorable, prognosis at recurrence is poor, necessitating appropriate initial management. We examined the patterns of care and the impact of the duration of chemotherapy on survival for women with early-stage ovarian cancer. We used the SEER-Medicare database to identify women ≥ 65 years of age with stage I ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1992 to 2009. Patients were categorized as low-risk (non-clear cell histology, stage IA or IB, grade 1 or 2) or high-risk (clear cell histology, grade 3, or stage IC). We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine predictors of chemotherapy use and duration and Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy use and duration on survival. We identified 1394 patients. Among low-risk patients, 32.9% received adjuvant chemotherapy and the use of chemotherapy increased with time. Among high-risk patients, 71.9% received adjuvant chemotherapy; 44.2% had ≤ 3 months of treatment, and 55.8% had > 3 months of treatment. Older patients were less likely to receive chemotherapy, while those with higher stage and grade were more likely to receive chemotherapy (P<0.05 for all). Among high-risk patients, the duration of chemotherapy did not impact overall (HR=0.93, 95% CI, 0.67-1.27) or cancer specific (HR=0.93; 95% CI, 0.61-1.42) survival. Among early-stage ovarian cancer patients, practice patterns are widely divergent. Extended duration chemotherapy does not appear to impact survival for women with high-risk disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early developmental stages of Ascaris lumbricoides featured by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi; de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Lima, Estela de Oliveira; Miné, Júlio César; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is responsible for a highly disseminated helminth parasitic disease, ascariosis, a relevant parasitosis that responds for great financial burden on the public health system of developing countries. In this work, metabolic fingerprinting using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was employed to identify marker molecules from A. lumbricoides in different development stages. We have identified nine biomarkers, such as pheromones and steroidal prohormones in early stages, among other molecules in late development stages, making up four molecules for fertilized eggs, four marker molecules for first larvae (L1) and one marker molecule for third larvae (L3). Therefore, our findings indicate that this approach is suitable for biochemical characterization of A. lumbricoides development stages. Moreover, the straightforward analytical method employed, with almost no sample preparation from a complex matrix (feces) using high-resolution mass spectrometry, suggests that it is possible to seek for an easier and faster way to study animal molding processes.

  14. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort.

    PubMed

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1-2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. The ontogeny of physiological response to light intensity in early stage spiny lobster (Jasus edwardsii) larvae.

    PubMed

    Bermudes, Michel; Ritar, Arthur J; Carter, Chris G

    2008-05-01

    Early stage phyllosoma larvae of the spiny rock lobster Jasus edwardsii were examined for swimming speed, feeding, oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion as instantaneous performance indicators when exposed to different irradiance levels. Swimming speed was measured in recently hatched Stage I larvae while all other parameters were measured in larvae from hatch to mid-Stage V. The swimming speed of recently hatched Stage I phyllosoma increased logarithmically between light intensities of 2.9 x 10(14) and 1.8 x 10(16) quanta s(-1) cm(-2) indicating that, within this range, swimming activity was only suppressed at the lowest irradiance level. Larvae examined under dark (no light) conditions showed lower feed intake, oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion than larvae under low (7.7 x 10(12) q s(-1) cm(-2)) and high (3.9 x 10(14) q s(-1) cm(-2)) light intensities, and this was a consistent pattern observed throughout development from hatch to Stage V. There was no difference in feeding, oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion between larvae exposed to low and high light intensities. However, from mid-Stage I to mid-Stage V, the metabolic feeding efficiency (feed intake:oxygen consumption ratio) was consistently higher in larvae exposed to low light intensity than in phyllosoma assessed in the dark and under high irradiance. A light intensity of about 7.7 x 10(12) quanta s(-1) cm(-2) and no higher than 3.9 x 10(14) quanta s(-1) cm(-2) is recommended to stimulate feeding and optimise metabolic feeding efficiency in early larval stages of J. edwardsii.

  16. Astronomical Constraints on the Duration of Early Jurassic Stages and Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hinnov, L.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Storm, M.; Xu, W.; Riding, J. B.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic (201.3 to 174.1 Ma) is bracketed by the end-Triassic mass extinction and global warming event, and the Toarcian-Aalenian shift to (global) icehouse conditions (McElwain et al., 1999; Hesselbo et al., 2002; Ruhl et al., 2011; Korte et al., in review). It is further marked by the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), with possibly the largest exogenic carbon cycle perturbation of the Mesozoic and related perturbations in global geochemical cycles, climate and the environment, which are linked to large igneous province emplacement in the Karoo-Ferrar region (Jenkyns, 2010; Burgess et al., 2015). Furthermore, Early Jurassic continental rifting and the break-up of Pangaea and subsequent Early Jurassic opening of the Hispanic Corridor and Viking Strait respectively linked the equatorial Tethys Ocean to Eastern Panthalassa and the high-latitude Arctic Boreal realm. This initiated changes in (global) ocean currents and Earth's heat distribution and ultimately was followed by the opening of the proto-North Atlantic (Porter et al., 2013; Korte et al., in review). Here, we present high-resolution (sub-precession scale) elemental concentration data from the Mochras borehole (UK), which represents ~1300m of possibly the most complete and expanded lower Jurassic hemi-pelagic marine sedimentary archive known. We construct a floating ~9 Myr astronomical time-scale for the complete Early Jurassic Pliensbachian stage and biozones. Combined with radiometric and astrochronological constraints on early Jurassic stage boundaries, we construct a new Early Jurassic Time-Scale. With this we assess the duration and rate of change of early Jurassic global carbon cycle and climatic perturbations and we asses fundamental changes in the nature and expression of Early Jurassic long (100 - 1000 kyr) eccentricity cycles.

  17. Prediction of heterosis using genome-wide SNP-marker data: application to egg production traits in white Leghorn crosses.

    PubMed

    Amuzu-Aweh, E N; Bijma, P; Kinghorn, B P; Vereijken, A; Visscher, J; van Arendonk, J Am; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of heterosis has a long history with mixed success, partly due to low numbers of genetic markers and/or small data sets. We investigated the prediction of heterosis for egg number, egg weight and survival days in domestic white Leghorns, using ∼400 000 individuals from 47 crosses and allele frequencies on ∼53 000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). When heterosis is due to dominance, and dominance effects are independent of allele frequencies, heterosis is proportional to the squared difference in allele frequency (SDAF) between parental pure lines (not necessarily homozygous). Under these assumptions, a linear model including regression on SDAF partitions crossbred phenotypes into pure-line values and heterosis, even without pure-line phenotypes. We therefore used models where phenotypes of crossbreds were regressed on the SDAF between parental lines. Accuracy of prediction was determined using leave-one-out cross-validation. SDAF predicted heterosis for egg number and weight with an accuracy of ∼0.5, but did not predict heterosis for survival days. Heterosis predictions allowed preselection of pure lines before field-testing, saving ∼50% of field-testing cost with only 4% loss in heterosis. Accuracies from cross-validation were lower than from the model-fit, suggesting that accuracies previously reported in literature are overestimated. Cross-validation also indicated that dominance cannot fully explain heterosis. Nevertheless, the dominance model had considerable accuracy, clearly greater than that of a general/specific combining ability model. This work also showed that heterosis can be modelled even when pure-line phenotypes are unavailable. We concluded that SDAF is a useful predictor of heterosis in commercial layer breeding.

  18. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage lung cancer: History and updated role.

    PubMed

    Ricardi, Umberto; Badellino, Serena; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo

    2015-12-01

    Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) represents a consolidated treatment option for patients with medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical evidence accumulated over the past decade supports its use as an alternative to surgery with comparable survival outcomes. Due to its limited toxicity, SBRT is also applicable to elderly patients with very poor baseline pulmonary function or other severe comorbidities. Recent comparative studies in operable patients raised the issue of the possible use of SBRT also for this subgroup, with quite promising results that still should be fully confirmed by prospective trials with long-term follow up. In early stage lung cancer, clinicians are now faced with a decision-making process that should take into account different factors. The need of pathological diagnosis and accurate nodal staging still represents a challenge, as well as the interpretation of radiological findings after SBRT, often confusing du to the difficulties in distinguishing between radiation-induced changes and local relapse. Aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the major studies on SBRT for early stage lung cancer, providing data on its efficacy and toxicity and discussing the still open issues on its role. Quality of life, pulmonary function and risk of secondary cancers are also discussed, as well as future perspectives and current research topics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tailoring Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Based on Tumor Biology or Tumor Burden?

    PubMed

    Ribnikar, Domen; Cardoso, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether to offer adjuvant chemotherapy to patients with early-stage breast cancer has always been challenging to answer. It is well known that a substantial proportion of patients with early-stage breast cancer are over treated, especially when staging and hormonal and HER2 receptors are solely taken into consideration. The advances in our knowledge of breast cancer biology and its clinical implications were the basis for the discovery of additional reliable prognostic markers to aid decision making for adjuvant treatment. Gene expression profiling is a molecular tool that more precisely defines the intrinsic characteristics of each individual tumor. The application of this technology has led to the development of gene signatures/profiles with relevant prognostic-and some predictive-value that have become important tools in defining which patients with early-stage breast cancer can be safely spared from chemotherapy. However, the exact clinical utility of these tools will only be determined after the results of two large prospective randomized trials, MINDACT and TailorX, evaluating their role become available. Notwithstanding the existence of these genomic tools, tumor burden (defined as tumor size and nodal status) still has independent prognostic value and must be incorporated in decision making. In addition, these gene signatures have limited predictive value, and new biomarkers and new targets are needed. Therefore close collaboration between clinicians and scientists is crucial. Lastly, issues of cost-effectiveness, reimbursement, and availability are crucial and widely variable around the globe.

  20. Characterization of early stage cartilage degradation using diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. P.; Jayadev, C.; Glyn-Jones, S.; Carr, A. J.; Murray, D. W.; Price, A. J.; Gill, H. S.

    2011-04-01

    Interest in localized and early stage treatment technologies for joint conditions such as osteoarthritis is growing rapidly. It has therefore become important to develop objective measures capable of characterizing the earliest (non-visible) changes associated with degeneration to aid treatment procedures. In addition to assessing tissue before treatment, it is further important to develop an effective, non-destructive means of monitoring post-treatment tissue healing, and of providing the high-quality data needed for trials of developing treatment methods. To investigate its ability to detect the early stages of degeneration in cartilage-on-bone, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy was applied to normal and osteoarthritic joints. A discriminating function was developed to relate absorbance peaks of interest and track degradation around focal osteoarthritic defects. The function could distinguish between normal and degraded tissue (100% separation of normal tissue from that within 25 mm of a defect) and between different stages of osteoarthritic progression (p < 0.05). This technique allows simple, practical and non-destructive assessment of component-level properties over the full depth of the tissue. It has the potential to increase our understanding of the underlying etiologic and pathogenic processes in early stage degeneration, to assist classification and the development of new treatment methods.

  1. Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.

    PubMed

    Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base.

  2. Expression Analysis of Cathepsin F during Embryogenesis and Early Developmental Stage in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang-Wook; Lee, Young Mee; Yang, Hyun; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsins are members of the multigene family of lysosomal cysteine proteinases and have regulated function in several life processes. The potential role of cathepsin F cysteine gene was expected as protease in the yolk processing mechanism during early developmental stage, but expression analysis was unknown after fertilization. The alignment analysis showed that amino acid sequence of cathepsin F from olive flounder liver expressed sequence tag (EST) homologous to cathepsin F of other known cathepsin F sequences with 87-98% identity. In this study, we examined the gene expression analysis of cathepsin F in various tissues at variety age flounder. Tissue distribution of the cathepsin F mRNA has been shown to be ubiquitous and constitutive pattern regardless of age in each group, although derived from cDNA library using liver sample. The mRNA level of cathepsin F more increased as developmental proceed during embryogenesis and early developmental stage, especially increased in the blastula, hatching stage and 3 days post hatching (dph). As a result, it may suggest that the proteolysis of yolk proteins (YPs) has been implicated as a mechanism for nutrient supply during early larval stages in olive flounder. PMID:25949137

  3. Identification and comparison of the 3 early stages of resynthesis for the lichen Cladonia rangiferina.

    PubMed

    Athukorala, Sarangi N P; Huebner, Erwin; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2014-01-01

    A lichen is an association between a biotrophic fungal partner and a green algal and (or) cyanobacterial partner, which may be considered a "controlled" parasitic interaction. While controlled parasitism implies benefit to both interacting partners, a parasitism that is not controlled implies that one partner benefits to the detriment of the other partner. The objective of this study was to compare morphological development of the interaction between Cladonia rangiferina with its compatible algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis) and incompatible algae (Coccomyxa peltigerae and Chloroidium ellipsoideum) at 3 early resynthesis stages. The fungus was co-inoculated with each alga separately and the stages of development were compared using quantitative measures. The first 3 stages of development of the lichen thallus were identified in the compatible interaction as the "pre-contact" stage (1 day post co-inoculation (PCI)), "contact" stage (8 days PCI), and "growth together" stage (21 days PCI). Compatible interactions showed significantly shorter internode length, significantly more new lateral hyphal branches, significantly greater appressorial frequency, and no reduction in cell diameter of the algal cells, compared with incompatible interactions. At 21 days PCI, a parasitic interaction was observed between Cladonia rangiferina and Chloroidium ellipsoideum. These findings support the importance of recognition between compatible partners for successful lichenization. This study also revealed a strategy that may explain the success of this species in northern habitats. Identification of the resynthesis stages of Cladonia rangiferina is required before expression of the proteins involved in recognition and defense can be understood.

  4. Optimization of a novel enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y F; Bronlund, J E; Allsop, T F; Shilton, A N; Edmonds, R L

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins has been previously reported by the Leather and Shoe Research Association of New Zealand (LASRA) as an alternative to current industry operations. The newly developed process had marked benefits over conventional processing in terms of a lowered energy usage (73%), processing time (47%) as well as water use (49%), but had been developed as a "proof of principle''. The objective of this work was to develop the process further to a stage ready for adoption by industry. Mass balancing was used to investigate potential modifications for the process based on the understanding developed from a detailed analysis of preliminary design trials. Results showed that a configuration utilising a 2 stage counter-current system for the washing stages and segregation and recycling of enzyme float prior to dilution in the neutralization stage was a significant improvement. Benefits over conventional processing include a reduction of residual TDS by 50% at the washing stages and 70% savings on water use overall. Benefits over the un-optimized LASRA process are reduction of solids in product after enzyme treatment and neutralization stages by 30%, additional water savings of 21%, as well as 10% savings of enzyme usage.

  5. Rehabilitation outcomes in patients with early and two-stage reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Ilgin; İnanir, Murat; Şen, Suzan; Çakmak, Esra; Kablanoğlu, Serkan; Selçuk, Barin; Dursun, Nigar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to assess rehabilitation outcomes for early and two-stage repair of hand flexor tendon injuries. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the findings between treatment groups. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Early repair (n=14) and two-stage repair (n=9) groups were included in a rehabilitation program that used hand splints. This retrospective evaluated patients according to their demographic characteristics, including age, gender, injured hand, dominant hand, cause of injury, zone of injury, number of affected fingers, and accompanying injuries. Pain, range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated using a visual analog scale, goniometer, and dynamometer, respectively. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in pain and finger flexion after treatment compared with baseline measurements. However, no significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups. Similar results were obtained for grip strength and pinch grip, whereas gross grip was better in the early tendon repair group. [Conclusion] Early and two-stage reconstruction of patients with flexor tendon injuries can be performed with similarly favorable responses and effective rehabilitation programs. PMID:27630400

  6. Complexity of resting-state EEG activity in the patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the abnormal brain activities in the early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD), the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded with 20 channels from non-dementia PD patients (18 patients, 8 females) and age matched healthy controls (18 subjects, 8 females) during the resting state. Two methods based on the ordinal patterns of the recorded series, i.e., permutation entropy (PE) and order index (OI), were introduced to characterize the complexity of the cortical activities for two groups. It was observed that the resting-state EEG of PD patients showed lower PE and higher OI than healthy controls, which indicated that the early-stage PD caused the reduced complexity of EEG. We further applied two methods to determine the complexity of EEG rhythms in five sub-bands. The results showed that the gamma, beta and alpha rhythms of PD patients were characterized by lower PE and higher OI, i.e., reduced complexity, than healthy subjects. No significant differences were observed in theta or delta rhythms between two groups. The findings suggested that PE and OI were promising methods to detect the abnormal changes in the dynamics of EEG signals associated with early-stage PD. Further, such changes in EEG complexity may be the early markers of the cortical or subcortical dysfunction caused by PD.

  7. Insular cognitive impairment at the early stage of dementia with Lewy bodies: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Philippi, Nathalie; Kemp, Jennifer; Constans-Erbs, Morgane; Hamdaoui, Malik; Monjoin, Laetitia; Ehrhard, Emmanuelle; Albasser, Timothée; Botzung, Anne; Demuynck, Catherine; Heim, Géraldine; Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine; Bilger, Mathias; Berly, Laetitia; Soulier, David; Cretin, Benjamin; Després, Olivier; Blanc, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    The anterior part of the insula appears atrophied in the early stage of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) whereas it is not the case in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of this study was to develop neuropsychological markers supposed to reflect insular dysfunction, which would facilitate early diagnosis of DLB, namely in comparison to AD. Twelve patients with DLB, 12 patients with AD, all at the stage of Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia, as well as 10 Controls subjects (CS) participated in the study. Cognitive functions supposedly related to the insula were evaluated with a battery of tests: a facial expression recognition test, a test assessing the feeling of disgust with images, a test evaluating idioms' comprehension, an empathy questionnaire and a questionnaire screening for disgusting behaviors. Compared to AD patients and CS, DLB patients experienced less disgust when they were shown disgusting images, whereas their ability to recognize emotional expression of disgust appeared to be preserved. Furthermore, DLB patients seemed less empathetic than AD patients. Finally, compared to CS, DLB patients were less effective to provide an intuitive decision about idioms' signification since they needed significantly more time to answer. This preliminary study suggests the existence of a potential « insular cognitive impairment » profile in DLB at the early stage. These results provide interesting leads to develop tools facilitating the differential diagnosis of DLB and AD.

  8. The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results Intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg carnosine induced significant decrease of infarct volume and expansion of penumbra (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant increase than in saline group in blood and brain (p<0.05). In the analysis of chemical hypoxia, carnosine induced increase of neuronal cell viability and decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Conclusion Carnosine has neuroprotective property which was related to antioxidant capacity in early stage of stroke. And, the oxidative stress should be considered one of major factor in early ischemic stroke. PMID:24851146

  9. Transcriptome profile of the early stages of breast cancer tumoral spheroids.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Marín, Rosario; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna; Garcia-Venzor, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Torres, Carolina; Gaytan-Cervantes, Javier; Mitre-Aguilar, Irma B; Maldonado, Vilma

    2016-03-29

    Oxygen or nutrient deprivation of early stage tumoral spheroids can be used to reliably mimic the initial growth of primary and metastatic cancer cells. However, cancer cell growth during the initial stages has not been fully explored using a genome-wide approach. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the transcriptome of breast cancer cells during the initial stages of tumoral growth using RNAseq in a model of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids (MTS). Network analyses showed that a metastatic signature was enriched as several adhesion molecules were deregulated, including EPCAM, E-cadherin, integrins and syndecans, which were further supported by an increase in cell migration. Interestingly, we also found that the cancer cells at this stage of growth exhibited a paradoxical hyperactivation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, we found a large number of regulated (long non coding RNA) lncRNAs, several of which were co-regulated with neighboring genes. The regulatory role of some of these lncRNAs on mRNA expression was demonstrated with gain of function assays. This is the first report of an early-stage MTS transcriptome, which not only reveals a complex expression landscape, but points toward an important contribution of long non-coding RNAs in the final phenotype of three-dimensional cellular models.

  10. Gene expression-based biomarkers for discriminating early and late stage of clear cell renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Sherry; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Ritesh; Sehgal, Manika; Kaur, Harpreet; Sharma, Suresh; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to identify expression-based gene biomarkers that can discriminate early and late stage of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. We have analyzed the gene expression of 523 samples to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the early and late stage of ccRCC. First, a threshold-based method has been developed, which attained a maximum accuracy of 71.12% with ROC 0.67 using single gene NR3C2. To improve the performance of threshold-based method, we combined two or more genes and achieved maximum accuracy of 70.19% with ROC of 0.74 using eight genes on the validation dataset. These eight genes include four underexpressed (NR3C2, ENAM, DNASE1L3, FRMPD2) and four overexpressed (PLEKHA9, MAP6D1, SMPD4, C11orf73) genes in the late stage of ccRCC. Second, models were developed using state-of-art techniques and achieved maximum accuracy of 72.64% and 0.81 ROC using 64 genes on validation dataset. Similar accuracy was obtained on 38 genes selected from subset of genes, involved in cancer hallmark biological processes. Our analysis further implied a need to develop gender-specific models for stage classification. A web server, CancerCSP, has been developed to predict stage of ccRCC using gene expression data derived from RNAseq experiments. PMID:28349958

  11. Transcriptome profile of the early stages of breast cancer tumoral spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Marín, Rosario; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna; Garcia-Venzor, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Torres, Carolina; Gaytan-Cervantes, Javier; Mitre-Aguilar, Irma B.; Maldonado, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen or nutrient deprivation of early stage tumoral spheroids can be used to reliably mimic the initial growth of primary and metastatic cancer cells. However, cancer cell growth during the initial stages has not been fully explored using a genome-wide approach. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the transcriptome of breast cancer cells during the initial stages of tumoral growth using RNAseq in a model of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids (MTS). Network analyses showed that a metastatic signature was enriched as several adhesion molecules were deregulated, including EPCAM, E-cadherin, integrins and syndecans, which were further supported by an increase in cell migration. Interestingly, we also found that the cancer cells at this stage of growth exhibited a paradoxical hyperactivation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, we found a large number of regulated (long non coding RNA) lncRNAs, several of which were co-regulated with neighboring genes. The regulatory role of some of these lncRNAs on mRNA expression was demonstrated with gain of function assays. This is the first report of an early-stage MTS transcriptome, which not only reveals a complex expression landscape, but points toward an important contribution of long non-coding RNAs in the final phenotype of three-dimensional cellular models. PMID:27021602

  12. Arterial endothelial function in a porcine model of early stage atherosclerotic vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Turk, James R; Henderson, Kyle K; Vanvickle, Gregory D; Watkins, Justin; Laughlin, M Harold

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and is projected to become the leading cause of mortality in the world. Atherosclerosis is the most important single factor contributing to this disease burden. In this study, we characterize relationships between endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease in an animal model of diet-induced, early-stage atherosclerotic vascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that hypercholesterolaemia induces vascular disease and impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in conduit arteries of adult male Yucatan pigs. Pigs were fed a normal fat (NF) or high fat cholesterol (HFC) diet for 20–24 weeks. Results indicate that, while the HFC diet did not alter EDR in femoral or brachial arteries, EDR was significantly decreased in both carotid and coronary arteries. Sudanophilic fatty streaks were significantly present in the abdominal aorta and common carotid artery. Histopathology revealed increased intima-media thickness (IMT) and foam cell accumulation in Stary Stage I–III lesions in the abdominal aorta, common carotid artery and femoral arteries. In the coronary arteries, the accumulation of foam cells in Stary Stage I and II lesions resulted in a trend for increased IMT. There was no evidence of vascular disease in the brachial arteries. These results indicate that early stages of CVD (Stary Stage I–III) precede decreases in EDR induced by HFC diet, because femoral arteries exhibited foam cell accumulation and an increased IMT but no change in endothelial function. PMID:16191105

  13. Specific changes in total and mitochondrial proteomes are associated with higher levels of heterosis in maize hybrids.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Diwakar; Mooney, Brian P; Newton, Kathleen J

    2012-10-01

    The phenomenon of hybrid vigor (heterosis) has long been harnessed by plant breeders to improve world food production. However, the changes that are essential for heterotic responses and the mechanisms responsible for heterosis remain undefined. Large increases in biomass and yield in high-heterosis hybrids suggest that alterations in bioenergetic processes may contribute to heterosis. Progeny from crosses between various inbred lines vary in the extent of vigor observed. Field-grown maize F₁ hybrids that consistently exhibited either low or high heterosis across a variety of environments were examined for changes in proteins that may be correlated with increased plant vigor and yield. Unpollinated ears at the time of flowering (ear shoots) were selected for the studies because they are metabolically active, rich in mitochondria, and the sizes of the ears are diagnostic of yield heterosis. Total protein and mitochondrial proteomes were compared among low- and higher-heterosis hybrids. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis was used to identify allelic and/or isoform differences linked to heterosis. Identification of differentially regulated spots by mass spectrometry revealed proteins involved in stress responses as well as primary carbon and protein metabolism. Many of these proteins were identified in multiple spots, but analysis of their abundances by label-free mass spectrometry suggested that most of the expression differences were due to isoform variation rather than overall protein amount. Thus, our proteomics studies suggest that expression of specific alleles and/or post-translational modification of specific proteins correlate with higher levels of heterosis.

  14. Usability of tablet computers by people with early-stage dementia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fabian S; Wallace, Tim; Luszcz, Mary A; Reynolds, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    Tablet computers are generally associated with an intuitive interface. The adoption and use of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context could potentially assist in daily living and provide users with a source for leisure activities and social networking. As dementia mainly affects the older adult population, it is expected that many people with dementia and even their carers do not use tablet computers as part of their everyday living. This paper explores the usability of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context as a source of leisure for people with dementia. The main advantage of the use of tablet computers in this manner is to provide carers some reprieve from the constant care and attention often required in caring for people with dementia. Seven-day in-home trials were conducted to determine whether people with early-stage dementia were -capable of using a tablet computer independently. Twenty-one people with early-stage dementia and carer dyads participated in the trial. Feedback was gathered through questionnaires from both the person with dementia and their carer regarding the use of a tablet computer as part of their everyday living. Approximately half the participants with dementia were able to engage with and use the tablet computer independently, which proved to be helpful to their carers. No significant traits were observed to help identify those who were less likely to use a tablet computer. Carer relief was quantified by the amount of time participants with dementia spent using the device without supervision. The results and feedback from the trial provide significant insights to introducing new technology within the early-stage dementia context. Users' needs must be considered on a case-by-case basis to successfully facilitate the uptake of tablet computers in the dementia context. The trial has provided sufficient justification to further explore more uses of tablet computers in the dementia context, and not just for

  15. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, P=0.003; RR =0.84, 95% CI

  16. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60–0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0

  17. Estimation of breed-specific heterosis effects for birth, weaning, and yearling weight in cattle.

    PubMed

    Schiermiester, L N; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Kachman, S D; Spangler, M L

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, assumed proportional to expected breed heterozygosity, was calculated for 6834 individuals with birth, weaning and yearling weight records from Cycle VII and advanced generations of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. Breeds represented in these data included: Angus, Hereford, Red Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Limousin and Composite MARC III. Heterosis was further estimated by proportions of British × British (B × B), British × Continental (B × C) and Continental × Continental (C × C) crosses and by breed-specific combinations. Model 1 fitted fixed covariates for heterosis within biological types while Model 2 fitted random breed-specific combinations nested within the fixed biological type covariates. Direct heritability estimates (SE) for birth, weaning ,and yearling weight for Model 1 were 0.42 (0.04), 0.22 (0.03), and 0.39 (0.05), respectively. The direct heritability estimates (SE) of birth, weaning, and yearling weight for Model 2 were the same as Model 1, except yearling weight heritability was 0.38 (0.05). The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for birth weight were 0.47 (0.37), 0.75 (0.32), and 0.73 (0.54) kg, respectively. The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for weaning weight were 6.43 (1.80), 8.65 (1.54), and 5.86 (2.57) kg, respectively. Yearling weight estimates for B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis were 17.59(3.06), 13.88 (2.63), and 9.12 (4.34) kg, respectively. Differences did exist among estimates of breed-specific heterosis for weaning and yearling weight, although the variance component associated with breed-specific heterosis was not significant. These results illustrate that there are differences in breed-specific heterosis and exploiting these differences can lead to varying levels of heterosis among mating plans.

  18. The effects of bromazepam on the early stage of visual information processing (P100).

    PubMed

    Puga, Fernanda; Sampaio, Isabel; Veiga, Heloisa; Ferreira, Camila; Cagy, Maurício; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    The early stages of visual information processing, involving the detection and perception of simple visual stimuli, have been demonstrated to be sensitive to psychotropic agents. The present study investigated the effects of an acute dose of bromazepam (3 mg), compared with placebo, on the P100 component of the visual evoked potential and reaction time. The sample, consisting of 14 healthy subjects (6 male and 8 female), was submitted to a visual discrimination task, which employed the "oddball" paradigm. Results suggest that bromazepam (3 mg) impairs the initial stage of visual information processing, as observed by an increase in P100 latency.

  19. Notch and Delta mRNAs in early-stage and mid-stage Drosophila embryos exhibit complementary patterns of protein producing potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Andrew; Wesley, Uma; Wesley, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Notch and Delta proteins generate Notch signaling that specifies cell fates during animal development. There is an intriguing phenomenon in Drosophila embryogenesis that has not received much attention and whose significance to embryogenesis is unknown. Notch and Delta mRNAs expressed in early-stage embryos are shorter than their counterparts in mid-stage embryos. We show here that the difference in sizes is due to mRNA 3′ processing at alternate polyadenylation sites. While the early-stage Notch mRNA has a lower protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Notch mRNA, the early-stage Delta mRNA has a higher protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Delta mRNA. Our data can explain the complementary patterns of Notch and Delta protein levels in early-stage and mid-stage embryos. Our data also raise the possibility that the manner and regulation of Notch signaling change in the course of embryogenesis and that this change is effected by 3′ UTR and mRNA 3′ processing factors. PMID:20201103

  20. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Qiang; Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie; Lian, Qing-Quan; Deng, Hai-Teng; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  1. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Conclusions: Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. Citation: Ogna A, Forni Ogna V, Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  2. [Comparative proteome analysis of blood plasma of patients with early-stage chronic cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Kisrieva, Y S; Petushkova, N A; Samenkova, N F; Kuznetsova, G P; Larina, O V; Zavialova, M G; Teryaeva, N B; Belyaev, A Y; Karuzina, I I

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we explored the technology of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the proteome analysis of blood plasma of patients with early chronic cerebral ischemia. Analysis of mass-spectrometer data carried out in automatic mode using the software Progenesis LS-MS. As a result of this study identified 43 proteins. The differences identified in the study group compared with the control in 7 proteins. It was found that in the early stages of chronic cerebral ischemia proteome changes in blood plasma affect proteins related to the immune system, the system for the maintenance of hemostasis and lipid metabolism.

  3. The Utility of Stroop Task Switching as a Marker for Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Keith A.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.

    2009-01-01

    Past studies have suggested attentional control tasks such as the Stroop task and the task switching paradigm may be sensitive to the early detection of Dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The current study combined these tasks to create a Stroop switching task. Performance was compared across young adults, older adults, and individuals diagnosed with “Very Mild” dementia. Results indicated that this task strongly discriminated healthy aging from early stage DAT. In a logistic regression analysis, incongruent error rates from the Stroop Switch discriminated healthy aging from DAT better than any of the other 18 cognitive tasks given in a psychometric battery. PMID:20853964

  4. A functional account of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development.

    PubMed

    Cameron-Faulkner, Thea

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigates flexibility of verb use in the early stages of English multiword development, and its relationship with patterns attested in the input. The data is taken from a case study of a monolingual English-speaking boy aged 2 ; 5-2 ; 9 and his mother while engaged in daily activities in the home. Data were coded according to Halliday's (1975) functional system. The findings suggest that early multiword verb use is functionally restricted and closely tied to verb use in the input.

  5. Early stages of development of the Taenia solium metacestode in pigs.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Gerardo Salas; de Aluja, Aline S; Casas, Fernando Constantino

    2007-04-01

    In order to identify the early stages of Taenia solium metacestodes, 12 pigs were each fed 100,000 viable eggs and later killed and necropsied at different times after infection. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical techniques (IHCs) were used to identify onchospheres and cysticerci in different tissues. At 2 days postinfection (dpi) structures compatible with onchospheres were found in the lumen of the small intestine, and in the mesenteric blood vessels and lymph nodes. At 4 dpi, these same structures were observed in the small intestine, the liver, and skeletal muscles. Between 6 and 39 dpi, they were found only in skeletal muscles. Between 2 and 6 dpi the postonchospheres were circular and oval shaped and measured between 6 and 34 x 27 microm. From 14 to 39 dpi, well-developed metacestodes 550 x 750 microm were observed. IHCs support the identification of early stages of T. solium.

  6. Turning visual shapes into sounds: early stages of reading acquisition revealed in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Vidal, J R; de Palma, L; Hamamé, C M; Ossandon, T; Kahane, P; Minotti, L; Bertrand, O; Lachaux, J-P

    2014-04-15

    The exact role of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) during the initial stages of reading acquisition is a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the comparative effect of learning on early stimulus-dependent vs. later task-dependent processes. We show that this controversy can be solved with high-temporal resolution intracerebral EEG recordings of the VOTC. We measured High-Frequency Activity (50-150 Hz) as a proxy of population-level spiking activity while participants learned Japanese Katakana symbols, and found that learning primarily affects top-down/task-dependent neural processing, after a few minutes only. In contrast, adaptation of early bottom-up/stimulus-dependent processing takes several days to adapt and provides the basis for fluent reading. Such evidence that two consecutive stages of neural processing, stimulus- and task-dependent are differentially affected by learning, can reconcile seemingly opposite hypotheses on the role of the VOTC during reading acquisition.

  7. Social network effects of nonlifesaving early-stage breast cancer detection on mammography rates.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Sarah A; Parker, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the effect of anecdotes of early-stage, screen-detected cancer for which screening was not lifesaving on the demand for mammography. We constructed an agent-based model of mammography decisions, in which 10 000 agents that represent women aged 40 to 100 years were linked together on a social network, which was parameterized with a survey of 716 women conducted through the RAND American Life Panel. Our model represents a population in equilibrium, with demographics reflecting the current US population based on the most recent available census data. The aggregate effect of women learning about 1 category of cancers-those that would be detected but would not be lethal in the absence of screening-was a 13.8 percentage point increase in annual screening rates. Anecdotes of detection of early-stage cancers relayed through social networks may substantially increase demand for a screening test even when the detection through screening was nonlifesaving.

  8. Early Stages of De Novo Designed Beta-Hairpin Peptide Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, Tuna; Schneider, Joel P.; Pochan, Darrin J.

    2007-03-01

    In aqueous solution, MAX 1 peptide is unfolded and does not self-assemble. The peptide intramolecularly folds into a beta-hairpin when the electrostatic interactions between charged residues are screened through increasing the ionic strength at neutral pH. Beta-hairpin molecules supramolecularly assemble via hydrophobic collapse and hydrogen bonding into a 3-D hydrogel network. By combining the results of CD, cryo-TEM, DLS, and oscillatory rheology, we understand that the self-assembly proceeds by nucleation of monodisperse (3 nm wide) beta-sheet fibrils, which elongate, branch and cross-link to form clusters of fibrils. Assembly kinetics at this early stage indicates power law growth with assembly time. Eventually, clusters of fibrils interpenetrate to form a percolated network, as evidenced by the increasing network rigidity. The early stage assembly process will be discussed and compared to published gelation models.

  9. [Lay emphasis on early rehabilitation after extensive burn to prevent severe complications in late stage].

    PubMed

    Lyu, G Z; Xu, L W

    2017-05-20

    The mental disorders, scar, and dysfunction will affect the work and study of patients with extensive burn, which can further affect the quality of life and the rate of return to society. Under the premise of saving life, the function of patients with extensive burn should be reserved as much as possible for a better living quality. In addition to the specialized treatment, body positioning, therapeutic exercise, orthosis application, and psychotherapy can be used in the early stage of burn rehabilitation. Early rehabilitation training is beneficial to the circulatory system, immune system, functional and psychological recovery of patients. It can also improve the quality of extensive burn treatment, and decrease deformities and the incidence of complications in the late stage.

  10. Emotional enhancement of perceptual priming is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    LaBar, Kevin S; Torpey, Dana C; Cook, Craig A; Johnson, Stephanie R; Warren, Lauren H; Burke, James R; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2005-01-01

    Perceptual priming for emotionally-negative and neutral scenes was tested in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy younger, middle-aged and older adults. In the study phase, participants rated the scenes for their arousal properties. In the test phase, studied and novel scenes were initially presented subliminally, and the exposure duration was gradually increased until a valence categorization was made. The difference in exposure duration required to categorize novel versus studied items was the dependent measure of priming. Aversive content increased the magnitude of priming, an effect that was preserved in healthy aging and AD. Results from an immediate recognition memory test showed that the priming effects could not be attributable to enhanced explicit memory for the aversive scenes. These findings implicate a dissociation between the modulatory effect of emotion across implicit and explicit forms of memory in aging and early-stage AD.

  11. Early-stage tumor detection using photoacoustic microscopy: a pattern recognition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Wang, Liang; Liang, Jinyang; Zhou, Yong; Hu, Song; Sohn, Rebecca E.; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-03-01

    We report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of arteriovenous (AV) shunts in early stage tumors in vivo, and develop a pattern recognition framework for computerized tumor detection. Here, using a high-resolution photoacoustic microscope, we implement a new blood oxygenation (sO2)-based disease marker induced by the AV shunt effect in tumor angiogenesis. We discovered a striking biological phenomenon: There can be two dramatically different sO2 values in bloodstreams flowing side-by-side in a single vessel. By tracing abnormal sO2 values in the blood vessels, we can identify a tumor region at an early stage. To further automate tumor detection based on our findings, we adopt widely used pattern recognition methods and develop an efficient computerized classification framework. The test result shows over 80% averaged detection accuracy with false positive contributing 18.52% of error test samples on a 50 PAM image dataset.

  12. Short communication: Heterosis by environment and genotype by environment interactions for protein yield in Danish Jerseys.

    PubMed

    Norberg, E; Madsen, P; Su, G; Pryce, J E; Jensen, J; Kargo, M

    2014-07-01

    Crossing of lines or strains within and between breeds has been demonstrated to be beneficial for dairy cattle performance. However, even within breed, differences between strains may also give rise to heterosis. A key question is whether an interaction exists between heterosis and environment (H × E) that is independent of genotype by environment (G × E) interactions. In this study, H × E and G × E interactions were estimated in a population of approximately 300,000 Danish Jersey cows. The cows were a mixture of pure Danish Jerseys and crosses of US and Danish Jerseys. The phenotype studied was protein yield. A reaction norm model where the unknown environmental covariates are inferred simultaneously with the other parameters in the model was used to analyze the data. When H × E, but not G × E, was included in the model, heterosis was estimated to be 3.8% for the intermediate environmental level. However, when both H × E and G × E were included in the model, heterosis was estimated to be 4.1% for the intermediate environmental level. Furthermore, when only H × E was included in the model, the regression on the unknown environmental covariate was estimated to be 0.15, interpreted as meaning that an increase of average herd-year protein yield by 1 kg of protein led to an increase in heterosis of 0.15 kg above the average heterosis for a first-cross cow. When both H × E and G × E were included in the model, the regression on the unknown environmental covariate was not significantly different from zero, meaning that heterosis was similar in all environments investigated. The genetic correlation of protein yields for different environmental levels ranged from 0.72 to 0.93, which was significantly different from unity, indicating that G × E exist for protein yield.

  13. Atrophy patterns in early clinical stages across distinct phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; La Joie, Renaud; Vogel, Jacob W; Möller, Christiane; Lehmann, Manja; van Berckel, Bart N M; Seeley, William W; Pijnenburg, Yolande A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Kramer, Joel H; Barkhof, Frederik; Rosen, Howard J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Jagust, William J; Miller, Bruce L; Scheltens, Philip; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with distinct clinical variants. Identifying the earliest neurodegenerative changes associated with each variant has implications for early diagnosis, and for understanding the mechanisms that underlie regional vulnerability and disease progression in AD. We performed voxel-based morphometry to detect atrophy patterns in early clinical stages of four AD phenotypes: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, "visual variant," n=93), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA, "language variant," n=74), and memory-predominant AD categorized as early age-of-onset (EOAD, <65 years, n=114) and late age-of-onset (LOAD, >65 years, n=114). Patients with each syndrome were stratified based on: (1) degree of functional impairment, as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and (2) overall extent of brain atrophy, as measured by a neuroimaging approach that sums the number of brain voxels showing significantly lower gray matter volume than cognitively normal controls (n=80). Even at the earliest clinical stage (CDR=0.5 or bottom quartile of overall atrophy), patients with each syndrome showed both common and variant-specific atrophy. Common atrophy across variants was found in temporoparietal regions that comprise the posterior default mode network (DMN). Early syndrome-specific atrophy mirrored functional brain networks underlying functions that are uniquely affected in each variant: Language network in lvPPA, posterior cingulate cortex-hippocampal circuit in amnestic EOAD and LOAD, and visual networks in PCA. At more advanced stages, atrophy patterns largely converged across AD variants. These findings support a model in which neurodegeneration selectively targets both the DMN and syndrome-specific vulnerable networks at the earliest clinical stages of AD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Early Stage Breast Cancer in Older Women: Predictions and Outcomes of Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    surgery increased , and because women undergoing breast-conserving surgery are more likely to receive inappropriate care. We have now shown that patients...appropriateness of primary therapy for early-stage breast carcinoma and increased use of breast-conserving surgery. Lancet 2000;356:1148-53. 2. Nattinger AB...demographic deterninant of use of breast-conserving surgery despite overall increased adoption. 2000, submitted for publication. 5. Du X. Freeman JL, Warrant

  15. Evaluating the Significance of Viscoelasticity in Diagnosing Early-Stage Liver Fibrosis with Transient Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; He, Qiong; Luo, Jianwen; Yang, Xueping; Shao, Jinhua; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography quantifies the propagation of a mechanically generated shear wave within a soft tissue, which can be used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity parameters of the tissue. The aim of our study was to combine numerical simulation and clinical assessment to define a viscoelastic index of liver tissue to improve the quality of early diagnosis of liver fibrosis. This is clinically relevant, as early fibrosis is reversible. We developed an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model of the liver to evaluate the effects of different viscoelastic values on the propagation characteristics of the shear wave. The diagnostic value of the identified viscoelastic index was verified against the clinical data of 99 patients who had undergone biopsy and routine blood tests for staging of liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and the shear wave attenuation fitting coefficient (AFC) were calculated from the ultrasound data obtained by performing transient elastography. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to evaluate the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of LSM and AFC. Compared to LSM, the AFC provided a higher diagnostic accuracy to differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis, namely F1 and F2 stages, with an overall specificity of 81.48%, sensitivity of 83.33% and diagnostic accuracy of 81.82%. AFC was influenced by the level of LSM, ALT. However, there are no correlation between AFC and Age, BMI, TBIL or DBIL. Quantification of the viscoelasticity of liver tissue provides reliable measurement to identify and differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis. PMID:28107385

  16. Phase 0 Trial of Itraconazole for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    and by targeting the Hedgehog developmental/survival pathway. In this clinical trial, 15 patients with early-stage lung cancer planned for surgical ...Determine the effect of itraconazole pharmacokinetics (PK) on the pharmacodynamic profile of itraconazole. On- treatment serum, tumor tissue, and...itraconazole 600 mg orally daily for 7-10 days followed by repeat skin biopsy, blood sampling, and MRI studies, followed by surgical resection. Baseline

  17. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  18. Varying postresection lactate dehydrogenase with overall survival of early stage pancreatic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Xie, Zhihui; Shao, Zhenyi; Chen, Wen; Xie, Hua; Qin, Guoyou; Zhao, Naiqing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Several previously published studies revealed a hazardous role of pretreatment lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in survival of advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC) patients. Nevertheless, in early stage PC patients who are eligible for curative resection, the prognostic role of postresection LDH has never been discussed. In this study, we aimed to explore the prognostic significance of varying postresection LDH among early stage PC patients. In total, 80 PC patients who received curative resection were retrospectively selected from a population-based electronic inpatients database which originated from Shanghai, China. A dynamic survival analysis method, counting process approach in combination with the multiple failure-time Cox model, was applied to evaluate the association between postresection LDH and OS. The multiple failure-time Cox model found that age, resection modality, and postresection LDH were significantly associated with OS: an elevated LDH (defined as > 250 U/L) was related to 2.93 (95% CI: 1.26–6.79) folds of death hazard. Further analysis disclosed an identifiable dose–response association between LDH and OS: compared with LDH≤155 U/L, the HRs for 155 U/L < LDH < 196 U/L, and LDH≥196 U/L were 2.07 (95% CI: 0.88–4.88) and 3.15 (95% CI: 1.30–7.59), respectively. Our study results suggest that postresection LDH is a prominent prognostic factor in this group of early stage PC patients. Maintaining normally ranged LDH after resection might bring about survival benefit in early stage PC patients. PMID:28328834

  19. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation May Reduce Medication Costs in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Mallory L; Currie, Amanda D; Molinari, Anna L; Turchan, Maxim; Millan, Sarah M; Heusinkveld, Lauren E; Roach, Jonathon; Konrad, Peter E; Davis, Thomas L; Neimat, Joseph S; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Byrne, Daniel W; Charles, David

    2016-01-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is well-known to reduce medication burden in advanced stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Preliminary data from a prospective, single blind, controlled pilot trial demonstrated that early stage PD subjects treated with STN-DBS also required less medication than those treated with optimal drug therapy (ODT). The purpose of this study was to analyze medication cost and utilization from the pilot trial of DBS in early stage PD and to project 10 year medication costs. Medication data collected at each visit were used to calculate medication costs. Medications were converted to levodopa equivalent daily dose, categorized by medication class, and compared. Medication costs were projected to advanced stage PD, the time when a typical patient may be offered DBS. Medication costs increased 72% in the ODT group and decreased 16% in the DBS+ODT group from baseline to 24 months. This cost difference translates into a cumulative savings for the DBS+ODT group of $7,150 over the study period. Projected medication cost savings over 10 years reach $64,590. Additionally, DBS+ODT subjects were 80% less likely to require polypharmacy compared with ODT subjects at 24 months (p <  0.05; OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.04-0.97). STN-DBS in early PD reduced medication cost over the two-year study period. DBS may offer substantial long-term reduction in medication cost by maintaining a simplified, low dose medication regimen. Further study is needed to confirm these findings, and the FDA has approved a pivotal, multicenter clinical trial evaluating STN-DBS in early PD.

  20. Early Stages of Figure–Ground Segregation during Perception of the Face–Vase

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Michael A.; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure–ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects’ perceptions of the face–vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects’ figure–ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ~150–200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early “border ownership” stage, and a subsequent “figure–ground segregation” stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure–ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure–ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention. PMID:20146604

  1. Varying postresection lactate dehydrogenase with overall survival of early stage pancreatic cancer patients: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Xie, Zhihui; Shao, Zhenyi; Chen, Wen; Xie, Hua; Qin, Guoyou; Zhao, Naiqing

    2017-03-01

    Several previously published studies revealed a hazardous role of pretreatment lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in survival of advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC) patients. Nevertheless, in early stage PC patients who are eligible for curative resection, the prognostic role of postresection LDH has never been discussed. In this study, we aimed to explore the prognostic significance of varying postresection LDH among early stage PC patients. In total, 80 PC patients who received curative resection were retrospectively selected from a population-based electronic inpatients database which originated from Shanghai, China. A dynamic survival analysis method, counting process approach in combination with the multiple failure-time Cox model, was applied to evaluate the association between postresection LDH and OS. The multiple failure-time Cox model found that age, resection modality, and postresection LDH were significantly associated with OS: an elevated LDH (defined as > 250 U/L) was related to 2.93 (95% CI: 1.26-6.79) folds of death hazard. Further analysis disclosed an identifiable dose-response association between LDH and OS: compared with LDH≤155 U/L, the HRs for 155 U/L < LDH < 196 U/L, and LDH≥196 U/L were 2.07 (95% CI: 0.88-4.88) and 3.15 (95% CI: 1.30-7.59), respectively. Our study results suggest that postresection LDH is a prominent prognostic factor in this group of early stage PC patients. Maintaining normally ranged LDH after resection might bring about survival benefit in early stage PC patients.

  2. Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    clinical data inventory at MGH, 3) micro-dissected and isolated RNA from 110 tumors, and 3) optimized the preparation of cDNA libraries using NuGene WT...Ovation FFPE System V2. Given the fact that RNA sequencing is in its early stage of application, and application of this technology to FFPE tissue is...thus developed a protocol to extract both DNA and RNA from the same samples. Development of a standardized protocol for FFPE ribonucleic acid

  3. SU-F-R-24: Identifying Prognostic Imaging Biomarkers in Early Stage Lung Cancer Using Radiomics

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Cui, Y; Li, R; Gao, H

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patients diagnosed with early stage lung cancer have favorable outcomes when treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. However, a significant proportion (∼20%) of patients will develop metastatic disease and eventually die of the disease. The purpose of this work is to identify quantitative imaging biomarkers from CT for predicting overall survival in early stage lung cancer. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved HIPPA-compliant retrospective study, we retrospectively analyzed the diagnostic CT scans of 110 patients with early stage lung cancer. Data from 70 patients were used for training/discovery purposes, while those of remaining 40 patients were used for independent validation. We extracted 191 radiomic features, including statistical, histogram, morphological, and texture features. Cox proportional hazard regression model, coupled with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), was used to predict overall survival based on the radiomic features. Results: The optimal prognostic model included three image features from the Law’s feature and wavelet texture. In the discovery cohort, this model achieved a concordance index or CI=0.67, and it separated the low-risk from high-risk groups in predicting overall survival (hazard ratio=2.72, log-rank p=0.007). In the independent validation cohort, this radiomic signature achieved a CI=0.62, and significantly stratified the low-risk and high-risk groups in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio=2.20, log-rank p=0.042). Conclusion: We identified CT imaging characteristics associated with overall survival in early stage lung cancer. If prospectively validated, this could potentially help identify high-risk patients who might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy.

  4. Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review

    SciTech Connect

    Samant, Rajiv; Alomary, Ibraheem; Alsaeed, Eyad; Al-jasir, Badr; Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle; Cross, Peter; Genest, Paul; Huebsch, Lothar

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

  5. Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development.

    PubMed

    Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

    2012-02-07

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75(NTR) are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, before the nervous system is formed. The question, therefore, arises as to what might be the functions of NGF in early chicken embryo development, before its well-established actions on the developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. To investigate possible roles of NGF in the earliest stages of development, stage HH 11-12 chicken embryos were injected with an anti-NGF antibody (mAb αD11) that binds mature NGF with high affinity. Treatment with anti-NGF, but not with a control antibody, led to a dose-dependent inversion of the direction of axial rotation. This effect of altered rotation after anti NGF injection was associated with an increased cell death in somites. Concurrently, a microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed that NGF neutralization affects the expression of genes linked to the regulation of development or cell proliferation. These results reveal a role for NGF in early chicken embryo development and, in particular, in the regulation of somite survival and axial rotation, a crucial developmental process linked to left-right asymmetry specification.

  6. Surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer in elderly: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Kiderlen, M; Bastiaannet, E; Walsh, P M; Keating, N L; Schrodi, S; Engel, J; van de Water, W; Ess, S M; van Eycken, L; Miranda, A; de Munck, L; van de Velde, C J H; de Craen, A J M; Liefers, G J

    2012-04-01

    Over 40% of breast cancer patients are diagnosed above the age of 65. Treatment of these elderly patients will probably vary over countries. The aim of this study was to make an international comparison (several European countries and the US) of surgical and radiation treatment for elderly women with early stage breast cancer. Survival comparisons were also made. Data were obtained from national or regional population-based registries in the Netherlands, Switzerland, Ireland, Belgium, Germany, and Portugal. For the US patients were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Early stage breast cancer patients aged ≥ 65 diagnosed between 1995 and 2005 were included. An international comparison was made for breast and axillary surgery, radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS), and relative or cause-specific survival. Overall, 204.885 patients were included. The proportion of patients not receiving any surgery increased with age in many countries; however, differences between countries were large. In most countries more than half of all elderly patients received breast conserving surgery (BCS), with the highest percentage in Switzerland. The proportion of elderly patients that received radiotherapy after BCS decreased with age in all countries. Moreover, in all countries the proportion of patients who do not receive axillary surgery increased with age. No large differences in survival between countries were recorded. International comparisons of surgical treatment for elderly women with early stage breast cancer are scarce. This study showed large international differences in treatment of elderly early stage breast cancer patients, with the most striking result the large proportion of elderly who did not undergo surgery at all. Despite large treatment differences, survival does not seem to be affected in a major way.

  7. The importance of adjuvant chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy in high-risk early stage endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jutzi, Leah; Hoskins, Paul; Lim, Peter; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Tinker, Anna; Kwon, Janice S

    2013-12-01

    To determine the impact of a policy change in which women with high-risk early stage endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of British Columbia Cancer Registry patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2012 with high-risk early stage EEC, who received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after primary surgery. High-risk early stage was defined as the presence of two or more high-risk uterine factors: grade 3 tumor, more than 50% myometrial invasion, and/or cervical stromal involvement. Adjuvant therapy consisted of 3 or 4 cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy, followed by pelvic radiotherapy. Sites and rate of recurrence were compared to a historical cohort diagnosed from 2005 to 2008 in which none of the patients received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Five-year progression-free and overall survival rates were calculated. The study includes 55 patients. All patients except for 2 received at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy. All patients received pelvic radiotherapy except for 2 who received brachytherapy only. Median follow-up was 27 months (7-56 months). Four patients (7.3%) recurred, including three with distant recurrence only and one with both a pelvic and paraaortic nodal recurrence. The historical cohort had a 29.4% recurrence rate, and therefore the hazard ratio for recurrence was 0.27 (95% CI 0.02-4.11). Five-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 88.6% and 97.3%, respectively. Patients with high-risk early stage endometrial carcinoma treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy have a low rate of recurrence compared to those not receiving such therapy. © 2013.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Phosphoproteins in the Rice Nucleus During the Early Stage of Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Yang, Pingfang; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-02

    The early stage of seed germination is the first step in the plant life cycle without visible morphological change. To investigate the mechanism controlling the early stage of rice seed germination, we performed gel-and label-free nuclear phosphoproteomics. A total of 3467 phosphopeptides belonging to 102 nuclear phosphoproteins from rice embryos were identified. Protein-synthesis-related proteins were mainly phosphorylated. During the first 24 h following imbibition, 115 nuclear phosphoproteins were identified, and significant changes in the phosphorylation level over time were observed in 29 phosphoproteins. Cluster analysis indicated that nucleotide-binding proteins and zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins increased in abundance during the first 12 h of imbibition and then decreased. The in silico protein-protein interactions for 29 nuclear phosphoproteins indicated that the Sas10/Utp3 protein, which functions in snoRNA binding and gene silencing, was the center of the phosphoprotein network in nuclei. The germination rate of seeds was significantly slowed with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. The mRNA expression of the zinc finger CCCH-type protein did not change, and the zinc finger BED-type protein was upregulated in rice embryos during the early stage of germination with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear proteins are involved in rice seed germination. Furthermore, transcription factors such as zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins might play a key role through nuclear phosphoproteins, and Sas10/Utp3 protein might interact with nuclear phosphoproteins in rice embryos to mediate the early stage of seed germination.

  9. Early stages of figure-ground segregation during perception of the face-vase.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Michael A; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B; Hillyard, Steven A

    2011-04-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure-ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects' perceptions of the face-vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects' figure-ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ∼ 150-200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early "border ownership" stage, and a subsequent "figure-ground segregation" stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure-ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure-ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention.

  10. [Signal exchange between plants and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae fungi during the early stage of symbiosis - A review].

    PubMed

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Xiaohong; Huang, Xianzhi

    2015-07-04

    Much is known about Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM), an important component of the ecosystem, whereas little is known about the signal exchange that allows mutual recognition and reprograming for the anticipated physical interaction. This review addresses the latest advances of signal exchange between plants and AM, including signal substances and their function, related genes and regulation function in the early stage of plant-fungal symbiosis.

  11. Prediction model of pelvic lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer and its clinical value.

    PubMed

    Sun, J R; Zhang, Y N; Sun, X M; Feng, S Y; Yan, M

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer in order to establish a prediction model for this metastasis and to explore the feasibility of conservative surgery. The records of 207 stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients were retrospectivly analyzed. The risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. The prediction model for pelvic lymph node metastasis was established by logistic regression. Without preoperative adjuvant therapy, the metastatic rate of pelvic lymph node in stage IB-IIA cervical cancer was 25.1%. The serum SCCAg, the tumor diameter, the depth of cervical stroma invasion, and the cervical canal involvement were revealed as the risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis by univariate analysis (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the serum SCCAg and the depth of cervical stroma invasion were the independent risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis (P<0.05, OR = 6.917, 2.227). The patients were divided into three groups according to different independent risk factors: the low-risk group, the medium-risk group, and the high-risk group, which showed metastatic rates of pelvic lymph node of 5.7%, 16.9%, and 48.7%, respectively (P<0.001). A prediction model for pelvic lymph node metastasis was established as follows: Logti(P) = -2.534 + serum SCCAg×1.934 + depth of cervical stroma invasion×0.801. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of this prediction model were 53.8%, 83.9 %, 52.8%, 84.4%, and 76.3%, respectively. The serum SCCAg and the depth of cervical stroma invasion were the independent risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer. The proposed prediction model may help to improve the conservative surgery for early stage cervical cancer.

  12. Repair of Craniomaxillofacial Traumatic Soft Tissue Defects With Tissue Expansion in the Early Stage.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Jianhui; Tao, Ran; Guo, Lingli; Yang, Hongyan; Zeng, Wei; Song, Baoqiang; Xia, Wensen

    2017-09-01

    Craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects severely affect the function and appearance of the patients. The traditional skin grafting or free flap transplantation can only close the defects in the early stage of operation but cannot ensure similar color, texture, and relative aesthetic contour. In the present study, the authors have explored a novel strategy to repair craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects by tissue expansion in the early stage and have obtained satisfactory results. Eighteen patients suffering large craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects were treated by thorough debridement leaving the wounds unclosed or simply closed with thin split-thickness scalp grafts, adjacent expander implantation in the first stage, and expanded flap transposition in the second stage. There were 11 male patients and 7 female patients ranging in age from 3.5 to 40 years (mean, 19.4 ± 12.2 years), with average 15 months follow-up (range, 3-67 months). The average expansion time was 74.3 days (range, 53-96 days). The 18 patients with a total of 22 expanders were treated with satisfactory results. All the flaps survived and the skin color, texture, and contour well matched those of the peripheral tissue. Only 1 complication of infection happened in the 18 cases (5.56%) and the 22 expanders (4.55%), which was similar to the rate reported in the literature. No other complications related to the expanders occurred. Debridement and tissue expansion in the early stage has been proved to be a more effective strategy to repair craniomaxillofacial traumatic soft tissue defects. This strategy can not only achieve satisfactory color, unbulky and well-matched texture similar to normal, but also avoid unnecessary donor site injuries.

  13. Psychosis associated to Parkinson's disease in the early stages: relevance of cognitive decline and depression.

    PubMed

    Morgante, Letterio; Colosimo, Carlo; Antonini, Angelo; Marconi, Roberto; Meco, Giuseppe; Pederzoli, Massimo; Pontieri, Francesco E; Cicarelli, Giulio; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Zappulla, Salvatore; Ramat, Silvia; Manfredi, Michela; Bottacchi, Edo; Abrignani, Michele; Berardelli, Alfredo; Cozzolino, Autilia; Paradiso, Claudio; De Gaspari, Danilo; Morgante, Francesca; Barone, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of psychosis associated with Parkinson's disease (PSY-PD) in its early stages, its incidence over a 24 month follow-up period and the association with motor and non-motor clinical features. PRIAMO is a 2 year longitudinal observational study that has enrolled patients with parkinsonism in 55 Italian centres. A cohort of 495 patients with early disease stage PD (baseline Hoehn and Yahr score ≤ 2, disease's duration (median) 3.4 years) were followed for 2 years. PSY-PD was evaluated by means of a clinician rated questionnaire and defined as the presence of at least one of the following symptoms occurring for at least 1 month: illusions, hallucinations, jealousy ideas and persecutory ideas. Patients with and without PSY-PD were compared on several clinical variables, encompassing motor and non-motor features. The prevalence of PSY-PD at baseline was 3%; the incidences at 12 and 24 months were 5.2% and 7.7%, respectively. Longer disease duration and prescription of dopamine agonists at baseline were associated with the development of PSY-PD over the 24 month period. At this follow-up time, worse disease severity, decline in cognitive performances, presence of depressive symptoms and anxiety were more frequently observed in PSY-PD. Psychotic type symptoms may occur in the early stages of PD although less frequently than in later stages. Beyond dopaminergic treatment, there are disease related factors, such as disease severity and the occurrence of cognitive and depressive symptoms, which may underlie the onset of psychotic type symptoms from the earliest stages.

  14. Deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease: operative experience from a prospective randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Elyne; D'Haese, Pierre-Francois; Dawant, Benoit; Allen, Laura; Kao, Chris; Charles, P David; Konrad, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) may have a disease modifying effect in early Parkinson's disease (PD). A randomised, prospective study is underway to determine whether STN-DBS in early PD is safe and tolerable. 15 of 30 early PD patients were randomised to receive STN-DBS implants in an institutional review board approved protocol. Operative technique, location of DBS leads and perioperative adverse events are reported. Active contact used for stimulation in these patients was compared with 47 advanced PD patients undergoing an identical procedure by the same surgeon. 14 of the 15 patients did not sustain any long term (>3 months) complications from the surgery. One subject suffered a stroke resulting in mild cognitive changes and slight right arm and face weakness. The average optimal contact used in symptomatic treatment of early PD patients was: anterior -1.1±1.7 mm, lateral 10.7±1.7 mm and superior -3.3±2.5 mm (anterior and posterior commissure coordinates). This location is statistically no different (0.77 mm, p>0.05) than the optimal contact used in the treatment of 47 advanced PD patients. The perioperative adverse events in this trial of subjects with early stage PD are comparable with those reported for STN-DBS in advanced PD. The active contact position used in early PD is not significantly different from that used in late stage disease. This is the first report of the operative experience from a randomised, surgical versus best medical therapy trial for the early treatment of PD.

  15. Hypokinesia of associated movement in Parkinson's disease: a symptom in early stages of the disease.

    PubMed

    Hoshiyama, M; Kaneoke, Y; Koike, Y; Takahashi, A; Watanabe, S

    1994-08-01

    We compared the degrees of impairment between intended voluntary movement and its simultaneous automatic associated movement in Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied wrist dorsiflexion as a movement associated with grip in 20 patients with PD and in 20 normal controls. The patients showed a significantly smaller dorsiflexion as compared with the controls. The decrease in associated movement was related to the severity of clinical stage of the disease, while gripping was performed well in each stage. The temporal relationship between grip and associated movement was the same for both groups of subjects. The patients showed no disturbance of amplitude or velocity for a single motor act of wrist dorsiflexion. Persons with PD have a greater reduction of automatic associated movement than intended voluntary movement. This may be one of the bases of clinical symptoms of PD patients in early stages of the disease.

  16. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide to early life stages of marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Di Fiore, D.; Parker, H.S.; Sciarrotta, T.

    1989-03-01

    With increasing interest in minimizing exposure to chlorine, many electric generating and water treatment plants are exploring the use of alternative biocides such as chlorine dioxide. Unlike chlorine, chlorine dioxide does not react with ambient organic compounds to form potentially carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform. However, the toxicity of chlorine dioxide to aquatic organisms has received little study. No information exists on chlorine toxicity to marine organisms. Furthermore, West Coast electric power stations usually discharge chlorine intermittently once or twice daily and substantial mixing of receiving water occurs between treatments. Therefore, this study sought to obtain information on chlorine dioxide toxicity using an exposure schedule typical of generating stations which discharge into the marine environment. Early life history stages of a plant, invertebrate and fish were tested since these stages are generally acknowledged to be most sensitive to toxicants and are the stages that are most likely to be exposed to the effluent.

  17. Systemic Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: What the Plastic Surgeon Should Know.

    PubMed

    Teven, Chad M; Schmid, Daniel B; Sisco, Mark; Ward, James; Howard, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We review the types, indications, and common regimens of systemic forms of therapy offered in early-stage breast cancer. We further detail the mechanism of action, approved uses, major toxicities, and relevance to breast reconstruction of specific agents. Methods: A review of the literature on PubMed and Cochrane databases was undertaken to define the indications and common regimens of systemic therapy in early-stage breast cancer. In addition, literature describing relevant information regarding specific systemic agents was reviewed. Results: The main objectives of systemic therapy, when provided in the perioperative setting, are to reduce the risk for future recurrence and prolong overall survival. Systemic forms of therapy consist of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy and are increasingly being offered to women with early-stage breast cancer. Similarly, as more women are diagnosed with disease that is amenable to surgical extirpation, rates of breast reconstruction are on the rise. Many agents have effects that may impact patient safety with respect to breast reconstruction. Conclusions: Increasingly, women with breast cancer receive 1 or more forms of systemic therapy during the course of their treatment. It is therefore of significant importance that plastic surgeons have a clear understanding of the issues surrounding the use of systemic agents.

  18. Systemic Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: What the Plastic Surgeon Should Know

    PubMed Central

    Teven, Chad M.; Schmid, Daniel B.; Sisco, Mark; Ward, James

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We review the types, indications, and common regimens of systemic forms of therapy offered in early-stage breast cancer. We further detail the mechanism of action, approved uses, major toxicities, and relevance to breast reconstruction of specific agents. Methods: A review of the literature on PubMed and Cochrane databases was undertaken to define the indications and common regimens of systemic therapy in early-stage breast cancer. In addition, literature describing relevant information regarding specific systemic agents was reviewed. Results: The main objectives of systemic therapy, when provided in the perioperative setting, are to reduce the risk for future recurrence and prolong overall survival. Systemic forms of therapy consist of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy and are increasingly being offered to women with early-stage breast cancer. Similarly, as more women are diagnosed with disease that is amenable to surgical extirpation, rates of breast reconstruction are on the rise. Many agents have effects that may impact patient safety with respect to breast reconstruction. Conclusions: Increasingly, women with breast cancer receive 1 or more forms of systemic therapy during the course of their treatment. It is therefore of significant importance that plastic surgeons have a clear understanding of the issues surrounding the use of systemic agents. PMID:28293332

  19. Numerical and functional defects of blood dendritic cells in early- and late-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon-Charry, A; Ho, C S K; Maxwell, T; McGuckin, M A; Schmidt, C; Furnival, C; Pyke, C M; López, J A

    2007-01-01

    The generation of antitumour immunity depends on the nature of dendritic cell (DC)–tumour interactions. These have been studied mostly by using in vitro-derived DC which may not reflect the natural biology of DC in vivo. In breast cancer, only one report has compared blood DC at different stages and no longitudinal evaluation has been performed. Here we conducted three cross-sectional and one one-year longitudinal assessments of blood DC in patients with early (stage I/II, n=137) and advanced (stage IV, n=36) disease compared to healthy controls (n=66). Patients with advanced disease exhibit markedly reduced blood DC counts at diagnosis. Patients with early disease show minimally reduced counts at diagnosis but a prolonged period (1 year) of marked DC suppression after tumour resection. While differing in frequency, DC from both patients with early and advanced disease exhibit reduced expression of CD86 and HLA-DR and decreased immunostimulatory capacities. Finally, by comparing a range of clinically available maturation stimuli, we demonstrate that conditioning with soluble CD40L induces the highest level of maturation and improved T-cell priming. We conclude that although circulating DC are compromised by loco-regional and systemic breast cancer, they respond vigorously to ex vivo conditioning, thus enhancing their immunostimulatory capacity and potential for immunotherapy. PMID:17923873

  20. Body movements during early stages of chick embryo under intermittent low oxygen environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Kenji; Chiba, Yuya; Shimouchi, Akito

    2017-07-01

    We have attempted to elucidate the characteristic pattern of body movements in early stages of chick embryos under intermittent low oxygen incubation environment. In order to achieve this aim, the oxygen control system that can be set arbitrary oxygen concentration was developed. We choose the 18% of O2 concentration and tried to measure the embryonic body movements. As a results, only one chick embryo in the early stages under intermittent 18% O2 environment (the cycle is 18%O2-10min and 21%O2-50min) was successfully recorded and its body movements were analyzed. The characteristic body movements, which are attributed to the instantaneous effect of low oxygen environment, compared with before and after normal O2 condition were not observed. Because the early stage embryos in which the significant organs aside from heart are not formed yet have a strong adaptation to environment changes, short hypoxic condition like a 10 min might not affect instantaneous embryonic physiological changes. Meanwhile, although the cyclic interval of the large body movements becomes short in the normal development, it became long in 18%O2 condition. This result might indicate that intermittent low oxygen condition accumulatively influenced physiological function. Further improvements of accuracy in the oxygen control system and the calculation system of body movements, and further experiments under low oxygen conditions are required in the next step.

  1. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae.

  2. Thermodynamics, morphology, and kinetics of early-stage self-assembly of π-conjugated oligopeptides

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-03-22

    Synthetic oligopeptides containing π-conjugated cores self-assemble novel materials with attractive electronic and photophysical properties. All-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of Asp-Phe-Ala-Gly-OPV3-Gly-Ala-Phe-Asp peptides were used to parameterize an implicit solvent model to simulate early-stage self-assembly. Under low-pH conditions, peptides assemble into β-sheet-like stacks with strongly favorable monomer association free energies of ΔF ≈ -25kBT. Aggregation at high-pH produces disordered aggregates destabilized by Coulombic repulsion between negatively charged Asp termini (ΔF ≈ -5kBT). In simulations of hundreds of monomers over 70 ns we observe the spontaneous formation of up to undecameric aggregates under low-pH conditions. Modeling assembly as a continuous-time Markov process, we infer transition rates between different aggregate sizes and microsecond relaxation times for early-stage assembly. Our data suggests a hierarchical model of assembly in which peptides coalesce into small clusters over tens of nanoseconds followed by structural ripening and diffusion limited aggregation on longer time scales. This work provides new molecular-level understanding of early-stage assembly, and a means to study the impact of peptide sequence and aromatic core chemistry upon the thermodynamics, assembly kinetics, and morphology of the supramolecular aggregates.

  3. Promoting emancipated decision-making for surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer among Jordanian women.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Rana F

    2015-01-01

    To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council), the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers' support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system.

  4. Promoting emancipated decision-making for surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer among Jordanian women

    PubMed Central

    Obeidat, Rana F.

    2015-01-01

    To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council), the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers’ support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system. PMID:27981122

  5. Promoting Quality and Evidence-Based Care in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Daniel F.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Barlow, William E.; Gralow, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for long-term follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients developed by oncology societies in the United States and Europe recommend that breast cancer survivors undergo regular evaluation with history and physical examination, as well as annual mammography. Routine blood tests, circulating tumor markers, and/or surveillance imaging studies beyond mammography are not recommended in the absence of concerning symptoms or physical examination findings because of lack of supportive clinical evidence. Despite these guidelines, studies have shown that 20% to 40% of oncologists assess serum tumor markers as part of routine monitoring of early-stage breast cancer patients. As part of efforts to both address the financial challenges confronting the health-care system and optimize patient outcomes, the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s Cost of Care Task Force identified adherence to breast cancer surveillance guidelines as an opportunity to improve care and reduce cost. However, these recommendations are based on trials done in an era of outdated technology and limited therapeutic options. It is possible that recent improvements in diagnostics and treatments could make earlier detection of recurrent disease important for improving both survival and quality of life outcomes. Research is necessary to further inform optimal breast cancer follow-up strategies, which could impact these recommendations. At this time, outside of well-conducted clinical trials, there is no role for ordering routine serial blood or imaging tests in monitoring for recurrence in early-stage breast cancer patients. PMID:24627271

  6. The Treatment Effect of Porous Titanium Alloy Rod on the Early Stage Talar Osteonecrosis of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Quan; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the talus (ONT) may severely affect the function of the ankle joint. Most orthopedists believe that ONT should be treated at an early stage, but a concise and effective surgical treatment is lacking. In this study, porous titanium alloy rods were prepared and implanted into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT (IM group). The curative effect of the rods was compared to treatment by core decompression (DC group). No significant differences in bone reconstruction were observed between the two groups at 1 month after intervention. After 3 months, the macroscopic view of gross specimens of the IM group showed ordinary contours, but the specimens of the DC group showed obvious partial bone defects and cartilage degeneration. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed trabeculae by micro-CT and histological study suggested that the curative effect of the IM group was superior to that of the DC group at 3 months after intervention. These favorable short-term results of the implantation of porous titanium alloy rods into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT may provide insight into an innovative surgical treatment for ONT. PMID:23516485

  7. Two-stage biomarker panel study and estimation allowing early termination for futility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Zheng, Yingye; Prentice, Ross L; Feng, Ziding

    2015-10-01

    Technological advances have yielded a wealth of biomarkers that have the potential to detect chronic diseases such as cancer. However, most biomarkers considered for further validation turn out not to have strong enough performance to be used in clinical practice. Group sequential designs that allow early termination for futility may be cost-effective for biomarker studies based on biobanks of stored specimens. Previous studies proposed a group sequential design for the validation of a single biomarker. In this article, we adapt a 2-stage design to the setting where a panel of candidate biomarkers are under investigation. Conditional estimators of the clinical performance are proposed under an updated risk model that uses all accrued data, and can be computed through resampling procedures. Under a special case where a multivariate binormal distribution applies for biomarkers following a suitable transformation, these estimators have analytical forms, alleviating the computational burden while retaining statistical efficiency. Performance of the proposed 2-stage design and estimators are compared with a traditional fixed-sample design and an existing 2-stage design that allows early termination but does not update the risk model with accrued information. Our proposed design and estimators show an ability to reduce sample size when the biomarker panel is not promising, while controlling rejection rate and gaining efficiency when the panel is promising. We apply the proposed methods to a biomarker panel development for the detection of high-grade prostate cancer in a study conducted within the National Cancer Institute's Early Detection Research Network.

  8. Memory impairments with adjuvant anastrozole versus tamoxifen in women with early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Catherine M.; Sereika, Susan M.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Vogel, Victor G.; Rastogi, Priya; Cohen, Susan M.; Casillo, Frances E.; Berga, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Hormones have been implicated as modulators of cognitive functioning. For instance, results of our previous work in women with breast cancer showed that cognitive impairment was more severe and involved more memory domains in those who received adjuvant tamoxifen therapy compared with women who received chemotherapy alone or no adjuvant therapy. Recently aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole have been used in lieu of tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive, early-stage breast cancer. Plasma estrogen levels are significantly lower in women who receive anastrozole compared with those who receive tamoxifen. We hypothesized, therefore, that anastrozole would have a more profound effect on cognitive function than tamoxifen, a mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist. Design: To test this hypothesis we compared cognitive function in women with early-stage breast cancer who received tamoxifen with those who received anastrozole therapy in a cross-sectional study. We evaluated cognitive function, depression, anxiety, and fatigue in 31 postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer who were between the ages of 21 and 65 years and treated with tamoxifen or anastrozole for a minimum of 3 months. Results: The results showed that women who received anastrozole had poorer verbal and visual learning and memory than women who received tamoxifen. Conclusions: Additional, prospective studies are needed to validate and confirm the changes in cognitive function associated with hormone therapy for breast cancer. PMID:17898668

  9. Thermodynamics, morphology, and kinetics of early-stage self-assembly of π-conjugated oligopeptides

    DOE PAGES

    None, None

    2016-03-22

    Synthetic oligopeptides containing π-conjugated cores self-assemble novel materials with attractive electronic and photophysical properties. All-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of Asp-Phe-Ala-Gly-OPV3-Gly-Ala-Phe-Asp peptides were used to parameterize an implicit solvent model to simulate early-stage self-assembly. Under low-pH conditions, peptides assemble into β-sheet-like stacks with strongly favorable monomer association free energies of ΔF ≈ -25kBT. Aggregation at high-pH produces disordered aggregates destabilized by Coulombic repulsion between negatively charged Asp termini (ΔF ≈ -5kBT). In simulations of hundreds of monomers over 70 ns we observe the spontaneous formation of up to undecameric aggregates under low-pH conditions. Modeling assembly as a continuous-time Markovmore » process, we infer transition rates between different aggregate sizes and microsecond relaxation times for early-stage assembly. Our data suggests a hierarchical model of assembly in which peptides coalesce into small clusters over tens of nanoseconds followed by structural ripening and diffusion limited aggregation on longer time scales. This work provides new molecular-level understanding of early-stage assembly, and a means to study the impact of peptide sequence and aromatic core chemistry upon the thermodynamics, assembly kinetics, and morphology of the supramolecular aggregates.« less

  10. Neurophysiological Evidence of Compensatory Brain Mechanisms in Early-Stage Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    López-Góngora, Mariana; Escartín, Antonio; Martínez-Horta, Saul; Fernández-Bobadilla, Ramón; Querol, Luis; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Riba, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disorder characterized by white matter inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Although cognitive dysfunction is a common manifestation, it may go unnoticed in recently-diagnosed patients. Prior studies suggest MS patients develop compensatory mechanisms potentially involving enhanced performance monitoring. Here we assessed the performance monitoring system in early-stage MS patients using the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) observed following behavioral errors. Twenty-seven early-stage MS patients and 31 controls were neuropsychologically assessed. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained while participants performed: a) a stop task and b) an auditory oddball task. Behavior and ERP measures were assessed. No differences in performance were found between groups in most neuropsychological tests or in behavior or ERP components in the auditory oddball task. However, the amplitude of the ERN associated with stop errors in the stop task was significantly higher in patients. ERN amplitude correlated positively with scores on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score, and negatively with the time since last relapse. Patients showed higher neuronal recruitment in tasks involving performance monitoring. Results suggest the development of compensatory brain mechanisms in early-stage MS and reflect the sensitivity of the ERN to detect these changes. PMID:26322632

  11. Finite element simulation of ultrasonic waves in corroded reinforced concrete for early-stage corrosion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qixiang; Yu, Tzuyang

    2017-04-01

    In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, corrosion of steel rebar introduces internal stress at the interface between rebar and concrete, ultimately leading to debonding and separation between rebar and concrete. Effective early-stage detection of steel rebar corrosion can significantly reduce maintenance costs and enable early-stage repair. In this paper, ultrasonic detection of early-stage steel rebar corrosion inside concrete is numerically investigated using the finite element method (FEM). Commercial FEM software (ABAQUS) was used in all simulation cases. Steel rebar was simplified and modeled by a cylindrical structure. 1MHz ultrasonic elastic waves were generated at the interface between rebar and concrete. Two-dimensional plain strain element was adopted in all FE models. Formation of surface rust in rebar was modeled by changing material properties and expanding element size in order to simulate the rust interface between rebar and concrete and the presence of interfacial stress. Two types of surface rust (corroded regions) were considered. Time domain and frequency domain responses of displacement were studied. From our simulation result, two corrosion indicators, baseline (b) and center frequency (fc) were proposed for detecting and quantifying corrosion.

  12. The use of adjuvant bisphophonates in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Aju; Brufsky, Adam M

    2014-11-01

    Adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has resulted in significant improvement in breast cancer-related outcomes. In addition to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, the bone-protective agents known as bisphosphonates have been extensively investigated for their putative antitumor effect. Backed by strong preclinical data from in vitro and in vivo models, several randomized clinical trials have evaluated the role of bisphosphonates in an adjuvant setting. The recent NSABP B-34 (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol B-34) and AZURE (Adjuvant Zoledronic Acid to Reduce Recurrence) studies found no disease-free survival benefit with clodronate and zoledronate, respectively, whereas the ABCSG-12 (Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group trial 12) study found improvement in disease-free survival with zoledronate. Data from these trials suggested a beneficial effect of bisphosphonates in older, postmenopausal women and in premenopausal women treated with ovarian suppression. Given the acceptable toxicity profile of bisphosphonates, these agents could be a useful adjunct to adjuvant chemotherapy or endocrine treatment for early-stage breast cancer in a carefully selected subset of patients. This review aims to critically synthesize the results of clinical trials of adjuvant bisphosphonates in early-stage breast cancer, and to provide guidelines for the use of these agents in early-stage breast cancer.

  13. Improved early outcome for end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in children.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Anne-Marie; van Doorn, Carin; Burch, Michael; Whitmore, Pauline; Neligan, Sophie; Rees, Philip; Radley-Smith, Rosemary; Goldman, Allan; Brown, Katherine; Cohen, Gordon; Tsang, Victor; Elliott, Martin; de Leval, Marc R

    2003-12-01

    To review the impact of management changes on the early outcomes of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in children. We conducted a retrospective study of all consecutive children with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy who received hospital treatment since 1992. Over the past 3 years the following management changes were made: (1) more aggressive use of mechanical cardiac assistance; (2) high priority listing for transplantation; and (3) ABO incompatible transplants for infants. Outcomes for 46 patients admitted between 1992 and 1999 (group I) were compared with 53 patients between 2000 and March 2003 (group II). In group I, 12 (26%) patients received mechanical support with recovery in 3 and transplantation in 5 (1 died). In group II, 19 (36%) patients received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with recovery in 5 and transplantation in 12 (all survived). The use of mechanical assistance was associated with high morbidity related to bleeding, end-organ failure, and long-term mechanical ventilation. Five patients in group II received ABO incompatible transplants and all survived. There have been no episodes of rejection or need for increased immunosuppressive therapy. Hospital mortality has been significantly reduced (group I, 37% vs group II, 11%; P <.05). Recent refinements in the management of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in children have significantly reduced early mortality. Identification of markers of early myocardial recovery and development of mechanical devices for longer term and more physiologic support are essential to achieve further improvements in outcome.

  14. Clinical and dosimetric implications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Matthew Christopher Pham, Yvonne D.; Kotecha, Rupesh; Zakem, Sara J.; Murray, Eric; Greskovich, John F.

    2016-04-01

    Conventional parallel-opposed radiotherapy (PORT) is the established standard technique for early-stage glottic carcinoma. However, case reports have reported the utility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with or without image guidance (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT) in select patients. The proposed advantages of IMRT/VMAT include sparing of the carotid artery, thyroid gland, and the remaining functional larynx, although these benefits remain unclear. The following case study presents a patient with multiple vascular comorbidities treated with VMAT for early-stage glottic carcinoma. A detailed explanation of the corresponding treatment details, dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis, and a review of the relevant literature are provided. Conventional PORT remains the standard of care for early-stage glottic carcinoma. IMRT or VMAT may be beneficial for select patients, although great care is necessary to avoid a geographical miss. Clinical data supporting the benefit of CRT are lacking. Therefore, these techniques should be used with caution and only in selected patients.

  15. Risk of Fatal Cerebrovascular Accidents after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Glottic Larynx Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death due to CVA among patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the SEER database. Results The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8 %; 95% CI 2.3%–3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5 %; 95% CI 0.8 %–2.3%, p= 0.024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.04–2.96, p= 0.037). Conclusion Treatment of early stage glottic larynx cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. PMID:23595858

  16. On the role of extracellular polymeric substances during early stages of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Lorite, Gabriela S; de Souza, Alessandra A; Neubauer, Daniel; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine; Cotta, Mônica A

    2013-02-01

    The structural integrity and protection of bacterial biofilms are intrinsically associated with a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by the bacteria cells. However, the role of these substances during biofilm adhesion to a surface remains largely unclear. In this study, the influence of EPS on Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation was investigated. This bacterium is associated with economically important plant diseases; it presents a slow growth rate and thus allows us to pinpoint more precisely the early stages of cell-surface adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show evidence of EPS production in such early stages and around individual bacteria cells attached to the substrate surface even a few hours after inoculation. In addition, EPS formation was investigated via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To this end, X. fastidiosa cells were inoculated within an ATR liquid cell assembly. IR-ATR spectra clearly reveal EPS formation already during the early stages of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation, thereby providing supporting evidence for the hypothesis of the relevance of the EPS contribution to the adhesion process.

  17. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    PubMed

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  18. Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy.

  19. Quantitative study on guinea pig spermatogenesis shows a relative high percentage of early meiotic prophase stages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosana E; Wettstein, Rodolfo M

    2004-05-01

    Meiosis is the special double cellular division characterized by the reduction of chromosome number of the final products and recombination of genetic information present in maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Early stages of meiotic prophase, leptotene and zygotene (L/Z), are functionally important since homologous chromosomes recognize, align, and pair during them. They are poorly represented in the seminiferous tubules of mammalian species, and this fact turns studies focused on these stages difficult to perform. As a consequence, the molecular bases of these important events are so far poorly known and understood in higher eukaryotes. The purpose of this work was to provide an advantageous experimental mammalian model (with a reasonable number of cells) for biochemical and molecular analysis of early meiotic prophase stages. Here, we present the results of our quantitative study on testes material of both immature and adult guinea pig specimens (Cavia porcellus). We show that their seminiferous tubules contain a comparatively high percentage of L/Z spermatocytes, as well as a very conspicuous chromosome bouquet at the L/Z transition, which points out this species as a well-suited one to address studies on such stages in mammals.

  20. Toxicity of dispersed weathered crude oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Stephen; King, Tom; Wu, Dongmei; Hodson, Peter V

    2010-05-01

    Reports of the chronic toxicity of dispersed crude oil to early life stages of fish perpetuate uncertainty about dispersant use. However, realistic exposures to dispersed oil in the water column are thought to be much briefer than exposures associated with chronic toxicity testing. To address this issue, the toxicity of dispersed weathered oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) was tested for short exposure durations, ranging from 1 to 144 h. Toxicity was a function of concentration and duration of exposure, as well as of the life stage exposed. Medium South American crude oil dispersed with Corexit 9500 caused blue sac disease in embryos, but not in free-swimming embryos. The age of embryos was negatively correlated with their sensitivity to oil; those freshly fertilized were most sensitive. Sensitivity increased after hatch, with free-swimming embryos showing signs of narcosis. Gametes were also tested; dispersed oil dramatically impaired fertilization success. For exposures of less than 24 h, gametes and free-swimming embryos were the most sensitive life stages. For those of more than 24 h, young embryos (<1 d old) were most sensitive. The results are presented as statistical models that could assist decisions about dispersant use in the vicinity of fish spawning habitats. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  1. Inflammation-nutrition scope predicts prognosis of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Jing; Gao, Xiao-Mei; Jia, Hu-Liang; Yang, Xin

    2017-09-01

    We developed a novel inflammation-nutrition scope (INS) based on systemic inflammatory response and nutritional status, and explored its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially for those with early-stage disease.The INS was developed based on a retrospective study of 185 patients with HCC undergoing hepatectomy between 2006 and 2007, and validated in a prospective study of 131 patients enrolled from 2009 to 2010. Prediction accuracy was evaluated with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs).The INS was constructed as follows: patients with both an elevated red blood cell distribution width (RDW, ≥13.25%) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, ≥1.1) were allocated a score of 2. Patients in whom only 1 or none of these biochemical abnormalities was present were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively. An elevated INS was associated with larger tumor size, tumor thrombus, and high tumor lymph nodes metastasis (TNM) stage. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed the INS was an independent predictor for overall survival, and a prognostic factor for patients with TNM I stage. The AUCs of the INS for survival were higher than other conventional clinical indices.The INS is a promising predictor of poor outcome in patients with HCC, especially for those with early-stage disease, and is a promising tool for HCC treatment strategy decisions for future clinical trials targeting nutritional decline.

  2. Psycholinguistics discovers the operant: a review of Roger Brown's A first language: the early stages1

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Evalyn F.

    1975-01-01

    Brown's book is selectively reviewed with the aim of noting points of similarity between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of language acquisition and a functional analysis of verbal behavior. Brown divides early language acquisition into five stages, based on mean length of utterance in samples of child speech. His book concentrates on Stage I, when mean length of utterance first rises above 1.0, indicating that children are beginning to speak in multi-morphemic utterances, and Stage II, when mean length of utterance in morphemes is about 2.25. Multi-morphemic utterances in Stage I consist mainly of ordered sequences of uninflected nouns and verbs, the order being that of the simple declarative sentence (agent-action-indirect object-direct object-locative). The review attempts a theoretical analysis of the functional stimulus control of Stage I syntactic order, concluding that the control must originate partly in relations among events in the environment and partly in covert autoclitic verbal behavior. Increases in mean length of utterance in Stage II are mainly due to the appearance of several “grammatical morphemes” such as the progressive -ing inflection on verbs and the plural -s inflection on nouns. The review attempts a behavioral paraphrase, again in terms of tacts and autoclitics, of Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of grammatical morphemes, concluding that Stage II displays the further development, building on Stage I, of the combined control of verbal behavior by relations in the environment and covert self-generated verbal stimuli. Similarities between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis and a functional analysis of language acquisition suggest that the two viewpoints are converging on a common concern with the stimulus control of verbal behavior.

  3. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Involvement of R-cadherin in the early stage of glomerulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goto, S; Yaoita, E; Matsunami, H; Kondo, D; Yamamoto, T; Kawasaki, K; Arakawa, M; Kihara, I

    1998-07-01

    The earliest commitment to the formation of glomeruli is recognizable in S-shaped bodies. Although cell-cell adhesion seems likely to play a crucial role in this process, how glomerular epithelial cells segregate from the other parts of the nephron is unknown. In this study, immunofluorescence microscopy and monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse R-, E-, P- and N-cadherins were used to examine which of these adhesion molecules are involved in glomerulogenesis of the mouse kidney. Weak R-cadherin staining was first found in the vesicle stage, becoming restricted to glomerular visceral epithelial cells (VEC) during the S-shaped body stage. The intensity of this staining became stronger in the capillary loop stage, whereas parietal epithelial cells (PEC) and tubular cells did not stain. In the maturing stage, VEC gradually lost their staining for R-cadherin. E-cadherin was detected in ureteric buds and the upper limb of S-shaped bodies. From the capillary loop to the maturing stage, anti-E-cadherin stained epithelial cells in all tubule segments, but no label was seen in VEC or PEC. P-cadherin was also stained in the ureteric buds and in the upper limb of S-shaped bodies. N-Cadherin was weakly stained in cells at the vesicle stage, but thereafter staining of N-cadherin was not detected at any stage of glomerular formation. Immunoelectron microscopy of differentiating VEC was performed using antibodies specific to alpha-catenin, which is associated with cadherin. Subsequently, immunogold particles identifying alpha-catenin were localized on junctions between primary processes of VEC. These findings indicate that R-cadherin is uniquely expressed in differentiating VEC, suggesting an important role in the early stages of glomerulogenesis.

  5. Abnormalities of plantar pressure distribution in early, intermediate, and late stages of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Isabel C N; Hamamoto, Adriana N; Tonicelli, Lucas M G; Watari, Ricky; Ortega, Neli R S; Sartor, Cristina D

    2014-09-01

    Inconsistent findings with regard to plantar pressure while walking in the diabetic population may be due to the heterogeneity of the studied groups resulting from the classification/grouping criteria adopted. The clinical diagnosis and classification of diabetes have inherent uncertainties that compromise the definition of its onset and the differentiation of its severity stages. A fuzzy system could improve the precision of the diagnosis and classification of diabetic neuropathy because it takes those uncertainties into account and combines different assessment methods. Here, we investigated how plantar pressure abnormalities evolve throughout different severity stages of diabetic polyneuropathy (absent, n=38; mild, n=20; moderate, n=47; severe, n=24). Pressure distribution was analysed over five areas while patients walked barefoot. Patients with mild neuropathy displayed an increase in pressure-time integral at the forefoot and a lower peak pressure at the heel. The peak and pressure-time integral under the forefoot and heel were aggravated in later stages of the disease (moderate and severe) compared with early stages of the disease (absent and mild). In the severe group, lower pressures at the lateral forefoot and hallux were observed, which could be related to symptoms that develop with the aggravation of neuropathy: atrophy of the intrinsic foot muscles, reduction of distal muscle activity, and joint stiffness. Although there were clear alterations over the forefoot and in a number of plantar areas with higher pressures within each severity stage, they did not follow the aggravation evolution of neuropathy classified by the fuzzy model. Based on these results, therapeutic interventions should begin in the early stages of this disease to prevent further consequences of the disease.

  6. Elevated risk of early reoperation in total hip replacement during the stage of unit closure

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Mikko; Malmivaara, Antti; Paavola, Mika; Seitsalo, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — The effects of launch or closure of an entire arthroplasty unit on the first or last patients treated in these units have not been studied. Using a 3-year follow-up, we investigated whether patients who were treated at the launch or closure stage of an arthroplasty unit of a hospital would have a higher risk of reoperation than patients treated in-between at the same units. Patients and methods — From the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, we identified all the units that had performed total joint arthroplasty and the units that were launched or closed in Finland between 1998 and 2011. The risks of reoperation within 3 years for the 41,748 total hip and knee replacements performed due to osteoarthritis in these units were modeled with Cox proportional-hazards regression, separately for hip and knee and for the launch and the closure stage. Results — The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total hip and knee replacements performed in the initial stage of activity of the units that were launched were similar to the reoperation risks in patients who were operated in these units after the early stage of activity. The unadjusted and risk-adjusted HRs for early reoperation after total hip replacement (THR) were increased at the closure stage (adjusted HR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.8). The reoperation risk at the closure stage after total knee replacement (TKR) was not increased. Interpretation — The results indicate that closure of units performing total hip replacements poses an increased risk of reoperation. Closures need to be managed carefully to prevent the quality from deteriorating when performing the final arthroplasties. PMID:26541178

  7. Locus coeruleus at asymptomatic early and middle Braak stages of neurofibrillary tangle pathology.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Benito, P; Fernández-Dueñas, V; Carmona, M; Escobar, L A; Torrejón-Escribano, B; Aso, E; Ciruela, F; Ferrer, I

    2017-08-01

    The present study analyses molecular characteristics of the locus coeruleus (LC) and projections to the amygdala and hippocampus at asymptomatic early and middle Braak stages of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology. Immunohistochemistry, whole-transcriptome arrays and RT-qPCR in LC and western blotting in hippocampus and amygdala in a cohort of asymptomatic individuals at stages I-IV of NFT pathology were used. NFTs in the LC increased in parallel with colocalized expression of tau kinases, increased neuroketal adducts and decreased superoxide dismutase 1 in neurons with hyperphosphorylated tau and decreased voltage-dependent anion channel in neurons containing truncated tau were found. These were accompanied by increased microglia and AIF1, CD68, PTGS2, IL1β, IL6 and TNF-α gene expression. Whole-transcriptome arrays revealed upregulation of genes coding for proteins associated with heat shock protein binding and genes associated with ATP metabolism and downregulation of genes coding for DNA-binding proteins and members of the small nucleolar RNAs family, at stage IV when compared with stage I. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity was preserved in neurons of the LC, but decreased TH and increased α2A adrenergic receptor protein levels were found in the hippocampus and the amygdala. Complex alteration of several metabolic pathways occurs in the LC accompanying NFT formation at early and middle asymptomatic stages of NFT pathology. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic denervation and increased expression of α2A adrenergic receptor in the hippocampus and amygdala occur at first stage of NFT pathology, suggesting compensatory activation in the face of decreased adrenergic input occurring before clinical evidence of cognitive impairment and depression. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of embryos between a maize hybrid and its parental lines during early stages of seed germination.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baojian; Chen, Yanhong; Zhang, Guiping; Xing, Jiewen; Hu, Zhaorong; Feng, Wanjun; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Du, Jinkun; Zhang, Yirong; Ni, Zhongfu; Sun, Qixin

    2013-01-01

    In spite of commercial use of heterosis in agriculture, the molecular basis of heterosis is poorly understood. It was observed that maize hybrid Zong3/87-1 exhibited an earlier onset or heterosis in radicle emergence. To get insights into the underlying mechanism of heterosis in radicle emergence, differential proteomic analysis between hybrid and its parental lines was performed. In total, the number of differentially expressed protein spots between hybrid and its parental lines in dry and 24 h imbibed seed embryos were 134 and 191, respectively, among which 47.01% (63/134) and 34.55% (66/191) protein spots displayed nonadditively expressed pattern. Remarkably, 54.55% of nonadditively accumulated proteins in 24 h imbibed seed embryos displayed above or equal to the level of the higher parent patterns. Moreover, 155 differentially expressed protein spots were identified, which were grouped into eight functional classes, including transcription & translation, energy & metabolism, signal transduction, disease & defense, storage protein, transposable element, cell growth & division and unclassified proteins. In addition, one of the upregulated proteins in F1 hybrids was ZmACT2, a homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana ACT7 (AtACT7). Expressing ZmACT2 driven by the AtACT7 promoter partially complemented the low germination phenotype in the Atact7 mutant. These results indicated that hybridization between two parental lines can cause changes in the expression of a variety of proteins, and it is concluded that the altered pattern of gene expression at translational level in the hybrid may be responsible for the observed heterosis.

  9. The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.

    PubMed

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

    1980-10-01

    The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of

  10. Operative link on gastritis assessment stage is an appropriate predictor of early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Ge, Zhi-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the predictive value of Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment (OLGIM) stages in gastric cancer. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 71 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) and 156 patients with non-EGC. All patients underwent endoscopic examination and systematic biopsy. Outcome measures were assessed and compared, including the Japanese endoscopic gastric atrophy (EGA) classification method and the modified OLGA method as well as the modified OLGIM method. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was determined for all study participants. Stepwise logistic regression modeling was performed to analyze correlations between EGC and the EGA, OLGA and OLGIM methods. RESULTS: For patients with EGC and patients with non-EGC, the proportions of moderate-to-severe EGA cases were 64.8% and 44.9%, respectively (P = 0.005), the proportions of OLGA stages III-IV cases were 52.1% and 22.4%, respectively (P < 0.001), and the proportions of OLGIM stages III-IV cases were 42.3% and 19.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). OLGA stage and OLGIM stage were significantly related to EGA classification; specifically, logistic regression modeling showed significant correlations between EGC and moderate-to-severe EGA (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.06-3.58, P = 0.031) and OLGA stages III-IV (OR = 3.14, 95%CI: 1.71-5.81, P < 0.001), but no significant correlation between EGC and OLGIM stages III-IV (P = 0.781). H. pylori infection rate was significantly higher in patients with moderate-to-severe EGA (75.0% vs 54.1%, P = 0.001) or OLGA/OLGIM stages III-IV (OLGA: 83.6% vs 55.8%, P < 0.001; OLGIM: 83.6% vs 57.8%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: OLGA classification is optimal for EGC screening. A surveillance program including OLGA stage and H. pylori infection status may facilitate early detection of gastric cancer. PMID:27053859

  11. Cognitive deterioration in Alzheimer's disease: is the early course predictive of the later stages?

    PubMed

    Capitani, E; Cazzaniga, R; Francescani, A; Spinnler, H

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated the predictive value of the early progression rate of Alzheimer's disease on that of the later stages. We retrospectively evaluated 91 patients affected by possible Alzheimer's disease; the patients had been examined twice with the Milan overall dementia assessment (MODA) scale at an interval of 12 months (53 patients) or 24 months (38 patients). At the first assessment, speed of progression was calculated for each patient dividing the MODA difference from the normality threshold by the time elapsed from the cognitive decline onset. The second assessment of speed of progression was calculated dividing the difference between the two MODA scores by the time elapsed from the first examination. Patients with a slow progression rate in the early stage were unlikely to show a subsequent fast progression rate, and vice versa for patients with a fast early progression. A tool is provided for predicting the speed of cognitive decline of patients from a single MODA assessment. We suggest that, in future clinical trials on Alzheimer's disease, a stratification of participants based on the early rate of cognitive deterioration may be considered.

  12. AURKB and MAPK involvement in the regulation of the early stages of mouse zygote development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Liu, Tong; Han, Feng; Zong, Zhihong; Wang, Guoli; Yu, Bingzhi; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Aurora kinases have become a hot topic for research as they have been found to play an important role in various stages of mitotic cell division and to participate in malignant conversions of tumors. The participation of Aurora kinases in the regulation of oocyte meiosis has been recently reported, but their participation in mammalian early embryonic development remained unclear. The object of our study was to establish the spatio-temporal expression pattern of Aurora kinase B (AURKB) in mouse zygotes during the first cleavage, to reveal its functions in the early development of mouse zygotes, and to define the involvement of AURKB in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Our results showed that in mouse zygotes AURKB expression increased in G1 phase and peaked in M phase. AURKB protein distribution was found to be in association with nuclei and distributed throughout the cytoplasm in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Functional disruption of AURKB resulted in abnormal division phenotypes or mitotic impairments. U0126, a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, caused significantly altered morphologies of early embryos together with a decrease in protein expression and kinase activity of AURKB. Our results indicated that the activity of AURKB was required for regulating multiple stages of mitotic progression in the early development of mouse zygotes and was correlated with the activation of the MAPK pathway.

  13. Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  14. [Current aspects of risk factors in early stage cancer of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Scutariu, Monica Mihaela; Voroneanu, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Understanding opinions, attitudes and practices of dental healthcare professionals is vital in order to assess their effectiveness in the prevention and early detection of oral cancer, thus helping to reduce its mortality and morbidity. There is current debate on whether the implementation of screening and detecting of risk factors as a separate procedure from the daily routine work of dental healthcare professionals would be an effective measure for the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. Being able to routinely detect oral cancer at an early stage and counsel patients in prevention is a continuous challenge for the dental profession. Dentists must be familiar with the risk factors and clinical signs and symptoms of oral cancer if they are to be effective in identifying, referring and counseling high-risk patients.

  15. Reaction norm model with unknown environmental covariate to analyze heterosis by environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Madsen, P; Lund, M S

    2009-05-01

    Crossbreeding is currently increasing in dairy cattle production. Several studies have shown an environment-dependent heterosis [i.e., an interaction between heterosis and environment (H x E)]. An H x E interaction is usually estimated from a few discrete environment levels. The present study proposes a reaction norm model to describe H x E interaction, which can deal with a large number of environment levels using few parameters. In the proposed model, total heterosis consists of an environment-independent part, which is described as a function of heterozygosity, and an environment-dependent part, which is described as a function of heterozygosity and environmental value (e.g., herd-year effect). A Bayesian approach is developed to estimate the environmental covariates, the regression coefficients of the reaction norm, and other parameters of the model simultaneously in both linear and nonlinear reaction norms. In the nonlinear reaction norm model, the H x E is approximated using linear splines. The approach was tested using simulated data, which were generated using an animal model with a reaction norm for heterosis. The simulation study includes 4 scenarios (the combinations of moderate vs. low heritability and moderate vs. low herd-year variation) of H x E interaction in a nonlinear form. In all scenarios, the proposed model predicted total heterosis very well. The correlation between true heterosis and predicted heterosis was 0.98 in the scenarios with low herd-year variation and 0.99 in the scenarios with moderate herd-year variation. This suggests that the proposed model and method could be a good approach to analyze H x E interactions and predict breeding values in situations in which heterosis changes gradually and continuously over an environmental gradient. On the other hand, it was found that a model ignoring H x E interaction did not significantly harm the prediction of breeding value under the simulated scenarios in which the variance for environment

  16. Elevated nuclear CCND1 expression confers an unfavorable prognosis for early stage lung adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Zhao, Mengyang; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Yiyi; Chen, Yiyu; Luo, Rongcheng; Fang, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    Purposes: To examine the expression pattern of CCND1 and analyze the correlation of its nuclear expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: CCND1 mRNA and protein levels in lung adenocarcinoma tissues were examined. The relationship between nuclear CCND1 protein expression and clinical features including survival prognosis was analyzed. Results: CCND1 mRNA levels were markedly increased in lung adenocarcinoma (P=0.0019). Western blot analysis confirmed increased nuclear CCND1 protein expression in lung adenocarcinoma specimens. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that CCND1 protein was predominantly nuclear localized in lung adenocarcinoma cells and significantly elevated relative to normal lung tissues (P<0.001). Furthermore, high levels of nuclear CCND1 were positively correlated with clinical stage (P=0.026). Patients with nuclear CCND1 expression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than did patients with low expression. Interestingly, nuclear CCND1 expression in clinical stage I+II, but not clinical stage III, was shown associated with poor prognosis and shorter overall survival time for lung adenocarcinoma patients by strata analysis. Finally, nuclear CCND1 expression tended to be an independent prognostic indicator (P=0.087) for lung adenocarcinoma patient survival. Conclusion: Increased nuclear CCND1 is a potential unfavorable prognostic factor for lung adenocarcinoma patients, especially those with clinical early stage (stage I+II). PMID:26884860

  17. Early- and late-stage ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schaftenaar, Erik; Meenken, Christina; Baarsma, G Seerp; McIntyre, James A; Verjans, Georges M G M; Peters, Remco P H

    2016-03-01

    To describe the spectrum of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) in rural South Africa. Patients presenting with visual complaints and active or healed HZO at the ophthalmology outpatient department of three hospitals in rural South Africa were included in this study. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and HIV status was determined for all participants. Forty-eight patients were included, and 81% were HIV infected. Poor vision was reported by 94% of patients, painful eye by 79% and photophobia by 63%. A diverse spectrum of ocular complications was observed with corneal inflammation and opacification in 77% followed by anterior uveitis in 65%. The majority (65%) presented with late-stage ocular complications associated with irreversible loss of vision whereas early-stage complications, such as punctate epithelial keratitis and anterior uveitis, were less common. Blindness of the affected eye was observed in 68% of patients with late-stage complications. There was a considerable delay between onset of symptoms and first presentation to the ophthalmology outpatient department (median time 35 days; range 1-2500 days), and longer delay was associated with late-stage ocular complications (P = 0.02). HZO patients present with relatively late-stage ocular complications, and blindness among these patients is common. The delayed presentation to the ophthalmology outpatient department of hospitals in our rural setting is of concern, and efforts to improve ocular outcomes of HZO are urgently needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Heterosis for carotenoid concentration and profile in maize hybrids.

    PubMed

    Burt, Andrew J; Grainger, Christopher M; Shelp, Barry J; Lee, Elizabeth A

    2011-12-01

    Production of high-lutein maize grain is of particular interest as a value-added feed source to produce high-lutein eggs. In this paper, it is demonstrated that heterosis for total carotenoid concentration and for the ratio of lutein to zeaxanthin (L:Z ratio), or profile type, exists infrequently in yellow dent crosses. However, yellow dent inbred maize lines A619 and CG102, both possessing high-lutein profiles, produce F1 seed with a classic overdominant expression of lutein levels (i.e., 49 µg/g dry weight (DW) above the high-parent value). Reciprocal crosses of A619 and CG102 with one another and with two high-zeaxanthin (i.e., low lutein), high-carotenoid lines both suggest that the A619 and CG102 high-lutein phenotypes are achieved by different and complementary genotypes. The contribution of CG102 to the heterotic response was examined using a QTL-based approach that involved phenotyping the mapping population in a testcross to A619. Significant QTL were found at loci known to be involved in the carotenoid pathway but also at loci proximate to, but separate from, known carotenoid pathway steps. Exploiting an overdominant heterotic response for lutein and total carotenoids should be given strong consideration as a viable method of producing high-carotenoid hybrid maize lines.

  19. Empirical Bayes analysis of RNA-seq data for detection of gene expression heterosis.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Jarad; Mittman, Eric; Landau, Will; Nettleton, Dan

    2015-12-01

    An important type of heterosis, known as hybrid vigor, refers to the enhancements in the phenotype of hybrid progeny relative to their inbred parents. Although hybrid vigor is extensively utilized in agriculture, its molecular basis is still largely unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers are measuring transcript abundance levels of thousands of genes in parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. The resulting data allow researchers to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis as one potential molecular mechanism underlying heterosis of agriculturally important traits. The null hypotheses of greatest interest in testing for gene expression heterosis are composite null hypotheses that are difficult to test with standard statistical approaches for RNA-seq analysis. To address these shortcomings, we develop a hierarchical negative binomial model and draw inferences using a computationally tractable empirical Bayes approach to inference. We demonstrate improvements over alternative methods via a simulation study based on a maize experiment and then analyze that maize experiment with our newly proposed methodology. This article has supplementary material online.

  20. A Systems Approach to Elucidate Heterosis of Protein Abundances in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Blein-Nicolas, Mélisande; Albertin, Warren; da Silva, Telma; Valot, Benoît; Balliau, Thierry; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle; Bely, Marina; Marullo, Philippe; Sicard, Delphine; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Zivy, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Heterosis is a universal phenomenon that has major implications in evolution and is of tremendous agro-economic value. To study the molecular manifestations of heterosis and to find factors that maximize its strength, we implemented a large-scale proteomic experiment in yeast. We analyzed the inheritance of 1,396 proteins in 55 inter- and intraspecific hybrids obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum that were grown in grape juice at two temperatures. We showed that the proportion of heterotic proteins was highly variable depending on the parental strain and on the temperature considered. For intraspecific hybrids, this proportion was higher at nonoptimal temperature. Unexpectedly, heterosis for protein abundance was strongly biased toward positive values in interspecific hybrids but not in intraspecific hybrids. Computer modeling showed that this observation could be accounted for by assuming concave relationships between protein abundances and their controlling factors, in line with the metabolic model of heterosis. These results point to nonlinear processes that could play a central role in heterosis.

  1. Genetic dissection of heterosis using epistatic association mapping in a partial NCII mating design.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia; Zhao, Xinwang; Wu, Guorong; Xiang, Dan; Liu, Qing; Bu, Su-Hong; Yi, Can; Song, Qijian; Dunwell, Jim M; Tu, Jinxing; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2015-12-17

    Heterosis refers to the phenomenon in which an F1 hybrid exhibits enhanced growth or agronomic performance. However, previous theoretical studies on heterosis have been based on bi-parental segregating populations instead of F1 hybrids. To understand the genetic basis of heterosis, here we used a subset of F1 hybrids, named a partial North Carolina II design, to perform association mapping for dependent variables: original trait value, general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and mid-parental heterosis (MPH). Our models jointly fitted all the additive, dominance and epistatic effects. The analyses resulted in several important findings: 1) Main components are additive and additive-by-additive effects for GCA and dominance-related effects for SCA and MPH, and additive-by-dominant effect for MPH was partly identified as additive effect; 2) the ranking of factors affecting heterosis was dominance > dominance-by-dominance > over-dominance > complete dominance; and 3) increasing the proportion of F1 hybrids in the population could significantly increase the power to detect dominance-related effects, and slightly reduce the power to detect additive and additive-by-additive effects. Analyses of cotton and rapeseed datasets showed that more additive-by-additive QTL were detected from GCA than from trait phenotype, and fewer QTL were from MPH than from other dependent variables.

  2. Genetic dissection of heterosis using epistatic association mapping in a partial NCII mating design

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jia; Zhao, Xinwang; Wu, Guorong; Xiang, Dan; Liu, Qing; Bu, Su-Hong; Yi, Can; Song, Qijian; Dunwell, Jim M.; Tu, Jinxing; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis refers to the phenomenon in which an F1 hybrid exhibits enhanced growth or agronomic performance. However, previous theoretical studies on heterosis have been based on bi-parental segregating populations instead of F1 hybrids. To understand the genetic basis of heterosis, here we used a subset of F1 hybrids, named a partial North Carolina II design, to perform association mapping for dependent variables: original trait value, general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and mid-parental heterosis (MPH). Our models jointly fitted all the additive, dominance and epistatic effects. The analyses resulted in several important findings: 1) Main components are additive and additive-by-additive effects for GCA and dominance-related effects for SCA and MPH, and additive-by-dominant effect for MPH was partly identified as additive effect; 2) the ranking of factors affecting heterosis was dominance > dominance-by-dominance > over-dominance > complete dominance; and 3) increasing the proportion of F1 hybrids in the population could significantly increase the power to detect dominance-related effects, and slightly reduce the power to detect additive and additive-by-additive effects. Analyses of cotton and rapeseed datasets showed that more additive-by-additive QTL were detected from GCA than from trait phenotype, and fewer QTL were from MPH than from other dependent variables. PMID:26679476

  3. Empirical Bayes analysis of RNA-seq data for detection of gene expression heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Jarad; Mittman, Eric; Landau, Will; Nettleton, Dan

    2016-01-01

    An important type of heterosis, known as hybrid vigor, refers to the enhancements in the phenotype of hybrid progeny relative to their inbred parents. Although hybrid vigor is extensively utilized in agriculture, its molecular basis is still largely unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers are measuring transcript abundance levels of thousands of genes in parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. The resulting data allow researchers to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis as one potential molecular mechanism underlying heterosis of agriculturally important traits. The null hypotheses of greatest interest in testing for gene expression heterosis are composite null hypotheses that are difficult to test with standard statistical approaches for RNA-seq analysis. To address these shortcomings, we develop a hierarchical negative binomial model and draw inferences using a computationally tractable empirical Bayes approach to inference. We demonstrate improvements over alternative methods via a simulation study based on a maize experiment and then analyze that maize experiment with our newly proposed methodology. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:27147815

  4. Comparative transcriptional profiling and preliminary study on heterosis mechanism of super-hybrid rice.

    PubMed

    Song, Gui-Sheng; Zhai, Hong-Li; Peng, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Gang; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Guo; Wang, Lili; Chen, Yue-Jun; Wu, Bin; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Hua; Feng, Xiu-Jing; Gong, Wan-Kui; Liu, Yao; Yin, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Feng; Liu, Guo-Zhen; Xu, Hong-Lin; Wei, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Hankemeier, Thomas; Reijmers, Theo; van der Heijden, Rob; Lu, Cong-Ming; Wang, Mei; van der Greef, Jan; Zhu, Zhen

    2010-11-01

    Heterosis is a biological phenomenon whereby the offspring from two parents show improved and superior performance than either inbred parental lines. Hybrid rice is one of the most successful apotheoses in crops utilizing heterosis. Transcriptional profiling of F(1) super-hybrid rice Liangyou-2186 and its parents by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) revealed 1183 differentially expressed genes (DGs), among which DGs were found significantly enriched in pathways such as photosynthesis and carbon-fixation, and most of the key genes involved in the carbon-fixation pathway exhibited up-regulated expression in F(1) hybrid rice. Moreover, increased catabolic activity of corresponding enzymes and photosynthetic efficiency were also detected, which combined to indicate that carbon fixation is enhanced in F(1) hybrid, and might probably be associated with the yield vigor and heterosis in super-hybrid rice. By correlating DGs with yield-related quantitative trait loci (QTL), a potential relationship between differential gene expression and phenotypic changes was also found. In addition, a regulatory network involving circadian-rhythms and light signaling pathways was also found, as previously reported in Arabidopsis, which suggest that such a network might also be related with heterosis in hybrid rice. Altogether, the present study provides another view for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying heterosis in rice.

  5. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling and Preliminary Study on Heterosis Mechanism of Super-Hybrid Rice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gui-Sheng; Zhai, Hong-Li; Peng, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Gang; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Guo; Wang, Lili; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Xiu-Jing; Gong, Wan-Kui; Liu, Yao; Yin, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Feng; Liu, Guo-Zhen; Xu, Hong-Lin; Wei, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Reijmers, Theo; van der Heijden, Rob; Wang, Mei; van der Greef, Jan; Zhu, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Heterosis is a biological phenomenon whereby the offspring from two parents show improved and superior performance than either inbred parental lines. Hybrid rice is one of the most successful apotheoses in crops utilizing heterosis. Transcriptional profiling of F1 super-hybrid rice Liangyou-2186 and its parents by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) revealed 1183 differentially expressed genes (DGs), among which DGs were found significantly enriched in pathways such as photosynthesis and carbon-fixation, and most of the key genes involved in the carbon-fixation pathway exhibited up-regulated expression in F1 hybrid rice. Moreover, increased catabolic activity of corresponding enzymes and photosynthetic efficiency were also detected, which combined to indicate that carbon fixation is enhanced in F1 hybrid, and might probably be associated with the yield vigor and heterosis in super-hybrid rice. By correlating DGs with yield-related quantitative trait loci (QTL), a potential relationship between differential gene expression and phenotypic changes was also found. In addition, a regulatory network involving circadian-rhythms and light signaling pathways was also found, as previously reported in Arabidopsis, which suggest that such a network might also be related with heterosis in hybrid rice. Altogether, the present study provides another view for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying heterosis in rice. PMID:20729474

  6. A Systems Approach to Elucidate Heterosis of Protein Abundances in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Blein-Nicolas, Mélisande; Albertin, Warren; da Silva, Telma; Valot, Benoît; Balliau, Thierry; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle; Bely, Marina; Marullo, Philippe; Sicard, Delphine; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Zivy, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis is a universal phenomenon that has major implications in evolution and is of tremendous agro-economic value. To study the molecular manifestations of heterosis and to find factors that maximize its strength, we implemented a large-scale proteomic experiment in yeast. We analyzed the inheritance of 1,396 proteins in 55 inter- and intraspecific hybrids obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum that were grown in grape juice at two temperatures. We showed that the proportion of heterotic proteins was highly variable depending on the parental strain and on the temperature considered. For intraspecific hybrids, this proportion was higher at nonoptimal temperature. Unexpectedly, heterosis for protein abundance was strongly biased toward positive values in interspecific hybrids but not in intraspecific hybrids. Computer modeling showed that this observation could be accounted for by assuming concave relationships between protein abundances and their controlling factors, in line with the metabolic model of heterosis. These results point to nonlinear processes that could play a central role in heterosis. PMID:25971257

  7. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. Methods 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. Results No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson’s disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson’s disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson’s disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced

  8. Outcomes following local therapy for early-stage breast cancer in non-trial populations.

    PubMed

    Keating, Nancy L; Landrum, Mary Beth; Brooks, John M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Winer, Eric P; Wright, Kara; Volya, Rita

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies suggest trends toward more mastectomies for primary breast cancer treatment. We assessed survival after mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation for early-stage breast cancer among non-selected populations of women and among women similar to those in clinical trials. Using population-based data from Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries linked with Medicare administrative data from 1992 to 2005, we conducted propensity score analysis of survival following primary therapy for early-stage breast cancer, including BCS with radiation, BCS without radiation, mastectomy with radiation, and mastectomy without radiation. Adjusted survival was greatest among women who had BCS with radiation (median survival = 10.98 years). Compared with this group, mortality was higher among women who had mastectomy without radiation (median survival 10.04 years, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.23), mastectomy with radiation (median survival 10.02 years, HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.14-1.27), and BCS without radiation (median survival 7.63 years, HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.70-1.92). Among women representative of those eligible for clinical trials (age ≤70 years, Charlson comorbidity score = 0/1, and stage 1 tumors), there were no differences in survival for women who underwent BCS with radiation or mastectomy. In conclusion, after careful adjustment for differences in patient, physician, and hospital characteristics, we found better survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among older early-stage breast cancer patients, with no difference in survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among women representative of those in clinical trials. These findings are reassuring in light of recent trends towards more aggressive primary breast cancer therapy.

  9. Early-Stage White Matter Lesions Detected by Multispectral MRI Segmentation Predict Progressive Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Hanna; Gonçalves, Nicolau; Vigário, Ricardo; Lipsanen, Jari; Fazekas, Franz; Schmidt, Reinhold; Barkhof, Frederik; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2015-01-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a “pre-visible” stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65–84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study were analyzed using a self-supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial WML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%), intermediate (66%), or high (100%) proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory, and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment. PMID:26696814

  10. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Effect of prometryne on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis).

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Zuskova, Eliska; Kouba, Antonin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the toxicity of prometryne in early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis) on the basis of mortality, early ontogeny, growth rate, and histopathology during and at the end of the test. The early life stages of marbled crayfish were exposed to prometryne at four concentrations, 0.51, (reported concentration in Czech rivers), 144, 1440, and 4320 μg x l(-1) for 53 days and compared to crayfish in a non-treated control group. RESU LTS: Prometryne in concentration 144, 1444 and 4320 μg x l(-1) caused decrease of weight and specific growth rates of crayfish. Crayfish exposed the highest concentration 4320 μg x l(-1) showed delay in ontogeny development. All crayfish groups exposed to prometryne showed histopathological changes in gill. On the basis of histopathological changes the values of LOEC = 0.51 μg x l(-1) and NOEC = for 0.10 μg x l(-1) of prometryne for marbled crayfish juveniles was estimated. Chronic exposure of prometryne on early life stages of crayfish has affected their mortality, growth rate, and histology. Some of the changes were observed only at higher exposures (144, 1444 and 4320 μg x l(-1)), but histopathological changes in gills were observed also in crayfish exposed to the real environmental concentration in Czech rivers (i.e. 0.51 μg x l(-1)), which is about 9 times lower than maximal concentration (4.40 μg x l(-1)) reported in surface waters of Greece. Concentrations of prometryne in World rivers have been reported to generally vary in the range of 0.1-4.40 μg x l(-1).

  12. Subcortical grey matter changes in untreated, early stage Parkinson's disease without dementia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Mi; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Kim, Min-Jik; Jang, Ji-Wan; Suh, Sang-Il; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Previous MRI studies have investigated cortical or subcortical grey matter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), yielding inconsistent findings between the studies. We therefore sought to determine whether focal cortical or subcortical grey matter changes may be present from the early disease stage. We recruited 49 untreated, early stage PD patients without dementia and 53 control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate cortical grey matter changes, and automated volumetry and shape analysis were used to assess volume changes and shape deformation of the subcortical grey matter structures, respectively. Voxel-based morphometry showed neither reductions nor increases in grey matter volume in patients compared to controls. Compared to controls, PD patients had significant reductions in adjusted volumes of putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus (corrected p < 0.05). Vertex-based shape analysis showed regionally contracted area on the posterolateral and ventromedial putamen bilaterally in PD patients (corrected p < 0.05). No correlations were found between cortical and subcortical grey matter and clinical variables representing disease duration and severity. Our results suggest that untreated, early stage PD without dementia is associated with volume reduction and shape deformation of subcortical grey matter, but not with cortical grey matter reduction. Our findings of structural changes in the posterolateral putamen and ventromedial putamen/nucleus accumbens could provide neuroanatomical basis for the involvement of motor and limbic striatum, further implicating motor and non-motor symptoms in PD, respectively. Early hippocampal involvement might be related to the risk for developing dementia in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Open lung biopsy in early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Kuo-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Huang, Chung-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has heterogeneous etiologies, rapid progressive change and a high mortality rate. To improve the outcome of ARDS, accurate diagnosis is essential to the application of effective early treatment. The present study investigated the clinical effects and safety of open lung biopsy (OLB) in patients with early-stage ARDS of suspected non-infectious origin. Methods We undertook a retrospective study of 41 patients with early-stage ARDS (defined as one week or less after intubation) who underwent OLB in two medical intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital from 1999 to 2005. Data analyzed included baseline characteristics, complication rate, pathological diagnoses, treatment alterations, and hospital survival. Results The age of patients was 55 ± 17 years (mean ± SD). The average ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 116 ± 43 mmHg (mean ± SD) at biopsy. Seventeen patients (41%) were immunocompromised. Postoperative complications occurred in 20% of patients (8/41). All biopsies provided a pathological diagnosis with a diagnostic yield of 100%. Specific pathological diagnoses were made for 44% of patients (18/41). Biopsy findings led to an alteration of treatment modality in 73% of patients (30/41). The treatment alteration rate was higher in patients with nonspecific diagnoses than in patients with specific diagnoses (p = 0.0024). Overall mortality was 50% (21/41) and was not influenced by age, gender, pre-OLB oxygenation, complication rate, pathological results, and alteration of treatment. There was no surgery-related mortality. The survival rate for immunocompromised patients was better than that for immunocompetent patients (71% versus 33%; p = 0.0187) in this study. Conclusion Our retrospective study suggests that OLB was a useful and acceptably safe diagnostic procedure in some selected patients with early-stage ARDS. PMID:16859510

  14. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Early Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Molinari, Anna L.; Tramontana, Michael G.; Finder, Stuart G.; Gill, Chandler E.; Bliton, Mark J.; Kao, Chris C.; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M.; Cannard, Kevin R.; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Methods Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50–75, on medication ≥ 6 months but < 4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n=15) or DBS+ODT (n=15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. Results As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. The DBS+ODT group took less medication at all time points, and this reached maximum difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS+ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. Conclusions This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. PMID:24768120

  15. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  16. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  17. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  18. A mid-term follow-up of Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy in adult-acquired flatfoot stage II and “early stage III”

    PubMed Central

    Arvinius, Camilla; Manrique, Elena; Urda, Antonio; Cardoso, Zulema; Galeote, Jose Enrique; Marco, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy has been widely described to treat adult-acquired flatfoot. However, few articles describe its midterm follow-up. Our aim was to study clinical and radiological outcomes at least one year after surgery and to analyze whether a combined procedure on the medial soft tissue affected these outcomes. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 30 feet of patients who underwent a Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy due to adult-acquired flatfoot stage II and “early stage III”: a stage III acquired flatfoot without any important structural deformities. The parameters studied were additional medial soft tissue procedures, clinical outcome through the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle and midfoot score as well as complications and radiological measurements. Results: Sixteen cases were “early stage III” and 14 stage II. Thirteen patients underwent an associated posterior tibial tendon (PTT) revision: in three cases an end-to-end suture was possible, seven cases needed a FDL transposition, and three underwent synovectomy. Statistically significant improvement was found in the AOFAS score although no significant changes were seen radiologically. No additional benefit was found with the revision of the posterior tibial tendon. As to clinical and radiological results, no differences were found between stage II and “early stage III”. Five cases presented a mild dysesthesia but only one patient needed neurolysis. Conclusions: We consider the Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy to be a safe and effective procedure to reduce pain in patients with stage II and “early stage III” adult-acquired flatfoot. PMID:28304274

  19. In Vivo Dark-Field Radiography for Early Diagnosis and Staging of Pulmonary Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Hellbach, Katharina; Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Conlon, Thomas M; Bech, Martin; Mueller, Mark; Velroyen, Astrid; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of in vivo x-ray dark-field radiography for early-stage diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze how the dark-field signal correlates with morphological changes of lung architecture at distinct stages of emphysema. Female 8- to 10-week-old C57Bl/6N mice were used throughout all experiments. Pulmonary emphysema was induced by orotracheal injection of porcine pancreatic elastase (80-U/kg body weight) (n = 30). Control mice (n = 11) received orotracheal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. To monitor the temporal patterns of emphysema development over time, the mice were imaged 7, 14, or 21 days after the application of elastase or phosphate-buffered saline. X-ray transmission and dark-field images were acquired with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner. In vivo pulmonary function tests were performed before killing the animals. In addition, lungs were obtained for detailed histopathological analysis, including mean cord length (MCL) quantification as a parameter for the assessment of emphysema. Three blinded readers, all of them experienced radiologists and familiar with dark-field imaging, were asked to grade the severity of emphysema for both dark-field and transmission images. Histopathology and MCL quantification confirmed the introduction of different stages of emphysema, which could be clearly visualized and differentiated on the dark-field radiograms, whereas early stages were not detected on transmission images. The correlation between MCL and dark-field signal intensities (r = 0.85) was significantly higher than the correlation between MCL and transmission signal intensities (r = 0.37). The readers' visual ratings for dark-field images correlated significantly better with MCL (r = 0.85) than visual ratings for transmission images (r = 0.36). Interreader agreement and the diagnostic accuracy of both quantitative and visual assessment were significantly higher

  20. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Nicholas R; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Overbaugh, Julie; Sawyer, Sara L

    2015-08-01

    Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals from captive owl

  1. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals

  2. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  3. Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin.

    PubMed

    Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S; Di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-06-25

    Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered.

  4. Dissection and Downstream Analysis of Zebra Finch Embryos at Early Stages of Development

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jessica R.; Stanciauskas, Monika E.; Aralere, Tejas S.; Saha, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    The zebra finch (Taeniopygiaguttata) has become an increasingly important model organism in many areas of research including toxicology1,2, behavior3, and memory and learning4,5,6. As the only songbird with a sequenced genome, the zebra finch has great potential for use in developmental studies; however, the early stages of zebra finch development have not been well studied. Lack of research in zebra finch development can be attributed to the difficulty of dissecting the small egg and embryo. The following dissection method minimizes embryonic tissue damage, which allows for investigation of morphology and gene expression at all stages of embryonic development. This permits both bright field and fluorescence quality imaging of embryos, use in molecular procedures such as in situ hybridization (ISH), cell proliferation assays, and RNA extraction for quantitative assays such as quantitative real-time PCR (qtRT-PCR). This technique allows investigators to study early stages of development that were previously difficult to access. PMID:24999108

  5. Increased Endothelial Progenitor Cell Number in Early Stage of Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Paprocka, Maria; Kieda, Claudine; Kantor, Aneta; Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Dus, Danuta; Czekanski, Andrzej; Heimrath, Jerzy

    2017-06-01

    It is generally believed that circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) reflect the state of the endothelium, its injury and/or repair possibilities. In different types of cancers, increased numbers of CECs and EPCs were found, suggesting their participation in cancer angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether, in the blood circulation of women with early endometrial cancer, CEC and EPC levels differ from those of healthy women of similar age. For CEC number evaluation, samples of peripheral blood cells of women with endometrial carcinoma and control subjects were labeled with anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies; for EPCs, with anti-VEGFR2 (vascular-endothelium growth factor receptor 2)/KDR and anti-CD34 antibodies. The CEC and EPC cells were then quantified by flow cytometry. Endothelial progenitor cell numbers (CD34, VEGFR2/KDR) in the peripheral blood of women with endometrial carcinoma were significantly augmented as compared with those of control healthy women and CEC numbers (CD31, CD45) were similar in both groups. Cancer patients were divided according to the grading into G1 and G2 groups and according to the stage into International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IA and FIGO IB groups. Statistically significant augmented EPC numbers were demonstrated only in G1 and FIGO IA patients. These results strongly suggest new vessel formation from recruited endothelial precursors as being involved mainly at the early stages of tumor progression.

  6. Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-06-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development.

  7. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  8. Usefulness of the recombinant liver stage antigen-3 for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ryu, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Chung, Gyung-Tae; Lin, Khin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kong, Yoon; Chung, Kyung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop tools for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection, we evaluated the usefulness of P. falciparum liver stage antigen-3 (LSA-3) as a serodiagnostic antigen. A portion of LSA-3 gene was cloned, and its recombinant protein (rLSA-3) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. The purified rLSA-3 and 120 test blood/serum samples collected from inhabitants in malaria-endemic areas of Mandalay, Myanmar were used for this study. In microscopic examinations of blood samples, P. falciparum positive rate was 39.1% (47/120) in thin smear trials, and 33.3% (40/120) in thick smear trials. Although the positive rate associated with the rLSA-3 (30.8%) was lower than that of the blood stage antigens (70.8%), rLSA-3 based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could detect 12 seropositive cases (10.0%), in which blood stage antigens were not detected. These results indicate that the LSA-3 is a useful antigen for an early serodiagnosis of P. falciparum infection. PMID:16514282

  9. Usefulness of the recombinant liver stage antigen-3 for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ryu, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Chung, Gyung-Tae; Lin, Khin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kong, Yoon; Chung, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2006-03-01

    In order to develop tools for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection, we evaluated the usefulness of P. falciparum liver stage antigen-3 (LSA-3) as a serodiagnostic antigen. A portion of LSA-3 gene was cloned, and its recombinant protein (rLSA-3) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. The purified rLSA-3 and 120 test blood/serum samples collected from inhabitants in malaria-endemic areas of Mandalay, Myanmar were used for this study. In microscopic examinations of blood samples, P. falciparum positive rate was 39.1% (47/120) in thin smear trials, and 33.3% (40/120) in thick smear trials. Although the positive rate associated with the rLSA-3 (30.8%) was lower than that of the blood stage antigens (70.8%), rLSA-3 based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could detect 12 seropositive cases (10.0%), in which blood stage antigens were not detected. These results indicate that the LSA-3 is a useful antigen for an early serodiagnosis of P. falciparum infection.

  10. Early-stage primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun

    2013-01-01

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum detected at an early stage is very rare; most cases are detected at an advanced stage. Therefore, its prognosis is poorer than that of ordinary colorectal cancer. A 56-year-old Korean man was seen at this hospital for management of signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon. Colonoscopic examination revealed a IIa-like, ill-defined and flatly elevated 9-mm residual tumor in the cecum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was preformed. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed signet ring cell carcinoma that had invaded the lamina propria without venous or perineural invasion. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and positron CT showed no evidence of primary lesions or distant metastasis. An additional laparoscopic right-hemicolectomy was performed; no residual tumor or lymph node metastasis was found. We report a case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon detected at an early stage and provide a review of the literature. PMID:23840131

  11. Developing an inventor support service which performs early st