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Sample records for early stage lung

  1. Liquid biopsy for early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Weizhe; Liang, Hengrui; Zeng, Haikang; He, Jianxing

    2018-04-01

    Liquid biopsy, which analyzes biological fluids especially blood specimen to detect and quantify circulating cancer biomarkers, have been rapidly introduced and represents a promising potency in clinical practice of lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Unlike conventional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is non-invasive, safe, simple in procedure, and is not influenced by manipulators' skills. Notably, some circulating cancer biomarkers are already detectable in disease with low-burden, making liquid biopsy feasible in detecting early stage lung cancer. In this review, we described a landscape of different liquid biopsy methods by highlighting the rationale and advantages, accessing the value of various circulating biomarkers and discussing their possible future development in the detection of early lung cancer.

  2. Cysts mark the early stage of metastatic tumor development in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Chitra; Rapp, Ulf R.; Rudel, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Identifying metastatic tumor growth at an early stage has been one of the biggest challenges in the treatment of lung cancer. By genetic lineage tracing approach in a conditional model of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in mice, we demonstrate that cystic lesions represent an early stage of metastatic invasion. We generated a mouse model for NSCLC which incorporated a heritable DsRed fluorescent tag driven by the ubiquitous CAG promoter in the alveolar type II cells of the lung. We found early cystic lesions in a secondary organ (liver) that lacked the expression of bona fide lung makers namely Scgb1a1 and surfactant protein C Sftpc and were DsRed positive hence identifying lung as their source of origin. This demonstrates the significant potential of alveolar type II cells in orchestrating the process of metastasis, rendering it as one of the target cell types of the lung of therapeutic importance in human NSCLC. PMID:29464089

  3. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    PubMed

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Photodynamic therapy of early stage cancer of lung, esophagus, and stomach with two different photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chissov, Valery I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Vaschakmadze, L. A.; Frank, George A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Belous, T. A.; Gladunov, V. K.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Menenkov, V. D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early-stage cancer of lung (17 patients), esophagus (8 patients) and stomach (10 patients). Fifteen patients had second primary tumors. New drugs photoheme and photosens were used as photosensitizers. Complete remission was obtained in 87%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2.5 years.

  5. [Clinical Advanced in Early-stage ALK-positive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiongqiong; Jiang, Xiangli; Huang, Chun

    2017-02-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of lung cancer cases, with the majority of the cases diagnosed at the advanced stage. Molecular targeted therapy is becoming the focus attention for advanced NSCLC. Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 gene and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (EML4-ALK) is among the most common molecular targets of NSCLC; its specific small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are approved for use in advanced NSCLC cases of ALK-positive. However, the influence of EML4-ALK fusion gene on the outcome of early-stage NSCLC cases and the necessity of application of TKIs for early-stage ALK-positive NSCLC patients are still uncertain. In this paper, we summarized the progression of testing methods for ALK-positive NSCLC patients as well as clinicopathological implication, outcome, and necessity of application of TKIs for early-stage ALK-positive NSCLC patients.

  6. SU-F-R-24: Identifying Prognostic Imaging Biomarkers in Early Stage Lung Cancer Using Radiomics

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Cui, Y

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patients diagnosed with early stage lung cancer have favorable outcomes when treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. However, a significant proportion (∼20%) of patients will develop metastatic disease and eventually die of the disease. The purpose of this work is to identify quantitative imaging biomarkers from CT for predicting overall survival in early stage lung cancer. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved HIPPA-compliant retrospective study, we retrospectively analyzed the diagnostic CT scans of 110 patients with early stage lung cancer. Data from 70 patients were used for training/discovery purposes, while those of remaining 40 patients were used for independentmore » validation. We extracted 191 radiomic features, including statistical, histogram, morphological, and texture features. Cox proportional hazard regression model, coupled with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), was used to predict overall survival based on the radiomic features. Results: The optimal prognostic model included three image features from the Law’s feature and wavelet texture. In the discovery cohort, this model achieved a concordance index or CI=0.67, and it separated the low-risk from high-risk groups in predicting overall survival (hazard ratio=2.72, log-rank p=0.007). In the independent validation cohort, this radiomic signature achieved a CI=0.62, and significantly stratified the low-risk and high-risk groups in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio=2.20, log-rank p=0.042). Conclusion: We identified CT imaging characteristics associated with overall survival in early stage lung cancer. If prospectively validated, this could potentially help identify high-risk patients who might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy.« less

  7. Socioeconomic Factors Are Associated With Readmission After Lobectomy for Early Stage Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Medbery, Rachel L; Gillespie, Theresa W; Liu, Yuan; Nickleach, Dana C; Lipscomb, Joseph; Sancheti, Manu S; Pickens, Allan; Force, Seth D; Fernandez, Felix G

    2016-11-01

    Data regarding risk factors for readmissions after surgical resection for lung cancer are limited and largely focus on postoperative outcomes, including complications and hospital length of stay. The current study aims to identify preoperative risk factors for postoperative readmission in early stage lung cancer patients. The National Cancer Data Base was queried for all early stage lung cancer patients with clinical stage T2N0M0 or less who underwent lobectomy in 2010 and 2011. Patients with unplanned readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge were identified. Univariate analysis was utilized to identify preoperative differences between readmitted and not readmitted cohorts; multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors resulting in readmission. In all, 840 of 19,711 patients (4.3%) were readmitted postoperatively. Male patients were more likely to be readmitted than female patients (4.9% versus 3.8%, p < 0.001), as were patients who received surgery at a nonacademic rather than an academic facility (4.6% versus 3.6%; p = 0.001) and had underlying medical comorbidities (Charlson/Deyo score 1+ versus 0; 4.8% versus 3.7%; p < 0.001). Readmitted patients had a longer median hospital length of stay (6 days versus 5; p < 0.001) and were more likely to have undergone a minimally invasive approach (5.1% video-assisted thoracic surgery versus 3.9% open; p < 0.001). In addition to those variables, multivariable logistic regression analysis identified that median household income level, insurance status (government versus private), and geographic residence (metropolitan versus urban versus rural) had significant influence on readmission. The socioeconomic factors identified significantly influence hospital readmission and should be considered during preoperative and postoperative discharge planning for patients with early stage lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution.

    PubMed

    Abbosh, Christopher; Birkbak, Nicolai J; Wilson, Gareth A; Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Constantin, Tudor; Salari, Raheleh; Le Quesne, John; Moore, David A; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Rosenthal, Rachel; Marafioti, Teresa; Kirkizlar, Eser; Watkins, Thomas B K; McGranahan, Nicholas; Ward, Sophia; Martinson, Luke; Riley, Joan; Fraioli, Francesco; Al Bakir, Maise; Grönroos, Eva; Zambrana, Francisco; Endozo, Raymondo; Bi, Wenya Linda; Fennessy, Fiona M; Sponer, Nicole; Johnson, Diana; Laycock, Joanne; Shafi, Seema; Czyzewska-Khan, Justyna; Rowan, Andrew; Chambers, Tim; Matthews, Nik; Turajlic, Samra; Hiley, Crispin; Lee, Siow Ming; Forster, Martin D; Ahmad, Tanya; Falzon, Mary; Borg, Elaine; Lawrence, David; Hayward, Martin; Kolvekar, Shyam; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Janes, Sam M; Thakrar, Ricky; Ahmed, Asia; Blackhall, Fiona; Summers, Yvonne; Hafez, Dina; Naik, Ashwini; Ganguly, Apratim; Kareht, Stephanie; Shah, Rajesh; Joseph, Leena; Marie Quinn, Anne; Crosbie, Phil A; Naidu, Babu; Middleton, Gary; Langman, Gerald; Trotter, Simon; Nicolson, Marianne; Remmen, Hardy; Kerr, Keith; Chetty, Mahendran; Gomersall, Lesley; Fennell, Dean A; Nakas, Apostolos; Rathinam, Sridhar; Anand, Girija; Khan, Sajid; Russell, Peter; Ezhil, Veni; Ismail, Babikir; Irvin-Sellers, Melanie; Prakash, Vineet; Lester, Jason F; Kornaszewska, Malgorzata; Attanoos, Richard; Adams, Haydn; Davies, Helen; Oukrif, Dahmane; Akarca, Ayse U; Hartley, John A; Lowe, Helen L; Lock, Sara; Iles, Natasha; Bell, Harriet; Ngai, Yenting; Elgar, Greg; Szallasi, Zoltan; Schwarz, Roland F; Herrero, Javier; Stewart, Aengus; Quezada, Sergio A; Peggs, Karl S; Van Loo, Peter; Dive, Caroline; Lin, C Jimmy; Rabinowitz, Matthew; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Hackshaw, Allan; Shaw, Jacqui A; Zimmermann, Bernhard G; Swanton, Charles

    2017-04-26

    The early detection of relapse following primary surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer and the characterization of emerging subclones, which seed metastatic sites, might offer new therapeutic approaches for limiting tumour recurrence. The ability to track the evolutionary dynamics of early-stage lung cancer non-invasively in circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has not yet been demonstrated. Here we use a tumour-specific phylogenetic approach to profile the ctDNA of the first 100 TRACERx (Tracking Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Evolution Through Therapy (Rx)) study participants, including one patient who was also recruited to the PEACE (Posthumous Evaluation of Advanced Cancer Environment) post-mortem study. We identify independent predictors of ctDNA release and analyse the tumour-volume detection limit. Through blinded profiling of postoperative plasma, we observe evidence of adjuvant chemotherapy resistance and identify patients who are very likely to experience recurrence of their lung cancer. Finally, we show that phylogenetic ctDNA profiling tracks the subclonal nature of lung cancer relapse and metastasis, providing a new approach for ctDNA-driven therapeutic studies.

  9. Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early stage lung cancer evolution

    PubMed Central

    Abbosh, Christopher; Birkbak, Nicolai J.; Wilson, Gareth A.; Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Constantin, Tudor; Salari, Raheleh; Le Quesne, John; Moore, David A; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Rosenthal, Rachel; Marafioti, Teresa; Kirkizlar, Eser; Watkins, Thomas B K; McGranahan, Nicholas; Ward, Sophia; Martinson, Luke; Riley, Joan; Fraioli, Francesco; Al Bakir, Maise; Grönroos, Eva; Zambrana, Francisco; Endozo, Raymondo; Bi, Wenya Linda; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Sponer, Nicole; Johnson, Diana; Laycock, Joanne; Shafi, Seema; Czyzewska-Khan, Justyna; Rowan, Andrew; Chambers, Tim; Matthews, Nik; Turajlic, Samra; Hiley, Crispin; Lee, Siow Ming; Forster, Martin D.; Ahmad, Tanya; Falzon, Mary; Borg, Elaine; Lawrence, David; Hayward, Martin; Kolvekar, Shyam; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Janes, Sam M; Thakrar, Ricky; Ahmed, Asia; Blackhall, Fiona; Summers, Yvonne; Hafez, Dina; Naik, Ashwini; Ganguly, Apratim; Kareht, Stephanie; Shah, Rajesh; Joseph, Leena; Quinn, Anne Marie; Crosbie, Phil; Naidu, Babu; Middleton, Gary; Langman, Gerald; Trotter, Simon; Nicolson, Marianne; Remmen, Hardy; Kerr, Keith; Chetty, Mahendran; Gomersall, Lesley; Fennell, Dean; Nakas, Apostolos; Rathinam, Sridhar; Anand, Girija; Khan, Sajid; Russell, Peter; Ezhil, Veni; Ismail, Babikir; Irvin-sellers, Melanie; Prakash, Vineet; Lester, Jason; Kornaszewska, Malgorzata; Attanoos, Richard; Adams, Haydn; Davies, Helen; Oukrif, Dahmane; Akarca, Ayse U; Hartley, John A; Lowe, Helen L; Lock, Sara; Iles, Natasha; Bell, Harriet; Ngai, Yenting; Elgar, Greg; Szallasi, Zoltan; Schwarz, Roland F; Herrero, Javier; Stewart, Aengus; Quezada, Sergio A; Peggs, Karl S.; Van Loo, Peter; Dive, Caroline; Lin, Jimmy; Rabinowitz, Matthew; Aerts, Hugo JWL; Hackshaw, Allan; Shaw, Jacqui A; Zimmermann, Bernhard G.; Swanton, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Summary The early detection of relapse following primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer and the characterization of emerging subclones seeding metastatic sites might offer new therapeutic approaches to limit tumor recurrence. The potential to non-invasively track tumor evolutionary dynamics in ctDNA of early-stage lung cancer is not established. Here we conduct a tumour-specific phylogenetic approach to ctDNA profiling in the first 100 TRACERx (TRAcking non-small cell lung Cancer Evolution through therapy (Rx)) study participants, including one patient co-recruited to the PEACE (Posthumous Evaluation of Advanced Cancer Environment) post-mortem study. We identify independent predictors of ctDNA release and perform tumor volume limit of detection analyses. Through blinded profiling of post-operative plasma, we observe evidence of adjuvant chemotherapy resistance and identify patients destined to experience recurrence of their lung cancer. Finally, we show that phylogenetic ctDNA profiling tracks the subclonal nature of lung cancer relapse and metastases, providing a new approach for ctDNA driven therapeutic studies PMID:28445469

  10. Staging of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  11. Role of chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Misako; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2018-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy is accepted as standard of care in stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and is often considered in patients with stage IB disease who have tumors ≥ 4 cm. The survival advantage is modest with approximately 5% at 5 years. Areas covered: This review article presents relevant data regarding chemotherapy use in the perioperative setting for early stage NSCLC. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed as well as clinical trial.gov. Randomized phase III studies in this setting including adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of chemotherapy as well as ongoing trials on targeted therapy and immunotherapy are also discussed. Expert commentary: With increasing utilization of screening computed tomography scans, it is possible that the percentage of early stage NSCLC patients will increase in the coming years. Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage NSCLC patients remain modest. There is a need to better define patients most likely to derive survival benefit from adjuvant therapy and spare patients who do not need adjuvant chemotherapy due to the toxicity of such therapy. Trials for adjuvant targeted therapy, including adjuvant EGFR-TKI trials and trials of immunotherapy drugs are ongoing and will define the role of these agents as adjuvant therapy.

  12. Adjuvant therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Serke, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Evidence clearly supports adjuvant chemotherapy following resection in patients with stage II or III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Based on 3 landmark studies, adjuvant chemotherapy has become standard in completely resected NSCLC stage II and IIIA. Survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy is estimated to be between 3% and 15%, depending on stage. Treatment should include 4 cycles of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. There is uncertainty about chemotherapy prescription in those patients with resected stage IB NSCLC, as the risk of recurrence is lower in early NSCLC and the magnitude of benefit of adjuvant therapy is proportional to the risk of relapse according to stage. Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) should not be used for stage I or II NSCLC, and remains controversial in resected stage IIIA (N2) disease. All positive adjuvant trials have utilized a cisplatin-based regimen, usually in combination with vinorelbine, and this should be considered the standard approach. Prognostic factors to select patients who will benefit from adjuvant therapy in general or from platinum-based chemotherapy are under discussion, but not yet established. In future we hope to optimize treatment convenience for the patients by using other combinations with the hope of better efficacy results. Work is currently under way to identify prognostic factors which in future may help to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from chemotherapy. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Robotic-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Early-Stage Lung Cancer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Paula

    2015-07-01

    This review evaluates the benefits and disadvantages associated with the use of robotic-assisted technology in performing lobectomies in patients with early-stage lung cancer. The author conducted a literature search of Ovid®, MEDLINE®, PubMed®, and CINAHL® for articles published from 2005 to 2013. Search criteria included key terms such as robot, robotic, robotic-assisted lobectomy, and lung cancer. Of 922 articles, the author included a total of 12 research-based published studies in the analysis and incorporated the findings into an evidence table. Results showed that robotic-assisted lobectomies are feasible safe procedures for patients with stage 1A or 1B lung cancer; however, there is a steep learning curve and long-term randomized studies evaluating robotic-assisted lobectomy and conventional posterolateral thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic lobectomy are needed. For patient safety, perioperative nurses should be aware of the length of time and experience required to perform these procedures, the costs, techniques, benefits, and disadvantages. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EGFR mutations in early-stage and advanced-stage lung adenocarcinoma: Analysis based on large-scale data from China.

    PubMed

    Pi, Can; Xu, Chong-Rui; Zhang, Ming-Feng; Peng, Xiao-Xiao; Wei, Xue-Wu; Gao, Xing; Yan, Hong-Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2018-05-02

    EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors play an important role in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR mutations in advanced NSCLC occur in approximately 35% of Asian patients and 60% of patients with adenocarcinoma. However, the frequency and type of EGFR mutations in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma remain unclear. We retrospectively collected data on patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma tested for EGFR mutation. Early stage was defined as pathological stage IA-IIIA after radical lung cancer surgery, and advanced stage was defined as clinical stage IIIB without the opportunity for curative treatment or stage IV according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual, 7th edition. A total of 1699 patients were enrolled in this study from May 2014 to May 2016; 750 were assigned to the early-stage and 949 to the advanced-stage group. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were balanced, except that there were more smokers in the advanced-stage group (P < 0.001). The total EGFR mutation rate in the early-stage group was similar to that in the advanced-stage group (53.6% vs. 51.4%, respectively; P = 0.379). There was no significant difference in EGFR mutation type between the two groups. In subgroup analysis of smoking history, there was no difference in EGFR mutation frequency or type between the early-stage and advanced-stage groups. Early-stage and advanced-stage groups exhibited the same EGFR mutation frequencies and types. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Defining the role of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lampaki, Sofia; Lazaridis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kioumis, Ioannis; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Karavergou, Anastasia; Tsiouda, Theodora; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Yarmus, Lonny; Darwiche, Kaid; Freitag, Lutz; Sakkas, Antonios; Kantzeli, Angeliki; Baka, Sofia; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Historical, the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was as a united disease entity and the chemotherapy to the metastatic cancer had limited results. Recent studies for the metastatic non-small cell lung cancer led to the ascertainment that the NSCLC does not constitute exclusively a disease entity, but different neoplasms guided from different molecular paths, different biological behavior and at extension requires different confrontation. Thus the new direction for the therapeutic approach of NSCLC is henceforth the most individualized approach based on the activated molecular paths of tumor. Distinct subtypes of NSCLC are driven by a specific genetic alteration, like EGFR, ALK, ROS1 or BRAF mutations, and these genetic alterations are sensitized to the inhibition of specific oncogenic pathways. The benefit from the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with EGFR mutations it was confirmed by six randomized studies of phase III that investigated the role of gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. In these studies the response rates vary in the impressive percentages from 55% to 86% and were connected with a remarkable median progression free survival of approximately 8 to 13 months, and with better quality of life compared to that of chemotherapy. In early stages NSCLC is needed the individualization of systemic treatment in order to reduce toxicity that is observed in the classic chemotherapy and to impact outcome. The role of EGFR TKI's has been evaluated in the adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage resected NSCLC. The data from these studies suggest that adjuvant TKI therapy might not increase the overall survival, but delay the recurrences. Prospective trials restricted to EGFR or ALK driven NSCLC subsets potentially offering the opportunity for a definitive answer in early disease adjuvant setting (ALCHEMIST) or as induction treatment before stage III chemo-radiotherapy (RTOG 1210/Alliance 31101), are ongoing. Ongoing prospective trials may offer the

  16. Clinical significance of tumor cavitation in surgically resected early-stage primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Shigeki; Ohara, Shuta; Fujino, Toshio; Nishino, Masaya; Sesumi, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Katsuaki; Chiba, Masato; Shimoji, Masaki; Suda, Kenichi; Takemoto, Toshiki; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2017-10-01

    The prognostic impact of tumor cavitation is unclear in patients with early-stage primary lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients with pathological stage I-IIA (p-stage I-IIA) primary lung cancers harboring tumor cavitation. This study was conducted according to the eighth edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. We examined 602 patients with p-stage I-IIA primary lung cancer out of 890 patients who underwent pulmonary resection from January 2007 through March 2014 and searched for the presence of tumor cavitation, which is defined as the presence of air space within the primary tumor. A total of 59 out of the 602 patients had tumor cavitation (10%). Compared with patients without tumor cavitation, those with tumor cavitation had a significantly higher frequency of the following characteristics: high serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (≥5ng/ml, p=0.027), interstitial pneumonia (p=0.0001), high SUVmax value on FDG-PET scan (≥4.2, p=0.023), tumors located in the lower lobe (p=0.024), large tumor size (>3cm, p=0.002), vascular invasion (66% vs 17%, p<0.0001) and non-adenocarcinoma histology (p=0.025). The overall survival period of patients with tumor cavitation was significantly shorter than that of patients without tumor cavitation (log-rank test: p<0.0001, 5-year OS rate: 56% vs 81%). Tumor cavitation was found to be an independent and significant factor associated with poor prognosis in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-3.10, p=0.042). Tumor cavitation is an independent factor for poor prognosis in patients with resected p-stage I-IIA primary lung cancer. Based on our analyses, patients with tumor cavitation should be regarded as a separate cohort that requires more intensive follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effects of hydrogen on the lung damage of mice at early stage of severe burn].

    PubMed

    Qin, C; Bian, Y X; Feng, T T; Zhang, J H; Yu, Y H

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hydrogen on the lung damage of mice at early stage of severe burn. Methods: One hundred and sixty ICR mice were divided into sham injury, hydrogen, pure burn, and burn+ hydrogen groups according to the random number table, with 40 mice in each group. Mice in pure burn group and burn+ hydrogen group were inflicted with 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald (hereafter referred to as burn) on the back, while mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group were sham injured. Mice in hydrogen group and burn+ hydrogen group inhaled 2% hydrogen for 1 h at post injury hour (PIH) 1 and 6, respectively, while mice in sham injury group and pure burn group inhaled air for 1 h. At PIH 24, lung tissue of six mice in each group was harvested, and then pathological changes of lung tissue were observed by HE staining and the lung tissue injury pathological score was calculated. Inferior vena cava blood and lung tissue of other eight mice in each group were obtained, and then content of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum and lung tissue was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and lung tissue was detected by spectrophotometry. After arterial blood of other six mice in each group was collected for detection of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)), the wet and dry weight of lung tissue were weighted to calculate lung wet to dry weight ratio. The survival rates of the other twenty mice in each group during post injury days 7 were calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, LSD test and log-rank test. Results: (1) At PIH 24, lung tissue of mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group showed no abnormality. Mice in pure burn group were with pulmonary interstitial edema, serious rupture of alveolar capillary wall, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells. Mice in burn+ hydrogen group were with mild

  18. Role of Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of several randomized trials and meta-analyses, adjuvant chemotherapy is the accepted standard of care for certain patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with stage II, IIIA, or large (≥ 4 cm) IB tumors are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival improvement with adjuvant chemotherapy is approximately 5% at 5 years, though certain trials have suggested that it can be 8% to 10%. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy also has shown a survival advantage, though the volume of data with this approach is far less than that of adjuvant chemotherapy. The combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine is the most well-studied regimen, but current consensus is to use four cycles of any of the platinum-based chemotherapy regimens commonly used as front-line therapy for patients with advanced-stage NSCLC. Trials to define biomarkers that can predict benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy have not been successful, but results of other such trials are still awaited. On the basis of the benefit observed with targeted agents in patients with advanced-stage disease and driver genetic alterations in their tumors, ongoing trials are evaluating the utility of these targeted agents as adjuvant therapy. Similarly, clinical benefit observed with checkpoint inhibitors has prompted assessment of these drugs in patients with early-stage NSCLC. It is very likely, in the future, that factors other than the anatomy of the tumor will be used to select patients with early-stage NSCLC for systemic therapy and that the choice of systemic therapy will extend beyond platinum-based chemotherapy.

  19. Serum antioxidant levels and nutritional status in early and advanced stage lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Klarod, Kultida; Hongsprabhas, Pranithi; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Wirasorn, Kosin; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Tangrassameeprasert, Roongpet; Daduang, Jureerut; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition frequently occurs in lung cancer patients. We aimed to determine nutritional status and antioxidant and mineral levels in Thai patients with lung cancer. A prospective study with matched case-control was conducted. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and subjective global assessment (SGA). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status was used to assess the performance. The serum antioxidant and mineral levels were determined. Forty-nine patients with a mean age of 58.8 (range, 35-82) who were first diagnosed with lung cancer were enrolled. They were compared with 60 healthy controls, and levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, selenium, and zinc were lower (P < 0.05). However, peroxidase activity was higher (P = 0.002) in patients. Selenium levels were higher in early stage compared to advanced stage patients (P = 0.041). Overweight patients had higher selenium levels (0.04 mg/L) than normal BMI patients (β = 0.04, P = 0.035). Patients with SGA class C had lower selenium levels (0.03 mg/L) than those with class A (β = -0.03, P = 0.035). The poorer ECOG performance patients had significantly lower β-carotene (β = -0.192, P = 0.003) and selenium (β = -0.031, P = 0.011) levels compared with those with good ECOG performance status. Significantly lower levels of antioxidants and selenium were found in lung cancer patients compared to healthy controls. Levels of some antioxidants and minerals differed among categories of BMI, SGA categories, or ECOG performance status. These findings may be helpful for further studies, such as the effect of nutritional supplementation on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Poor Prognosis Indicated by Venous Circulating Tumor Cell Clusters in Early-Stage Lung Cancers.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Reddy, Rishindra M; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Zhao, Lili; Ishikawa, Martin K; Grabauskiene, Svetlana; Zhang, Zhuo; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C; Carrott, Philip; Lynch, William R; Orringer, Mark B; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Beer, David G; Wicha, Max S; Ramnath, Nithya; Azizi, Ebrahim; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2017-09-15

    Early detection of metastasis can be aided by circulating tumor cells (CTC), which also show potential to predict early relapse. Because of the limited CTC numbers in peripheral blood in early stages, we investigated CTCs in pulmonary vein blood accessed during surgical resection of tumors. Pulmonary vein (PV) and peripheral vein (Pe) blood specimens from patients with lung cancer were drawn during the perioperative period and assessed for CTC burden using a microfluidic device. From 108 blood samples analyzed from 36 patients, PV had significantly higher number of CTCs compared with preoperative Pe ( P < 0.0001) and intraoperative Pe ( P < 0.001) blood. CTC clusters with large number of CTCs were observed in 50% of patients, with PV often revealing larger clusters. Long-term surveillance indicated that presence of clusters in preoperative Pe blood predicted a trend toward poor prognosis. Gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR revealed enrichment of p53 signaling and extracellular matrix involvement in PV and Pe samples. Ki67 expression was detected in 62.5% of PV samples and 59.2% of Pe samples, with the majority (72.7%) of patients positive for Ki67 expression in PV having single CTCs as opposed to clusters. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of cell migration and immune-related pathways in CTC clusters, suggesting survival advantage of clusters in circulation. Clusters display characteristics of therapeutic resistance, indicating the aggressive nature of these cells. Thus, CTCs isolated from early stages of lung cancer are predictive of poor prognosis and can be interrogated to determine biomarkers predictive of recurrence. Cancer Res; 77(18); 5194-206. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Validation of a Molecular and Pathological Model for Five-Year Mortality Risk in Patients with Early Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Raphael; Hughes, Elisha; Wagner, Susanne; Gutin, Alexander S.; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Zheng, Yifan; Archer, Michael A.; Gustafson, Corinne; Jones, Joshua T.; Rushton, Kristen; Saam, Jennifer; Kim, Edward; Barberis, Massimo; Wistuba, Ignacio; Wenstrup, Richard J.; Wallace, William A.; Harrison, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to validate a molecular expression signature [cell cycle progression (CCP) score] that identifies patients with a higher risk of cancer-related death after surgical resection of early stage (I-II) lung adenocarcinoma in a large patient cohort and evaluate the effectiveness of combining CCP score and pathological stage for predicting lung cancer mortality. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical tumor samples from 650 patients diagnosed with stage I and II adenocarcinoma who underwent definitive surgical treatment without adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed for 31 proliferation genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prognostic discrimination of the expression score was assessed by Cox proportional hazards analysis using 5-year lung cancer-specific death as primary outcome. Results: The CCP score was a significant predictor of lung cancer-specific mortality above clinical covariates [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.46 per interquartile range (95% confidence interval = 1.12–1.90; p = 0.0050)]. The prognostic score, a combination of CCP score and pathological stage, was a more significant indicator of lung cancer mortality risk than pathological stage in the full cohort (HR = 2.01; p = 2.8 × 10−11) and in stage I patients (HR = 1.67; p = 0.00027). Using the 85th percentile of the prognostic score as a threshold, there was a significant difference in lung cancer survival between low-risk and high-risk patient groups (p = 3.8 × 10−7). Conclusions: This study validates the CCP score and the prognostic score as independent predictors of lung cancer death in patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma treated with surgery alone. Patients with resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma and a high prognostic score may be candidates for adjuvant therapy to reduce cancer-related mortality. PMID:25396679

  2. SSX2-4 expression in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Greve, K B V; Pøhl, M; Olsen, K E; Nielsen, O; Ditzel, H J; Gjerstorff, M F

    2014-05-01

    The expression of cancer/testis antigens SSX2, SSX3, and SSX4 in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) was examined, since they are considered promising targets for cancer immunotherapy due to their immunogenicity and testis-restricted normal tissue expression. We characterized three SSX antibodies and performed immunohistochemical staining of 25 different normal tissues and 143 NSCLCs. The antibodies differed in binding to two distinctive splice variants of SSX2 that exhibited different subcellular staining patterns, suggesting that the two splice variants display different functions. SSX2-4 expression was only detected in 5 of 143 early-stage NSCLCs, which is rare compared to other cancer/testis antigens (e.g. MAGE-A and GAGE). However, further studies are needed to determine whether SSX can be used as a prognostic or predictive biomarker in NSCLC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Whole-genome analysis of a patient with early-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, J-Y; Lee, Y-S; Kim, B C; Lee, G K; Lee, S; Kim, E-H; Kim, H-M; Bhak, J

    2014-12-01

    We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of a case of early-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to analyze the genomic features. WGS revealed a lot of single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), small insertion/deletions and chromosomal abnormality. Chromosomes 4p, 5q, 13q, 15q, 17p and 22q contained many block deletions. Especially, copy loss was observed in tumor suppressor genes RB1 and TP53, and copy gain in oncogene hTERT. Somatic mutations were found in TP53 and CREBBP. Novel nonsynonymous (ns) SNVs in C6ORF103 and SLC5A4 genes were also found. Sanger sequencing of the SLC5A4 gene in 23 independent SCLC samples showed another nsSNV in the SLC5A4 gene, indicating that nsSNVs in the SLC5A4 gene are recurrent in SCLC. WGS of an early-stage SCLC identified novel recurrent mutations and validated known variations, including copy number variations. These findings provide insight into the genomic landscape contributing to SCLC development.

  4. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for operable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Tsurugai, Yuichiro; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Hara, Yu; Akiba, Takeshi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2017-07-01

    To analyze outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for operable patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate factors associated with outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed operable patients with NSCLC, staged as cT1-2N0M0, treated with SBRT between 2006 and 2015. Both biopsy-proven and clinically diagnosed NSCLC were included. Local control and survival rates were calculated and compared between subsets of patients. We investigated factors associated with outcomes. We identified 88 operable patients among 661 patients with cT1-2N0M0 NSCLC. The median age was 79 years (range: 55-88). The median follow-up time after SBRT was 40 months (range: 4-121). Fifty-nine patients had been pathologically diagnosed and the other 29 had been clinically diagnosed as having NSCLC. Local control, cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years were 91%, 97% and 90% for T1, and 100%, 82% and 74% for T2, respectively. The CSS and OS at 3 years were 100% and 100% for GGO and 83% and 59% for solid tumors, respectively (p=0.005). On univariate analysis, age and T stage were significantly associated with CSS, and age, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and opacity were significantly associated with OS. On multivariate analysis, age and CCI were significantly associated with OS. As for toxicities, Grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 37.5%, 47.7%, 13.6% and 1.1% of patients, respectively. No Grade 4 or 5 radiation pneumonitis occurred, and no other toxicities of Grade 2 or above were observed. Outcomes of SBRT for operable early stage NSCLC were as good as previous SBRT and surgery studies. Further investigation for selecting good SBRT candidates is warranted in high-risk operable patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for lung cancer staging: early experience in Brazil*,**

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Jacomelli, Márcia; Demarzo, Sérgio Eduardo; Palomino, Addy Lidvina Mejia; Rodrigues, Ascédio José; Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Pego-Fernandes, Paulo Manoel; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive, safe and accurate method for collecting samples from mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. This study focused on the initial results obtained with EBUS-TBNA for lung cancer and lymph node staging at three teaching hospitals in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with lung cancer and submitted to EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal lymph node staging. The EBUS-TBNA procedures, which involved the use of an EBUS scope, an ultrasound processor, and a compatible, disposable 22 G needle, were performed while the patients were under general anesthesia. Results: Between January of 2011 and January of 2014, 149 patients underwent EBUS-TBNA for lymph node staging. The mean age was 66 ± 12 years, and 58% were male. A total of 407 lymph nodes were sampled by EBUS-TBNA. The most common types of lung neoplasm were adenocarcinoma (in 67%) and squamous cell carcinoma (in 24%). For lung cancer staging, EBUS-TBNA was found to have a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 85%. Conclusions: We found EBUS-TBNA to be a safe and accurate method for lymph node staging in lung cancer patients. PMID:25750671

  6. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for lung cancer staging: early experience in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Jacomelli, Márcia; Demarzo, Sérgio Eduardo; Palomino, Addy Lidvina Mejia; Rodrigues, Ascédio José; Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Pego-Fernandes, Paulo Manoel; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive, safe and accurate method for collecting samples from mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. This study focused on the initial results obtained with EBUS-TBNA for lung cancer and lymph node staging at three teaching hospitals in Brazil. This was a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with lung cancer and submitted to EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal lymph node staging. The EBUS-TBNA procedures, which involved the use of an EBUS scope, an ultrasound processor, and a compatible, disposable 22 G needle, were performed while the patients were under general anesthesia. Between January of 2011 and January of 2014, 149 patients underwent EBUS-TBNA for lymph node staging. The mean age was 66 ± 12 years, and 58% were male. A total of 407 lymph nodes were sampled by EBUS-TBNA. The most common types of lung neoplasm were adenocarcinoma (in 67%) and squamous cell carcinoma (in 24%). For lung cancer staging, EBUS-TBNA was found to have a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 85%. We found EBUS-TBNA to be a safe and accurate method for lymph node staging in lung cancer patients.

  7. ALCHEMIST: Bringing genomic discovery and targeted therapies to early-stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gerber, D E; Oxnard, G R; Govindan, R

    2015-05-01

    The identification of druggable molecular alterations represents one of the greatest advances in cancer treatment. Such progress is particularly evident for lung cancer, which now has numerous molecularly defined subsets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements. However, understanding of the significance of these genomic alterations is largely limited to incurable, metastatic lung cancer. ALCHEMIST (Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trial) is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored initiative to address these questions in earlier-stage disease. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  8. ALCHEMIST: Bringing Genomic Discovery and Targeted Therapies to Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, DE; Oxnard, GR; Govindan, R

    2016-01-01

    The identification of druggable molecular alterations represents one of the greatest advances in cancer treatment. Such progress is particularly evident for lung cancer, which now has numerous molecularly defined subsets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements. However, understanding of the significance of these genomic alterations is largely limited to incurable, metastatic lung cancer. ALCHEMIST (Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trial) is a National Cancer Institute–sponsored initiative to address these questions in earlier-stage disease. PMID:25677079

  9. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy: a potentially curable approach to early stage multiple primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joe Y; Liu, Yung-Hsien; Zhu, Zhengfei; Welsh, James W; Gomez, Daniel R; Komaki, Ritsuko; Roth, Jack A; Swisher, Stephen G

    2013-09-15

    Surgical resection has been the standard treatment for early stage multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC). However, a significant proportion of patients with MPLC cannot undergo surgery. For this report, the authors explored the role of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for patients with MPLC. Patients with MPLC who received SABR (50 grays [Gy] in 4 fractions or 70 Gy in 10 fractions) for the second tumor were reviewed. Four-dimensional, computed tomography-based, planning/volumetric image-guided treatment was used for all patients. Treatment outcomes/toxicities were analyzed. For the 101 patients who received SABR, at a median follow-up of 36 months and with a median overall survival (OS) of 46 months, the 2-year and 4-year in-field local control rates were 97.4% and 95.7%, respectively. The 2-year and 4-year OS rates were 73.2% and 47.5%, respectively; and the progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 67% and 58%, respectively. Patients who had metachronous tumors had better OS and PFS than patients who had synchronous tumors (2-year OS: 80.6% metachronous vs 61.5% synchronous; 4-year OS: 52.7% vs 39.7%, respectively; P = .047; 2-year PFS: 84.7% vs 49.4%, respectively; 4-year PFS: 75.6% vs 30.4%, respectively; P = .0001). For patients who either underwent surgery or received SABR for an index tumor, the incidence of grade ≥ 3 radiation pneumonitis was 3% (2 of 71 patients); however, this increased to 17% (5 of 30 patients) for those who received conventional radiotherapy for an index tumor. Other grade ≥ 3 toxicities included grade 3 chest wall pain (3 of 101 patients; 3%) and grade 3 skin toxicity (1 of 101 patients; 1%). SABR achieves promising long-term tumor control and survival and may be a potential curative treatment for early stage MPLC. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  10. Phase 0 Trial of Itraconazole for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    63 Male Caucasian T1bN0M0 Stage IA Undifferentiated carcinoma , favor Large cell 63 Female Caucasian T1aN0N0 Stage IA squamous cell carcinoma ... carcinoma ; and possibly prolongs survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Insight into itraconazole mechanism and biomarkers will...study team members in which itraconazole resulted in tumor regression and Hh pathway antagonism in basal cell carcinoma ; and (3) a clinical trial in

  11. Social factors, treatment, and survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, H P; Polissar, N L; Borgatta, E F; McCorkle, R; Goodman, G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the importance of socioeconomic status, race, and likelihood of receiving surgery in explaining mortality among patients with stage-I non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: Analyses focused on Black and White individuals 75 years of age and younger (n = 5189) diagnosed between 1980 and 1982 with stage-I non-small cell lung cancer in Detroit, San Francisco, and Seattle. The main outcome measure was months of survival after diagnosis. RESULTS: Patients in the highest income decile were 45% more likely to receive surgical treatment and 102% more likely to attain 5-year survival than those in the lowest decile. Whites were 20% more likely to undergo surgery than Blacks and 31% more likely to survive 5 years. Multivariate procedures controlling for age and sex confirmed these observations. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status and race appear to independently influence likelihood of survival. Failure to receive surgery explains much excess mortality. PMID:9807536

  12. Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Sarah; Pignon, Jean Pierre; Tierney, Jayne; Tribodet, Helene; Stewart, Lesley; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Aupérin, Anne; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Stephens, Richard J; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Higgins, Julian P T; Johnson, David H; Van Meerbeeck, Jan; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Souhami, Robert L; Bergman, Bengt; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Dunant, Ariane; Endo, Chiaki; Girling, David; Kato, Harubumi; Keller, Steven M; Kimura, Hideki; Knuuttila, Aija; Kodama, Ken; Komaki, Ritsuko; Kris, Mark G; Lad, Thomas; Mineo, Tommaso; Piantadosi, Steven; Rosell, Rafael; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Seymour, Lesley K; Shepherd, Frances A; Sylvester, Richard; Tada, Hirohito; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Torri, Valter; Waller, David; Liang, Ying

    2015-03-02

    To evaluate the effects of administering chemotherapy following surgery, or following surgery plus radiotherapy (known as adjuvant chemotherapy) in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),we performed two systematic reviews and meta-analyses of all randomised controlled trials using individual participant data. Results were first published in The Lancet in 2010. To compare, in terms of overall survival, time to locoregional recurrence, time to distant recurrence and recurrence-free survival:A. Surgery versus surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapyB. Surgery plus radiotherapy versus surgery plus radiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapyin patients with histologically diagnosed early stage NSCLC.(2)To investigate whether or not predefined patient subgroups benefit more or less from cisplatin-based chemotherapy in terms of survival. We supplemented MEDLINE and CANCERLIT searches (1995 to December 2013) with information from trial registers, handsearching relevant meeting proceedings and by discussion with trialists and organisations. We included trials of a) surgery versus surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy; and b) surgery plus radiotherapy versus surgery plus radiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy, provided that they randomised NSCLC patients using a method which precluded prior knowledge of treatment assignment. We carried out a quantitative meta-analysis using updated information from individual participants from all randomised trials. Data from all patients were sought from those responsible for the trial. We obtained updated individual participant data (IPD) on survival, and date of last follow-up, as well as details of treatment allocated, date of randomisation, age, sex, histological cell type, stage, and performance status. To avoid potential bias, we requested information for all randomised patients, including those excluded from the investigators' original analyses. We conducted all analyses on intention-to-treat on the endpoint of survival

  13. Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, Marco; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Boshuizen, Rogier; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H.; Marrinucci, Dena; Sandhu, Ajay; Perricone, Anthony; Thistlethwaite, Patricia; Bethel, Kelly; Nieva, Jorge; van den Heuvel, Michel; Kuhn, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL-1 (range 0-515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL-1. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0-178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0-515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0-442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and surveillance in

  14. Forecasting the impact of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for early-stage lung cancer on the thoracic surgery workforce.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Janet P; Datta, Indraneel; Hunt, John Douglas; Stefan, Kevin; Ball, Chad G; Dixon, Elijah; Grondin, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    To predict variation in thoracic surgery workforce requirements with the introduction of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for the treatment of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using Canadian census microdata and the Canadian Community Health Survey, a microsimulation model representing the national population was developed. The demand component simulates the incidence of lung cancer, incorporating the impact of computed tomography (CT) screening for high-risk individuals (>30 pack-year smoking history; age 55-74 years). The supply component simulates the number of thoracic surgeons. SABR was introduced into the model to predict changes in the number of operable NSCLC cases per thoracic surgeon, modelling 30, 60 and 90% compliance with SABR for Stage IA and then for both Stage IA and IB NSCLC. In the absence of SABR, the volume of operative NSCLC per surgeon increases by a peak of 49.4% (by 2027) and then gradually declines to the present day volume by 2049. More dramatic decreases are seen with increasing compliance with SABR for Stage IA/IB NSCLCs. If the number of new surgeons entering the workforce per year were reduced by 33%, the operative volume per surgeon would increase by a peak of 57.1% (30% Stage IA SABR compliance) and would decrease by up to 49.1% (90% Stage IA SABR compliance). With the implementation of SABR for treatment of early NSCLC, there would be a decrease in operative volume. The impact would depend on the stage of NSCLC for which SABR is recommended and on compliance. A national strategy for thoracic surgery workforce planning is necessary, given the complex interaction of CT screening and the treatment of medically operable early NSCLC with SABR. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Early-stage central lung cancer and volumetric modulated arc therapy: a dosimetric case study with literature review.

    PubMed

    Valakh, Vladimir; Chan, Philip; D'Adamo, Karen; Micaily, Bizhan

    2013-10-01

    In the present article we review on the use of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) for a small lung nodule that was centrally located in close proximity to the mediastinal structures. An inoperable patient with central, clinical stage IA adenocarcinoma of the right lung was treated with external-beam radiation therapy of 52.5 Gy in 15 factions. A single 360° coplanar arc VMAT plan (360-VMAT) was used for treatment and compared to step-and-shoot Intensity Modulation Radiotherapy (IMRT) and a single 180° ipsilateral partial arc VMAT plan (180-VMAT). Planning Target Volume (PTV) coverage was not different, and 360-VMAT had the highest dose homogeneity. Both 360-VMAT and 180-VMAT reduced esophageal dose compared to IMRT. While IMRT had the lowest lung dose, all 3 plans achieved acceptable sparing of the lung. 180-VMAT had the highest dose conformity. Both 360-VMAT and 180-VMAT improved esophageal sparing compared to IMRT. Use of VMAT in early-stage, centrally located NSCLC is a promising treatment approach and merits additional investigation.

  16. TRIM28, a new molecular marker predicting metastasis and survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhao, Enhong; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Liang; Xiao, Lijun; Cheng, Luyang; Huang, Xu; Song, Youxin; Xu, Dawei

    2013-02-01

    TRIM28 is a universal corepressor for Kruppel-associated box zinc finger proteins. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of TRIM28 gene was significantly higher in cancerous tissues than in noncancerous tissues (P < 0.001). TRIM28 knockdown resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation in liquid media as well as in soft agar. The proliferation rate was impaired and the cell cycle progression was inhibited after knockdown of TRIM28 in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines PAa and SK-MES-1. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect circulating cancer cells in 138 non-small cell lung cancer patients. The overall positive detection rate was 30.4% (42 of 138) in peripheral blood of NSCLC patients and was 29.9% (29 of 97) in early-stage patients. In a 70-month follow-up study, 20 of 29 patients (69.0%) in TRIM28 positive group had recurrence and/or metastasis, significantly higher (P = 0.004) than in the TRIM28 negative group (25 of 68, 36.8%). In addition, non-small cell lung cancer patients whose circulating cancer cells expressed TRIM28 suffered shorter tumor-specific survival compared with those with absent TRIM28 expression (P < 0.001). Results of our study showed that TRIM28 provides a survival advantage to lung cancer cells and may be a new marker to predict metastasis and prognosis in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequent silencing of the candidate tumor suppressor TRIM58 by promoter methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Naruto, Takuya; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Watabnabe, Miki; Tsuboi, Mitsuhiro; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify novel drivers that would be epigenetically altered through aberrant methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), regardless of the presence or absence of tobacco smoking-induced epigenetic field defects. Through genome-wide screening for aberrantly methylated CpG islands (CGIs) in 12 clinically uniform, stage-I LADC cases affecting six non-smokers and six smokers, we identified candidate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) inactivated by hypermethylation. Through systematic expression analyses of those candidates in panels of additional tumor samples and cell lines treated or not treated with 5-aza-deoxycitidine followed by validation analyses of cancer-specific silencing by CGI hypermethylation using a public database, we identified TRIM58 as the most prominent candidate for TSG. TRIM58 was robustly silenced by hypermethylation even in early-stage primary LADC, and the restoration of TRIM58 expression in LADC cell lines inhibited cell growth in vitro and in vivo in anchorage-dependent and -independent manners. Our findings suggest that aberrant inactivation of TRIM58 consequent to CGI hypermethylation might stimulate the early carcinogenesis of LADC regardless of smoking status; furthermore, TRIM58 methylation might be a possible early diagnostic and epigenetic therapeutic target in LADC. PMID:27926516

  18. Frequent silencing of the candidate tumor suppressor TRIM58 by promoter methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Koichiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naruto, Takuya; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Watabnabe, Miki; Tsuboi, Mitsuhiro; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-10

    In this study, we aimed to identify novel drivers that would be epigenetically altered through aberrant methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), regardless of the presence or absence of tobacco smoking-induced epigenetic field defects. Through genome-wide screening for aberrantly methylated CpG islands (CGIs) in 12 clinically uniform, stage-I LADC cases affecting six non-smokers and six smokers, we identified candidate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) inactivated by hypermethylation. Through systematic expression analyses of those candidates in panels of additional tumor samples and cell lines treated or not treated with 5-aza-deoxycitidine followed by validation analyses of cancer-specific silencing by CGI hypermethylation using a public database, we identified TRIM58 as the most prominent candidate for TSG. TRIM58 was robustly silenced by hypermethylation even in early-stage primary LADC, and the restoration of TRIM58 expression in LADC cell lines inhibited cell growth in vitro and in vivo in anchorage-dependent and -independent manners. Our findings suggest that aberrant inactivation of TRIM58 consequent to CGI hypermethylation might stimulate the early carcinogenesis of LADC regardless of smoking status; furthermore, TRIM58 methylation might be a possible early diagnostic and epigenetic therapeutic target in LADC.

  19. Histologic Subtype in Core Lung Biopsies of Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma is a Prognostic Factor for Treatment Response and Failure Patterns After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jonathan E; Rimner, Andreas; Montecalvo, Joseph; Hsu, Meier; Zhang, Zhigang; von Reibnitz, Donata; Panchoo, Kelly; Yorke, Ellen; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Travis, William; Wu, Abraham J

    2017-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for early-stage lung cancer. The histologic subtype of surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma is recognized as a prognostic factor, with the presence of solid or micropapillary patterns predicting poor outcomes. We describe the outcomes after SBRT for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma stratified by histologic subtype. We identified 119 consecutive patients (124 lesions) with stage I to IIA lung adenocarcinoma who had undergone definitive SBRT at our institution from August 2008 to August 2015 and had undergone core biopsy. Histologic subtyping was performed according to the 2015 World Health Organization classification. Of the 124 tumors, 37 (30%) were a high-risk subtype, defined as containing a component of solid and/or micropapillary pattern. The cumulative incidences of local, nodal, regional, and distant failure were compared between the high-risk and non-high-risk adenocarcinoma subtypes using Gray's test, and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from propensity score-weighted Cox regression models. The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 17 months and for surviving patients was 21 months. The 1-year cumulative incidence of and adjusted HR for local, nodal, regional, and distant failure in high-risk versus non-high-risk lesions was 7.3% versus 2.7% (HR 16.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5-81.4), 14.8% versus 2.6% (HR 3.8; 95% CI 0.95-15.0), 4.0% versus 1.2% (HR 20.9; 95% CI 2.3-192.3), and 22.7% versus 3.6% (HR 6.9; 95% CI 2.2-21.1), respectively. No significant difference was seen with regard to overall survival. The outcomes after SBRT for early-stage adenocarcinoma of the lung correlate highly with histologic subtype, with micropapillary and solid tumors portending significantly higher rates of locoregional and metastatic progression. In this context, the histologic subtype determined from core biopsies is a prognostic factor and could have

  20. Histologic Subtype in Core Lung Biopsies of Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma is a Prognostic Factor for Treatment Response and Failure Patterns After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Leeman, Jonathan E.; Rimner, Andreas; Montecalvo, Joseph

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for early-stage lung cancer. The histologic subtype of surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma is recognized as a prognostic factor, with the presence of solid or micropapillary patterns predicting poor outcomes. We describe the outcomes after SBRT for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma stratified by histologic subtype. Methods and Materials: We identified 119 consecutive patients (124 lesions) with stage I to IIA lung adenocarcinoma who had undergone definitive SBRT at our institution from August 2008 to August 2015 and had undergone core biopsy. Histologic subtyping was performed according to the 2015 Worldmore » Health Organization classification. Of the 124 tumors, 37 (30%) were a high-risk subtype, defined as containing a component of solid and/or micropapillary pattern. The cumulative incidences of local, nodal, regional, and distant failure were compared between the high-risk and non–high-risk adenocarcinoma subtypes using Gray's test, and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from propensity score–weighted Cox regression models. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 17 months and for surviving patients was 21 months. The 1-year cumulative incidence of and adjusted HR for local, nodal, regional, and distant failure in high-risk versus non–high-risk lesions was 7.3% versus 2.7% (HR 16.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5-81.4), 14.8% versus 2.6% (HR 3.8; 95% CI 0.95-15.0), 4.0% versus 1.2% (HR 20.9; 95% CI 2.3-192.3), and 22.7% versus 3.6% (HR 6.9; 95% CI 2.2-21.1), respectively. No significant difference was seen with regard to overall survival. Conclusions: The outcomes after SBRT for early-stage adenocarcinoma of the lung correlate highly with histologic subtype, with micropapillary and solid tumors portending significantly higher rates of locoregional and metastatic progression. In this context, the histologic subtype

  1. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-stage Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J.; Stoddard, Shawn M.; Wampfler, Jason A.; Limper, Andrew H.; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary emphysema is a common comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on patient’s overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and pulmonary function recovery in stage I–II lung cancer. Methods Between 1997 and 2009, 1,073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups (cancer in emphysematous [group 1, n=565] and non-emphysematous [group 2, n=435] region) and one non-surgical group (group 3, n=73). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized into mild (≤5%), moderate (6–24%) and severe (25–60%). Results In group 1, patients with moderate and severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative FEV1, but increases in FEV1/FVC, compared to those with mild RES (p<0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Post-treatment QOL was lower in patients with greater RES in all groups mainly due to dyspnea (p<0.05). Cox-regression analysis revealed that patients with higher RES had a significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted HRs of 1.41 and 1.43 for moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the non-surgical group (adjusted HR of 0.99 for moderate/severe RES). Conclusions In surgically-treated patients with cancer in emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of post-treatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. PMID:28126539

  2. ALCHEMIST Trials: A Golden Opportunity to Transform Outcomes in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Gerber, David E; Oxnard, Geoffrey R; Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Chaft, Jamie; Malik, Shakun; Mooney, Margaret; Abrams, Jeffrey S; Jänne, Pasi A; Gandara, David R; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Vokes, Everett E

    2015-12-15

    The treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is slowly evolving from empirical cytotoxic chemotherapy to personalized treatment based on specific molecular alterations. Despite this 10-year evolution, targeted therapies have not been studied adequately in patients with resected NSCLC who have clearly defined actionable mutations. The advent of next-generation sequencing has now made it possible to characterize genomic alterations in unprecedented detail. The efforts begun by The Cancer Genome Atlas project to understand the complexities of the genomic landscape of lung cancer will be supplemented further by studying a large number of tumor specimens. The Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trial (ALCHEMIST) is an NCI-sponsored national clinical trials network (NCTN) initiative to address the needs to refine therapy for early-stage NSCLC. This program will screen several thousand patients with operable lung adenocarcinoma to determine whether their tumors contain specific molecular alterations [epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement (ALK)], making them eligible for treatment trials that target these alterations. Patients with EGFR mutation or ALK gene rearrangement in their tumor will be randomized to placebo versus erlotinib or crizotinib, respectively, after completion of their standard adjuvant therapy. ALCHEMIST will also contain a large discovery component that will provide an opportunity to incorporate genomic studies to fully understand the clonal architecture, clonal evolution, and mechanisms of resistance to therapy. In this review, we describe the concept, rationale, and outline of ALCHEMIST and the plan for genomic studies in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 21(24); 5439-44. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. ALCHEMIST Trials: A Golden Opportunity to Transform Outcomes in Early Stage Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Gerber, David E.; Oxnard, Geoffrey R.; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Malik, Shakun; Mooney, Margaret; Abrams, Jeffrey S.; Jänne, Pasi A.; Gandara, David R.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Vokes, Everett E.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is slowly evolving from empirical cytotoxic chemotherapy to personalized treatment based on specific molecular alterations. Despite this 10-year evolution, targeted therapies have not been studied adequately in patients with resected NSCLC who have clearly defined actionable mutations. The advent of next generation sequencing has now made it possible to characterize genomic alterations in unprecedented detail. The efforts begun by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project to understand the complexities of the genomic landscape of lung cancer will be supplemented further by studying a large number of tumor specimens. Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trial (ALCHEMIST) is a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored national clinical trials network (NCTN) initiative to address the needs to refine therapy for early stage NSCLC. This program will screen several thousand patients with operable lung adenocarcinoma to determine if their tumors contain specific molecular alterations [epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement (ALK)] making them eligible for treatment trials that target these alterations. Patients with EGFR mutation or ALK gene rearrangement in their tumor will be randomized to placebo vs. erlotinib or crizotinib respectively after completion of their standard adjuvant therapy. ALCHEMIST will also contain a large discovery component that will provide an opportunity to incorporate genomic studies to fully understand the clonal architecture and clonal evolution and mechanisms of resistance to therapy. In this review, we describe the concept, rationale and outline of ALCHEMIST and the plan for genomic studies in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26672084

  4. Are we ready to use biomarkers for staging, prognosis and treatment selection in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Massuti, Bartomeu; Sanchez, Jose Miguel; Hernando-Trancho, Florentino; Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    Lung cancer accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths worldwide. At present, platinum-based therapy represents the standard of care in fit stage II and IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients following surgical resection. In advanced disease, personalized chemotherapy and targeted biologic therapy based on histological and molecular tumor profiling have already shown promise in terms of optimizing treatment efficacy. While disease stage is associated with outcome and is commonly used to determine adjuvant treatment eligibility, it is known that a subset of patients with early stage disease experience shorter survival than others with the same clinicopathological characteristics. Improved methods for identifying these individuals, at or near the time of initial diagnosis, may inform the decision to pursue adjuvant therapy options. Among the numerous candidate molecular biomarkers, only few gene-expression profiling signatures provide clinically relevant information, while real-time quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (RT-qPCR) strategy involving relatively small numbers of genes offers a practical alternative with high cross-platform performance. mRNA and/or protein expression levels of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase M subunit 1 (RRM1) and breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) are among the most promising potential biomarkers for early disease and their clinical utility is currently being evaluated in randomized phase II and III clinical trials. This review describes the most promising clinicopathological and molecular biomarkers with predictive and prognostic significance in lung cancer that have been identified through advanced research and which could influence adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy decisions for operable NSCLC in routine clinical practice.

  5. NKX2-1 expression as a prognostic marker in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Moisés, Jorge; Navarro, Alfons; Santasusagna, Sandra; Viñolas, Nuria; Molins, Laureano; Ramirez, José; Osorio, Jeisson; Saco, Adela; Castellano, Joan Josep; Muñoz, Carmen; Morales, Sara; Monzó, Mariano; Marrades, Ramón María

    2017-12-13

    NKX2-1, a key molecule in lung development, is highly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly in lung adenocarcinoma (ADK), where it is a diagnostic marker. Studies of the prognostic role of NKX2-1 in NSCLC have reported contradictory findings. Two microRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with NKX2-1: miR-365, which targets NKX2-1; and miR-33a, which is downstream of NKX2-1. We have examined the effect of NKX2-1, miR-365 and miR-33a on survival in a cohort of early-stage NSCLC patients and in sub-groups of patients classified according to the mutational status of TP53, KRAS, and EGFR. mRNA and miRNA expression was determined using TaqMan assays in 110 early-stage NSCLC patients. TP53, KRAS, and EGFR mutations were assessed by Sanger sequencing. NKX2-1 expression was upregulated in never-smokers (P = 0.017), ADK (P < 0.0001) and patients with wild-type TP53 (P = 0.001). A negative correlation between NKX2-1 and miR-365 expression was found (ρ = -0.287; P = 0.003) but there was no correlation between NKX2-1 and miR-33a expression. Overall survival (OS) was longer in patients with high expression of NKX2-1 than in those with low expression (80.8 vs 61.2 months (P = 0.035), while a trend towards longer OS was observed in patients with low miR-365 levels (P = 0.07). The impact of NKX2-1 on OS and DFS was higher in patients with neither TP53 nor KRAS mutations. Higher expression of NKX2-1 was related to higher OS (77.6 vs 54 months; P = 0.017) and DFS (74.6 vs 57.7 months; P = 0.006) compared to low expression. The association between NKX2-1 and OS and DFS was strengthened when the analysis was limited to patients with stage I disease (P = 0.005 and P=0.003 respectively). NKX2-1 expression impacts prognosis in early-stage NSCLC patients, particularly in those with neither TP53 nor KRAS mutations.

  6. Stereotactic body radiation therapy of early-stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma: Phase I study

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, Ronald C.; Papiez, Lech; Williams, Mark

    Purpose: A Phase I dose escalation study of stereotactic body radiation therapy to assess toxicity and local control rates for patients with medically inoperable Stage I lung cancer. Methods and Materials: All patients had non-small-cell lung carcinoma, Stage T1a or T1b N0, M0. Patients were immobilized in a stereotactic body frame and treated in escalating doses of radiotherapy beginning at 24 Gy total (3 x 8 Gy fractions) using 7-10 beams. Cohorts were dose escalated by 6.0 Gy total with appropriate observation periods. Results: The maximum tolerated dose was not achieved in the T1 stratum (maximum dose = 60 Gy),more » but within the T2 stratum, the maximum tolerated dose was realized at 72 Gy for tumors larger than 5 cm. Dose-limiting toxicity included predominantly bronchitis, pericardial effusion, hypoxia, and pneumonitis. Local failure occurred in 4/19 T1 and 6/28 T2 patients. Nine local failures occurred at doses {<=}16 Gy and only 1 at higher doses. Local failures occurred between 3 and 31 months from treatment. Within the T1 group, 5 patients had distant or regional recurrence as an isolated event, whereas 3 patients had both distant and regional recurrence. Within the T2 group, 2 patients had solitary regional recurrences, and the 4 patients who failed distantly also failed regionally. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy seems to be a safe, effective means of treating early-stage lung cancer in medically inoperable patients. Excellent local control was achieved at higher dose cohorts with apparent dose-limiting toxicities in patients with larger tumors.« less

  7. Recurrence Patterns and Second Primary Lung Cancers After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Implications for Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Daniel E; Wu, Abraham J; Adeseye, Victoria; Din, Shaun U; Shaikh, Fauzia; Woo, Kaitlin M; Zhang, Zhigang; Foster, Amanda; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Gewanter, Richard; Huang, James; Rimner, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are subject to locoregional and distant recurrence, as well as the formation of second primary lung cancers (SPLCs). The optimal surveillance regimen for patients treated with SBRT for early-stage NSCLC remains unclear; we therefore investigated the posttreatment recurrence patterns and development of SPLCs. Three hundred sixty-six patients with pathologically proven inoperable early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT between 2006 and 2013 were assessed. Patients underwent a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest every 3 months during years 1 and 2, every 6 months during years 3 and 4, and annually thereafter. Competing risk analysis was used for all time-to-event analyses. With a median follow-up of 23 months, the 2-year cumulative incidence of local, nodal, and distant treatment failures were 12.2%, 16.1%, and 15.5%, respectively. In patients with disease progression after SBRT (n = 108), 84% (n = 91) of cases occurred within the first 2 years. Five percent (n = 19) of patients experienced SPLCs. The median time to development of an SPLC was 16.5 months (range, 6.5-71.1 months), with 33% (n = 6) of these patients experiencing SPLCs after 2 years. None of the never smokers, but 4% of former tobacco smokers and 15% of current tobacco smokers, experienced an SPLC (P = .005). Close monitoring with routine CT scans within the first 2 years after SBRT is effective in detecting early disease progression. In contrast, the risk for the development of an SPLC remains elevated beyond 2 years, particularly in former and current smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic characterization drives personalized therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and survivors with metachronous second primary tumor (MST): A case report.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingchen; Wang, Linlin; Liu, Xijun; Sun, Xindong; Yu, Jinming; Meng, Xue

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer is a complicated process in which many genes take part. But molecular gene testing is typically only performed in advanced-stage non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The value of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) administration is not widely recognized with respect to early-stage NSCLC. Here, we present a case of a man, heavy smoker who initially presented with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Three years after a lung lobectomy, he was diagnosed with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), according to laboratory, imaging, and pathological examinations. The case initially had an early-stage LADC with an L858R epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. A subsequent advanced SCC bearing EGFR L858R/T790M mutations occurred 3 years after surgery. The comprehensive therapy we utilized, including surgical resection for the early-stage lesion and GP chemotherapy and local radiotherapy as the first line therapy along with gefitinib maintenance treatment for the advanced metachronous second primary tumors (MST). The synthetical therapy, have resulted in our patient with remaining alive and progression free for 4.5 years. This case suggests that changes in molecular pathology should be monitored closely throughout cancer progression to guide personalized therapy and improve prognosis. We further review administration of TKI to early-stage NSCLC and to the metachronous second primary tumors (MST) in survivors.

  9. Preoperative Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) and Outcomes from Resected Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Almquist, Daniel; Khanal, Nabin; Smith, Lynette; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2018-05-01

    Preoperative pulmonary function tests (PFTs) predict operative morbidity and mortality after resection in lung cancer. However, the impact of preoperative PFTs on overall outcomes in surgically-resected stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been well studied. This is a retrospective study of 149 patients who underwent surgical resection as first-line treatment for stage I and II NSCLC at a single center between 2003 and 2014. PFTs [forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), Diffusing Capacity (DLCO)], both absolute values and percent predicted values were categorized into quartiles. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to determine whether PFTs predicted for overall survival (OS). Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of postoperative complications and length of stay (LOS) greater than 10 days based on the results of PFTs. The median age of the cohort was 68 years. The cohort was predominantly males (98.6%), current or ex-smokers (98%), with stage I NSCLC (82.76%). The majority of patients underwent a lobectomy (n=121, 81.21%). The predominant tumor histology was adenocarcinoma (n=70, 47%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n=61, 41%). The median follow-up of surviving patients was 53.2 months. DLCO was found to be a significant predictor of OS (HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.87-0.99; p=0.03) on univariate analysis. Although PFTs did not predict for postoperative complications, worse PFTs were significant predictors of length of stay >10 days. Preoperative PFTs did not predict for survival from resected early-stage NSCLC, but did predict for prolonged hospital stay following surgery. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life, and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-Stage Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J; Stoddard, Shawn M; Wampfler, Jason A; Limper, Andrew H; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a frequent comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on a patient's overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and recovery of pulmonary function in stage I to II lung cancer. Between 1997 and 2009, a total of 1073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups-cancer in the emphysematous (group 1 [n = 565]) and nonemphysematous (group 2 [n = 435]) regions-and one nonsurgical group (group 3 [n = 73]). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized as mild (≤5%), moderate (6%-24%), or severe (25%-60%). In group 1, patients with a moderate or severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second, but increases in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity compared with those with a mild RES (p < 0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Posttreatment QOL was lower in patients with higher RESs in all groups, mainly owing to dyspnea (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with a higher RES had significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.41 and 1.43 for a moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for a severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the nonsurgical group (adjusted hazard ratio of 0.99 for a moderate or severe RES). In surgically treated patients with cancer in the emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of posttreatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Socioeconomic position and surgery for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: A population-based study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kærgaard Starr, Laila; Osler, Merete; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte; Jakobsen, Erik; Østerlind, Kell; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne

    2013-03-01

    To examine possible associations between socioeconomic position and surgical treatment of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a register-based clinical cohort study, patients with early-stage (stages I-IIIa) NSCLC were identified in the Danish Lung Cancer Register 2001-2008 (date of diagnosis, histology, stage, and treatment), the Central Population Register (vital status), the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research (socioeconomic position), and the Danish Hospital Discharge Register (comorbidity). Logistic regression analyses were performed overall and separately for stages I, II and IIIa. Of the 5538 eligible patients with stages I-IIIa NSCLC diagnosed 2001-2008, 53% underwent surgery. Higher stage, older age, being female and diagnosis early in the study period were associated with higher odds for not receiving surgery. Low disposable income was associated with greater odds for no surgery in stage I and stage II patients as was living alone for stage I patients. Comorbidity, a short diagnostic interval and small diagnostic volume were all associated with higher odds for not undergoing surgery; but these factors did not appear to explain the association with income or living alone for early-stage NSCLC patients. Early-stage NSCLC patients with low income or who live alone are less likely to undergo surgery than those with a high income or who live with a partner, even after control for possible explanatory factors. Thus, even in a health care system with free, equal access to health services, disadvantaged groups are less likely to receive surgery for lung cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment selection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer: the role of the patient in clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Mokhles, S; Nuyttens, J J M E; de Mol, M; Aerts, J G J V; Maat, A P W M; Birim, Ö; Bogers, A J J C; Takkenberg, J J M

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate the role and experience of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient in decision making process concerning treatment selection in the current clinical practice. Stage I-II NSCLC patients (surgery 55 patients, SBRT 29 patients, median age 68) were included in this prospective study and completed a questionnaire that explored: (1) perceived patient knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment options, (2) experience with current clinical decision making, and (3) the information that the patient reported to have received from their treating physician. This was assessed by multiple-choice, 1-5 Likert Scale, and open questions. The Decisional Conflict Scale was used to assess the decisional conflict. Health related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured with SF-36 questionnaire. In 19% of patients, there was self-reported perceived lack of knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment options. Seventy-four percent of patients felt that they were sufficiently involved in decision-making by their physician, and 81% found it important to be involved in decision making. Forty percent experienced decisional conflict, and one-in-five patients to such an extent that it made them feel unsure about the decision. Subscores with regard to feeling uninformed and on uncertainty, contributed the most to decisional conflict, as 36% felt uninformed and 17% of patients were not satisfied with their decision. HRQoL was not influenced by patient experience with decision-making or patient preferences for shared decision making. Dutch early-stage NSCLC patients find it important to be involved in treatment decision making. Yet a substantial proportion experiences decisional conflict and feels uninformed. Better patient information and/or involvement in treatment-decision-making is needed in order to improve patient knowledge and hopefully reduce decisional conflict.

  15. MYC and Human Telomerase Gene (TERC) Copy Number Gain in Early-stage Non–small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Flacco, Antonella; Ludovini, Vienna; Bianconi, Fortunato; Ragusa, Mark; Bellezza, Guido; Tofanetti, Francesca R.; Pistola, Lorenza; Siggillino, Annamaria; Vannucci, Jacopo; Cagini, Lucio; Sidoni, Angelo; Puma, Francesco; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Crinò, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the frequency of MYC and TERC increased gene copy number (GCN) in early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and evaluated the correlation of these genomic imbalances with clinicopathologic parameters and outcome. Materials and Methods Tumor tissues were obtained from 113 resected NSCLCs. MYC and TERC GCNs were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) according to the University of Colorado Cancer Center (UCCC) criteria and based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) classification. Results When UCCC criteria were applied, 41 (36%) cases for MYC and 41 (36%) cases for TERC were considered FISH-positive. MYC and TERC concurrent FISH-positive was observed in 12 cases (11%): 2 (17%) cases with gene amplification and 10 (83%) with high polysomy. By using the ROC analysis, high MYC (mean ≥2.83 copies/cell) and TERC (mean ≥2.65 copies/cell) GCNs were observed in 60 (53.1%) cases and 58 (51.3%) cases, respectively. High TERC GCN was associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histology (P = 0.001). In univariate analysis, increased MYC GCN was associated with shorter overall survival (P = 0.032 [UCCC criteria] or P = 0.02 [ROC classification]), whereas high TERC GCN showed no association. In multivariate analysis including stage and age, high MYC GCN remained significantly associated with worse overall survival using both the UCCC criteria (P = 0.02) and the ROC classification (P = 0.008). Conclusions Our results confirm MYC as frequently amplified in early-stage NSCLC and increased MYC GCN as a strong predictor of worse survival. Increased TERC GCN does not have prognostic impact but has strong association with squamous histology. PMID:25806711

  16. Whole-exome sequencing and immune profiling of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma with fully annotated clinical follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kadara, H; Choi, M; Zhang, J; Parra, E R; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Gaffney, S G; Zhao, Z; Behrens, C; Fujimoto, J; Chow, C; Yoo, Y; Kalhor, N; Moran, C; Rimm, D; Swisher, S; Gibbons, D L; Heymach, J; Kaftan, E; Townsend, J P; Lynch, T J; Schlessinger, J; Lee, J; Lifton, R P; Wistuba, I I; Herbst, R S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) lead to the majority of deaths attributable to lung cancer. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and immune profiling analyses of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUADs to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify clinically relevant molecular markers. Methods We performed WES of 108 paired stage I-III LUADs and normal lung tissues using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Ten immune markers (PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45ro, CD57, CD68, FOXP3 and Granzyme B) were profiled by imaging-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a subset of LUADs (n = 92). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for multivariate analysis of clinical outcome. Results LUADs in this cohort exhibited an average of 243 coding mutations. We identified 28 genes with significant enrichment for mutation. SETD2-mutated LUADs exhibited relatively poor recurrence- free survival (RFS) and mutations in STK11 and ATM were associated with poor RFS among KRAS-mutant tumors. EGFR, KEAP1 and PIK3CA mutations were predictive of poor response to adjuvant therapy. Immune marker analysis revealed that LUADs in smokers and with relatively high mutation burdens exhibited increased levels of immune markers. Analysis of immunophenotypes revealed that LUADs with STK11 mutations exhibited relatively low levels of infiltrating CD4+/CD8+ T-cells indicative of a muted immune response. Tumoral PD-L1 was significantly elevated in TP53 mutant LUADs whereas PIK3CA mutant LUADs exhibited markedly down-regulated PD-L1 expression. LUADs with TP53 or KEAP1 mutations displayed relatively increased CD57 and Granzyme B levels indicative of augmented natural killer (NK) cell infiltration. Conclusion(s) Our study highlights molecular and immune phenotypes that warrant further analysis for their

  17. Whole-exome sequencing and immune profiling of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma with fully annotated clinical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kadara, H; Choi, M; Zhang, J; Parra, E R; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Gaffney, S G; Zhao, Z; Behrens, C; Fujimoto, J; Chow, C; Yoo, Y; Kalhor, N; Moran, C; Rimm, D; Swisher, S; Gibbons, D L; Heymach, J; Kaftan, E; Townsend, J P; Lynch, T J; Schlessinger, J; Lee, J; Lifton, R P; Wistuba, I I; Herbst, R S

    2017-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) lead to the majority of deaths attributable to lung cancer. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and immune profiling analyses of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUADs to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify clinically relevant molecular markers. We performed WES of 108 paired stage I-III LUADs and normal lung tissues using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Ten immune markers (PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45ro, CD57, CD68, FOXP3 and Granzyme B) were profiled by imaging-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a subset of LUADs (n = 92). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for multivariate analysis of clinical outcome. LUADs in this cohort exhibited an average of 243 coding mutations. We identified 28 genes with significant enrichment for mutation. SETD2-mutated LUADs exhibited relatively poor recurrence- free survival (RFS) and mutations in STK11 and ATM were associated with poor RFS among KRAS-mutant tumors. EGFR, KEAP1 and PIK3CA mutations were predictive of poor response to adjuvant therapy. Immune marker analysis revealed that LUADs in smokers and with relatively high mutation burdens exhibited increased levels of immune markers. Analysis of immunophenotypes revealed that LUADs with STK11 mutations exhibited relatively low levels of infiltrating CD4+/CD8+ T-cells indicative of a muted immune response. Tumoral PD-L1 was significantly elevated in TP53 mutant LUADs whereas PIK3CA mutant LUADs exhibited markedly down-regulated PD-L1 expression. LUADs with TP53 or KEAP1 mutations displayed relatively increased CD57 and Granzyme B levels indicative of augmented natural killer (NK) cell infiltration. Our study highlights molecular and immune phenotypes that warrant further analysis for their roles in clinical outcomes and personalized immune

  18. Development and Validation of an Individualized Immune Prognostic Signature in Early-Stage Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Bailiang; Cui, Yi; Diehn, Maximilian; Li, Ruijiang

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is expected to increase with recent implementation of annual screening programs. Reliable prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify patients at a high risk for recurrence to guide adjuvant therapy. To develop a robust, individualized immune signature that can estimate prognosis in patients with early-stage nonsquamous NSCLC. This retrospective study analyzed the gene expression profiles of frozen tumor tissue samples from 19 public NSCLC cohorts, including 18 microarray data sets and 1 RNA-Seq data set for The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung adenocarcinoma cohort. Only patients with nonsquamous NSCLC with clinical annotation were included. Samples were from 2414 patients with nonsquamous NSCLC, divided into a meta-training cohort (729 patients), meta-testing cohort (716 patients), and 3 independent validation cohorts (439, 323, and 207 patients). All patients underwent surgery with a negative surgical margin, received no adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and had publicly available gene expression data and survival information. Data were collected from July 22 through September 8, 2016. Overall survival. Of 2414 patients (1205 men [50%], 1111 women [46%], and 98 of unknown sex [4%]; median age [range], 64 [15-90] years), a prognostic immune signature of 25 gene pairs consisting of 40 unique genes was constructed using the meta-training data set. In the meta-testing and validation cohorts, the immune signature significantly stratified patients into high- vs low-risk groups in terms of overall survival across and within subpopulations with stage I, IA, IB, or II disease and remained as an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio range, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.26-2.33; P < .001] to 2.36 [95% CI, 1.47-3.79; P < .001]) after adjusting for clinical and pathologic factors. Several biological processes, including chemotaxis, were enriched among genes in the immune signature. The

  19. WE-AB-207B-05: Correlation of Normal Lung Density Changes with Dose After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q; Devpura, S; Feghali, K

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate correlation of normal lung CT density changes with dose accuracy and outcome after SBRT for patients with early stage lung cancer. Methods: Dose distributions for patients originally planned and treated using a 1-D pencil beam-based (PB-1D) dose algorithm were retrospectively recomputed using algorithms: 3-D pencil beam (PB-3D), and model-based Methods: AAA, Acuros XB (AXB), and Monte Carlo (MC). Prescription dose was 12 Gy × 4 fractions. Planning CT images were rigidly registered to the followup CT datasets at 6–9 months after treatment. Corresponding dose distributions were mapped from the planning to followup CT images. Following the methodmore » of Palma et al .(1–2), Hounsfield Unit (HU) changes in lung density in individual, 5 Gy, dose bins from 5–45 Gy were assessed in the peri-tumor region, defined as a uniform, 3 cm expansion around the ITV(1). Results: There is a 10–15% displacement of the high dose region (40–45 Gy) with the model-based algorithms, relative to the PB method, due to the electron scattering of dose away from the tumor into normal lung tissue (Fig.1). Consequently, the high-dose lung region falls within the 40–45 Gy dose range, causing an increase in HU change in this region, as predicted by model-based algorithms (Fig.2). The patient with the highest HU change (∼110) had mild radiation pneumonitis, and the patient with HU change of ∼80–90 had shortness of breath. No evidence of pneumonitis was observed for the 3 patients with smaller CT density changes (<50 HU). Changes in CT densities, and dose-response correlation, as computed with model-based algorithms, are in excellent agreement with the findings of Palma et al. (1–2). Conclusion: Dose computed with PB (1D or 3D) algorithms was poorly correlated with clinically relevant CT density changes, as opposed to model-based algorithms. A larger cohort of patients is needed to confirm these results. This work was supported in part by a grant from

  20. Computed Tomography Assessment of Ablation Zone Enhancement in Patients With Early-Stage Lung Cancer After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moore, William; Chaya, Yair; Chaudhry, Ammar; Depasquale, Britney; Glass, Samantha; Lee, Susan; Shin, James; Mikhail, George; Bhattacharji, Priya; Kim, Bong; Bilfinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) offers a curative treatment for lung cancer in patients who are marginal surgical candidates. However, unlike traditional surgery the lung cancer remains in place after treatment. Thus, imaging follow-up for evaluation of recurrence is of paramount importance. In this retrospective designed Institutional Review Board-approved study, follow-up contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) exams were performed on sixty one patients to evaluate enhancement pattern in the ablation zone at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after SABR. Eleven patients had recurrence within the ablation zone after SABR. The postcontrast enhancement in the recurrence group showed a washin and washout phenomenon, whereas the radiation-induced lung injury group showed continuous enhancement suggesting an inflammatory process. The textural feature of the ablation zone of enhancement and perfusion as demonstrated in computed tomography nodule enhancement may allow early differentiation of recurrence from radiation-induced lung injury in patients' status after SABR or primary lung cancer.

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of 5 Treatment Strategies for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvani, Shervin M.; Jiang, Jing; Chang, Joe Y.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The incidence of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among older adults is expected to increase because of demographic trends and computed tomography-based screening; yet, optimal treatment in the elderly remains controversial. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare cohort spanning 2001-2007, we compared survival outcomes associated with 5 strategies used in contemporary practice: lobectomy, sublobar resection, conventional radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), and observation. Methods and Materials: Treatment strategy and covariates were determined in 10,923 patients aged {>=}66 years with stage IA-IB NSCLC. Cox regression, adjusted for patient and tumor factors, compared overall and disease-specificmore » survival for the 5 strategies. In a second exploratory analysis, propensity-score matching was used for comparison of SABR with other options. Results: The median age was 75 years, and 29% had moderate to severe comorbidities. Treatment distribution was lobectomy (59%), sublobar resection (11.7%), conventional radiation (14.8%), observation (12.6%), and SABR (1.1%). In Cox regression analysis with a median follow-up time of 3.2 years, SABR was associated with the lowest risk of death within 6 months of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.63; referent is lobectomy). After 6 months, lobectomy was associated with the best overall and disease-specific survival. In the propensity-score matched analysis, survival after SABR was similar to that after lobectomy (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.45-1.12; referent is SABR). Conventional radiation and observation were associated with poor outcomes in all analyses. Conclusions: In this population-based experience, lobectomy was associated with the best long-term outcomes in fit elderly patients with early-stage NSCLC. Exploratory analysis of SABR early adopters suggests efficacy comparable with that of surgery in select

  2. Reduced survival in patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with high pleural endothelial progenitor cell levels.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Matteo; Cagini, Lucio; Mannarino, Massimo R; Andolfi, Marco; Potenza, Rossella; Paciullo, Francesco; Bianconi, Vanessa; Frangione, Maria Rosaria; Bagaglia, Francesco; Puma, Francesco; Mannarino, Elmo

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells are capable of contributing to neovascularization in tumours. In patients with either malignant or transudative pleural effusion, we tested the presence of pleural endothelial progenitor cells. We also measured the number of endothelial progenitor cells in post-surgery pleural drainage of either patients with early non-small-cell lung cancer or control patients with benign lung disease undergoing pulmonary resection. The prospective influence of post-surgery pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cells on cancer recurrence/survival was investigated. Pleural endothelial progenitor cell levels were quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis in pleural effusion of 15 patients with late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer with pleural involvement and in 15 control patients with congestive heart failure. Also, pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cells were measured in pleural-drainage fluid 48 h after surgery in 64 patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer and 20 benign lung disease patients undergoing pulmonary resection. Cancer recurrence and survival was evaluated in patients with high pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cell levels. The number of pleural endothelial progenitor cells was higher in non-small-cell lung cancer pleural effusion than in transudative pleural effusion. Also, pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cell levels were higher in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer than in patients with benign lung disease undergoing pulmonary resection (P < 0.05). Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with high pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cell levels had a significantly 4.9 higher rate of cancer recurrence/death than patients with lower pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cell levels, irrespective of confounders. Endothelial progenitor cells are present in the pleural effusion and are higher in patients with late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer with pleural involvement than in

  3. Impact of Pretreatment Tumor Growth Rate on Outcome of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, Soha; Cho, B.C. John; Allibhai, Zishan

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of pretreatment tumor growth rate on outcomes in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A review was conducted on 160 patients with T1-T2N0M0 NSCLC treated with SBRT at single institution. The patient's demographic and clinical data, time interval (t) between diagnostic and planning computed tomography (CT), vital status, disease status, and cause of death were extracted from a prospectively kept database. Differences in gross tumor volume between diagnostic CT (GTV1) and planning CT (GTV2) were recorded, and growth rate was calculated by usemore » of specific growth rate (SGR). Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for overall survival (OS). Differences between groups were compared with a log-rank test. Multivariate analyses were performed by use of the Cox proportional hazard model with SGR and other relevant clinical factors. Cumulative incidence was calculated for local, regional, and distant failures by use of the competing risk approach and was compared with Gray's test. Results: The median time interval between diagnostic and planning CT was 82 days. The patients were divided into 2 groups, and the median SGR was used as a cut-off. The median survival times were 38.6 and 27.7 months for the low and high SGR groups, respectively (P=.03). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P=.01), sex (P=.04), SGR (P=.03), and GTV2 (P=.002) were predictive for OS in multivariable Cox regression analysis and, except sex, were similarly predictive for failure-free survival (FFS). The 3-year cumulative incidences of regional failure were 19.2% and 6.0% for the high and low SGR groups, respectively (P=.047). Conclusion: High SGR was correlated with both poorer OS and FFS in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT. If validated, this measurement may be useful in identifying patients most likely to benefit from

  4. The associations of TERT-CLPTM1L variants and TERT mRNA expression with the prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Wang, J; Bai, Y; Wang, S; Yin, X; Xiang, J; Li, X; He, M; Zhang, X; Wu, T; Xu, P; Guo, H

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified TERT-CLPTM1L as plausible causative locus for lung cancer development. This study aimed to investigate the associations of genetic variations in TERT-CLPTM1L and the expression level of TERT with the survival of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We selected three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of TERT-CLPTM1L (rs2853669, rs2736108 and rs31490) and genotyped in 140 early stage NSCLC patients by TaqMan assay. Associations between these variations and survival outcome of early stage NSCLC patients were further investigated. We also used TCGA data to evaluate the associations of TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and survival outcome of early stage NSCLC patients. Survival analysis showed that, compared with early NSCLC patients carrying TERT rs2853669 TT+TC genotypes, patients with rs2853669 CC genotype had significantly longer median survival time (MST=102.2 vs 52.4 months; log-rank P=0.028) and lower death risk [hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI))=0.38(0.17-0.82), P=0.014]. Early NSCLC patients carrying TERT rs2736108 AA genotype had significantly shorter MST (MST=29.0 vs 63.3 months; log-rank P=0.020) and increased death risk [HR (95% CI)=2.22(1.01-5.80), P=0.046], when compared with patients carrying rs2736108 GG genotypes. TCGA data revealed that early NSCLC patients with higher expression level of TERT mRNA in lung tumor tissues had a longer MST and decreased death risk than those with low expression level of TERT mRNA [MST=54.4 vs 49.0 months; log-rank P=0.041; adjusted HR (95% CI)=0.68(0.50-0.94)]. These findings may add potential evidence to understand the prognostic value of TERT and provide a new prospect of individualized prevention and treatment for early stage NSCLC.

  5. No Clinically Significant Changes in Pulmonary Function Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early- Stage Peripheral Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 0236

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa, E-mail: sinisa.stanic@carle.com; Paulus, Rebecca; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate pulmonary function test (PFT) results and arterial blood gas changes (complete PFT) following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and to see whether baseline PFT correlates with lung toxicity and overall survival in medically inoperable patients receiving SBRT for early stage, peripheral, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: During the 2-year follow-up, PFT data were collected for patients with T1-T2N0M0 peripheral NSCLC who received effectively 18 Gy × 3 in a phase 2 North American multicenter study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] protocol 0236). Pulmonary toxicity was graded by using the RTOG SBRT pulmonary toxicity scale. Paired Wilcoxon signedmore » rank test, logistic regression model, and Kaplan-Meier method were used for statistical analysis. Results: At 2 years, mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide declines were 5.8% and 6.3%, respectively, with minimal changes in arterial blood gases and no significant decline in oxygen saturation. Baseline PFT was not predictive of any pulmonary toxicity following SBRT. Whole-lung V5 (the percentage of normal lung tissue receiving 5 Gy), V10, V20, and mean dose to the whole lung were almost identical between patients who developed pneumonitis and patients who were pneumonitis-free. Poor baseline PFT did not predict decreased overall survival. Patients with poor baseline PFT as the reason for medical inoperability had higher median and overall survival rates than patients with normal baseline PFT values but with cardiac morbidity. Conclusions: Poor baseline PFT did not appear to predict pulmonary toxicity or decreased overall survival after SBRT in this medically inoperable population. Poor baseline PFT alone should not be used to exclude patients with early stage lung cancer from treatment with SBRT.« less

  6. Mutation profiles in early-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma with clinical follow-up and correlation with markers of immune function.

    PubMed

    Choi, M; Kadara, H; Zhang, J; Parra, E R; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Gaffney, S G; Zhao, Z; Behrens, C; Fujimoto, J; Chow, C; Kim, K; Kalhor, N; Moran, C; Rimm, D; Swisher, S; Gibbons, D L; Heymach, J; Kaftan, E; Townsend, J P; Lynch, T J; Schlessinger, J; Lee, J; Lifton, R P; Herbst, R S; Wistuba, I I

    2017-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) accounts for 20–30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). There are limited treatment strategies for LUSC in part due to our inadequate understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the disease. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and comprehensive immune profiling of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUSCs to increase our understanding of the pathobiology of this malignancy. Matched pairs of surgically resected stage I-III LUSCs and normal lung tissues (n = 108) were analyzed by WES. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis-based profiling of 10 immune markers were done on a subset of LUSCs (n = 91). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were statistically examined using analysis of variance and Fisher’s exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analysis of clinical outcome. This early-stage LUSC cohort displayed an average of 209 exonic mutations per tumor. Fourteen genes exhibited significant enrichment for somatic mutation: TP53, MLL2, PIK3CA, NFE2L2, CDH8, KEAP1, PTEN, ADCY8, PTPRT, CALCR, GRM8, FBXW7, RB1 and CDKN2A. Among mutated genes associated with poor recurrence-free survival, MLL2 mutations predicted poor prognosis in both TP53 mutant and wild-type LUSCs. We also found that in treated patients, FBXW7 and KEAP1 mutations were associated with poor response to adjuvant therapy, particularly in TP53-mutant tumors. Analysis of mutations with immune markers revealed that ADCY8 and PIK3CA mutations were associated with markedly decreased tumoral PD-L1 expression, LUSCs with PIK3CA mutations exhibited elevated CD45ro levels and CDKN2A-mutant tumors displayed an up-regulated immune response. Our findings pinpoint mutated genes that may impact clinical outcome as well as personalized strategies for targeted immunotherapies in early-stage LUSC.

  7. Quantification of regional early stage gas exchange changes using hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI in a rat model of radiation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Ozkan; Stirrat, Elaine; McKenzie, Charles; Schulte, Rolf F; Santyr, Giles E

    2016-05-01

    To assess the feasibility of hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe MRI for detection of early stage radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) in a rat model involving unilateral irradiation by assessing differences in gas exchange dynamics between irradiated and unirradiated lungs. The dynamics of gas exchange between alveolar air space and pulmonary tissue (PT), PT and red blood cells (RBCs) was measured using single-shot spiral iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation images of the right and left lungs of two age-matched cohorts of Sprague Dawley rats. The first cohort (n = 5) received 18 Gy irradiation to the right lung using a (60)Co source and the second cohort (n = 5) was not irradiated and served as the healthy control. Both groups were imaged two weeks following irradiation when radiation pneumonitis (RP) was expected to be present. The gas exchange data were fit to a theoretical gas exchange model to extract measurements of pulmonary tissue thickness (LPT) and relative blood volume (VRBC) from each of the right and left lungs of both cohorts. Following imaging, lung specimens were retrieved and percent tissue area (PTA) was assessed histologically to confirm RP and correlate with MRI measurements. Statistically significant differences in LPT and VRBC were observed between the irradiated and non-irradiated cohorts. In particular, LPT of the right and left lungs was increased approximately 8.2% and 5.0% respectively in the irradiated cohort. Additionally, VRBC of the right and left lungs was decreased approximately 36.1% and 11.7% respectively for the irradiated cohort compared to the non-irradiated cohort. PTA measurements in both right and left lungs were increased in the irradiated group compared to the non-irradiated cohort for both the left (P < 0.05) and right lungs (P < 0.01) confirming the presence of RP. PTA measurements also correlated with the MRI measurements for both the non-irradiated (r = 0.79, P < 0.01) and

  8. Identification of early-stage usual interstitial pneumonia from low-dose chest CT scans using fractional high-density lung distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiting; Salvatore, Mary; Liu, Shuang; Jirapatnakul, Artit; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2017-03-01

    A fully-automated computer algorithm has been developed to identify early-stage Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) using features computed from low-dose CT scans. In each scan, the pre-segmented lung region is divided into N subsections (N = 1, 8, 27, 64) by separating the lung from anterior/posterior, left/right and superior/inferior in 3D space. Each subsection has approximately the same volume. In each subsection, a classic density measurement (fractional high-density volume h) is evaluated to characterize the disease severity in that subsection, resulting in a feature vector of length N for each lung. Features are then combined in two different ways: concatenation (2*N features) and taking the maximum in each of the two corresponding subsections in the two lungs (N features). The algorithm was evaluated on a dataset consisting of 51 UIP and 56 normal cases, a combined feature vector was computed for each case and an SVM classifier (RBF kernel) was used to classify them into UIP or normal using ten-fold cross validation. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was used for evaluation. The highest AUC of 0.95 was achieved by using concatenated features and an N of 27. Using lung partition (N = 27, 64) with concatenated features had significantly better result over not using partitions (N = 1) (p-value < 0.05). Therefore this equal-volume partition fractional high-density volume method is useful in distinguishing early-stage UIP from normal cases.

  9. Tumor-targeted SN38 inhibits growth of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a KRas/p53 transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Deneka, Alexander Y; Haber, Leora; Kopp, Meghan C; Gaponova, Anna V; Nikonova, Anna S; Golemis, Erica A

    2017-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with a 5-year survival of only ~16%. Potential strategies to address NSCLC mortality include improvements in early detection and prevention, and development of new therapies suitable for use in patients with early and late stage diagnoses. Controlling the growth of early stage tumors could yield significant clinical benefits for patients with comorbidities that make them poor candidates for surgery: however, many drugs that limit cancer growth are not useful in the setting of long-term use or in comorbid patients, because of associated toxicities. In this study, we explored the use of a recently described small molecule agent, STA-8666, as a potential agent for controlling early stage tumor growth. STA-8666 uses a cleavable linker to merge a tumor-targeting moiety that binds heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) with the cytotoxic chemical SN38, and has been shown to have high efficacy and low toxicity, associated with efficient tumor targeting, in preclinical studies using patient-derived and other xenograft models for pancreatic, bladder, and small cell lung cancer. Using a genetically engineered model of NSCLC arising from induced mutation of KRas and knockout of Trp53, we continuously dosed mice with STA-8666 from immediately after tumor induction for 15 weeks. STA-8666 significantly slowed the rate of tumor growth, and was well tolerated over this extended dosing period. STA-8666 induced DNA damage and apoptosis, and reduced proliferation and phosphorylation of the proliferation-associated protein ERK1/2, selectively in tumor tissue. In contrast, STA-8666 did not affect tumor features, such as degree of vimentin staining, associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), or downregulate tumor expression of HSP90. These data suggest STA-8666 and other similar targeted compounds may be useful additions to control the growth of early stage NSCLC in patient populations.

  10. Fluorescence background subtraction technique for hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography imaging of a mouse model of early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ale, Angelique; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-05-01

    The ability to visualize early stage lung cancer is important in the study of biomarkers and targeting agents that could lead to earlier diagnosis. The recent development of hybrid free-space 360-deg fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) imaging yields a superior optical imaging modality for three-dimensional small animal fluorescence imaging over stand-alone optical systems. Imaging accuracy was improved by using XCT information in the fluorescence reconstruction method. Despite this progress, the detection sensitivity of targeted fluorescence agents remains limited by nonspecific background accumulation of the fluorochrome employed, which complicates early detection of murine cancers. Therefore we examine whether x-ray CT information and bulk fluorescence detection can be combined to increase detection sensitivity. Correspondingly, we research the performance of a data-driven fluorescence background estimator employed for subtraction of background fluorescence from acquisition data. Using mice containing known fluorochromes ex vivo, we demonstrate the reduction of background signals from reconstructed images and sensitivity improvements. Finally, by applying the method to in vivo data from K-ras transgenic mice developing lung cancer, we find small tumors at an early stage compared with reconstructions performed using raw data. We conclude with the benefits of employing fluorescence subtraction in hybrid FMT-XCT for early detection studies.

  11. Serum, liver, and lung levels of the major extracellular matrix components at the early stage of BCG-induced granulomatosis depending on the infection route.

    PubMed

    Kim, L B; Shkurupy, V A; Putyatina, A N

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on the model of mouse BCG-induced granulomatous showed that the content of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the liver and lungs are changed at the early stages of inflammation (days 3 and 30 postinfection) before cell destruction in the organs begins. This is related to degradation of extracellular matrix structures. Their high content in the blood and interstitium probably contributes to the formation of granulomas, fibroblast proliferation and organ fibrosis. These processes depend on the infection route that determines different conditions for generalization of the inflammation process. Intravenous method of vaccine injection is preferable to use when designing the experiments simulating tuberculosis granulomatosis, especially for the analysis of its early stages.

  12. Myeloid Clusters Are Associated with a Pro-Metastatic Environment and Poor Prognosis in Smoking-Related Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wang; Pal, Sumanta K.; Liu, Xueli; Yang, Chunmei; Allahabadi, Sachin; Bhanji, Shaira; Figlin, Robert A.; Yu, Hua; Reckamp, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to understand the role of myeloid cell clusters in uninvolved regional lymph nodes from early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. Methods Uninvolved regional lymph node sections from 67 patients with stage I–III resected non-small cell lung cancer were immunostained to detect myeloid clusters, STAT3 activity and occult metastasis. Anthracosis intensity, myeloid cluster infiltration associated with anthracosis and pSTAT3 level were scored and correlated with patient survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with prognostic variables. Human macrophages were used for in vitro nicotine treatment. Results CD68+ myeloid clusters associated with anthracosis and with an immunosuppressive and metastasis-promoting phenotype and elevated overall STAT3 activity were observed in uninvolved lymph nodes. In patients with a smoking history, myeloid cluster score significantly correlated with anthracosis intensity and pSTAT3 level (P<0.01). Nicotine activated STAT3 in macrophages in long-term culture. CD68+ myeloid clusters correlated and colocalized with occult metastasis. Myeloid cluster score was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.049) and was associated with survival by Kaplan-Maier estimate in patients with a history of smoking (P = 0.055). The combination of myeloid cluster score with either lymph node stage or pSTAT3 level defined two populations with a significant difference in survival (P = 0.024 and P = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Myeloid clusters facilitate a pro-metastatic microenvironment in uninvolved regional lymph nodes and associate with occult metastasis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Myeloid cluster score is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with a history of smoking, and may present a novel method to inform therapy choices in the adjuvant setting. Further validation studies are warranted. PMID:23717691

  13. Variations in Receipt of Curative-Intent Surgery for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) by State.

    PubMed

    Sineshaw, Helmneh M; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Flanders, W Dana; Osarogiagbon, Raymond Uyiosa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies reported racial and socioeconomic disparities in receipt of curative-intent surgery for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the United States. We examined variation in receipt of surgery and whether the racial disparity varies by state. Patients in whom stage I or II NSCLC was diagnosed from 2007 to 2011 were identified from 38 state and the District of Columbia population-based cancer registries compiled by the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Percentage of patients receiving curative-intent surgery was calculated for each registry. Adjusted risk ratios were generated by using modified Poisson regression to control for sociodemographic (e.g., age, sex, race, insurance) and clinical (e.g., grade, stage) factors. Non-Hispanic (NH) whites and Massachusetts were used as references for comparisons because they had the lowest uninsured rates. In all registries combined, 66.4% of patients with early-stage NSCLC (73,475 of 110,711) received curative-intent surgery. Receipt of curative-intent surgery for early-stage NSCLC varied substantially by state, ranging from 52.2% to 56.1% in Wyoming, Louisiana, and New Mexico to 75.2% to 77.2% in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Utah. In a multivariable analysis, the likelihood of receiving curative-intent surgery was significantly lower in all but nine states/registries compared with Massachusetts, ranging from 7% lower in California to 25% lower in Wyoming. Receipt of curative-intent surgery for early-stage NSCLC was lower for NH blacks than for NH whites in every state, although statistically significant in Florida and Texas. Receipt of curative-intent surgery for early-stage NSCLC varies substantially across states in the United States, with northeastern states generally showing the highest rates. Further, receipt of treatment appeared to be lower in NH blacks than in NH whites in every state, although statistically significant in Florida and Texas. Copyright © 2016

  14. Cost-Utility of a Prognostic Test Guiding Adjuvant Chemotherapy Decisions in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stenehjem, David D; Bellows, Brandon K; Yager, Kraig M; Jones, Joshua; Kaldate, Rajesh; Siebert, Uwe; Brixner, Diana I

    2016-02-01

    A prognostic test was developed to guide adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) decisions in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) adenocarcinomas. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the prognostic test to the current standard of care (SoC) in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Lifetime costs (2014 U.S. dollars) and effectiveness (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) of ACT treatment decisions were examined using a Markov microsimulation model from a U.S. third-party payer perspective. Cancer stage distribution and probability of receiving ACT with the SoC were based on data from an academic cancer center. The probability of receiving ACT with the prognostic test was estimated from a physician survey. Risk classification was based on the 5-year predicted NSCLC-related mortality. Treatment benefit with ACT was based on the prognostic score. Discounting at a 3% annual rate was applied to costs and QALYs. Deterministic one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses examined parameter uncertainty. Lifetime costs and effectiveness were $137,403 and 5.45 QALYs with the prognostic test and $127,359 and 5.17 QALYs with the SoC. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the prognostic test versus the SoC was $35,867/QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analyses indicated the model was most sensitive to the utility of patients without recurrence after ACT and the ACT treatment benefit. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated the prognostic test was cost-effective in 65.5% of simulations at a willingness to pay of $50,000/QALY. The study suggests using a prognostic test to guide ACT decisions in early-stage NSCLC is potentially cost-effective compared with using the SoC based on globally accepted willingness-to-pay thresholds. Providing prognostic information to decision makers may help some patients with high-risk early stage non-small cell lung cancer receive appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy while avoiding the associated toxicities and

  15. Treatment of early non-small cell lung cancer, stage IA, by image-guided robotic stereotactic radioablation--CyberKnife.

    PubMed

    Brown, William T; Wu, Xiaodong; Amendola, Beatriz; Perman, Mark; Han, Hoke; Fayad, Fahed; Garcia, Silvio; Lewin, Alan; Abitbol, Andre; de la Zerda, Alberto; Schwade, James G

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of using image-guided robotic stereotactic radioablation as an alternative treatment modality for patients with surgically resectable, but medically inoperable, T1 N0 M0, stage IA non-small cell lung cancer. Between January 2004 and May 2006, 19 patients, 11 women and 8 men ranging in age from 52 to 88 years, with stage IA non-small cell lung cancer were treated. Tumor volume ranged from 1.7 to 13 mL. Total doses ranged from 24 to 60 Gy delivered in 3 fractions. Eleven patients received 60 Gy. Real-time target localization was accomplished by radiographic detection of fiducial marker(s) implanted within the tumor combined with respiratory motion tracking. All patients tolerated radioablation well with fatigue as the main side effect. Fourteen patients are alive from 1 to 25 months posttreatment. Four patients died: 2 of comorbid disease and 2 of cancer progression (status post 60 and 55.5 Gy). Three patients developed grade I radiation pneumonitis. Two patients have stable disease. In 3 patients, cancer recurred in the planning treatment volume: in 2 patients after treatment with 60 Gy and in 1 patient after treatment with 55.5 Gy. One patient had local control in the target volume but developed metastasis to the ipsilateral hilum. Nine patients had a complete response and show no evidence of disease. In our early experience, stereotactic radioablation using the CyberKnife system appears to be a safe, minimally invasive, and effective modality for treating early stage lung cancer in patients with medically inoperable disease. Dose escalation and/or increasing the treatment volumes, with the aid of the high conformality of this technique, may help to achieve further improvements in these promising results.

  16. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage primary lung cancer, is an active breath coordinator necessary? An audit from a tertiary cancer care center.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, R; Renilmon, P S; Nair, H M; Lal, A; Nair, S S; Unnikrishnan, U G; Makuny, D

    2017-01-01

    The hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a safe and effective treatment modality for early-stage nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. An audit SBRT in primary lung cancer treated in our center with and without an active breath coordinator (ABC) was undertaken to evaluate its impact on target volumes and clinical outcomes. This was an observational study. Nine patients with lung carcinoma were treated from January 2014 to August 2016. Five patients were simulated using ABC and four patients with free breathing. Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were generated using Monaco treatment planning software. Three patients were treated with a dose of 54 Gy in three fractions and six patients with a dose of 48 Gy in four fractions. The statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier survival. The mean planning target volumes (PTV) in ABC and free breathing groups were 42.19cc and 60.17cc, respectively. The mean volume of lung receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy (V20, V10and V5) in ABC group were 5.37cc, 10.49cc, and 18.45cc whereas in free breathing 6.63cc, 12.74cc, and 20.64cc, respectively. At a median follow-up of 18 months, there were three local recurrences. No significant toxicity occurred in our series. Our initial results show that SBRT is well tolerated with good local control. Although the PTV volume and irradiated normal lung volume was higher in this group compared to ABC group, this did not translate to any added clinical toxicity.

  17. Huntingtin-Interacting Protein-1 Is an Early-Stage Prognostic Biomarker of Lung Adenocarcinoma and Suppresses Metastasis via Akt-mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Che-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Han; Jan, Yi-Hua; Su, Chia-Yi; Yao, Yun-Chin; Cheng, Hui-Chuan; Hsu, Tai-I; Wang, Po-Shun; Su, Wen-Pin; Yang, Chih-Jen; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Calkins, Marcus J; Hsiao, Michael; Lu, Pei-Jung

    2016-04-15

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carries a poor survival rate mainly because of metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern NSCLC metastasis have not been described. Because huntingtin-interacting protein-1 (HIP1) is known to play a role in tumorigenesis, we tested the involvement of HIP1 in NSCLC progression and metastasis. HIP1 expression was measured in human NSCLC tumors, and correlation with survival outcome was evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated the ability of HIP1 to suppress metastasis. The molecular mechanism by which HIP1 contributes to suppress metastasis was investigated. We used tissue arrays containing samples from 121 patients with NSCLC to analyze HIP1 expression by immunohistochemistry. To investigate the role of HIP1 expression on metastasis, we evaluated cellular mobility, migration, and invasion using lung adenocarcinoma (AdCA) cells with modified HIP1 expression levels. The human disease mouse models with the same cells were applied to evaluate the HIP1 suppressing metastasis and its mechanism in vivo. HIP1 expression in AdCA progression was found to be an early-stage prognostic biomarker, with low expression correlated to poor prognosis. We also found HIP1 to be a metastatic suppressor in AdCA. HIP1 significantly repressed the mobility of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and regulated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by repressing AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling. HIP1 serves as an early-stage prognostic biomarker and a metastatic suppressor. Reduced expression during AdCA progression can relieve HIP1 suppression of Akt-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and thereby lead to development of late metastases and poor prognosis.

  18. Early tumor shrinkage served as a prognostic factor for patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Ye, Qingqing; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Men; Hu, Yan; Yang, Yonghua; Yang, Jiyuan; Cai, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death. About 80% of patients are diagnosed at stage III in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is extremely important to understand the progression of this disease which has low survival times despite the advancing treatment modalities. We aimed to investigate the relationship between early tumor shrinkage (ETS) after initial concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT) and survival outcome in patients with stage III (NSCLC). A retrospective review of 103 patients with stage III NSCLC who had received C-CRT from January 2006 to October 2011 was performed. Patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy regimen of Cisplatin/Vp-16 and concurrent thoracic radiotherapy at a median dose of 66 Gy (range 60-70 Gy). All patients received a computed tomography (CT) examination before treatment. Also subsequently, chest CT scans were performed with the same imaging parameters at approximately 5 weeks after the initiation of treatment. ETS is here stratified by a decrease in tumor size ≥30% and <30% in the longest dimension of the target lesion within 5 weeks. Of the 103 patients, 59 ones showed a 30% decrease in tumor size, and the rest displayed a decrease of <30%. ETS showed no significant correlation with age, T classification, N classification, histological classification, smoking status, G classification, EGFR status, or acute pulmonary toxicity. In the current retrospective clinical study, Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with ETS ≥ 30% had a better progression-free survival and overall survival. The univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that ETS < 30% was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer-related death (P < .05) in stage IIINSCLC. ETS may be served as a useful prognostic factor to predict the outcome of stage III NSCLC patients treated with CCRT.

  19. Survey of the Patterns of Using Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Sanghyuk; Chang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Yeon Sil; Kim, Jin Hee; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae-Sung; Song, Si Yeol; Moon, Sung Ho; Cho, Moon June; Youn, Seon Min

    2017-07-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is an effective emerging technique for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the current practice of SABR for early-stage NSCLC in Korea. We conducted a nationwide survey of SABR for NSCLC by sending e-mails to all board-certified members of the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology. The survey included 23 questions focusing on the technical aspects of SABR and 18 questions seeking the participants' opinions on specific clinical scenarios in the use of SABR for early-stage NSCLC. Overall, 79 radiation oncologists at 61/85 specialist hospitals in Korea (71.8%) responded to the survey. SABR was used at 33 institutions (54%) to treat NSCLC. Regarding technical aspects, the most common planning methods were the rotational intensity-modulated technique (59%) and the static intensity-modulated technique (49%). Respiratory motion was managed by gating (54%) or abdominal compression (51%), and 86% of the planning scans were obtained using 4-dimensional computed tomography. In the clinical scenarios, the most commonly chosen fractionation schedule for peripherally located T1 NSCLC was 60 Gy in four fractions. For centrally located tumors and T2 NSCLC, the oncologists tended to avoid SABR for radiotherapy, and extended the fractionation schedule. The results of our survey indicated that SABR is increasingly being used to treat NSCLC in Korea. However, there were wide variations in the technical protocols and fractionation schedules of SABR for early-stage NSCLC among institutions. Standardization of SABR is necessary before implementing nationwide, multicenter, randomized studies.

  20. Implementation status and explanatory analysis of early advance care planning for Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tokito, Takaaki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Mori, Keita; Osaka, Iwao; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2015-03-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology published the goals of individualized care including advance care planning for advanced cancer patients in 2011. However, no data are available on the implementation status of advance care planning. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and informed consent forms of consecutive Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy between January 2010 and December 2012 at our institution. Two outcomes were defined to investigate the advance care planning implementation status: C-D, the duration from the last day of chemotherapy to death and D-D, that from the day of confirmed do-not-attempt-resuscitation order to death. The study included 136 eligible patients. The advance care planning implementation status in participating patients was as follows: 96 (70%) patients received information on 'incurable disease before first-line chemotherapy', 69 (50%) were informed about 'supportive care before first-line chemotherapy', whereas 43 (32%) learned about their prognosis. The do-not-attempt-resuscitation decision was reflected in 29 patients' will (21%). The median C-D was 64 days. Receipt of ≤2 chemotherapy regimens and provision of prognosis information to patients were significantly associated with long C-D in multivariate analysis. The median D-D was 25 days. Provision of information on supportive care before first-line chemotherapy and provision of prognosis information to patients were significantly associated with long D-D in multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that there is possible benefit from providing information on supportive care before first-line chemotherapy and informing patients about their prognosis in prolonging the duration of supportive care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  2. Evaluation of peripheral blood T lymphocyte surface activation markers and transcription factors in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Jacek; Cyman, Marta; Ślebioda, Tomasz; Bemben, Kamila; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Gruchała, Marcin; Kmieć, Zbigniew; Pliszka, Agnieszka; Zaucha, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Lung cancer cells harboring multiple mutations as a consequence of long-term damage by different etiologic factors are responsible for high immunogenicity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors significantly improve treatment results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, the role of T-lymphocytes in early NSCLC has not been sufficiently elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize peripheral blood T cells expressing several selected surface antigens (CD4, CD8, CD25, CD28, PD-1, CTLA-4) and transcription factors (T-bet, ROR-yt, Fox-P3, GATA-3) in this patient population. The study group (LC) consisted of 80 treatment-naïve patients with T1/2aN0M0 NSCLC and was compared with 40 cancer-free patients matched for non-oncological diseases and demographic parameters (CG). Significantly higher counts of CTLA-4+cells (in both CD4+and CD8+subtypes), a lower proportion of PD-1 expressing cells and a significantly higher percentage of Fox-P3+CD4+cells were found in the LC group. The high proportion of CD4+PD-1+cells significantly correlated with poor outcomes in LC group, while low CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a better prognosis. Based on our results it seems that NSCLC even at early stages of development initiate changes in the proportions of T cells that may have a significant impact on the clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumor Control Probability Modeling for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Using Multiple Bio-physical Models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Tai, An; Lee, Percy; Biswas, Tithi; Ding, George X.; El Naqa, Isaam; Grimm, Jimm; Jackson, Andrew; Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring); LaCouture, Tamara; Loo, Billy; Miften, Moyed; Solberg, Timothy; Li, X Allen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze pooled clinical data using different radiobiological models and to understand the relationship between biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor control probability (TCP) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Method and Materials The clinical data of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial or Kaplan-Meier TCP from 46 selected studies were collected for SBRT of NSCLC in the literature. The TCP data were separated for Stage T1 and T2 tumors if possible, otherwise collected for combined stages. BED was calculated at isocenters using six radiobiological models. For each model, the independent model parameters were determined from a fit to the TCP data using the least chi-square (χ2) method with either one set of parameters regardless of tumor stages or two sets for T1 and T2 tumors separately. Results The fits to the clinic data yield consistent results of large α/β ratios of about 20 Gy for all models investigated. The regrowth model that accounts for the tumor repopulation and heterogeneity leads to a better fit to the data, compared to other 5 models where the fits were indistinguishable between the models. The models based on the fitting parameters predict that the T2 tumors require about additional 1 Gy physical dose at isocenters per fraction (≤5 fractions) to achieve the optimal TCP when compared to the T1 tumors. Conclusion This systematic analysis of a large set of published clinical data using different radiobiological models shows that local TCP for SBRT of early-stage NSCLC has strong dependence on BED with large α/β ratios of about 20 Gy. The six models predict that a BED (calculated with α/β of 20) of 90 Gy is sufficient to achieve TCP ≥ 95%. Among the models considered, the regrowth model leads to a better fit to the clinical data. PMID:27871671

  4. Robotic surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery, and open surgery for early stage lung cancer: comparison of costs and outcomes at a single institute.

    PubMed

    Novellis, Pierluigi; Bottoni, Edoardo; Voulaz, Emanuele; Cariboni, Umberto; Testori, Alberto; Bertolaccini, Luca; Giordano, Laura; Dieci, Elisa; Granato, Lorenzo; Vanni, Elena; Montorsi, Marco; Alloisio, Marco; Veronesi, Giulia

    2018-02-01

    Robotic surgery is increasingly used to resect lung cancer. However costs are high. We compared costs and outcomes for robotic surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), and open surgery, to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively assessed 103 consecutive patients given lobectomy or segmentectomy for clinical stage I or II NSCLC. Three surgeons could choose VATS or open, the fourth could choose between all three techniques. Between-group differences were assessed by Fisher's exact, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. P values <0.05 were considered significant. Twenty-three patients were treated by robot, 41 by VATS, and 39 by open surgery. Age, physical status, pulmonary function, comorbidities, stage, and perioperative complications did not differ between the groups. Pathological tumor size was greater in the open than VATS and robotic groups (P=0.025). Duration of surgery was 150, 191 and 116 minutes, by robotic, VATS and open approaches, respectively (P<0.001). Significantly more lymph node stations were removed (P<0.001), and median length of stay was shorter (4, 5 and 6 days, respectively; P<0.001) in the robotic than VATS and open groups. Estimated costs were 82%, 68% and 69%, respectively, of the regional health service reimbursement for robotic, VATS and open approaches. Robotic surgery for early lung cancer was associated with shorter stay and more extensive lymph node dissection than VATS and open surgery. Duration of surgery was shorter for robotic than VATS. Although the cost of robotic thoracic surgery is high, the hospital makes a profit.

  5. Surgical quality of wedge resection affects overall survival in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ajmani, Gaurav S; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Kim, Ki Wan; Howington, John A; Krantz, Seth B

    2018-07-01

    Very few studies have examined the quality of wedge resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Using the National Cancer Database, we evaluated whether the quality of wedge resection affects overall survival in patients with early disease and how these outcomes compare with those of patients who receive stereotactic radiation. We identified 14,328 patients with cT1 to T2, N0, M0 disease treated with wedge resection (n = 10,032) or stereotactic radiation (n = 4296) from 2005 to 2013 and developed a subsample of propensity-matched wedge and radiation patients. Wedge quality was grouped as high (negative margins, >5 nodes), average (negative margins, ≤5 nodes), and poor (positive margins). Overall survival was compared between patients who received wedge resection of different quality and those who received radiation, adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Among patients who underwent wedge resection, 94.6% had negative margins, 44.3% had 0 nodes examined, 17.1% had >5 examined, and 3.0% were nodally upstaged; 16.7% received a high-quality wedge, which was associated with a lower risk of death compared with average-quality resection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.82). Compared with stereotactic radiation, wedge patients with negative margins had significantly reduced hazard of death (>5 nodes: aHR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.43-0.58; ≤5 nodes: aHR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.60-0.70). There was no significant survival difference between margin-positive wedge and radiation. Lymph nodes examined and margins obtained are important quality metrics in wedge resection. A high-quality wedge appears to confer a significant survival advantage over lower-quality wedge and stereotactic radiation. A margin-positive wedge appears to offer no benefit compared with radiation. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-stage Non-small-cell Lung Cancer in Patients 80 Years and Older: A Multi-center Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Richard J; Patel, Pretesh R; Zhang, Xinyan; Press, Robert H; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Pillai, Rathi N; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Fernandez, Felix G; Force, Seth D; Curran, Walter J; Higgins, Kristin A

    2017-09-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is the standard of care for medically inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. Despite the limited number of octogenarians and nonagenarians on trials of SBRT, its use is increasingly being offered in these patients, given the aging cancer population, medical fragility, or patient preference. Our purpose was to investigate the efficacy, safety, and survival of patients ≥ 80 years old treated with definitive lung SBRT. Patients who underwent SBRT were reviewed from 2009 to 2015 at 4 academic centers. Patients diagnosed at ≥ 80 years old were included. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed. Recursive partitioning analysis was done to determine a subgroup of patients most likely to benefit from therapy. A total of 58 patients were included, with a median age of 84.9 years (range, 80.1-95.2 years), a median follow-up time of 19.9 months (range, 6.9-64.9 months), a median fraction size of 10.0 Gy (range, 7.0-20.0 Gy), and a median number of fractions of 5.0 (range, 3.0-8.0 fractions). On multivariate analysis, higher Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was associated with higher local recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; P < .01), regional recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.94; P < .01), and overall survival (HR, 0.91; P < .01). On recursive partitioning analysis, patients with KPS ≥ 75 had improved 3-year cancer-specific and overall survival (99.4% and 91.9%, respectively) compared with patients with KPS < 75 (47.8% and 23.6%, respectively; P < .01). Definitive lung SBRT for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer was efficacious and safe in patients ≥ 80 years old. Patients with a KPS of ≥ 75 derived the most benefit from therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression and copy number gains of the RET gene in 631 early and mid stage non‐small cell lung cancer cases

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ling; Hu, Yerong; Tao, Yongguang; Wang, Bin; Xiao, Jun; Tang, Zhenjie; Lu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Background To identify whether RET is a potential target for NSCLC treatment, we examined the status of the RET gene in 631 early and mid stage NSCLC cases from south central China. Methods RET expression was identified by Western blot. RET‐positive expression samples were verified by immunohistochemistry. RET gene mutation, copy number variation, and rearrangement were analyzed by DNA Sanger sequencing, TaqMan copy number assays, and reverse transcription‐PCR. ALK and ROS1 expression levels were tested by Western blot and EGFR mutation using Sanger sequencing. Results The RET‐positive rate was 2.5% (16/631). RET‐positive expression was related to poorer tumor differentiation (P < 0.05). In the 16 RET‐positive samples, only two samples of moderately and poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinomas displayed RET rearrangement, both in RET‐KIF5B fusion partners. Neither ALK nor ROS1 translocation was found. The EGFR mutation rate in RET‐positive samples was significantly lower than in RET‐negative samples (P < 0.05). Conclusion RET‐positive expression in early and mid stage NSCLC cases from south central China is relatively low and is related to poorer tumor differentiation. RET gene alterations (copy number gain and rearrangement) exist in all RET‐positive samples. RET‐positive expression is a relatively independent factor in NSCLC patients, which indicates that the RET gene may be a novel target site for personalized treatment of NSCLC. PMID:29473341

  8. Long-term outcome of phase I/II prospective study of dose-escalated proton therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joe Y; Zhang, Wencheng; Komaki, Ritsuko; Choi, Noah C; Chan, Shen; Gomez, Daniel; O'Reilly, Michael; Jeter, Melenda; Gillin, Michael; Zhu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen; Hahn, Stephen; Cox, James D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this phase I/II study was to assess the long-term clinical benefits and toxicities of proton beam therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From June 2006 to September 2011, 35 patients with medically inoperable T1N0M0 (central or superior location, 12 patients) or T2-3N0M0 (any location, 23 patients) NSCLC were treated with 87.5Gy at 2.5Gy/fraction of proton therapy. Toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The median follow-up time was 83.1months (95% CI: 69.2-97.1months). For all 35 patients, the 1, 3, and 5-year overall survival rates were 85.7%, 42.9%, and 28.1%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence-free, regional recurrence-free, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 85.0%, 89.2%, and 54.4%, respectively. Different T stages had no effect on local and regional recurrence (p=0.499, p=1.00). However, with the increase in T stages, the distant metastasis rate increased significantly (p=0.006). The most common adverse effects were dermatitis (grade 2, 51.4%; grade 3, 2.9%) and radiation pneumonitis (grade 2, 11.4%; grade 3, 2.9%). Other grade 2 toxicities included esophagitis (2.9%), rib fracture (2.9%), heart toxicities (5.7%), and chest wall pain (2.9%). According to our long-term follow-up data, proton therapy with ablative doses is well tolerated and effective in medically inoperable early-stage NSCLC. Systemic therapy should be considered to reduce the rate of distant metastasis in cases of T2 and T3 lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells and Their Microenvironment in Early-Stage Mutant K-ras Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Aldefluor reagent. (B) A549 control lung cancer cells were incubated with Alde- fluor regent and DEAB, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydro- genase. (C...increase in liquid colony formation or in cell proliferation compared to SHH- cells. Therefore, we turned to identify aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH...in which a green fluorescent BODIPY moiety is linked to aminoacetaldehyde, an aldehyde dehydrogenase substrate, and thus, cells expressing ALDH

  10. Optimal imaging surveillance after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: Findings of an International Delphi Consensus Study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Timothy K; Senan, Suresh; Bradley, Jeffery D; Franks, Kevin; Giuliani, Meredith; Guckenberger, Matthias; Landis, Mark; Loo, Billy W; Louie, Alexander V; Onishi, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heidi; Timmerman, Robert; Videtic, Gregory M M; Palma, David A

    Imaging after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer can detect recurrences and second primary lung cancers; however, the optimal follow-up practice of these patients remains unclear. We sought to establish consensus recommendations for surveillance after SABR. International opinion leaders in thoracic radiation oncology and radiology were invited to participate (n = 31), with 11 accepting (9 radiation oncologists, 2 radiologists). Consensus-building was achieved using a 3-round Delphi process. Participants rated their agreement/disagreement with statements using a 5-point Likert scale. An a priori threshold of ≥75% agreement/disagreement was required for consensus. A 100% response rate was achieved and final consensus statements were approved by all participants. The consensus statements were: (1.1) thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans should be ordered routinely in follow-up; (1.2) if there is a suspicion for local recurrence (LR), fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT scans are strongly recommended. Otherwise, there is limited evidence to guide routine use of fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography /CT; (1.3) CT imaging is not recommended at 6 weeks, but is recommended at months 3, 6, and 12 in year 1 and then every 6 months in year 2 and annually in years 3 through 5; (1.4) after 5 years, CT imaging should continue, although no consensus was reached regarding the frequency. (2.1) Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 criteria are not sufficient for detecting LR; (2.2) a formal scoring system, informed by validated data, should be used to classify high-risk imaging features predictive of LR; (2.3) CT findings suspicious for LR include: infiltration into adjacent structures, bulging margins, sustained growth, mass-like growth, spherical growth, craniocaudal growth, and loss of air bronchograms. (3) Salvage therapy without pathologic confirmation of recurrence is acceptable if

  11. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy is Highly Safe and Effective for Elderly Patients With Early-stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Eric D; Sun, Bing; Zhao, Lina; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhonxing; Jeter, Melenda; Welsh, James W; O'Reilly, Michael S; Gomez, Daniel R; Hahn, Stephen M; Heymach, John V; Rice, David C; Chang, Joe Y

    2017-07-15

    To discern the effectiveness and toxicity of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) in the elderly population (aged ≥75 years) and to consider how SABR outcomes compare with surgical outcomes historically reported in the elderly. A total of 772 patients with clinical early-stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; stage T1-T3N0M0) underwent SABR (50 Gy in 4 fractions or 70 Gy in 10 fractions) from 2004 to 2014 at our center (n=442, aged <75 years; n=330, aged ≥75 years). The primary endpoints included overall survival (OS), time-to-progression, and grade ≥3 toxicity. The median follow-up time was approximately 55 months. Compared with patients aged <75 years, those aged ≥75 years had no difference in the time-to-progression (P=.419), lung cancer-specific survival (P=.275), or toxicity (P=.536). OS was the same between both age groups at 2 years of follow-up but diverged thereafter, with patients aged <75 years when treatment began having greater OS rates at 5 years. The median OS rates for patients aged ≥75 years were 86% at 1 year, 57.5% at 3 years, and 39.5% at 5 years. The median OS rates for patients aged <75 years were 87.3% at 1 year, 67.6% at 3 years, and 51.5% at 5 years. No patient aged ≥75 years experienced any grade 4 or 5 toxicity. The effectiveness of SABR was the same for the elderly as for the average-age population according to lung cancer-specific survival and time-to-progression. It also poses no increased toxicity. Compared with the historical outcomes with surgery in the elderly, SABR outcomes can be considered comparable for stage I-II disease but with less morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of icotinib on early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer as neoadjuvant treatment with different epidermal growth factor receptor phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Zhi; Liang, Naichao; Zhang, Yundong; Dong, Zhouhuan; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have demonstrated efficacy in treating advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Preliminary findings suggested that EGFR-TKIs might also be beneficial in neoadjuvant therapy in treating NSCLC. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant therapy with icotinib in patients with early-stage NSCLC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical history of patients who were initially diagnosed with stage IA-IIIA NSCLC and were under icotinib administration before surgery between December 2011 and December 2014. Tumor assessment was conducted between the second and fourth week from initial icotinib treatment. The association between personal characteristics, smoking status, disease stage, EGFR mutation status, and clinical outcomes were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 67 patients with NSCLC were reviewed, and approximately half (38/67) of them were identified as having EGFR-mutant tumors. The overall response rate of all patients was 26.7% at 2-4 weeks' assessment. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex (38.5% versus 10.7% in males, P=0.028) and EGFR mutation status (42.1% versus 6.9% in EGFR wild type, P=0.011) were independent predictive factors. The analysis also showed that the most common adverse effects were rash (43.3%) and dry skin (34.4%), which were tolerable. Icotinib induced clinical response with minimal toxicity as neoadjuvant treatment in early NSCLC, especially in patients with common EGFR mutations. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  13. Relationship Between Preoperative Sarcopenia Status and Immuno-nutritional Parameters in Patients with Early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Fumihiro; Matsubara, Taichi; Kozuma, Yuka; Haratake, Naoki; Akamine, Takaki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Katsura, Masakazu; Toyokawa, Gouji; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Although the skeletal muscle in the region of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) is generally assessed in order to judge sarcopenia, not every patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoes computed tomography including the L3 region. We hypothesized that immuno-nutritional parameters could predict the existence of sarcopenia in patients with NSCLC. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the correlation between preoperative sarcopenia and immuno-nutritional parameters in patients with early-stage NSCLC. We selected 147 of patients with pathological stage I NSCLC who underwent preoperative measurement of immuno-nutritional parameters and CT including the L3 region. Preoperative sarcopenia was significantly associated with female gender (p=0.0003) and poor prognosis (p=0.0322). In Kaplan-Meier analysis of overall survival (OS) by preoperative sarcopenia status, the sarcopenic group had significantly shorter OS than the non-sarcopenic group (5-year OS: 87.27% vs. 77.37%, p=0.0131, log-rank test). In multivariate analysis, the preoperative sarcopenia status (hazard ratio=5.138; 95% confidence interval=2.305-11.676; p<0.0001) was an independent prognostic factor. Preoperative sarcopenia status was significantly related to controlling nutritional status score (p=0.0071) and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) (p<0.0001). Spearman's correlation test showed good significant correlation between preoperative sarcopenia status and GNRI (r=0.348, p<0.0001). The preoperative GNRI is a simple and useful predictor for existence of preoperative sarcopenia which was associated with poor outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. From conventionally fractionated radiation therapy to hyperfractionated radiation therapy alone and with concurrent chemotherapy in patients with early-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeremić, Branislav; Milicić, Biljana

    2008-02-15

    The authors' single-institution experience in patients with early-stage (I and II) nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated between 1980 and 1998 with either conventionally fractionated (CF) radiation therapy (RT), or hyperfractionated (HFX) RT, or HFX RT with concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin (HFX RT-Pac/C) was reviewed. Seventy-eight patients received 60 grays (Gy) in 30 daily fractions (CF), 116 patients received 69.6 Gy (1.2 Gy twice daily), and 56 patients received 67.6 Gy (1.3 Gy twice daily) with concurrent, low-dose, daily C (25 mg/m2) and Pac (10 mg/m2). Biologically equivalent doses for the 3 groups were 72 Gy, 78 Gy, and 76 Gy, respectively, for acute effects (alpha/beta = 10 Gy) and 120 Gy, 111 Gy, and 111 Gy, respectively, for late effects (alpha/beta = 2 Gy). For all 250 patients, the overall median survival was 27 months, the cause-specific survival was 27 months, the local progression-free survival was 32 months, and distant metastasis-free survival was not achieved; and the respective 5-year survival rates were 27%, 32%, 45%, and 68%. CF achieved significantly inferior survival than either HFX RT alone or HFX RT-Pac/C (P = .0332 and P = .0013, respectively), and no difference was observed between the 2 HFX RT regimens (P = .1934). Only acute hematologic high-grade toxicity (grade >or=3) was more frequent with HFX RT-Pac/C than with either RT alone, whereas other toxicities were similar between the 3 treatment groups. HFX RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy may be better than CF in patients with early-stage NSCLC. The role of chemotherapy deserves further investigation, because the group that received chemotherapy in the current study had a higher incidence of acute high-grade hematologic toxicity. Cancer 2008. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  15. Pre- and postnatal exposure of mice to concentrated urban PM2.5 decreases the number of alveoli and leads to altered lung function at an early stage of life.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mendes Lopes, Thais; Groth, Espen E; Veras, Mariana; Furuya, Tatiane K; de Souza Xavier Costa, Natalia; Ribeiro Júnior, Gabriel; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi; de Almeida, Francine M; Cardoso, Wellington V; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Chammas, Roger; Mauad, Thais

    2018-06-04

    Gestational exposure to air pollution is associated with negative outcomes in newborns and children. In a previous study, we demonstrated a synergistic negative effect of pre- and postnatal exposure to PM 2.5 on lung development in mice. However, the means by which air pollution affects development of the lung have not yet been identified. In this study, we exposed pregnant BALB/c mice and their offspring to concentrated urban PM 2.5 (from São Paulo, Brazil; target dose 600 μg/m 3 for 1 h daily). Exposure was started on embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5, time of placental implantation). Lung tissue of fetuses and offspring was submitted to stereological and transcriptomic analyses at E14.5 (pseudoglandular stage of lung development), E18.5 (saccular stage) and P40 (postnatal day 40, alveolarized lung). Additionally, lung function and cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were studied in offspring animals at P40. Compared to control animals that were exposed to filtered air throughout gestation and postnatal life, PM-exposed mice exhibited higher lung elastance and a lower alveolar number at P40 whilst the total lung volume and cellularity of BAL fluid were not affected. Glandular and saccular structures of fetal lungs were not altered upon gestational exposure; transcriptomic signatures, however, showed changes related to DNA damage and its regulation, inflammation and regulation of cell proliferation. A differential expression was validated at E14.5 for the candidates Sox8, Angptl4 and Gas1. Our data substantiate the in utero biomolecular effect of gestational exposure to air pollution and provide first-time stereological evidence that pre- and early life-postnatal exposure compromise lung development, leading to a reduced number of alveoli and an impairment of lung function in the adult mouse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward Independence: Resubmission Rate of Unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 Research Grant Applications Among Early Stage Investigators.

    PubMed

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Antman, Melissa D; Patel, Katherine C; Lauer, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    The current, budget-driven low rate of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for biomedical research has raised concerns about new investigators' ability to become independent scientists and their willingness to persist in efforts to secure funding. The authors sought to determine resubmission rates for unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) early stage investigator (ESI) independent research grant (R01) applications and to identify resubmission predictors. The authors used a retrospective cohort study design and retrieved applications submitted in fiscal years 2010-2012 from NIH electronic research administrative sources. They defined ESI applicants as those who have received no prior R01 (or equivalent) funding and are within 10 years of completion of their terminal research degree or medical residency training. ESI applications at the NHLBI were eligible for special funding consideration if they scored above, but within 10 points of, the payline. The primary outcome was application resubmission after failing to secure funding with the first R01 submission. Over half of the unfunded applications were resubmitted. Some of these were discussed and "percentiled." Among percentiled applications, the only significant predictor of resubmission was the percentile score. Over half (59%) of the ESI R01 grants funded by NHLBI in fiscal years 2010-2012 had percentile scores above but within 10 points of the NHLBI payline, and benefited from the special funding considerations. The only independent predictor of resubmission of NHLBI ESI R01 grant applications was percentile score; applicant demographics and institutional factors were not predictive of resubmission.

  17. Origin and Role of a Subset of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils with Antigen-Presenting Cell Features in Early-Stage Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sunil; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik S; O'Brien, Shaun; Moon, Edmund K; Garfall, Alfred L; Rao, Abhishek S; Quatromoni, Jon G; Stephen, Tom Li; Litzky, Leslie; Deshpande, Charuhas; Feldman, Michael D; Hancock, Wayne W; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R; Albelda, Steven M; Eruslanov, Evgeniy B

    2016-07-11

    Based on studies in mouse tumor models, granulocytes appear to play a tumor-promoting role. However, there are limited data about the phenotype and function of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in humans. Here, we identify a subset of TANs that exhibited characteristics of both neutrophils and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in early-stage human lung cancer. These APC-like "hybrid neutrophils," which originate from CD11b(+)CD15(hi)CD10(-)CD16(low) immature progenitors, are able to cross-present antigens, as well as trigger and augment anti-tumor T cell responses. Interferon-γ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are requisite factors in the tumor that, working through the Ikaros transcription factor, synergistically exert their APC-promoting effects on the progenitors. Overall, these data demonstrate the existence of a specialized TAN subset with anti-tumor capabilities in human cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment and survival of second primary early-stage lung cancer, following treatment of head and neck cancer in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Louie, Alexander V; Damhuis, Ronald A; Haasbeek, Cornelis J; Warner, Andrew; Rodin, Danielle; Slotman, Ben J; Leemans, C Rene; Senan, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate treatment patterns and outcomes in early stage (ES) second primary lung cancer (SPLC) after head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), in the Netherlands. Details of patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2011 with either an ES primary, or a SPLC after HNSCC, were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Survival outcomes were compared between treatment groups before, and after, 2005. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression modeling were performed to determine factors prognostic for OS in ES-SPLC. In total, 21,648 patients were diagnosed with ES primary (n=21,032) or SPLC (n=616). Use of surgery for ES-SPLC decreased significantly over time (range 71-44%, p<0.001), while the proportion of such patients receiving radiotherapy increased (range 17-41%, p<0.001). Prior to 2005, OS after surgery in ES-SPLC was significantly better than when compared to radiation, but no difference in OS was noted between surgery and radiotherapy after 2005 (p=0.116). There were no significant differences in OS between treatment eras for surgery (p=0.751) and with palliative care (p=0.306), but a significant improvement in OS was noted for radiotherapy (p=0.049). Multivariable modeling revealed that age, T-stage, HNSCC location and treatment type were associated with worse OS in the later era. Changes in the treatment patterns in HNSCC survivors presenting with ES-SPLC were observed in the Netherlands, with less surgery and increased utilization of radiotherapy. No differences in OS were observed between patients undergoing either surgery or radiotherapy after 2005, suggesting that both local modalities were equally effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  20. The Impact of Tumor Size on Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allibhai, Zishan; Taremi, Mojgan; Bezjak, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers excellent control rates. Most published series deal mainly with small (usually <4 cm), peripheral, solitary tumors. Larger tumors are associated with poorer outcomes (ie, lower control rates, higher toxicity) when treated with conventional RT. It is unclear whether SBRT is sufficiently potent to control these larger tumors. We therefore evaluated and examined the influence of tumor size on treatment outcomes after SBRT. Methods and Materials: Between October 2004 and October 2010, 185 medically inoperable patients with early (T1-T2N0M0) NSCLC were treated on a prospective researchmore » ethics board-approved single-institution protocol. Prescription doses were risk-adapted based on tumor size and location. Follow-up included prospective assessment of toxicity (as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) and serial computed tomography scans. Patterns of failure, toxicity, and survival outcomes were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the significance of tumor size (diameter, volume) with respect to patient, treatment, and tumor factors was tested. Results: Median follow-up was 15.2 months. Tumor size was not associated with local failure but was associated with regional failure (P=.011) and distant failure (P=.021). Poorer overall survival (P=.001), disease-free survival (P=.001), and cause-specific survival (P=.005) were also significantly associated with tumor size (with tumor volume more significant than diameter). Gross tumor volume and planning target volume were significantly associated with grade 2 or worse radiation pneumonitis. However, overall rates of grade ≥3 pneumonitis were low and not significantly affected by tumor or target size. Conclusions: Currently employed stereotactic body radiation therapy dose regimens can provide safe effective local therapy even for larger solitary NSCLC tumors (up to

  1. Treatment Patterns and Health Resource Utilization Among Patients Diagnosed With Early Stage Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer at US Community Oncology Practices.

    PubMed

    Buck, Philip O; Saverno, Kimberly R; Miller, Paul J E; Arondekar, Bhakti; Walker, Mark S

    2015-11-01

    Data on adjuvant therapy in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in routine practice are lacking in the United States. This retrospective observational database study included 609 community oncology patients with resected stage IB to IIIA NSCLC. Use of adjuvant therapy was 39.1% at disease stage IB and 64.9% to 68.2% at stage II to IIIA. The most common regimen at all stages was carboplatin and paclitaxel. Platin-based adjuvant chemotherapy has extended survival in clinical trials in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There are few data on the use of adjuvant therapy in community-based clinical practice in the United States. This was a retrospective observational study using electronic medical record and billing data collected during routine care at US community oncology sites in the Vector Oncology Data Warehouse between January 2007 and January 2014. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a primary diagnosis of stage IB to IIIA NSCLC were eligible if they had undergone surgical resection. Treatment patterns, health care resource use, and cost were recorded, stratified by stage at diagnosis. The study included 609 patients (mean age, 64.8 years, 52.9% male), of whom 215 had stage IB disease, 130 stage IIA/II, 110 stage IIB, and 154 stage IIIA. Adjuvant systemic therapy after resection was provided to 345 (56.7%) of 609 patients, with lower use in patients with stage IB disease (39.1%) than stage II to IIIA disease (64.9-68.2%) (P < .0001). The most common adjuvant regimen at all stages was the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel. There were no statistically significant differences in office visits or incidence of hospitalization by disease stage. During adjuvant treatment, the total monthly median cost per patient was $17,389.75 (interquartile range, $8,815.61 to $23,360.85). Adjuvant systemic therapy was used in some patients with stage IB NSCLC and in the majority of patients with stage IIA to IIIA disease. There were few

  2. Mediastinal lymph node dissection versus mediastinal lymph node sampling for early stage non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiongfeng; Wang, Jianmin; Chen, Qiao; Jiang, Jielin

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall survival, local recurrence, distant metastasis, and complications of mediastinal lymph node dissection (MLND) versus mediastinal lymph node sampling (MLNS) in stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A systematic search of published literature was conducted using the main databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases) to identify relevant randomized controlled trials that compared MLND vs. MLNS in NSCLC patients. Methodological quality of included randomized controlled trials was assessed according to the criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions (Version 5.1.0). Meta-analysis was performed using The Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.3. The results of the meta-analysis were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR), with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). We included results reported from six randomized controlled trials, with a total of 1,791 patients included in the primary meta-analysis. Compared to MLNS in NSCLC patients, there was no statistically significant difference in MLND on overall survival (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.08; P = 0.13). In addition, the results indicated that local recurrence rate (RR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.28; P = 0.67), distant metastasis rate (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.04; P = 0.15), and total complications rate (RR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.79; P = 0.72) were similar, no significant difference found between the two groups. Results for overall survival, local recurrence rate, and distant metastasis rate were similar between MLND and MLNS in early stage NSCLC patients. There was no evidence that MLND increased complications compared with MLNS. Whether or not MLND is superior to MLNS for stage II-IIIA remains to be determined.

  3. Credentialing of radiotherapy centres in Australasia for TROG 09.02 (Chisel), a Phase III clinical trial on stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy of early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Chesson, Brent; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Crain, Melissa; Clements, Natalie; Burns, Mark; Ball, David

    2018-05-01

    A randomised clinical trial comparing stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) with conventional radiotherapy for early stage lung cancer has been conducted in Australia and New Zealand under the auspices of the TransTasman Radiation Oncology Group (NCT01014130). We report on the technical credentialing program as prerequisite for centres joining the trial. Participating centres were asked to develop treatment plans for two test cases to assess their ability to create plans according to protocol. Dose delivery in the presence of inhomogeneity and motion was assessed during a site visit using a phantom with moving inserts. Site visits for the trial were conducted in 16 Australian and 3 New Zealand radiotherapy facilities. The tests with low density inhomogeneities confirmed shortcomings of the AAA algorithm for dose calculation. Dose was assessed for a typical treatment delivery including at least one non-coplanar beam in a stationary and moving phantom. This end-to-end test confirmed that all participating centres were able to deliver stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy with the required accuracy while the planning study demonstrated that they were able to produce acceptable plans for both test cases. The credentialing process documented that participating centres were able to deliver dose as required in the trial protocol. It also gave an opportunity to provide education about the trial and discuss technical issues such as four-dimensional CT, small field dosimetry and patient immobilisation with staff in participating centres. Advances in knowledge: Credentialing is an important quality assurance tool for radiotherapy trials using advanced technology. In addition to confirming technical competence, it provides an opportunity for education and discussion about the trial.

  4. [Mortality in early-stage, surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer less than 3 cm of size: Competing risk analysis].

    PubMed

    Jordá Aragón, Carlos; Peñalver Cuesta, Juan Carlos; Mancheño Franch, Nuria; de Aguiar Quevedo, Karol; Vera Sempere, Francisco; Padilla Alarcón, José

    2015-09-07

    Survival studies of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are usually based on the Kaplan-Meier method. However, other factors not covered by this method may modify the observation of the event of interest. There are models of cumulative incidence (CI), that take into account these competing risks, enabling more accurate survival estimates and evaluation of the risk of death from other causes. We aimed to evaluate these models in resected early-stage NSCLC patients. This study included 263 patients with resected NSCLC whose diameter was ≤ 3 cm without node involvement (N0). Demographic, clinical, morphopathological and surgical variables, TNM classification and long-term evolution were analysed. To analyse CI, death by another cause was considered to be competitive event. For the univariate analysis, Gray's method was used, while Fine and Gray's method was employed for the multivariate analysis. Mortality by NSCLC was 19.4% at 5 years and 14.3% by another cause. Both curves crossed at 6.3 years, and probability of death by another cause became greater from this point. In multivariate analysis, cancer mortality was conditioned by visceral pleural invasion (VPI) (P=.001) and vascular invasion (P=.020), with age>50 years (P=.034), smoking (P=.009) and the Charlson index ≥ 2 (P=.000) being by no cancer. By the method of CI, VPI and vascular invasion conditioned cancer death in NSCLC >3 cm, while non-tumor causes of long-term death were determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting Overall Survival After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Lung Cancer: Development and External Validation of the Amsterdam Prognostic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, Alexander V., E-mail: Dr.alexlouie@gmail.com; Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

    Purpose: A prognostic model for 5-year overall survival (OS), consisting of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and a nomogram, was developed for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: A primary dataset of 703 ES-NSCLC SABR patients was randomly divided into a training (67%) and an internal validation (33%) dataset. In the former group, 21 unique parameters consisting of patient, treatment, and tumor factors were entered into an RPA model to predict OS. Univariate and multivariate models were constructed for RPA-selected factors to evaluate their relationship with OS. A nomogrammore » for OS was constructed based on factors significant in multivariate modeling and validated with calibration plots. Both the RPA and the nomogram were externally validated in independent surgical (n=193) and SABR (n=543) datasets. Results: RPA identified 2 distinct risk classes based on tumor diameter, age, World Health Organization performance status (PS) and Charlson comorbidity index. This RPA had moderate discrimination in SABR datasets (c-index range: 0.52-0.60) but was of limited value in the surgical validation cohort. The nomogram predicting OS included smoking history in addition to RPA-identified factors. In contrast to RPA, validation of the nomogram performed well in internal validation (r{sup 2}=0.97) and external SABR (r{sup 2}=0.79) and surgical cohorts (r{sup 2}=0.91). Conclusions: The Amsterdam prognostic model is the first externally validated prognostication tool for OS in ES-NSCLC treated with SABR available to individualize patient decision making. The nomogram retained strong performance across surgical and SABR external validation datasets. RPA performance was poor in surgical patients, suggesting that 2 different distinct patient populations are being treated with these 2 effective modalities.« less

  6. Liquid biopsy for lung cancer early detection

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Alessia; D’Aveni, Alessandro; Karachaliou, Niki; Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Daffinà, Maria Grazia; Lazzari, Chiara; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Rosell, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly improved the therapeutic management of advanced lung cancer. However, it still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with disease stage at diagnosis representing the main prognostic factor. Detection of lung cancer at an earlier stage of disease, potentially susceptible of curative resection, can be critical to improve patients survival. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of high-risk patients has been demonstrated to reduce mortality from lung cancer, but can be also associated with high false-positive rate, thus often resulting in unnecessary interventions for patients. Novel sensitive and specific biomarkers for identification of high-risk subjects and early detection that can be used alternatively and/or complement current routine diagnostic procedures are needed. Liquid biopsy has recently demonstrated its clinical usefulness in advanced NSCLC as a surrogate of tissue biopsy for noninvasive assessment of specific genomic alterations, thereby providing prognostic and predictive information. Different biosources from liquid biopsy, including cell free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes and tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), have also been widely investigated for their potential role in lung cancer diagnosis. This review will provide an overview on the circulating biomarkers being evaluated for lung cancer detection, mainly focusing on results from most recent studies, the techniques developed to perform their assessment in blood and other biologic fluids and challenges in their clinical applications. PMID:29780635

  7. Liquid biopsy for lung cancer early detection.

    PubMed

    Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Liguori, Alessia; D'Aveni, Alessandro; Karachaliou, Niki; Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Daffinà, Maria Grazia; Lazzari, Chiara; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Rosell, Rafael

    2018-04-01

    Molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly improved the therapeutic management of advanced lung cancer. However, it still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with disease stage at diagnosis representing the main prognostic factor. Detection of lung cancer at an earlier stage of disease, potentially susceptible of curative resection, can be critical to improve patients survival. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of high-risk patients has been demonstrated to reduce mortality from lung cancer, but can be also associated with high false-positive rate, thus often resulting in unnecessary interventions for patients. Novel sensitive and specific biomarkers for identification of high-risk subjects and early detection that can be used alternatively and/or complement current routine diagnostic procedures are needed. Liquid biopsy has recently demonstrated its clinical usefulness in advanced NSCLC as a surrogate of tissue biopsy for noninvasive assessment of specific genomic alterations, thereby providing prognostic and predictive information. Different biosources from liquid biopsy, including cell free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes and tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), have also been widely investigated for their potential role in lung cancer diagnosis. This review will provide an overview on the circulating biomarkers being evaluated for lung cancer detection, mainly focusing on results from most recent studies, the techniques developed to perform their assessment in blood and other biologic fluids and challenges in their clinical applications.

  8. Dosimetric rationale and early experience at UFPTI of thoracic proton therapy and chemotherapy in limited-stage small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Colaco, Rovel J; Huh, Soon; Nichols, Romaine C; Morris, Christopher G; D'Agostino, Harry; Flampouri, Stella; Li, Zuofeng; Pham, Dat C; Bajwa, Abubakr A; Hoppe, Bradford S

    2013-04-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard of care in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Treatment with conventional x-ray therapy (XRT) is associated with high toxicity rates, particularly acute grade 3+ esophagitis and pneumonitis. We present outcomes for the first known series of limited-stage SCLC patients treated with proton therapy and a dosimetric comparison of lung and esophageal doses with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Six patients were treated: five concurrently and one sequentially. Five patients received 60-66 CGE in 30-34 fractions once daily and one patient received 45 CGE in 30 fractions twice daily. All six patients received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, v3.0, was used to grade toxicity. IMRT plans were also generated and compared with proton plans. The median follow-up was 12.0 months. The one-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 83% and 66%, respectively. There were no cases of acute grade 3+ esophagitis or acute grade 2+ pneumonitis, and no other acute grade 3+ non-hematological toxicities were seen. One patient with a history of pulmonary fibrosis and atrial fibrillation developed worsening symptoms four months after treatment requiring oxygen. Three patients died: two of progressive disease and one after a fall; the latter patient was disease-free at 36 months after treatment. Another patient recurred and is alive, while two patients remain disease-free at 12 months of follow-up. Proton therapy proved superior to IMRT across all esophageal and lung dose volume points. In this small series of SCLC patients treated with proton therapy with radical intent, treatment was well tolerated with no cases of acute grade 3+ esophagitis or acute grade 2+ pneumonitis. Dosimetric comparison showed better sparing of lung and esophagus with proton therapy. Proton therapy merits further investigation as a method of reducing the toxicity of CRT.

  9. Support Vector Machine-Based Prediction of Local Tumor Control After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klement, Rainer J., E-mail: rainer_klement@gmx.de; Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Leopoldina Hospital, Schweinfurt; Allgäuer, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Background: Several prognostic factors for local tumor control probability (TCP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been described, but no attempts have been undertaken to explore whether a nonlinear combination of potential factors might synergistically improve the prediction of local control. Methods and Materials: We investigated a support vector machine (SVM) for predicting TCP in a cohort of 399 patients treated at 13 German and Austrian institutions. Among 7 potential input features for the SVM we selected those most important on the basis of forward feature selection, thereby evaluating classifier performancemore » by using 10-fold cross-validation and computing the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The final SVM classifier was built by repeating the feature selection 10 times with different splitting of the data for cross-validation and finally choosing only those features that were selected at least 5 out of 10 times. It was compared with a multivariate logistic model that was built by forward feature selection. Results: Local failure occurred in 12% of patients. Biologically effective dose (BED) at the isocenter (BED{sub ISO}) was the strongest predictor of TCP in the logistic model and also the most frequently selected input feature for the SVM. A bivariate logistic function of BED{sub ISO} and the pulmonary function indicator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) yielded the best description of the data but resulted in a significantly smaller AUC than the final SVM classifier with the input features BED{sub ISO}, age, baseline Karnofsky index, and FEV1 (0.696 ± 0.040 vs 0.789 ± 0.001, P<.03). The final SVM resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 67.0% ± 0.5% and 78.7% ± 0.3%, respectively. Conclusions: These results confirm that machine learning techniques like SVMs can be successfully applied to predict treatment outcome after SBRT. Improvements over traditional

  10. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunhui; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E; Wong, Jeffrey Y C

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registered with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Support vector machine-based prediction of local tumor control after stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Klement, Rainer J; Allgäuer, Michael; Appold, Steffen; Dieckmann, Karin; Ernst, Iris; Ganswindt, Ute; Holy, Richard; Nestle, Ursula; Nevinny-Stickel, Meinhard; Semrau, Sabine; Sterzing, Florian; Wittig, Andrea; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Several prognostic factors for local tumor control probability (TCP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been described, but no attempts have been undertaken to explore whether a nonlinear combination of potential factors might synergistically improve the prediction of local control. We investigated a support vector machine (SVM) for predicting TCP in a cohort of 399 patients treated at 13 German and Austrian institutions. Among 7 potential input features for the SVM we selected those most important on the basis of forward feature selection, thereby evaluating classifier performance by using 10-fold cross-validation and computing the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The final SVM classifier was built by repeating the feature selection 10 times with different splitting of the data for cross-validation and finally choosing only those features that were selected at least 5 out of 10 times. It was compared with a multivariate logistic model that was built by forward feature selection. Local failure occurred in 12% of patients. Biologically effective dose (BED) at the isocenter (BED(ISO)) was the strongest predictor of TCP in the logistic model and also the most frequently selected input feature for the SVM. A bivariate logistic function of BED(ISO) and the pulmonary function indicator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) yielded the best description of the data but resulted in a significantly smaller AUC than the final SVM classifier with the input features BED(ISO), age, baseline Karnofsky index, and FEV1 (0.696 ± 0.040 vs 0.789 ± 0.001, P<.03). The final SVM resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 67.0% ± 0.5% and 78.7% ± 0.3%, respectively. These results confirm that machine learning techniques like SVMs can be successfully applied to predict treatment outcome after SBRT. Improvements over traditional TCP modeling are expected through a nonlinear combination of multiple features

  12. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Chunhui, E-mail: chan@coh.org; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E.

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registeredmore » with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery.« less

  13. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  14. Prognostic value of the autophagy markers LC3 and p62/SQSTM1 in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Schläfli, Anna M; Adams, Olivia; Galván, José A; Gugger, Mathias; Savic, Spasenija; Bubendorf, Lukas; Schmid, Ralph A; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Tschan, Mario P; Langer, Rupert; Berezowska, Sabina

    2016-06-28

    Autophagy is a cellular degrading process that promotes tumor cell survival or cell death in cancer, depending on the progress of oncogenesis. Protein light chain 3 (LC3) and p62/SQSTM1 (p62) are associated with autophagosomal membranes that engulf cytoplasmic content for subsequent degradation. We studied LC3 and p62 expression using immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 466 stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a tissue microarray. We evaluated dot-like cytoplasmic expression of LC3 and dot-like, cytoplasmic and nuclear staining for p62 in relation to clinico-pathological parameters.LC3 expression correlated with all p62 patterns, as those correlated among each other (p < 0.001 each). There was no correlation with stage, age or gender. A combination of high LC3/high p62 dot-like staining (suggesting impaired autophagy) showed a trend for better outcome (p = 0.11). Interestingly, a combined low cytoplasmic/low nuclear p62 expression regardless of dot-like staining was an independent prognostic factor for longer survival (p = 0.006; HR=1.96), in addition to tumor stage (p = 0.004; HR=1.4).The autophagy markers LC3 and p62 are differentially expressed in NSCLC, pointing towards a biologically significant role. High LC3 levels seem to be linked to lower tumor aggressiveness, while high general p62 expression was significantly associated with aggressive tumor behavior.

  15. Prognostic value of the autophagy markers LC3 and p62/SQSTM1 in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schläfli, Anna M.; Adams, Olivia; Galván, José A.; Gugger, Mathias; Savic, Spasenija; Bubendorf, Lukas; Schmid, Ralph A.; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Tschan, Mario P.; Langer, Rupert; Berezowska, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular degrading process that promotes tumor cell survival or cell death in cancer, depending on the progress of oncogenesis. Protein light chain 3 (LC3) and p62/SQSTM1 (p62) are associated with autophagosomal membranes that engulf cytoplasmic content for subsequent degradation. We studied LC3 and p62 expression using immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 466 stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a tissue microarray. We evaluated dot-like cytoplasmic expression of LC3 and dot-like, cytoplasmic and nuclear staining for p62 in relation to clinico-pathological parameters. LC3 expression correlated with all p62 patterns, as those correlated among each other (p < 0.001 each). There was no correlation with stage, age or gender. A combination of high LC3/high p62 dot-like staining (suggesting impaired autophagy) showed a trend for better outcome (p = 0.11). Interestingly, a combined low cytoplasmic/low nuclear p62 expression regardless of dot-like staining was an independent prognostic factor for longer survival (p = 0.006; HR=1.96), in addition to tumor stage (p = 0.004; HR=1.4). The autophagy markers LC3 and p62 are differentially expressed in NSCLC, pointing towards a biologically significant role. High LC3 levels seem to be linked to lower tumor aggressiveness, while high general p62 expression was significantly associated with aggressive tumor behavior. PMID:27250032

  16. Early stages of soldering reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A.

    2005-09-15

    An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with themore » theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.« less

  17. A 51-Year-Old Woman With an Increasing Chest Wall Mass Years After Resection of an Early Stage Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Ajay; Chen, Hongbin; Dexter, Elisabeth U

    2017-12-01

    A 51-year-old woman was found to have a new 14 × 6 mm soft tissue mass under the right serratus muscle on a CT scan of the chest performed for routine surveillance due to her history of stage I lung cancer. A follow-up CT scan performed 4 months later showed that the mass had increased in size to 22 × 8 mm. The patient presents to the oncology clinic to discuss the results of the CT scan. She has no pain or swelling on the right lateral chest and no cough, fever, or shortness of breath. She is at her baseline health with good appetite and functional status. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Even if I Don't Remember, I Feel Better". A Qualitative Study of Patients with Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy or Surgery.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sara E; Thomas, Charles R; Deffebach, Mark E; Sukumar, Mithran S; Schipper, Paul H; Tieu, Brandon H; Kee, Andrew Y; Tsen, Andrew C; Slatore, Christopher G

    2016-08-01

    While surgical resection is recommended for most patients with early stage lung cancer according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, stereotactic body radiotherapy is increasingly being used. Provider-patient communication regarding the risks and benefits of each approach may be a modifiable factor leading to improved patient-centered outcomes. To qualitatively describe the experiences of patients undergoing either surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. We qualitatively evaluated and used content analysis to describe the experiences of 13 patients with early clinical stage non-small cell lung cancer before undergoing treatment in three health care systems in the Pacific Northwest, with a focus on knowledge obtained, communication, and feelings of distress. Although most participants reported rarely having been told about other options for treatment and could not readily recall many details about specific risks of recommended treatment, they were satisfied with their care. The patients paradoxically described clinicians as displaying caring and empathy despite not explicitly addressing their concerns and worries. We found that the communication domains that underlie shared decision making occurred infrequently, but that participants were still pleased with their role in the decision-making process. We did not find substantially different themes based on where the participant received care or the treatment selected. Patients were satisfied with all aspects of their care, despite reporting little knowledge about risks or other treatment options, no direct elicitation of worries from providers, and a lack of shared decision making. While the development of effective communication strategies to address these gaps is warranted, their effect on patient-centered outcomes, such as distress and decisional conflict, is unclear.

  19. An association between preoperative anemia and decreased survival in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with surgery alone

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Kwok, Young; Krasna, Mark

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection is the mainstay of therapy for patients presenting with Stage I and II non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite optimal staging and surgery, these patients are still at significant risk for failure. The purpose of this study is to report a retrospective analysis of the outcome of patients treated with surgery alone, as well as to analyze prognostic factors associated with survival. Materials and Methods: From May 2000 to November 2002, there was a total of 125 patients who were treated with surgery for NSCLC at University of Maryland Medical Center. Of these, 82 Stage I and IImore » patients who received surgery alone as the definitive therapy were identified. The median age of the entire cohort was 68 years (range, 43-88 years). There were 48 males and 34 females. Sixty-three patients (76.8%) underwent lobectomies whereas 19 patients (23.2%) underwent nonlobectomy (wedge resection or segmentectomy) procedures. Patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy were excluded from the study. Factors included in univariate and multivariate analyses were age, sex, tumor histology, pathologic stage, p53 status, preoperative hemoglobin (Hgb), and type of surgery performed. Endpoints of the study were relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 20.8 months (range, 0.4-43.2 months). For the entire cohort, the 2-year RFS was 66.0% and 2-year OS was 76.3%. Median survival for the entire cohort has not been achieved. In univariate analysis, the only factor that achieved statistical significance was preoperative Hgb level. Patients who had preoperative Hgb <12 mg/dL experienced significantly worse RFS (mean RFS: 26.6 months vs. 34.9 months, p = 0.043) and OS (median OS: 27 months vs. 42.5 months, p = 0.011). For Stage I patients (n = 72), the 2-year RFS and OS were 66.4% and 77.1%, respectively. In the subgroup of stage IA patients (n = 37), there was a trend toward

  20. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  1. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  2. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596

  3. Analysis of Stage and Clinical/Prognostic Factors for Lung Cancer from SEER Registries: AJCC Staging and Collaborative Stage Data Collection System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vivien W.; Ruiz, Bernardo A.; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Ries, Lynn; Lewis, Denise R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th edition introduced major changes in the staging of lung cancer, including Tumor (T), Node (N), Metastasis (M) (TNM) system and new stage/prognostic site-specific factors (SSFs), collected under the Collaborative Stage Version 2 (CSv2) Data Collection System. The intent was to improve the stage precision which could guide treatment options and ultimately lead to better survival. This report examines stage trends, the change in stage distributions from the AJCC 6th to the 7th edition, and findings of the prognostic SSFs for 2010 lung cancer cases. Methods Data were from the November 2012 submission of 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program population-based registries. A total of 344 797 cases of lung cancer, diagnosed in 2004–2010, were analyzed. Results The percentages of small tumors and early stage lung cancer cases increased from 2004 to 2010. The AJCC 7th edition, implemented for 2010 diagnosis year, subclassified tumor size and reclassified multiple tumor nodules, pleural effusions, and involvement of tumors in the contralateral lung, resulting in a slight decrease in stage IB and stage IIIB and a small increase in stage IIA and stage IV. Overall about 80% of cases remained the same stage group in AJCC 6th and 7th editions. About 21% of lung cancer patients had separate tumor nodules in the ipsilateral (same) lung, and 23% of the surgically resected patients had visceral pleural invasion, both adverse prognostic factors. Conclusion It is feasible for high quality population-based registries such as the SEER Program to collect more refined staging and prognostic SSFs that allows better categorization of lung cancer patients with different clinical outcomes and to assess their survival. PMID:25412390

  4. A treatment planning comparison between modulated tri-cobalt-60 teletherapy and linear accelerator-based stereotactic body radiotherapy for central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Merna, Catherine; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M; Cao, Minsong; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kishan, Amar U; Michailian, Argin; Lamb, James; Sheng, Ke; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael L; Lee, Percy

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of planning stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer with a tri-cobalt-60 (tri-(60)Co) system equipped with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, as compared to linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SBRT. In all, 20 patients with large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who were treated between 2010 and 2015 with LINAC-based SBRT were replanned using a tri-(60)Co system for a prescription dose of 50Gy in 4 fractions. Doses to organs at risk were evaluated based on established MD Anderson constraints for central lung SBRT. R100 values were calculated as the total tissue volume receiving 100% of the dose (V100) divided by the planning target volume and compared to assess dose conformity. Dosimetric comparisons between LINAC-based and tri-(60)Co SBRT plans were performed using Student׳s t-test and Wilcoxon Ranks test. Blinded reviews by radiation oncologists were performed to assess the suitability of both plans for clinical delivery. The mean planning target volume was 48.3cc (range: 12.1 to 139.4cc). Of the tri-(60)Co SBRT plans, a mean 97.4% of dosimetric parameters per patient met MD Anderson dose constraints, whereas a mean 98.8% of dosimetric parameters per patient were met with LINAC-based SBRT planning (p = 0.056). R100 values were similar between both plans (1.20 vs 1.21, p = 0.79). Upon blinded review by 4 radiation oncologists, an average of 90% of the tri-(60)Co SBRT plans were considered acceptable for clinical delivery compared with 100% of the corresponding LINAC-based SBRT plans (p = 0.17). SBRT planning using the tri-(60)Co system with built-in MRI is feasible and achieves clinically acceptable plans for most central lung patients, with similar target dose conformity and organ at risk dosimetry. The added benefit of real-time MRI-guided therapy may further optimize tumor targeting while improving normal tissue sparing, which warrants further

  5. A treatment planning comparison between modulated tri-cobalt-60 teletherapy and linear accelerator–based stereotactic body radiotherapy for central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Merna, Catherine; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Cao, Minsong

    We evaluated the feasibility of planning stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for large central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer with a tri-cobalt-60 (tri-{sup 60}Co) system equipped with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, as compared to linear accelerator (LINAC)–based SBRT. In all, 20 patients with large central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer who were treated between 2010 and 2015 with LINAC-based SBRT were replanned using a tri-{sup 60}Co system for a prescription dose of 50 Gy in 4 fractions. Doses to organs at risk were evaluated based on established MD Anderson constraints for central lung SBRT. R{sub 100} values were calculatedmore » as the total tissue volume receiving 100% of the dose (V{sub 100}) divided by the planning target volume and compared to assess dose conformity. Dosimetric comparisons between LINAC-based and tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans were performed using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon Ranks test. Blinded reviews by radiation oncologists were performed to assess the suitability of both plans for clinical delivery. The mean planning target volume was 48.3 cc (range: 12.1 to 139.4 cc). Of the tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans, a mean 97.4% of dosimetric parameters per patient met MD Anderson dose constraints, whereas a mean 98.8% of dosimetric parameters per patient were met with LINAC-based SBRT planning (p = 0.056). R{sub 100} values were similar between both plans (1.20 vs 1.21, p = 0.79). Upon blinded review by 4 radiation oncologists, an average of 90% of the tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans were considered acceptable for clinical delivery compared with 100% of the corresponding LINAC-based SBRT plans (p = 0.17). SBRT planning using the tri-{sup 60}Co system with built-in MRI is feasible and achieves clinically acceptable plans for most central lung patients, with similar target dose conformity and organ at risk dosimetry. The added benefit of real-time MRI-guided therapy may further optimize tumor targeting while

  6. SU-E-T-338: Dosimetric Study of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in Early Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I; Quinn, K; Seebach, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study evaluates the dosimetric differences using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in patients previously treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in early stage lung cancer. Methods: We evaluated 9 consecutive medically inoperable lung cancer patients at the start of the SBRT program who were treated with IMRT from November 2010 to October 2011. These patients were treated using 6 MV energy. The 9 cases were then re-planned with VMAT performed with arc therapy using 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) energy with the same organs at risk (OARS) constraints. Data collected formore » the treatment plans included target coverage, beam on time, dose to OARS and gamma pass rate. Results: Five patients were T1N0 and four patients were T2N0 with all tumors less than 5 cm. The average GTV was 13.02 cm3 (0.83–40.87) and average PTV was 44.65 cm3 (14.06–118.08). The IMRT plans had a mean of 7.2 angles (6–9) and 5.4 minutes (3.6–11.1) per plan. The VMAT plans had a mean of 2.8 arcs (2–3) and 4.0 minutes (2.2–6.0) per plan. VMAT had slightly more target coverage than IMRT with average increase in D95 of 2.68% (1.24–5.73) and D99 of 3.65% (0.88–8.77). VMAT produced lower doses to all OARs. The largest reductions were in maximum doses to the spinal cord with an average reduction of 24.1%, esophagus with an average reduction of 22.1%, and lung with an average reduction in the V20 of 16.3% The mean gamma pass rate was 99.8% (99.2–100) at 3 mm and 3% for VMAT with comparable values for IMRT. Conclusion: These findings suggest that using VMAT for SBRT in early stage lung cancer is superior to IMRT in terms of dose coverage, OAR dose and a lower treatment delivery time with a similar gamma pass rate.« less

  7. Early stages of zeolite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    Zeolites are crystalline nonporous aluminosilicates with important applications in separation, purification, and adsorption of liquid and gaseous molecules. However, an ability to tailor the zeolite microstructure, such as particle size/shape and pore-size, to make it benign for specific application requires control over nucleation and particle growth processes. But, the nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of zeolites are not fully understood. In this context, the synthesis of an all-silica zeolite with MFI-type framework has been studied extensively as a model system. Throughout chapters 2, 4 and 5, MFI growth process has been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Of fundamental importance is the role of nanoparticles (~5 nm), which are present in the precursor sol, in MFI nucleation and crystallization. Formation of amorphous aggregates and their internal restructuring are concluded as essential steps in MFI nucleation. Early stage zeolite particles have disordered and less crystalline regions within, which indicates the role of structurally distributed population of nanoparticles in growth. Faceting occurs after the depletion of nanoparticles. The chapter 6 presents growth studies in silica sols prepared by using a dimer of tertaprpylammonium (TPA) and reports that MFI nucleation and crystallization are delayed with a more pronounced delay in crystal growth.

  8. A comparative study of the target volume definition in radiotherapy with «Slow CT Scan» vs. 4D PET/CT Scan in early stages non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Molla, M; Anducas, N; Simó, M; Seoane, A; Ramos, M; Cuberas-Borros, G; Beltran, M; Castell, J; Giralt, J

    To evaluate the use of 4D PET/CT to quantify tumor respiratory motion compared to the «Slow»-CT (CTs) in the radiotherapy planning process. A total of 25 patients with inoperable early stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were included in the study. Each patient was imaged with a CTs (4s/slice) and 4D PET/CT. The adequacy of each technique for respiratory motion capture was evaluated using the volume definition for each of the following: Internal target volume (ITV) 4D and ITVslow in relation with the volume defined by the encompassing volume of 4D PET/CT and CTs (ITVtotal). The maximum distance between the edges of the volume defined by each technique to that of the total volume was measured in orthogonal beam's eye view. The ITV4D showed less differences in relation with the ITVtotal in both the cranio-caudal and the antero-posterior axis compared to the ITVslow. The maximum differences were 0.36mm in 4D PET/CTand 0.57mm in CTs in the antero-posterior axis. 4D PET/CT resulted in the definition of more accurate (ITV4D/ITVtotal 0.78 vs. ITVs/ITVtotal 0.63), and larger ITVs (19.9 cc vs. 16.3 cc) than those obtained with CTs. Planning with 4D PET/CT in comparison with CTs, allows incorporating tumor respiratory motion and improving planning radiotherapy of patients in early stages of lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  10. Isolated lung transplantation for end-stage lung disease: a viable therapy.

    PubMed

    Egan, T M; Westerman, J H; Lambert, C J; Detterbeck, F C; Thompson, J T; Mill, M R; Keagy, B A; Paradowski, L J; Wilcox, B R

    1992-04-01

    Since January 1990, we have performed 29 isolated lung transplantations in 28 patients with end-stage lung disease (12 single, 16 bilateral). Recipient diagnoses were: cystic fibrosis (11), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (6), pulmonary fibrosis (6), eosinophilic granulomatosis (1), postinfectious lung disease (1), adult respiratory distress syndrome (1), and primary pulmonary hypertension (2). There have been four deaths, two in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and two in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Four patients have undergone transplantation while on ventilatory support for respiratory failure (2 with cystic fibrosis, 1 having redo lung transplantation with cystic fibrosis, and 1 with adult respiratory distress syndrome); all of these have survived. Six patients required cardiopulmonary bypass, which was associated with increased transfusion requirement. All patients 2 months after discharge have returned to an active life-style, except for 2 patients who currently await retransplantation. Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation has resulted in significant improvement in exercise performance in all patients. Immunosuppression consists of cyclosporine, azathioprine, and antilymphoblast globulin (University of Minnesota), withholding systemic steroids in the early postoperative period. We have employed bronchial omentopexy in all but four transplants; there has been one partial bronchial dehiscence, two instances of bronchomalacia requiring internal stenting, and one airway stenosis. Cytomegalovirus disease has been seen frequently (15 cases), but has responded well to treatment with ganciclovir. Other complication shave included one drug-related prolonged postoperative ventilation, thrombosis of a left lung after bilateral lung transplantation requiring retransplantation, five episodes of unilateral phrenic nerve palsy after bilateral lung transplantation (4 resolved), and the requirement of massive transfusion (greater than 10 units) in 5

  11. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-29

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. Use of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) in incompletely resected (R1) early stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): a European survey conducted by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) young oncologists committee.

    PubMed

    Califano, R; Karamouzis, M V; Banerjee, S; de Azambuja, E; Guarneri, V; Hutka, M; Jordan, K; Kamposioras, K; Martinelli, E; Corral, J; Postel-Vinay, S; Preusser, M; Porcu, L; Torri, V

    2014-07-01

    Early stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is potentially curable with surgery. ESMO guidelines recommend cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) for completely resected stage II-III NSCLC. There is limited evidence for the use of adjuvant CT and/or radiotherapy (RT) in incompletely resected (R1) early stage NSCLC. A European survey of thoracic oncologists was conducted to evaluate use of adjuvant CT and RT for R1-resected NSCLC and to identify factors influencing treatment decisions. Demographics and information on clinical stage, regimens, cycles planned, radiotherapy sites, multidisciplinary management and discussion about inconclusive evidence with the patient were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. 768 surveys were collected from 41 European countries. 82.9% of participants were medical oncologists; 49.3% ESMO members; 37.1% based in University Hospitals; 32.6% practicing oncology for over 15 years and 81.4% active in research. 91.4% of participants prescribed adjuvant CT and mostly cisplatin/vinorelbine (81.2%) or cisplatin/gemcitabine (42.9%). 85% discussed limited clinical evidence with the patient. In the univariate analysis, a statistically significant association with CT prescription was found for medical oncology specialty (p<0.001), ESMO membership (p<0.001), activity in clinical research (p=0.002) and increased frequency of ESMO guidelines consultation (p for trend <0.001). 48.3% of participants prescribed adjuvant RT and its prescription were associated with radiation oncology specialty (p<0.001), not being an ESMO member (p<0.001), years practicing specialty (p for trend=0.001), workload of lung cancer patients (p for trend=0.027) and decreased frequency in consulting ESMO guidelines (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, medical oncology and radiation oncology were the best discriminator for prescription of adjuvant CT and RT, respectively. This survey demonstrates that adjuvant CT and RT are commonly used in

  13. Metabolomic Markers of Altered Nucleotide Metabolism in Early Stage Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wikoff, William R.; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F.; DeFelice, Brian; Rom, William; Pass, Harvey; Kim, Kyoungmi; Nguyen, UyenThao; Taylor, Sandra L.; Kelly, Karen; Fiehn, Oliver; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, a type of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the most frequently diagnosed lung cancer and the leading cause of lung cancer mortality in the United States. It is well documented that biochemical changes occur early in the transition from normal to cancer cells, but the extent to which these alterations affect tumorigenesis in adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. Herein we describe the application of mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis in one of the largest biomarker research studies to date aimed at distinguishing metabolic differences between malignant and non-malignant lung tissue. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to measure 462 metabolites in 39 malignant and non-malignant lung tissue pairs from current or former smokers with early stage (Stage IA–IB) adenocarcinoma. Statistical mixed effects models, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and network integration, were used to identify key cancer-associated metabolic perturbations in adenocarcinoma compared to non-malignant tissue. Cancer-associated biochemical alterations were characterized by: 1) decreased glucose levels, consistent with the Warburg effect, 2) changes in cellular redox status highlighted by elevations in cysteine and antioxidants, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, 3) elevations in nucleotide metabolites 5,6-dihydrouracil and xanthine suggestive of increased dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidoreductase activity, 4) increased 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine levels indicative of reduced purine salvage and increased de novo purine synthesis and 5) coordinated elevations in glutamate and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine suggesting increased protein glycosylation. The present study revealed distinct metabolic perturbations associated with early stage lung adenocarcinoma which may provide candidate molecular targets for personalizing therapeutic interventions and treatment efficacy monitoring. PMID:25657018

  14. Treatment of Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Tracey; Gettinger, Scott; Hensing, Thomas A.; VanDam Sequist, Lecia; Ireland, Belinda; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a treatable, but not curable, clinical entity in patients given the diagnosis at a time when their performance status (PS) remains good. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to update the previous edition of the American College of Chest Physicians Lung Cancer Guidelines. Results: The use of pemetrexed should be restricted to patients with nonsquamous histology. Similarly, bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy (and as continuation maintenance) should be restricted to patients with nonsquamous histology and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS of 0 to 1; however, the data now suggest it is safe to use in those patients with treated and controlled brain metastases. Data at this time are insufficient regarding the safety of bevacizumab in patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation who have an ECOG PS of 2. The role of cetuximab added to chemotherapy remains uncertain and its routine use cannot be recommended. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first-line therapy are the recommended treatment of those patients identified as having an EGFR mutation. The use of maintenance therapy with either pemetrexed or erlotinib should be considered after four cycles of first-line therapy in those patients without evidence of disease progression. The use of second- and third-line therapy in stage IV NSCLC is recommended in those patients retaining a good PS; however, the benefit of therapy beyond the third-line setting has not been demonstrated. In the elderly and in patients with a poor PS, the use of two-drug, platinum-based regimens is preferred. Palliative care should be initiated early in the course of therapy for stage IV NSCLC. Conclusions: Significant advances continue to be made, and the treatment of stage IV NSCLC has become nuanced and specific for particular histologic subtypes and clinical patient characteristics and according to the

  15. Molecular profiling identifies prognostic markers of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Shao, Jinchen; Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Ruiying; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiaohui; Tu, Shichun; Han, Baohui; Yu, Keke

    2017-09-26

    We previously showed that different pathologic subtypes were associated with different prognostic values in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (AC). We hypothesize that differential gene expression profiles of different subtypes may be valuable factors for prognosis in stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. We performed microarray gene expression profiling on tumor tissues micro-dissected from patients with acinar and solid predominant subtypes of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. These patients had undergone a lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection at the Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China in 2012. No patient had preoperative treatment. We performed the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) analysis to look for gene expression signatures associated with tumor subtypes. The histologic subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2015 WHO lung Adenocarcinoma classification. We found that patients with the solid predominant subtype are enriched for genes involved in RNA polymerase activity as well as inactivation of the p53 pathway. Further, we identified a list of genes that may serve as prognostic markers for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Validation in the TCGA database shows that these genes are correlated with survival, suggesting that they are novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, we have uncovered novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma using gene expression profiling in combination with histopathology subtyping.

  16. Progress and prospects of early detection in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blandin Knight, Sean; Crosbie, Phil A.; Balata, Haval; Chudziak, Jakub; Hussell, Tracy; Dive, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. It is broadly divided into small cell (SCLC, approx. 15% cases) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, approx. 85% cases). The main histological subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, with the presence of specific DNA mutations allowing further molecular stratification. If identified at an early stage, surgical resection of NSCLC offers a favourable prognosis, with published case series reporting 5-year survival rates of up to 70% for small, localized tumours (stage I). However, most patients (approx. 75%) have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis (stage III/IV) and despite significant developments in the oncological management of late stage lung cancer over recent years, survival remains poor. In 2014, the UK Office for National Statistics reported that patients diagnosed with distant metastatic disease (stage IV) had a 1-year survival rate of just 15–19% compared with 81–85% for stage I. PMID:28878044

  17. Changes in Treatment Patterns and Overall Survival in Patients With Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the United States After the Incorporation of Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy: A Population-based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haque, Waqar; Szeja, Sean; Tann, Anne; Kalra, Sarathi; Teh, Bin S

    2018-03-01

    Technologic developments have made radiation therapy (RT) more effective and have introduced new treatment options, such as stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). This study sought to determine changes in practice patterns for treatment of stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after the introduction of SABR into the United States. This population-based study also examined changes in survival during this time period for all patients and specifically for patients treated with RT, surgery, or observation. We included patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database diagnosed with stage IA NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2012. Changes in treatment patterns were assessed. Outcomes were compared across 2 time periods: 2004 to 2008 (pre-SABR) and 2009 to 2012 (post-SABR). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were performed to compare overall survival (OS) for patients treated with surgery, RT, or observation. A total of 32,249 patients met the specified criteria. Comparing patients diagnosed in 2004 to those diagnosed in 2012, RT use increased from 13% to 29% (P<0.001), surgery use decreased from 76% to 61% (P<0.001), and patients observed decreased from 11% to 10% (P=0.3). There was no significant OS improvement in all patients or those patients who were observed; there were significant improvements in OS for patients treated with RT (hazard ratio=0.768; 95% confidence interval, 0.711-0.829) and those patients treated with surgery (hazard ratio=0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.855-0.962). There has been an increase in RT utilization and decrease in surgical utilization after the incorporation of SABR by radiation oncologists within the United States. In addition, there has been an improvement in OS for patients treated with definitive RT for early-stage NSCLC between 2004 and 2012 that may be associated with increased utilization of SABR.

  18. Docetaxel, Cisplatin, Pegfilgrastim, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  19. Computed Tomography-Based Anatomic Assessment Overestimates Local Tumor Recurrence in Patients With Mass-like Consolidation After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlap, Neal E.; Yang Wensha; McIntosh, Alyson

    Purpose: To investigate pulmonary radiologic changes after lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), to distinguish between mass-like fibrosis and tumor recurrence. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients treated with 3- to 5-fraction SBRT for early-stage peripheral non-small cell lung cancer with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were reviewed. The mean biologic equivalent dose received was 150 Gy (range, 78-180 Gy). Patients were followed with serial CT imaging every 3 months. The CT appearance of consolidation was defined as diffuse or mass-like. Progressive disease on CT was defined according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1. Positron emission tomography (PET)more » CT was used as an adjunct test. Tumor recurrence was defined as a standardized uptake value equal to or greater than the pretreatment value. Biopsy was used to further assess consolidation in select patients. Results: Median follow-up was 24 months (range, 12.0-36.0 months). Abnormal mass-like consolidation was identified in 44 patients (55%), whereas diffuse consolidation was identified in 12 patients (15%), at a median time from end of treatment of 10.3 months and 11.5 months, respectively. Tumor recurrence was found in 35 of 44 patients with mass-like consolidation using CT alone. Combined with PET, 10 of the 44 patients had tumor recurrence. Tumor size (hazard ratio 1.12, P=.05) and time to consolidation (hazard ratio 0.622, P=.03) were predictors for tumor recurrence. Three consecutive increases in volume and increasing volume at 12 months after treatment in mass-like consolidation were highly specific for tumor recurrence (100% and 80%, respectively). Patients with diffuse consolidation were more likely to develop grade {>=}2 pneumonitis (odds ratio 26.5, P=.02) than those with mass-like consolidation (odds ratio 0.42, P=.07). Conclusion: Incorporating the kinetics of mass-like consolidation and PET to the current criteria for evaluating posttreatment response

  20. The airway microbiota in early cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Frayman, Katherine B; Armstrong, David S; Grimwood, Keith; Ranganathan, Sarath C

    2017-11-01

    Infection plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Over the past two decades, the application of molecular and extended culture-based techniques to microbial analysis has changed our understanding of the lungs in both health and disease. CF lung disease is a polymicrobial disorder, with obligate and facultative anaerobes recovered alongside traditional pathogens in varying proportions, with some differences observed to correlate with disease stage. While healthy lungs are not sterile, differences between the lower airway microbiota of individuals with CF and disease-controls are already apparent in childhood. Understanding the evolution of the CF airway microbiota, and its relationship with clinical treatments and outcome at each disease stage, will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of CF lung disease and potentially inform clinical management. This review summarizes current knowledge of the early development of the respiratory microbiota in healthy children and then discusses what is known about the airway microbiota in individuals with CF, including how it evolves over time and where future research priorities lie. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. EF5 in Measuring Tumor Hypoxia in Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-10

    Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  2. Surgery for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Hayley; See, Katharine; Barnett, Stephen; Manser, Renée

    2017-04-21

    Current treatment guidelines for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) recommend concomitant platinum-based chemo-radiotherapy plus prophylactic cranial irradiation, based on the premise that SCLC disseminates early, and is chemosensitive. However, although there is usually a favourable initial response, relapse is common and the cure rate for limited-stage SCLC remains relatively poor. Some recent clinical practice guidelines have recommended surgery for stage 1 (limited) SCLC followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, but this recommendation is largely based on the findings of observational studies. To determine whether, in patients with limited-stage SCLC, surgical resection of cancer improves overall survival and treatment-related deaths compared with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, or best supportive care. We performed searches on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science up to 11 January 2017. We handsearched review articles, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of retrieved articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with adults diagnosed with limited-stage SCLC, confirmed by cytology or histology, and radiological assessment, considered medically suitable for resection and radical radiotherapy, which randomised participants to surgery versus any other intervention. We imported studies identified by the search into a reference manager database. We retrieved the full-text version of relevant studies, and two review authors independently extracted data. The primary outcome measures were overall survival and treatment-related deaths; and secondary outcome measures included loco-regional progression, quality of life, and adverse events. We included three trials with 330 participants. We judged the quality of the evidence as very low for all the outcomes. The quality of the data was limited by the lack of complete outcome reporting, unclear risk of bias in the methods in which the

  3. Lung cancer staging now and in the future.

    PubMed

    Liam, Chong-Kin; Andarini, Sita; Lee, Pyng; Ho, James Chung-Man; Chau, Ngo Quy; Tscheikuna, Jamsak

    2015-05-01

    For a long time lung cancer was associated with a fatalistic approach by healthcare professionals. In recent years, advances in imaging, improved diagnostic techniques and more effective treatment modalities are reasons for optimism. Accurate lung cancer staging is vitally important because treatment options and prognosis differ significantly by stage. The staging algorithm should include a contrast computed tomography (CT) of the chest and the upper abdomen including adrenals, positron emission tomography/CT for staging the mediastinum and to rule out extrathoracic metastasis in patients considered for surgical resection, endosonography-guided needle sampling procedure replacing mediastinoscopy for near complete mediastinal staging, and brain imaging as clinically indicated. Applicability of evidence-based guidelines for staging of lung cancer depends on the available expertise and level of resources and is directly impacted by financial issues. Considering the diversity of healthcare infrastructure and economic performance of Asian countries, optimal and cost-effective use of staging methods appropriate to the available resources is prudent. The pulmonologist plays a central role in the multidisciplinary approach to lung cancer diagnosis, staging and management. Regional respiratory societies such as the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology should work with national respiratory societies to strive for uniform standards of care. For developing countries, a minimum set of care standards should be formulated. Cost-effective delivery of optimal care for lung cancer patients, including staging within the various healthcare systems, should be encouraged and most importantly, tobacco control implementation should receive an absolute priority status in all countries in Asia. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Possible pathways used to predict different stages of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Duan, Qiongyu; Xuan, Ying; Sun, Yunan; Wu, Rong

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to find some specific pathways that can be used to predict the stage of lung adenocarcinoma.RNA-Seq expression profile data and clinical data of lung adenocarcinoma (stage I [37], stage II 161], stage III [75], and stage IV [45]) were obtained from the TCGA dataset. The differentially expressed genes were merged, correlation coefficient matrix between genes was constructed with correlation analysis, and unsupervised clustering was carried out with hierarchical clustering method. The specific coexpression network in every stage was constructed with cytoscape software. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis was performed with KOBAS database and Fisher exact test. Euclidean distance algorithm was used to calculate total deviation score. The diagnostic model was constructed with SVM algorithm.Eighteen specific genes were obtained by getting intersection of 4 group differentially expressed genes. Ten significantly enriched pathways were obtained. In the distribution map of 10 pathways score in different groups, degrees that sample groups deviated from the normal level were as follows: stage I < stage II < stage III < stage IV. The pathway score of 4 stages exhibited linear change in some pathways, and the score of 1 or 2 stages were significantly different from the rest stages in some pathways. There was significant difference between dead and alive for these pathways except thyroid hormone signaling pathway.Those 10 pathways are associated with the development of lung adenocarcinoma and may be able to predict different stages of it. Furthermore, these pathways except thyroid hormone signaling pathway may be able to predict the prognosis.

  5. Accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3 Gy/fraction) combined with concurrent chemotherapy for patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer: preliminary results of an early terminated phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Cang; Wang, Quan-Yu; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Xue-Ji; Wang, Na; Liu, Yue-E; Zong, Jie; Guo, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Dong-Ying; Lin, Qiang

    2016-04-23

    Increasing the biological effective dose (BED) of radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can increase local control rates and improve overall survival. Compared with conventional fractionated radiotherapy, accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy can yield higher BED, shorten the total treatment time, and theoretically obtain better efficacy. However, currently, there is no optimal hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen. Based on phase I trial results, we performed this phase II trial to further evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3-DCRT) combined with concurrent chemotherapy for patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC. Patients with previously untreated unresectable stage III NSCLC received 3-DCRT with a total dose of 69 Gy, delivered at 3 Gy per fraction, once daily, five fractions per week, completed within 4.6 weeks. At the same time, platinum doublet chemotherapy was applied. After 12 patients were enrolled in the group, the trial was terminated early. There were five cases of grade III radiation esophagitis, of which four cases completed the radiation doses of 51 Gy, 51 Gy, 54 Gy, and 66 Gy, and one case had 16 days of radiation interruption. The incidence of grade III acute esophagitis in patients receiving an irradiation dose per fraction ≥2.7 Gy on the esophagus was 83.3% (5/6). The incidence of symptomatic grade III radiation pneumonitis among the seven patients who completed 69 Gy according to the plan was 28.6% (2/7). The median local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were not achieved; the 1-year LC rate was 59.3%, and the 1-year OS rate was 78.6%. For unresectable stage III NSCLC, the accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy with a total dose of 69 Gy (3 Gy/f) combined with concurrent chemotherapy might result in severe radiation esophagitis and pneumonitis to severely affect the completion of the radiotherapy. Therefore, we considered that

  6. A planning comparison of 3-dimensional conformal multiple static field, conformal arc, and volumetric modulated arc therapy for the delivery of stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Mike; Roa, Wilson; Drodge, Suzanne; Ghosh, Sunita; Murray, Brad; Scrimger, Rufus; Gabos, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare dosimetric variables as well as treatment times of multiple static fields (MSFs), conformal arcs (CAs), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques for the treatment of early stage lung cancer using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Treatments of 23 patients previously treated with MSF of 48Gy to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) in 4 fractions were replanned using CA and VMAT techniques. Dosimetric parameters of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0915 trial were evaluated, along with the van׳t Riet conformation number (CN), monitor units (MUs), and actual and calculated treatment times. Paired t-tests for noninferiority were used to compare the 3 techniques. CA had significant dosimetric improvements over MSF for the ratio of the prescription isodose volume to PTV (R100%, p < 0.0001), the maximum dose 2cm away from the PTV (D2cm, p = 0.005), and van׳t Riet CN (p < 0.0001). CA was not statistically inferior to MSF for the 50% prescription isodose volume to PTV (R50%, p = 0.05). VMAT was significantly better than CA for R100% (p < 0.0001), R50% (p < 0.0001), D2cm (p = 0.006), and CN (p < 0.0001). CA plans had significantly shorter treatment times than those of VMAT (p < 0.0001). Both CA and VMAT planning showed significant dosimetric improvements and shorter treatment times over those of MSF. VMAT showed the most favorable dosimetry of all 3 techniques; however, the dosimetric effect of tumor motion was not evaluated. CA plans were significantly faster to treat, and minimize the interplay of tumor motion and dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion effects. Given these results, CA has become the treatment technique of choice at our facility. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Description and Survival of Stage I and II Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Olaia; Vidal-García, Iria; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Provencio, Mariano; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2018-03-16

    The objective of our study was to describe the characteristics of patients diagnosed with stage I and II lung cancer in the health area of A Coruña (Galicia) and to determine their overall survival according to certain variables. Retrospective case series in patients diagnosed between January 2011 and December 2015 with stage I and II primary lung cancer with a minimum follow-up of 18 months. 158 patients were included, 99 at stage I, with a median age of 69 years [range 20-90], predominantly men (81%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histology (52.9%), followed by epidermoid carcinoma (33.1%). Asymptomatic patients (35.9%) presented more frequently in stage I. Median survival was 57 months (95% CI 48.1-65.9), with higher survival among women, patients under 70 years of age, and those who received surgical treatment. Early stage lung cancer in the health area of A Coruña occurs predominantly in men, in advanced age, and with adenocarcinoma histology. Survival was greater among patients with stage I disease, women, individuals aged under 70 years, and those treated surgically. Despite early diagnosis, median survival was less than 5 years. Copyright © 2018 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Sublobar resection is equivalent to lobectomy for clinical stage 1A lung cancer in solid nodules.

    PubMed

    Altorki, Nasser K; Yip, Rowena; Hanaoka, Takaomi; Bauer, Thomas; Aye, Ralph; Kohman, Leslie; Sheppard, Barry; Thurer, Richard; Andaz, Shahriyour; Smith, Michael; Mayfield, William; Grannis, Fred; Korst, Robert; Pass, Harvey; Straznicka, Michaela; Flores, Raja; Henschke, Claudia I

    2014-02-01

    A single randomized trial established lobectomy as the standard of care for the surgical treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent advances in imaging/staging modalities and detection of smaller tumors have once again rekindled interest in sublobar resection for early-stage disease. The objective of this study was to compare lung cancer survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer with a diameter of 30 mm or less with clinical stage 1 disease who underwent lobectomy or sublobar resection. We identified 347 patients diagnosed with lung cancer who underwent lobectomy (n = 294) or sublobar resection (n = 53) for non-small cell lung cancer manifesting as a solid nodule in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program from 1993 to 2011. Differences in the distribution of the presurgical covariates between sublobar resection and lobectomy were assessed using unadjusted P values determined by logistic regression analysis. Propensity scoring was performed using the same covariates. Differences in the distribution of the same covariates between sublobar resection and lobectomy were assessed using adjusted P values determined by logistic regression analysis with adjustment for the propensity scores. Lung cancer-specific survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox survival regression analysis was used to compare sublobar resection with lobectomy, adjusted for the propensity scores, surgical, and pathology findings, when adjusted and stratified by propensity quintiles. Among 347 patients, 10-year Kaplan-Meier for 53 patients treated by sublobar resection compared with 294 patients treated by lobectomy was 85% (95% confidence interval, 80-91) versus 86% (confidence interval, 75-96) (P = .86). Cox survival analysis showed no significant difference between sublobar resection and lobectomy when adjusted for propensity scores or when using propensity quintiles (P = .62 and P = .79, respectively). For those with cancers 20 mm or less in

  9. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  10. Docetaxel With Either Cetuximab or Bortezomib as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. A Phase 1 Trial of an Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor plus Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Patients with Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    with Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Karen Kelly, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California...Inhibitor plus Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Patients with Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0063...immune checkpoint inhibitor MPDL3280A (atezolizumab) in early stage inoperable non-small cell lung cancer . The trial is comprised of a traditional 3 + 3

  12. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-22

    Adenosquamous Lung Carcinoma; Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Minimally Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  13. S0819: Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab and/or Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Stage IV or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-03

    Recurrent Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma

  14. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  15. A standardized technique of systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) leads to a high rate of nodal upstaging in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Martin; Steiner, Dagmar; Kerber, Stefanie; Bender, Julia; Pösentrup, Bernd; Hecker, Andreas; Bodner, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    A substantial part of the oncologic surgical procedure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is systematic lymph node dissection (sLND). However, controversies still exist regarding the quality of minimally invasive (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, VATS) sLND in oncologic resections. The rate of stage migration from clinical to pathological N-status has been discussed as one parameter for the quality of sLND. Between March 2011 and May 2014, seventy-seven patients (62 male, 15 female) were scheduled for anatomical lung resection and sLND by VATS for clinical stage I (UICC 7th edition) NSCLC. Preoperative staging was performed by [18F]-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Patient data were retrospectively analyzed with regard to divergence in clinical and pathological N-factor. FDG-PET/CTs of patients with lymph node (LN) upstaging after VATS resections were blindly re-evaluated by an experienced radiologist. In FDG-PET/CT, preoperative tumor stage was cT1N0M0 in 41 (53.2%) and cT2aN0M0 in 28 (36.4%) patients. In six (7.8%) patients the primary tumor was not suspicious for malignancy, and in two (2.6%) patients the tumor was not evaluable due to prior wedge resection before FDG-PET/CT. Thirty-one (40.3%) left-sided and 46 (59.7%) right-sided pulmonary resections with sLND were performed; 19.57 ± 0.99 LNs were dissected. In 13 (16.9%) patients a nodal stage migration from preoperative clinical to postoperative pathological N-stage was observed [cN0 to pN1 in 9 (11.7%) and cN0 to pN2 in 4 (5.2%) cases]. In correlation to the clinical T-factor, the rate of N-factor upstaging for cT1 was 12.2% and for cT2a was 28.6%, respectively. In 50% of the patients with postoperative nodal staging shift, no changes were observed on re-evaluation of the preoperative FDG-PET/CT. In this series of clinical stage I NSCLC patients, the rate of nodal stage migration after sLND by VATS is higher than previously reported

  16. Cost-effectiveness of an autoantibody test (EarlyCDT-Lung) as an aid to early diagnosis of lung cancer in patients with incidentally detected pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Edelsberg, John; Weycker, Derek; Atwood, Mark; Hamilton-Fairley, Geoffrey; Jett, James R

    2018-01-01

    Patients who have incidentally detected pulmonary nodules and an estimated intermediate risk (5-60%) of lung cancer frequently are followed via computed tomography (CT) surveillance to detect nodule growth, despite guidelines for a more aggressive diagnostic strategy. We examined the cost-effectiveness of an autoantibody test (AABT)-Early Cancer Detection Test-Lung (EarlyCDT-LungTM)-as an aid to early diagnosis of lung cancer among such patients. We developed a decision-analytic model to evaluate use of the AABT versus CT surveillance alone. In the model, patients with a positive AABT-because they are at substantially enhanced risk of lung cancer-are assumed to go directly to biopsy, resulting in diagnosis of lung cancer in earlier stages than under current guidelines (a beneficial stage shift). Patients with a negative AABT, and those scheduled for CT surveillance alone, are assumed to have periodic CT screenings to detect rapid growth and thus to have their lung cancers diagnosed-on average-at more advanced stages. Among 1,000 patients who have incidentally detected nodules 8-30 mm, have an intermediate-risk of lung cancer, and are evaluated by CT surveillance alone, 95 (9.5%) are assumed to have lung cancer (local, 73.6%; regional, 22.0%; distant, 4.4%). With use of the AABT set at a sensitivity/specificity of 41%/93% (stage shift = 10.8%), although expected costs would be higher by $949,442 ($949 per person), life years would be higher by 53 (0.05 per person), resulting in a cost per life-year gained of $18,029 and a cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained of $24,330. With use of the AABT set at a sensitivity/specificity of 28%/98% (stage shift = 7.4%), corresponding cost-effectiveness ratios would be $18,454 and $24,833. Under our base-case assumptions, and reasonable variations thereof, using AABT as an aid in the early diagnosis of lung cancer in patients with incidentally detected pulmonary nodules who are estimated to be at intermediate risk of

  17. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage IB, II, or IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Was Completely Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-19

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  18. The early stages of duplicate gene evolution

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard C.; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Gene duplications are one of the primary driving forces in the evolution of genomes and genetic systems. Gene duplicates account for 8–20% of the genes in eukaryotic genomes, and the rates of gene duplication are estimated at between 0.2% and 2% per gene per million years. Duplicate genes are believed to be a major mechanism for the establishment of new gene functions and the generation of evolutionary novelty, yet very little is known about the early stages of the evolution of duplicated gene pairs. It is unclear, for example, to what extent selection, rather than neutral genetic drift, drives the fixation and early evolution of duplicate loci. Analysis of recently duplicated genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome reveals significantly reduced species-wide levels of nucleotide polymorphisms in the progenitor and/or duplicate gene copies, suggesting that selective sweeps accompany the initial stages of the evolution of these duplicated gene pairs. Our results support recent theoretical work that indicates that fates of duplicate gene pairs may be determined in the initial phases of duplicate gene evolution and that positive selection plays a prominent role in the evolutionary dynamics of the very early histories of duplicate nuclear genes. PMID:14671323

  19. Serum levels of the angiogenic factor pleiotrophin in relation to disease stage in lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, R; List, B; Knabbe, C; Souttou, B; Raulais, D; Zeiler, T; Wellstein, A; Aigner, A; Neubauer, A; Zugmaier, G

    2002-01-01

    Pleiotrophin is a heparin-binding growth factor involved in the differentiation and proliferation of neuronal tissue during embryogenesis, and also secreted by melanoma and breast carcinoma cells. Pleiotrophin exhibits mitogenic and angiogenic properties and has been shown to influence the vascular supply, expansion and metastasis of tumour cells. Our aim was to study the serum and plasma concentrations of pleiotrophin and the classical angiogenic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor. Using a specific ELISA-test we studied patients with small cell lung cancer (n=63), and patients with non-small cell lung cancer (n=22) in comparison to healthy control subjects (n=41). In most of the lung cancer patients (81%), we found serum levels of pleiotrophin above those of control subjects (P<0.001). Of the 63 small cell lung cancer patients in the study pleiotrophin serum levels were elevated in 55 cases (87%) and in 14 cases (63%) of the 22 non-small cell lung cancer patients. Pleiotrophin mean serum concentrations were 10.8-fold higher in the tumour patient group as compared to the control group (P<0.001). Furthermore, pleiotrophin serum levels correlated positively with the stage of disease and inversely with the response to therapy. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were elevated in only in 28.6% of small cell lung cancer and 45.5% of non-small cell lung cancer patients by an average of 2.3-fold. Quite strikingly, there was no apparent correlation between the plasma vascular endothelial growth factor concentration and the stage of disease. Our study suggests that pleiotrophin may be an early indicator of lung cancer and might be of use in monitoring the efficacy of therapy, which needs to be confirmed by larger studies. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 858–863. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600202 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953815

  20. Pre-existing Pulmonary Diseases and Survival in Patients With Stage-dependent Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Jing-Yang; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Jhang, Kai-Ming; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Ho, Chien-Chang; Lung, Chia-Chi; Pan, Hui-Hsien; Liang, Yu-Chiu; Wu, Ming-Fang; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are common lung diseases associated with lung cancer mortality. This study evaluated sex disparities in pre-existing pulmonary diseases and stage-dependent lung adenocarcinoma survival. Patients newly diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma between 2003 and 2008 were identified using the National Health Insurance Research Database and Cancer Registry. Cases with lung adenocarcinoma were followed until the end of 2010. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. Cox proportional-hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of pre-existing asthma, COPD, and/or TB, and to estimate all-cause mortality risk in patients with different stages of lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 14,518 cases were identified with lung adenocarcinoma. Specifically, among men, the HRs for TB were 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–2.58), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.14–1.93), and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.08–1.49) for individuals with stage I + II, III, and IV diseases, respectively. The HRs for asthma were 1.41 (95% CI, 1.00–1.99) in women with stage I + II and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04–1.26) in men with stage IV disease. For pulmonary disease combinations in men, the HRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.12–1.89) for asthma + COPD + TB, 1.35 (95% CI, 1.12–1.63) for COPD + TB, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01–1.63) for TB, and 1.15 (95%CI, 1.04–1.27) for asthma + COPD, respectively. For women with stage I + II disease, the HR was 6.94 (95% CI, 2.72–17.71) for asthma + COPD + TB. Coexistence of pre-existing pulmonary diseases increased mortality risk in men with adenocarcinoma. TB is at elevated risk of mortality among men with different stages of adenocarcinoma. Asthmatic women with early-stage adenocarcinoma had increased risk of mortality. PMID:26962806

  1. Audit of the autoantibody test, EarlyCDT®-lung, in 1600 patients: an evaluation of its performance in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Jett, James R; Peek, Laura J; Fredericks, Lynn; Jewell, William; Pingleton, William W; Robertson, John F R

    2014-01-01

    EarlyCDT(®)-Lung may enhance detection of early stage lung cancer by aiding physicians in assessing high-risk patients through measurement of biological markers (i.e., autoantibodies). The test's performance characteristics in routine clinical practice were evaluated by auditing clinical outcomes of 1613 US patients deemed at high risk for lung cancer by their physician, who ordered the EarlyCDT-Lung test for their patient. Clinical outcomes for all 1613 patients who provided HIPAA authorization are reported. Clinical data were collected from each patient's treating physician. Pathology reports when available were reviewed for diagnostic classification. Staging was assessed on histology, otherwise on imaging. Six month follow-up for the positives/negatives was 99%/93%. Sixty-one patients (4%) were identified with lung cancer, 25 of whom tested positive by EarlyCDT-Lung (sensitivity=41%). A positive EarlyCDT-Lung test on the current panel was associated with a 5.4-fold increase in lung cancer incidence versus a negative. Importantly, 57% (8/14) of non-small cell lung cancers detected as positive (where stage was known) were stage I or II. EarlyCDT-Lung has been extensively tested and validated in case-control settings and has now been shown in this audit to perform in routine clinical practice as predicted. EarlyCDT-Lung may be a complementary tool to CT for detection of early lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma: early-stage management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Erstad, Derek J; Tanabe, Kenneth K

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death and is increasing in incidence. This review focuses on HCC surveillance and treatment of early-stage disease, which are essential to improving outcomes. Multiple societies have published HCC surveillance guidelines, but screening efforts have been limited by noncompliance and overall lack of testing for patients with undiagnosed chronic liver disease. Treatment of early-stage HCC has become increasingly complex due to expanding therapeutic options and better outcomes with established treatments. Surgical indications for HCC have broadened with improved preoperative liver testing, neoadjuvant therapy, portal vein embolization, and perioperative care. Advances in post-procedural monitoring have improved efficacies of transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, and novel therapies involving delivery of radiochemicals are being studied in small trials. Finally, advances in liver transplantation have allowed for expanded indications beyond Milan criteria with non-inferior outcomes. More clinical trials evaluating new therapies and multimodal regimens are necessary to help clinicians design better treatment algorithms and improve outcomes. PMID:28721349

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  4. Thoroughness of Mediastinal Staging in Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Michael T.; Tanoue, Lynn; Soulos, Pamela R.; Kim, Anthony W.; Detterbeck, Frank; Morgensztern, Daniel; Gross, Cary P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines recommend that patients with clinical stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergo histologic confirmation of pathologic lymph nodes. Studies have suggested that invasive mediastinal staging is underutilized, though practice patterns have not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify patients with stage IIIA NSCLC diagnosed from 1998 through 2005. Invasive staging and use of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning were assessed using Medicare claims. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with use of invasive staging. Results Of 7583 stage IIIA NSCLC patients, 1678 (22%) underwent invasive staging. Patients who received curative intent cancer treatment were more likely to undergo invasive staging than patients who did not receive cancer specific therapy (30% vs. 9.8%, adjusted odds ratio [OR} 3.31, 95% CI 2.78–3.95). The oldest patients (age 85–94) were less likely to receive invasive staging than the youngest ((age 67–69) (27.6 % vs. 11.9%, OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.61)). Sex, marital status, income and race were not associated with the use of the invasive staging. The use of invasive staging was stable throughout the study period, despite an increase in the use of PET scanning from less than 10% of patients prior to 2000 to almost 70% in 2005. Conclusion Nearly 80% of Medicare beneficiaries with stage IIIA NSCLC do not receive guideline adherent mediastinal staging; this failure cannot be entirely explained by patient factors or a reliance on PET imaging. Incentives to encourage use of invasive staging may improve care. PMID:22134069

  5. Applicability of the linear-quadratic formalism for modeling local tumor control probability in high dose per fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Klement, Rainer Johannes; Allgäuer, Michael; Appold, Steffen; Dieckmann, Karin; Ernst, Iris; Ganswindt, Ute; Holy, Richard; Nestle, Ursula; Nevinny-Stickel, Meinhard; Semrau, Sabine; Sterzing, Florian; Wittig, Andrea; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Flentje, Michael

    2013-10-01

    To compare the linear-quadratic (LQ) and the LQ-L formalism (linear cell survival curve beyond a threshold dose dT) for modeling local tumor control probability (TCP) in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study is based on 395 patients from 13 German and Austrian centers treated with SBRT for stage I NSCLC. The median number of SBRT fractions was 3 (range 1-8) and median single fraction dose was 12.5 Gy (2.9-33 Gy); dose was prescribed to the median 65% PTV encompassing isodose (60-100%). Assuming an α/β-value of 10 Gy, we modeled TCP as a sigmoid-shaped function of the biologically effective dose (BED). Models were compared using maximum likelihood ratio tests as well as Bayes factors (BFs). There was strong evidence for a dose-response relationship in the total patient cohort (BFs>20), which was lacking in single-fraction SBRT (BFs<3). Using the PTV encompassing dose or maximum (isocentric) dose, our data indicated a LQ-L transition dose (dT) at 11 Gy (68% CI 8-14 Gy) or 22 Gy (14-42 Gy), respectively. However, the fit of the LQ-L models was not significantly better than a fit without the dT parameter (p=0.07, BF=2.1 and p=0.86, BF=0.8, respectively). Generally, isocentric doses resulted in much better dose-response relationships than PTV encompassing doses (BFs>20). Our data suggest accurate modeling of local tumor control in fractionated SBRT for stage I NSCLC with the traditional LQ formalism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deformable image registration for multimodal lung-cancer staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W.; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P. M.; Higgins, William E.

    2016-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) serve as major diagnostic imaging modalities in the lung-cancer staging process. Modern scanners provide co-registered whole-body PET/CT studies, collected while the patient breathes freely, and high-resolution chest CT scans, collected under a brief patient breath hold. Unfortunately, no method exists for registering a PET/CT study into the space of a high-resolution chest CT scan. If this could be done, vital diagnostic information offered by the PET/CT study could be brought seamlessly into the procedure plan used during live cancer-staging bronchoscopy. We propose a method for the deformable registration of whole-body PET/CT data into the space of a high-resolution chest CT study. We then demonstrate its potential for procedure planning and subsequent use in multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy.

  7. Short report: interim safety results for a phase II trial measuring the integration of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) plus surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (MISSILE-NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Palma, David A; Nguyen, Timothy K; Kwan, Keith; Gaede, Stewart; Landis, Mark; Malthaner, Richard; Fortin, Dalilah; Louie, Alexander V; Frechette, Eric; Rodrigues, George B; Yaremko, Brian; Yu, Edward; Dar, A Rashid; Lee, Ting-Yim; Gratton, Al; Warner, Andrew; Ward, Aaron; Inculet, Richard

    2017-01-27

    A phase II trial was launched to evaluate if neoadjuvant stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) before surgery improves oncologic outcomes in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report a mandated interim safety analysis for the first 10 patients who completed protocol treatment. Operable patients with biopsy-proven T1-2 N0 NSCLC were eligible. SABR was delivered using a risk-adapted fractionation (54Gy/3 fractions, 55/5 or 60/8). Surgical resection was planned 10 weeks later at a high-volume center (>200 lung cancer resections annually). Patients were imaged with dynamic positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans using 18 F-fludeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG-PET CT) and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT before SABR and again before surgery. Toxicity was recorded using CTCAE version 4.0. Twelve patients were enrolled between 09/2014 and 09/2015. Two did not undergo surgery, due to patient or surgeon preference; neither patient has developed toxicity or recurrence. For the 10 patients completing both treatments, median age was 70 (range: 54-76), 60% had T1 disease, and 60% had adenocarcinoma. Median FEV 1 was 73% predicted (range: 54-87%). Median time to surgery post-SABR was 10.1 weeks (range: 9.3-15.6 weeks). Surgery consisted of lobectomy (n = 8) or wedge resection (n = 2). Median follow-up post-SABR was 6.3 months. After combined treatment, the rate of acute grade 3-4 toxicity was 10%. There was no post-operative mortality at 90 days. The small sample size included herein precludes any definitive conclusions regarding overall toxicity rates until larger datasets are available. However, these data may inform others who are designing or conducting similar trials. NCT02136355 . Registered 8 May 2014.

  8. Endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics and PDT of early malignancies of lung and esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Chissov, Valery I.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Frank, George A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Gladunov, V. K.; Belous, T. A.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Smirnov, V. V.; Kozlov, Dmitrij N.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the results of fluorescence diagnostics and photodynamic therapy of early stage malignancies of lung (17 patients) and esophagus (8 patients) are presented. 13 patients had multiple primary tumors. As photosensitizers the new drugs Photoheme and Photosense were used. Complete remission was obtained in 92%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2,5 years.

  9. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located Early Stage or Isolated Parenchymal Recurrences of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: How to Fly in a “No Fly Zone”

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org; Li, Qiao-Qiao; Xu, Qing-Yong

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We extended our previous experience with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR; 50 Gy in 4 fractions) for centrally located non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); explored the use of 70 Gy in 10 fractions for cases in which dose-volume constraints could not be met with the previous regimen; and suggested modified dose-volume constraints. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based volumetric image-guided SABR was used for 100 patients with biopsy-proven, central T1-T2N0M0 (n=81) or isolated parenchymal recurrence of NSCLC (n=19). All disease was staged with positron emission tomography/CT; all tumors were within 2 cm of the bronchial tree, trachea, major vessels, esophagus, heart,more » pericardium, brachial plexus, or vertebral body. Endpoints were toxicity, overall survival (OS), local and regional control, and distant metastasis. Results: At a median follow-up time of 30.6 months, median OS time was 55.6 months, and the 3-year OS rate was 70.5%. Three-year cumulative actuarial local, regional, and distant control rates were 96.5%, 87.9%, and 77.2%, respectively. The most common toxicities were chest-wall pain (18% grade 1, 13% grade 2) and radiation pneumonitis (11% grade 2 and 1% grade 3). No patient experienced grade 4 or 5 toxicity. Among the 82 patients receiving 50 Gy in 4 fractions, multivariate analyses showed mean total lung dose >6 Gy, V{sub 20} >12%, or ipsilateral lung V{sub 30} >15% to independently predict radiation pneumonitis; and 3 of 9 patients with brachial plexus D{sub max} >35 Gy experienced brachial neuropathy versus none of 73 patients with brachial D{sub max} <35 Gy (P=.001). Other toxicities were analyzed and new dose-volume constraints are proposed. Conclusions: SABR for centrally located lesions produces clinical outcomes similar to those for peripheral lesions when normal tissue constraints are respected.« less

  10. Urinary Biomarkers at Early ADPKD Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Katja; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Spanaus, Katharina; Andreisek, Gustav; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Pavik, Ivana; Ho, Thien Anh; Serra, Andreas L.; Rotar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course. Methods ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), and Uromodulin (UMOD) were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16) was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR) was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results. Results In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2) the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found. Conclusion UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our

  11. Lung transplant in end-staged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Fahad; Penupolu, Sudheer; Xu, Xin; He, Jianxing

    2010-06-01

    Lung transplantation is commonly used for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, there is continuing debate on the optimal operation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis. Single-lung transplantation (SLT) provides equivalent short- and medium-term results compared with bilateral lung transplantation (BLT), but long-term survival appears slightly better in BLT recipients (especially in patients with COPD). The number of available organs for lung transplantation also influences the choice of operation. Recent developments suggest that the organ donor shortage is not as severe as previously thought, making BLT a possible alternative for more patients. Among the different complications, re-implantation edema, infection, rejection, and bronchial complications predominate. Chronic rejection, also called obliterative bronchiolitis syndrome, is a later complication which can be observed in about half of the patients. Improvement in graft survival depends greatly in improvement in prevention and management of complications. Despite such complications, graft survival in fibrosis patients is greater than spontaneous survival on the waiting list; idiopathic fibrosis is associated with the highest mortality on the waiting list. Patients should be referred early for the pre-transplantation work-up because individual prognosis is very difficult to predict.

  12. Lung transplant in end-staged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients: a concise review

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Fahad; Penupolu, Sudheer; Xu, Xin; He, Jianxing

    2010-01-01

    Lung transplantation is commonly used for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, there is continuing debate on the optimal operation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis. Single-lung transplantation (SLT) provides equivalent short- and medium-term results compared with bilateral lung transplantation (BLT), but long-term survival appears slightly better in BLT recipients (especially in patients with COPD). The number of available organs for lung transplantation also influences the choice of operation. Recent developments suggest that the organ donor shortage is not as severe as previously thought, making BLT a possible alternative for more patients. Among the different complications, re-implantation edema, infection, rejection, and bronchial complications predominate. Chronic rejection, also called obliterative bronchiolitis syndrome, is a later complication which can be observed in about half of the patients. Improvement in graft survival depends greatly in improvement in prevention and management of complications. Despite such complications, graft survival in fibrosis patients is greater than spontaneous survival on the waiting list; idiopathic fibrosis is associated with the highest mortality on the waiting list. Patients should be referred early for the pre-transplantation work-up because individual prognosis is very difficult to predict. PMID:22263028

  13. Nivolumab and Plinabulin in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB-IV, Recurrent, or Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-29

    ALK Gene Translocation; EGFR Activating Mutation; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; ROS1 Gene Translocation; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  14. Liquid biopsy for early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of complete recovery for a lung cancer patient depends on very early diagnosis, as it allows total surgical resection. Screening for this cancer in a high-risk population can be performed using a radiological approach, but this holds a certain number of limitations. Liquid biopsy could become an alternative and complementary screening approach to chest imaging for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Several circulating biomarkers indicative of lung cancer can be investigated in blood, such as circulating tumor cells, circulating free nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins. However, none of these biomarkers have yet been adopted in routine clinical practice and studies are ongoing to confirm or not the usefulness and practical interest in routine early diagnosis and screening for lung cancers. Several potential circulating biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer exist. When coupled to thoracic imaging, these biomarkers must give diagnosis of a totally resectable lung cancer and potentially provide new recommendations for surveillance by imagery of high-risk populations without a detectable nodule. Optimization of the specificity and sensitivity of the detection methods as well as standardization of the techniques is essential before considering for daily practice a liquid biopsy as an early diagnostic tool, or possibly as a predictive test, of lung cancer.

  15. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  16. Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  17. Virtual exploration of early stage atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Andy L; González Ballester, Miguel A; Noailly, Jérôme

    2016-12-15

    Biological mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. The early stage of atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized by the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) droplets, leading to the creation of foam cells (FC). To address the difficulty to explore the dynamics of interactions that controls this process, this study aimed to develop a model of agents and infer on the most influential cell- and molecule-related parameters. FC started to accumulate after six to eight months of simulated hypercholesterolemia. A sensitivity analysis revealed the strong influence of LDL oxidation rate on the risk of FC creation, which was exploited to model the antioxidant effect of statins. Combined with an empirical simulation of the drug ability to decrease the level of LDL, the virtual statins treatment led to reductions of oxidized LDL levels similar to reductions measured in vivo. An Open source software was used to develop the agent-based model of early AS. Two different concentrations of LDL agents were imposed in the intima layer to simulate healthy and hypercholesterolemia groups of 'virtual patients'. The interactions programmed between molecules and cells were based on experiments and models reported in the literature. A factorial sensitivity analysis explored the respective effects of the less documented model parameters as (i) agent migration speed, (ii) LDL oxidation rate and (iii) concentration of autoantibody agents. Finally, the response of the model to known perturbations was assessed by introducing statins agents, able to reduce the oxidation rate of LDL agents and the LDL boundary concentrations. jerome.noailly@upf.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. HER3 expression is enhanced during progression of lung adenocarcinoma without EGFR mutation from stage 0 to IA1.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Toru; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Nakatsuka, Shin-Ichi; Kimura, Madoka; Kunimasa, Kei; Inoue, Takako; Tamiya, Motohiro; Nishino, Kazumi; Susaki, Yoshiyuki; Kusu, Takashi; Tokunaga, Toshiteru; Okami, Jiro; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Imamura, Fumio

    2018-04-01

    Activating EGFR mutations, HER2, and HER3 are implicated in lung cancer; however, with the exception of EGFR gene amplification in lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations, their involvement in disease progression during the early stages is poorly understood. In this paper, we focused on which receptor is correlated with lung adenocarcinoma progression in the presence or absence of EGFR mutation from stage 0 to IA1. HER2 and HER3 expression and activating EGFR mutations in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma exhibiting ground glass nodules on chest computed tomography and re-classified to stage 0 and IA1 were examined by immunohistochemistry and peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid PCR clamp method, respectively. HER2 and HER3 expression was detected in 22.2% and 86.1% of samples, respectively. The frequency of EGFR mutation was 45.7% and was not significantly different between stage 0 and IA1 (40.0% and 48.0%, respectively), suggesting that EGFR mutation does not correlate with cancer progression from stage 0 to IA1. HER2 expression also did not correlate to progression. However, not only the frequency, but also the intensity of HER3 expression was increased in stage IA1 lung adenocarcinoma, particularly in lung adenocarcinoma without EGFR mutation. HER3 tends to be intensively expressed during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma without EGFR mutation from carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Osimertinib in Treating Participants With Stage I-IIIA EGFR-mutant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Before Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-27

    EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) Exon 19 Deletion Mutation; EGFR NP_005219.2:p.L858R; EGFR NP_005219.2:p.T790M; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) v7; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  20. Nivolumab, Cisplatin, and Pemetrexed Disodium or Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage I-IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-02

    Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. Veliparib With or Without Radiation Therapy, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Patients With Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-01

    Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma, Mixed Subtype; Minimally Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  2. Erlotinib Hydrochloride With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-01

    Adenosquamous Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Malignant Pericardial Effusion; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Minimally Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  3. Regulatory parameters of the lung immune response during the early phase of experimental trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Falduto, Guido H; Vila, Cecilia C; Saracino, María P; Gentilini, María V; Venturiello, Stella M

    2016-11-15

    Parasitic infection caused by Trichinella spiralis provokes an early stimulation of the mucosal immune system which causes an allergic inflammatory response in the lungs. The present work was intended to characterize the kinetics of emergence of regulatory parameters in Wistar rat lungs during this early inflammatory response, between days 0 and 13p.i. The presence of regulatory cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) was analyzed in lung cell suspensions. Moreover, a regulatory cytokine (TGF-β) was studied in lung tissue extracts. Considering that newborn larvae (NBL) travel along the pulmonary microvasculature, the ability of this parasite stage to modulate the activation of lung macrophages was evaluated. For this purpose, lung macrophages from non-infected or infected rats (day 6p.i.) were cultured with live or dead NBL. Arginase activity (characteristic of AAM) and nitric oxide (NO produced by iNOS, characteristic of classical activated macrophages) were measured after 48h. Our results revealed a significant increase in the percentage of Tregs on days 6 and 13p.i., arginase activity on day 13p.i. and TGF-β levels on days 6 and 13p.i. Lung macrophages from non-infected rats cultured with live NBL showed a significant increase in arginase activity and NO levels. Live and dead NBL induced a significant increase in arginase activity in lung macrophages from infected rats. Only live NBL significantly increased NO levels in these macrophages. The present work demonstrates for the first time, the emergence of regulatory parameters in the early lung immune response during T. spiralis infection. The immumodulatory properties exerted by NBL during its passage through this organ could be the cause of such regulation. Moreover, we have shown the ability of NBL to activate macrophages from the lung parenchyma by the classical and alternative pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Impairment of Lung Mechanics in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Juan J.; Meirelles, Thayna; Gorbenko del Blanco, Darya; Nonaka, Paula N.; Campillo, Noelia; Sarri, Elisabet; Navajas, Daniel; Egea, Gustavo; Farré, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Early morbidity and mortality in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) -a connective tissue disease caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 gene- are mainly caused by aorta aneurysm and rupture. However, the increase in the life expectancy of MFS patients recently achieved by reparatory surgery promotes clinical manifestations in other organs. Although some studies have reported respiratory alterations in MFS, our knowledge of how this connective tissue disease modifies lung mechanics is scarce. Hence, we assessed whether the stiffness of the whole lung and of its extracellular matrix (ECM) is affected in a well-characterized MFS mouse model (FBN1C1039G/+). The stiffness of the whole lung and of its ECM were measured by conventional mechanical ventilation and atomic force microscopy, respectively. We studied 5-week and 9-month old mice, whose ages are representative of early and late stages of the disease. At both ages, the lungs of MFS mice were significantly more compliant than in wild type (WT) mice. By contrast, no significant differences were found in local lung ECM stiffness. Moreover, histopathological lung evaluation showed a clear emphysematous-like pattern in MFS mice since alveolar space enlargement was significantly increased compared with WT mice. These data suggest that the mechanism explaining the increased lung compliance in MFS is not a direct consequence of reduced ECM stiffness, but an emphysema-like alteration in the 3D structural organization of the lung. Since lung alterations in MFS are almost fully manifested at an early age, it is suggested that respiratory monitoring could provide early biomarkers for diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with the Marfan syndrome. PMID:27003297

  5. EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-01

    SABR) for Early Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Billy W Loo Jr, MD PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Leland Stanford Junior University...Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Billy W Loo Jr, MD...for early stage lung cancer in patients who are not candidates for surgery because of excessive surgical risk, and will be an important treatment option

  6. EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy ( SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Billy W...CONTRACT NUMBER Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy ( SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0236 5c...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose and scope: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy ( SABR ) has become a new standard of care for early stage lung

  7. PET-Adjusted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-24

    Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Brain; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  8. Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-16

    Caregiver; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Defines Critical Prognostic Genes of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Masao; Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Saito, Ayumu; Ueno, Kazuko; Hatanaka, Yousuke; Yoshida, Ryo; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Masaharu; Beer, David G.; Yokota, Jun; Miyano, Satoru; Gotoh, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis who will benefit from adjuvant therapy. Patients and Methods Whole gene expression profiles were obtained at 19 time points over a 48-hour time course from human primary lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the presence or absence of a clinically used EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-specific inhibitor, gefitinib. The data were subjected to a mathematical simulation using the State Space Model (SSM). “Gefitinib-sensitive” genes, the expressional dynamics of which were altered by addition of gefitinib, were identified. A risk scoring model was constructed to classify high- or low-risk patients based on expression signatures of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes in lung cancer using a training data set of 253 lung adenocarcinomas of North American cohort. The predictive ability of the risk scoring model was examined in independent cohorts of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Results The risk scoring model enabled the identification of high-risk stage IA and IB cases in another North American cohort for overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.16 (P = 0.029) and 3.26 (P = 0.0072), respectively. It also enabled the identification of high-risk stage I cases without bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC) histology in a Japanese cohort for OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with HRs of 8.79 (P = 0.001) and 3.72 (P = 0.0049), respectively. Conclusion The set of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes includes many genes known to be involved in biological aspects of cancer phenotypes, but not known to be involved in EGF signaling. The present result strongly re-emphasizes that EGF signaling status in cancer cells underlies an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells, which is useful for the selection of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis. Trial Registration The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) GSE31210 PMID:23028479

  10. Detection of skeletal muscle metastases on initial staging of lung cancer: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Bocchino, Marialuisa; Valente, Tullio; Somma, Francesco; de Rosa, Ilaria; Bifulco, Marco; Rea, Gaetano

    2014-03-01

    Estimation of skeletal muscle metastases (SMMs) at the time of diagnosis and/or initial staging of lung cancer. Retrospective evaluation of clinical charts and imaging data suggestive of SMMs of patients with histology-proved lung cancer over a 5-year period. SMMs were identified in 46 out of 1,754 patients. Single and multiple (62.9% of cases) SMMs were detected by total body multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). They were associated with poorly differentiated (43%) and advanced adenocarcinomas (52%) without clinically relevant symptoms and/or signs. Psoas and buttock muscles were most frequently involved (33.3%). MDCT findings consisted of well-defined homogeneously hyperdense oval masses (31%), lesions with ring-like enhancement and central hypoattenuation (68%), or large abscess-like necrotic lesions (24%). Sonography revealed well-defined hypoechoic masses (41.6%), ill-defined hypoechoic lesions (33.3%), or anechoic areas with a necrotic centre (25%). Positron emission tomography revealed that all SMMs were metabolically active. SMMs are uncommon but not negligible in lung cancer, with an estimated prevalence of 2.62% in our series. Although histology remains the recommended method, use of high-performance imaging techniques and increased clinical suspicion may improve their early detection. Efforts addressing their effect on the natural history of lung cancer are needed.

  11. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: yevgeniy.vinogradskiy@ucdenver.edu; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assessmore » each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional avoidance

  12. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage I-IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-28

    Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  13. Potential application of non-small cell lung cancer-associated autoantibodies to early cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yibing; Fan, Yu; Wu, Jun; Wan, Haisu; Wang, Jing; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.; Girard, Luc; Gazdar, Adi F.; Wu, Zhihao; Zhou, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    To identify a panel of tumor associated autoantibodies which can potentially be used as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty-five unique and in-frame expressed phage proteins were isolated. Based on the gene expression profiling, four proteins were selected for further study. Both receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and leave-one-out method revealed that combined measurements of four antibodies produced have better predictive accuracies than any single marker alone. Leave-one-out validation also showed significant relevance with all stages of NSCLC patients. The panel of autoantibodies has a high potential for detecting early stage NSCLC. PMID:22713465

  14. Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy With or Without Metformin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-30

    Adenosquamous Lung Carcinoma; Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma; Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  15. The seventh tumour-node-metastasis staging system for lung cancer: Sequel or prequel?

    PubMed

    van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Janssens, Annelies

    2013-09-01

    , Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. The ten modifications and the mediastinal lymph-node map - which were proposed in 2007 and adopted by the AJCC and IUCC in their respective seventh revision of the TNM system - were implemented as of 2010 and were rapidly adopted by the thoracic oncology community and cancer registries. As expected, not all controversies could be fully addressed, and the need for a prospective data set containing more granular information was felt early on. This data set of 25,000 consecutive incident cases will form the base for the eighth revision in 2017 and is currently being collected. Other threats are the role of stage migration and the increasing number of biological factors interfering with disease extent for prognostication. The latter issue will be addressed by the creation of a prognostic index, including several prognostic factors, of which stage will be one. For the time being, the seventh TNM classification is considered the gold standard for the description of disease extent, initial treatment allocation and the reporting of treatment results. The uniform use of the TNM descriptors and the lymph-node map by all involved in lung cancer care is to be considered a process indicator of quality.

  16. Early detection of lung cancer from CT images: nodule segmentation and classification using deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manu; Bhatt, Jignesh S.; Joshi, Manjunath V.

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most abundant causes of the cancerous deaths worldwide. It has low survival rate mainly due to the late diagnosis. With the hardware advancements in computed tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to capture the high resolution images of lung region. However, it needs to be augmented by efficient algorithms to detect the lung cancer in the earlier stages using the acquired CT images. To this end, we propose a two-step algorithm for early detection of lung cancer. Given the CT image, we first extract the patch from the center location of the nodule and segment the lung nodule region. We propose to use Otsu method followed by morphological operations for the segmentation. This step enables accurate segmentation due to the use of data-driven threshold. Unlike other methods, we perform the segmentation without using the complete contour information of the nodule. In the second step, a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) is used for the better classification (malignant or benign) of the nodule present in the segmented patch. Accurate segmentation of even a tiny nodule followed by better classification using deep CNN enables the early detection of lung cancer. Experiments have been conducted using 6306 CT images of LIDC-IDRI database. We achieved the test accuracy of 84.13%, with the sensitivity and specificity of 91.69% and 73.16%, respectively, clearly outperforming the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  17. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Nano-Nose - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. P.; Venkatesh, S; Sudarshan, B. G

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the malignancies causing deaths worldwide. The yet to be developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques, are a challenge for early detection of cancer before it progresses to its later stages. The currently available diagnostic methods are expensive or invasive, and are not fit for general screening purposes. Early identification not only helps in detecting primary cancer, but also in treating its secondaries; which creates a need for easily applicable tests to screen individuals at risk. A detailed review of the various screening methods, including the latest trend of breath analysis using gold nanoparticles, to identify cancer at its early stage, are studied here. The VOC based breath biomarkers are used to analyze the exhaled breath of the patients. These biomarkers are utilized by Chemiresistors coated with gold nanoparticles, which are found to be the most suited technique for early detection of lung cancer. This technique is highly accurate and is relatively easy to operate and was tested on smokers and non-smokers. This review also gives as an outline of the fabrication and working of the device Na-Nose. The Chemiresistors coated with Gold nanoparticles, show a great potential in being an non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic technique for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:26628933

  18. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Nano-Nose - A Review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M P; Venkatesh, S; Sudarshan, B G

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the malignancies causing deaths worldwide. The yet to be developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques, are a challenge for early detection of cancer before it progresses to its later stages. The currently available diagnostic methods are expensive or invasive, and are not fit for general screening purposes. Early identification not only helps in detecting primary cancer, but also in treating its secondaries; which creates a need for easily applicable tests to screen individuals at risk. A detailed review of the various screening methods, including the latest trend of breath analysis using gold nanoparticles, to identify cancer at its early stage, are studied here. The VOC based breath biomarkers are used to analyze the exhaled breath of the patients. These biomarkers are utilized by Chemiresistors coated with gold nanoparticles, which are found to be the most suited technique for early detection of lung cancer. This technique is highly accurate and is relatively easy to operate and was tested on smokers and non-smokers. This review also gives as an outline of the fabrication and working of the device Na-Nose. The Chemiresistors coated with Gold nanoparticles, show a great potential in being an non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic technique for early detection of lung cancer.

  19. Nivolumab After Surgery and Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (An ALCHEMIST Treatment Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-28

    Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  20. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer: Influence of stage, treatment and comorbidity among Danish patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Susanne O; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik; Mellemgaard, Anders; Østerlind, Kell; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer

    2015-05-01

    To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid conditions and socioeconomic information (education, income and cohabitation status) from nationwide population-based registers. Associations between SEP and receipt of first-line treatment were analysed in multivariate logistic regression models and those with overall mortality in Cox regression models with stepwise inclusion of possible mediators. For both low- and high-stage lung cancer, adjusted ORs for first-line treatment were reduced in patients with short education and low income, although the OR for education did not reach statistical significance in men with high-stage disease. Patients with high-stage disease who lived alone were less likely to receive first-line treatment. The socioeconomic difference in overall survival was partly explained by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity, although some differences remained after adjustment. Among patients with high-stage disease, the hazard ratio (HR) for death of those with low income was 1.12 (95% CI 1.05-1.19) in comparison with those with high income. Among patients with low-stage disease, those who lived alone had a 14% higher risk for dying (95% CI 1.05-1.25) than those who lived with a partner. The differences in risk for death by SEP were greatest in the first six months after diagnosis. Socioeconomic differences in survival after lung cancer are partly explained by social inequality in stage, first-line treatment and comorbidity

  1. Methoxyamine, Pemetrexed Disodium, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-24

    Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage III Large Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Lung Adenocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Large Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Lung Adenocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Large Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Lung Adenocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Large Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Lung Adenocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  2. [An unexpected stage of alkalosis in the dynamics of the early posthemorrhagic period].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, A V

    2000-01-01

    A study was made on acid-base metabolism in early posthemorrhagic period as exemplified by examination of patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It has been ascertained that hemorrhage is accompanied by a mixed variant of the acid-base state (ABS) deviation, namely metabolic lactate-acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. In the time-related course of posthemorrhagic period such deviations persist in patients with lethal outcome; with the disease running a favourable course the above deviations are found to return to normal quite soon. The development of complications leads to staging in ABC, its stages being as follows: stage I--the initial stage, stage II--persisting metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis, stage III--alkalosis, stage IV--normalization, with stage III of ABS being encouraged by hypocapnia caused by function disorders of the lungs in early posthemorrhagic period, normalization of cell metabolism, increase in the rate of urination as a reflection of the third earlier identified stage of water metabolism, with the H+ excretion in the urine at the previous level. The identified ABS stage III threatens coming trouble, being accompanied by metabolic deviations together with a risk of function disorder of the myocardium.

  3. Comparative performances of staging systems for early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Hari; Mentha, Gilles; Marques, Hugo P; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Majno, Pietro; Aldrighetti, Luca; Pulitano, Carlo; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Russolillo, Nadia; Philosophe, Benjamin; Barroso, Eduardo; Ferrero, Alessandro; Schulick, Richard D; Choti, Michael A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2009-08-01

    Several staging systems for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been proposed, but studies of their prognostic accuracy have yielded conflicting conclusions. Stratifying patients with early HCC is of particular interest because these patients may derive the greatest benefit from intervention, yet no studies have evaluated the comparative performances of staging systems in patients with early HCC. A retrospective cohort study was performed using data on 379 patients who underwent liver resection or liver transplantation for HCC at six major hepatobiliary centres in the USA and Europe. The staging systems evaluated were: the Okuda staging system, the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) staging system, the Cancer of the Liver Italian Programme (CLIP) score, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, the Japanese Integrated Staging (JIS) score and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging system, 6th edition. A recently proposed early HCC prognostic score was also evaluated. The discriminative abilities of the staging systems were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models and the bootstrap-corrected concordance index (c). Overall survival of the cohort was 74% at 3 years and 52% at 5 years, with a median survival of 62 months. Most systems demonstrated poor discriminatory ability (P > 0.05 on Cox proportional hazards analysis, c approximately 0.5). However, the AJCC/UICC system clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c = 0.59), albeit only into two groups. The early HCC prognostic score also clearly stratified patients (P < 0.001, c = 0.60) and identified three distinct prognostic groups. The early HCC prognostic score is superior to the AJCC/UICC staging system (6th edition) for predicting the survival of patients with early HCC after liver resection or liver transplantation. Other major HCC staging systems perform poorly in patients with early HCC.

  4. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for

  5. Lived Experience among Patients Newly Diagnosed with Lung Adenocarcinoma Stage IV within One Year.

    PubMed

    Shih, Whei-Mei Jean; Hsu, Hsiu-Chin; Jiang, Ru-Shang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    lung cancer (LC) is the fifth of the 10 leading causes of death in the world. LC is in first place for cancer-related mortality for both males and females in Taiwan. It is one of the most difficult cancers to treat and is often diagnosed at a late stage. Patients with stage IV are often unprepared for the diagnosis. To explore lived experience among patients newly diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma stage IV within one year. Twelve participants were recruited in this study. Content analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: (1) emotional roller coaster, (2) trying to find out causes, (3) adjusting my lifestyle, and (4) cancer fighter. This study provides new insight into the experiences of lung cancer patients y with newly diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma stage 4. These results will inform future supportive care service development and intervention research for patients with advanced stage cancer.

  6. Image-Guided Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-12

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  7. Genetically Modified T Cells in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer or Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-07

    Advanced Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; HLA-A*0201 Positive Cells Present; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma AJCC v7; WT1 Positive

  8. Improving the Diagnostic Specificity of CT for Early Detection of Lung Cancer: 4D CT-Based Pulmonary Nodule Elastometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    2012, patients who received stereotactic ablative radiotherapy ( SABR ) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer were included in this study. All...comparing the elasticities of malignant PNs treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy ( SABR ) with those of the lung. Methods: We analyzed...breath-hold images of 30 patients with malignant PNs who underwent SABR in our department. A parametric nonrigid transformation model based on multi

  9. Development of an early-stage toll revenue estimation model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    With agencies and states increasingly considering tolls as a means to finance transportation infrastructure, : there is an increasing need to quickly assess the feasibility of potential tolling projects. In the early stages : of a project when an age...

  10. Characteristics of Early Stages of Corrosion Fatigue in Aircraft Skin

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-02-01

    SRI International is conducting research to characterize and quantitatively describe the early stages of corrosion fatigue in the fuselage skin of commercial aircraft. Specific objectives are to gain an improved deterministic understanding of the tra...

  11. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  12. A deep learning method for early screening of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Gao, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. In this paper, we propose a pulmonary nodule detection method for early screening of lung cancer based on the improved AlexNet model. In order to maintain the same image quality as the existing B/S architecture PACS system, we convert the original CT image into JPEG format image by analyzing the DICOM file firstly. Secondly, in view of the large size and complex background of CT chest images, we design the convolution neural network on basis of AlexNet model and sparse convolution structure. At last we train our models on the software named DIGITS which is provided by NVIDIA. The main contribution of this paper is to apply the convolutional neural network for the early screening of lung cancer and improve the screening accuracy by combining the AlexNet model with the sparse convolution structure. We make a series of experiments on the chest CT images using the proposed method, of which the sensitivity and specificity indicates that the method presented in this paper can effectively improve the accuracy of early screening of lung cancer and it has certain clinical significance at the same time.

  13. A Four Stage Approach to Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Julian S.

    This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…

  14. Differential diagnosis and cancer staging of a unique case with multiple nodules in the lung - lung adenocarcinoma, metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun; Qiu, Jianxing; Shang, Xueqian; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Yan; Li, Ting

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite this, there have been few cases of simultaneous primary and metastatic cancers in the lung reported, let alone coexisting with tumor-to-tumor metastasis. Herein, we describe an extremely unusual case. A 61-year-old man with a history of colon adenocarcinoma was revealed as having three nodules in the lung 11 months after colectomy. The nodule in the left upper lobe was primary lung adenocarcinoma, the larger one in the right upper lobe was a metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and the smaller one in the right upper lobe was colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma. Our paper focused on the differential diagnosis and cancer staging of this unique case, and discussed the uncommon phenomenon of the lung acting as a recipient in tumor-to-tumor metastasis.

  15. [Joint application of 7 interventional pulmonology methods in early diagnosis of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Jin, Fa-Guang; Li, Wang-Ping; Mu, De-Guang; Chu, Dong-Ling; Fu, En-Qing; Xie, Yong-Hong; Lu, Jing-Li; Sun, Ya-Ni

    2009-06-23

    with a positive rate of 35.3% (18/51), 52 cases by EBUS-TBNA with a positive rate of 77.6% (52/67), 12 cases by electronic thoracoscopic biopsy and brushing with a positive rate of 52.2% (12/23). The total positive diagnostic rate was 93.6% (437/467). And the diagnostic rate of < or = stage II lung cancer (3 cases carcinoma in situ, 84 stage I a, 63 stage Ib, 65 stage IIa and 44 stage IIb) was 82.7% (259/313). Joint application of these 7 interventional bronchoscopic techniques can significantly boost the rate of early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  16. [Cognitive rehabilitation in early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kasper, E; Thöne-Otto, A; Bürger, K; Schröder, S G; Hoffmann, W; Schneider, W; Teipel, S

    2016-07-01

    Dementia impairs the coping with routine daily tasks and social relationships due to an increasing degeneration of cognitive abilities. An appropriate treatment must adequately consider the effects of declined cognitive abilities on patients and their environment. Therefore, in recent times, integrative procedures for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) have become increasingly important for the therapy of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia (MD). CR approaches provide compensatory possibilities for clearly defined routine challenges and the individual needs of those affected. This overview article in the form of a selective review elaborates factors for the effectiveness of CR on the basis of the currently available literature: 1) individuality - consideration of personal needs and targets, 2) compensation - mediation of skills and strategies to compensate for cognitive impairments, 3) interaction - inclusion of relatives and environmental conditions and 4) integration - integration of various therapeutic disciplines and methods. On the basis of this assessment with regards to the content, a critical analysis of the methods of short and long-term therapeutic effects on MCD and MD was carried out. Although the resulting factors were of high long-term relevance for the improvement of depression and quality of life, effects on cognition were more pronounced for MCI than for MD, which emphasizes the importance of beginning therapy as early as possible. The results show that future studies on effectiveness must employ endpoints relevant for routine daily life, and that the possibility of an implementation of therapeutic concepts in a healthcare system should be considered as an essential criterion.

  17. SEOM clinical guidelines in early-stage breast cancer 2015.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Saenz, J A; Bermejo, B; Estevez, L G; Palomo, A G; Gonzalez-Farre, X; Margeli, M; Pernas, S; Servitja, S; Rodriguez, C A; Ciruelos, E

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem. Despite remarkable advances in early diagnosis and treatment, one in three women may have metastases since diagnosis. Better understanding of prognostic and predictive factors allows us to select the most appropriate adjuvant therapy in each patient. In these guidelines, we summarize current evidence for the medical management of early-stage breast cancer.

  18. Surgical treatment for apparent early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most experts would agree that the standard surgical treatment for endometrial cancer includes a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, the benefit of full surgical staging with lymph node dissection in patients with apparent early stage disease remains a topic of debate. Recent prospective data and advances in laparoscopic techniques have transformed this disease into one that can be successfully managed with minimally invasive surgery. This review will discuss the current surgical management of apparent early stage endometrial cancer and some of the new techniques that are being incorporated. PMID:24596812

  19. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  20. Lung-MAP: AZD4547 as Second-Line Therapy in Treating FGFR Positive Patients With Recurrent Stage IV Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-13

    FGFR1 Gene Amplification; FGFR1 Gene Mutation; FGFR2 Gene Amplification; FGFR2 Gene Mutation; FGFR3 Gene Amplification; FGFR3 Gene Mutation; Recurrent Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  1. Effectiveness of Implemented Interventions on Pathologic Nodal Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ray, Meredith A; Faris, Nicholas R; Smeltzer, Matthew P; Fehnel, Carrie; Houston-Harris, Cheryl; Levy, Paul; Wiggins, Lynn; Sachdev, Vishal; Robbins, Todd; Spencer, David; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U

    2018-03-10

    Accurate pathologic nodal staging improves early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer survival. In an ongoing implementation study, we measured the impact of a surgical lymph node specimen collection kit and a more thorough pathologic gross dissection method, on attainment of guideline-recommended pathologic nodal staging quality. We prospectively collected data on curative-intent non-small cell lung cancer resections from 2009-2016 from 11 hospitals in 4 contiguous Dartmouth Hospital Referral Regions. We categorized patients into 4 groups based on exposure to the two interventions in our staggered implementation study design. We used Chi-squared tests to examine the differences in demographic and disease characteristics and surgical quality criteria across implementation groups. Of 2,469 patients, 1,615 (65%) received neither intervention; 167 (7%) received only the pathology intervention; 264 (11%) received only the surgery intervention; 423 (17%) had both. Rates of non-examination of lymph nodes reduced sequentially in the order of no intervention, novel dissection, kit, and combined interventions, including non-examination of: any lymph nodes, hilar/intrapulmonary and mediastinal nodes (p<0.001 for all comparisons). The rates of attainment of National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Commission on Cancer, American Joint Committee on Cancer, and American College of Surgeons Oncology Group guidelines increased significantly in the same sequential order (p<0.001 for all comparisons). The combined effect of two interventions to improve pathologic lymph node examination has a greater effect on attainment of a range of surgical quality criteria than either intervention alone. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of early-life lung function in African infants

    PubMed Central

    Willemse, Lauren; Visagie, Ane; Czövek, Dorottya; Nduru, Polite; Vanker, Aneesa; Stein, Dan J; Koen, Nastassja; Sly, Peter D; Hantos, Zoltán; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J

    2017-01-01

    Background Low lung function in early life is associated with later respiratory illness. There is limited data on lung function in African infants despite a high prevalence of respiratory disease. Aim To assess the determinants of early lung function in African infants. Method Infants enrolled in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein child health study, had lung function measured at 6–10 weeks of age. Measurements, made with the infant breathing via a facemask during natural sleep, included tidal breathing, sulfur hexafluoride multiple breath washout and the forced oscillation technique. Information on antenatal and early postnatal exposures was collected using questionnaires and urine cotinine. Household benzene exposure was measured antenatally. Results Successful tests were obtained in 645/675 (95%) infants, median (IQR) age of 51 (46–58) days. Infant size, age and male gender were associated with larger tidal volume. Infants whose mothers smoked had lower tidal volumes (−1.6 mL (95% CI −3.0 to −0.1), p=0.04) and higher lung clearance index (0.1 turnovers (95% CI 0.01 to 0.3), p=0.03) compared with infants unexposed to tobacco smoke. Infants exposed to alcohol in utero or household benzene had lower time to peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory time ratios, 10% (95% CI −15.4% to −3.7%), p=0.002) and 3.0% (95% CI −5.2% to −0.7%, p=0.01) lower respectively compared with unexposed infants. HIV-exposed infants had higher tidal volumes (1.7 mL (95% CI 0.06 to 3.3) p=0.04) compared with infants whose mothers were HIV negative. Conclusion We identified several factors including infant size, sex, maternal smoking, maternal alcohol, maternal HIV and household benzene associated with altered early lung function, many of which are factors amenable to public health interventions. Long-term study of lung function and respiratory disease in these children is a priority to develop strategies to strengthen child health. PMID:27856821

  3. Symbolic rule-based classification of lung cancer stages from free-text pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anthony N; Lawley, Michael J; Hansen, David P; Bowman, Rayleen V; Clarke, Belinda E; Duhig, Edwina E; Colquist, Shoni

    2010-01-01

    To classify automatically lung tumor-node-metastases (TNM) cancer stages from free-text pathology reports using symbolic rule-based classification. By exploiting report substructure and the symbolic manipulation of systematized nomenclature of medicine-clinical terms (SNOMED CT) concepts in reports, statements in free text can be evaluated for relevance against factors relating to the staging guidelines. Post-coordinated SNOMED CT expressions based on templates were defined and populated by concepts in reports, and tested for subsumption by staging factors. The subsumption results were used to build logic according to the staging guidelines to calculate the TNM stage. The accuracy measure and confusion matrices were used to evaluate the TNM stages classified by the symbolic rule-based system. The system was evaluated against a database of multidisciplinary team staging decisions and a machine learning-based text classification system using support vector machines. Overall accuracy on a corpus of pathology reports for 718 lung cancer patients against a database of pathological TNM staging decisions were 72%, 78%, and 94% for T, N, and M staging, respectively. The system's performance was also comparable to support vector machine classification approaches. A system to classify lung TNM stages from free-text pathology reports was developed, and it was verified that the symbolic rule-based approach using SNOMED CT can be used for the extraction of key lung cancer characteristics from free-text reports. Future work will investigate the applicability of using the proposed methodology for extracting other cancer characteristics and types.

  4. A unique set of 6 circulating microRNAs for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Bjaanæs, Maria; LeBlanc, Marissa; Holm, Are M; Bolstad, Nils; Rubio, Luis; Peñalver, Juan Carlos; Cervera, José; Mojarrieta, Julia Cruz; López-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Helland, Åslaug

    2016-06-14

    Circulating microRNAs are promising biomarkers for diagnosis, predication and prognostication of diseases. Lung cancer is the cancer disease accountable for most cancer deaths, largely due to being diagnosed at late stages. Therefore, diagnosing lung cancer patients at an early stage is crucial for improving the outcome. The purpose of this study was to identify circulating microRNAs for detection of early stage lung cancer, capable of discriminating lung cancer patients from those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy volunteers. We identified 7 microRNAs separating lung cancer patients from controls. By using RT-qPCR, we validated 6 microRNAs (miR-429, miR-205, miR-200b, miR-203, miR-125b and miR-34b) with a significantly higher abundance in serum from NSCLC patients. Furthermore, the 6 miRNAs were validated in a different dataset, revealing an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 for stage I-IV and 0.88 for stage I/II. We profiled the expression of 754 unique microRNAs by TaqMan Low Density Arrays, and analyzed serum from 38 patients with NSCLC, 16 patients suffering from COPD and 16 healthy volunteers from Norway, to explore their potential as diagnostic biomarkers. For validation, we analyzed serum collected from high-risk individuals enrolled in the Valencia branch of the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program screening trial (n=107) in addition to 51 lung cancer patients. Considering the accessibility and stability of circulating miRNAs, these 6 microRNAs are promising biomarkers as a supplement in future screening studies.

  5. Evolution of cystic fibrosis lung function in the early years.

    PubMed

    Bush, Andrew; Sly, Peter D

    2015-11-01

    Most treatment of newborn screening-diagnosed cystic fibrosis is not evidence-based; there are very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, the advent of novel molecular therapies, which could be started at diagnosis, mandates performing RCTs in very young children. However, unless the natural history of early cystic fibrosis lung disease is known, RCTs are impossible. Here, we review the results of two large prospective cohorts of these infants - London Cystic Fibrosis Collaboration (LCFC) (London, UK) and Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST-CF) (Australia). Nutritional status remained excellent in both the cohorts. Both cohorts reported abnormal lung function aged at 3 months. AREST-CF, which previously reported rapidly declining preschool lung function, now report good conventional school-age spirometry. LCFC reported improvement between 3 months and 1 year, and stability in the second year. AREST-CF also reported a high prevalence of high resolution computed tomographic abnormalities related to free neutrophil elastase in bronchoalveolar lavage; LCFC reported high resolution computed tomographic changes at 1 year, which were too mild to be scored reproducibly. At least in the first 2 years of life, lung function is not a good end-point for RCTs; routine bronchoalveolar lavage and HRCT cannot be justified. Newborn screening has greatly improved outcomes, but we need better point-of-care biomarkers.

  6. Assessment of Lung Ultrasound B-Lines in Dogs with Different Stages of Chronic Valvular Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Vezzosi, T; Mannucci, T; Pistoresi, A; Toma, F; Tognetti, R; Zini, E; Domenech, O; Auriemma, E; Citi, S

    2017-05-01

    In dogs with chronic valvular heart disease (CVHD), early recognition of pulmonary edema (PE) is of paramount importance. Recent studies in dogs showed that lung ultrasound examination (LUS) is a useful technique to diagnose cardiogenic PE. To describe LUS features in dogs with different stages of CVHD, and to determine its diagnostic accuracy in detecting PE using thoracic radiography as the reference standard. Sixty-three dogs with CVHD. Prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study. Each dog underwent physical examination, echocardiography, thoracic radiography, and LUS. The LUS findings were classified as absent, rare, numerous, or confluent B-lines. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of LUS B-lines to identify PE were calculated using thoracic radiography as the reference standard. Dogs in stage B1 had absent or rare B-lines in 14 of 15 cases (93.3%). Dogs in stage B2 had absent or rare B-lines in 16 of 18 cases (88.9%). All dogs in stage C, without radiographic signs of PE, had absent or rare B-lines. Dogs in stage C, with radiographic signs of PE, had numerous or confluent B-lines in 18 of 20 cases (90%). Lung ultrasound examination detected PE with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 93%, and with positive and negative predictive values of 85.7 and 95.2%, respectively. Lung ultrasound examination showed good diagnostic accuracy to identify cardiogenic PE and might be helpful in staging dogs with CVHD. Lung ultrasound examination should be considered as a new, noninvasive diagnostic tool for clinicians managing CVHD in dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Gender-Age-Physiology Index Stage for Predicting Future Lung Function Decline.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Margaret L; Xia, Meng; Zhou, Yueren; Murray, Susan; Tayob, Nabihah; Brown, Kevin K; Wells, Athol U; Schmidt, Shelley L; Martinez, Fernando J; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease with variable course. The Gender-Age-Physiology (GAP) Index and staging system uses clinical variables to stage mortality risk. It is unknown whether clinical staging predicts future decline in pulmonary function. We assessed whether the GAP stage predicts future pulmonary function decline and whether interval pulmonary function change predicts mortality after accounting for stage. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (N = 657) were identified retrospectively at three tertiary referral centers, and baseline GAP stages were assessed. Mixed models were used to describe average trajectories of FVC and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether declines in pulmonary function ≥ 10% in 6 months predict mortality after accounting for GAP stage. Over a 2-year period, GAP stage was not associated with differences in yearly lung function decline. After accounting for stage, a 10% decrease in FVC or Dlco over 6 months independently predicted death or transplantation (FVC hazard ratio, 1.37; Dlco hazard ratio, 1.30; both, P ≤ .03). Patients with GAP stage 2 with declining pulmonary function experienced a survival profile similar to patients with GAP stage 3, with 1-year event-free survival of 59.3% (95% CI, 49.4-67.8) vs 56.9% (95% CI, 42.2-69.1). Baseline GAP stage predicted death or lung transplantation but not the rate of future pulmonary function decline. After accounting for GAP stage, a decline of ≥ 10% over 6 months independently predicted death or lung transplantation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pretreatment [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography Maximum Standardized Uptake Value as Predictor of Distant Metastasis in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy: Rethinking the Role of Positron Emission Tomography in Personalizing Treatment Based on Risk Status

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Vimoj J.; MacRae, Robert; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether the preradiation maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the primary tumor for [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has a prognostic significance in patients with Stage T1 or T2N0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative radiation therapy, whether conventional or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Between January 2007 and December 2011, a total of 163 patients (180 tumors) with medically inoperable histologically proven Stage T1 or T2N0 NSCLC and treated with radiation therapy (both conventional and SBRT) were entered in a research ethics boardmore » approved database. All patients received pretreatment FDG-PET / computed tomography (CT) at 1 institution with consistent acquisition technique. The medical records and radiologic images of these patients were analyzed. Results: The overall survival at 2 years and 3 years for the whole group was 76% and 67%, respectively. The mean and median SUV{sub max} were 8.1 and 7, respectively. Progression-free survival at 2 years with SUV{sub max} <7 was better than that of the patients with tumor SUV{sub max} ≥7 (67% vs 51%; P=.0096). Tumors with SUV{sub max} ≥7 were associated with a worse regional recurrence-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival. In the multivariate analysis, SUV{sub max} ≥7 was an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free survival. Conclusion: In early-stage NSCLC managed with radiation alone, patients with SUV{sub max} ≥7 on FDG-PET / CT scan have poorer outcomes and high risk of progression, possibly because of aggressive biology. There is a potential role for adjuvant therapies for these high-risk patients with intent to improve outcomes.« less

  9. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials.

  10. A Comparison of FLT to FDG PET/CT in the Early Assessment of Chemotherapy Response in Stage IB-IIIA Resectable NSCLC

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-27

    Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. Genetic Testing in Screening Patients With Stage IB-IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Has Been or Will Be Removed by Surgery (The ALCHEMIST Screening Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-29

    Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIA Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  12. Clinical outcome of fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In-Hye; Jung, Jinhong; Cho, Byungchul; Kwak, Jungwon; Je, Hyoung Uk; Choi, Wonsik; Jung, Nuri Hyun; Kim, Su Ssan; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the treatment results in early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients who have undergone fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS). Materials and Methods From June 2011 to November 2013, 58 patients underwent CKRS at Asan Medical Center for stage I lung cancer. After excluding 14 patients, we retrospectively reviewed the records of the remaining 44 patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 21. Results The median age at diagnosis was 75 years. Most patients had inoperable primary lung cancer with a poor pulmonary function test with comorbidity or old age. The clinical stage was IA in 30 patients (68.2%), IB in 14 (31.8%). The mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range, 1.2 to 4.8 cm), and the tumor was smaller than 2 cm in 12 patients (27.3%). The radiation dose given was 48-60 Gy in 3-4 fractions. In a median follow-up of 23.1 months, local recurrence occurred in three patients (2-year local recurrence-free survival rate, 90.4%) and distant metastasis occurred in 13 patients. All patients tolerated the radiosurgery well, only two patients developing grade 3 dyspnea. The most common complications were radiation-induced fibrosis and pneumonitis. Eight patients died due to cancer progression. Conclusion The results showed that fiducial-less CKRS shows comparable local tumor control and survival rates to those of LINAC-based SABR or CKRS with a fiducial marker. Thus, fiducial-less CKRS using Xsight lung tracking system can be effectively and safely performed for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer without any risk of procedure-related complication. PMID:26157678

  13. The Quality of Staging Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Netherlands: Data From the Dutch Lung Surgery Audit.

    PubMed

    Heineman, David Jonathan; Ten Berge, Martijn Geert; Daniels, Johannes Marlene; Versteegh, Michaël Ignatius; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla Jacqueline; Wouters, Michael Wilhelmus; Schreurs, Wilhelmina Hendrika

    2016-11-01

    Clinical staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) determines the initial treatment offered to a patient. The similarity between clinical and pathologic staging in some studies is as low as 50%, and others publish results as high as 91%. The Dutch Lung Surgery Audit is a clinical database that registers the clinical and pathologic TNM of almost all NSCLC patients who undergo operations in the Netherlands. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of clinical staging of NSCLC. Prospective data were derived from the Dutch Lung Surgery Audit in 2013 and 2014. Patients were included if they had undergone a surgical resection for stage IA to IIIB NSCLC without neoadjuvant treatment and had a positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan as part of the clinical workup. Clinical (c)TNM and pathologic (p)TNM were compared, and whether discrepancy was based on tumor or nodal staging was determined. From 2,834 patients identified, 2,336 (82.4%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had complete data. Of these 2,336, 1,276 (54.6%) were staged accurately, 707 (30.3%) were clinically understaged, and 353 (15.1%) were clinically overstaged. In the understaged group, 346 patients had a higher pN stage (14.8%), of which 148 patients had unforeseen N2 disease (6.3%). In the overstaged group, 133 patients had a cN that was higher than the pN (5.7%). Accuracy of NSCLC staging in the Netherlands is low (54.6%), even in the era of positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Especially accurate nodal staging remains challenging. Future efforts should include the identification of specific pitfalls in NSCLC staging. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Circulating Tumor DNA in Predicting Outcomes in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer or Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-12

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  15. Stereotactic radiotherapy for early lung cancer: Evidence-based approach and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Chehade, Samer; Palma, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To review key studies evaluating stereotactic radiotherapy in the setting of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for inoperable or high-risk patients, and discuss areas of ongoing research and clinical trials. Background The use of stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has increased rapidly over the past decade. Numerous studies have reported outcomes for patients treated with SBRT who are unfit for surgical resection, or at high risk of surgical complications. Materials and methods A narrative review. Results The preponderance of evidence suggests that SBRT is associated with excellent local control (∼90% at 3 years) and a favorable toxicity profile. In patients with higher operative risks, such as the elderly and patients with severe COPD, SBRT may provide a less-toxic treatment than surgery with similar oncologic outcomes. Ongoing studies are evaluating the use of SBRT for locally advanced or oligometastatic NSCLC. Conclusions A large body of evidence now exists to support the use of SBRT for early-stage NSCLC. Decisions regarding the optimal choice of treatment should be individualized, and made in the context of a multidisciplinary team. PMID:26696779

  16. Early lung retrieval from traumatic brain-dead donors does not compromise outcomes following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Paula; Alvarez, Antonio; Illana, Jennifer; Espinosa, Dionisio; Baamonde, Carlos; Cerezo, Francisco; Algar, Francisco Javier; Salvatierra, Angel

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether lung retrieval from traumatic donors performed within 24 h of brain death has a negative impact on early graft function and survival after lung transplantation (LT), when compared with those retrieved after 24 h. Review of lung transplants performed from traumatic donors over a 17-year period. Recipients were distributed into two groups: transplants from traumatic donor lungs retrieved within 24 h of brain death (Group A), and transplants from traumatic donor lungs retrieved after 24 h of brain death (Group B). Demographic data of donors and recipients, early graft function, perioperative complications and mortality were compared between both groups. Among 356 lung transplants performed at our institution, 132 were from traumatic donors (70% male, 30% female). Group A: 73 (55%); Group B: 59 (45%). There were 53 single, 77 double, and 2 combined LT. Indications were emphysema in 41 (31%), pulmonary fibrosis in 31 (23%), cystic fibrosis in 38 (29%), bronchiectasis in 9 (7%) and other indications in 13 patients (10%). Donor and recipient demographic data, need or cardiopulmonary bypass, postoperative complications and Intensive Care Unit and hospital stay did not differ between groups. Primary graft dysfunction (A vs B): 9 (16%) vs 13 (26%) P = 0.17. PaO2/FiO2 24 h post-transplant (A vs B): 303 mmHg vs 288 mmHg (P = 0.57). Number of acute rejection episodes (A vs B): 0.93 vs 1.49 (P = 0.01). Postoperative intubation time (A vs B): 99 vs 100 h (P = 0.99). 30-day mortality (A vs B): 7 (10%) vs 2 (3.5%) (P = 0.13). Freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (A vs B): 82, 72, 37, 22 vs 78, 68, 42, 15%, at 3, 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively (P = 0.889). Survival (A vs B): 65, 54, 46, 42 and 27 vs 60, 50, 45, 43 and 29% at 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 years, respectively (P = 0.937). In our experience, early lung retrieval after brain death from traumatic donors does not adversely affect early and long-term outcomes after LT.

  17. Unraveling Mixed Hydrate Formation: Microscopic Insights into Early Stage Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kyle Wm; Zhang, Zhengcai; Kusalik, Peter G

    2016-12-29

    The molecular-level details of mixed hydrate nucleation remain unclear despite the broad implications of this process for a variety of scientific domains. Through analysis of mixed hydrate nucleation in a prototypical CH 4 /H 2 S/H 2 O system, we demonstrate that high-level kinetic similarities between mixed hydrate systems and corresponding pure hydrate systems are not a reliable basis for estimating the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Moreover, we show that solution compositions prior to and during nucleation are not necessarily effective proxies for the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Rather, microscopic details, (e.g., guest-host interactions and previously neglected cage types) apparently play key roles in determining early stage behavior of mixed hydrates. This work thus provides key foundational concepts and insights for understanding mixed hydrate nucleation.

  18. Spiritual Diversity and Living with Early-Stage Dementia.

    PubMed

    McGee, Jocelyn Shealy; Zhao, Holly Carlson; Myers, Dennis R; Seela Eaton, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Attention to spiritual diversity is necessary for the provision of culturally informed clinical care for people with early-stage dementia and their family members. In this article, an evidence-based theoretical framework for conceptualizing spiritual diversity is described in detail (Pargament, 2011). The framework is then applied to two clinical case studies of people living with early-stage dementia to elucidate the multilayered components of spiritual diversity in this population. The case studies were selected from a larger mixed-methods study on spirituality, positive psychological factors, health, and well-being in people living with early-stage dementia and their family members. To our knowledge this is the first systematic attempt to apply a theoretical framework for understanding spiritual diversity in this population. Implications for clinical practice are provided.

  19. WE-G-BRD-06: Variation in Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia in Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kelada, O; Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg; Decker, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia is correlated with treatment failure. To date, there are no published studies investigating hypoxia in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing SBRT. We aim to use 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to non-invasively quantify the tumor hypoxic volume (HV), to elucidate potential roles of reoxygenation and tumor vascular response at high doses, and to identify an optimal prognostic imaging time-point. Methods: SBRT-eligible patients with NSCLC tumors >1cm were prospectively enrolled in an IRB-approved study. Computed Tomography and dynamic PET images (0–120min, 150–180min, and 210–240min post-injection) were acquired using a Siemens BiographmCT PET/CT scanner. 18F-FMISOmore » PET was performed on a single patient at 3 different time points around a single SBRT delivery of 18 Gy and HVs were compared using a tumor-to-blood ratio (TBR)>1.2 and rate of influx (Ki)>0.0015 (Patlak). Results: Results from our first patient showed substantial temporal changes in HV following SBRT. Using a TBR threshold >1.2 and summed images 210–240min, the HVs were 19%, 31% and 13% of total tumor volume on day 0, 2 (48 hours post-SBRT), and 4 (96 hours post-SBRT). The absolute volume of hypoxia increased by nearly a factor of 2 after 18 Gy and then decreased almost to baseline 96 hours later. Selected imaging timepoints resulted in temporal changes in HV quantification obtained with TBR. Ki, calculated using 4-hour dynamic data, evaluated HVs as 22%, 75% and 21%, respectively. Conclusions: ith the results of only one patient, this novel pilot study highlights the potential benefit of 18F-FMISO PET imaging as results indicate substantial temporal changes in tumor HV post-SBRT. Analysis suggests that TBR is not a robust parameter for accurate HV quantification and heavily influenced by imaging timepoint selection. Kinetic modeling parameters are more sensitive and may aid in future treatment

  20. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dosemore » was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer.« less

  1. Screening and staging for non-small cell lung cancer by serum laser Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Shaohong; Wan, Limei; Sun, Hong; Tan, Jie; Su, Qiucheng

    2018-08-05

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current clinical screening methods to detect lung cancer are expensive and associated with many complications. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that offers a convenient method to gain molecular information about biological samples. In this study, we measured the serum Raman spectral intensity of healthy volunteers and patients with different stages of non-small cell lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of serum laser Raman spectroscopy as a low cost alternative method in the screening and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Raman spectra of the sera of peripheral venous blood were measured with a LabRAM HR 800 confocal Micro Raman spectrometer for individuals from five groups including 14 healthy volunteers (control group), 23 patients with stage I NSCLC (stage I group), 24 patients with stage II NSCLC (stage II group), 19 patients with stage III NSCLC (stage III group), 11 patients with stage IV NSCLC (stage IV group). Each serum sample was measured 3 times at different spots and the average spectra represented the signal of Raman spectra in each case. The Raman spectrum signal data of the five groups were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and cross-validation. Raman spectral intensity was sequentially reduced in serum samples from control group, stage I group, stage II group and stage III/IV group. The strongest peak intensity was observed in the control group, and the weakest one was found in the stage III/IV group at bands of 848 cm -1 , 999 cm -1 , 1152 cm -1 , 1446 cm -1 and 1658 cm -1 (P < 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis showed that the sensitivity to identify healthy people, stage I, stage II, and stage III/IV NSCLC was 86%, 65%, 75%, and 87%, respectively; the specificity was 95%, 94%, 88%, and 93%, respectively; and

  2. Stage I lung cancer survivorship: risk of second malignancies and need for individualized care plan.

    PubMed

    Surapaneni, Rakesh; Singh, Priya; Rajagopalan, Kumar; Hageboutros, Alexandre

    2012-08-01

    Survivors of stage I lung cancer are at increased risk of subsequent malignancies. Specific data on risk of subsequent malignancies are underreported in the literature. We studied the incidence of stage I lung cancer and the incidence of all second malignancies in survivors. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 9 database were analyzed to calculate the incidence of stage I lung cancer and subsequent malignancies from 1998 to 2007. The risk of subsequent malignancies is reported as a standardized incidence ratio (observed incidence [O]/expected incidence [E]). The incidence rate of stage I lung cancer increased slowly from 1988 (8, confidence interval [CI]: 7.6-8.4) to 2003 (9.2, CI: 8.9-9.6) and more rapidly from 2003 to 2007 (11.2, CI: 10.8-11.7). The risk of developing a second lung cancer is highest in the first year with the O/E at 6.78 (CI: 6.29-7.31) and continues to be high at 10 years (O/E 4.12; CI: 4.44-4.80). Laryngeal cancer has the highest incidence in the first year (O/E 9.78; CI: 7.51-12.51) and continues to be high at 10 years (O/E 3.55; CI: 1.77-6.34). For gastrointestinal cancers, there is increased risk of colon (O/E 1.33; CI: 1.22-1.44), esophagus (O/E 2.29; CI: 1.85-2.89), and stomach (O/E 1.43; CI: 1.15-1.75) cancers. The increased risk of bladder cancer (O/E 1.83; CI: 1.65-2.03) remains high even at 10 years after the diagnosis of stage I lung cancer. There is increasing incidence of stage I lung cancer. Survivors of stage I are at increased risk of certain second malignancies.

  3. Minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy for pediatric early stage congenital cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chul Ho; Jung, Eun Kyung; Sung, Chung Man; Kim, Seung Beom; Kim, Young Yoon; Seong, Jong Yuap; Kang, Sung Hoon; Cho, Yong Beom

    2016-11-01

    Recently, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), which is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma (CC) in children, was introduced. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short-term surgical results of MITM in pediatric early stage CC. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 24 patients who underwent MITM between January 2013 and October 2015. The patients' ages ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 2.6 years). There were 17 male and 7 female patients. The right side (n = 13) was affected twice as often as the left side (n = 11). The most common site was the anterosuperior quadrant (15 cases). The diameter of the CC on axial computed tomography images ranged from 2.8 to 5.7 mm (mean, 3.9 mm). CCs were graded according to Potsic's system: 18 cases were classified as stage I, 3 case as stage II, and 3 cases as stage III. AllCCs except 1 were closed type. In21 patients, the tympanic membrane closed naturally without recurrence. Three patients showed small persistent dry perforation. Natural closure occurred in these patients, who were treated with paper patches. MITM is a simple, effective technique for removing an early stage CC from the middle ear, and it can minimize operative time, length of hospitalization, and postoperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential DNA hypermethylation of critical genes mediates the stage-specific tobacco smoke-induced neoplastic progression of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Russo, Andrea L; Thiagalingam, Arunthathi; Pan, Hongjie; Califano, Joseph; Cheng, Kuang-hung; Ponte, Jose F; Chinnappan, Dharmaraj; Nemani, Pratima; Sidransky, David; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2005-04-01

    Promoter DNA methylation status of six genes in samples derived from 27 bronchial epithelial cells and matching blood samples from 22 former/current smokers and five nonsmokers as well as 49 primary non-small cell lung cancer samples with corresponding blood controls was determined using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Lung tumor tissues showed a significantly higher frequency of promoter DNA methylation in p16, MGMT, and DAPK (P < 0.05; Fisher's exact test). p16 promoter DNA methylation in tumors was observed at consistently higher levels when compared with all the other samples analyzed (P = 0.001; Fisher's exact test). ECAD and DAPK exhibited statistically insignificant differences in their levels of DNA methylation among the tumors and bronchial epithelial cells from the smokers. Interestingly, similar levels of methylation were observed in bronchial epithelial cells and corresponding blood from smokers for all four genes (ECAD, p16, MGMT, and DAPK) that showed smoking/lung cancer-associated methylation changes. In summary, our data suggest that targeted DNA methylation silencing of ECAD and DAPK occurs in the early stages and that of p16 and MGMT in the later stages of lung cancer progression. We also provide preliminary evidence that peripheral lymphocytes could potentially be used as a surrogate for bronchial epithelial cells to detect altered DNA methylation in smokers.

  5. The impact of coexisting lung diseases on outcomes in patients with pathological Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hiroyuki; Onoda, Hideko; Okabe, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Tsuneo

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known cause of interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary emphysema and lung cancer. Coexisting pulmonary disease can affect prognosis in patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of pulmonary disease on outcomes in patients with a smoking history who had undergone surgery for pathological Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Medical records of 257 patients with a smoking history who underwent surgery for pathological Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer between June 2009 and December 2014 were reviewed. Coexisting ILDs were evaluated using high-resolution computed tomography. The degree of pulmonary emphysema was determined using image analysis software according to the Goddard classification. The impact of clinicopathological factors on outcome was evaluated. Among the 257 patients, ILDs were detected via high-resolution computed tomography in 60 (23.3%) patients; of these, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) patterns and non-UIP patterns were seen in 25 (9.7%) and 35 (13.6%) patients, respectively. The degree of pulmonary emphysema was classified as none, mild and moderate and included 50 (19.5%), 162 (63.0%) and 45 (17.5%) patients, respectively. The 5-year overall survival, cancer-specific survival and relapse-free survival were 80.7%, 88.0% and 74.9%, respectively, during a median follow-up period of 50.5 months. In multivariate analysis, the presence of a UIP pattern was shown to be an independent risk factor for poor outcome. The presence of a UIP-pattern ILD on high-resolution computed tomography images was shown to be a risk factor for poor outcome in patients with a smoking history who had undergone surgery for pathological Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer.

  6. Lung-MAP: Talazoparib in Treating Patients With HRRD Positive Recurrent Stage IV Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-31

    ATM Gene Mutation; ATR Gene Mutation; BARD1 Gene Mutation; BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; BRIP1 Gene Mutation; CHEK1 Gene Mutation; CHEK2 Gene Mutation; FANCA Gene Mutation; FANCC Gene Mutation; FANCD2 Gene Mutation; FANCF Gene Mutation; FANCM Gene Mutation; NBN Gene Mutation; PALB2 Gene Mutation; RAD51 Gene Mutation; RAD51B Gene Mutation; RAD54L Gene Mutation; Recurrent Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; RPA1 Gene Mutation; Stage IV Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  7. Chronological shifts and changing causes of death after radiotherapy for early-stage oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Rina; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Harata, Naoki; Yuasa-Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Hayashi, Keiji

    2014-02-01

    Following recent improvements in the curability of oral cancer, chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after treatment have been observed. We conducted a review of the post-treatment causes of death following radiotherapy for oral cancers. The medical records of 966 patients with early-stage (stage I and II) oral cancer treated at our institute between 1980 and 2001 were reviewed, and the chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after radiotherapy were assessed. Of the 966 patients enrolled in this study, 365 have died to date. Two hundred and eleven patients died of their primary malignancy; 193 of these deaths occurred within 5 years of treatment for the primary oral cancer. The second most frequent cause of death was second primary cancer (n = 90). Twenty-three patients with head and neck cancers and 18 patients with esophageal cancers died within 10 years of radiotherapy, and six patients with lung cancers died after more than 10 years. Within the first 5 years following treatment, the major cause of death was the primary oral cancer. After 5-10 years, a second primary cancer, such as head and neck cancer or esophageal cancer, became the leading cause of death. Over a 10-year period, the proportion of deaths from a second primary cancer in the lung was significant. We have demonstrated that there are chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death following treatment for early-stage oral cancer.

  8. Participant selection for lung cancer screening by risk modelling (the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer [PanCan] study): a single-arm, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tammemagi, Martin C; Schmidt, Heidi; Martel, Simon; McWilliams, Annette; Goffin, John R; Johnston, Michael R; Nicholas, Garth; Tremblay, Alain; Bhatia, Rick; Liu, Geoffrey; Soghrati, Kam; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Hwang, David M; Laberge, Francis; Gingras, Michel; Pasian, Sergio; Couture, Christian; Mayo, John R; Nasute Fauerbach, Paola V; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Peacock, Stuart J; Cressman, Sonya; Ionescu, Diana; English, John C; Finley, Richard J; Yee, John; Puksa, Serge; Stewart, Lori; Tsai, Scott; Haider, Ehsan; Boylan, Colm; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Manos, Daria; Xu, Zhaolin; Goss, Glenwood D; Seely, Jean M; Amjadi, Kayvan; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Burrowes, Paul; MacEachern, Paul; Urbanski, Stefan; Sin, Don D; Tan, Wan C; Leighl, Natasha B; Shepherd, Frances A; Evans, William K; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Lam, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    ): one diagnosed between T0 and T1, and nine between T1 and T4. Cumulative incidence was significantly higher than that observed in NLST (4·0%; p<0·0001). Compared with 593 (57%) of 1040 lung cancers observed in NLST, 133 (77%) of 172 lung cancers in the PanCan Study were early stage (I or II; p<0·0001). The PanCan model was effective in identifying individuals who were subsequently diagnosed with early, potentially curable, lung cancer. The incidence of cancers detected and the proportion of early stage cancers in the screened population was higher than observed in previous studies. This approach should be considered for adoption in lung cancer screening programmes. Terry Fox Research Institute and Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of a three-miRNA signature as a blood-borne diagnostic marker for early diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xujie; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Xinwei; Su, Yanjun; Wang, Changli; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao

    2016-01-01

    Background The subtypes of NSCLC have unique characteristics of pathogenic mechanism and responses to targeted therapies. Thus, non-invasive markers for diagnosis of different subtypes of NSCLC at early stage are needed. Results Based on the results from the screening and validation process, 3 miRNAs (miR-532, miR-628-3p and miR-425-3p) were found to display significantly different expression levels in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma, as compared to those in healthy controls. ROC analysis showed that the miRNA–based biomarker could distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from healthy controls with high AUC (0.974), sensitivity (91.5%), and specificity (97.8%). Importantly, these three miRNAs could also distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from lung benigh diseases and other subtypes of lung cancer. Methods Two hundreds and one early-stage lung adenocarcinoma cases and one hundreds seventy eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited to this study. We screened the differentially expressed plasma miRNAs using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) followed by three-phase qRT-PCR validation. A risk score model was established to evaluate the diagnostic value of the plasma miRNA profiling system. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest that the 3 miRNA–based biomarker might serve as a novel non-invasive approach for diagnosis of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27036025

  10. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after themore » same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a

  11. Creb1 regulates late stage mammalian lung development via respiratory epithelial and mesenchymal-independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Antony, N.; McDougall, A. R.; Mantamadiotis, T.; Cole, T. J.; Bird, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    During mammalian lung development, the morphological transition from respiratory tree branching morphogenesis to a predominantly saccular architecture, capable of air-breathing at birth, is dependent on physical forces as well as molecular signaling by a range of transcription factors including the cAMP response element binding protein 1 (Creb1). Creb1−/− mutant mice exhibit complete neonatal lethality consistent with a lack of lung maturation beyond the branching phase. To further define its role in the developing mouse lung, we deleted Creb1 separately in the respiratory epithelium and mesenchyme. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of a morphological lung defect nor compromised neonatal survival in either conditional Creb1 mutant. Interestingly however, loss of mesenchymal Creb1 on a genetic background lacking the related Crem protein showed normal lung development but poor neonatal survival. To investigate the underlying requirement for Creb1 for normal lung development, Creb1−/− mice were re-examined for defects in both respiratory muscles and glucocorticoid hormone signaling, which are also required for late stage lung maturation. However, these systems appeared normal in Creb1−/− mice. Together our results suggest that the requirement of Creb1 for normal mammalian lung morphogenesis is not dependent upon its expression in lung epithelium or mesenchyme, nor its role in musculoskeletal development. PMID:27150575

  12. Relationship between primary lesion metabolic parameters and clinical stage in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, I; Atasever, T; Akdemir, U O; Ozturk, C; Memis, L

    2013-01-01

    The relation of PET-derived parameters as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) with clinical stage in lung cancer and correlation of SUVmax of primary tumor and that of metastatic lesion was studied in lung cancer patients. Patients with lung cancer who were referred for FDG PET/CT were included in the study. PET/CT scans and pathology reports of 168 patients were assessed. A total of 146 (86.9%) of these patients had a diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 22 (13.1%) had small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Metabolic parameters such as SUVmax, TLG and MTV showed significant differences in all the stages in NSCLC patients (p<0.001). However, after tumors sizes <25 mm were excluded, no significant differences in SUVmax between stages were observed. No significant differences were found between these metabolic parameters and limited or extended disease SCLC. Tumor diameter correlated with primary tumor SUVmax and significant correlations between primary lesion SUVmax and metastatic lesion SUVmax were found. Although differences were found regarding indices between stages of NSCLC cases, SUVmax differences between stages seem to be caused by underestimation of SUVmax in small lesions. Other glucose metabolism indexes such as MTV and TLG show promising results in terms of prognostic stratification. Future studies are needed for better understanding of their contribution to clinical cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  14. Early stages of the evolution of life: a cybernetic approach.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Seleznev, Vladimir D

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  15. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  16. Signatures of unfolding in the early stages of protein denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.

    2012-04-01

    A comparative study of the early stages of unfolding of five proteins: cyt c, c-b 562, cyt c‧, azurin, and lysozyme is reported. From crystallographic data, helical regions and intervening non-helical (or 'turning') regions are identified in each. Exploiting a previously introduced geometrical model, the paper describes quantitatively the stepwise extension of a polypeptide chain subject to the geometrical constraint that the spatial relationship among the residues of each triplet is fixed by native-state crystallographic data. Despite differences among the above-cited proteins, remarkable universality of behavior is found in the early stages of unfolding. At the very earliest stages, internal residues in each helical region have a common unfolding history; the terminal residues, however, are extraordinarily sensitive to structural perturbations. Residues in non-helical sections of the polypeptide unfold after residues in the internal helical regions, but with increasing steric perturbation playing a dominant role in advancing denaturation.

  17. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Peripheral Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Baba, Masayuki

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan (NIRS) has the highest number of patients with lung cancer treated with carbon ion beams in the world. This report describes the techniques and clinical trials that have been undertaken at NIRS and preliminary results of a current study on single-fraction irradiation. The data are compared to recent results for the treatment of peripheral stage I lung cancer from the literature.

  18. Lung cancer treatment costs, including patient responsibility, by disease stage and treatment modality, 1992 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Lauren E; Romanus, Dorothy; Earle, Craig C; Neville, Bridget A; Halpern, Elkan F; Gazelle, G Scott; McMahon, Pamela M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate costs for lung cancer care and evaluate trends in the share of treatment costs that are the responsibility of Medicare beneficiaries. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data from 1991-2003 for 60,231 patients with lung cancer were used to estimate monthly and patient-liability costs for clinical phases of lung cancer (prediagnosis, staging, initial, continuing, and terminal), stratified by treatment, stage, and non-small- versus small-cell lung cancer. Lung cancer-attributable costs were estimated by subtracting each patient's own prediagnosis costs. Costs were estimated as the sum of Medicare reimbursements (payments from Medicare to the service provider), co-insurance reimbursements, and patient-liability costs (deductibles and "co-payments" that are the patient's responsibility). Costs and patient-liability costs were fit with regression models to compare trends by calendar year, adjusting for age at diagnosis. The monthly treatment costs for a 72-year-old patient, diagnosed with lung cancer in 2000, in the first 6 months ranged from $2687 (no active treatment) to $9360 (chemo-radiotherapy); costs varied by stage at diagnosis and histologic type. Patient liability represented up to 21.6% of care costs and increased over the period 1992-2003 for most stage and treatment categories, even when care costs decreased or remained unchanged. The greatest monthly patient liability was incurred by chemo-radiotherapy patients, which ranged from $1617 to $2004 per month across cancer stages. Costs for lung cancer care are substantial, and Medicare is paying a smaller proportion of the total cost over time. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to thosemore » for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.« less

  20. Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Has Been Completely Removed by Surgery (An ALCHEMIST Treatment Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-29

    ALK Gene Rearrangement; EGFR Exon 19 Deletion Mutation; EGFR NP_005219.2:p.L858R; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  1. Surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy for elderly stage I lung cancer? A propensity score matching analysis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takuro; Yamazaki, Takuya; Nakamura, Daisuke; Sato, Shuntaro; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Kamohara, Ryotaro; Hatachi, Go; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of surgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for elderly clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Patients ≥80 years of age with clinical stage I NSCLC between August 2008 and December 2014 were treated either surgery or SBRT. Propensity score matching was performed to reduce bias in various clinicopathological factors. Surgery was performed in 57 cases and SBRT in 41 cases. In the surgery group, the operations included 34 lobectomies and 23 sublobar resections. In the SBRT group, 27 cases were given 48 Gy in 4 fractions, and 14 were given 60 Gy in 10 fractions. Similar characteristics were identified in age (82 years), gender (male:female ratio 2:1), tumor size (2.2 cm), carcinoembryonic antigen (3.6 ng/ml), Charlson comorbidity index (1), Glasgow prognostic scale (0), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (1.7 L) after matching. Before matching, the 5-year overall survival (OS) in surgery (68.3%) was significantly better than that in SBRT (47.4%, p = 0.02), and the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) (94.1%, 78.2%, p = 0.17) was not significantly different between the groups. The difference in the 5-year OS became non-significant between the matched pairs (57.0%, 49.1%, p = 0.56). The outcomes of surgery and SBRT for elderly patients with the early stage NSCLC were roughly the same.

  2. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage... Webinars regarding its proposed Early Stage Small Business Investment Companies (Early Stage SBIC) rule. The proposed Early Stage SBIC rule defines a new sub-category of small business investment companies...

  3. Prognostic importance of pleural attachment status measured by pretreatment CT images in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma: measurement of the ratio of the interface between nodule and neighboring pleura to nodule surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Kusumoto, M.; Ohmatsu, H.; Aokage, K.; Ishii, G.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2018-02-01

    Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) has led to increased recognition of small lung cancers and is expected to increase the rate of detection of early-stage lung cancer. Major concerns in the implementation of the CT screening of large populations include determining the appropriate management of pulmonary nodules found on a scan. The identification of patients with early-stage lung cancer who have a higher risk for relapse and who require more aggressive surveillance has been a target of intense investigation. This study was performed to investigate whether image features of internal intensity in combination with surrounding structure characteristics are associated with an increased risk of relapse in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. We focused on pleural attachment status which is one of morphological characteristics associated with prognosis in three-dimensional thoracic CT images.

  4. “Sentinel” Circulating Tumor Cells Allow Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Marius; Hofman, Véronique; Long-Mira, Elodie; Selva, Eric; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Padovani, Bernard; Mouroux, Jérôme; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Hofman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for lung cancer. Migration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the blood stream is an early event that occurs during carcinogenesis. We aimed to examine the presence of CTCs in complement to CT-scan in COPD patients without clinically detectable lung cancer as a first step to identify a new marker for early lung cancer diagnosis. The presence of CTCs was examined by an ISET filtration-enrichment technique, for 245 subjects without cancer, including 168 (68.6%) COPD patients, and 77 subjects without COPD (31.4%), including 42 control smokers and 35 non-smoking healthy individuals. CTCs were identified by cytomorphological analysis and characterized by studying their expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. COPD patients were monitored annually by low-dose spiral CT. CTCs were detected in 3% of COPD patients (5 out of 168 patients). The annual surveillance of the CTC-positive COPD patients by CT-scan screening detected lung nodules 1 to 4 years after CTC detection, leading to prompt surgical resection and histopathological diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer. Follow-up of the 5 patients by CT-scan and ISET 12 month after surgery showed no tumor recurrence. CTCs detected in COPD patients had a heterogeneous expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers, which was similar to the corresponding lung tumor phenotype. No CTCs were detected in control smoking and non-smoking healthy individuals. CTCs can be detected in patients with COPD without clinically detectable lung cancer. Monitoring “sentinel” CTC-positive COPD patients may allow early diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:25360587

  5. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: data elements for the prospective project.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Dorothy J; Rami-Porta, Ramón; Chansky, Kari; Crowley, John J; Groome, Patti A; Postmus, Pieter E; Rusch, Valerie; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Shepherd, Frances A; Sobin, Leslie; Goldstraw, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Retrospective Staging Project culminated in a series of recommendations to the International Union Against Cancer and to the American Joint Committee on Cancer regarding the seventh edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer. The International Staging Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer now issues this call for participation in the Prospective Project designed to assess the validity of each component of T, N, and M, and other factors relevant to lung cancer staging and prognosis. In the Retrospective Project, the original data acquisition was typically motivated by interests other than staging. In contrast, the Prospective Project offers online data entry. Alternatively, participants may transfer existing data, provided core objectives are addressed. Cancer Research and Biostatistics will coordinate data management and analysis. The study population is newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Data elements include patient characteristics, baseline laboratory values, first-line treatment, TNM plus supporting evidence, and survival. Pretreatment TNM will be collected for all cases; postsurgical TNM, if resection is attempted. T descriptors include size and degree of tumor extension, with further description of extent of visceral pleural invasion, venous invasion, carcinomatous lymphangitis, and pleural lavage cytology. M descriptors characterize the newly proposed M1a category and sites of distant metastases. Nodal station involvement is described by means of a newly proposed nodal map, facilitating international participation, and allowing further investigation of nodal zones. Successful collection and analysis of these data can be expected to yield unprecedented improvements in the utility and validity of lung cancer staging.

  6. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change.

    PubMed

    Wang, M-L; Wu, Z-E; Du, Q-G; Petsonk, E L; Peng, K-L; Li, Y-D; Li, S-K; Han, G-H; Atffield, M D

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the early pattern of longitudinal change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) among new Chinese coal miners, and the relation between coal mine dust exposure and the decline of lung function. The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in FEV1 over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the groupxtime interaction terms. FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  7. Folding of Polymer Chains in Early Stage of Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shichen; Miyoshi, Toshikazu

    Understanding the structural formation of long polymer chains in the early stage of crystallization is one of the long-standing problems in polymer science. Using solid state NMR, we investigated chain trajectory of isotactic polypropylene in the mesomorphic nano-domains formed via rapid and deep quenching. Comparison of experimental and simulated 13C-13C Double Quantum (DQ) buildup curves demonstrated that instead of random re-entry models and solidification models, individual chains in the mesomorphic form iPP adopt adjacent reentry sequences with an average folding number of = 3-4 (assuming an adjacent re-entry fraction of of 100%) during mesomorphic formation process via nucleation and growth in the early stage. This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant DMR-1105829 and 1408855) and startup funds from the UA.

  8. The 7th lung cancer TNM classification and staging system: Review of the changes and implications.

    PubMed

    Mirsadraee, Saeed; Oswal, Dilip; Alizadeh, Yalda; Caulo, Andrea; van Beek, Edwin

    2012-04-28

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in males, accounting for more than 1.4 million deaths in 2008. It is a growing concern in China, Asia and Africa as well. Accurate staging of the disease is an important part of the management as it provides estimation of patient's prognosis and identifies treatment sterategies. It also helps to build a database for future staging projects. A major revision of lung cancer staging has been announced with effect from January 2010. The new classification is based on a larger surgical and non-surgical cohort of patients, and thus more accurate in terms of outcome prediction compared to the previous classification. There are several original papers regarding this new classification which give comprehensive description of the methodology, the changes in the staging and the statistical analysis. This overview is a simplified description of the changes in the new classification and their potential impact on patients' treatment and prognosis.

  9. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: A Renewed Call to Participation.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Dorothy J; Van Schil, Paul; Asamura, Hisao; Rami-Porta, Ramón; Chansky, Kari; Crowley, John J; Rusch, Valerie W; Kernstine, Kemp

    2018-06-01

    Over the past two decades, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging Project has been a steady source of evidence-based recommendations for the TNM classification for lung cancer published by the Union for International Cancer Control and the American Joint Committee on Cancer. The Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee of the IASLC is now issuing a call for participation in the next phase of the project, which is designed to inform the ninth edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. Following the case recruitment model for the eighth edition database, volunteer site participants are asked to submit data on patients whose lung cancer was diagnosed between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2019, to the project by means of a secure, electronic data capture system provided by Cancer Research And Biostatistics in Seattle, Washington. Alternatively, participants may transfer existing data sets. The continued success of the IASLC Staging Project in achieving its objectives will depend on the extent of international participation, the degree to which cases are entered directly into the electronic data capture system, and how closely externally submitted cases conform to the data elements for the project. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dyslipidogenic microangiopathy in guinea pigs at early stages of atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bersenev, A V; Klimenko, E D; Kobozeva, L P; Michunskaya, A B; Onishchenko, N A; Pozdnyakov, O M

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of dyslipidemia on lipid metabolism, state of microcirculatory system, and morphological alterations in the aorta and liver of guinea pigs at the early stages of experimental atherogenesis. The important role of microcirculatory disorders in the development of regional pathology and atherosclerosis is confirmed. The proposed alimentary model can be used in the development of novel methods for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  11. Trametinib, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-23

    KRAS Activating Mutation; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  12. Multimodal imaging findings in 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS.

    PubMed

    Cahuzac, Armelle; Wolff, Benjamin; Mathis, Thibaud; Errera, Marie-Hélène; Sahel, José-Alain; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine

    2017-10-01

    To describe a new stage of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), occurring at a very early phase of the disease. Retrospective analysis of clinical, angiographic and tomographic findings in four patients with 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS. In four patients seen within 1 week of the onset of symptoms, fundus analysis revealed macular granity and the classic yellow-white dots, some having no corresponding hyperautofluorescent pattern. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed central foveal disruption of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation layer with a hyper-reflective dome-shaped lesion. In two patients, fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed an intermediate hypofluorescent perimacular halo, whereas late indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) showed a hyperfluorescent halo as well as the classic MEWDS features. After a few days, the EZ disruption appeared complete on OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in all patients. Visual acuity, OCT and FAF findings had fully recovered within 3 months. We have shown a new feature of MEWDS on FAF, OCT, FA and ICGA, corresponding to a very early stage of the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Nivolumab, Cabozantinib S-Malate, and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-28

    c-MET Gene Amplification; MET Exon 14 Mutation; Metastatic Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; RET/PTC Rearrangement; ROS1 Gene Rearrangement; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  14. Multi-stage learning for robust lung segmentation in challenging CT volumes.

    PubMed

    Sofka, Michal; Wetzl, Jens; Birkbeck, Neil; Zhang, Jingdan; Kohlberger, Timo; Kaftan, Jens; Declerck, Jérôme; Zhou, S Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Simple algorithms for segmenting healthy lung parenchyma in CT are unable to deal with high density tissue common in pulmonary diseases. To overcome this problem, we propose a multi-stage learning-based approach that combines anatomical information to predict an initialization of a statistical shape model of the lungs. The initialization first detects the carina of the trachea, and uses this to detect a set of automatically selected stable landmarks on regions near the lung (e.g., ribs, spine). These landmarks are used to align the shape model, which is then refined through boundary detection to obtain fine-grained segmentation. Robustness is obtained through hierarchical use of discriminative classifiers that are trained on a range of manually annotated data of diseased and healthy lungs. We demonstrate fast detection (35s per volume on average) and segmentation of 2 mm accuracy on challenging data.

  15. HOXB2 as a novel prognostic indicator for stage I lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Inamura, Kentauro; Togashi, Yuki; Okui, Michiyo; Ninomiya, Hironori; Hiramatsu, Miyako; Satoh, Yukitoshi; Okumura, Sakae; Nakagawa, Ken; Shimoji, Takashi; Noda, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2007-09-01

    Outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinomas can be predicted to some extent from the pathologic stage (p-stage). Although all attempts are made to fully remove cancer lesions, still a number of p-stage I patients without metastatic disease at the time of surgery develop recurrences and die of cancer. It is thus very important to identify p-stage I patients who are at risk of recurrence. Previously, using microdissected samples, we identified metastasis-related genes. Using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis, we investigated the transcriptional levels of the top metastasis-related genes using 96 independent test lung adenocarcinoma samples and investigated their correlations with the prognosis. We document evidence that p-stage I patients with HOXB2 up-regulation have a worse prognosis than those with HOXB2 down-regulation (p = 0.0065), whereas the HOXB2 status has no prognostic significance for p-stage II-IV patients. Comparing tumors and corresponding normal lung tissue, we confirmed HOXB2 up-regulated lesions to have much higher HOXB2 expression than the corresponding normal tissue. Confirmation with a larger number of samples is needed, with further research to clarify the molecular functions of HOXB2.

  16. Effectiveness of local therapy for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer in nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Brian N; Thomas, Daniel C; Rosen, Joshua E; Salazar, Michelle C; Detterbeck, Frank C; Blasberg, Justin D; Boffa, Daniel J; Kim, Anthony W

    2017-09-01

    Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer is potentially curable, yet older patients undergo treatment at lower rates than younger patients. This analysis sought to describe the treatment outcomes of nonagenarians with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer to better guide treatment decisions in this population. The National Cancer DataBase was queried for patients age ≥90 years old with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (tumors ≤4 cm). Patients were divided into 3 groups: local therapy, other therapy, or no treatment. The primary outcomes were 5-year overall and relative survival. Of the 616 patients identified, 33% (202) were treated with local therapy, 34% (207) were treated with other therapy, and 34% (207) underwent no treatment. Compared with local therapy, overall mortality was significantly higher with no treatment (hazard ratio 2.50, 95% confidence interval, 1.95-3.21) and other therapy (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.83). The 5-year relative survival was 81% for local therapy, 49% for other therapy, and 32% for no treatment (P < .0001). Nonagenarians managed with local therapy for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (tumors ≤4 cm) have better overall survival than those receiving other therapy or no treatment and should be considered for treatment with either operation or stereotactic body radiation therapy if able to tolerate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Feasibility and efficacy of salvage lung resection after definitive chemoradiation therapy for Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Kenji; Okada, Morihito; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Saji, Hisashi; Takamochi, Kazuya; Kudo, Yujin; Hattori, Aritoshi; Mimae, Takahiro; Aokage, Keiju; Nishii, Teppei; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2016-12-01

    For highly selected patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who relapse or have residual disease after definitive chemoradiotherapy, salvage lung resection is likely to be one of the options for local control and possible better prognosis. However, the long-term benefit has not been verified. We conducted a retrospective study on salvage surgery on a multicentre basis. Patients included in this study met the following criteria: (i) prior treatment of lung cancer with curative-intent radiotherapy (≥60 Gy); (ii) no a priori plans for induction multimodality therapy; (iii) confirmation of loco-regional recurrence or persistent tumour in the irradiated area; (iv) pretherapeutic pathological results of NSCLC and (v) Stage III disease prior to chemoradiotherapy. A total of 18 patients were eligible for evaluation (Stage IIIA/IIIB, 14/4). The prior median radiation therapy dose was 60 Gy (60-74 Gy), and the median time between the last day of radiotherapy and resection was 38 weeks. The indications for surgery were primary tumour regrowth (10 patients) or tumour persistence (8 patients). Surgical procedures included lobectomy in 13 patients and pneumonectomy in 5 patients. Postoperative complications occurred in 5 patients (28%) without perioperative death. Complete resection was shown in 16 patients (89%) and a complete pathological response in 5 patients (28%). The median follow-up time was 1405 days, and the 3-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates were 78 and 72%, respectively. In the highly selected Stage III NSCLC after curative-intent chemoradiation therapy, salvage surgery was safely performed and contributed to satisfactory long-term survival. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Tiotropium in Early-Stage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumin; Zhong, Nan-Shan; Li, Xiaochen; Chen, Shuyun; Zheng, Jinping; Zhao, Dongxing; Yao, Weimin; Zhi, Rongchang; Wei, Liping; He, Bingwen; Zhang, Xiangyan; Yang, Changli; Li, Ying; Li, Fenglei; Du, Juan; Gui, Jianping; Hu, Bin; Bai, Chunxue; Huang, Ping; Chen, Gang; Xu, Yongjian; Wang, Changzheng; Liang, Biao; Li, Yinhuan; Hu, Guoping; Tan, Hui; Ye, Xianwei; Ma, Xitao; Chen, Yan; Hu, Xiwei; Tian, Jia; Zhu, Xiaodan; Shi, Zhe; Du, Xiufang; Li, Minjing; Liu, Shengming; Yu, Ronghuan; Zhao, Jianping; Ma, Qianli; Xie, Canmao; Li, Xiongbin; Chen, Tao; Lin, Yingxiang; Zeng, Lizhen; Ye, Changxiu; Ye, Weishu; Luo, Xiangwen; Zeng, Lingshan; Yu, Shuqing; Guan, Wei-Jie; Ran, Pixin

    2017-09-07

    Patients with mild or moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rarely receive medications, because they have few symptoms. We hypothesized that long-term use of tiotropium would improve lung function and ameliorate the decline in lung function in patients with mild or moderate COPD. In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that was conducted in China, we randomly assigned 841 patients with COPD of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 1 (mild) or 2 (moderate) severity to receive a once-daily inhaled dose (18 μg) of tiotropium (419 patients) or matching placebo (422) for 2 years. The primary end point was the between-group difference in the change from baseline to 24 months in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) before bronchodilator use. Secondary end points included the between-group difference in the change from baseline to 24 months in the FEV 1 after bronchodilator use and the between-group difference in the annual decline in the FEV 1 before and after bronchodilator use from day 30 to month 24. Of 841 patients who underwent randomization, 388 patients in the tiotropium group and 383 in the placebo group were included in the full analysis set. The FEV 1 in patients who received tiotropium was higher than in those who received placebo throughout the trial (ranges of mean differences, 127 to 169 ml before bronchodilator use and 71 to 133 ml after bronchodilator use; P<0.001 for all comparisons). There was no significant amelioration of the mean (±SE) annual decline in the FEV 1 before bronchodilator use: the decline was 38±6 ml per year in the tiotropium group and 53±6 ml per year in the placebo group (difference, 15 ml per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1 to 31; P=0.06). In contrast, the annual decline in the FEV 1 after bronchodilator use was significantly less in the tiotropium group than in the placebo group (29±5 ml per year vs. 51±6 ml per year; difference, 22

  19. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  20. The role of impaired esophageal and gastric motility in end-stage lung diseases and after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fisichella, Piero Marco; Jalilvand, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Today, many questions persist regarding the causal relationship of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) to promote aspiration and its potential to induce both pulmonary and allograft failure. Current hypotheses, which have identified GERD as a nonimmune risk factor in inducing pulmonary and allograft failure, center on the role of GERD-induced aspiration of gastroduodenal contents. Risk factors of GERD, such as impaired esophageal and gastric motility, may indirectly play a role in the aspiration process. In fact, although impaired esophageal and gastric motility is not independently a cause of lung deterioration or allograft failure, they may cause and or exacerbate GERD. This report seeks to review present research on impaired esophageal and gastric motility in end-stage lung disease to characterize prevalence, etiology, pathophysiology, and current treatment options within this special patient population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E; Neimat, Joseph S; Molinari, Anna L; Tramontana, Michael G; Finder, Stuart G; Gill, Chandler E; Bliton, Mark J; Kao, Chris; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M; Cannard, Kevin R; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50-75, on medication ≥6 months but ≤4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n = 15) or DBS + ODT (n = 15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. Medication requirements in the DBS + ODT group were lower at all time points with a maximal difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS + ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation therapy in early-stage invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ray; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar

    2011-06-01

    The treatment of breast cancer involves a multi-disciplinary approach with radiation therapy playing a key role. Breast-conserving surgery has been an option for women with early-stage breast cancer for over two decades now. Multiple randomized trials now have demonstrated the efficacy of breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy. With the advancements in breast imaging and the successful campaign for early detection of breast cancer, more women today are found to have early-stage small breast cancers. Patient factors (breast size, tumor location, history of prior radiation therapy, preexisting conditions such as collagen vascular disease, age, having prosthetically augmented breasts), pathological factors (margin status, tumor size, presence of extensive intraductal component requiring multiple surgical excisions), as well as patient preference are all taken into consideration prior to surgical management of breast cancer. Whole-breast fractionated radiation therapy between 5 and 7 weeks is considered as the standard of care treatment following breast-conserving surgery. However, new radiation treatment strategies have been developed in recent years to provide alternatives to the conventional 5-7 week whole-breast radiation therapy for some patients. Accelerated partial breast radiation therapy (APBI) was introduced because the frequency of breast recurrences outside of the surgical cavity has been shown to be low. This technique allows treatments to be delivered quicker (usually 1 week, twice daily) to a limited volume. Often times, this treatment involves the use of a brachytherapy applicator to be placed into the surgical cavity following breast-conserving surgery. Accelerated hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation may be another faster way to deliver radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery. This journal article reviews the role of radiation therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer addressing patient selection in breast

  3. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. Methods From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. Results A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Conclusion Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group. PMID:25142621

  4. Early palliative care in advanced lung cancer: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Yoong, Jaclyn; Park, Elyse R; Greer, Joseph A; Jackson, Vicki A; Gallagher, Emily R; Pirl, William F; Back, Anthony L; Temel, Jennifer S

    2013-02-25

    BACKGROUND Early ambulatory palliative care (PC) is an emerging practice, and its key elements have not been defined. We conducted a qualitative analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial that demonstrated improved quality of life, mood, and survival in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who received early PC integrated with standard oncologic care vs standard oncologic care alone. Our objectives were to (1) identify key elements of early PC clinic visits, (2) explore the timing of key elements, and (3) compare the content of PC and oncologic visit notes at the critical time points of clinical deterioration and radiographic disease progression. METHODS We randomly selected 20 patients who received early PC and survived within 4 periods: less than 3 months (n = 5), 3 to 6 months (n = 5), 6 to 12 months (n = 5), and 12 to 24 months (n = 5). We performed content analysis on PC and oncologic visit notes from the electronic health records of these patients. RESULTS Addressing symptoms and coping were the most prevalent components of the PC clinic visits. Initial visits focused on building relationships and rapport with patients and their families and on illness understanding, including prognostic awareness. Discussions about resuscitation preferences and hospice predominantly occurred during later visits. Comparing PC and oncologic care visits around critical time points, both included discussions about symptoms and illness status; however, PC visits emphasized psychosocial elements, such as coping, whereas oncologic care visits focused on cancer treatment and management of medical complications. CONCLUSIONS Early PC clinic visits emphasize managing symptoms, strengthening coping, and cultivating illness understanding and prognostic awareness in a responsive and time-sensitive model. During critical clinical time points, PC and oncologic care visits have distinct features that suggest a key role for PC involvement and enable

  5. Is uniportal thoracoscopic surgery a feasible approach for advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Fieira, Eva; Delgado, Maria; Mendez, Lucía; Fernandez, Ricardo; de la Torre, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy for advanced lung cancer is a feasible and safe surgery in experienced centers. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of uniportal VATS approach in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and compare the perioperative outcomes and survival with those in early-stage tumors operated through the uniportal approach. Methods From June 2010 to December 2012, we performed 163 uniportal VATS major pulmonary resections. Only NSCLC cases were included in this study (130 cases). Patients were divided into two groups: (A) early stage and (B) advanced cases (>5 cm, T3 or T4, or tumors requiring neoadjuvant treatment). A descriptive and retrospective study was performed, comparing perioperative outcomes and survival obtained in both groups. A survival analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test was used to compare survival between patients with early and advanced stages. Results A total of 130 cases were included in the study: 87 (A) vs. 43 (B) patients (conversion rate 1.1 vs. 6.5%, P=0.119). Mean global age was 64.9 years and 73.8% were men. The patient demographic data was similar in both groups. Upper lobectomies (A, 52 vs. B, 21 patients) and anatomic segmentectomies (A, 4 vs. B, 0) were more frequent in group A while pneumonectomy was more frequent in B (A, 1 vs. B, 6 patients). Surgical time was longer (144.9±41.3 vs. 183.2±48.9, P<0.001), and median number of lymph nodes (14 vs. 16, P=0.004) were statistically higher in advanced cases. Median number of nodal stations (5 vs. 5, P=0.165), days of chest tube (2 vs. 2, P=0.098), HOS (3 vs. 3, P=0.072), and rate of complications (17.2% vs. 14%, P=0.075) were similar in both groups. One patient died on the 58th postoperative day. The 30-month survival rate was 90% for the early stage group and 74% for advanced cases Conclusions Uniportal VATS lobectomy for advanced cases of NSCLC is a safe and

  6. In Vivo Dark-Field Radiography for Early Diagnosis and Staging of Pulmonary Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Hellbach, Katharina; Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Conlon, Thomas M; Bech, Martin; Mueller, Mark; Velroyen, Astrid; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of in vivo x-ray dark-field radiography for early-stage diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze how the dark-field signal correlates with morphological changes of lung architecture at distinct stages of emphysema. Female 8- to 10-week-old C57Bl/6N mice were used throughout all experiments. Pulmonary emphysema was induced by orotracheal injection of porcine pancreatic elastase (80-U/kg body weight) (n = 30). Control mice (n = 11) received orotracheal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. To monitor the temporal patterns of emphysema development over time, the mice were imaged 7, 14, or 21 days after the application of elastase or phosphate-buffered saline. X-ray transmission and dark-field images were acquired with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner. In vivo pulmonary function tests were performed before killing the animals. In addition, lungs were obtained for detailed histopathological analysis, including mean cord length (MCL) quantification as a parameter for the assessment of emphysema. Three blinded readers, all of them experienced radiologists and familiar with dark-field imaging, were asked to grade the severity of emphysema for both dark-field and transmission images. Histopathology and MCL quantification confirmed the introduction of different stages of emphysema, which could be clearly visualized and differentiated on the dark-field radiograms, whereas early stages were not detected on transmission images. The correlation between MCL and dark-field signal intensities (r = 0.85) was significantly higher than the correlation between MCL and transmission signal intensities (r = 0.37). The readers' visual ratings for dark-field images correlated significantly better with MCL (r = 0.85) than visual ratings for transmission images (r = 0.36). Interreader agreement and the diagnostic accuracy of both quantitative and visual assessment were significantly higher

  7. Increased AAA-TOB3 correlates with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Bu, Lina; Li, Wei; Wu, Wei; Wang, Shengyu; Diao, Xin; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Guoan; Yang, Shuanying

    2017-07-24

    This study was to investigate the differential mitochondrial protein expressions in human lung adenocarcinoma and provide preliminary data for further exploration of the carcinogenic mechanism. Total proteins of A549 and 16HBE mitochondria were extracted through 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differential mitochondria proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were further confirmed by Western blot, immunoelectron microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in A549 cells as well as lung adenocarcinoma tissues. A total of 41 differentially expressed protein spots were found in A549 mitochondria. Of them, 15 proteins were highly expressed and 26 proteins were lowly expressed in the mitochondria of A549 (by more than 1.5 times). Among the 15 more highly expressed proteins, AAA-TOB3 (by more than 3 times) was highly expressed in the mitochondria of A549 compared with the 16HBE, by LC-MS/MS identification. High electron density and clear circular colloidal gold-marked AAA-TOB3 particles were observed in the A549 cells via immunoelectron microscopy. Besides, AAA-TOB3 was confirmed to be elevated in lung adenocarcinoma by Western blot and IHC. Moreover, increased AAA-TOB3 correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma (p<0.05). AAA-TOB3 was highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma, and the up-regulation of AAA-TOB3 correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma, which suggested that it could serve as a potential molecular marker for lung adenocarcinoma.

  8. Early Identification of Patients at Risk of Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gajic, Ognjen; Dabbagh, Ousama; Park, Pauline K.; Adesanya, Adebola; Chang, Steven Y.; Hou, Peter; Anderson, Harry; Hoth, J. Jason; Mikkelsen, Mark E.; Gentile, Nina T.; Gong, Michelle N.; Talmor, Daniel; Bajwa, Ednan; Watkins, Timothy R.; Festic, Emir; Yilmaz, Murat; Iscimen, Remzi; Kaufman, David A.; Esper, Annette M.; Sadikot, Ruxana; Douglas, Ivor; Sevransky, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate, early identification of patients at risk for developing acute lung injury (ALI) provides the opportunity to test and implement secondary prevention strategies. Objectives: To determine the frequency and outcome of ALI development in patients at risk and validate a lung injury prediction score (LIPS). Methods: In this prospective multicenter observational cohort study, predisposing conditions and risk modifiers predictive of ALI development were identified from routine clinical data available during initial evaluation. The discrimination of the model was assessed with area under receiver operating curve (AUC). The risk of death from ALI was determined after adjustment for severity of illness and predisposing conditions. Measurements and Main Results: Twenty-two hospitals enrolled 5,584 patients at risk. ALI developed a median of 2 (interquartile range 1–4) days after initial evaluation in 377 (6.8%; 148 ALI-only, 229 adult respiratory distress syndrome) patients. The frequency of ALI varied according to predisposing conditions (from 3% in pancreatitis to 26% after smoke inhalation). LIPS discriminated patients who developed ALI from those who did not with an AUC of 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.78–0.82). When adjusted for severity of illness and predisposing conditions, development of ALI increased the risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.9–5.7). Conclusions: ALI occurrence varies according to predisposing conditions and carries an independently poor prognosis. Using routinely available clinical data, LIPS identifies patients at high risk for ALI early in the course of their illness. This model will alert clinicians about the risk of ALI and facilitate testing and implementation of ALI prevention strategies. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00889772). PMID:20802164

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/MRI for Lung Cancer Staging.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Lee, Ho Yun; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-07-01

    Tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) classification of lung cancer is typically performed with the TNM staging system, as recommended by the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC), the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Radiologic examinations for TNM staging of lung cancer patients include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), and FDG-PET combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) and are used for pretherapeutic assessments. Recent technical advances in MR systems, application of fast and parallel imaging and/or introduction of new MR techniques, and utilization of contrast media have markedly improved the diagnostic utility of MRI in this setting. In addition, FDG-PET can be combined or fused with MRI (PET/MRI) for clinical practice. This review article will focus on these recent advances in MRI as well as on PET/MRI for lung cancer staging, in addition to a discussion of their potential and limitations for routine clinical practice in comparison with other modalities such as CT, FDG-PET, and PET/CT.

  10. Future directions in early cystic fibrosis lung disease research: an NHLBI workshop report.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Bonnie W; Banks-Schlegel, Susan; Accurso, Frank J; Boucher, Richard C; Cutting, Garry R; Engelhardt, John F; Guggino, William B; Karp, Christopher L; Knowles, Michael R; Kolls, Jay K; LiPuma, John J; Lynch, Susan; McCray, Paul B; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Singh, Pradeep K; Sorscher, Eric; Welsh, Michael

    2012-04-15

    Since the 1989 discovery that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been substantial progress toward understanding the molecular basis for CF lung disease, leading to the discovery and development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the earliest impact of the loss of CFTR function on airway physiology and structure and its relationship to initial infection and inflammation are poorly understood. Universal newborn screening for CF in the United States represents an unprecedented opportunity for investigating CF clinical manifestations very early in life. Recently developed animal models with pulmonary phenotypic manifestations also provide a window into the early consequences of this genetic disorder. For these reasons, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a working group of extramural experts, entitled "Future Research Directions in Early CF Lung Disease" on September 21-22, 2010, to identify future research directions of great promise in CF. The priority areas identified included (1) exploring pathogenic mechanisms of early CF lung disease; (2) leveraging newborn screening to elucidate the natural history of early lung disease; (3) developing a spectrum of biomarkers of early lung disease that reflects CF pathophysiology, clinical outcome, and response to treatment; (4) exploring the role of genetics/genomics (e.g., modifier genes, gene-environmental interactions, and epigenetics) in early CF pathogenesis; (5) defining early microbiological events in CF lung disease; and (6) elucidating the initial airway inflammatory, remodeling, and repair mechanisms in CF lung disease.

  11. Frustration Sculpts the Early Stages of Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Di Silvio, Eva; Brunori, Maurizio; Gianni, Stefano

    2015-09-07

    The funneled energy landscape theory implies that protein structures are minimally frustrated. Yet, because of the divergent demands between folding and function, regions of frustrated patterns are present at the active site of proteins. To understand the effects of such local frustration in dictating the energy landscape of proteins, here we compare the folding mechanisms of the two alternative spliced forms of a PDZ domain (PDZ2 and PDZ2as) that share a nearly identical sequence and structure, while displaying different frustration patterns. The analysis, based on the kinetic characterization of a large number of site-directed mutants, reveals that although the late stages for folding are very robust and biased by native topology, the early stages are more malleable and dominated by local frustration. The results are briefly discussed in the context of the energy-landscape theory. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Implementing Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided (EBUS) for Staging and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Slavova-Azmanova, Neli S.; Phillips, Martin; Trevenen, Michelle L.; Li, Ian W.; Johnson, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and guide sheath (EBUS-GS) are gaining popularity for diagnosis and staging of lung cancer compared to CT-guided transthoracic needle aspiration (CT-TTNA), blind fiber-optic bronchoscopy, and mediastinoscopy. This paper aimed to examine predictors of higher costs for diagnosing and staging lung cancer, and to assess the effect of EBUS techniques on hospital cost. Material/Methods Hospital costs for diagnosis and staging of new primary lung cancer patients presenting in 2007–2008 and 2010–2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Multiple linear regression was used to determine relationships with hospital cost. Results We reviewed 560 lung cancer patient records; 100 EBUS procedures were performed on 90 patients. Higher hospital costs were associated with: EBUS-TBNA performed (p<0.0001); increasing inpatient length of stay (p<0.0001); increasing number of other surgical/diagnostic procedures (p<0.0001); whether the date of management decision fell within an inpatient visit (p<0.0001); and if the patient did not have a CT-TTNA, then costs increased as the number of imaging events increased (interaction p<0.0001). Cohort was not significantly related to cost. Location of the procedure (outside vs. inside theater) was a predictor of lower one-day EBUS costs (p<0.0001). Cost modelling revealed potential cost saving of $1506 per EBUS patient if all EBUS procedures were performed outside rather than in the theater ($66,259 per annum). Conclusions EBUS-TBNA only was an independent predictor of higher cost for diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Performing EBUS outside compared to in the theater may lower costs for one-day procedures; potential future savings are considerable if more EBUS procedures could be performed outside the operating theater. PMID:29377878

  13. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected bymore » antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These

  14. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  15. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  17. Surgical Staging of Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: Comparison Between Laparotomy and Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Api, Murat; Kayatas, Semra; Boza, Aysen Telce; Nazik, Hakan; Adiguzel, Cevdet; Guzin, Kadir; Eroglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the laparotomy (LT) and laparoscopy (LS) in patients who undergone surgical staging for early stage endometrium cancer. Methods Retrospective data were collected and analyzed for amount of intraoperative bleeding, complication rates, total resected and laterality specific number of lymph nodes and duration of operation in patients operated with either LT or LS. Results Seventy-nine stage I endometrium cancer patients were found to be eligible for the trial purposes: 58 (73.4%) treated by LT and 21 (26.6%) treated by LS. The number of lymph nodes was similar in LT (8.9 ± 5.3) and LS (9.2 ± 4.8) (P = 0.8). In LT group, there was no difference in the number of lymph nodes between the right and left sides (10 ± 5.8 and 8.7 ± 4.8 respectively, P = 0.19); in LS group, the number of lymph nodes resected from the right side was higher than the left side (9.8 ± 5 and 7 ± 3.5 respectively, P = 0.039). The amount of intraoperative bleeding and hospitalization period were significantly higher in LT group. Seventy-nine patients had a median follow-up of 30 months. The two groups were similar for disease-free survival (P = 0.46, log rank test). Conclusions There was no significant difference between the two methods in terms of number of total resected lymph nodes. In early stage endometrial carcinoma, LS has provided adequate staging and similar survival rates with LT. PMID:29147363

  18. Predicting distant failure in early stage NSCLC treated with SBRT using clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Folkert, Michael; Cannon, Nathan; Iyengar, Puneeth; Westover, Kenneth; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Choy, Hak; Timmerman, Robert; Yan, Jingsheng; Xie, Xian-J; Jiang, Steve; Wang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to predict early distant failure in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using clinical parameters by machine learning algorithms. The dataset used in this work includes 81 early stage NSCLC patients with at least 6months of follow-up who underwent SBRT between 2006 and 2012 at a single institution. The clinical parameters (n=18) for each patient include demographic parameters, tumor characteristics, treatment fraction schemes, and pretreatment medications. Three predictive models were constructed based on different machine learning algorithms: (1) artificial neural network (ANN), (2) logistic regression (LR) and (3) support vector machine (SVM). Furthermore, to select an optimal clinical parameter set for the model construction, three strategies were adopted: (1) clonal selection algorithm (CSA) based selection strategy; (2) sequential forward selection (SFS) method; and (3) statistical analysis (SA) based strategy. 5-cross-validation is used to validate the performance of each predictive model. The accuracy was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of the system was also evaluated. The AUCs for ANN, LR and SVM were 0.75, 0.73, and 0.80, respectively. The sensitivity values for ANN, LR and SVM were 71.2%, 72.9% and 83.1%, while the specificity values for ANN, LR and SVM were 59.1%, 63.6% and 63.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the CSA based strategy outperformed SFS and SA in terms of AUC, sensitivity and specificity. Based on clinical parameters, the SVM with the CSA optimal parameter set selection strategy achieves better performance than other strategies for predicting distant failure in lung SBRT patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ammonia and urea handling by early life stages of fishes.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2017-11-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in fishes has been a focus of comparative physiologists for nearly a century. In this Review, we focus specifically on early life stages of fishes, which have received considerable attention in more recent work. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in early life differs fundamentally from that of juvenile and adult fishes because of (1) the presence of a chorion capsule in embryos that imposes a limitation on effective ammonia excretion, (2) an amino acid-based metabolism that generates a substantial ammonia load, and (3) the lack of a functional gill, which is the primary site of nitrogen excretion in juvenile and adult fishes. Recent findings have shed considerable light on the mechanisms by which these constraints are overcome in early life. Perhaps most importantly, the discovery of Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins as ammonia transporters and their expression in ion-transporting cells on the skin of larval fishes has transformed our understanding of ammonia excretion by fishes in general. The emergence of larval zebrafish as a model species, together with genetic knockdown techniques, has similarly advanced our understanding of ammonia and urea metabolism and excretion by larval fishes. It has also now been demonstrated that ammonia excretion is one of the primary functions of the developing gill in rainbow trout larvae, leading to new hypotheses regarding the physiological demands driving gill development in larval fishes. Here, we highlight and discuss the dramatic changes in nitrogen handling that occur over early life development in fishes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Crizotinib in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Has Been Removed by Surgery and ALK Fusion Mutations (An ALCHEMIST Treatment Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-07

    ALK Gene Rearrangement; ALK Gene Translocation; ALK Positive; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  1. Sarcopenia is a novel poor prognostic factor in male patients with pathological Stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsukioka, Takuma; Nishiyama, Noritoshi; Izumi, Nobuhiro; Mizuguchi, Shinjiro; Komatsu, Hiroaki; Okada, Satoshi; Toda, Michihito; Hara, Kantaro; Ito, Ryuichi; Shibata, Toshihiko

    2017-04-01

    Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, and has a risk of adverse outcomes such as disability, poor quality of life and death. As prognosis depends not only on disease aggressiveness, but also on a patient's physical condition, sarcopenia can predict survival in patients with various cancer types. However, its effects on postoperative prognosis in patients with localized non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) have never been reported. We retrospectively investigated 215 male patients with pathological Stage I NSCLC. L3 muscle index is defined as the cross-section area of muscle at the third lumbar vertebra level, normalized for height, and is a clinical measurement of sarcopenia. We then investigated the effect of preoperative sarcopenia on their postoperative prognosis. Our 215 subjects included 30 patients with sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with body mass index, nutritional condition, serum CYFRA 21-1 level and pathological stage, but not with preoperative respiratory function or performance status. Frequency of postoperative complications, length of postoperative hospital stay, thoracic drainage period or causes of death were not correlated with the presence of sarcopenia. The sarcopenia group had a significantly shorter median overall survival (32 months) than the no-sarcopenia group. Sarcopenia might not affect short-term outcomes in patients with early-stage lung cancer. Sarcopenia was a predictor of poor prognosis in male patients with Stage I NSCLC. As sarcopenic patients with NSCLC patients are at risk for significantly worse outcomes, their treatments require careful planning, even for those with Stage I disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A clinicopathologic prediction model for postoperative recurrence in stage Ia non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yihua; Xiang, Jiaqing; Zhang, Yawei; Hu, Hong; Chen, Haiquan

    2014-10-01

    Controversy remains over the appropriate postoperative management for patients with stage Ia non-small cell lung cancer who underwent complete surgical resection as a result of a heterogeneous prognosis. We aimed to identify the predictive factors for recurrence in these patients to aid in the decision making. We reviewed 344 patients with stage Ia non-small cell lung cancer to analyze the associations between recurrence-free survival and the following clinicopathologic variables: age, gender, smoking history, family history, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level, type of surgical resection, tumor location, tumor histology, lymphovascular invasion, tumor differentiation, and pathologic T status. Cox multivariate survival analysis revealed that central tumor location (P=.019), stage T1b (P=.006), high histologic grade (including large cell carcinoma, solid predominant, micropapillary predominant, and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, P=.007), poor differentiation (P=.022), and lymphovascular invasion (P=.035) were independently associated with recurrence-free survival. A nomogram for predicting the probability of 3-year recurrence-free survival was developed using the 5 variables. This model shows good calibration, reasonable discrimination (concordance index=0.733), and small overfitting (2.6%) demonstrated by bootstrapping. We developed a clinicopathologic prediction model for postoperative recurrence in stage Ia non-small cell lung cancer. This model can help with the selection of appropriate postoperative therapeutic strategies for these patients. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy by bronchial arterial infusion in patients with unresectable stage III squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Hai-ping; Jiang, Sen; Ni, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Background: We investigated the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy administered via bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) on unresectable stage III lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods: This was a single-arm retrospective study of chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) administered via BAI to patients with unresectable lung SCC. Data regarding the post-treatment response rate, downstage rate, and surgery rate, as well as progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), quality of life, and post-BAI side effects were collected. Results: A total of 36 patients were enrolled in this study between August 2010 and May 2014. The response rate was 72.2%, and the downstage rate was 22.2%. Among the patients who were downstaged, 16 (44.4%) patients were because of their T stage, and 5 (13.9%) patients were downstaged due to to their N stage. The surgery rate was 52.8%, the 1-year survival rate was 75.4%, and the 2-year survival rate was 52.1%. The median PFS was 14.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6–19.4], and the median OS was 25.0 months (95% CI: 19.1–30.9). The quality of life was significantly improved, and the chemotherapy was well tolerated. Conclusions: Compared with intravenous neoadjuvant chemotherapy, BAI chemotherapy significantly improved the surgery rate, prolonged PFS and OS, and improved the quality of life in patients with unresectable stage III lung SCC. PMID:28675081

  4. Best practices in the treatment of early cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Proesmans, Marijke

    2017-02-01

    For many years, management of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease was focused on symptomatic treatment of chronic lung infection, which is characterized by cough and sputum production, leading to progressive lung damage. With increasing survival and better knowledge of the pathogenesis of CF lung disease, it has become clear that treatment has to start very early because lung damage occurs in young patients, often before obvious symptoms appear. The arrival of new cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance-regulator (CFTR)-correcting therapies will bring more opportunities to prevent the disease, apart from only treating chronic lung infection. In this review, a summary of the current knowledge of early CF lung disease is provided, based on animal model studies, as well as on data obtained from well structured follow-up programs after newborn screening (NBS). The most important clinical guidelines for treating young CF patients are also summarized.

  5. Is it useful to combine sputum cytology and low-dose spiral computed tomography for early detection of lung cancer in formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDSCT) in comparison to conventional chest X-ray proved to be a highly sensitive method of diagnosing early stage lung cancer. However, centrally located early stage lung tumours remain a diagnostic challenge. We determined the practicability and efficacy of early detection of lung cancer when combining LDSCT and sputum cytology. Methods Of a cohort of 4446 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers, we examined a subgroup of 187 (4.2%) high risk participants for lung cancer at least once with both LDSCT and sputum cytology. After the examination period the participants were followed-up for more than three years. Results The examinations resulted in the diagnosis of lung cancer in 12 participants (6.4%). Six were in clinical stage I. We found 10 non-small cell lung carcinomas and one small cell lung carcinoma. Sputum specimens showed suspicious pathological findings in seven cases and in 11 cases the results of LDSCT indicated malignancies. The overall sensitivity and specificity of sputum cytology was 58.0% and 98% with positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of 70% and 97%. For LDSCT we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 97%. The PPV and NPV were 65% and 99% respectively. Conclusions Our results confirmed that in surveillance programmes a combination of sputum cytology and LDSCT is well feasible and accepted by the participants. Sputum examination alone is not effective enough for the detection of lung cancer, especially at early stage. Even in well- defined risk groups highly exposed to asbestos, we cannot recommend the use of combined LDSCT and sputum cytology examinations as long as no survival benefit has been proved for the combination of both methods. For ensuring low rates of false-positive and false-negative results, programme planners must closely cooperate with experienced medical practitioners and pathologists in a well-functioning interdisciplinary network. PMID

  6. Loss of corticospinal tract integrity in early MS disease stages

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Jens; Kaufmann, Jörn; Heidel, Jan; Stadler, Erhard; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine; Sailer, Michael; Schreiber, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We investigated corticospinal tract (CST) integrity in the absence of white matter (WM) lesions using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in early MS disease stages. Methods: Our study comprised 19 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 11 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, for whom MRI measures of CST integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD]), T1- and T2-based lesion load, and brain volumes were available. The mean (SD) disease duration was 3.5 (2.1) months, and disability score was low (median Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.5) at the time of the study. Results: Patients with CIS and RRMS had significantly lower CST FA and higher CST MD values compared with controls. These findings were present, irrespective of whether WM lesions affected the CST. However, no group differences in the overall gray or WM volume were identified. Conclusions: In early MS disease stages, CST integrity is already affected in the absence of WM lesions or brain atrophy. PMID:28959706

  7. [The Clinical Application of Video Mediastinoscopy and CT in the N Staging of Preoperative Lung Cancer.].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiheng; Qi, Weibo; Zhu, Yong; Lin, Ruobai

    2009-10-20

    Preoperative lung cancer with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis can be diagnosed by vedio mediastinoscopy (VM) and CT. This study was to explore the value of VM and CT in the diagnosis of N staging of preoperative lung cancer, and to discuss the difference between the two methods. Forty-eight cases diagnosed of lung cancer by CT or PET-CT were examined by VM. The sensitivity, specificity, validity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of VM and CT were speculated according to the postoperative pathological reports, and the difference between VM and CT in the diagnosis of lung cancer with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis was discussed. (1)Under the examination of VM, 31 patients with the negative outcome received the direct operation; 14 patients with N2 received 2 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy before operation; 3 patients with N3 received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. (2)Forty-one cases with final diagnosis of lung cancer were used as samples to speculate the sensitivity, specificity, validity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of VM. They were 93.3%, 100%, 97.6%, 100%, 96.3%, which of CT were 66.7%, 53.8%, 58.5%, 45.5%, 73.7% (Chi-square=4.083, P=0.039), the difference between VM and CT was statistically significant. (3)In this group, the complications of VM incidence rate was 2.08% (1/48), and the case was pneumothorax. VM is superior to CT in the diagnosis of N staging of preoperative lung cancer; Due to its safety and effectiveness, VM will be wildly used in the field of thoracic surgery.

  8. Metamorphic density controls on early-stage subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Oberhänsli, Roland; Bousquet, Romain

    2013-04-01

    Subduction is primarily driven by the densification of the downgoing oceanic slab, due to dynamic P-T-fields in subduction zones. It is crucial to unravel slab densification induced by metamorphic reactions to understand the influence on plate dynamics. By analyzing the density and metamorphic structure of subduction zones, we may gain knowledge about the driving, metamorphic processes in a subduction zone like the eclogitization (i.e., the transformation of a MORB to an eclogite), the breakdown of hydrous minerals and the release of fluid or the generation of partial melts. We have therefore developed a 2D subduction zone model down to 250 km that is based on thermodynamic equilibrium assemblage computations. Our model computes the "metamorphic density" of rocks as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition using the Theriak-Domino software package at different time stages. We have used this model to investigate how the hydration, dehydration, partial melting and fractionation processes of rocks all influence the metamorphic density and greatly depend on the temperature field within subduction systems. These processes are commonly neglected by other approaches (e.g., gravitational or thermomechanical in nature) reproducing the density distribution within this tectonic setting. The process of eclogitization is assumed as being important to subduction dynamics, based on the very high density (3.6 g/cm3) of eclogitic rocks. The eclogitization in a MORB-type crust is possible only if the rock reaches the garnet phase stability field. This process is primarily temperature driven. Our model demonstrates that the initiation of eclogitization of the slab is not the only significant process that makes the descending slab denser and is responsible for the slab pull force. Indeed, our results show that the densification of the downgoing lithospheric mantle (due to an increase of pressure) starts in the early subduction stage and makes a significant

  9. The role of positron emission tomography in the diagnosis, staging and response assessment of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Jason M.; Tasker, Angela; Peryt, Adam; Aresu, Giuseppe; Coonar, Aman S.

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is a common disease and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for the majority of cases. Following diagnosis of lung cancer, accurate staging is essential to guide clinical management and inform prognosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with computed tomography (CT)—as PET-CT has developed as an important tool in the multi-disciplinary management of lung cancer. This article will review the current evidence for the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT in NSCLC diagnosis, staging, response assessment and follow up. PMID:29666818

  10. Significance of mediastinal involvement in early stage Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mauch, P.; Goodman, R.; Hellman, S.

    1978-09-01

    Between April 1969 and December 1974, 111 consecutive surgically staged I A and II A patients with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease were treated at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy. Patients received 3600 to 4400 rad to mantle and para-aortic--splenic pedicle regions. Median follow-up was 56 months. Fourteen patients developed relapsing Hodgkin's disease and three patients died of possible treatment-related causes, two with acute myocardial infarctions and one with radiation pneumonitis. Patients with mediastinal enlargement greater than one third of the chest diameter have a significantly higher risk (p < 0.01) of developing relapse (9 of 18) than patients with lessermore » or no mediastinal disease (5 of 93). Of the 18 patients with large mediastinal disease, six relapsed in the mediastinum and two in the lung. There continue to be no pelvic extensions in the entire group. There is a 92% relapse-free and 97% overall survival in the 93 patients without extensive mediastinal disease. We continue to recommend mantle and para-aortic--splenic pedicle irradiation for these patients. In view of the large number of relapses in patients with extensive mediastinal disease, we are now treating this subgroup of patients with MOPP chemotherapy in addition to mantle and para-aortic irradiation.« less

  11. Early-stage aeolian protodune development and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, J. M.; Baddock, M. C.; Wiggs, G.

    2017-12-01

    Early-stage bedforms, or protodunes, can be observed to form on sandy beaches, desert gravels or superimposed on the surfaces of larger dunes and can develop topography of 0.1 m or more over several hours. These protodunes are the precursors to embryo and eventually mature dunes, and so it is important to understand how feedbacks between flow, transport and form contribute to this development sequence. Whilst theory and conceptual models have offered some explanation for protodune existence and development, we know surprisingly little about how these bedforms initiate and migrate because it is difficult to measure small changes in form (millimetres; seconds) on highly active surfaces of limited topographic expression. Here, we employ terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to measure morphological change at the high frequency and spatial resolution (sub-millimetre) required to gain new insights into protodune behaviour. Along with TLS derived saltation and surface moisture, additional sediment flux and windspeed measurements help to elucidate how the protodune topography interacts with airflow and sand transport. We focus on a number of coastal bedforms in various development stages including a 0.06 m high protodune which grew vertically by 0.005 m in two hours with the switch from erosion to deposition identified to occur at a point 0.07 m upwind of the crest. This growth was associated with a reduction in time-averaged sediment flux of 18% over the crestal region. We also observed a decline in lower stoss slope steepness (by 3°) and a steepening of the lee slope, indicating a reshaping of initial protodune form towards the morphology of a more mature dune. Our findings highlight the crucial role of form-flow feedbacks, even on very small bedforms, in driving early-stage bedform growth and development, and show how the use of high resolution TLS to measure both surface topography and grains moving above the surface, can offer new insights into a long standing deficiency

  12. Early fundoplication is associated with slower decline in lung function after lung transplantation in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Biswas Roy, Sreeja; Elnahas, Shaimaa; Serrone, Rosemarie; Haworth, Cassandra; Olson, Michael T; Kang, Paul; Smith, Michael A; Bremner, Ross M; Huang, Jasmine L

    2018-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is prevalent after lung transplantation. Fundoplication slows lung function decline in patients with GERD, but the optimal timing of fundoplication is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent fundoplication after lung transplantion at our center from April 2007 to July 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups: early fundoplication (<6 months after lung transplantation) and late fundoplication (≥6 months after lung transplantation). Annual decline in percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) was analyzed. Of the 251 patients who underwent lung transplantation during the study period with available pH data, 86 (34.3%) underwent post-transplantation fundoplication for GERD. Thirty of 86 (34.9%) had early fundoplication and 56 of 86 (65.1%) had late fundoplication. Median time from lung transplantation to fundoplication was 4.6 months (interquartile range, 2.0-5.2) and 13.8 months (interquartile range, 9.0-16.1) for the early and late groups, respectively. The median DeMeester score was comparable between groups. One-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates in the early group were 90%, 70%, and 70%, respectively; in the late group, these rates were 91%, 66%, and 66% (log rank P = .60). Three- and 5-year percent predicted FEV 1 was lower in the late group by 8.9% (95% confidence interval, -30.2 to 12.38; P = .46) and 40.7% (95% confidence interval, -73.66 to -7.69; P = .019). A linear mixed model showed a 5.7% lower percent predicted FEV 1 over time in the late fundoplication group (P < .001). In this study, patients with early fundoplication had a higher FEV 1 5 years after lung transplantation. Early fundoplication might protect against GERD-induced lung damage in lung transplant recipients with GERD. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early-\\x90stage Electrical Breakdown involving Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold; Moore, Chris; Schultz, Peter; Bussman, Ezra; Scrymgeour, David; Hopkins, Matt

    The early stage of electrical breakdown from a surface is assumed to involve field emission. In real-world applications, the electrical field is often assumed to be increased by geometrical effects. In addition to these enhancement effects, contamination by adsorbates can lead to reductions in the effective work functions. To develop a physics-based understanding beyond the use of these empirical effects, the field emission currents at early times are being computed and measured. The calculations involve a solution of the Boltzmann equation, and the measurements involve a scanning tunneling microscope. Early results from this collaborative theoretical-experimental project will be described in this presentation. The presentation will focus on results for an ideal system with an absence of geometrical effects. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Circulating mutational portrait of cancer: manifestation of aggressive clonal events in both early and late stages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Topaloglu, Umit; Petty, W Jeffrey; Pagni, Matthew; Foley, Kristie L; Grant, Stefan C; Robinson, Mac; Bitting, Rhonda L; Thomas, Alexandra; Alistar, Angela T; Desnoyers, Rodwige J; Goodman, Michael; Albright, Carol; Porosnicu, Mercedes; Vatca, Mihaela; Qasem, Shadi A; DeYoung, Barry; Kytola, Ville; Nykter, Matti; Chen, Kexin; Levine, Edward A; Staren, Edgar D; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Petro, Robin M; Blackstock, William; Powell, Bayard L; Abraham, Edward; Pasche, Boris; Zhang, Wei

    2017-05-04

    Solid tumors residing in tissues and organs leave footprints in circulation through circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNAs (ctDNA). Characterization of the ctDNA portraits and comparison with tumor DNA mutational portraits may reveal clinically actionable information on solid tumors that is traditionally achieved through more invasive approaches. We isolated ctDNAs from plasma of patients of 103 lung cancer and 74 other solid tumors of different tissue origins. Deep sequencing using the Guardant360 test was performed to identify mutations in 73 clinically actionable genes, and the results were associated with clinical characteristics of the patient. The mutation profiles of 37 lung cancer cases with paired ctDNA and tumor genomic DNA sequencing were used to evaluate clonal representation of tumor in circulation. Five lung cancer cases with longitudinal ctDNA sampling were monitored for cancer progression or response to treatments. Mutations in TP53, EGFR, and KRAS genes are most prevalent in our cohort. Mutation rates of ctDNA are similar in early (I and II) and late stage (III and IV) cancers. Mutation in DNA repair genes BRCA1, BRCA2, and ATM are found in 18.1% (32/177) of cases. Patients with higher mutation rates had significantly higher mortality rates. Lung cancer of never smokers exhibited significantly higher ctDNA mutation rates as well as higher EGFR and ERBB2 mutations than ever smokers. Comparative analysis of ctDNA and tumor DNA mutation data from the same patients showed that key driver mutations could be detected in plasma even when they were present at a minor clonal population in the tumor. Mutations of key genes found in the tumor tissue could remain in circulation even after frontline radiotherapy and chemotherapy suggesting these mutations represented resistance mechanisms. Longitudinal sampling of five lung cancer cases showed distinct changes in ctDNA mutation portraits that are consistent with cancer progression or response

  15. Comprehensive Clinical Staging for Resectable Lung Cancer: Clinicopathological Correlations and the Role of Brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Jordyn; Andruszkiewicz, Nicole; Schneider, Laura; Schieman, Colin; Finley, Christian J; Shargall, Yaron; Fahim, Christine; Farrokhyar, Forough; Hanna, Waël C

    2016-11-01

    In our model of comprehensive clinical staging (CCS) for lung cancer, patients with a computerized tomography scan of the chest and upper abdomen not showing distant metastases will then routinely undergo whole body positron emission tomography/computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before any therapeutic decision. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of CCS and the value of brain MRI in this population. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively entered database was performed for all patients who underwent lung cancer resection from January 2012 to June 2014. Demographics, clinical and pathological stage (seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control tumor, node, and metastasis staging manual), and costs of staging were collected. Correlation between clinical and pathological stage was determined. Of 315 patients with primary lung cancer, 55.6% were female and the mean age was 70 ± 9.6 years. When correlation was analyzed without consideration for substages A and B, 49.8% of patients (158 of 315) were staged accurately, 39.7% (125 of 315) were overstaged, and 10.5% (32 of 315) were understaged. Only 4.7% of patients (15 of 315) underwent surgery without appropriate neoadjuvant treatment. Preoperative brain MRI detected asymptomatic metastases in four of 315 patients (1.3%). At a median postoperative follow-up of 19 months (range 6-43), symptomatic brain metastases developed in seven additional patients. The total cost of CCS in Canadian dollars was $367,292 over the study period, with $117,272 (31.9%) going toward brain MRI. CCS is effective for patients with resectable lung cancer, with less than 5% of patients being denied appropriate systemic treatment before surgery. Brain MRI is a low-yield and high-cost intervention in this population, and its routine use should be questioned. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by

  16. Lung cancer diagnosis and staging in the minimally invasive age with increasing demands for tissue analysis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel B.; Wright, Jeffrey; VanderLaan, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of patients with lung cancer in recent decades has increasingly relied on minimally invasive tissue sampling techniques, such as endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) needle aspiration, transbronchial biopsy, and transthoracic image guided core needle biopsy. These modalities have been shown to have low complication rates, and provide adequate cellular material for pathologic diagnosis and necessary ancillary molecular testing. As an important component to a multidisciplinary team approach in the care of patients with lung cancer, these minimally invasive modalities have proven invaluable for the rapid and safe acquisition of tissue used for the diagnosis, staging, and molecular testing of tumors to identify the best evidence-based treatment plan. The continuous evolution of the field of lung cancer staging and treatment has translated into improvements in survival and quality of life for patients. Although differences in clinical practice between academic and community hospital settings still exist, improvements in physician education and training as well as adoption of technological advancements should help narrow this gap going forward. PMID:26380180

  17. Chemoradiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer: have we reached the limit?

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Le Pechoux, Cecile

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men and the second leading cause in women. Approximately 85% of lung cancer patients have non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and most present with advanced stage at diagnosis. The current treatment for such patients is chemoradiation (CRT) provided concurrently preferably or sequentially with chemotherapy, using conventionally fractionated radiation doses in the range of 60 to 66 Gy in 30 to 33 fractions. An individual patient data based metaanalysis has shown that in good performance status (PS), concomitant CRT was associated to improved survival by 4.5% compared to sequential combination (5-year survival rate of 15.1% and 10.6% respectively). In the recent years, improvement of modern technique of radiotherapy (RT) and new chemotherapy drugs may be favorable for the patients. Furthermore, the positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) contributes to improved delineation of RT especially in terms of nodal involvement. Improving outcomes for patients with stage III disease remains a challenge, this review will address the questions that are considered fundamental to improving outcome in patients with stage III NSCLC.

  18. [Revision of the TNM Stage Grouping in the Forthcoming Eighth Edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Ye, Bo; Zhao, Heng

    2016-06-20

    The currently adopted staging system for lung cancer is the seventh edition of the TNM staging edited by Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) in January, 2009. In recent years, with the advances of techniques in lung cancer diagnosis and the treatment trends towards precision treatment modalities such as individualized therapy and molecular targeted therapy, the survival and prognosis of lung cancer has been significantly improved. The old staging standard is difficult to satisfy the currentrapidly developing clinical needs. Therefore, the International Lung Cancer Research Society (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, IASLC) updated the stage of lung cancer in 2015, and the forthcoming eighth edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer, which will be formally adopted in Jan. 2017, has been published in Journal of Thoracic Oncology. The new staging system has adopted 35 databases from 16 countries, including 94,708 cases treated between 1999 and 2010. The advantages of the new staging lies in its higher prognosis prediction and clinical guidance value.

  19. Detection of true pathologic stage I lung cancer in a screening program and the effect on survival.

    PubMed

    Melamed, M R; Flehinger, B J; Zaman, M B; Heelan, R T; Hallerman, E T; Martini, N

    1981-03-01

    One-hundred-sixty-nine lung cancers have occurred to date among 10,040 cigarette smoking men who participated in the New York Lung Cancer Detection Program. Almost 40% of the cases, 65, were still Stage I when their disease was diagnosed; 62 had thoracotomy and resection, and in 57, mediastinal node dissection confirmed that the mediastinum was free of metastases ("true pathologic" Stage I). Fifty-four of the 62 (87%) are still alive at this time, while only 15 of 104 (14%) of those with Stage II and III lung cancers are alive. Only two patients of the 62 in Stage I who were treated by resection died of lung cancer, both with T2 tumors. Two others are alive with metastases, one died postoperatively, and five died of other causes without evidence of lung cancer. The estimated probability of survival for true Stage I lung cancer is over 90% at five years, and close to 40% of all lung cancers can be detected in this favorable stage by present radiologic and cytologic screening techniques.

  20. Systematic Compared With Targeted Staging with Endobronchial Ultrasound in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Santos, José; Serra, Pere; Torky, Mohamed; Andreo, Felipe; Centeno, Carmen; Mendiluce, Leire; Martínez-Barenys, Carlos; López de Castro, Pedro; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate the accuracy of systematic mediastinal staging by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) (sampling of all visible nodes measuring ≥5mm from stations N3 to N1 regardless of their positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) features) and compare this staging approach with targeted EBUS-TBNA staging (sampling only 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid nodes) in patients with N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on PET/CT. Retrospective study of 107 patients who underwent systematic EBUS-TBNA mediastinal staging. The results were compared with those of a hypothetical scenario where only FDG-avid nodes on PET/CT would be sampled. Systematic EBUS-TBNA sampling demonstrated N3 disease in 3 patients, N2 disease in 60 (42 single-station or N2a, 18 multiple-station or N2b) and N0/N1 disease in 44. Of these 44, seven underwent mediastinoscopy, which did not show mediastinal disease; six of the seven proceeded to lung resection, which also showed no mediastinal disease. Thirty-four N0/N1 patients after EBUS-TBNA underwent lung resection directly: N0/N1 was found in 30 and N2 in four (one N2b with a PET/CT showing N2a disease, three N2a). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and overall accuracy of systematic EBUS-TBNA were 94%, 100%, 90%, 100% and 96%, respectively. Compared to targeted EBUS-TBNA, systematic EBUS-TBNA sampling provided additional important clinical information in 14 cases (13%): three N3 cases would have passed unnoticed, and 11 N2b cases would have been staged as N2a. In clinical practice, systematic sampling of the mediastinum by EBUS-TBNA, regardless of PET/CT features, is to be recommended over targeted sampling. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    PubMed

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Early stage response problem for post-disaster incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Shin, Youngchul; Lee, Gyu M.; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2018-07-01

    Research on evacuation plans for reducing damages and casualties has been conducted to advise defenders against threats. However, despite the attention given to the research in the past, emergency response management, designed to neutralize hazards, has been undermined since planners frequently fail to apprehend the complexities and contexts of the emergency situation. Therefore, this study considers a response problem with unique characteristics for the duration of the emergency. An early stage response problem is identified to find the optimal routing and scheduling plan for responders to prevent further hazards. Due to the complexity of the proposed mathematical model, two algorithms are developed. Data from a high-rise building, called Central City in Seoul, Korea, are used to evaluate the algorithms. Results show that the proposed algorithms can procure near-optimal solutions within a reasonable time.

  3. Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Press, Joshua Z.; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:22685466

  4. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  5. Early stage of plastic deformation in thin films undergoing electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valek, B. C.; Tamura, N.; Spolenak, R.; Caldwell, W. A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Bravman, J. C.; Batterman, B. W.; Nix, W. D.; Patel, J. R.

    2003-09-01

    Electromigration occurs when a high current density drives atomic motion from the cathode to the anode end of a conductor, such as a metal interconnect line in an integrated circuit. While electromigration eventually causes macroscopic damage, in the form of voids and hillocks, the earliest stage of the process when the stress in individual micron-sized grains is still building up is largely unexplored. Using synchrotron-based x-ray microdiffraction during an in-situ electromigration experiment, we have discovered an early prefailure mode of plastic deformation involving preferential dislocation generation and motion and the formation of a subgrain structure within individual grains of a passivated Al (Cu) interconnect. This behavior occurs long before macroscopic damage (hillocks and voids) is observed.

  6. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P J

    2003-10-01

    The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54) or infrared coagulation (N = 46). Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years). The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months). The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale). Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059). The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03), but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03). Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  7. Lung Metabolic Activation as an Early Biomarker of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Local Gene Expression Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Tyler J.; de Prost, Nicolas; Tucci, Mauro; Winkler, Tilo; Baron, Rebecca M.; Filipczak, Piotr; Raby, Benjamin; Chu, Jen-hwa; Harris, R. Scott; Musch, Guido; dos Reis Falcao, Luiz F.; Capelozzi, Vera; Venegas, Jose; Melo, Marcos F. Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Background The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition comprising diffuse lung edema and alveolar damage. ARDS frequently results from regional injury mechanisms. However, it is unknown whether detectable inflammation precedes lung edema and opacification, and whether topographically differential gene expression consistent with heterogeneous injury occurs in early ARDS. We aimed to determine the temporal relationship between pulmonary metabolic activation and density in a large animal model of early ARDS, and to assess gene expression in differentially activated regions. Methods We produced ARDS in sheep with intravenous LPS (10ng/kg/h) and mechanical ventilation for 20h. Using positron emission tomography, we assessed regional cellular metabolic activation with 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose, perfusion and ventilation with 13NN-saline, and aeration using transmission scans. Species-specific micro-array technology was used to assess regional gene expression. Results Metabolic activation preceded detectable increases in lung density (as required for clinical diagnosis) and correlated with subsequent histological injury, suggesting its predictive value for severity of disease progression. Local time-courses of metabolic activation varied, with highly perfused and less aerated dependent lung regions activated earlier than non-dependent regions. These regions of distinct metabolic trajectories demonstrated differential gene expression for known and potential novel candidates for ARDS pathogenesis. Conclusions Heterogeneous lung metabolic activation precedes increases in lung density in the development of ARDS due to endotoxemia and mechanical ventilation. Local differential gene expression occurs in these early stages and reveals molecular pathways relevant to ARDS biology and of potential use as treatment targets. PMID:27611185

  8. Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: long-term results of lobectomy versus sublobar resection from the Polish National Lung Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Robert; Zurek, Wojciech; Marjanski, Tomasz; Rudzinski, Piotr; Orlowski, Tadeusz M; Sawicka, Wioletta; Marczyk, Michal; Polanska, Joanna; Rzyman, Witold

    2017-08-01

    Anatomical lobar resection and mediastinal lymphadenectomy remain the standard for the treatment of early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are preferred over procedures such as segmentectomy or wedge resection. However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the influence of the extent of the resection on overall survival. The aim of this article was to assess the overall survival for different types of resection for Stage I NSCLC. We performed a retrospective analysis of the results of the surgical treatment of Stage I NSCLC. Between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2013, the data from 6905 patients who underwent Stage I NSCLC operations were collected in the Polish National Lung Cancer Registry (PNLCR) and overall survival was assessed. A propensity score-matched analysis was used to compare 3 groups of patients, each consisting of 231 patients who underwent lobectomy, segmentectomy, or wedge resection. In the unmatched and matched patient groups, lobectomy and segmentectomy were associated with a significant benefit compared to wedge resection regarding overall survival (log-rank P  < 0.001 and P  = 0.001). The Cox proportional hazard ratio comparing segmentectomy and lobectomy to wedge resection was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37-0.77) and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.38-0.50), respectively, indicating a significant improvement in survival. There was no difference in the 5-year survival of patients after lobectomy (79.1%; 95% CI: 77.7-80.4%) or segmentectomy (78.3%; 95% CI: 70.6-86.0%). The 30-day mortality rate was 1.6, 2.6 and 1.4% for lobectomy, segmentectomy and wedge resection, respectively. Wedge resection was associated with a significantly lower 5-year survival rate (58.1%; 95% CI: 53.6-62.5%) compared to segmentectomy (78.3%; 95% CI: 70.6-86.0%) and lobectomy (79.1%; 95% CI: 77.7-80.5%). The propensity score matched analysis confirmed most of the results of the comparisons of unmatched study groups. Wedge resection was associated with

  9. Early results in transplantation of initially rejected donor lungs after ex vivo lung perfusion: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wallinder, Andreas; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Silverborn, Martin; Hansson, Christoffer; Riise, Gerdt C; Liden, Hans; Jeppsson, Anders; Dellgren, Göran

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have shown that ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is safe and that rejected donor lungs can be resuscitated and used for lung transplantation (LTx). Early clinical outcomes in patients transplanted with reconditioned lungs at our centre were reviewed and compared with those of contemporary non-EVLP controls. During 18 months starting January 2011, 11 pairs of donor lungs initially deemed unsuitable for transplantation underwent EVLP. Haemodynamic (pulmonary flow, vascular resistance and artery pressure) and respiratory (peak airway pressure and compliance) parameters were analysed during evaluation. Lungs that improved (n = 11) to meet International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria were transplanted and compared with patients transplanted with non-EVLP lungs (n = 47) during the same time period. Donor lungs were initially rejected due to either inferior PaO2/FiO2 ratio (n = 9), bilateral infiltrate on chest X-ray (n = 1) or ongoing extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (n = 1). The donor lungs improved from a mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 27.9 kPa in the donor to a mean of 59.6 kPa at the end of the EVLP (median improvement 28.4 kPa, range 21.0-50.7 kPa). Two single lungs were deemed unsuitable and not used for LTx. Eleven recipients from the regular waiting list underwent either single (n = 3) LTx or double (n = 8) LTx with EVLP-treated lungs. The median time to extubation (12 (range, 3-912) vs 6 (range, 2-1296) h) and median intensive care unit (ICU) stay (152 (range, 40-625) vs 48 (range, 22-1632) h) were longer in the EVLP group (P = 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). There were no differences in length of hospital stay (median 28 (range 25-93) vs 28 (18-209), P = 0.21). Two patients in the EVLP group and 6 in the control group had primary graft dysfunction >Grade 1 at 72 h postoperatively. Three patients in the control group died before discharge. All recipients of EVLP lungs were discharged alive from hospital. The use of

  10. Changing trends in diagnosis, staging, treatment and survival in lung cancer: comparison of three consecutive cohorts in an Australian lung cancer centre.

    PubMed

    Denton, E J; Hart, D; Wainer, Z; Wright, G; Russell, P A; Conron, M

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer accounts for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The effect of recent changes in demographics and management on outcomes in Australia has not been clearly defined. To compare three consecutive lung cancer cohorts to evaluate emergent differences in diagnosis, management and mortality. For comparative analysis, 2119 lung cancer patients were divided into three successive cohorts. Current death data were sought from the Victorian Cancer Registry. Age at diagnosis, mode of presentation and pathology did not significantly differ between the groups. Significantly more females were diagnosed with lung cancer in the most recent cohort (P = 0.04). Amongst non-small-cell lung cancer patients, there were more adenocarcinomas and less large cell carcinomas in the latest cohort (P = <0.01). More patients from the most recent cohort were staged pathologically and via positron emission tomography and fewer were clinically staged (P = <0.01). The most recent cohort had a greater proportion of Stage IV disease (P = <0.01) and more curative surgical or combined modality radiotherapy and chemotherapy versus palliative radiotherapy or supportive care (P = <0.01). Overall 5-year survival improved significantly in the most recent cohort, even after adjustment for age, gender and stage (P = <0.01). Comparison of three lung cancer patient cohorts diagnosed between 2001 and 2013 highlights emergent changes in lung cancer demographics, management and outcomes. These include recent increases in proportion of females, pathological and positron emission tomography staging, and Stage IV disease, as well as improved survival despite later stage disease. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-21

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient's quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation.

  12. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

  13. Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Raemaekers, John

    2016-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such as the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) HD10 study demonstrated, that even two cycles of ABVD followed by 20 Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) are sufficient and result in more than 90% of patients being cured. The current treatment for early unfavorable patients is either four cycles of ABVD plus 30 Gy IF-RT or two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline followed by two cycles of ABVD plus IF-RT. Here, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) demonstrated that in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive patients after two cycles of ABVD, treatment switched to two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline plus radiotherapy results in significantly improved outcomes. Other aspects including attempts to further reduce intensity of treatment will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Prognostic factors of advanced stage non-small-cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Kwas, H; Guermazi, E; Khattab, A; Hrizi, C; Zendah, I; Ghédira, H

    2017-09-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men in the world. Although the introduction of new drugs, new therapeutic strategies and despite therapeutic advances, the prognosis is relatively improved during the last years. To evaluate the prognosis of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to identify prognostic factors at these stages. A retrospective study, including 140 cases of locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC diagnosed in our department between 2003 and 2013. The average age was 61±10 years (35 to 90 years). Sex ratio was 18. The delays management were 80±25 days for presentation, 45±20 days for the diagnostic, while the treatment delay was 8±2.33 days. The cancer was at stage IIIA in 14%, IIIB in 27% and IV in 59%. Six months and one-year survival was between 50 and 74% and between 9 and 25%, respectively. Better survival was observed in patients with NSCLC on stage III, having better performance status, having comorbid conditions, with prolonged delays management, a short therapeutic delay and patients who received specific antitumor treatment. The prognostic factors in locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC in our patients were: stage of cancer, performance status, comorbid conditions, delay of management and specific antitumoral treatment. These factors should be considered in the management of patients with advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of public awareness campaigns for the early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hinde, S; McKenna, C; Whyte, S; Peake, M D; Callister, M E J; Rogers, T; Sculpher, M

    2015-06-30

    Survival rates in lung cancer in England are significantly lower than in many similar countries. A range of Be Clear on Cancer (BCOC) campaigns have been conducted targeting lung cancer and found to improve the proportion of diagnoses at the early stage of disease. This paper considers the cost-effectiveness of such campaigns, evaluating the effect of both the regional and national BCOC campaigns on the stage distribution of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at diagnosis. A natural history model of NSCLC was developed using incidence data, data elicited from clinical experts and model calibration techniques. This structure is used to consider the lifetime cost and quality-adjusted survival implications of the early awareness campaigns. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in terms of additional costs per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained are presented. Two scenario analyses were conducted to investigate the role of changes in the 'worried-well' population and the route of diagnosis that might occur as a result of the campaigns. The base-case theoretical model found the regional and national early awareness campaigns to be associated with QALY gains of 289 and 178 QALYs and ICERs of £13 660 and £18 173 per QALY gained, respectively. The scenarios found that increases in the 'worried-well' population may impact the cost-effectiveness conclusions. Subject to the available evidence, the analysis suggests that early awareness campaigns in lung cancer have the potential to be cost-effective. However, significant additional research is required to address many of the limitations of this study. In addition, the estimated natural history model presents previously unavailable estimates of the prevalence and rate of disease progression in the undiagnosed population.

  16. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of public awareness campaigns for the early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, S; McKenna, C; Whyte, S; Peake, M D; Callister, M E J; Rogers, T; Sculpher, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Survival rates in lung cancer in England are significantly lower than in many similar countries. A range of Be Clear on Cancer (BCOC) campaigns have been conducted targeting lung cancer and found to improve the proportion of diagnoses at the early stage of disease. This paper considers the cost-effectiveness of such campaigns, evaluating the effect of both the regional and national BCOC campaigns on the stage distribution of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at diagnosis. Methods: A natural history model of NSCLC was developed using incidence data, data elicited from clinical experts and model calibration techniques. This structure is used to consider the lifetime cost and quality-adjusted survival implications of the early awareness campaigns. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in terms of additional costs per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained are presented. Two scenario analyses were conducted to investigate the role of changes in the ‘worried-well' population and the route of diagnosis that might occur as a result of the campaigns. Results: The base-case theoretical model found the regional and national early awareness campaigns to be associated with QALY gains of 289 and 178 QALYs and ICERs of £13 660 and £18 173 per QALY gained, respectively. The scenarios found that increases in the ‘worried-well' population may impact the cost-effectiveness conclusions. Conclusions: Subject to the available evidence, the analysis suggests that early awareness campaigns in lung cancer have the potential to be cost-effective. However, significant additional research is required to address many of the limitations of this study. In addition, the estimated natural history model presents previously unavailable estimates of the prevalence and rate of disease progression in the undiagnosed population. PMID:26010412

  17. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery

    PubMed Central

    Klimberg, V. Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. Methods In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post‐absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Results Major surgery resulted in an up‐regulation of post‐absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2 = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non‐cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. Conclusions The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the

  18. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2  = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non-cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after

  19. Radiotherapy timing in the treatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer: the impact of thoracic and brain irradiation on survival.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Vieri; Meattini, Icro; Franzese, Ciro; Saieva, Calogero; Bertocci, Silvia; Meacci, Fiammetta; Furfaro, Ilaria; Scartoni, Daniele; Cecchini, Sara; Desideri, Isacco; Ferrari, Katia; Bruni, Alessio; De Luca Cardillo, Carla; Bastiani, Paolo; Agresti, Benedetta; Mangoni, Monica; Livi, Lorenzo; Biti, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer is an aggressive histologic subtype of lung cancer in which the role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been well established in limited-stage disease. We retrospectively reviewed a series of limited-stage small cell lung cancers treated with chemotherapy and thoracic and brain radiotherapy. A total of 124 patients affected by limited-stage small cell lung cancer has been treated over 10 years in our Institute. Fifty-three patients (42.8%) had concomitant radio-chemotherapy treatment and 71 patients (57.2%) a sequential treatment. Eighty-eight patients (70.9%) underwent an association of a platinum-derived drug (cisplatinum or carboplatinum) and etoposide. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was planned in all patients with histologically proven complete response to primary radio-chemotherapy. With a mean follow-up of 2.2 years, complete response was obtained in 50.8% of cases. We found a significant difference between different radio-chemotherapy association approaches (P = 0.007): percentages of overall survival were respectively 10.0%, 12.9% and 5.6% in early, late concomitant and sequential radio-chemotherapy timing. Cranial prophylaxis did not seem to influence overall survival (P = 0.21) or disease-free survival for local relapse (P = 0.34). Concomitant radio-chemotherapy is the best approach according to our experience. Our results show a benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation in distant metastasis-free survival.

  20. Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  1. General Differences between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Anfimov, D. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  2. Association of Marital Status With T Stage at Presentation and Management of Early-Stage Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Cimarron E; Sinnamon, Andrew J; Ming, Michael E; Chu, Emily Y; Fraker, Douglas L; Karakousis, Giorgos C

    2018-05-01

    Early detection of melanoma is associated with improved patient outcomes. Data suggest that spouses or partners may facilitate detection of melanoma before the onset of regional and distant metastases. Less well known is the influence of marital status on the detection of early clinically localized melanoma. To evaluate the association between marital status and T stage at the time of presentation with early-stage melanoma and the decision for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in appropriate patients. This retrospective, population-based study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of 18 population-based registered cancer institutes. Patients with cutaneous melanoma who were at least 18 years of age and without evidence of regional or distant metastases and presented from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014, were identified for the study. Data were analyzed from September 27 to December 5, 2017. Marital status, categorized as married, never married, divorced, or widowed. Clinical T stage at presentation and performance of SLNB for lesions with Breslow thickness greater than 1 mm. A total of 52 063 patients were identified (58.8% men and 41.2% women; median age, 64 years; interquartile range, 52-75 years). Among married patients, 16 603 (45.7%) presented with T1a disease, compared with 3253 never married patients (43.0%), 1422 divorced patients (39.0%), and 1461 widowed patients (32.2%) (P < .001). Conversely, 428 widowed patients (9.4%) presented with T4b disease compared with 1188 married patients (3.3%) (P < .001). The association between marital status and higher T stage at presentation remained significant among never married (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.26-1.39; P < .001), divorced (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.30-1.47; P < .001), and widowed (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.60-1.81; P < .001) patients after adjustment for various socioeconomic and patient factors. Independent of T stage and other patient factors, married

  3. MET gene copy number gain is an independent poor prognostic marker in Korean stage I lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Sun, Ping-Li; Kim, Hyojin; Seo, An Na; Jheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Choon-Taek; Chung, Jin-Haeng

    2014-02-01

    MET gene copy number gain (CNG) and protein overexpression have been reported in lung cancer, but the clinical implications in early stage adenocarcinoma remain unclear. We investigated MET gene copy number and protein expression in 141 cases of surgically resected stage I pulmonary adenocarcinoma. MET gene CNG was determined by silver in situ hybridization, and MET protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between MET gene CNG/protein expression and clinicopathologic parameters and prognostic significance was analyzed. MET gene CNG was found in 24.1% (34 of 141) of the cases and was associated with larger tumor size, pleural invasion, and lymphatic vessel invasion. MET gene CNG was inversely correlated with the presence of lepidic subtype (r = -0.17, p = 0.045) and was not associated with EGFR, KRAS mutation, or ALK gene rearrangement. In addition, MET gene CNG was significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (49 vs. 75 months; p < 0.001) and shorter overall survival (OS) (65 vs. 78 months; p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirmed that MET gene CNG was significantly associated with poorer DFS [p < 0.001; hazard ratio (HR) 5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-13.9] but was not significantly associated with OS. MET overexpression was observed in 71.3% of cases (97 of 136), but it was not correlated with gene CNG. MET gene CNG is an independent poor prognostic factor in patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma. It is associated with aggressive pathologic features and is inversely correlated with the presence of lepidic subtype.

  4. How close are we to customizing chemotherapy in early non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Georgios; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Souglakos, John

    2011-01-01

    Although surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 5-year survival rates range from 77% for stage IA tumors to 23% in stage IIIA disease. Adjuvant chemotherapy has recently been established as a standard of care for resected stage II-III NSCLC, on the basis of large-scale clinical trials employing third-generation platinum-based regimens. As the overall absolute 5-year survival benefit from this approach does not exceed 5% and potential long-term complications are an issue of concern, the aim of customized adjuvant systemic treatment is to optimize the toxicity/benefit ratio, so that low-risk individuals are spared from unnecessary intervention, while avoiding undertreatment of high-risk patients, including those with stage I disease. Therefore, the application of reliable prognostic and predictive biomarkers would enable to identify appropriate patients for the most effective treatment. This is an overview of the data available on the most promising clinicopathological and molecular biomarkers that could affect adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy decisions for operable NSCLC in routine practice. Among the numerous candidate molecular biomarkers, only few gene-expression profiling signatures provide clinically relevant information warranting further validation. On the other hand, real-time quantitative polymerase-chain reaction strategy involving relatively small number of genes offers a practical alternative, with high cross-platform performance. Although data extrapolation from the metastatic setting should be cautious, the concept of personalized, pharmacogenomics-guided chemotherapy for early NSCLC seems feasible, and is currently being evaluated in randomized phase 2 and 3 trials. The mRNA and/or protein expression levels of excision repair cross-complementation group 1, ribonucleotide reductase M1 and breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 are among the most potential biomarkers for early disease

  5. Assessing the extent of non-aggressive cancer in clinically detected stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kale, Minal S; Sigel, Keith; Mhango, Grace; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2018-05-01

    Overdiagnosis among clinically detected lung cancers likely consists of cases that are non-aggressive and slowly progressive and will never disseminate, cause symptoms or be a threat to a subject's survival, even if untreated. In this study, we estimate the prevalence of non-aggressive lung cancers from a large, population-based cancer registry. We identified individuals ≥65 years with histologically confirmed, untreated stage I non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare registry. We estimated the rate of non-aggressive lung cancers by determining the point at which the cumulative lung cancer-specific survival curve no longer changed (ie, the slope approaches zero). At this point, there are no additional deaths due to progressive lung cancer observed among untreated patients after adjusting for deaths from competing risks (these long-term survivors can be considered 'non-aggressive cases). The overall rate of non-aggressive cancers among 2197 clinically detected cases of untreated stage I NSCLC was 2.4%, 95% CI: 1.0% to 3.8%. The rate of non-aggressive cancer was 1.9% (95% CI: 0.0% to 4.9%) for women and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7% to 4.1%) for men (p=0.84). When stratifying by tumour size, non-aggressive cancer rates were 10.2% (95% CI: 0.0% to 29.3%), 2.1% (95% CI: 0.0% to 9.2%), 4.9% (95% CI: 0.0% to 10.3%), 1.8% (95% CI: 0.0% to 5.2%) and 0.0% (95% CI: 0.0% to 1.0%) for tumour sizes <15 mm, 15-24 mm, 25-34 mm, 35-44 mm and ≥45 mm, respectively. In comparison with the smallest tumour sizes (<15 mm), the rates of non-aggressive cancers were not statistically significantly different for tumour sizes 15-24 mm (p=0.36), 25-34 mm (p=0.57), 35-44 mm (p=0.38) and tumour sizes >45 mm (p=0.30). We found relatively low rates of non-aggressive cancers among clinically detected, stage I NSCLC regardless of sex or size. Our findings suggest that most clinically diagnosed early stage cancers should be treated with

  6. Epigenetic modifications in KDM lysine demethylases associate with survival of early-stage NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongyue; Liang, Junya; Zhang, Ruyang; Guo, Yichen; Shen, Sipeng; Su, Li; Lin, Xihong; Moran, Sebastian; Helland, Åslaug; Bjaanæs, Maria M; Karlsson, Anna; Planck, Maria; Esteller, Manel; Fleischer, Thomas; Staaf, Johan; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Feng; Christiani, David C

    2018-01-01

    KDM lysine demethylase family members are related to lung cancer clinical outcomes and are potential biomarkers for chemotherapeutics. However, little is known about epigenetic alterations in KDM genes and their roles in lung cancer survival. Tumor tissue samples of 1230 early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were collected from the five independent cohorts. The 393 methylation sites in KDM genes were extracted from epigenome-wide datasets and analyzed by weighted random forest (Ranger) in discovery phase and validation dataset, respectively. The variable importance scores (VIS) for the sites in top 5% of both discovery and validation sets were carried forward for Cox regression to further evaluate the association with patient's overall survival. TCGA transcriptomic data were used to evaluate the correlation with the corresponding DNA methylation. DNA methylation at sites cg11637544 in KDM2A and cg26662347 in KDM1A were in the top 5% of VIS in both discovery phase and validation for squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), which were also significantly associated with SCC survival ( HR cg11637544  = 1.32, 95%CI, 1.16-1.50, P  = 1.1 × 10 -4 ; HR cg26662347  = 1.88, 95%CI, 1.37-2.60, P  = 3.7 × 10 -3 ), and correlated with corresponding gene expression (cg11637544 for KDM2A , P  = 1.3 × 10 -10 ; cg26662347 for KDM1A P  = 1.5 × 10 -5 ). In addition, by using flexible criteria for Ranger analysis followed by survival classification tree analysis, we identified four clusters for adenocarcinomas and five clusters for squamous cell carcinomas which showed a considerable difference of clinical outcomes with statistical significance. These findings highlight the association between somatic DNA methylation in KDM genes and early-stage NSCLC patient survival, which may reveal potential epigenetic therapeutic targets.

  7. Serum pleiotrophin could be an early indicator for diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Zi-Yan; Shi, Min-Hua; Ji, Cheng-Hong; Yu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN), an angiogenic factor, is associated with various types of cancer, including lung cancer. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of using serum PTN as an early indicator regarding disease diagnosis, classification and prognosis, for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Significant differences among PTN levels in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC, n=40), NSCLC (n=136), and control subjects with benign pulmonary lesions (n=21), as well as patients with different pathological subtypes of NSCLC were observed. A serum level of PTN of 300.1 ng/ml, was determined as the cutoff value differentiating lung cancer patients and controls, with a sensitivity and specificity of 78.4% and 66.7%, respectively. Negative correlations between serum PTN level and pathological differentiation level, stage, and survival time were observed in our cohort of patients with NSCLC. In addition, specific elevation of PTN levels in pulmonary tissue in and around NSCLC lesions in comparison to normal pulmonary tissue obtained from the same subjects was also observed (n=2). This study suggests that the serum PTN level of patients with NSCLC could be an early indicator for diagnosis and prognosis. This conclusion should be further assessed in randomized clinical trials.

  8. An update on the role of advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy in the evaluation and staging of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Adam R.; Akulian, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a common and deadly disease. Many modalities are available to the bronchoscopist to evaluate and stage lung cancer. We review the role of bronchoscopy in the staging of the mediastinum with convex endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and discuss emerging role of esophageal ultrasonography as a complementary modality. In addition, we discuss advances in scope technology and elastography. We review the bronchoscopic methods available for the diagnosis of peripheral lung nodules including radial EBUS and navigational bronchoscopy (NB) with a consideration of the basic methodologies and diagnostic accuracies. We conclude with a discussion of the comparison of the various methodologies. PMID:28470104

  9. Feasibility of four-arm robotic lobectomy as solo surgery in patients with clinical stage I lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Yong; Suh, Jee Won; Narm, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Chang Young; Lee, Jin Gu; Paik, Hyo Chae; Chung, Kyoung Young; Kim, Dae Joon

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of four-arm robotic lobectomy (FARL) as a solo surgical technique in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Early outcome and long-term survival of FARL were compared with those of video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATL). Prospective enrollment of patients with clinical stage I NSCLC undergoing FARL or VATL (20 patients in each group) was planned. Interim analysis for early postoperative outcome was performed after the initial 10 cases in each group. The study was terminated early because of safety issues in the FARL group after enrollment of 12 FARL and 17 VATL patients from 2011 to 2012. There were no differences in clinical characteristics between groups. Lobectomy time and total operation time were significantly longer in the FARL group (P=0.003). There were three life-threatening events in the FARL group (2 bleedings, 1 bronchus tear) that necessitated thoracotomy conversion in 1 patient. There were no differences in other operative outcomes including pain score, complications, or length of hospital stay. Pathologic stage and number of dissected lymph nodes (LNs) were also comparable. During a follow-up of 48.9±9.5 months, recurrence was identified in 2 (16.7%) patients in FARL group and 3 (23.5%) in VATL group. Five-year overall survival (100% vs . 87.5%, P=0.386) and disease-free survival (82.5% vs . 75.6%, P=0.589) were comparable. FARL as solo surgery could not be recommended because of safety issues. It required a longer operation time and had no benefits over VATL in terms of early postoperative outcome or long-term survival.

  10. Diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for mediastinal staging in lung cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Bussy, Sebastián; Labarca, Gonzalo; Canals, Sofia; Caviedes, Iván; Folch, Erik; Majid, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive diagnostic test with a high diagnostic yield for suspicious central pulmonary lesions and for mediastinal lymph node staging. The main objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal lymph node staging in patients with suspected lung cancer. METHODS: Prospective study of patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA for diagnosis. Patients ≥ 18 years of age were recruited between July of 2010 and August of 2013. We recorded demographic variables, radiological characteristics provided by axial CT of the chest, location of the lesion in the mediastinum as per the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer classification, and definitive diagnostic result (EBUS with a diagnostic biopsy or a definitive diagnostic method). RESULTS: Our analysis included 354 biopsies, from 145 patients. Of those 145 patients, 54.48% were male. The mean age was 63.75 years. The mean lymph node size was 15.03 mm, and 90 lymph nodes were smaller than 10.0 mm. The EBUS-TBNA method showed a sensitivity of 91.17%, a specificity of 100.0%, and a negative predictive value of 92.9%. The most common histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: EBUS-TBNA is a diagnostic tool that yields satisfactory results in the staging of neoplastic mediastinal lesions. PMID:26176519

  11. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  12. Does the histologic predominance of pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma influence the extent of resection?

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Murakami, Shuji; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Kayoko; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2017-09-01

    We studied whether histologic subtype according to the new IASLC/ATS/ERS adenocarcinoma classification influences the extent of resection in patients with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Data on 288 patients with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were compared according to clinicopathological characteristics, including predominant histologic subtype and extent of resection. Median follow-up was 38.9 months. Lobectomy was performed in 146 patients, and sublobar resection in 142 patients. When recurrence was compared among the low-grade group (adenocarcinoma in situ, AIS; minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, MIA), intermediate-grade group (lepidic, acinar, and papillary) and high-grade group (solid and micropapillary), the RFS rate decreased as the grade increased (p = 0.037). There was no recurrence in the low-grade or lepidic predominant groups. The recurrence pattern did not differ according to the type of resection or histological subtype. Even in the intermediate- and high-grade groups, the extent of resection was not significantly related to the RFS rate (p = 0.622, p = 0.516). The results were unchanged after adjusting for independent risk factors. The concordance rate between clinical and pathological stage IA was good in low (98.6%) and intermediate grade (84.6%) and poor in high grade (41.2%). AIS, MIA, and lepidic predominant may be curable by any type of complete resection. Even in invasive subtypes, lobectomy does not offer a recurrence-free advantage over sublobar resection. However, in the high-grade group, less than half of clinical stage IA was actually pathological stage IA. Physicians should exercise caution whenever sublobar resection is planned.

  13. Time courses and value of circulating microparticles in patients with operable stage non-small cell lung cancer undergoing surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Wang, Chin-Chou; Hsiao, Chang-Chun; Lu, Hung-I; Leu, Steve; Chang, Huang-Chih; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Fang, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yu-Mu; Liu, Shih-Feng; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Meng-Chih; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-09-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are substantially increased in patients with operable stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prior to lung resection surgery. This study tested the hypothesis that there is a decrease in MPs after surgical intervention. Between March 2012 and January 2015, 33 patients who had operable stage NSCLC were consecutively and prospectively enrolled into the study. Additionally, 31 healthy subjects who were consecutively enrolled in the study period served as age- and gender-matched controls. Circulating MPs (EDAc-MPs, EDAp-MPs, PDAc-MPs, PDAp-MPs) were measured by flow cytometry once in control subjects and twice (i.e., prior to and three months later after surgical intervention) in NSCLC patients. Compared with control subjects, these four types of circulating MPs were significantly higher in NSCLC patients prior to operation (all P < 0.005), but did not differ among the controls and NSCLC patients at 3 months after surgery (all P > 0.2). Additionally, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) showed that these four types of MPs were significantly valuable predictors for detecting early stage NSCLC (all P < 0.004). Circulating MPs which were remarkably increased in the operable stage of NSCLC prior to surgery were substantially decreased 3 months later after surgery. These findings show that circulating MPs might be an accessory biomarker for monitoring those of NSCLC after receiving lung resection surgery.

  14. Affective motives for smoking among early stage smokers.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Amanda R; Wahlquist, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16-20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR - NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  16. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-08-21

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease.

  17. Multiscale Investigations of the Early Stage Oxidation on Cu Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qing; Xiao, Penghao; Lian, Xin; Yang, Shen-Che; Henkelman, Grame; Saidi, Wissam; Yang, Judith; University of Pittsburgh Team; University of Texas at Austin Team

    Previous in situ TEM experiments have shown that the oxidation of the three low index Cu surfaces (100), (110) and (111) exhibit different oxide nucleation rates, and the resulting oxides have 3-dimensional (3D) island shapes or 2D rafts under different conditions. In order to better understand these results, we have investigated the early stages of Cu oxidation using a multiscale computational approach that employs density functional theory (DFT), reactive force field (ReaxFF), and kinetic Mote Carlo (KMC). With DFT calculation, we have compared O2 dissociation barriers on Cu (100), (110) and (111) surfaces at high oxygen coverage to evaluate the kinetic barrier of sublayer oxidization. We found that O2 dissociation barriers on Cu(111) surface are all lower than those on (110) and (100) surfaces. This trend agrees with experimental observations that (111) surface is easier to oxidize. These DFT calculated energy barriers are then incorporated into KMC simulations. The large scale ReaxFF molecular dynamics and KMC simulations detail the oxidation dynamics of the different Cu surfaces, and show the formation of various oxide morphologies that are consistent with experimental observations.

  18. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  19. Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Evgeniya; Zinger, Assaf; da Silva, Dana; Yaari, Zvi; Kajal, Ashima; Vardi-Oknin, Dikla; Goldfeder, Mor; Schroeder, Josh E.; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Hershkovitz, Dov; Schroeder, Avi

    2017-10-01

    Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

  20. Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ming, Wendy; Palidis, Dimitrios J; Spering, Miriam; McKeown, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Visual impairments are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact normal functioning in daily activities. Visual contrast sensitivity is a powerful nonmotor sign for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, it is usually assessed with static visual stimuli. Here we examined the interaction between perception and eye movements in static and dynamic contrast sensitivity tasks in a cohort of mildly impaired, early-stage PD patients. Patients (n = 13) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) viewed stimuli of various spatial frequencies (0-8 cyc/deg) and speeds (0°/s, 10°/s, 30°/s) on a computer monitor. Detection thresholds were determined by asking participants to adjust luminance contrast until they could just barely see the stimulus. Eye position was recorded with a video-based eye tracker. Patients' static contrast sensitivity was impaired in the intermediate spatial-frequency range and this impairment correlated with fixational instability. However, dynamic contrast sensitivity and patients' smooth pursuit were relatively normal. An independent component analysis revealed contrast sensitivity profiles differentiating patients and controls. Our study simultaneously assesses perceptual contrast sensitivity and eye movements in PD, revealing a possible link between fixational instability and perceptual deficits. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity profiles may represent an easily measurable metric as a component of a broader combined biometric for nonmotor features observed in PD.

  1. Partial breast radiation for early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Beryl

    2012-02-01

    This review is to provide an update on the current status of partial breast irradiation (PBI) for women presenting with early-stage breast cancer, as an alternate radiation technique to fractionated, whole breast radiation, following conservation surgery. As more women are asking for and receiving this treatment, both on and off protocols, understanding recent additions to the literature is important to physicians caring for this patient population. Newly published retrospective studies, with follow-up times out to 10 years and the status of both recently completed and still open large prospective phase III trials will be covered, with emphasis on unexpected side effects reported, and some hypothesis-generating radiobiology observations. A recent consensus treatment guideline for PBI use is also discussed. Selected retrospective studies continue to report outcomes matching those achieved with whole breast radiation; however, results from large prospective randomized trials comparing PBI to whole breast radiation have been reported only with short follow-up times, or in two studies, are still pending. A recent consensus guideline is useful at present in selecting patients for discussion of this treatment.

  2. Metformin inhibits early stage diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    JO, WOORI; YU, EUN-SIL; CHANG, MINSUN; PARK, HYUN-KYU; CHOI, HYUN-JI; RYU, JAE-EUN; JANG, SUNGWOONG; LEE, HYO-JU; JANG, JA-JUNE; SON, WOO-CHAN

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effects of metformin have recently emerged despite its original use for type II diabetes. In the present study, the effects of metformin on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model of HCC. Tumor foci were characterized by gross examination and by histopathological characteristics, including proliferation, hepatic progenitor cell content and the expression of hepatocarcinoma-specific molecular markers. Potential target molecules of metformin were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of metformin on chemically induced liver tumorigenesis. The antitumor effects of metformin were increased by the reduction of surface nodules and decreased the incidence of altered hepatocellular foci, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. Also, decreased expression levels of glutathione S-transferase placental form, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin 8 described the inhibitory effects of metformin on HCC. In the present study, Wistar rats receiving treatment with DEN were administered metformin for 16 weeks. In addition, metformin suppressed liver tumorigenesis via an AMPK-dependent pathway. These results suggested that metformin has promising effects on the early stage of HCC in rats. Therefore, metformin may be used for the prevention of HCC recurrence following primary chemotherapy for HCC and/or for high-risk patients, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. PMID:26548419

  3. Early-Stage Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ashley; de Pablo, Juan

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, or human amylin) is implicated in the development of type II diabetes. hIAPP is known to aggregate into amyloid fibrils; however, it is prefibrillar oligomeric species, rather than mature fibrils, that are proposed to be cytotoxic. In order to better understand the role of hIAPP aggregation in the onset of disease, as well as to design effective diagnostics and therapeutics, it is crucial to understand the mechanism of early-stage hIAPP aggregation. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations combined with multiple advanced sampling techniques to examine the formation of the hIAPP dimer and trimer. Metadynamics calculations reveal a free energy landscape for the hIAPP dimer, which suggest multiple possible transition pathways. We employ finite temperature string method calculations to identify favorable pathways for dimer and trimer formation, along with relevant free energy barriers and intermediate structures. Results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms and energetics of hIAPP aggregation. In addition, this work demonstrates that the finite temperature string method is an effective tool in the study of protein aggregation. Funded by National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  4. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  5. Clinical significance of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level in patients with clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Ryo; Suda, Takashi; Hachimaru, Ayumi; Tochii, Daisuke; Tochii, Sachiko; Takagi, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in patients with clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate its clinical significance. Between January 2005 and December 2014, a total of 378 patients with clinical stage IA NSCLC underwent complete resection with systematic node dissection. The survival rate was estimated starting from the date of surgery to the date of either death or the last follow-up by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses by log-rank tests were used to determine prognostic factors. Cox proportional hazards ratios were used to identify independent predictors of poor prognosis. Clinicopathological predictors of lymph node metastases were evaluated by logistic regression analyses. The 5-year survival rate of patients with an elevated preoperative serum CEA level was significantly lower than that of patients with a normal CEA level (75.5% vs. 87.7%; P=0.02). However, multivariate analysis did not show the preoperative serum CEA level to be an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Postoperative pathological factors, including lymphatic permeation, visceral pleural invasion, and lymph node metastases, tended to be positive in patients with an elevated preoperative serum CEA level. In addition, the CEA level was a statistically significant independent clinical predictor of lymph node metastases. The preoperative serum CEA level was not an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with pathological stage IA NSCLC but was an important clinical predictor of tumor invasiveness and lymph node metastases in patients with clinical stage IA NSCLC. Therefore, measurement of the preoperative serum CEA level should be considered even for patients with early-stage NSCLC.

  6. Specific early fine structural changes in the lung following irradiation. [X rays; mice

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, D.P.; Rubin, P.

    1977-01-01

    The lungs of mice were irradiated with single and fractionated doses of 1000 R, 2000 R, and 3000 R and recovered 1 hr, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month following exposure. Electron microscopy revealed early changes in the decrement of lamellar bodies of Type II pneumocytes and increased fibrous content and edema in the septal walls of all animals treated. Those lungs treated with fractionated doses of irradiation displayed more pronounced cellular damage than did singly-dosed lungs. It is proposed that these early changes may predict for subsequent atelectasis.

  7. Family Caregiver Palliative Care Intervention in Supporting Caregivers of Patients With Stage II-IV Gastrointestinal, Gynecologic, Urologic and Lung Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-12

    Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Ureter Cancer; Stage IIA Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Lung Carcinoma

  8. Stage-dependent and locus-specific role of histone demethylase Jumonji D3 (JMJD3) in the embryonic stages of lung development.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingtian; Wang, Helen Y; Chepelev, Iouri; Zhu, Qingyuan; Wei, Gang; Zhao, Keji; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2014-07-01

    Histone demethylases have emerged as important players in developmental processes. Jumonji domain containing-3 (Jmjd3) has been identified as a key histone demethylase that plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression; however, the in vivo function of Jmjd3 in embryonic development remains largely unknown. To this end, we generated Jmjd3 global and conditional knockout mice. Global deletion of Jmjd3 induces perinatal lethality associated with defective lung development. Tissue and stage-specific deletion revealed that Jmjd3 is dispensable in the later stage of embryonic lung development. Jmjd3 ablation downregulates the expression of genes critical for lung development and function, including AQP-5 and SP-B. Jmjd3-mediated alterations in gene expression are associated with locus-specific changes in the methylation status of H3K27 and H3K4. Furthermore, Jmjd3 is recruited to the SP-B promoter through interactions with the transcription factor Nkx2.1 and the epigenetic protein Brg1. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Jmjd3 plays a stage-dependent and locus-specific role in the mouse lung development. Our study provides molecular insights into the mechanisms by which Jmjd3 regulates target gene expression in the embryonic stages of lung development.

  9. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... respect to geographic location. SBA's primary concern in terms of geography is to ensure that the Early... SBICs is the primary source of cash used to service their SBA debt. SBA expects that some Early Stage...--Early Stage SBICs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this...

  11. Outcomes of patients with a pretransplant history of early-stage melanoma.

    PubMed

    Puza, Charles J; Barbas, Andrew S; Mosca, Paul J

    2018-06-25

    A history of melanoma within the preceding 5 years is commonly considered a contraindication to solid organ transplantation. We investigated how a pretransplant history of melanoma impacts patient survival and melanoma recurrence. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, and Duke's retrospective database was used to identify 4552 patients who underwent a solid organ transplant at Duke University from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2016. Data with regard to the transplant, melanoma characteristics, rejection episodes, and survival were recorded. Of 4552 patients who underwent a solid organ transplant, 12 (0.3%) had a history of melanoma before transplant (six with melanoma in situ and six with stage I disease). The median time between melanoma diagnosis and transplant was 4.13 years (range: 1.1-13.3 years). The study cohort consisted of four liver transplants, four lung transplants, one kidney transplant, one heart transplant, one small bowel transplant, and one multivisceral transplant. At the median follow-up time of 2.8 years, 10 (83.3%) patients were alive. In nonmelanoma cohorts, the 3-year survival is 70% for thoracic transplants, 78% for liver transplants, and 88% for kidney transplants. In well-selected patients with a history of early-stage melanoma and an appropriate time interval between melanoma treatment and transplant, post-transplant outcomes are favorable.

  12. Sapanisertib and Osimertinib in Treating Patients With Stage IV EGFR Mutation Positive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer After Progression on a Previous EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-25

    EGFR Activating Mutation; EGFR Exon 19 Deletion Mutation; EGFR NP_005219.2:p.G719X; EGFR NP_005219.2:p.L858R; EGFR NP_005219.2:p.L861Q; EGFR T790M Mutation Negative; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  13. Defining the Ideal Time Interval Between Planned Induction Therapy and Surgery for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Samson, Pamela; Crabtree, Traves D; Robinson, Cliff G; Morgensztern, Daniel; Broderick, Stephen; Krupnick, A Sasha; Kreisel, Daniel; Patterson, G Alexander; Meyers, Bryan; Puri, Varun

    2017-04-01

    Induction therapy leads to significant improvement in survival for selected patients with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer. The ideal time interval between induction therapy and surgery remains unknown. Clinical stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving induction therapy and surgery were identified in the National Cancer Database. Delayed surgery was defined as greater than or equal to 3 months after starting induction therapy. A logistic regression model identified variables associated with delayed surgery. Cox proportional hazards modeling and Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed to evaluate variables independently associated with overall survival. From 2006 to 2010, 1,529 of 2,380 (64.2%) received delayed surgery. Delayed surgery patients were older (61.2 ± 10.0 years versus 60.3 ± 9.2; p = 0.03), more likely to be non-white (12.4% versus 9.7%; p = 0.046), and less likely to have private insurance (50% versus 58.2%; p = 0.002). Delayed surgery patients were also more likely to have a sublobar resection (6.3% versus 2.9%). On multivariate analysis, age greater than 68 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 1.7) was associated with delayed surgery, whereas white race (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.99) and private insurance status (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.99) were associated with early surgery. Delayed surgery was associated with higher risk of long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.47). Delayed surgery after induction therapy for stage IIIA lung cancer is associated with shorter survival, and is influenced by both social and physiologic factors. Prospective work is needed to further characterize the relationship between patient comorbidities and functional status with receipt of timely surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  15. Implications of delayed initiation of radiotherapy: accelerated repopulation after induction chemotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien P; Weinberg, Vivian K; Jahan, Thierry M; Jablons, David M; Yom, Sue S

    2011-11-01

    For patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer treated with induction chemotherapy (ICT), delayed initiation of subsequent radiotherapy (RT) may allow for repopulation in the interval between treatment modalities and during the early phase of RT. We quantified the impact of postinduction RT timing by evaluating the pace of tumor regrowth. Institutionally approved retrospective review identified 21 analyzable patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer who had platinum-based ICT followed by RT+/- chemotherapy from 2002 to 2009. Radiographic response was determined by RECIST criteria and the volume of the single largest tumor mass on the pre-ICT, post-ICT, and RT-planning computed tomography scans. After ICT, the median percent volume change from pre-ICT baseline was -41% (range -86 to +86%). By the RT-planning computed tomography scan, the median percent volume change from the post-ICT timepoint was +40% (range -11 to +311%) and the median volume change was +20 ml (range -4 to 102 ml); these changes were significant (p = 0.0002). Similar results were seen for tumor diameter. A correlation was observed between the amount of delay and degree of regrowth for percent volume (p = 0.0006) and percent diameter change (p = 0.003). A delay greater than 21 days produced greater increases in percent volume change (p = 0.002) and percent diameter (p = 0.055) than lesser delays. After ICT, tumor regrowth can occur within a few weeks. Radiation treatment planning should begin as soon as possible after the administration of ICT to maximize the benefits of cytoreduction.

  16. "EXHALE": exercise as a strategy for rehabilitation in advanced stage lung cancer patients: a randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of 12 weeks supervised exercise intervention versus usual care for advanced stage lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Quist, Morten; Langer, Seppo W; Rørth, Mikael; Christensen, Karl Bang; Adamsen, Lis

    2013-10-14

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America and Western Europe. Patients with lung cancer in general have reduced physical capacity, functional capacity, poor quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. Intervention studies indicate that physical training can address these issues. However, there is a lack of decisive evidence regarding the effect of physical exercise in patients with advanced lung cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a twelve weeks, twice weekly program consisting of: supervised, structured training in a group of advanced lung cancer patients (cardiovascular and strength training, relaxation). A randomized controlled trial will test the effects of the exercise intervention in 216 patients with advanced lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIb-IV and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) extensive disease (ED)). Primary outcome is maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂peak). Secondary outcomes are muscle strength (1RM), functional capacity (6MWD), lung capacity (Fev1) and patient reported outcome (including anxiety, depression (HADS) and quality of life (HRQOL)). The present randomized controlled study will provide data on the effectiveness of a supervised exercise intervention in patients receiving systemic therapy for advanced lung cancer. It is hoped that the intervention can improve physical capacity and functional level, during rehabilitation of cancer patients with complex symptom burden and help them to maintain independent function for as long as possible. http://ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01881906.

  17. Connective tissue-activating peptide III: a novel blood biomarker for early lung cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Yee, John; Sadar, Marianne D; Sin, Don D; Kuzyk, Michael; Xing, Li; Kondra, Jennifer; McWilliams, Annette; Man, S F Paul; Lam, Stephen

    2009-06-10

    There are no reliable blood biomarkers to detect early lung cancer. We used a novel strategy that allows discovery of differentially present proteins against a complex and variable background. Mass spectrometry analyses of paired pulmonary venous-radial arterial blood from 16 lung cancer patients were applied to identify plasma proteins potentially derived from the tumor microenvironment. Two differentially expressed proteins were confirmed in 64 paired venous-arterial blood samples using an immunoassay. Twenty-eight pre- and postsurgical resection peripheral blood samples and two independent, blinded sets of plasma from 149 participants in a lung cancer screening study (49 lung cancers and 100 controls) and 266 participants from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Lung Health Study (45 lung cancer and 221 matched controls) determined the accuracy of the two protein markers to detect subclinical lung cancer. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP III)/ neutrophil activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and haptoglobin were identified to be significantly higher in venous than in arterial blood. CTAP III/NAP-2 levels decreased after tumor resection (P = .01). In two independent population cohorts, CTAP III/NAP-2 was significantly associated with lung cancer and improved the accuracy of a lung cancer risk prediction model that included age, smoking, lung function (FEV(1)), and an interaction term between FEV(1) and CTAP III/NAP-2 (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91) compared to CAPIII/NAP-2 alone. We identified CTAP III/NAP-2 as a novel biomarker to detect preclinical lung cancer. The study underscores the importance of applying blood biomarkers as part of a multimodal lung cancer risk prediction model instead of as stand-alone tests.

  18. Lung Abscess: An Early Complication of Lung Transplantation in a Patient with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Markelić, I; Jakopović, M; Klepetko, W; Džubur, F; Hećimović, A; Makek, M J; Samaržija, M; Dugac, A V

    2017-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis (CF) developed lung abscess, as a rare complication caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infection, after lung transplantation (LT). After 6 months of long-term antibiotic therapy, the abscess was successfully eliminated. In reviewed published literature, no previous report was found describing this kind of complication caused by MDR A. baumannii in post-LT patient with CF. In our experience, lung abscess in LT recipients with CF can be successfully treated with prolonged antibiotic therapy.

  19. Technical description of endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration for the staging of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Henk; van Putten, John W G; Douma, W Rob; Smidt, Alie A; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; Groen, Harry J M

    2005-02-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a novel method for staging of the mediastinum in lung cancer patients. The recent development of linear scanners enables safe and accurate fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of mediastinal and upper abdominal structures under real-time ultrasound guidance. However, various methods and equipment for mediastinal EUS-FNA are being used throughout the world, and a detailed description of the procedures is lacking. A thorough description of linear EUS-FNA is needed. A step-by-step description of the linear EUS-FNA procedure as performed in our hospital will be provided. Ultrasonographic landmarks will be shown on images. The procedure will be related to published literature, with a systematic literature search. EUS-FNA is an outpatient procedure under conscious sedation. The typical linear EUS-FNA procedure starts with examination of the retroperitoneal area. After this, systematic scanning of the mediastinum is performed at intervals of 1-2cm. Abnormalities are noted, and FNA of the abnormalities can be performed. Specimens are assessed for cellularity on-site. The entire procedure takes 45-60 min. EUS-FNA is minimally invasive, accurate, and fast. Anatomical areas can be reached that are inaccessible for cervical mediastinoscopy. EUS-FNA is useful for the staging of lung cancer or the assessment and diagnosis of abnormalities in the posterior mediastinum.

  20. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes.

  1. Hospitalization costs of lung cancer diagnosis in Turkey: Is there a difference between histological types and stages?

    PubMed

    Türk, Murat; Yıldırım, Fatma; Yurdakul, Ahmet Selim; Öztürk, Can

    2016-12-01

    To establish the direct costs of diagnosing lung cancer in hospitalized patients. Hospital data of patients who were hospitalized and diagnosed as lung cancer between September 2013 and August 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who underwent surgery for diagnosis and who were initiated with cancer treatment during the same hospital stay were excluded from study. Histological types and stages of lung cancer were determined. Expenses were grouped as laboratory costs, pathology costs, diagnostic imaging costs, overnight room charges, medication costs, blood center costs, consumable expenditures' costs and inpatient service charges (including consultants' service, electrocardiogram, follow-up, nursing services, diagnostic interventions). Of the 68 patients, 55 (81%) had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 13 (19%) had small cell lung cancer (SCLC). 47% of patients with NSCLC had stage 4 disease and 86% of patients with SCLC had extensive stage disease. Median total cost per patient was 910 (95% CI= 832-1291) Euros (€). Of all costs, 37% were due to inpatient service charges and 22% were medication costs. Median total cost per patient was 912 (95% CI= 783-1213) € in NSCLC patients and 908 (95% CI= 456-2203) € in SCLC patients (p> 0.05). In NSCLC group, total cost per patient was 873 (95% CI= 591-1143) € in stage 1-2-3 diseases and 975 (95% CI= 847-1536) € in stage 4 disease (p> 0.05). In SCLC group total cost per patient was 937 € in limited stage and 502 (95% CI= 452-2508) € in extensive stage (p> 0.05). There is no significant difference between costs related to diagnosis of different lung cancer types and stages in patients hospitalized in a university hospital.

  2. Phase 2 study of high-dose proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for unresectable stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joe Y; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lu, Charles; Wen, Hong Y; Allen, Pamela K; Tsao, Anne; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Cox, James D

    2011-10-15

    The authors sought to improve the toxicity of conventional concurrent chemoradiation therapy for stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using proton-beam therapy to escalate the radiation dose to the tumor. They report early results of a phase 2 study of high-dose proton therapy and concurrent chemotherapy in terms of toxicity, failure patterns, and survival. Forty-four patients with stage III NSCLC were treated with 74 grays (radiobiologic equivalent) proton therapy with weekly carboplatin (area under the curve, 2 U) and paclitaxel (50 mg/m(2)). Disease was staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT), and treatments were simulated with 4-dimensional (4D) CT to account for tumor motion. Protons were delivered as passively scattered beams, and treatment simulation was repeated during the treatment process to determine the need for adaptive replanning. Median follow-up time was 19.7 months (range, 6.1-44.4 months), and median overall survival time was 29.4 months. No patient experienced grade 4 or 5 proton-related adverse events. The most common nonhematologic grade 3 toxicities were dermatitis (n = 5), esophagitis (n = 5), and pneumonitis (n = 1). Nine (20.5%) patients experienced local disease recurrence, but only 4 (9.1%) had isolated local failure. Four (9.1%) patients had regional lymph node recurrence, but only 1 (2.3%) had isolated regional recurrence. Nineteen (43.2%) patients developed distant metastasis. The overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 86% and 63% at 1 year. Concurrent high-dose proton therapy and chemotherapy are well tolerated, and the median survival time of 29.4 months is encouraging for unresectable stage III NSCLC. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  3. Surveillance Practice Patterns after Curative Intent Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in the Medicare Population.

    PubMed

    Erb, Christopher T; Su, Kevin W; Soulos, Pamela R; Tanoue, Lynn T; Gross, Cary P

    2016-09-01

    Recurrence after treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is common, and routine imaging surveillance is recommended by evidence-based guidelines. Little is known about surveillance patterns after curative intent therapy for early stage NSCLC. We sought to understand recent practice patterns for surveillance of stage I NSCLC in the first two years after curative intent therapy in the Medicare population. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database we selected patients diagnosed with stage I NSCLC between 1998 and 2008. We studied adherence to surveillance guidelines based on specialty society recommendations for chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) scanning. We also tracked the use of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans, which are not recommended for surveillance. We calculated the percent of patients who received guideline-adherent surveillance imaging and used logistic regression to determine associations between patient and provider factors and guideline adherence. Overall, 61.4% of patients received guideline-adherent surveillance during the initial 2 years after treatment. Use of CT scans in the first year after treatment increased from 47.4% in 1998-78.5% in 2008, and PET use increased from 5.8% to 28.9%. Adherence with surveillance imaging was associated with younger age, higher income, more comorbidities, access to primary care, and receipt of SBRT as the primary treatment. Adherence to specialty society guidelines for surveillance after treatment for stage I NSCLC was poor in this population of Medicare beneficiaries, with less than two-thirds of patients receiving recommended imaging, and almost 30% receiving non-recommended PET scans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-Site Cannulation Venovenous Extracorporeal CO2 Removal as Bridge to Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in End-Stage Lung Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Redwan, Bassam; Ziegeler, Stephan; Semik, Michael; Fichter, Joachim; Dickgreber, Nicolas; Vieth, Volker; Ernst, Erik Christian; Fischer, Stefan

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is an important treatment option for end-stage lung emphysema in carefully selected patients. Here, we first describe the application of low-flow venovenous extracorporeal CO2 removal (LFVV-ECCO2R) as bridge to LVRS in patients with end-stage lung emphysema experiencing severe hypercapnia caused by acute failure of the breathing pump. Between March and October 2015, n = 4 patients received single-site LFVV-ECCO2R as bridge to LVRS. Indication for extracorporeal lung support was severe hypercapnia with respiratory acidosis and acute breathing pump failure. Two patients required continuous mechanical ventilation over a temporary tracheostomy and were bed ridden. The other two patients were nearly immobile because of severe dyspnea at rest. Length of preoperative ECCO2R was 14 (1-42) days. All patients underwent unilateral LVRS. Anatomical resection of the right (n = 3) or left (n = 1) upper lobe was performed. Postoperatively, both patients with previous mechanical ventilatory support were successfully weaned. ECCO2R in patients with end-stage lung emphysema experiencing severe hypercapnia caused by acute breathing pump failure is a safe and effective bridging tool to LVRS. In such patients, radical surgery leads to a significant improvement of the performance status and furthermore facilitates respiratory weaning from mechanical ventilation.

  5. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bakkal, B.H.; Gultekin, F.A.; Guven, B.; Turkcu, U.O.; Bektas, S.; Can, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage. PMID:23969972

  6. Donor age and early graft failure after lung transplantation: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, M R; Peterson, E R; Easthausen, I; Quintanilla, I; Colago, E; Sonett, J R; D'Ovidio, F; Costa, J; Diamond, J M; Christie, J D; Arcasoy, S M; Lederer, D J

    2013-10-01

    Lungs from older adult organ donors are often unused because of concerns for increased mortality. We examined associations between donor age and transplant outcomes among 8860 adult lung transplant recipients using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and Lung Transplant Outcomes Group data. We used stratified Cox proportional hazard models and generalized linear mixed models to examine associations between donor age and both 1-year graft failure and primary graft dysfunction (PGD). The rate of 1-year graft failure was similar among recipients of lungs from donors age 18-64 years, but severely ill recipients (Lung Allocation Score [LAS] >47.7 or use of mechanical ventilation) of lungs from donors age 56-64 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (p-values for interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Recipients of lungs from donors <18 and ≥65 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.50 and adjusted HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.47-3.15, respectively). Donor age was not associated with the risk of PGD. In summary, the use of lungs from donors age 56 to 64 years may be safe for adult candidates without a high LAS and the use of lungs from pediatric donors is associated with a small increase in early graft failure. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Stereotactic hypofractionated radiation therapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Frank B; Geinitz, Hans; Schill, Sabine; Grosu, Anca; Schratzenstaller, Ulrich; Molls, Michael; Jeremic, Branislav

    2005-04-01

    We reviewed our initial institutional experience with the use of stereotactic hypofractionated radiation therapy (SFRT) in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer due to a severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or chronic heart disease (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2) were treated between December 2000 and October 2003 with SFRT in curative intent. Infiltration of locoregional lymph nodes and distant metastases were ruled out by computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain, thorax, and abdomen, and by whole body FDG-positron emission tomography scan in all patients. Total RT doses ranged from 24.0 to 37.5 Gy, given in 3-5 fractions to the 60% isodose encompassing the planning target volume. Immobilization was carried out by a vacuum couch and a low-pressure foil. The clinical target volume was the tumor as it appeared in lung windowing on lung CT scan. Organ movements (caused by breathing; range, 6-22 mm) and reproducibility of patient positioning in the couch (range, 3-12 mm) were calculated by sequential CT and orthogonal films. The individual values were taken into account as a safety margin for the definition of the planning target volume (PTV). The median follow-up of living patients is 18 months (range, 6-38 months). As maximum response, there were 10 (33%) complete responses (CRs) and 14 (47%) partial responses (PRs), resulting in a total response rate of 80%. Stable disease was observed in 6 (20%) patients, while no patient experienced progressive disease. During follow-up, 2 (7%) local recurrences were observed (after 17 and 18 months, respectively). Of 5 (17%) patients who developed distant metastasis, 1 patient developed it in liver (3 months), another one in brain (6 months), and another one in the lung (36 months), while 2 patients developed it in mediastinal lymph nodes (after 8, and 11 months, respectively) only

  8. Prognostic value of the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification in stage IB lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, C-h; Wang, W; Wei, Y; Hu, H-d; Zou, J; Yan, J; Yu, L-k; Yang, R-s; Wang, Y

    2015-10-01

    Patients with pathological stage IB lung adenocarcinoma have a variable prognosis, even if received the same treatment. This study investigated the prognostic value of the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) lung adenocarcinoma classification in resected stage IB lung adenocarcinoma. We identified 276 patients with pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma who had undergone surgical resection at the Nanjing Chest Hospital between 2005 and 2010. The histological subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS international multidisciplinary lung adenocarcinoma classification. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification and patients' prognosis. Two hundred and seventy-six patients with pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma had an 86.2% 5-year overall survival (OS) and 80.4% 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). Patients with micropapillary and solid predominant tumors had a significantly worse OS and DFS as compared to those with other subtypes predominant tumors (p = 0.003 and 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the new classification was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS of pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma (p = 0.009 and 0.003). Our study revealed that the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification was an independent prognostic factor of pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma. This new classification is valuable of screening out high risk patients to receive postoperative adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The prognostic impact of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in patients with clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Tomoyoshi; Furuya, Kiyomi; Yamazaki, Koji; Miura, Naoko; Tsutsui, Kana; Takeo, Sadanori

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated the long-term outcomes of clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) who underwent lobectomy. We reviewed the chest computed tomography (CT) findings and divided the patients into normal, fibrosis, emphysema and CPFE groups. We evaluated the relationships among the CT findings, the clinicopathological findings and postoperative survival. The patients were classified into the following groups based on the preoperative chest CT findings: normal lung, n = 187; emphysema, n = 62; fibrosis, n = 8; and CPFE, n = 17. The patients with CPFE were significantly older, more likely to be men and smokers, had a higher KL-6 level and lower FEV 1.0% value and had a higher rate of squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival rates were as follows: normal group, 82.5 and 76.8%; emphysema group, 80.0 and 74.9%; fibrosis group, 46.9 and 50%; and CPFE group, 36.9 and 27.9%, respectively (p < 0.01). A univariate and multivariate analysis determined that the pathological stage and CT findings were associated with OS. CPFE is a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor after lobectomy, even in early-stage NSCLC patients with a preserved lung function.

  10. [Value of surgery for stage IIIa non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Wang, Mengzhao; Hu, Ke; Xu, Yan; Ma, Manjiao; Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Li, Longyun; Wang, Huazhu

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, comprehensive treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy is advocated for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, many researchers have questioned the effectiveness of surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of surgery for stage III NSCLC. Between March 2002 and October 2012, 310 cases that have completed followed-up data with stage III NSCLC were received in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. They were divided into surgical and non-surgical groups according to whether received surgery when diagnosed. In TNM staging, stage III NSCLC includes stage IIIa and IIIb, and stage IIIa NSCLC can be grouped into stage T4N0/T3-4N1M0 and T1-3N2M0 according to different N stages. Analyzed the enumeration data by Chi-Square test. Kaplan-Meier survival method was used to calculate the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), and to draw the survival curves. A P value less than 0.05 was evaluated as statistically significant. Three hundred and ten stage III NSCLC patients include surgical group 189 cases and non-surgical group 121 cases. One hundred and eighty-eight stage IIIa NSCLC patients include surgical group 152 cases and non-surgical group 36 cases. In stage IIIa, stage T4N0/T3-4N1M0 had 57 patients with 44 surgical and 13 non-surgical patients, and stage T1-3N2M0 had 131 patients with 108 surgical and 23 non-surgical patients. Thirty-seven out of 121 stage IIIb NSCLC patients received surgery. They had 22 stage T4N2M0 cases and 15 stage T1-4N3M0 cases. The patient whose performance status was 0 and staging was stage IIIa was more inclined to undergo surgery. For stage IIIa NSCLC patients, the median OS of surgical and non-surgical groups were 38.9 and 21.8 months, and the median PFS of them were 19.2 and 11.9 months respectively. The difference of OS between the two groups was significant (P=0.041), but the PFS of them had no significant difference (P=0.209). For stage T4N0/T3-4N1M0 which

  11. Tissue redox activity as a hallmark of carcinogenesis: from early to terminal stages of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Saga, Tsuneo

    2013-05-01

    The study aimed to clarify the dynamics of tissue redox activity (TRA) in cancer progression and assess the importance of this parameter for therapeutic strategies. The experiments were carried out on brain tissues of neuroblastoma-bearing, glioma-bearing, and healthy mice. TRA was visualized in vivo by nitroxide-enhanced MRI on anesthetized animals or in vitro by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy on isolated tissue specimens. Two biochemical parameters were analyzed in parallel: tissue total antioxidant capacity (TTAC) and plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). In the early stage of cancer, the brain tissues were characterized by a shorter-lived MRI signal than that from healthy brains (indicating a higher reducing activity for the nitroxide radical), which was accompanied by an enhancement of TTAC and MMP9 plasma levels. In the terminal stage of cancer, tissues in both hemispheres were characterized by a longer-lived MRI signal than in healthy brains (indicating a high-oxidative activity) that was accompanied by a decrease in TTAC and an increase in the MMP2/MMP9 plasma levels. Cancer progression also affected the redox potential of tissues distant from the primary tumor locus (liver and lung). Their oxidative status increased in both stages of cancer. The study shows that tissue redox balance is very sensitive to the progression of cancer and can be used as a diagnostic marker of carcinogenesis. The study also suggests that the noncancerous tissues of a cancer-bearing organism are susceptible to oxidative damage and should be considered a therapeutic target. ©2013 AACR.

  12. On the interplay effects with proton scanning beams in stage III lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yupeng; Kardar, Laleh; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Cao, Wenhua; Chang, Joe Y.; Liao, Li; Zhu, Ronald X.; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Liao, Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Lim, Gino; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric impact of interplay between spot-scanning proton beam and respiratory motion in intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III lung cancer. Methods: Eleven patients were sampled from 112 patients with stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer to well represent the distribution of 112 patients in terms of target size and motion. Clinical target volumes (CTVs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) were defined according to the authors' clinical protocol. Uniform and realistic breathing patterns were considered along with regular- and hypofractionation scenarios. The dose contributed by a spot was fully calculated on the computed tomography (CT) images corresponding to the respiratory phase that the spot is delivered, and then accumulated to the reference phase of the 4DCT to generate the dynamic dose that provides an estimation of what might be delivered under the influence of interplay effect. The dynamic dose distributions at different numbers of fractions were compared with the corresponding 4D composite dose which is the equally weighted average of the doses, respectively, computed on respiratory phases of a 4DCT image set. Results: Under regular fractionation, the average and maximum differences in CTV coverage between the 4D composite and dynamic doses after delivery of all 35 fractions were no more than 0.2% and 0.9%, respectively. The maximum differences between the two dose distributions for the maximum dose to the spinal cord, heart V40, esophagus V55, and lung V20 were 1.2 Gy, 0.1%, 0.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. Although relatively large differences in single fraction, correlated with small CTVs relative to motions, were observed, the authors' biological response calculations suggested that this interfractional dose variation may have limited biological impact. Assuming a hypofractionation scenario, the differences between the 4D composite and dynamic doses were well confined even for single fraction. Conclusions: Despite

  13. On the interplay effects with proton scanning beams in stage III lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yupeng; Kardar, Laleh; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Cao, Wenhua; Chang, Joe Y; Liao, Li; Zhu, Ronald X; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Liao, Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D; Lim, Gino; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-02-01

    To assess the dosimetric impact of interplay between spot-scanning proton beam and respiratory motion in intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III lung cancer. Eleven patients were sampled from 112 patients with stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer to well represent the distribution of 112 patients in terms of target size and motion. Clinical target volumes (CTVs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) were defined according to the authors' clinical protocol. Uniform and realistic breathing patterns were considered along with regular- and hypofractionation scenarios. The dose contributed by a spot was fully calculated on the computed tomography (CT) images corresponding to the respiratory phase that the spot is delivered, and then accumulated to the reference phase of the 4DCT to generate the dynamic dose that provides an estimation of what might be delivered under the influence of interplay effect. The dynamic dose distributions at different numbers of fractions were compared with the corresponding 4D composite dose which is the equally weighted average of the doses, respectively, computed on respiratory phases of a 4DCT image set. Under regular fractionation, the average and maximum differences in CTV coverage between the 4D composite and dynamic doses after delivery of all 35 fractions were no more than 0.2% and 0.9%, respectively. The maximum differences between the two dose distributions for the maximum dose to the spinal cord, heart V40, esophagus V55, and lung V20 were 1.2 Gy, 0.1%, 0.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. Although relatively large differences in single fraction, correlated with small CTVs relative to motions, were observed, the authors' biological response calculations suggested that this interfractional dose variation may have limited biological impact. Assuming a hypofractionation scenario, the differences between the 4D composite and dynamic doses were well confined even for single fraction. Despite the presence of interplay effect, the

  14. Experimental constrain of hydrogen production during early serpentinization stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, M.; Munoz, M.; Vidal, O.; Parra, T.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of mantellic peridotites and ultramafic rocks along axial valleys of low spread oceanic ridges plays a key role in different fundamental domains like, 1) energetic gaz production (H2 and hydrocarbons) representing a potential source of energy for future generations, 2) formation of organic pre-biotic molecules in potential relation with the origin of life. Moreover, such complex volcanic-related alteration processes play fundamental role in economic geology, being widely associated to important polymetallic sulphides ore deposits. Recent researches proposed an initial hydrogen production due to the integration of ferric iron in Fe,Mg-serpentine. To better understand the early stages of hydrogen production, a series of natural peridotite rocks have been experimentally exposed to hydrothermal conditions, up to 300°C, 300 bars during different time scales. Experiments have been performed in using autoclaves with a sampling gas system. A systematic mineralogical characterization of the new products was carried out using classical spectroscopic tools. In particular, we focused on the iron behaviour using a redox and structural micro-XANES investigation. Redox information has been accurately derived from the pre-peak features previously calibrated from model compounds, while structural information about short and medium range order around iron has been extracted from the XANES region of the spectra, based both on experimental standards and ab-initio theoretical calculations. Two processes of oxidation emerged. Before two month experiment duration, serpentine displays a not negligible oxidation of ferrous iron in his structure (up to 60%), while after two months, iron oxides and hydroxides appear in the system. These results seem to correspond to natural observations. The iron coordination decreases linearly with time. It means that iron also integrates the serpentine tetrahedral sites. Moreover, high resolution µ-XAS maps on experimental samples

  15. Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S.; Cardellini, P.

    1997-02-01

    The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surfacemore » ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.« less

  16. SU-E-J-269: Tracking of Tumor Regression for Stage III Lung Cancer Using CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, K; Biswas, T; Podder, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study is to evaluate the tumor regression over the course of EBRT treatment and to determine the difference of tumor reduction for stage III lung squamous cell cancer (SCC) and adenocarcinoma using CBCT. Methods: Twenty three stage III lung cancer patients treated in our clinic who had daily cone beam CT (CBCT) were selected for this study (16 adenocarcinoma and 7 SCC cases). Patients received prescription dose in the range of 50Gy–71.4Gy (mean =60.3Gy, median =50Gy) at 1.8Gy or 2Gy per fraction. Treatments spanned over a minimum of five weeks. Initial mean volume of the gross tumor volumemore » (GTV) was 123cc (range = 14.7cc–353.3cc). For this study, we choose six sets of CBCTs at an interval of one week, starting from the first fraction of treatment. Daily CBCTs from treatment linac computer were transferred to MIM Software version 6.0. An experienced physician contoured the primary GTV on each slices of the CBCT for these patients. Results: A consistent regression of the GTVs was observed in all patients, except in one patient (adeno case) where GTV did not change. Weekly volumetric reduction was in the range of 11.2%–16.6%. Maximum reductions were noticed in the first two weeks of the treatment cycle; mean overall (for adeno+SCC) reductions were 16.6%, 14.2% in week-1 and week-2, respectively. Mean reduction over five weeks of treatment was 49.8% (range = 0.1%–75.5%). Higher reduction was observed in SCC patients as compare to adenocarcinoma cases (54.9% vs. 47.6%); however, the difference was not statistically significant (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Large regression of tumors over the course of EBRT for stage III lung cancer patients was observed. Both SCC and adenocarcinoma responded well; overall reduction for SCC cases was higher. A future study is warranted for determining the co-relation between tumor volume reduction and treatment outcome.« less

  17. Pulmonary FGF9 gene expression is downregulated during the pseudoglandular stage in nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lungs.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiromizu; Friedmacher, Florian; Fujiwara, Naho; Hofmann, Alejandro; Puri, Prem

    2014-02-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypoplasia associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains unclear. Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) is an essential component of the gene network that regulates lung development. FGF9 knockouts exhibit disrupted mesenchymal proliferation and reduced airway branching. The authors hypothesized that pulmonary FGF9 gene expression is downregulated during the pseudoglandular stage in nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lungs. Pregnant rats received either nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9 (D9). Fetal lungs were dissected on D15 and D18, and were divided into controls, hypoplastic lungs with CDH (CDH+) and hypoplastic lungs without CDH (CDH-). Pulmonary FGF9 gene expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate FGF9 protein expression/distribution. Relative messenger RNA levels of FGF9 were significantly decreased on D15 in hypoplastic lungs compared with controls (p < 0.01), and on D18 in CDH+ and CDH- compared with controls (p< 0.05, respectively). Immunoreactivity of FGF9 was markedly diminished in mesothelium and distal airway epithelium on D15 and decreased in overall intensity on D18 in hypoplastic lungs compared with controls. Downregulation of FGF9 gene expression during the pseudoglandular stage may cause pulmonary hypoplasia in the nitrofen model by decreasing distal airway epithelial and mesenchymal proliferation throughout the branching morphogenesis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Is knowledge translation adequate? A quality assurance study of staging investigations in early stage breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Dolly; Hogeveen, Sophie; Sweet Goldstein, Miriam; George, Ralph; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Hoch, Jeffrey; Haq, Rashida; Simmons, Christine E

    2012-02-01

    After primary surgery, patients diagnosed with early stage breast cancer undergo radiological investigations based on pathologic stage of disease to rule out distant metastases. Published guidelines can aid clinicians in determining which tests are appropriate based on stage of disease. We wished to assess the consistency of radiological staging in an academic community oncology setting with standard guidelines and to determine the overall impact of non-adherence to these guidelines. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for new breast cancer patients seen at a single institution between January 2009 and April 2010. Patients were included if initial diagnosis and primary surgery was at this institution. Pathologic stage and radiological tests completed were recorded. A literature review was performed and the results were compared with those from this study to determine overall adherence rates. Subsequently, a cost analysis was performed to determine the financial impact at this centre. 231 patients met eligibility criteria for inclusion in this study. A large proportion of patients were over-staged with 129 patients (55%) undergoing unnecessary investigations according to guidelines. Specifically, 59% of stage I patients and 58% of stage II patients were over-investigated. Distant metastases at the time of diagnosis were found in three patients, all of whom had stage III disease (1.3%). The literature reviewed revealed similar non-adherence rates in other centres. The estimated cost of such non-adherence is in the range of $78 (CDN) per new early stage breast cancer patient seen at this centre. This oncology centre has a low adherence to practice guidelines for staging investigations in breast cancer patients, with 55% of patients undergoing unnecessary tests. Very few patients had metastases at diagnosis, and all had pathological stage III disease. Efforts may need to focus on improving knowledge translation across clinical oncology settings to increase

  19. The prognostic impact of tumor volume on stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Hao-Jun; Liu, Qian-Wen; Mo, Yun-Xian; Long, Hao; Rong, Tie-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of tumor volume (TV) on patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after complete resection. We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of 274 patients with stage I NSCLC who had received preoperative chest computed tomography (CT) scans and complete resection. TV was semi-automatically measured from chest CT scans by using an imaging software program. The optimal cutoff values of TV were determined by X-tile software. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for DFS and OS. By using 3.046cm 3 and 8.078cm 3 as two optimal cutoff values of TV, the patients were separated into three groups. The 5-year DFS and OS for patients with TV≤3.046cm 3 , 3.046-8.078cm 3 , and>8.078cm 3 were 88.0%, 73.6%, and 62.1%, respectively (P<0.001), and 91.4%, 84.5%, and 73.3%, respectively (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that age and TV were independent factors associated with DFS. Sex, age, histology, visceral pleural invasion, and TV were independent factors associated with OS. Stage Ia patients might be separated into three groups on the basis of TV with significantly different DFS and OS. Patients with tumor diameter≤2cm and 2-3cm were also stratified into two groups with significantly different DFS and OS on the basis of TV, respectively. TV is an independent risk factor for DFS and OS for stage I NSCLC after complete resection. TV might provide additional prognostic information over tumor diameter in patients with stage I NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer in patients aged > or =75 years: outcomes after stereotactic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Haasbeek, Cornelis J A; Lagerwaard, Frank J; Antonisse, Marilisa E; Slotman, Ben J; Senan, Suresh

    2010-01-15

    The number of patients aged > or =75 years who present with a stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasing. Elderly patients often have significant comorbidity and may be unfit for surgery. Furthermore, surgery in the elderly is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, the authors evaluated the outcomes of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in elderly patients. Since 2003, 203 tumors in 193 patients aged > or =75 years were treated using SRT (118 T1 tumors, 85 T2 tumors). The median patient age was 79 years, 80% of patients were considered medically inoperable, and 20% of patients declined surgery. The median Charlson comorbidity score was 4, and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Class III or greater) was present in 25% of patients. Risk-adapted SRT schemes were used with the same total dose of 60 grays in 3 fractions (33%), 5 fractions (50%), or 8 fractions (17% of patients), depending on the patient's risk for toxicity. SRT was well tolerated, and all but 1 patient completed treatment. Survival rates at 1 year and 3 years were 86% and 45%, respectively. Survival was correlated with performance score (P = .001) and pre-SRT lung function (P = .04). The actuarial local control rate at 3 years was 89%. Acute toxicity was uncommon, and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade > or =3 toxicity was observed in <10% of patients. SRT achieved high local control rates with minimal toxicity in patients aged > or =75 years despite their significant medical comorbidities. These results indicated that more active diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are justified in elderly patients and that SRT should be considered and discussed as a curative treatment alternative.

  1. Early detection of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy: radiomics system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammak, Salma; Palma, David; Mattonen, Sarah; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2018-02-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is the standard treatment recommendation for Stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who are inoperable or who refuse surgery. This option is well tolerated by even unfit patients and has a low recurrence risk post-treatment. However, SABR induces changes in the lung parenchyma that can appear similar to those of recurrence, and the difference between the two at an early follow-up time point is not easily distinguishable for an expert physician. We hypothesized that a radiomics signature derived from standard-of-care computed tomography (CT) imaging can detect cancer recurrence within six months of SABR treatment. This study reports on the design phase of our work, with external validation planned in future work. In this study, we performed cross-validation experiments with four feature selection approaches and seven classifiers on an 81-patient data set. We extracted 104 radiomics features from the consolidative and the peri-consolidative regions on the follow-up CT scans. The best results were achieved using the sum of estimated Mahalanobis distances (Maha) for supervised forward feature selection and a trainable automatic radial basis support vector classifier (RBSVC). This system produced an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.84, an error rate of 16.4%, a false negative rate of 12.7%, and a false positive rate of 20.0% for leaveone patient out cross-validation. This suggests that once validated on an external data set, radiomics could reliably detect post-SABR recurrence and form the basis of a tool assisting physicians in making salvage treatment decisions.

  2. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  3. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  4. Three-peat NREL Intern Pushes Boundaries of Early-Stage Fuels Research on

    Science.gov Websites

    Early-Stage Fuels Research on Way to Master's Degree Three-peat NREL Intern Pushes Boundaries of Early -Stage Fuels Research on Way to Master's Degree January 4, 2018 Woman preparing a fuel evaluation in a constant volume combustion vessel Drew Cameron, Research Participant Program Intern, prepares a test for

  5. To Stay or to Go? Narratives of Early-Stage Sociologists about Persisting in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wöhrer, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyses of life course questionnaires, semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group interviews carried out with early-stage sociologists over a period of 8 years, this paper presents analyzes of continuity and change in the decisions made by early-stage researchers in regard to their work and careers. The longitudinal approach…

  6. Is MPP a good prognostic factor in stage III lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR exon 19 mutation?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jing; Su, Yanjun; Chen, Xi; Yan, Qingna; Li, Qi; Sun, Leina; Wang, Yuwen; Er, Puchun; Pang, Qingsong; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-20

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by a gene located in the short arm of chromosome 7. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of classic EGFR exon mutation in Chinese patients with TMN stage III lung adenocarcinoma who received radical surgery. A total of 1,801 lung adenocarcinomas were analyzed for mutations in EGFR; 35% exhibited mutation of classic EGFR exons. Clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with EGFR exon 19 mutation were compared with those who harbored EGFR exon 21 mutation. Patients with EGFR exon 19 mutation had a higher overall survival (OS, p=0.023) than those harboring EGFR exon 21 mutation. Our results demonstrated that patients with a micropapillary pattern (MPP) pathologic type in EGFR exon 19 mutation had a higher OS (p=0.022), and patients with exon 19 mutation were more sensitive to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (p=0.032). The results of the current study can be used in decision-making regarding the treatment of patients with classic EGFR exon mutations.

  7. Management of Early Stage, High-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma: Preoperative and Surgical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Gaetan

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. Most cases are diagnosed at an early stage and have low-grade histology, portending an overall excellent prognosis. There exists a subgroup of patients with early, high-risk disease, whose management remains controversial, as current data is clouded by inclusion of early stage tumors with different high-risk features for recurrence, unstandardized protocols for surgical staging, and an evolving staging system by which we are grouping these patients. Here, we present preoperative and intraoperative considerations that should be taken into account when planning surgical management for this population of patients. PMID:23878545

  8. Mechanical phenotyping of cells and extracellular matrix as grade and stage markers of lung tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Panzetta, Valeria; Musella, Ida; Rapa, Ida; Volante, Marco; Netti, Paolo A; Fusco, Sabato

    2017-07-15

    The mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) regulates the properties, functions and healthiness of the tissues. When this is disturbed it changes the mechanical state of the tissue components, singularly or together, and cancer, along with other diseases, may start and progress. However, the bi-univocal mechanical interplay between cells and the ECM is still not properly understood. In this study we show how a microrheology technique gives us the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. The mechanical phenotyping was performed on the surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung. A correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Our findings suggest a sort of asymmetric modification of the mechanical properties of the cells and the extra-cellular matrix in the tumor, being the more compliant cell even though it resides in a stiffer matrix. Overall, the simultaneous mechanical characterization of the tissues constituents (cells and ECM) provided new support for diagnosis and offered alternative points of analysis for cancer mechanobiology. When the integrity of the mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix is disturbed cancer, along with other diseases, may initiate and progress. Here, we show how a new technique gives the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. It was applied on surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung and a correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 30 Gy or 34 Gy? Comparing 2 Single-Fraction SBRT Dose Schedules for Stage I Medically Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Videtic, Gregory M.M., E-mail: videtig@ccf.org; Stephans, Kevin L.; Woody, Neil M.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To review outcomes of 2 single-fraction lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) schedules used for medically inoperable early stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients in our institution have been treated on and off protocols using single-fraction SBRT (30 Gy and 34 Gy, respectively). All patients had node-negative lung cancer measuring ≤5 cm and lying ≥2 cm beyond the trachea-bronchial tree and were treated on a Novalis/BrainLAB system with the ExactTrac positioning system for daily image guidance. Results: For the interval from 2009 to 2012, 80 patients with 82 lesions were treated with single-fraction lung SBRT. Fifty-five patients (69%) and 25 patients (31%) received 30 Gymore » and 34 Gy, respectively. In a comparison of 30 Gy and 34 Gy cohorts, patient and tumor characteristics were balanced and median follow-up in months was 18.7 and 17.8, respectively. The average heterogeneity-corrected mean doses to the target were 33.75 Gy and 37.94 Gy for the 30-Gy and 34-Gy prescriptions, respectively. Comparing 30-Gy and 34-Gy cohorts, 92.7% and 84.0% of patients, respectively, experienced no toxicity (P was not significant), and had neither grade 3 nor higher toxicities. For the 30-Gy and 34-Gy patients, rates of 1-year local failure, overall survival, and lung cancer-specific mortality were 2.0% versus 13.8%, 75.0% versus 64.0%, and 2. 1% versus 16.0%, respectively (P values for differences were not significant). Conclusions: This is the largest single-fraction lung SBRT series yet reported. and it confirms the safety, efficacy, and minimal toxicity of this schedule for inoperable early stage lung cancer.« less

  10. Impact of low skeletal muscle mass on non-lung cancer mortality after stereotactic body radiotherapy for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Mitsuyoshi, Takamasa; Shintani, Takashi; Iizuka, Yusuke; Mizowaki, Takashi

    2018-05-17

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate impact of pre-treatment skeletal muscle mass (SMM) on overall survival and non-lung cancer mortality after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One-hundred and eighty-six patients whose abdominal CT before the treatment was available were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into two groups of SMM according to gender-specific thresholds for unilateral psoas area. Operability was judged by the treating physician or thoracic surgeon after discussion in a multi-disciplinary tumor board. Patients with low SMM tended to be elderly and underweight in body mass index compared with the high SMM. Overall survival in patients with the low SMM tended to be worse than that in the high SMM (41.1% and 55.9% at 5 years, P = 0.115). Cumulative incidence of non-lung cancer death was significantly worse in the low SMM (31.3% at 5 years compared with 9.7% in the high SMM, P = 0.006). Multivariate analysis identified SMM and operability as significant factors for non-lung cancer mortality. Impact of SMM on lung cancer death was not significant. No difference in rate of severe treatment-related toxicity was observed between the SMM groups. Low SMM is a significant risk factor for non-lung cancer death, which might lead to worse overall survival, after SBRT for stage I NSCLC. However, the low SMM does not increase lung cancer death or severe treatment-related toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Distant failure prediction for early stage NSCLC by analyzing PET with sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hongxia; Zhou, Zhiguo; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been widely explored for treatment outcome prediction. Radiomicsdriven methods provide a new insight to quantitatively explore underlying information from PET images. However, it is still a challenging problem to automatically extract clinically meaningful features for prognosis. In this work, we develop a PET-guided distant failure predictive model for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) by using sparse representation. The proposed method does not need precalculated features and can learn intrinsically distinctive features contributing to classification of patients with distant failure. The proposed framework includes two main parts: 1) intra-tumor heterogeneity description; and 2) dictionary pair learning based sparse representation. Tumor heterogeneity is initially captured through anisotropic kernel and represented as a set of concatenated vectors, which forms the sample gallery. Then, given a test tumor image, its identity (i.e., distant failure or not) is classified by applying the dictionary pair learning based sparse representation. We evaluate the proposed approach on 48 NSCLC patients treated by SABR at our institute. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve an area under the characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.70 with a sensitivity of 69.87% and a specificity of 69.51% using a five-fold cross validation.

  12. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  13. Interpreting survival data from clinical trials of surgery versus stereotactic body radiation therapy in operable Stage I non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Samson, Pamela; Keogan, Kathleen; Crabtree, Traves; Colditz, Graham; Broderick, Stephen; Puri, Varun; Meyers, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    To identify the variability of short- and long-term survival outcomes among closed Phase III randomized controlled trials with small sample sizes comparing SBRT (stereotactic body radiation therapy) and surgical resection in operable clinical Stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Clinical Stage I NSCLC patients who underwent surgery at our institution meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria for STARS (Randomized Study to Compare CyberKnife to Surgical Resection in Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer), ROSEL (Trial of Either Surgery or Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Early Stage (IA) Lung Cancer), or both were identified. Bootstrapping analysis provided 10,000 iterations to depict 30-day mortality and three-year overall survival (OS) in cohorts of 16 patients (to simulate the STARS surgical arm), 27 patients (to simulate the pooled surgical arms of STARS and ROSEL), and 515 (to simulate the goal accrual for the surgical arm of STARS). From 2000 to 2012, 749/873 (86%) of clinical Stage I NSCLC patients who underwent resection were eligible for STARS only, ROSEL only, or both studies. When patients eligible for STARS only were repeatedly sampled with a cohort size of 16, the 3-year OS rates ranged from 27 to 100%, and 30-day mortality varied from 0 to 25%. When patients eligible for ROSEL or for both STARS and ROSEL underwent bootstrapping with n=27, the 3-year OS ranged from 46 to 100%, while 30-day mortality varied from 0 to 15%. Finally, when patients eligible for STARS were repeatedly sampled in groups of 515, 3-year OS narrowed to 70-85%, with 30-day mortality varying from 0 to 4%. Short- and long-term survival outcomes from trials with small sample sizes are extremely variable and unreliable for extrapolation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Increasing Age on Cause-Specific Mortality and Morbidity in Patients With Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Competing Risks Analysis.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Takashi; Bains, Sarina; Lee, Ming-Ching; Tan, Kay See; Hristov, Boris; Buitrago, Daniel H; Bains, Manjit S; Downey, Robert J; Huang, James; Isbell, James M; Park, Bernard J; Rusch, Valerie W; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S

    2017-01-20

    Purpose To perform competing risks analysis and determine short- and long-term cancer- and noncancer-specific mortality and morbidity in patients who had undergone resection for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods Of 5,371 consecutive patients who had undergone curative-intent resection of primary lung cancer at our institution (2000 to 2011), 2,186 with pathologic stage I NSCLC were included in the analysis. All preoperative clinical variables known to affect outcomes were included in the analysis, specifically, Charlson comorbidity index, predicted postoperative (ppo) diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and ppo forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Cause-specific mortality analysis was performed with competing risks analysis. Results Of 2,186 patients, 1,532 (70.1%) were ≥ 65 years of age, including 638 (29.2%) ≥ 75 years of age. In patients < 65, 65 to 74, and ≥ 75 years of age, 5-year lung cancer-specific cumulative incidence of death (CID) was 7.5%, 10.7%, and 13.2%, respectively (overall, 10.4%); noncancer-specific CID was 1.8%, 4.9%, and 9.0%, respectively (overall, 5.3%). In patients ≥ 65 years of age, for up to 2.5 years after resection, noncancer-specific CID was higher than lung cancer-specific CID; the higher noncancer-specific, early-phase mortality was enhanced in patients ≥ 75 years of age than in those 65 to 74 years of age. Multivariable analysis showed that low ppo diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide was an independent predictor of severe morbidity ( P < .001), 1-year mortality ( P < .001), and noncancer-specific mortality ( P < .001), whereas low ppo forced expiratory volume in 1 second was an independent predictor of lung cancer-specific mortality ( P = .002). Conclusion In patients who undergo curative-intent resection of stage I NSCLC, noncancer-specific mortality is a significant competing event, with an increasing impact as patient age increases.

  15. Survival significance of coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with early lung cancer after curative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Yusuke; Tsuda, Masataka; Wakiyama, Yoichi; Marushima, Hideki; Kojima, Koji; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity on survival after curative resection of early‐stage lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been sufficiently elucidated. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 250 consecutive patients who underwent lobectomy with lymph nodal dissection for pathological stage I–II NSCLC. Results Among the COPD patients, 28 were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1, 21 as GOLD 2, and one as GOLD 3. The cumulative overall survival (OS) of the non‐COPD, GOLD 1, and GOLD 2–3 groups at five years was 90.7%, 85.7%, and 55.3%, respectively, (P < 0.0001), while recurrence‐free survival (RFS) between the groups at five years was 84.7%, 80.7%, and 72.9%, respectively. Although RFS in the GOLD 2–3 group tended to indicate a poor prognosis, there was no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.385). In multivariate analysis, age ≥75 years, pN1, and GOLD 2–3 COPD were independent factors for a poor prognosis (P = 0.034, P = 0.010, and P = 0.030, respectively). Conclusions Our results indicate that early stage NSCLC patients with COPD had a significantly increased risk of poorer OS and potentially an increased risk of poor RFS. PMID:28976075

  16. Which early life events or current environmental and lifestyle factors influence lung function in adolescents? - results from the GINIplus & LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Luzak, Agnes; Fuertes, Elaine; Flexeder, Claudia; Standl, Marie; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Koletzko, Sibylle; Heinrich, Joachim; Nowak, Dennis; Schulz, Holger

    2017-07-12

    Various factors may affect lung function at different stages in life. Since investigations that simultaneously consider several factors are rare, we examined the relative importance of early life, current environmental/lifestyle factors and allergic diseases on lung function in 15-year-olds. Best subset selection was performed for linear regression models to investigate associations between 21 diverse early life events and current factors with spirometric parameters (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and maximal mid-expiratory flow (FEF 25-75 )) in 1326 participants of the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. To reduce model complexity, one model for each spirometric parameter was replicated 1000 times in random subpopulations (N = 884). Only those factors that were included in >70% of the replication models were retained in the final analysis. A higher peak weight velocity and early lung infections were the early life events prevalently associated with airflow limitation and FEF 25-75 . Current environmental/lifestyle factors at age 15 years and allergic diseases that were associated with lung function were: indoor second-hand smoke exposure, vitamin D concentration, body mass index (BMI) and asthma status. Sex and height captured the majority of the explained variance (>75%), followed by BMI (≤23.7%). The variance explained by early life events was comparatively low (median: 4.8%; range: 0.2-22.4%), but these events were consistently negatively associated with airway function. Although the explained variance was mainly captured by well-known factors included in lung function prediction equations, our findings indicate early life and current factors that should be considered in studies on lung health among adolescents.

  17. A novel protein-based prognostic signature improves risk stratification to guide clinical management in early lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Terroba, Elena; Behrens, Carmen; de Miguel, Fernando J; Agorreta, Jackeline; Monsó, Eduard; Millares, Laura; Sainz, Cristina; Mesa-Guzman, Miguel; Pérez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Lozano, María Dolores; Zulueta, Javier J; Pio, Ruben; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Montuenga, Luis M; Pajares, María J

    2018-05-13

    Each of the pathological stages (I-IIIa) in which surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer patients are classified conceals hidden biological heterogeneity, manifested in heterogeneous outcomes within each stage. Thus, the finding of robust and precise molecular classifiers to assess individual patient risk is an unmet medical need. Here we identified and validated the clinical utility of a new prognostic signature based on three proteins (BRCA1, QKI and SLC2A1) to stratify early lung adenocarcinoma patients according to their risk of recurrence or death. Patients were staged following the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) staging criteria (8 th edition, 2018). A test cohort (n=239) was used to assess the value of this new prognostic index (PI) based on the three proteins. The prognostic signature was developed by Cox regression following stringent statistical criteria (TRIPOD: Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis). The model resulted in a highly significant predictor of five-year outcome for disease-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P<0.001). The prognostic ability of the model was externally validated in an independent multi-institutional cohort of patients (n=114, P=0.021). We also demonstrated that this molecular classifier adds relevant information to the gold standard TNM-based pathological staging with a highly significant improvement of likelihood ratio. We subsequently developed a combined prognostic index (CPI) including both the molecular and the pathological data which improved the risk stratification in both cohorts (P≤0.001). Moreover, the signature may help to select stage I-IIA patients who might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. In summary, this protein-based signature accurately identifies those patients with high risk of recurrence and death, and adds further prognostic information to the TNM-based clinical staging, even applying the

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-D texture analysis of lung parenchyma is better than 2-D for discrimination of lung pathology in stage 0 COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Sonka, Milan; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Lung parenchyma evaluation via multidetector-row CT (MDCT), has significantly altered clinical practice in the early detection of lung disease. Our goal is to enhance our texture-based tissue classification ability to differentiate early pathologic processes by extending our 2-D Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to 3-D AMFM. We performed MDCT on 34 human volunteers in five categories: emphysema in severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as EC, emphysema in mild COPD (MC), normal appearing lung in COPD (NC), non-smokers with normal lung function (NN), smokers with normal function (NS). We volumetrically excluded the airway and vessel regions, calculated 24 volumetric texture features for each Volume of Interest (VOI); and used Bayesian rules for discrimination. Leave-one-out and half-half methods were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the four-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: EC: 84.9%/70.7%, MC: 89.8%/82.7%; NC: 87.5.0%/49.6%; NN: 100.0%/60.0%. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the two-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: NN: 99.3%/71.6%; NS: 99.7%/74.5%. We conclude that 3-D AMFM analysis of the lung parenchyma improves discrimination compared to 2-D analysis of the same images.

  19. Why do pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinomas vary from prognosis?: a clinicopathologic study of 176 patients with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma based on the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wu, Jie; Tan, Qiang; Zhu, Lei; Gao, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Patients with pathological stage IA adenocarcinoma (AC) have a variable prognosis, even if treated in the same way. The postoperative treatment of pathological stage IA patients is also controversial. We identified 176 patients with pathological stage IA AC who had undergone a lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection at the Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China, between 2000 and 2006. No patient had preoperative treatment. The histologic subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) international multidisciplinary lung AC classification. Patients' 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. One hundred seventy-six patients with pathological stage IA AC had an 86.6% 5-year OS and 74.6% 5-year DFS. The 10 patients with micropapillary predominant subtype had the lowest 5-year DFS (40.0%).The 12 patients with solid predominant with mucin production subtype had the lowest 5-year OS (66.7%). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that sex and prognositic groups of the IASLC/ATS/ERS histologic classification were significantly associated with 5-year DFS of pathological stage IA AC. Our study revealed that sex was an independent prognostic factor of pathological stage IA AC. The IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung AC identifies histologic categories with prognostic differences that could be helpful in clinical therapy.

  20. Overstating the evidence for lung cancer screening: the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) study.

    PubMed

    Welch, H Gilbert; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Gordis, Leon; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Harris, Russell; Kramer, Barnett S; Ransohoff, David F

    2007-11-26

    Last year, the New England Journal of Medicine ran a lead article reporting that patients with lung cancer had a 10-year survival approaching 90% if detected by screening spiral computed tomography. The publication garnered considerable media attention, and some felt that its findings provided a persuasive case for the immediate initiation of lung cancer screening. We strongly disagree. In this article, we highlight 4 reasons why the publication does not make a persuasive case for screening: the study had no control group, it lacked an unbiased outcome measure, it did not consider what is already known about this topic from previous studies, and it did not address the harms of screening. We conclude with 2 fundamental principles that physicians should remember when thinking about screening: (1) survival is always prolonged by early detection, even when deaths are not delayed nor any lives saved, and (2) randomized trials are the only way to reliably determine whether screening does more good than harm.

  1. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Results Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low

  2. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cun-Quan; Sun, Yu-Han; Li, Yun-Fei; Zhao, Ke-Qi; Hu, Rui-Yang; Li, Yun

    2014-03-21

    Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia.

  3. Early coagulation events induce acute lung injury in a rat model of blunt traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hideki; Donahue, Deborah L; Walsh, Mark; Castellino, Francis J; Ploplis, Victoria A

    2016-07-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and systemic coagulopathy are serious complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that frequently lead to poor clinical outcomes. Although the release of tissue factor (TF), a potent initiator of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, from the injured brain is thought to play a key role in coagulopathy after TBI, its function in ALI following TBI remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the systemic appearance of TF correlated with the ensuing coagulopathy that follows TBI in ALI using an anesthetized rat blunt trauma TBI model. Blood and lung samples were obtained after TBI. Compared with controls, pulmonary edema and increased pulmonary permeability were observed as early as 5 min after TBI without evidence of norepinephrine involvement. Systemic TF increased at 5 min and then diminished 60 min after TBI. Lung injury and alveolar hemorrhaging were also observed as early as 5 min after TBI. A biphasic elevation of TF was observed in the lungs after TBI, and TF-positive microparticles (MPs) were detected in the alveolar spaces. Fibrin(ogen) deposition was also observed in the lungs within 60 min after TBI. Additionally, preadministration of a direct thrombin inhibitor, Refludan, attenuated lung injuries, thus implicating thrombin as a direct participant in ALI after TBI. The results from this study demonstrated that enhanced systemic TF may be an initiator of coagulation activation that contributes to ALI after TBI. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Upregulation of endothelin receptors A and B in the nitrofen induced hypoplastic lung occurs early in gestation.

    PubMed

    Dingemann, Jens; Doi, Takashi; Ruttenstock, Elke; Puri, Prem

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH) aggravate clinical courses in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Endothelin 1 enhances PPH by vasoconstriction and proliferation of vessel walls. Up-regulation of pulmonary Endothelin Receptors A and B (EDNRA, EDNRB) has been reported in human CDH and animal models, but the onset of those alterations during lung development remains unclear. We hypothesized that pulmonary expression of EDNRA and EDNRB is up-regulated at early gestational stages in the nitrofen model. Pregnant rats were exposed to nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9 (D9). Embryos were sacrificed on D15, D18 and D21 and divided into nitrofen- and control group. Pulmonary RNA was extracted and mRNA levels of EDNRA and EDNRB were determined by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry for protein expression of both receptors was performed. mRNA levels of EDNRA and EDNRB were significantly increased in the nitrofen group on D15, D18 and D21. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased pulmonary vascular expression of EDNRA and EDNRB compared to controls. Altered expression of EDNRA and EDNRB is an early event in lung morphogenesis in the nitrofen model. We speculate that pulmonary arteries in CDH become excessively muscularised in early fetal life, becoming unable to adapt normally at birth.

  5. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

  7. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  8. Is stereotactic ablative radiotherapy equivalent to sublobar resection in high-risk surgical patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Sarah; Bilal, Haris; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Shah, Rajesh

    2013-11-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Is stereotactic ablative radiotherapy equivalent to sublobar resection in high-risk surgical patients with Stage I non-small cell lung cancer?'. Altogether over 318 papers were found, of which 18 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and sublobar resection (SLR) offer clear survival benefit in the treatment of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in high-risk patients unsuitable for lobectomy and SABR has shown good results in medically operable patients. No randomized data are available comparing SLR and SABR, and therefore, data from prospective studies were compared. Overall survival at 1 year was similar between patients treated with SABR and SLR (81-85.7 vs 92%); however, overall 3-year survival was higher following SLR (87.1 vs 45.1-57.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in local recurrence in patients treated with SABR compared with SLR (3.5-14.5 vs 4.8-20%). Both treatment modalities are associated with complications. Fatigue (31-32.6%), pneumonitis (2.1-12.5%) and chest wall pain (3.1-12%) were common following SABR; however, serious grade 3 and 4 toxicity were rare. Morbidity following SLR was reported between 7.3 and 33.7%. Thirty-day mortality following SABR was 0%, while predicted 30-day mortality following a lung resection, using the thoracoscore predictive model ranges between 1 and 2.6%. Treatment for early-stage NSCLC should be tailored to individual patients. SABR is an acceptable alternative to SLR in high-risk patients but comparative data are required.

  9. Tumor histology predicts mediastinal nodal status and may be used to guide limited lymphadenectomy in patients with clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinghua; Zheng, Difan; Li, Yuan; Li, Hang; Sun, Yihua; Xiang, Jiaqing; Chen, Haiquan

    2018-06-01

    Methods to minimize surgical trauma from mediastinal lymphadenectomy in patients with early-stage lung cancer are still immature. This study aimed to identify predictors of negative pathologic N2, which may be used to select patients for limited mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Clinicopathologic features of 1430 patients with resected clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer and complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy were retrospectively analyzed for variables associated with negative N2 nodal metastasis (2008-2015). Overall and recurrence-free survival in patients after complete or limited mediastinal lymphadenectomy were assessed via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank testing. The accuracy of frozen section diagnosis for predicting final pathology was retrospectively assessed in 126 randomly selected patients after the surgery. Multivariable analysis revealed that tumor size ≤2 cm, negative pN1, lymphovascular invasion, and lepidic adenocarcinoma were associated with negative mediastinal nodal metastasis. Notably, none of the patients with histology of adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, or lepidic pattern-predominant adenocarcinoma on final pathology had pN2 disease, and the 5-year overall and recurrence free-survival of these patients (99.3% and 99.3%, respectively) was not different from those after limited mediastinal lymphadenectomy (98.7% and 100%, P = .582 and .511, respectively). If these subt