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Sample records for early stagesof chronic

  1. Early History of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 1808-1980.

    PubMed

    Watson, R Ann; Pride, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    COPD has become a more popular research area in the last 3 decades, yet the first clear descriptions of acute and chronic bronchitis were in 1808. This brief history, comprehensively referenced, leads us through the early developments in respiratory physiology and their applications. It emphasises the early history of chronic bronchitis and emphysema in the 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries, long before the dominant effects of cigarette smoking emerged. This remains relevant to developing countries today.

  2. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Through FDDNP PET Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0486 TITLE: Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Through FDDNP PET Imaging PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Through FDDNP PET Imaging 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0486 W81XWH-13-1...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 1. The PET biomarker, F-FDDNP (2-(1-{6-[(2-[F-18]fluoroethyl(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl

  3. Chronic Absenteeism in Tennessee's Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attridge, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    Although the average daily attendance rate for Tennessee students is 95 percent, almost 45,000, or 10 percent, of Tennessee K-3 students missed at least a month's worth of school days during the 2014-15 school year. These "chronically absent" students present a particular problem for schools that are charged with developing foundational…

  4. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  5. Lost human capital from early-onset chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Berndt, E R; Koran, L M; Finkelstein, S N; Gelenberg, A J; Kornstein, S G; Miller, I M; Thase, M E; Trapp, G A; Keller, M B

    2000-06-01

    Chronic depression starts at an early age for many individuals and could affect their accumulation of "human capital" (i.e., education, higher amounts of which can broaden occupational choice and increase earnings potential). The authors examined the impact, by gender, of early- (before age 22) versus late-onset major depressive disorder on educational attainment. They also determined whether the efficacy and sustainability of antidepressant treatments and psychosocial outcomes vary by age at onset and quantified the impact of early- versus late-onset, as well as never-occurring, major depressive disorder on expected lifetime earnings. The authors used logistic and multivariate regression methods to analyze data from a three-phase, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial that compared sertraline and imipramine treatment of 531 patients with chronic depression aged 30 years and older. These data were integrated with U.S. Census Bureau data on 1995 earnings by age, educational attainment, and gender. Early-onset major depressive disorder adversely affected the educational attainment of women but not of men. No significant difference in treatment responsiveness by age at onset was observed after 12 weeks of acute treatment or, for subjects rated as having responded, after 76 weeks of maintenance treatment. A randomly selected 21-year-old woman with early-onset major depressive disorder in 1995 could expect future annual earnings that were 12%-18% lower than those of a randomly selected 21-year-old woman whose onset of major depressive disorder occurred after age 21 or not at all. Early-onset major depressive disorder causes substantial human capital loss, particularly for women. Detection and effective treatment of early-onset major depressive disorder may have substantial economic benefits.

  6. Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  7. Glutamatergic neurometabolites during early abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Joseph; Tobias, Marc C; Hudkins, Matthew; London, Edythe D

    2014-10-31

    The acute phase of abstinence from methamphetamine abuse is critical for rehabilitation success. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has detected below-normal levels of glutamate+glutamine in anterior middle cingulate of chronic methamphetamine abusers during early abstinence, attributed to abstinence-induced downregulation of the glutamatergic systems in the brain. This study further explored this phenomenon. We measured glutamate+glutamine in additional cortical regions (midline posterior cingulate, midline precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal cortex) putatively affected by methamphetamine. We examined the relationship between glutamate+glutamine in each region with duration of methamphetamine abuse as well as the depressive symptoms of early abstinence. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was acquired at 1.5 T from a methamphetamine group of 44 adults who had chronically abused methamphetamine and a control group of 23 age-, sex-, and tobacco smoking-matched healthy volunteers. Participants in the methamphetamine group were studied as inpatients during the first week of abstinence from the drug and were not receiving treatment. In the methamphetamine group, small but significant (5-15%, P<.05) decrements (vs control) in glutamate+glutamine were observed in posterior cingulate, precuneus, and right inferior frontal cortex; glutamate+glutamine in posterior cingulate was negatively correlated (P<.05) with years of methamphetamine abuse. The Beck Depression Inventory score was negatively correlated (P<.005) with glutamate+glutamine in right inferior frontal cortex. Our findings support the idea that glutamatergic metabolism is downregulated in early abstinence in multiple cortical regions. The extent of downregulation may vary with length of abuse and may be associated with severity of depressive symptoms emergent in early recovery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  8. Microglial disruption in young mice with early chronic lead exposure☆

    PubMed Central

    Sobin, Christina; Montoya, Mayra Gisel Flores; Parisi, Natali; Schaub, Tanner; Cervantes, Miguel; Armijos, Rodrigo X.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which early chronic lead (Pb) exposure alter brain development have not been identified. We examined neuroimmune system effects in C57BL/6J mice with Pb exposure, including levels that may be common among children in lower socioeconomic income environments. Pups were exposed via dams’ drinking water from birth to post-natal day 28 to low, high or no Pb conditions. We compared gene expression of neuroinflammatory markers (study 1); and microglial mean cell body volume and mean cell body number in dentate gyrus, and dentate gyrus volume (study 2). Blood Pb levels in exposed animals at sacrifice (post-natal day 28) ranged from 2.66 to 20.31 μg/dL. Only interleukin-6 (IL6) differed between groups and reductions were dose-dependent. Microglia cell body number also differed between groups and reductions were dose-dependent. As compared with controls, microglia cell body volume was greater but highly variable in only low-dose animals; dentate gyri volumes in low- and high-dose animals were reduced. The results did not support a model of increased neuroinflammation. Instead, early chronic exposure to Pb disrupted microglia via damage to, loss of, or lack of proliferation of microglia in the developing brains of Pb-exposed animals. PMID:23598043

  9. Early Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Yanai, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an early detection program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a primary care setting in Japan. Methods Participants of ≥40 years of age who regularly visited a general practitioner's clinic due to chronic disease were asked to complete a COPD screening questionnaire (COPD Population Screener; COPD-PS) and undergo simplified spirometry using a handheld spirometric device. Patients who showed possible COPD were referred to a respiratory specialist and underwent a detailed examination that included spirometry and chest radiography. Results A total of 111 patients with possible COPD were referred for close examination. Among these patients, 27 patients were newly diagnosed with COPD. The patients with COPD were older, had lower BMI values, and had a longer smoking history in comparison to non-COPD patients. COPD patients also had more comorbid conditions. A diagnosis of COPD was significantly associated with a high COPD-PS score (p<0.001) and the detection of possible airflow limitation evaluated by the handheld spirometric device (p<0.01). An ROC curve analysis demonstrated that 5 points was the best COPD-PS cut-off value for the diagnosis of COPD. The combination of both tools showed 40.7% of sensitivity and 96.4% of specificity. Conclusion The use of the COPD-PS plus a handheld spirometric device could facilitate the early detection of undiagnosed COPD in primary care.

  10. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: understanding the factors associated with the development of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Sato, Ai; Fujisawa, Mariko; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prognosis of advanced chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poor with the mortality rate approximately two-fold higher than the general population according to a survey of the prognosis of CP. From this standpoint, the concept of early CP was propagated in Japan in 2009 to encourage the medical treatment for the earlier stages of CP. That is, picking up the patients suspicious for early CP and then providing medical treatment for them are very important not only for patients, but also for health care economics. In this review, we described some potential factors associated with the development of CP (alcohol, smoking, past history of acute pancreatitis, aging, gallstone, and gender) that are extremely important to discover patients with early-stage CP. PMID:28450665

  11. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: understanding the factors associated with the development of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Sato, Ai; Fujisawa, Mariko; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo

    2017-04-28

    The prognosis of advanced chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poor with the mortality rate approximately two-fold higher than the general population according to a survey of the prognosis of CP. From this standpoint, the concept of early CP was propagated in Japan in 2009 to encourage the medical treatment for the earlier stages of CP. That is, picking up the patients suspicious for early CP and then providing medical treatment for them are very important not only for patients, but also for health care economics. In this review, we described some potential factors associated with the development of CP (alcohol, smoking, past history of acute pancreatitis, aging, gallstone, and gender) that are extremely important to discover patients with early-stage CP.

  12. Early application of Met-RANTES ameliorates chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Song, Erwei; Zou, Hequn; Yao, Yousheng; Proudfoot, Amanda; Antus, Balazs; Liu, Shanying; Jens, Lutz; Heemann, Uwe

    2002-02-01

    Initial insults to kidney allografts, characterized by infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, contribute to chronic allograft nephropathy. Chemokines such as RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed) are thought to be responsible for the recruitment and activation of infiltrating cells. The present study investigated whether early application of Met-RANTES, a chemokine receptor antagonist that blocks the effects of RANTES, can protect renal allografts from long-term deterioration. Fisher (F344) rat kidneys were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis recipients and treated with cyclosporine A (1.5 mg/kg/day) for the first 10 days following transplantation, together with either Met-RANTES at 40 microg/day, 200 microg/day or vehicle for the first 7 days. Animals were harvested at 2 and 28 weeks after transplantation for histologic, immunohistologic and molecular analysis. Met-RANTES treatment reduced the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages in allografts at 2 weeks after transplantation, accompanied by decreased mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and RANTES. At post-transplantation week 28, Met-RANTES treatment at high and low doses reduced urinary protein excretion and significantly ameliorated glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, intimal proliferation of graft arteries and mononuclear cell infiltration. However, creatinine clearance was not influenced by Met-RANTES. Furthermore, Met-RANTES suppressed the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B). Blockade of chemokine receptors by Met-RANTES diminishes early infiltration and activation of mononuclear cells in the grafts, and thus reduces the pace of chronic allograft nephropathy.

  13. Multidisciplinary strategies in the management of early chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Hernández-Herrera, Aurora; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide epidemic especially in developing countries, with clear deficiencies in identification and treatment. Better care of CKD requires more than only economic resources, utilization of health research in policy-making and health systems changes that produce better outcomes. A multidisciplinary approach may facilitate and improve management of patients from early CKD in the primary health-care setting. This approach is a strategy for improving comprehensive care, initiating and maintaining healthy behaviors, promoting teamwork, eliminating barriers to achieve goals and improving the processes of care. A multidisciplinary intervention may include educational processes guided by health professional, use of self-help groups and the development of a CKD management plan. The complex and fragmented care management of patients with CKD, associated with poor outcome, enhances the importance of implementing a multidisciplinary approach in the management of this disease from the early stages. Multidisciplinary strategies should focus on the needs of patients (to increase their empowerment) and should be adapted to the resources and health systems prevailing in each country; its systematic implementation can help to improve patient care and slow the progression of CKD. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparison of the Familiality of Chronic Depression in Recurrent Early-onset Depression Pedigrees Using Different Definitions of Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Mondimore, Francis M.; Zandi, Peter P.; MacKinnon, Dean F.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Miller, Erin B.; Schweizer, Barbara; Crowe, Raymond P.; Scheftner, William A.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Levinson, Douglas F.; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Potash, James B.

    2007-01-01

    Background The study of chronicity in the course of major depression has been complicated by varying definitions of this illness feature. Because familial clustering is one component of diagnostic validity we compared family clustering of chronicity as defined in the DSM-IV to that of chronicity determined by an assessment of lifetime course of depressive illness. Methods In 1750 affected subjects from 652 families recruited for a genetic study of recurrent, early-onset depression, we applied several definitions of chronicity. Odds ratios were determined for the likelihood of chronicity in a proband predicting chronicity in an affected relative. Results There was greater family clustering of chronicity as determined by assessment of lifetime course (OR=2.54) than by DSM–IV defined chronic major depressive episode (MDE) (OR=1.93) or dysthymic disorder (OR = 1.76). In families with probands who had preadolescent onset of MDD, familiality was increased by all definitions, with a much larger increase observed for chronicity by lifetime course (ORs were 6.14 for lifetime chronicity, 2.43 for chronic MDE, and 3.42 for comorbid dysthymic disorder), Agreement between these definitions of chronicity was only fair. Limitations The data used to determine chronicity were collected retrospectively and not blindly to relatives’ status, and assessment of lifetime course was based on global clinical impressions gathered during a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Also, it can be difficult to determine whether individuals with recurrent major depressive episodes who frequently experience long periods of low grade depressive symptoms meet the strict timing requirements of DSM–IV dysthymic disorder. Conclusions An assessment of lifetime symptom course identifies a more familial, and thus possibly a more valid, type of chronic depression than the current DSM-IV categories which are defined in terms of particular cross-sectional features of illness. PMID:17126912

  15. Showing up Matters: Newark Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peter; Rice, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 180-day school year, any student who misses 18 days or more per year--or about two days per month--is considered chronically absent. An alarming 4,328 Newark students in grades kindergarten through 3rd grade were chronically absent during the 2013-14 school year. When young students miss too much school, they will likely struggle…

  16. Including Young Children With "New" Chronic Illnesses in an Early Childhood Education Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauvre, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Presents suggestions for successfully including young children with "new" life-threatening, chronic illnesses -- various types of cancer, heart, liver, and kidney diseases -- in early childhood education classes. (BB)

  17. Early Warning Systems: Re-Engaging Chronic Truants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorneau, Tom

    2012-01-01

    School attendance can be an early indicator that something is going wrong with a student. Gathering, analyzing, and acting on attendance information is a first step toward school improvement. Meanwhile, the majority of the states are moving to build and enhance what are called "early warning systems," intended to flag at-risk students during their…

  18. Nationwide epidemiological survey of early chronic pancreatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Atsushi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Nabeshima, Tatsuhide; Nakano, Eriko; Hirota, Morihisa; Kanno, Atsushi; Kume, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Shin; Ito, Tetsuhide; Fujita, Motokazu; Irisawa, Atsushi; Nakashima, Masanori; Hanada, Keiji; Eguchi, Takaaki; Kato, Ryusuke; Inatomi, Osamu; Shirane, Akio; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2017-08-01

    The world's first diagnostic criteria for early CP were proposed in 2009 in Japan. This study aimed to clarify the clinico-epidemiological features of early CP in Japan. Patients with early CP who were diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria for early CP and had visited the selected hospitals in 2011 were surveyed. The study consisted of two-stage surveys: the number of patients with early CP was estimated by the first questionnaire and their clinical features were assessed by the second questionnaire. The estimated number of early CP patients was 5410 (95% confidence interval 3675-6945), with an overall prevalence of 4.2 per 100,000 persons. The number of patients who were newly diagnosed with early CP was estimated to be 1330 (95% confidence interval 1058-1602), with an annual incidence of 1.0 per 100,000 persons. Detailed clinical information was obtained in 151 patients in the second survey. The male-to-female sex ratio was 1.32:1. The mean age was 60.4 and the mean age at disease onset was 55.4. Idiopathic (47.7%) and alcoholic (45.0%) were the two most common etiologies. Proportions of female and idiopathic cases were higher in early CP than in definite CP. Hyperechoic foci without shadowing and stranding were the most common findings on endoscopic ultrasonography. The clinical profiles of early CP patients who showed lobularity with honeycombing on endoscopic ultrasonography or previous episodes of acute pancreatitis were similar to those of definite CP patients. We clarified the current status of early CP in Japan.

  19. Possible prevention of chronic hepatitis B by early interferon therapy.

    PubMed

    Trépo, C; Chemin, I; Petit, M A; Chossegros, P; Zoulim, F; Chevallier, P; Sepetjan, M

    1990-01-01

    A study is currently underway to investigate the efficacy of interferon therapy in patients with prolonged (greater than or equal to 10 weeks but less than 6 months) hepatitis B infection. To date, a total of 15 patients have been enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive either placebo for 24 weeks (n = 8) or interferon 5 million units subcutaneously 3 times a week for 24 weeks (n = 7), with follow up for 1 year. Thirteen patients have completed the follow-up period: seven patients in the placebo group and six in the treated group. Five of the six treated patients completely eradicated the infection during interferon therapy, with clearance of hepatitis B e and surface antigens, and seroconversion to antibody positivity in each case. Two of the eight placebo patients seroconverted during the placebo period. Clearance of hepatitis B e antigen was associated with a sudden rise in serum transaminase levels and an exacerbation of hepatitis, a phenomenon that has also been reported in chronic hepatitis B patients who have responded well to interferon therapy. Therapy was well tolerated in all cases. Our results suggest that interferon treatment of patients with prolonged hepatitis B infection may prevent progression to chronicity. If confirmed by further study, they should trigger more vigilant screening for patients with raised serum transaminase levels and viral markers of hepatitis B infection.

  20. Chronic lung disease of prematurity and early childhood wheezing: is foetal inflammatory response syndrome to blame?

    PubMed

    Dessardo, Nada Sindičić; Dessardo, Sandro; Mustać, Elvira; Banac, Srđan; Petrović, Oleg; Peter, Branimir

    2014-09-01

    Long-lasting respiratory symptoms have a huge impact on the quality of life in prematurely born children. We aimed to investigate the perinatal and maternal risk factors involved in the development of chronic respiratory morbidity in preterm infants, with an emphasis on the importance of Foetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome (FIRS). Prospective cohort study. Demographic, antenatal, delivery and outcomes data were collected from 262 infants with less than 32 completed weeks of gestational age, over a 10-year period. Presence of chronic lung disease of prematurity and early childhood wheezing. In multivariate logistic regression analysis the presence of FIRS appears to be the most important risk factor for both, chronic lung disease of prematurity (OR 31.05, 95% CI 10.7-87.75, p<0.001) and early childhood wheezing (OR 5.63, 95% CI 2.42-13.05, p=0.01). In the alternative regression model for early childhood wheezing, with chronic lung disease included as a variable, the statistical significance of FIRS completely vanished (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.39-3.34, p=0.79), whilst chronic lung disease became the most important risk factor (OR 23.45, 95% CI 8.5-63.25, p<0.001). Prenatal and early neonatal events are of utmost importance in the development of chronic respiratory symptoms in children. The influence of FIRS on the development of chronic respiratory symptoms goes far beyond its impact on gestational age and may be related to direct inflammation-mediated lung tissue damage. CLD appears to be an intermittent step on the way from FIRS to ECW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tiotropium in Early-Stage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumin; Zhong, Nan-Shan; Li, Xiaochen; Chen, Shuyun; Zheng, Jinping; Zhao, Dongxing; Yao, Weimin; Zhi, Rongchang; Wei, Liping; He, Bingwen; Zhang, Xiangyan; Yang, Changli; Li, Ying; Li, Fenglei; Du, Juan; Gui, Jianping; Hu, Bin; Bai, Chunxue; Huang, Ping; Chen, Gang; Xu, Yongjian; Wang, Changzheng; Liang, Biao; Li, Yinhuan; Hu, Guoping; Tan, Hui; Ye, Xianwei; Ma, Xitao; Chen, Yan; Hu, Xiwei; Tian, Jia; Zhu, Xiaodan; Shi, Zhe; Du, Xiufang; Li, Minjing; Liu, Shengming; Yu, Ronghuan; Zhao, Jianping; Ma, Qianli; Xie, Canmao; Li, Xiongbin; Chen, Tao; Lin, Yingxiang; Zeng, Lizhen; Ye, Changxiu; Ye, Weishu; Luo, Xiangwen; Zeng, Lingshan; Yu, Shuqing; Guan, Wei-Jie; Ran, Pixin

    2017-09-07

    Patients with mild or moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rarely receive medications, because they have few symptoms. We hypothesized that long-term use of tiotropium would improve lung function and ameliorate the decline in lung function in patients with mild or moderate COPD. In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that was conducted in China, we randomly assigned 841 patients with COPD of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 1 (mild) or 2 (moderate) severity to receive a once-daily inhaled dose (18 μg) of tiotropium (419 patients) or matching placebo (422) for 2 years. The primary end point was the between-group difference in the change from baseline to 24 months in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) before bronchodilator use. Secondary end points included the between-group difference in the change from baseline to 24 months in the FEV 1 after bronchodilator use and the between-group difference in the annual decline in the FEV 1 before and after bronchodilator use from day 30 to month 24. Of 841 patients who underwent randomization, 388 patients in the tiotropium group and 383 in the placebo group were included in the full analysis set. The FEV 1 in patients who received tiotropium was higher than in those who received placebo throughout the trial (ranges of mean differences, 127 to 169 ml before bronchodilator use and 71 to 133 ml after bronchodilator use; P<0.001 for all comparisons). There was no significant amelioration of the mean (±SE) annual decline in the FEV 1 before bronchodilator use: the decline was 38±6 ml per year in the tiotropium group and 53±6 ml per year in the placebo group (difference, 15 ml per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1 to 31; P=0.06). In contrast, the annual decline in the FEV 1 after bronchodilator use was significantly less in the tiotropium group than in the placebo group (29±5 ml per year vs. 51±6 ml per year; difference, 22

  2. Early risk factors and developmental pathways to chronic high inhibition and social anxiety disorder in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Essex, Marilyn J; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Goldsmith, H Hill; Kalin, Ned H

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that chronic high levels of behavioral inhibition are a precursor of social anxiety disorder. The authors sought to identify early risk factors for, and developmental pathways to, chronic high inhibition among school-age children and the association of chronic high inhibition with social anxiety disorder by adolescence. A community sample of 238 children was followed from birth to grade 9. Mothers, teachers, and children reported on the children's behavioral inhibition from grades 1 to 9. Lifetime history of psychiatric disorders was available for the subset of 60 (25%) children who participated in an intensive laboratory assessment at grade 9. Four early risk factors were assessed: female gender; exposure to maternal stress during infancy and the preschool period; and at age 4.5 years, early manifestation of behavioral inhibition and elevated afternoon salivary cortisol levels. All four risk factors predicted greater and more chronic inhibition from grades 1 to 9, and together they defined two developmental pathways. The first pathway, in girls, was partially mediated by early evidence of behavioral inhibition and elevated cortisol levels at age 4.5 years. The second pathway began with exposure to early maternal stress and was also partially mediated by childhood cortisol levels. By grade 9, chronic high inhibition was associated with a lifetime history of social anxiety disorder. Chronic high levels of behavioral inhibition are associated with social anxiety disorder by adolescence. The identification of two developmental pathways suggests the potential importance of considering both sets of risk factors in developing preventive interventions for social anxiety disorder.

  3. Chronic granulomatous disease mimicking early-onset Crohn's disease with cutaneous manifestations.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Maria; Ragusa, Giovanni; Civitelli, Fortunata; Marcheggiano, Adriana; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Iacobini, Metello; Melengu, Taulant; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Duse, Marzia

    2014-06-20

    Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare inherited disorder of the innate immune system. In patients with a clinical history of recurrent or persistent infections, especially infections caused by uncommon species, chronic granulomatous disease should be considered. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy with a presumptive diagnosis of Crohn's disease with extraintestinal manifestations. Chronic granulomatous disease was suspected in this case after Serratia marcescens was isolated from a skin ulcer culture. Granulomas were confirmed on histology and chronic granulomatous disease was diagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of high clinical suspicion of an alternative diagnosis of immune deficiency in patients with presumed inflammatory bowel disease and opportunistic infections, especially when disease occurs in early life.

  4. Early growth and chronic disease: a public health overview.

    PubMed

    Law, Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Infant and childhood growth result from and reflect a range of influences in pre- and postnatal life. These include nutrition, burden of infection and the psycho-social environment. Nutrition in young children is dependent on individual level factors such as fetal experience, infant feeding and weaning practices, and on societal factors such as education of women and economic conditions. The relationship of early postnatal growth to adult disease may be indicative or causal, and may reveal both biological and sociological processes. Although non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity are risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, the relationships of these three conditions to infant growth differ. Poor infant growth has been associated with higher levels of NIDDM and ischaemic heart disease, but lower levels of adult obesity. Most research has been of populations living in developed countries at different stages of nutritional transition. However, differences in context are not simply limited to the stage of the nutritional transition. They also need to consider the nature of that transition and its social correlates, which may result in the clustering of aetiological influences such as increased body mass and poverty. The size of effect of the relationship of infant growth to adult disease is important not only to determine its relative aetiological importance but also for its potential for public health policy. Such policy also needs to consider the relationships of infant growth to a range of outcomes, both health and human capital, which are not the subject of this workshop.

  5. [Immune system aging rate in patients with early forms of chronic cerebrovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, N G; Al'tman, D Sh; Teplova, S N

    2009-01-01

    Using the Bioage and Snake software the immune and cardiovascular system aging rate was diagnosed in patients having early forms of chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD). The indicators of biological, cardiopulmonary and immunological age were studied in patients showing early symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency and dyscirculatory encephalopathy of the 1st stage. The rate of age-dependent physiological changes was diagnosed compared to general body aging rate. Some specific patterns of immune system aging were found in patients with early forms of CCVDs, the cardinal aging symptoms (heterotropia, heterochronia) were verified.

  6. Chronic endometritis in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss and/or fetal demise.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Dana B; Bernardi, Lia A; Stephenson, Mary D

    2014-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of chronic endometritis in women with a history of recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL) and/or fetal demise (FD). Observational cohort study using prospectively collected data. Recurrent pregnancy loss program in an academic medical center. Three hundred ninety-five women with a history of two or more pregnancy losses of less than 10 weeks' size or a fetal demise of 10 or more weeks' size. All women had an endometrial biopsy. Chronic endometritis was treated with antibiotics, and a second endometrial biopsy was recommended as a "test of cure." Subsequent live-birth rate (LBR). The overall prevalence of chronic endometritis was 9% (35/395) in this cohort; 7% (21/285) in the REPL group, 14% (8/57) in the FD group, and 11% (6/53) in the combined REPL/FD group. The cure rate was 100% after a course(s) of antibiotics. The subsequent cumulative LBR was 88% (21/24) for the treated chronic endometritis group versus 74% (180/244) for the group without chronic endometritis. The per-pregnancy LBR for the treated chronic endometritis group was 7% (7/98) before treatment versus 56% (28/50) after treatment. There was a high prevalence of chronic endometritis in this cohort. The test of cure was 100% with antibiotics. Subsequent LBRs after treatment were encouraging. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early-life enteric infections: relation between chronic systemic inflammation and poor cognition in children

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota undergoes active remodeling in the first 6 to 18 months of life, during which time the characteristics of the adult microbiota are developed. This process is strongly influenced by the early diet and enteric pathogens. Enteric infections and malnutrition early in life may favor microbiota dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of intestinal bacterial products, ultimately leading to low-grade, chronic, subclinical systemic inflammation. The leaky gut–derived low-grade systemic inflammation may have profound consequences on the gut–liver–brain axis, compromising normal growth, metabolism, and cognitive development. This review examines recent data suggesting that early-life enteric infections that lead to intestinal barrier disruption may shift the intestinal microbiota toward chronic systemic inflammation and subsequent impaired cognitive development. PMID:27142301

  8. Deletion of Ku80 causes early aging independent of chronic inflammation and Rag-1-induced DSBs.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Valerie B; Vogel, Hannes; Hasty, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of premature aging are often defective for DNA repair. Ku80-mutant mice are disabled for nonhomologous end joining; a pathway that repairs both spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and induced DNA DSBs generated by the action of a complex composed of Rag-1 and Rag-2 (Rag). Rag is essential for inducing DSBs important for assembling V(D)J segments of antigen receptor genes that are required for lymphocyte development. Thus, deletion of either Rag-1 or Ku80 causes severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) leading to chronic inflammation. In addition, Rag-1 induces breaks at non-B DNA structures. Previously we reported Ku80-mutant mice undergo premature aging, yet we do not know the root cause of this phenotype. Early aging may be caused by either defective repair of spontaneous DNA damage, defective repair of Rag-1-induced breaks or chronic inflammation caused by scid. To address this issue, we analyzed aging in control and Ku80-mutant mice deleted for Rag-1 such that both cohorts are scid and suffer from chronic inflammation. We make two observations: (1) chronic inflammation does not cause premature aging in these mice and (2) Ku80-mutant mice exhibit early aging independent of Rag-1. Therefore, this study supports defective repair of spontaneous DNA damage as the root cause of early aging in Ku80-mutant mice.

  9. Early identification of ‘acute-onset’ chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B.; Kiernan, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  10. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Oka, Hiroyuki; Katsuhira, Junji; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. We examined 4229 respondents aged 20-79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1) chronic pain prevalence, 2) multisite pain (≥3 sites) prevalence, and 3) multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms) among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22-2.15, p <0.01) in men and 1.47 (1.13-1.90, p <0.01) in women. Among women with chronic pain, early-life adversity was associated with multisite pain and multiple somatic symptoms; multivariable ORs were 1.78 (1.22-2.60, p <0.01) for multisite pain and 1.89 (1.27-2.83, p <0.01) for ≥3 somatic symptoms. No associations were observed between early-life adversity and chronic multisite pain or multiple somatic symptoms among men with chronic pain. Early-life adversity may be linked to a higher prevalence of chronic pain among both sexes and to multisite pain and somatizing tendency among women with chronic pain.

  11. [Early exercise training after exacerbation in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Molleyres, Sandrine; Dousse, Nicolas; Contal, Olivier; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-23

    Patients who suffered from an exacerbation of a chronic respiratory disorder are often very limited in terms of their exercise capacity because of severe dyspnea and amyotrophy of peripheral muscles. Early implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation may help these patients to avoid the complications of a prolonged bedridden period, and increase more rapidly their mobility. Early rehabilitation has become more frequent, but requires special skills from the care givers (chest therapists). Techniques which enhance muscular performance and motility of patients who are recovering from an exacerbation such as electromoystimulation or mobilisation under non-invasive ventilation, give encouraging results; their impact on length of hospital stay requires further studies.

  12. Early life socioeconomic status, chronic physiological stress and hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate concentrations.

    PubMed

    McLean, John; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Batty, G David; Burns, Harry; Deans, Kevin A; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; McLean, Jennifer S; Millar, Keith; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Tannahill, Carol; Velupillai, Yoga N; Packard, Chris J; Condon, Barrie R; Hadley, Donald M; Cavanagh, Jonathan

    2012-12-01

    Early life socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with cognitive and behavioural changes that persist through towards adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether early life socioeconomic status is associated with changes in the hippocampus N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), using the non-invasive technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the hippocampus at 3T in 30 adult males, selected from the PSOBID cohort. We conducted multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between early socioeconomic status (SES) and concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate in the hippocampus. We also examined whether the relationship between these variables was mediated by markers of chronic physiological stress. Greater socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower hippocampal NAA concentrations bilaterally. The relationship between early life SES and hippocampal NAA concentrations was mediated by allostatic load index - a marker of chronic physiological stress. Greater early life socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower concentrations of NAA reflecting lesser neuronal integrity. This relationship was mediated by greater physiological stress. Further work, to better understand the biological processes underlying the effects of poverty, physiological stress on hippocampal metabolites is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of molecular marker expression in early zebrafish brain development following chronic ethanol or morpholino treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjin; Boa-Amponsem, Oswald; Cole, Gregory J

    2017-08-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain whether defined markers of early zebrafish brain development are affected by chronic ethanol exposure or morpholino knockdown of agrin, sonic hedgehog, retinoic acid, and fibroblast growth factors, four signaling molecules that are suggested to be ethanol sensitive. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 2% ethanol from 6 to 24 hpf or injected with agrin, shha, aldh1a3, or fgf8a morpholinos. In situ hybridization was employed to analyze otx2, pax6a, epha4a, krx20, pax2a, fgf8a, wnt1, and eng2b expression during early brain development. Our results showed that pax6a mRNA expression was decreased in eye, forebrain, and hindbrain of both chronic ethanol exposed and select MO treatments. Epha4a expression in rhombomere R1 boundary was decreased in chronic ethanol exposure and aldh1a3 morphants, lost in fgf8a morphants, but largely unaffected in agrin and shha morphants. Ectopic pax6a and epha4a expression in midbrain was only found in fgf8a morphants. These results suggest that while chronic ethanol induces obvious morphological change in brain architecture, many molecular markers of these brain structures are relatively unaffected by ethanol exposure.

  14. Early histological and functional effects of chronic copper exposure in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Felipe A; Tapia, Gladys; Arredondo, Miguel; Cartier-Ugarte, Denise; Romanque, Pamela; Sierralta, Walter D; Vial, María T; Videla, Luis A; Araya, Magdalena

    2005-10-01

    Cu is an essential trace element capable of producing toxic effects in animals and man when ingested acutely or chronically in excess. Although chronic Cu exposure is increasingly recognized as a public health issue, its early effects remain largely unknown. We approached the significance of a moderate chronic Cu load in young rats to correlate early hepatic histopathological changes with functional alterations of liver cells. For this purpose, supplementation with 1,200 ppm of Cu in rat food for 16 weeks was chosen. In these conditions, Cu load elicited a significant decrease in growth curves. There were mild light microscopy alterations in Cu-treated rats, although increasing intracellular Cu storage was correlated with longer Cu exposure both by histological and biochemical measurements. Ultrastructural alterations included lysosomal inclusions as well as mitochondrial and nuclear changes. Liver perfusion studies revealed higher rates of basal O(2) consumption and colloidal carbon-induced O(2) uptake in Cu-treated rats, with enhanced carbon-induced O(2)/carbon uptake ratios and NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. These changes were time-dependent and returned to control values after 12 or 16 weeks. It is concluded that subchronic Cu loading in young rats induces early hepatic morphological changes, with enhancement in Küpffer cell-dependent respiratory burst activity and NF-kappaB DNA binding, cellular responses that may prevent or alleviate the hepatotoxicity of the metal.

  15. Association of educational attainment with chronic disease and mortality: the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP).

    PubMed

    Choi, Andy I; Weekley, Cristin C; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Norris, Keith C; Shlipak, Michael G

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested a close relationship between education and health, including mortality, in the United States. Observational cohort. We studied 61,457 participants enrolled in a national health screening initiative, the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP). Self-reported educational attainment. Chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, reduced kidney function, and albuminuria) and mortality. We evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported educational attainment with the chronic diseases listed using logistic regression models adjusted for demographics, access to care, behaviors, and comorbid conditions. The association of educational attainment with survival was determined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Higher educational attainment was associated with a lower prevalence of each of the chronic conditions listed. In multivariable models, compared with persons not completing high school, college graduates had a lower risk of each chronic condition, ranging from 11% lower odds of decreased kidney function to 37% lower odds of cardiovascular disease. During a mean follow-up of 3.9 (median, 3.7) years, 2,384 (4%) deaths occurred. In the fully adjusted Cox model, those who had completed college had 24% lower mortality compared with participants who had completed at least some high school. Lack of income data does not allow us to disentangle the independent effects of education from income. In this diverse contemporary cohort, higher educational attainment was associated independently with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases and short-term mortality in all age and race/ethnicity groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Considering baseline factors and early response rates to optimize therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.

    PubMed

    Akard, Luke P; Bixby, Dale

    2016-05-01

    Multiple BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are available for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP), and several baseline and on-treatment predictive factors have been identified that can be used to help guide TKI selection for individual patients. In particular, early molecular response (EMR; BCR-ABL ≤10% on the International Scale at 3 months) has become an accepted benchmark for evaluating whether patients with CML-CP are responding optimally to frontline TKI therapy. Failure to achieve EMR is considered an inadequate initial response according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines and a warning response according to the European LeukemiaNet recommendations. Here we review data supporting the importance of achieving EMR for improving patients' long-term outcomes and discuss key considerations for selecting a frontline TKI in light of these data. Because a higher proportion of patients achieve EMR with second-generation TKIs such as nilotinib and dasatinib than with imatinib, these TKIs may be preferable for many patients, particularly those with known negative prognostic factors at baseline. We also discuss other considerations for frontline TKI choice, including toxicities, cost-effectiveness, and the emerging goals of deep molecular response and treatment-free remission.

  17. Early treatment of minocycline alleviates white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wei Wei; Wu, Xiao Hua; Liao, Ru Jia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang Nan; Zhang, Li San; Zhou, Yu Dong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei Wei

    2015-01-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion develops with progressive white matter and cognitive impairments, yet no effective therapy is available. We investigated the temporal effects of minocycline on an experimental SIVD exerted by right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO). Minocycline treated at the early stage (day 0–3), but not the late stage after rUCCAO (day 4–32) alleviated the white matter and cognitive impairments, and promoted remyelination. The actions of minocycline may not involve the inhibition of microglia activation, based on the effects after the application of a microglial activation inhibitor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and co-treatment with lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, minocycline treatment at the early stage promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in subventricular zone, increased OPC number and alleviated apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes in white matter. In vitro, minocycline promoted OPC proliferation and increased the percentage of OPCs in S and G2/M phases. We provided direct evidence that early treatment is critical for minocycline to alleviate white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which may be due to its robust effects on OPC proliferation and mature oligodendrocyte loss. So, early therapeutic time window may be crucial for its application in SIVD. PMID:26174710

  18. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to recent acute and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging frontostriatal function in ultra-high-risk, early, and chronic schizophrenia during executive processing.

    PubMed

    Morey, Rajendra A; Inan, Seniha; Mitchell, Teresa V; Perkins, Diana O; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Belger, Aysenil

    2005-03-01

    Individuals experiencing prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia (ultra-high-risk group) demonstrate impaired performance on tasks of executive function, attention, and working memory. The neurobiological underpinnings of such executive deficits in ultra-high-risk individuals remains unclear. We assessed frontal and striatal functions during a visual oddball continuous performance task, in ultra-high-risk, early, and chronic schizophrenic patients with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cross-sectional case-control design. Community; outpatient clinic. Patients Fifty-two individuals (control, n = 16; ultra-high risk, n = 10; early, n = 15; chronic, n = 11) from a referred clinical sample and age- and sex-matched control volunteers underwent scanning. Percentage of active voxels and percentage signal change calculated for the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), basal ganglia, and thalamus. Performance on the visual oddball task was measured with percentage of hits and d' (a measure based on the hit rate and the false-alarm rate). The ultra-high-risk group showed significantly smaller differential activation between task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli in the frontal regions (ACG, IFG, MFG) than the control group. Frontostriatal activation associated with target stimuli in the early and chronic groups was significantly lower than the control group, while the ultra-high-risk group showed a trend toward the early group. Our findings suggest that prefrontal function begins to decline before the onset of syndromally defined illness and hence may represent a vulnerability marker in assessing the risk of developing psychotic disorders among ultra-high-risk individuals.

  20. Novel blood-based microRNA biomarker panel for early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Lei; Gao, Jun; Wang, Dan; Lin, Jin-Huan; Liao, Zhuan; Ji, Jun-Tao; Du, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Fei; Hu, Liang-Hao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by progressive fibrosis of pancreas. Early diagnosis will improve the prognosis of patients. This study aimed to obtain serum miRNA biomarkers for early diagnosis of CP. In the current study, we analyzed the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) of CP patients from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and the DEmiRs in plasma of early CP patients (n = 10) from clinic by miRNA microarrays. Expression levels of DEmiRs were further tested in clinical samples including early CP patients (n = 20), late CP patients (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 18). The primary endpoints were area under curve (AUC) and expression levels of DEmiRs. Four DEmiRs (hsa-miR-320a-d) were obtained from GEO CP, meanwhile two (hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-130a) were identified as distinct biomarkers of early CP by miRNA microarrays. When applied on clinical serum samples, hsa-miR-320a-d were accurate in predicting late CP, while hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-130a were accurate in predicting early CP with AUC of 100.0% and 87.5%. Our study indicates that miRNA expression profile is different in early and late CP. Hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-130a are biomarkers of early CP, and the panel of the above 6 serum miRNAs has the potential to be applied clinically for early diagnosis of CP. PMID:28074846

  1. Chronic Disease Management Strategies of Early Childhood Caries: Support from the Medical and Dental Literature.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L; Ng, Man Wai

    2015-01-01

    An Institute of Medicine report places chronic disease management (CDM) as an intervention on a treatment spectrum between prevention and acute care. CDM commonly focuses on conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant. Framing early childhood caries (ECC) as such a chronic condition invites dentistry to reconsider its approach to caries management and shift gears from a strictly surgical approach to one that also incorporates a medical approach. This paper's purpose was to explore the definition of and concepts inherent in CDM. An explanatory model is introduced to describe the multiple factors that influence ECC-CDM strategies. Reviewed literature suggests that early evidence from ECC-CDM interventions, along with results of pediatric asthma and diabetes CDM, supports CDM of ECC as a valid approach that is independent of both prevention and repair. Early results of ECC-CDM endeavors have demonstrated a reduction in rates of new cavitation, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared to baseline rates. ECC-CDM strategies hold strong promise to curtail caries activity while complementing dental repair when needed, thereby reducing disease progression and cavity recurrence. Institutionalizing ECC-CDM will both require and benefit from evolving health care delivery and financing systems that reward positive health outcomes.

  2. Exome Sequencing Frequently Reveals the Cause of Early-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vivante, Asaf; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    The primary causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children differ from those of adult onset CKD. In the United States the most common diagnostic groups of CKD that manifests before 25 years of age are: i) congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) (49.1%), ii) steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) (10.4%), iii) chronic glomerulonephritis (8.1%), and iv) renal cystic ciliopathies (5.3 %), encompassing >70% of CKD together. Recent findings suggest that early-onset CKD is caused by mutations in any one of over 200 different monogenic genes. High-throughput sequencing has very recently rendered identification of causative mutations in this high number of genes feasible. Molecular genetic diagnostics in early onset-CKD (before the age of 25 years) will, i) provide patients and families with a molecular genetic diagnosis, ii) generate new insights into diseases mechanisms, iii) allow etiology-based classification of patient cohorts for clinical studies and, iv) may have consequences for personalized treatment and prevention of CKD. In this review, we will discuss the implications of next-generation sequencing for clinical genetic diagnostics and discovery of novel genes in early-onset CKD. We also delineate the resulting opportunities for deciphering disease mechanisms and therapeutic implications. PMID:26750453

  3. Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

    2012-04-01

    Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity.

  4. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Racial and Gender Discrimination, Early Life Factors, and Chronic Physical Health Conditions in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician-diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. Methods We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (N=168, average age=41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression due to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Results Fifty-percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health conditions (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health conditions was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. PMID:24345610

  6. Gene Expression Profiling of Multiple Sclerosis Pathology Identifies Early Patterns of Demyelination Surrounding Chronic Active Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Debbie A. E.; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; van der Poel, Marlijn; Bossers, Koen; Schuurman, Karianne G.; van Eden, Corbert G.; Hol, Elly M.; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages phagocytose myelin focally in (chronic) active lesions. These demyelinating sites expand in time, but at some point turn inactive into a sclerotic scar. To identify molecular mechanisms underlying lesion activity and halt, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression in rim and peri-lesional regions of chronic active and inactive MS lesions, as well as in control tissue. Gene clustering revealed patterns of gene expression specifically associated with MS and with the presumed, subsequent stages of lesion development. Next to genes involved in immune functions, we found regulation of novel genes in and around the rim of chronic active lesions, such as NPY, KANK4, NCAN, TKTL1, and ANO4. Of note, the presence of many foamy macrophages in active rims was accompanied by a congruent upregulation of genes related to lipid binding, such as MSR1, CD68, CXCL16, and OLR1, and lipid uptake, such as CHIT1, GPNMB, and CCL18. Except CCL18, these genes were already upregulated in regions around active MS lesions, showing that such lesions are indeed expanding. In vitro downregulation of the scavenger receptors MSR1 and CXCL16 reduced myelin uptake. In conclusion, this study provides the gene expression profile of different aspects of MS pathology and indicates that early demyelination, mediated by scavenger receptors, is already present in regions around active MS lesions. Genes involved in early demyelination events in regions surrounding chronic active MS lesions might be promising therapeutic targets to stop lesion expansion. PMID:29312322

  7. Gene Expression Profiling of Multiple Sclerosis Pathology Identifies Early Patterns of Demyelination Surrounding Chronic Active Lesions.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Debbie A E; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; van der Poel, Marlijn; Bossers, Koen; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Eden, Corbert G; Hol, Elly M; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages phagocytose myelin focally in (chronic) active lesions. These demyelinating sites expand in time, but at some point turn inactive into a sclerotic scar. To identify molecular mechanisms underlying lesion activity and halt, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression in rim and peri-lesional regions of chronic active and inactive MS lesions, as well as in control tissue. Gene clustering revealed patterns of gene expression specifically associated with MS and with the presumed, subsequent stages of lesion development. Next to genes involved in immune functions, we found regulation of novel genes in and around the rim of chronic active lesions, such as NPY, KANK4, NCAN, TKTL1 , and ANO4 . Of note, the presence of many foamy macrophages in active rims was accompanied by a congruent upregulation of genes related to lipid binding, such as MSR1, CD68, CXCL16 , and OLR1 , and lipid uptake, such as CHIT1, GPNMB , and CCL18 . Except CCL18 , these genes were already upregulated in regions around active MS lesions, showing that such lesions are indeed expanding. In vitro downregulation of the scavenger receptors MSR1 and CXCL16 reduced myelin uptake. In conclusion, this study provides the gene expression profile of different aspects of MS pathology and indicates that early demyelination, mediated by scavenger receptors, is already present in regions around active MS lesions. Genes involved in early demyelination events in regions surrounding chronic active MS lesions might be promising therapeutic targets to stop lesion expansion.

  8. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams’ drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 μg dl−1). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 μg dl−1. PMID:25219894

  10. Modifications of the National Early Warning Score for patients with chronic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N E; Rasmussen, L S; Petersen, J A; Gerds, T A; Østergaard, D; Lippert, A

    2018-02-01

    The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) uses physiological variables to detect deterioration in hospitalized patients. However, patients with chronic respiratory disease may have abnormal variables not requiring interventions. We studied how the Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override System (CROS), the Chronic Respiratory Early Warning Score (CREWS) and the Salford NEWS (S-NEWS) affected NEWS total scores and NEWS performance. In an observational study, we included patients with chronic respiratory disease. The frequency of use of CROS and the NEWS total score changes caused by CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS were described. NEWS, CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS were compared using 48-h mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission within 48 h as outcomes. We studied 11,266 patients during 25,978 admissions; the use of CROS lowered NEWS total scores in 40% of included patients. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS had lower sensitivities than NEWS for 48-h mortality and ICU admission. Specificities and PPV were higher. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS downgraded, respectively, 51.5%, 44.9% and 32.8% of the NEWS total scores from the 'mandatory doctor presence' and 'immediate doctor presence and specialist consultation' total score intervals to lower intervals. Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override System was frequently used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS reduced sensitivity for 48-h mortality and ICU admission. Using the methodology prevalent in the NEWS literature, we cannot conclude on the safety of these systems. Future prospective studies should investigate the balance between detection rate and alarm fatigue of different systems, or use controlled designs and patient-centred outcomes. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called “developmental programming” or “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease. PMID:28208659

  12. Exploratory Investigation of Early Biomarkers for Chronic Fatigue in Prostate Cancer Patients Following Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li Rebekah; Wolff, Brian S.; Lukkahatai, Nada; Espina, Alexandra; Saligan, Leorey N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatigue is one of the most debilitating side effects of cancer therapy. Identifying biomarkers early during cancer therapy may help us understand the biologic underpinnings of the persistence of fatigue following therapy. Objective We aimed to identify early biomarkers of fatigue by examining correlations of levels of cytokines during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with persistence of fatigue one year following treatment completion in men with non-metastatic prostate cancer (NM-PC). Methods A sample of 34 men with NM-PC scheduled to receive EBRT were followed at baseline (T1), midpoint of EBRT (T2), and one year following EBRT (T3). Demographic and clinical data were obtained by chart review. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) was administered to measure fatigue levels. Plasma cytokine levels were determined at T1 and T2 using the Bio-Rad Bio-Plex Cytokine Assay Kits. Results Significant correlations were observed between levels of IL-3, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-16, IP10, IFNα2, IFNγ, and SDF1α at T2 with worsening of fatigue from T1 to T3. Conclusions Immunological changes prior to chronic fatigue development may reflect the long term response to radiation therapy-induced damage. Implications for Practice Early biomarkers for chronic fatigue related to cancer therapy will help advance our understanding of the etiology of this distressing symptom and will help nurses identify patients at risk for developing chronic fatigue after cancer treatment. This information will also aide in patient education, as well as symptom management. PMID:27105468

  13. Dental Hygienist-Led Chronic Disease Management System to Control Early Childhood Caries.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai; Fida, Zameera

    2016-06-01

    Management of the complex chronic disease of early childhood caries requires a system of coordinated health care interventions which can be led by a dental hygienist and where patient self-care efforts are paramount. Even after receiving costly surgical treatment under general anesthesia in the operating room, many children develop new and recurrent caries after only 6-12 months, a sequela that can be prevented. This article describes the chronic disease management (CDM) of dental caries, a science-based approach that can prevent and control caries. In this article, we (1) introduce the concept of CDM of dental caries, (2) provide evidence that CDM improves oral health outcomes, and (3) propose a dental hygienist-led team-based oral health care approach to CDM. Although we will be describing the CDM approach for early childhood caries, CDM of caries is applicable in children, adolescents, and adults. Early childhood caries disease control requires meaningful engagement of patients and parents by the oral health care team to assist them with making behavioral changes in the unique context of their families and communities. The traditional dentist/hygienist/assistant model needs to evolve to a collaborative partnership between care providers and patients/families. This partnership will be focused on systematic risk assessment and behaviorally based management of the disease itself, with sensitivity toward the familial environment. Early pilot study results demonstrate reductions in the rates of new caries, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared with baseline rates. Dental hygienists are the appropriate team members to lead this approach because of their expertise in behavior change and prevention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The cost-effectiveness of using chronic kidney disease risk scores to screen for early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yarnoff, Benjamin O; Hoerger, Thomas J; Simpson, Siobhan K; Leib, Alyssa; Burrows, Nilka R; Shrestha, Sundar S; Pavkov, Meda E

    2017-03-13

    Better treatment during early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may slow progression to end-stage renal disease and decrease associated complications and medical costs. Achieving early treatment of CKD is challenging, however, because a large fraction of persons with CKD are unaware of having this disease. Screening for CKD is one important method for increasing awareness. We examined the cost-effectiveness of identifying persons for early-stage CKD screening (i.e., screening for moderate albuminuria) using published CKD risk scores. We used the CKD Health Policy Model, a micro-simulation model, to simulate the cost-effectiveness of using CKD two published risk scores by Bang et al. and Kshirsagar et al. to identify persons in the US for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria. Alternative risk score thresholds were tested (0.20, 0.15, 0.10, 0.05, and 0.02) above which persons were assigned to receive screening at alternative intervals (1-, 2-, and 5-year) for follow-up screening if the first screening was negative. We examined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), incremental lifetime costs divided by incremental lifetime QALYs, relative to the next higher screening threshold to assess cost-effectiveness. Cost-effective scenarios were determined as those with ICERs less than $50,000 per QALY. Among the cost-effective scenarios, the optimal scenario was determined as the one that resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. ICERs ranged from $8,823 per QALY to $124,626 per QALY for the Bang et al. risk score and $6,342 per QALY to $405,861 per QALY for the Kshirsagar et al. risk score. The Bang et al. risk score with a threshold of 0.02 and 2-year follow-up screening was found to be optimal because it had an ICER less than $50,000 per QALY and resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. This study indicates that using these CKD risk scores may allow clinicians to cost-effectively identify a broader population for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria

  15. Effects of chronic crude oil exposure on early developmental stages of the Northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica).

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Maj; Moodley, Leon; Dunaevskaya, Evgenia; Ramanand, Sreerekha; Ingvarsdóttir, Anna; Nilsen, Marianne; Ravagnan, Elisa; Westerlund, Stig; Sanni, Steinar; Tarling, Geraint A; Bechmann, Renée K

    2017-01-01

    Rising oil and gas activities in northern high latitudes have led to an increased risk of petroleum pollution in these ecosystems. Further, seasonal high UV radiation at high latitudes may elevate photo-enhanced toxicity of petroleum pollution to marine organisms. Zooplanktons are a key ecological component of northern ecosystems; therefore, it is important to assess their sensitivity to potential pollutants of oil and gas activity. As ontogenetic development may be particularly sensitive, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of chronic exposure to oil water dispersion (OWD) on development and feeding of early life stages of the Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica. In a range of experiments, embryonic, nonfeeding, and feeding larval stages were exposed to concentrations of between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L of oil or photo-modified oil for 19 and 21 d. No significant effects on egg respiration, hatching success, development, length and larval survival were observed from these treatments. Similarly, evolution of fatty acid composition patterns during ontogenetic development was unaffected. The results indicates a high degree of resilience of these early developmental stages to such types and concentrations of pollutants. However, feeding and motility in later calyptopis-stage larvae were significantly impaired at exposure of 0.1 mg/L oil. Data indicate that feeding larval stage of krill was more sensitive to OWD than early nonfeeding life stages. This might be attributed to the narcotic effects of oil pollutants, their direct ingestion, or accumulated adverse effects over early development.

  16. Electrophysiological evidence of early attentional bias to drug-related pictures in chronic cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Asmaro, Deyar; Carolan, Patrick L; Liotti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of attentional bias to cannabis-related cues were investigated in a marijuana dependent group and a non-user group employing a drug Stroop task in which cannabis-related, negative and neutral images were presented. Behaviorally, cannabis users were less accurate during drug-containing blocks than non-users. Electrophysiologically, in chronic marijuana-users, an early positive ERP enhancement over left frontal scalp (EAP, 200-350ms) was present in response to drug-containing blocks relative to negative blocks. This effect was absent in the non-user group. Furthermore, drug-containing blocks gave rise to enhanced voltage of a posterior P300 (300-400ms), and a posterior sustained slow wave (LPP, 400-700ms) relative to negative blocks. However, such effects were similar between cannabis users and non-users. Brain source imaging in cannabis users revealed a generator for the EAP effect to drug stimuli in left ventromedial prefrontal cortex/medial orbitofrontal cortex, a region active in fMRI studies of drug cue-reactivity and a target of the core dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway involved in the processing of substances of abuse. This study identifies the timing and brain localization of an ERP correlate of early attentional capture to drug-related pictures in chronic marijuana users. The EAP to drug cues may identify a new electrophysiological marker with clinical implications for predicting abstinence versus relapse or to evaluate treatment interventions. © 2013.

  17. Pathways of Prion Spread during Early Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Clare E.; Davenport, Kristen A.; Henderson, Davin M.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Soto, Claudio; Zabel, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Among prion infections, two scenarios of prion spread are generally observed: (i) early lymphoid tissue replication or (ii) direct neuroinvasion without substantial antecedent lymphoid amplification. In nature, cervids are infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) prions by oral and nasal mucosal exposure, and studies of early CWD pathogenesis have implicated pharyngeal lymphoid tissue as the earliest sites of prion accumulation. However, knowledge of chronological events in prion spread during early infection remains incomplete. To investigate this knowledge gap in early CWD pathogenesis, we exposed white-tailed deer to CWD prions by mucosal routes and performed serial necropsies to assess PrPCWD tissue distribution by real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) and tyramide signal amplification immunohistochemistry (TSA-IHC). Although PrPCWD was not detected by either method in the initial days (1 and 3) postexposure, we observed PrPCWD seeding activity and follicular immunoreactivity in oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues at 1 and 2 months postexposure (MPE). At 3 MPE, PrPCWD replication had expanded to all systemic lymphoid tissues. By 4 MPE, the PrPCWD burden in all lymphoid tissues had increased and approached levels observed in terminal disease, yet there was no evidence of nervous system invasion. These results indicate the first site of CWD prion entry is in the oropharynx, and the initial phase of prion amplification occurs in the oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues followed by rapid dissemination to systemic lymphoid tissues. This lymphoid replication phase appears to precede neuroinvasion. IMPORTANCE Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a universally fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting cervids, and natural infection occurs through oral and nasal mucosal exposure to infectious prions. Terminal disease is characterized by PrPCWD accumulation in the brain and lymphoid tissues of affected animals. However, the initial sites of prion

  18. Pathways of Prion Spread during Early Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Clare E; Davenport, Kristen A; Henderson, Davin M; Denkers, Nathaniel D; Mathiason, Candace K; Soto, Claudio; Zabel, Mark D; Hoover, Edward A

    2017-05-15

    Among prion infections, two scenarios of prion spread are generally observed: (i) early lymphoid tissue replication or (ii) direct neuroinvasion without substantial antecedent lymphoid amplification. In nature, cervids are infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) prions by oral and nasal mucosal exposure, and studies of early CWD pathogenesis have implicated pharyngeal lymphoid tissue as the earliest sites of prion accumulation. However, knowledge of chronological events in prion spread during early infection remains incomplete. To investigate this knowledge gap in early CWD pathogenesis, we exposed white-tailed deer to CWD prions by mucosal routes and performed serial necropsies to assess PrP CWD tissue distribution by real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) and tyramide signal amplification immunohistochemistry (TSA-IHC). Although PrP CWD was not detected by either method in the initial days (1 and 3) postexposure, we observed PrP CWD seeding activity and follicular immunoreactivity in oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues at 1 and 2 months postexposure (MPE). At 3 MPE, PrP CWD replication had expanded to all systemic lymphoid tissues. By 4 MPE, the PrP CWD burden in all lymphoid tissues had increased and approached levels observed in terminal disease, yet there was no evidence of nervous system invasion. These results indicate the first site of CWD prion entry is in the oropharynx, and the initial phase of prion amplification occurs in the oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues followed by rapid dissemination to systemic lymphoid tissues. This lymphoid replication phase appears to precede neuroinvasion. IMPORTANCE Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a universally fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting cervids, and natural infection occurs through oral and nasal mucosal exposure to infectious prions. Terminal disease is characterized by PrP CWD accumulation in the brain and lymphoid tissues of affected animals. However, the initial sites of prion

  19. Prevention of organophosphate-induced chronic epilepsy by early benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed

    Shrot, Shai; Ramaty, Erez; Biala, Yoav; Bar-Klein, Guy; Daninos, Moshe; Kamintsky, Lyn; Makarovsky, Igor; Statlender, Liran; Rosman, Yossi; Krivoy, Amir; Lavon, Ophir; Kassirer, Michael; Friedman, Alon; Yaari, Yoel

    2014-09-02

    Poisoning with organophosphates (OPs) may induce status epilepticus (SE), leading to severe brain damage. Our objectives were to investigate whether OP-induced SE leads to the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs), the hallmark of chronic epilepsy, and if so, to assess the efficacy of benzodiazepine therapy following SE onset in preventing the epileptogenesis. We also explored early changes in hippocampal pyramidal cells excitability in this model. Adult rats were poisoned with the paraoxon (450μg/kg) and immediately treated with atropine (3mg/kg) and obidoxime (20mg/kg) to reduce acute mortality due to peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Electrical brain activity was assessed for two weeks during weeks 4-6 after poisoning using telemetric electrocorticographic intracranial recordings. All OP-poisoned animals developed SE, which could be suppressed by midazolam. Most (88%) rats which were not treated with midazolam developed SRSs, indicating that they have become chronically epileptic. Application of midazolam 1min following SE onset had a significant antiepileptogenic effect (only 11% of the rats became epileptic; p=0.001 compared to non-midazolam-treated rats). Applying midazolam 30min after SE onset did not significantly prevent chronic epilepsy. The electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal cells, assessed electrophysiologically in hippocampal slices, were not altered by OP-induced SE. Thus we show for the first time that a single episode of OP-induced SE in rats leads to the acquisition of chronic epilepsy, and that this epileptogenic outcome can be largely prevented by immediate, but not delayed, administration of midazolam. Extrapolating these results to humans would suggest that midazolam should be provided together with atropine and an oxime in the immediate pharmacological treatment of OP poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychometric evaluation of a new instrument to measure disease self-management of the early stage chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiu-Chu; Wu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Li-Min; Chen, Hsing-Mei; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to develop a valid and reliable chronic kidney disease self-management instrument (CKD-SM) for assessing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours. Enhancing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management plays a key role in delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease. Healthcare provider understanding of early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours can help develop effective interventions. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours is needed. A cross-sectional descriptive study collected data for principal components analysis with oblique rotation. Mandarin- or Taiwanese-speaking adults with chronic kidney disease (n=252) from two medical centres and one regional hospital in Southern Taiwan completed the CKD-SM. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated by Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients. Four factors were extracted and labelled self-integration, problem-solving, seeking social support and adherence to recommended regimen. The four factors accounted for 60.51% of the total variance. Each factor showed acceptable internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha from 0.77-0.92. The test-retest correlations for the CKD-SM was 0.72. The psychometric quality of the CKD-SM instrument was satisfactory. Research to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to further validate this new instrument's construct validity is recommended. The CKD-SM instrument is useful for clinicians who wish to identify the problems with self-management among chronic kidney disease patients early. Self-management assessment will be helpful to develop intervention tailored to the needs of the chronic kidney disease population. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Mapping thalamocortical functional connectivity in chronic and early stages of psychotic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Neil D.; Heckers, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is considerable evidence that the thalamus is abnormal in psychotic disorders. Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) has revealed an intriguing pattern of thalamic dysconnectivity in psychosis characterized by reduced prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity and increased somatomotor-thalamic connectivity. However, critical knowledge gaps remain with respect to the onset, anatomical specificity, and clinical correlates of thalamic dysconnectivity in psychosis. Method RS-fMRI was collected on 105 healthy subjects and 148 individuals with psychosis, including 53 early stage psychosis patients. Using all 253 subjects, the thalamus was parceled into functional regions-of-interest (ROIs) on the basis of connectivity with six a-priori defined cortical ROIs covering most of the cortical mantle. Functional connectivity between each cortical ROI and its corresponding thalamic ROI was quantified and compared across groups. Significant differences in the ROI-to-ROI analysis were followed up with voxel-wise seed-based analyses to further localize thalamic dysconnectivity. Results ROI analysis revealed reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity and increased somatomotor-thalamic connectivity in both chronic and early stages psychosis patients. PFC hypo-connectivity and motor cortex hyper-connectivity correlated in patients suggesting they result from a common pathophysiological mechanism. Seed-based analyses revealed thalamic hypo-connectivity in psychosis localized to dorsolateral PFC, medial PFC, and cerebellar areas of the well-described ‘executive control’ network. Across all subjects, thalamic connectivity with areas of the fronto-parietal network correlated with cognitive functioning, including verbal learning and memory. Conclusions Thalamocortical dysconnectivity is present in both chronic and early stages of psychosis, includes reduced thalamic connectivity with the executive control network, and is related to cognitive impairment. PMID:26248537

  2. Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. Aim To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Design and setting Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. Results A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Conclusion Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity. PMID:22520910

  3. Chronicity of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency, Part 2: Radiographic Predictors of Early Graft Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshinari; Kita, Keisuke; Takao, Rikio; Amano, Hiroshi; Uchida, Ryohei; Shiozaki, Yoshiki; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Kinugasa, Kazutaka; Mae, Tatsuo; Horibe, Shuji

    2018-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that long-term anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can give rise to an abnormal tibiofemoral relationship and subsequent intra-articular lesions. However, the effects of chronic ACL deficiency (ACLD) on early graft failure after anatomic reconstruction remain unclear. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with long-term ACLD lasting more than 5 years would have a greater rate of early graft failure due to insufficient intraoperative reduction of the tibia and that the preoperative and immediately postoperative abnormal tibiofemoral relationship in the sagittal plane, such as anterior tibial subluxation (ATS), would correlate with the graft status on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 358 patients who had undergone anatomic ACL reconstruction with hamstring grafts were divided into 5 groups based on chronicity of ACLD: (1) 0 to 6 months, (2) 6 months to 1 year, (3) 1 to 2 years, (4) 2 to 5 years, and (5) longer than 5 years. Preoperatively and immediately postoperatively, lateral radiographs in full extension were taken in all patients to evaluate the tibiofemoral relationship, specifically with regard to ATS, space for the ACL (sACL), and extension angle. All patients underwent MRI at 6 months to reveal graft status. Groups with a high rate of graft failure were further analyzed to compare demographic and radiographic factors between the intact and failure subgroups, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify predisposing factors. Results: Graft failure without trauma was observed in 4 (1.8%), 0 (0%), 1 (3.7%), 3 (9.7%), and 8 patients (17.7%) in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Of the 76 patients in groups 4 and 5, significant differences were noted between the failure and intact subgroups in preoperative ATS (4.9 vs 2.4 mm, respectively; P < .01), side-to-side differences in sACL (sACL-SSD) (4.7 vs

  4. The construction of a panel of serum amino acids for the identification of early chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Dai, Jinna; Kang, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Serum creatinine, urea, and cystatin-c are standardly used for the evaluation of renal function in the clinic. However, some patients have chronic kidney disease but still retain kidney function; a conventional serum index in these patients can be completely normal. Serum amino acid levels can reflect subtle changes in metabolism and are closely related to renal function. Here, we investigated how amino acids change as renal impairment increases. Subjects were divided into three groups by renal function glomerular filtration rate: healthy controls, patients with chronic kidney disease with normal kidney function, and patients with chronic kidney disease with decreased kidney function group. We identified 11 amino acids of interest using LC-MS/MS on MRM (+) mode. Statistical analysis indicated that alanine (ALA), valine (VAL), and tyrosine (TYR) decrease with renal function impairment, whereas phenylalanine (PHE) and citrulline (CIT) increase. We tried to construct a diagnostic model utilizing a combination of amino acids capable of identifying early chronic kidney disease patients. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of the combining predictors were 86.9%, 84.6%, and 90.9%, respectively, which is superior to the reported values for serum creatinine, urea, and cystatin-c. Our data suggest that serum amino acid levels may supply important information for the early detection of chronic kidney disease. We are the first to establish a diagnostic model utilizing serum levels of multiple amino acids for the diagnosis of patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. ChronicOnline: Implementing a mHealth solution for monitoring and early alerting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Bitsaki, Marina; Koutras, Christos; Koutras, George; Leymann, Frank; Steimle, Frank; Wagner, Sebastian; Wieland, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Lack of time or economic difficulties prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from communicating regularly with their physicians, thus inducing exacerbation of their chronic condition and possible hospitalization. Enhancing Chronic patients' Health Online proposes a new, sustainable and innovative business model that provides at low cost and at significant savings to the national health system, a preventive health service for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, by combining human medical expertise with state-of-the-art online service delivery based on cloud computing, service-oriented architecture, data analytics, and mobile applications. In this article, we implement the frontend applications of the Enhancing Chronic patients' Health Online system and describe their functionality and the interfaces available to the users.

  6. Predictors of early graft failure after coronary artery bypass grafting for chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Hideki; Tokuda, Yoshiyuki; Araki, Yoshimori; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Yukio; Usui, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the transit-time flow measurement (TTFM) variables in grafts anastomosed to chronically totally occluded vessels (CTOs). We aimed to establish the TTFM cut-off values for detecting graft failure in bypass grafts anastomosed to chronically totally occluded arteries and clarify the relationship between early graft failure and the grade of collateral circulation/regional wall motion of the CTO territory. Among 491 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from 2009 to 2015, 196 cases with CTOs underwent postoperative coronary angiography within 1 month after CABG. Two hundred and forty-one CTOs in all patients were examined. Thirty-two CTOs (13%) were not bypassed and 214 conduits were anastomosed to CTOs and underwent intraoperative TTFM. Arterial conduits and saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) were used in 102 and 112 cases, respectively. Among the arterial conduit procedures that were performed, 78 involved the left internal thoracic artery (LITA), 10 involved the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) and 14 involved the right gastroepiploic artery (rGEA). Any graft showing Fitzgibbon type B or O lesions on angiography was considered to be a failing graft. The insufficiency rates for LITA, RITA, rGEA and SVG procedures were 5.1, 10, 14.3 and 7.1%, respectively. The TTFM variables recorded in failing grafts had a significantly lower mean flow (Qmean) and higher pulsatility index (PI) compared with patent grafts. Furthermore, akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion in the territory of bypassed CTOs was observed at a significantly higher rate in failing grafts. A multivariable regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed good predictors of early graft failure as follows: a Qmean value of < 11.5 ml/min for arterial conduits, a PI value of >5.85 and akinetic/dyskinetic wall motion in the CTO territory for SVGs. The Rentrop collateral grade was not associated with early graft failure. The Qmean

  7. Iron Status and Inflammation in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Łukaszyk, Ewelina; Łukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Żórawska, Ewa; Tobolczyk, Jolanta; Bodzenta-Łukaszyk, Anna; Małyszko, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common causes of anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is chronic kidney disease. The main pathomechanism responsible for ACD is subclinical inflammation. The key element involved in iron metabolism is hepcidin, however, studies on new indices of iron status are in progress.The aim of the study was to assess the iron status in patients in early stages of chronic kidney disease, iron correlation with inflammation parameters and novel biomarkers of iron metabolism. The study included 69 patients. Standard laboratory measurements were used to measure the iron status, complete blood count, fibrinogen, prothrombin index, C-reactive protein concentration (CRP), creatinine, urea, uric acid. Commercially available kits were used to measure high-sensitivity CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6), hepcidin-25, hemojuvelin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and zonulin. Absolute iron deficiency was present in 17% of the patients, functional iron deficiency was present in 12% of the patients. Functional iron deficiency was associated with significantly higher serum levels of fibrinogen, ferritin, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, hepcidin and older age relative to patients with absolute iron deficiency. In comparison with patients without iron deficiency, patients with functional iron deficiency were older, with lower prothrombin index, higher fibrinogen, CRP, hsCRP, sTfR, GDF-15, urea and lower eGFR. Hepcidin was predicted by markers of inflammation:ferritin, fibrinogen and IL-6. Inflammation is correlated with iron status. Novel biomarkers of iron metabolism might be useful to distinguish iron deficiency anemia connected with inflammation and absolute iron deficiency. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Ultrasensitive sensor for detection of early stage chronic kidney disease in human.

    PubMed

    Desai, Dignya; Kumar, Ashok; Bose, Debajyoti; Datta, Manali

    2018-05-15

    A facile label free, ultrasensitive platform for a rapid detection of chronic kidney disease has been fabricated. Early intervention in patients with chronic kidney disease has the potential to delay, or even prevent, the development of end stage renal disease and complications, leading to a marked impact on life expectancy and quality of life. Thus, a potable electrochemical diagnostic biosensor has become an attractive option as electrochemical analysis is feasible to use for on-site detection of samples. In human, Cystatin C present in human body fluids is freely filtered by the glomerulus, but reabsorbed and catabolised by the renal tubules. Trace detectable amount is eliminated in urine, giving this molecular marker an edge over serum creatinine's disadvantages. A carboxyl functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes screen printed electrode was immobilized with papain (cysteine protease) where amino group of papain covalently bound carboxyl group on electrode surface by EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide) and NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry. The modifications on sensor surface were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Interaction between papain and chronic kidney disease specific biomarker, Cystatin C was detected by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry within 10min. The sensor is highly specific to Cystatin C and showed negligible response to non-specific macromolecules present in urine. The sensitivity of the sensor was 1583.49µAcm -2 µg -1 and lower limit of detection of Cystatin C was found 0.58ngL -1 which presents as a promising platform for designing potable kidney disease detector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of early versus delayed functional restoration for chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Brian R; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    Despite extensive evidence for the treatment effectiveness of interdisciplinary functional restoration (FR) for chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMD), there is little documentation on the cost-effectiveness of early rehabilitation using FR. A total of 1,119 CDOMD patients were classified according to duration of disability on FR entry, corresponding to early rehabilitation (ER: 4-8 months of disability, N = 373), intermediate duration (ID: 9-18 months, N = 373), and delayed rehabilitation (DR: >18 months, N = 373). Groups were matched on sex, age, ethnicity, and injured musculoskeletal region. One-year post-rehabilitation outcomes included return-to-work, work retention and healthcare utilization. Economic analyses included a cost-effectiveness analysis of the FR program, and estimation of the total cost-of-illness. At 1-year post-rehabilitation, all groups were comparable on return-to-work (overall 88%), work retention (overall 80%), and additional healthcare utilization (overall, 2.2% of patients received re-operations/new surgeries, 2 visits to new healthcare provider). Savings of up to 64% in medical costs, and up to 80% in disability benefits and productivity losses was associated with the ER group. The cost of rehabilitation was also up to 56% lower when administered early. Overall, ER resulted in estimated cost savings of up to 72% (or almost $170,000 per claim). Duration of disability does not negatively impact objective work or healthcare utilization outcomes following interdisciplinary FR. However, early rehabilitation is more likely to be a cost-effective solution compared to cases that progress >8 months and receiving FR as a treatment of "last resort".

  10. Characterization of Mouse Models of Early Pancreatic Lesions Induced by Alcohol and Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiping; Chheda, Chintan; Ouhaddi, Yassine; Benhaddou, Hajar; Bourhim, Mouloud; Grippo, Paul J; Principe, Daniel R; Mascariñas, Emman; DeCant, Brian; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Pandol, Stephen J; Edderkaoui, Mouad

    2015-08-01

    We describe the first mouse model of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions induced by alcohol in the presence and absence of chronic pancreatitis. Pdx1-Cre;LSL-K-ras mice were exposed to Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet for 6 weeks with cerulein injections. The PanIN lesions and markers of fibrosis, inflammation, histone deacetylation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cancer stemness were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western. Exposure of Pdx1-Cre;LSL-K-ras mice to an alcohol diet significantly stimulated fibrosis and slightly but not significantly increased the level of PanIN lesions associated with an increase in tumor-promoting M2 macrophages. Importantly, the alcohol diet did not increase activation of stellate cells. Alcohol diet and cerulein injections resulted in synergistic and additive effects on PanIN lesion and M2 macrophage phenotype induction, respectively. Cerulein pancreatitis caused stellate cell activation, EMT, and cancer stemness in the pancreas. Pancreatitis caused histone deacetylation, which was promoted by the alcohol diet. Pancreatitis increased EMT and cancer stemness markers, which were not further affected by the alcohol diet. The results suggest that alcohol has independent effects on promotion of PDAC associated with fibrosis formed through a stellate cell-independent mechanism and that it further promotes early PDAC and M2 macrophage induction in the context of chronic pancreatitis.

  11. Chronic social isolation and chronic variable stress during early development induce later elevated ethanol intake in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Becker, Howard C

    2011-06-01

    Experience with stress situations during early development can have long-lasting effects on stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Importantly, this can also favor drug self-administration. These studies examined the effects of chronic social isolation and/or variable stress experiences during early development on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake in adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. The experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 1), chronic isolation during adulthood (Experiment 2), and chronic variable stress (CVS) alone or in combination with chronic social isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 3) on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake. Mice were born in our facility and were separated into two housing conditions: isolate housed (one mouse/cage) or group housed (four mice/cage) according to sex. Separate groups were isolated for 40 days starting either at time of weaning postnatal day 21 (PD 21) (early isolation, Experiments 1 and 3) or at adulthood (PD 60: late isolation, Experiment 2). The effects of housing condition on subsequent ethanol intake were assessed starting at around PD 65 in Experiments 1 and 3 or PD 105 days in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, starting at PD 32, isolate-housed and group-housed mice were either subjected to CVS or left undisturbed. CVS groups experienced random presentations of mild stressors for 14 days, including exposure to an unfamiliar open field, restraint, physical shaking, and forced swim, among others. All mice were tested for ethanol intake for 14 days using a two-bottle choice (ethanol 15% vol/vol vs. water) for a 2-h limited access procedure. Early social isolation resulted in greater ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 1). In contrast, social isolation during adulthood (late isolation) did not increase subsequent ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 2

  12. Characterization of Early Pathological Tau Conformations and Phosphorylation in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Nicholas M.; Cox, Kristine; Alvarez, Victor E.; Stein, Thor D.; Poncil, Sharra; McKee, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy that develops after repetitive head injury. Several lines of evidence in other tauopathies suggest that tau oligomer formation induces neurotoxicity and that tau oligomer-mediated neurotoxicity involves induction of axonal dysfunction through exposure of an N-terminal motif in tau, the phosphatase-activating domain (PAD). Additionally, phosphorylation at serine 422 in tau occurs early and correlates with cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We performed immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on fixed brain sections and biochemical analysis of fresh brain extracts to characterize the presence of PAD-exposed tau (TNT1 antibody), tau oligomers (TOC1 antibody), tau phosphorylated at S422 (pS422 antibody), and tau truncated at D421 (TauC3 antibody) in the brains of 9-11 cases with CTE and cases of nondemented aged controls and AD (Braak VI) (n = 6, each). All 3 early tau markers (ie, TNT1, TOC1, and pS422) were present in CTE and displayed extensive colocalization in perivascular tau lesions that are considered diagnostic for CTE. Notably, the TauC3 epitope, which is abundant in AD, was relatively sparse in CTE. Together, these results provide the first description of PAD exposure, TOC1 reactive oligomers, phosphorylation of S422, and TauC3 truncation in the tau pathology of CTE. PMID:26671985

  13. Impaired early visual response modulations to spatial information in chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Knebel, Jean-François; Javitt, Daniel C.; Murray, Micah M.

    2011-01-01

    Early visual processing stages have been demonstrated to be impaired in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives. The amplitude and topography of the P1 component of the visual evoked potential (VEP) are both affected; the latter of which indicates alterations in active brain networks between populations. At least two issues remain unresolved. First, the specificity of this deficit (and suitability as an endophenotype) has yet to be established, with evidence for impaired P1 responses in other clinical populations. Second, it remains unknown whether schizophrenia patients exhibit intact functional modulation of the P1 VEP component; an aspect that may assist in distinguishing effects specific to schizophrenia. We applied electrical neuroimaging analyses to VEPs from chronic schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in response to variation in the parafoveal spatial extent of stimuli. Healthy controls demonstrated robust modulation of the VEP strength and topography as a function of the spatial extent of stimuli during the P1 component. By contrast, no such modulations were evident at early latencies in the responses from patients with schizophrenia. Source estimations localized these deficits to the left precuneus and medial inferior parietal cortex. These findings provide insights on potential underlying low-level impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:21764264

  14. Early treatment with xenon protects against the cold ischemia associated with chronic allograft nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailin; Luo, Xianghong; Zhou, Zhaowei; Liu, Juying; Tralau-Stewart, Catherine; George, Andrew J T; Ma, Daqing

    2014-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a common finding in kidney grafts with functional impairment. Prolonged hypothermic storage-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with the early onset of CAN. As the noble gas xenon is clinically used as an anesthetic and has renoprotective properties in a rodent model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, we studied whether early treatment with xenon could attenuate CAN associated with prolonged hypothermic storage. Exposure to xenon enhanced the expression of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor in human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells, which, in turn, increased cell proliferation. Xenon treatment before or after hypothermia-hypoxia decreased cell apoptosis and cell inflammation after reoxygenation. The xenon-induced HK-2 cell proliferation was abolished by blocking the IGF-1 receptor, mTOR, and HIF-1α individually. In the Fischer-to-Lewis rat allogeneic renal transplantation model, xenon exposure of donors before graft retrieval or recipients after engraftment enhanced tubular cell proliferation and decreased tubular cell death and cell inflammation associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Compared with control allografts, xenon treatment significantly suppressed T-cell infiltration and fibrosis, prevented the development of CAN, and improved renal function. Thus, xenon treatment promoted recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduced susceptibility to the subsequent development of CAN in allografts.

  15. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Conclusions: Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. Citation: Ogna A, Forni Ogna V, Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  16. Effects of Phosphate Binder Therapy on Vascular Stiffness in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Michael E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Rothstein, Marcos; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Cheng, Steven C.; Ross, Will; Windus, David; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Hruska, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of the CKD-MBD. Methods We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months. Results There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2–3-fold at baseline but were not affected by LaCO3. Conclusion 12 months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of the CKD-MBD. PMID:23941761

  17. Air pollution in early life and adult mortality from chronic rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David I W; Osmond, Clive; Williams, Martin L; Jones, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD. They raised the possibility that early air pollution, which is known to be strongly linked with chest infection during infancy, may predispose to RHD. We related estimates of air pollution and social conditions developed by Daly in 1951-52 for 78 urban areas in England and Wales to their subsequent RHD mortality rates at ages 35-74 in men and women during 1993-2012. There were strong relationships between domestic air pollution and RHD [relative risk per standard deviation (SD) increase in pollution 1.168, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.128 to 1.210, P < 0.001). Inclusion of published data on social class, education, crowding and population density in multiple regression analyses showed that the air pollution association was independent of these; only overcrowding was separately linked with RHD. We present the first evidence of an association between air pollution in early life and RHD. Although there are several limitations to this study, the strength and consistency of the results, together with their biological plausibility, suggest a causal link. This deserves attention because it may have important consequences for the control of RHD in resource-poor countries where widespread use of biomass fuels and domestic pollution remain a problem. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  18. General practitioners' perspectives on management of early-stage chronic kidney disease: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    van Dipten, Carola; van Berkel, Saskia; de Grauw, Wim J C; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke D; Brongers, Bouke; van Spaendonck, Karel; Wetzels, Jack F M; Assendelft, Willem J J; Dees, Marianne K

    2018-06-06

    Guideline adherence in chronic kidney disease management is low, despite guideline implementation initiatives. Knowing general practitioners' (GPs') perspectives of management of early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the applicability of the national interdisciplinary guideline could support strategies to improve quality of care. Qualitative focus group study with 27 GPs in the Netherlands. Three analysts open-coded and comparatively analysed the data. Mind-mapping sessions were performed after data-saturation. Five themes emerged: defining CKD, knowledge and awareness, patient-physician interaction, organisation of CKD care and value of the guideline. A key finding was the abstractness of the CKD concept. The GPs expressed various perspectives about defining CKD and interpreting estimated glomerular filtration rates. Views about clinical relevance influenced the decision-making, although factual knowledge seems lacking. Striving to inform well enough without creating anxiety and to explain suitably for the intellectual ability of the patient caused tension in the patient-physician interaction. Integration with cardiovascular disease-management programmes was mentioned as a way of implementing CKD care in the future. The guideline was perceived as a rough guide rather than a leading document. CKD is perceived as an abstract rather than a clinical concept. Abstractness plays a role in all formulated themes. Management of CKD patients in primary care is complex and is influenced by physician-bound considerations related to individual knowledge and perception of the importance of CKD. Strategies are needed to improve GPs' understanding of the concept of CKD by education, a holistic approach to guidelines, and integration of CKD care into cardiovascular programmes. Not applicable.

  19. Proton Pump Inhibitors Independently Protect Against Early Allograft Injury or Chronic Rejection After Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wai-Kit; Goldberg, Hilary J; Boukedes, Steve; Burakoff, Robert; Chan, Walter W

    2018-02-01

    Acid reflux has been associated with poor outcomes following lung transplantation. Unlike surgical fundoplication, the role of noninvasive, pharmacologic acid suppression remains uncertain. To assess the relationship between post-transplant acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) and onset of early allograft injury or chronic rejection following lung transplantation. This was a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients at a tertiary center in 2007-2014. Patients with pre-transplant antireflux surgery were excluded. Time-to-event analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model was applied to assess acid suppression therapy and onset of acute or chronic rejection, defined histologically and clinically. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess PPI versus H2RA use. A total of 188 subjects (60% men, mean age 54, follow-up 554 person-years) met inclusion criteria. During follow-up, 115 subjects (61.5%) developed rejection, with all-cause mortality of 27.6%. On univariate analyses, acid suppression and BMI, but not other patient demographics, were associated with rejection. The Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated decreased rejection with use of acid suppression therapy (log-rank p = 0.03). On multivariate analyses, acid suppression (HR 0.39, p = 0.04) and lower BMI (HR 0.67, p = 0.04) were independently predicted against rejection. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that persistent PPI use was more protective than H2RA or no antireflux medications. Post-lung transplant exposure to persistent PPI therapy results in the greatest protection against rejection in lung transplant recipients, independent of other clinical predictors including BMI, suggesting that PPI may have antireflux or anti-inflammatory effects in enhancing allograft protection.

  20. Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism during early abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Berman, S M; Voytek, B; Mandelkern, M A; Hassid, B D; Isaacson, A; Monterosso, J; Miotto, K; Ling, W; London, E D

    2008-09-01

    Changes in brain function during the initial weeks of abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse may substantially affect clinical outcome, but are not well understood. We used positron emission tomography with [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to quantify regional cerebral glucose metabolism, an index of brain function, during performance of a vigilance task. A total of 10 methamphetamine-dependent subjects were tested after 5-9 days of abstinence, and after 4 additional weeks of supervised abstinence. A total of 12 healthy control subjects were tested at corresponding times. Global glucose metabolism increased between tests (P=0.01), more in methamphetamine-dependent (10.9%, P=0.02) than control subjects (1.9%, NS). Glucose metabolism did not change in subcortical regions of methamphetamine-dependent subjects, but increased in neocortex, with maximal increase (>20%) in parietal regions. Changes in reaction time and self-reports of negative affect varied more in methamphetamine-dependent than in control subjects, and correlated both with the increase in parietal glucose metabolism, and decrease in relative activity (after scaling to the global mean) in some regions. A robust relationship between change in self-reports of depressive symptoms and relative activity in the ventral striatum may have great relevance to treatment success because of the role of this region in drug abuse-related behaviors. Shifts in cortical-subcortical metabolic balance either reflect new processes that occur during early abstinence, or the unmasking of effects of chronic methamphetamine abuse that are obscured by suppression of cortical glucose metabolism that continues for at least 5-9 days after cessation of methamphetamine self-administration.

  1. Periodontitis in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective follow-up study in Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Heikkinen, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Design Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16 months later. Controls were examined once. Settings and participants The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naїve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Outcome measures Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Results Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth ≥4 mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem

  2. Periodontitis in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective follow-up study in Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Heikkinen, Anna Maria

    2017-01-31

    To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16 months later. Controls were examined once. The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naїve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth ≥4 mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem to affect the results. Moderate periodontitis was more frequent in

  3. Developmental Pathways from Childhood Aggression-Disruptiveness, Chronic Peer Rejection and Deviant Friendships to Early-Adolescent Rule Breaking

    PubMed Central

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood aggression-disruptiveness, chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships were examined as predictors of early-adolescent rule breaking behaviors. Using a sample of 383 children (193 girls and 190 boys) who were followed from ages 6 to 14, peer rejection trajectories were identified and incorporated into a series of alternative models to assess how chronic peer rejection and deviant friendships mediate the association between stable childhood aggression-disruptiveness and early-adolescent rule breaking. There were multiple mediated pathways to rule breaking that included both behavioral and relational risk factors and findings were consistent for boys and girls. Results have implications for better understanding the influence of multiple social processes in the continuity of antisocial behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence. PMID:25403544

  4. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort.

    PubMed

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1-2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Severe and Rapid Progression in Very Early-Onset Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Associated Colitis.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshinao; Arai, Katsuhiro; Harayama, Shizuko; Nakazawa, Yumiko; Goto, Fumihiro; Maekawa, Takanobu; Tamura, Eiichiro; Uchiyama, Toru; Onodera, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease that leads to recurrent infection and hyper-inflammation, occasionally represented by CGD-associated colitis (CGD colitis). Although clinical symptoms of CGD colitis mimic those of ulcerative colitis (UC), there is no reliable standard measurement of disease activity or standard therapeutic strategy for CGD colitis. Here, we examined the clinical manifestation of CGD colitis based on severity using a noninvasive measure of disease activity, the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI), which has been validated and widely used for pediatric UC. Sixteen of 35 CGD patients, who were diagnosed with CGD colitis based on colonoscopic and histological findings, were examined using the PUCAI. Both the PUCAI and the physician global assessment (PGA) tool were retrospectively scored by reviewing medical records. Disease activity defined by PUCAI was correlated with PGA, and increased at diagnosis of CGD colitis, especially in patients who were younger than 6 years of age (very early-onset CGD colitis: VEO-CGD colitis) when diagnosed with CGD colitis. All severe patients had a more progressive form of VEO-CGD colitis. Unlike mild and moderate patients, severe patients required multidrug therapy of corticosteroids and immunomodulator/immunosuppressants, and some were eventually treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although the validation of PUCAI in CGD colitis should be considered for future use, our results indicate that noninvasive measures could be effective to measure disease activity and help to determine suitable treatment for CGD colitis. In patients with VEO-CGD colitis, multidrug therapy would need to be considered at an early stage on the basis of disease activity.

  6. The Etiology and Clinical Course of Chronic Pancreatitis in Children With Early Onset of the Disease.

    PubMed

    Wejnarska, Karolina; Kolodziejczyk, Elwira; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Dadalski, Maciej; Sobczynska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Kierkus, Jarosław; Bal, Jerzy; Rygiel, Agnieszka Magdalena; Oracz, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    The etiological factors of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in children differ from those in adults. To date, no study has assessed the clinical course of CP in young children. The aim of our study was to evaluate the etiology and the clinical presentation of the disease in children with disease onset before 5 years of age in comparison to later-onset of CP. A total of 276 children with CP, hospitalized from 1988 to 2015, were enrolled in the study. Data on presentation, diagnostic findings, and treatment were reviewed. Two hundred sixty patients were screened for the most frequent mutations in major pancreatitis-associated genes, such as cationic trypsinogen/serine protease gene (PRSS1), serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 gene (SPINK1), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). The disease onset before the age of 5 years occurred in 51 patients (group 1), the later onset in 225 patients (group 2). We found no significant discrepancies in distribution of the etiological factors between groups. The youngest patients (group 1) had more pancreatitis episodes (median 5.0 vs 3.00; P < 0.05) and underwent surgeries more frequently (25.5% vs 8.9%; P < 0.05). It could be associated with significantly longer follow-up in early onset group (median 6 vs 4 years; P < 0.05). There were no differences in nutritional status or exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. Early- and later-onset pancreatitis have similar etiological factors with predominance of gene mutations. The most frequent mutation found was p.Asn34Ser (N34S) in SPINK1 gene. The clinical presentation differed in number of pancreatitis episodes and frequency of surgeries.

  7. Early subclinical rejection as a risk factor for late chronic humoral rejection.

    PubMed

    Moreso, Francesc; Carrera, Marta; Goma, Montse; Hueso, Miguel; Sellares, Joana; Martorell, Jaume; Grinyó, Josep M; Serón, Daniel

    2012-01-15

    Subclinical rejection and interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) in protocol biopsies are associated with outcome. We study the relationship between histologic lesions in early protocol biopsies and histologic diagnoses in late biopsies for cause. Renal transplants with a protocol biopsy performed within the first 6 months posttransplant between 1988 and 2006 were reviewed. Biopsies were evaluated according to Banff criteria, and C4d staining was available in biopsies for cause. Of the 517 renal transplants with a protocol biopsy, 109 had a subsequent biopsy for cause which showed the following histological diagnoses: chronic humoral rejection (CHR) (n=44), IF/TA (n=42), recurrence of the primary disease (n=11), de novo glomerulonephritis (n=7), T-cell-mediated rejection (n=4), and polyoma virus nephropathy (n=1). The proportion of retransplants (15.9% vs. 2.3%, P=0.058) and the prevalence of subclinical rejection were higher in patients with CHR than in patients with IF/TA (52.3% vs. 28.6%, P=0.0253). Demographic donor and recipient characteristics and clinical data at the time of protocol biopsy were not different between groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that subclinical rejection (relative risk, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-6.3; P=0.047) but not retransplantation (relative risk, 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-58.8; P=0.085) was associated with CHR. Subclinical rejection in early protocol biopsies is associated with late appearance of CHR.

  8. Should chest examination be reinstated in the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed Central

    Oshaug, Katja; Halvorsen, Peder A; Melbye, Hasse

    2013-01-01

    Background Although proven to be associated with bronchial obstruction, chest signs are not listed among cues that should prompt spirometry in the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in established guidelines. Aims We aimed to explore how chest findings add to respiratory symptoms and a history of smoking in the diagnosis of COPD. Methods In a cross-sectional study, patients aged 40 years or older, previously diagnosed with either asthma or COPD in primary care, answered questionnaires and underwent physical chest examination and spirometry. Results Among the 375 patients included, 39.7% had forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7. Hyperresonance to percussion was the strongest predictor of COPD, with a sensitivity of 20.8, a specificity of 97.8, and likelihood ratio of 9.5. In multivariate logistic regression, where pack-years, shortness of breath, and chest findings were among the explanatory variables, three physical chest findings were independent predictors of COPD. Hyperresonance to percussion yielded the highest odds ratio (OR = 6.7), followed by diminished breath sounds (OR = 5.0), and thirdly wheezes (OR = 2.3). These three chest signs also gave significant diagnostic information when added to shortness of breath and pack-years in receiver operating-characteristic curve analysis. Conclusion We found that chest signs may add to respiratory symptoms and a history of smoking in the diagnosis of COPD, and we conclude that chest signs should be reinstated as cues to early diagnosis of COPD in patients 40 years or older. PMID:23983462

  9. Acute and chronic neurological consequences of early-life Zika virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Nem de Oliveira Souza, Isis; Frost, Paula S; França, Julia V; Nascimento-Viana, Jéssica B; Neris, Rômulo L S; Freitas, Leandro; Pinheiro, Daniel J L L; Nogueira, Clara O; Neves, Gilda; Chimelli, Leila; De Felice, Fernanda G; Cavalheiro, Ésper A; Ferreira, Sergio T; Assunção-Miranda, Iranaia; Figueiredo, Claudia P; Da Poian, Andrea T; Clarke, Julia R

    2018-06-06

    Although congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure has been associated with microcephaly and other neurodevelopmental disorders, long-term consequences of perinatal infection are largely unknown. We evaluated short- and long-term neuropathological and behavioral consequences of neonatal ZIKV infection in mice. ZIKV showed brain tropism, causing postnatal-onset microcephaly and several behavioral deficits in adulthood. During the acute phase of infection, mice developed frequent seizures, which were reduced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibition. During adulthood, ZIKV replication persisted in neonatally infected mice, and the animals showed increased susceptibility to chemically induced seizures, neurodegeneration, and brain calcifications. Altogether, the results show that neonatal ZIKV infection has long-term neuropathological and behavioral complications in mice and suggest that early inhibition of TNF-α-mediated neuroinflammation might be an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent the development of chronic neurological abnormalities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Riociguat in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: results from an early access study.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Jansa, Pavel; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens E; Halank, Michael; Simonneau, Gérald; Grünig, Ekkehard; Ulrich, Silvia; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gómez Sánchez, Miguel A; Pulido, Tomás; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Barberá, Joan Albert; Hoeper, Marius M; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Lang, Irene; Carvalho, Francine; Meier, Christian; Mueller, Katharina; Nikkho, Sylvia; D'Armini, Andrea M

    2017-12-28

    Following positive results from the Phase III CHEST-1 study in patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the Phase IIIb CTEPH early access study (EAS) was designed to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat in real-world clinical practice, as well as to provide patients with early access to riociguat before launch. Riociguat is approved for the treatment of inoperable and persistent/recurrent CTEPH. We performed an open-label, uncontrolled, single-arm, early access study in which 300 adult patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent CTEPH received riociguat adjusted from 1 mg three times daily (tid) to a maximum of 2.5 mg tid. Patients switching from unsatisfactory prior pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapy (n = 84) underwent a washout period of at least 3 days before initiating riociguat. The primary aim was to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat, with World Health Organization functional class and 6-min walking distance (6MWD) as exploratory efficacy endpoints. In total, 262 patients (87%) completed study treatment and entered the safety follow-up (median treatment duration 47 weeks). Adverse events were reported in 273 patients (91%). The most frequently reported serious adverse events were syncope (6%), right ventricular failure (3%), and pneumonia (2%). There were five deaths, none of which was considered related to study medication. The safety and tolerability of riociguat was similar in patients switched from other PAH-targeted therapies and those who were treatment naïve. In patients with data available, mean ± standard deviation 6MWD had increased by 33 ± 42 m at Week 12 with no clinically relevant differences between the switched and treatment-naïve subgroups. Riociguat was well tolerated in patients with CTEPH who were treatment naïve, and in those who were switched from other PAH-targeted therapies. No new safety signals were

  11. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    PubMed Central

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

  12. Alterations in leucocyte subsets and histomorphology in normal-appearing perilesional skin and early and chronic hidradenitis suppurativa lesions.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, H H; de Ruiter, L; Boer, J; van den Broecke, D G; den Hollander, J C; Laman, J D; Prens, E P

    2012-01-01

    Current insight into the histopathological course of events during disease progression in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is fragmentary. To identify histological alterations and leucocyte subsets in normal-appearing perilesional skin, and early and chronic HS lesions. In this observational study we examined eight perilesional skin samples, and six early and 10 chronic prototypic HS lesions, as well as skin samples from four healthy donors using in situ immunostaining. Perilesional skin showed mild psoriasiform hyperplasia and follicular plugging as well as a low-grade influx of tryptase-positive mast cells, CD3+ T cells, CD138+ plasma cells and factor XIIIa+ dendritic cells. In early HS lesions, neutrophilic abscess formation and influx of mainly macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells predominated. In chronic disease, the infiltrate expanded with markedly increased frequencies of CD20+ and CD79a+ B cells and CD138+ plasma cells. As in early lesions, free keratin fibres were detected in the dermis and within giant cells. Single detached keratinocytes and strands of follicular epithelium were observed in the dermis, the latter frequently expressing Ki67, indicative of active proliferation. Psoriasiform hyperplasia, follicular plugging and low-grade leucocytic infiltration are already present in normal-appearing perilesional skin. Keratin fibres in the dermis are associated with clinical disease. Early lesions are characterized by neutrophilic abscess formation and influx of mainly histiocytes, and chronic lesions mainly by expansion of B cells and plasma cells in 'pseudo' follicles. Proliferating strands of follicular epithelium may initiate fistula formation. Mast cells are increased in all stages of HS including perilesional skin. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Profile of cognitive deficits and associations with depressive symptoms and intelligence in chronic early-onset schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Christensen, Anne Marie Raaberg; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive deficits in several domains have been demonstrated in early-onset schizophrenia patients but their profile and relation to depressive symptoms and intelligence need further characterization. The purpose was to characterize the profile of cognitive deficits in chronic, early-onset schizophrenia patients, assess the potential associations with depressive symptom severity, and examine whether cognitive deficits within several domains reflect intelligence impairments. This study compared attention, visual-construction, aspects of visual and verbal memory, and executive functions in chronic, early-onset schizophrenia patients (mean age = 20.7 years) (N = 18) and healthy controls (N = 38). Schizophrenia diagnoses were established at the time of the patients' first clinical presentation during childhood or adolescence and were confirmed five years later. In the chronic phase of early-onset schizophrenia, significant deficits were observed in all specific cognitive functions. The profile of cognitive deficits was jagged, and visual-construction, attention, and one aspect of verbal memory (verbal stories recall) were differentially impaired. Deficits of visual recall, visual recognition, and executive functions were accounted for by deficits in intelligence, while this was not the case for deficits of verbal recall of stories or attention. No significant associations were observed between the severity of cognitive deficits and that of depressive symptoms. Chronic, early-onset schizophrenia is characterized by a broad and jagged profile of cognitive deficits. Deficits of attention and verbal recall of stories appear not to be accounted for by deficits in intelligence, and the severity of cognitive deficits seems independent from that of depressive symptoms. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. Differentiating early-onset chronic depression from episodic depression in terms of cognitive-behavioral and emotional avoidance.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Kulessa, Dominika; Hautzinger, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Although chronic depression is associated with lower global functioning and poorer treatment response than episodic depression, little is known about the differences between these two forms of depression in terms of psychological factors. Thus, the present study aimed at differentiating chronic and episodic depression regarding cognitive-behavioral and emotional avoidance that have been proposed as important risk factors for depression and promising targets for the treatment of depression. Thirty patients with early onset chronic depression were compared with 30 patients with episodic depression and 30 healthy, never-depressed controls in terms of self-reported cognitive-behavioral (social and non-social) and emotional avoidance. Chronically depressed patients reported more avoidance than healthy controls in each of the measures. Moreover, they reported more cognitive-nonsocial and behavioral-nonsocial as well as behavioral-social and emotional avoidance (in the form of restricted emotional expression to others) than patients with episodic depression. This kind of emotional avoidance also separated best between chronically and episodically depressed patients. Furthermore, general emotion avoidance and behavioral-social avoidance were positively correlated with levels of depression in chronically depressed patients. The results are based on self-report data and should thus be interpreted with caution. Additionally, the cross-sectional design limits any causal conclusions. The findings underscore the relevance of cognitive-behavioral and emotional avoidance in differentiating chronic from episodic depression and healthy controls and advocate a stronger focus on maladaptive avoidance processes in the treatment of chronic depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Using virtual reality to assess theory of mind subprocesses and error types in early and chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Canty, Allana L; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia often demonstrate theory of mind (ToM) impairment relative to healthy adults. However, the exact nature of this impairment (first- vs. second-order ToM and cognitive vs. affective ToM) and the extent to which ToM abilities deteriorate with illness chronicity is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the relationships between clinical symptoms and ToM error types (overmentalising, reduced mentalising and no ToM) in early and chronic schizophrenia. This study examined the nature and types of ToM impairment in individuals with early ( n  = 26) and chronic schizophrenia ( n  = 32) using a novel virtual reality task. Clinical participants and demographically-matched controls were administered the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability, which provides indices of first- and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, and quantifies three different types of mentalising errors (viz., overmentalising, reduced mentalising, and no ToM). Individuals with early schizophrenia performed significantly poorer than healthy controls on first-order affective and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, but significantly higher than individuals with chronic schizophrenia on all ToM subscales. Whereas a lack of mental state concept was associated with negative symptoms, overmentalising was associated with positive symptoms. These findings suggest that ToM abilities selectively deteriorate with illness chronicity and error types are related to these individuals' presenting symptomology. An implication of the findings is that social-cognitive interventions for schizophrenia need to consider the nature, time course and symptomatology of the presenting patient.

  16. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  17. Psychological Manifestations of Early Childhood Adversity in the Context of Chronic Hematologic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Daniel C; Shen, Megan Johnson; Polizzi, Heather; Mascarenhas, John; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Holland, Jimmie; Hoffman, Ronald

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), a group of chronic hematologic malignancies, carry significant physical and psychological symptom burdens that significantly affect patients' quality of life. We sought to identify the relationship between early childhood adversity (ECA) and psychological distress in patients with MPNs, as ECA may compound symptom burden. Patients with MPNs were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire-subscales include abuse/neglect/chaotic home environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (i.e., Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (i.e., Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cutoff thresholds for distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List≥ 4 or ≥ 7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥ 8), and demographic factors. A total of 117 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p < 0.000), anxiety (p < 0.000), and distress (p < 0.000) and problem list variables emotional (p < 0.000), physical (p = 0.004), family (p = 0.01), and spiritual (p = 0.01) by bivariate analysis and only with distress (HADS) (p = 0.038) on multivariate analysis. ECA was associated with meeting cutoff threshold criteria for distress (p = 0.007), anxiety (p = 0.001), and depression (p = 0.02). ECA subscale variables abuse and chaotic home environment were associated with psychological outcomes. ECA was higher based on disease subtypes with greater symptom burden (other > polycythemia vera > myelofibrosis > essential thrombocythemia) (p = 0.047) and taking an antidepressant (p = 0.011). ECA is associated with psychological distress and meets screening criteria for anxiety and depression in patients with MPNs. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories, and further understanding may enhance patient-centered care among patients with MPNs. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of

  18. Long-term predictive models of risk factors for early chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Chih; Hsieh, Po-Chien; Hu, Fu-Kang; Kuan, Jen-Chun; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sun, Chien-An; Yang, Tsan; Su, Sui-Lung; Chou, Yu-Ching

    2018-04-13

    The high incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Taiwan have produced tremendous burdens on health care resources. The work environment of air force special operations personnel engenders high psychological stress, and the resulting increased blood pressure can lead to glomerular hypertension and accelerated glomerular injury in the long term. The aim of the study was to establish the predictive models to define the predictors of CKD. The results indicated that the prevalence of CKD over 4 consecutive years was 3.8%, 9.4%, 9.0%, and 9.4%. The capability of using occult blood in urine to predict the risk of CKD after 1, 2, and 3 years was statistically significant. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 7.94 (95% CI: 2.61-24.14), 12.35 (95% CI: 4.02-37.94) and 4.25 (95% CI: 1.32-13.70), respectively. The predictive power of occult blood in urine for the risk of CKD in each model was statistically significant. Future investigations can explore the feasibility of implementing simple and accurate urine dipsticks for preliminary testing besides annual aircrew physical examinations to facilitate early detection and treatment. This study was a longitudinal study, in which air force special operations personnel who received physical examinations at military hospitals between 2004 and 2010 were selected. CKD was determined based on the definition provided by the US National Kidney Foundation. Overall, 212 participants that could be followed continuously for 4 years were analyzed.

  19. Chronic Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Juanmahel; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Flaws, Jodi A.; Bagchi, Milan K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention in female reproductive health due to its widespread toxic effects. Although BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we addressed the effect of prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA on embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Our studies revealed that treatment of mice with BPA led to improper endometrial epithelial and stromal functions thus affecting embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Upon further analyses, we found that the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and its downstream target gene, HAND2 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2), was markedly suppressed in BPA-exposed uterine tissues. Previous studies have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor and the MAPK signaling pathways and inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly, we observed that down-regulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with enhanced activation of fibroblast growth factor and MAPK signaling in the epithelium, thus contributing to aberrant proliferation and lack of uterine receptivity. Further, the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. In summary, our studies revealed that chronic exposure to BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:27022677

  20. Systematic review of early surgery for chronic pancreatitis: impact on pain, pancreatic function, and re-intervention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Catherine J; Bliss, Lindsay A; Schapira, Emily F; Freedman, Steven D; Ng, Sing Chau; Windsor, John A; Tseng, Jennifer F

    2014-10-01

    Surgical intervention has traditionally been reserved as the last management option for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Recently, there has been a call for surgery to be offered earlier in the disease process. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of early surgery on postoperative pain, pancreatic function, and re-intervention rates in chronic pancreatitis. A systematic literature search through EMBASE, Cochrane Review, and PubMed from January 1950 to January 2014 was conducted. Citations found in relevant papers are hand-searched. Data which could be pooled were analyzed using Revman (v5.2). Risk of bias analysis was conducted. Of the 2,886 potentially eligible studies identified, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. There was large heterogeneity in the study designs, and studies were conducted over a lengthy time span. Seven studies examined pain, three studies examined pancreatic function, and three studies examined rates of re-intervention. Meta-analysis of the three studies with comparative raw data regarding complete pain relief showed that early surgery was associated with an increased likelihood of complete postoperative pain relief (RR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56, p = 0.02). Early surgery was also associated with reduced risk of pancreatic insufficiency and low re-intervention rates. Data from this study supports considering early surgery for pain management in patients with chronic pancreatitis, with the potential of a reduced risk of pancreatic insufficiency and the need for further intervention. Further prospective randomized studies are warranted comparing early surgery against conservative step-up approaches.

  1. Relations among Chronic Peer Group Rejection, Maladaptive Behavioral Dispositions, and Early Adolescents' Peer Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Rudolph, Karen D.; Andrews, Rebecca K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of peers' relational characteristics (e.g., support, trustworthiness) were examined for subtypes of youth who evidenced chronic maladaptive behavior, chronic peer group rejection, or combinations of these risk factors. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of participants within a normative…

  2. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2017-06-05

    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  3. Early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure: a systematic literature review of cost-effectiveness models.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque De Almeida, Fernando; Al, Maiwenn; Koymans, Ron; Caliskan, Kadir; Kerstens, Ankie; Severens, Johan L

    2018-04-01

    Describing the general and methodological characteristics of decision-analytical models used in the economic evaluation of early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure patients and performing a quality assessment of their methodological characteristics is expected to provide concise and useful insight to inform the future development of decision-analytical models in the field of heart failure management. Areas covered: The literature on decision-analytical models for the economic evaluation of early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure patients was systematically reviewed. Nine electronic databases were searched through the combination of synonyms for heart failure and sensitive filters for cost-effectiveness and early warning systems. Expert commentary: The retrieved models show some variability with regards to their general study characteristics. Overall, they display satisfactory methodological quality, even though some points could be improved, namely on the consideration and discussion of any competing theories regarding model structure and disease progression, identification of key parameters and the use of expert opinion, and uncertainty analyses. A comprehensive definition of early warning systems and further research under this label should be pursued. To improve the transparency of economic evaluation publications, authors should make available detailed technical information regarding the published models.

  4. Hydroxychloroquine augments early virological response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in genotype-4 chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Helal, Gouda Kamel; Gad, Magdy Abdelmawgoud; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed Fahmy; Eid, Mahmoud Saied

    2016-12-01

    The therapeutic effect of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) alfa-2a combined with ribavirin (RBV) on chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients is low and further efforts are required to optimize this therapy for achievement of higher rates of virological response. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in combination with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin on early virological response (EVR) in chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients. Naïve 120 Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection were divided into two groups. Group 1 have administered the standard of care therapy (pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin) for 12 weeks, (n = 60). Group 2 have administered hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care therapy for 12 weeks, (n = 60). Therapeutics included hydroxychloroquine (200 mg) oral twice daily, peginterferon alfa-2a (160 μg) subcutaneous once weekly and oral weight-based ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day). Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The percentage of early virological response was significantly more in patients given the triple therapy than in patients given the standard of care [54/60 (90%) vs. 43/60 (71.7%); P = 0.011; respectively]. Biochemical response at week 12 was also significantly higher in patients given the triple therapy compared with the standard of care [58/60 (96.7%) vs. 42/60 (70%); P < 0.001; respectively]. Along the study, the observed adverse events were mild and similar across treatment groups. Addition of hydroxychloroquine to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin improves the rate of early virological and biochemical responses in chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients without an increase in adverse events. J. Med. Virol. 88:2170-2178, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hippocampal dysfunction and cognitive impairments provoked by chronic early-life stress involve excessive activation of CRH receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Autumn S.; Rex, Christopher S.; Chen, Yuncai; Dubé, Céline; Maras, Pamela M.; Grigoriadis, Dimitri E.; Gall, Christine M.; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress impairs learning and memory in humans and rodents and disrupts long-term potentiation (LTP) in animal models. These effects are associated with structural changes in hippocampal neurons, including reduced dendritic arborization. Unlike the generally reversible effects of chronic stress on adult rat hippocampus, we have previously found that the effects of early-life stress endure and worsen during adulthood, yet the mechanisms for these clinically important sequelae are poorly understood. Stress promotes secretion of the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from hippocampal interneurons, activating receptors (CRF1) located on pyramidal cell dendrites. Additionally, chronic CRF1 occupancy negatively affects dendritic arborization in mouse organotypic slice cultures, similar to the pattern observed in middle-aged, early-stressed (CES) rats. Here we found that CRH-expression is augmented in hippocampus of middle-aged CES rats, and then tested if the morphological defects and poor memory performance in these animals involve excessive activation of CRF1 receptors. Central or peripheral administration of a CRF1 blocker following the stress period improved memory performance of CES rats in novel object recognition tests and in the Morris water maze. Consonant with these effects, the antagonist also prevented dendritic atrophy and LTP attenuation in CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. Together, these data suggest that persistently elevated hippocampal CRH-CRF1 interaction contributes importantly to the structural and cognitive impairments associated with early-life stress. Reducing CRF1 occupancy post-hoc normalized hippocampal function during middle-age, thus offering potential mechanism-based therapeutic interventions for children affected by chronic stress. PMID:20881118

  6. EVALUATION OF SYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE AS AN EARLY BIOMARKER OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN CAPTIVE CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Vandenbunder-Beltrame, Marielle

    2017-09-01

    Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been shown to be a valuable biomarker for early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in canine and feline patients. Recognition of early (subclinical) kidney disease would be of value in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) as prevalence of CKD is relatively high in this species in captivity. Fifty-eight banked serum and plasma samples from seven adult cheetahs that died of CKD were analyzed for creatinine, urea, and SDMA. A marked increase in SDMA was noted on five of the tested cheetahs earlier than the rise of serum creatinine and urea (estimated 8-35 mo; mean 21.4 mo; median 22 mo). SDMA appears as an early biomarker to evaluate renal function for the diagnosis of CKD in cheetahs regardless of the cause of this disease.

  7. Vitamin D insufficiency predicts time to first treatment (TFT) in early chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Molica, Stefano; Digiesi, Giovanna; Antenucci, Anna; Levato, Luciano; Mirabelli, Rosanna; Molica, Matteo; Gentile, Massimo; Giannarelli, Diana; Sperduti, Isabella; Morabito, Fortunato; Conti, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Although vitamin D insufficiency is related to inferior prognosis in some cancers, limited data exist in hematologic malignancies. We evaluated the relationship between 25(OH)D serum levels and time to first treatment (TFT), a disease-specific end point, in 130 previously untreated Binet stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Measurement of 25(OH)D was performed by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay using the DiaSorin LIAISON 25(OH)D TOTAL assay (DiaSorin, Inc., Stillwater, Minnesota). Overall, 41 patients (31.5%) had severe vitamin D insufficiency (<10 ng/mL), 66 (50.7%) had mild to moderate insufficiency (10-24 ng/mL), and 23 (17.6%) had 25(OH)D levels within the optimal range (25-80 ng/mL), with no relationship with between the season of sample collection and 25(OH)D level (P=0.188). A patient stratification according to these 3 groups led to significant difference in terms of TFT, with vitamin D insufficient patients having the shortest TFT (P=0.02). With respect to continuous 25(OH)D levels and clinical outcome, TFT was shorter as 25(OH)D decreased until a value of 13.5 ng/mL at which point the association of 25(OH)D and TFT remained constant. As a matter of fact, the 25(OH)D value of 13.5 ng/mL identified two patients subsets with different TFT risk (HR=1.91; 95% CI=1.06-3.44; P=0.03). In multivariate analysis the variable entering the model at a significant level were mutational status of IgVH (P<0.0001), serum thymidine kinase (P=0.02) and absolute lymphocyte count (P=0.03). Thus confirming the Mayo clinic experience, our data provide further evidence that 25(OH)D levels may be an important host factor influencing TFT of Binet stage A patients. Whether normalizing vitamin D levels may delay disease-progression of patients with early disease will require testing in future trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children following in utero and early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Allan H; Yunus, Mohammad; Khan, Al Fazal; Ercumen, Ayse; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Meera Hira; Liaw, Jane; Balmes, John; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Raqib, Rubhana; Kalman, David; Alam, Dewan S; Streatfield, Peter K; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure via drinking water increases the risk of chronic respiratory disease in adults. However, information on pulmonary health effects in children after early life exposure is limited. Methods This population-based cohort study set in rural Matlab, Bangladesh, assessed lung function and respiratory symptoms of 650 children aged 7–17 years. Children with in utero and early life arsenic exposure were compared with children exposed to less than 10 µg/l in utero and throughout childhood. Because most children drank the same water as their mother had drunk during pregnancy, we could not assess only in utero or only childhood exposure. Results Children exposed in utero to more than 500 µg/l of arsenic were more than eight times more likely to report wheezing when not having a cold [odds ratio (OR) = 8.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–42.6, P < 0.01] and more than three times more likely to report shortness of breath when walking on level ground (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.09–13.7, P = 0.02) and when walking fast or climbing (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.22–8.32, P < 0.01]. However, there was little evidence of reduced lung function in either exposure category. Conclusions Children with high in utero and early life arsenic exposure had marked increases in several chronic respiratory symptoms, which could be due to in utero exposure or to early life exposure, or to both. Our findings suggest that arsenic in water has early pulmonary effects and that respiratory symptoms are a better marker of early life arsenic toxicity than changes in lung function measured by spirometry. PMID:24062297

  9. Chronic exposure to bisphenol a impairs progesterone receptor-mediated signaling in the uterus during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major threat to female reproductive health. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental toxicant that is commonly found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention due to its estrogenic activity and high risk of chronic exposure in human. Whereas BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In a recent publication in Endocrinology, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA disrupts progesterone receptor-regulated uterine functions, thus affecting uterine receptivity for embryo implantation and decidua morphogenesis, two critical events for establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. In particular we reported a marked impairment of progesterone receptor (PGR) expression and its downstream effector HAND2 in the uterine stromal cells in response to chronic BPA exposure. In an earlier study we have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) expression and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, thus inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly we observed that downregulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with an enhanced activation of FGFR and MAPK signaling, aberrant proliferation, and lack of uterine receptivity in the epithelium. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the maintenance of early pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. This research highlight will provide an overview of our findings and discuss the potential mechanisms by which chronic BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:28239613

  10. Prognostic discrimination for early chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia in imatinib era: comparison of Sokal, Euro, and EUTOS scores in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yahng, Seung-Ah; Jang, Eun-Jung; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2014-08-01

    Beyond the conventional Sokal and Euro scores, a new prognostic risk classification, based on the European Treatment Outcome Study (EUTOS), has been developed to predict the outcome of treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the present study, each risk score was validated by various endpoints in 206 Korean patients with early chronic-phase CML treated with up-front standard dose imatinib. In our analysis, all three scores were found to be valid. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was significantly discriminated using Sokal (P = 0.002), Euro (P = 0.003), and EUTOS (P = 0.029), with the worst probability by Euro high-risk (62 vs. 49 vs. 67 %) and better EFS in Sokal low-risk (89 vs. 86 vs. 82 %). Combining all scores identified 6 % of all patients having homogeneous high-risk with distinctively worse outcomes (5-year EFS of 41 %, cumulative complete cytogenetic response rate of 56 %, and cumulative major molecular response rate of 27 %), whereas the group of discordance in risk scores (60 %) had similar results to those of intermediate-risk groups of Sokal and Euro scores. Combining all risk scores for baseline risk assessment may be useful in clinical practice for identifying groups of patients who may benefit from treatment initiation with a more potent TKI among the currently available first-line TKIs.

  11. Early investigational antibiotics for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Georgiou, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Acute exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis are a leading cause of hospitalizations and death. Bacteria contribute significantly to such exacerbations. The aim of this review was to explore the potential role of investigational antibiotics in the treatment of these episodes. Areas covered: The available literature in PubMed database, in websites related to investigational drugs and in websites of the producing companies has been searched. The in vitro activity against pathogens involved in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and the pharmacokinetic profile of antibiotics currently under development were taken into consideration for inclusion in the review. Expert opinion: Several novel antimicrobial agents have completed preclinical and Phase I studies and were well-tolerated. Further investigation is mandatory in order to evaluate their future in treatment of chronic bronchitis exacerbations and discover potential advantages compared to already approved antimicrobials.

  12. Chronic comorbidity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kroot, E J; van Gestel, A M; Swinkels, H L; Albers, M M; van de Putte, L B; van Riel, P L

    2001-07-01

    To study the presence of chronic coexisting diseases in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its effect on RA treatment, disease course, and outcome during the first years of the disease. From January 1985 to December 1990, 186 patients with recent onset RA were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study. Between January 1991 and November 1992 patients were interviewed on the basis of a comorbidity questionnaire. For analysis the diseases were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) medical diagnoses. Disease activity during the period of followup was measured by the Disease Activity Score. Outcome in terms of physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) and radiological damage (Sharp's modified version) over 3 and 6 year periods was determined. In the group of 186 patients, with mean disease duration of 4.3 years at January 1991, 50 patients (27%) reported at least one chronic coexisting disease. The most frequently reported coexisting diseases were of cardiovascular (29%), respiratory (18%), or dermatological (11%) origin. For the major part (66%) chronic coexisting diseases were already present before onset of RA. No statistically significant differences in use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs or corticosteroids were observed between RA patients with and without chronic coexisting diseases. No statistically significant differences were found in disease activity or in outcome in terms of physical disability and radiological damage over 3 and 6 year periods between the 2 groups with RA. The results showed that about 27% of patients with RA in this inception cohort had at least one chronic coexisting disease. Treatment, disease course, and outcome did not differ between patients with and without chronic coexisting diseases during the first years of the disease.

  13. Prior chronic clopidogrel therapy is associated with increased adverse events and early stent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Asher, Elad; Fefer, Paul; Sabbag, Avi; Herscovici, Romana; Regev, Ehud; Mazin, Israel; Shlomo, Nir; Zahger, Doron; Atar, Shaul; Hammerman, Haim; Polak, Arthur; Beigel, Roy; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing use of clopidogrel, limited data exist regarding the prognostic significance of chronic clopidogrel therapy in patients sustaining acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our aim was to determine whether patients sustaining ACS while on chronic clopidogrel therapy have a worse prognosis than clopidogrel-naïve patients. A total of 5,386 consecutive ACS patients were prospectively characterised and followed-up for 30 days. Of them, 680 (13%) were treated with clopidogrel prior to the index ACS. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were defined as death, recurrent ACS, stroke and/or stent thrombosis. Compared with clopidogrel-naïve, chronic clopidogrel-treated patients were older (66 ± 12 vs 63 ± 13, respectively; p<0.01), suffered more from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, prior cardiovascular history, including prior myocardial infarction, revascularisation, coronary artery bypass graft and stroke (p<0.01 for all), and were less likely to present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (21% vs 45%; respectively; p < 0.001). Prior clopidogrel therapy was associated with a two-fold increase in in-hospital (1.6% vs 0.6%, respectively; p =0.006) as well as 30-day stent thrombosis (2.2% vs 1.0%, respectively; p=0.007). MACE at 30 days was also higher among chronic clopidogrel-treated compared with clopidogrel-naïve patients [12.3% vs 9.4%, respectively; p<0.01]. In multivariate log regression analysis chronic clopidogrel treatment was an independent predictor of stent thrombosis [OR=2.6 (95%CI 1.2-5.6), p=0.001]. Patients sustaining ACS while on chronic clopidogrel treatment are at higher risk for in-hospital and 30-day adverse outcomes, including stent thrombosis.

  14. Early Intervention for Families Exposed to Chronic Stress and Trauma: The Attachment Vitamins Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulette, Annmarie C.; Dunham, Mackenzie; Davis, Mindy; Gortney, Jason; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the Attachment Vitamins program, a trauma-informed parent group intervention for families with young children. Attachment Vitamins is a relational psychoeducational intervention based on the principles of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). Its goal is to repair the impact of chronic stress and trauma through strengthening the…

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 23, iron and inflammation - are they related in early stages of chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels are elevated in impaired renal function. Inflammation and iron are potential regulators of FGF-23. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between FGF-23 concentration, novel iron status biomarkers and inflammatory parameters among patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study population included 84 patients with CKD in the early stage. Serum hemoglobin, fibrinogen, creatinine, iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels were measured using standard laboratory methods. Commercially available kits were used to measure: intact FGF-23, hepcidin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). In patients with CKD no differences in FGF-23 concentration according to iron status were observed. Lower iron concentration was associated with higher concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6 and fibrinogen. In univariate and multivariate analysis FGF-23 correlated with fibrinogen ( r = -0.23, p < 0.05) and eGFR ( r = -0.36, p < 0.05). FGF-23 is affected by kidney function and fibrinogen but not iron status parameters in the early stages of CKD. Our data are paving the way for further studies on the role of FGF-23 in iron metabolism, especially in early stages of CKD.

  16. Early chronic low-level lead exposure produces glomerular hypertrophy in young C57BL/6J mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Basgen, John M.; Sobin, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Early chronic lead exposure continues to pose serious health risks for children, particularly those living in lower socioeconomic environments. This study examined effects on developing glomeruli in young C57BL/6J mice exposed to low (30 ppm), higher (330 ppm) or no lead via dams’ drinking water from birth to sacrifice on post-natal day 28. Low-level lead exposed mice [BLL mean (SD); 3.19 (0.70) μg/dL] had an increase in glomerular volume but no change in podocyte number compared to control mice [0.03 (0.01) μg/dL]. Higher-level lead exposed mice [14.68 (2.74) μg/dL] had no change in either glomerular volume or podocyte number. The increase in glomerular volume was explained by increases in glomerular capillary and mesangial volumes with no change in podocyte volume. Early chronic lead exposure yielding very low blood lead levels alters glomerular development in pre-adolescent animals. PMID:24300173

  17. Early Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Apparently Healthy Attendants of Tertiary Care Hospital and Assessment of its Severity.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Tahira; Abbassi, Amanullah; Khan, Osama Ahsan

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity. Cross-sectional, observational study. Study was conducted from January 2015 to July 2015 at Dow University Hospital, Ojha campus. Ascreening method was designed for apparently healthy individuals including attendants of patients, hospital staff, faculty and students, belonging to age group 18-60 years after excluding severe obesity and already diagnosed respiratory and cardiovascular diseases by means of history. Each participant performed pulmonary function tests via spirometer after filling a questionnaire based on various risk factors and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data was entered and analysed by SPSS-20. Out of the 517 participants, 122 (23.6%) were found to have COPD diagnosed by means of spirometry. Out of these, 23 (4.4%) had COPD stage I, 42 (8.1%) had COPD II, 34 (6.6%) had COPD III, and 23 (4.4%) had COPD IV. Exposure to smoking, wooden stoves, pesticides, biomass fuel, aerosol sprays, gas grill and vehicle exhaust were found to be statistically significant factors in relation to development of COPD. Apparently healthy individuals may have underlying COPD and active screening by means of spirometry plays vital role in early detection of COPD. Smoking and exposure to certain hazardous environmental pollutants are responsible for the development and progression of COPD.

  18. Acute and chronic effects of SGLT2 blockade on glomerular and tubular function in the early diabetic rat

    PubMed Central

    Rieg, Timo; Miracle, Cynthia; Mansoury, Hadi; Whaley, Jean; Vallon, Volker; Singh, Prabhleen

    2012-01-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) stabilizes nephron function from minute to minute and adapts to different steady-state inputs to maintain this capability. Such adaptation inherently renders TGF less efficient at buffering long-term disturbances, but the magnitude of loss is unknown. We undertook the present study to measure the compromise between TGF and TGF adaptation in transition from acute to chronic decline in proximal reabsorption (Jprox). As a tool, we blocked proximal tubule sodium-glucose cotransport with the SGLT2 blocker dapagliflozin in hyperglycemic rats with early streptozotocin diabetes, a condition in which a large fraction of proximal fluid reabsorption owes to SGLT2. Dapagliflozin acutely reduced proximal reabsorption leading to a 70% increase in early distal chloride, a saturated TGF response, and a major reduction in single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR). Acute and chronic effects on Jprox were indistinguishable. Adaptations to 10–12 days of dapagiflozin included increased reabsorption by Henle's loop, which caused a partial relaxation in the increased tone exerted by TGF that could be explained without desensitization of TGF. In summary, TGF contributes to long-term fluid and salt balance by mediating a persistent decline in SNGFR as the kidney adapts to a sustained decrease in Jprox. PMID:21940401

  19. Label-Free Proteomic Analysis of Protein Changes in the Striatum during Chronic Ethanol Use and Early Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Ayers-Ringler, Jennifer R.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Qiu, Yanyan; Lindberg, Daniel M.; Hinton, David J.; Moore, Raymond M.; Dasari, Surendra; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the neuronal signaling changes in alcohol addiction and withdrawal are complex and multifaceted. The cortico-striatal circuit is highly implicated in these processes, and the striatum plays a significant role not only in the early stages of addiction, but in the developed-addictive state as well, including withdrawal symptoms. Transcriptional analysis is a useful method for determining changes in gene expression, however, the results do not always accurately correlate with protein levels. In this study, we employ label-free proteomic analysis to determine changes in protein expression within the striatum during chronic ethanol use and early withdrawal. The striatum, composed primarily of medium spiny GABAergic neurons, glutamatergic and dopaminergic nerve terminals and astrocytes, is relatively homogeneous for proteomic analysis. We were able to analyze more than 5000 proteins from both the dorsal (caudate and putamen) and ventral (nucleus accumbens) striatum and identified significant changes following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and acute (8 h) withdrawal compared to ethanol naïve and ethanol exposure groups respectively. Our results showed significant changes in proteins involved in glutamate and opioid peptide signaling, and also uncovered novel pathways including mitochondrial function and lipid/cholesterol metabolism, as revealed by changes in electron transport chain proteins and RXR activation pathways. These results will be useful in the development of novel treatments for alcohol withdrawal and thereby aid in recovery from alcohol use disorder. PMID:27014007

  20. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Stefano; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Del Donno, Mario; Delucchi, Maurizio; Bettoncelli, Germano; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Patera, Carlo; Polverino, Mario; Russo, Antonio; Santoriello, Carlo; Soverina, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in Italy already now represent an emergency (they are the 3(rd) ranking cause of death in the world, and the 2(nd) if Lung cancer is included). In countries similar to our own, they result as the principal cause for a visit to the general practitioner (GP) and the second main cause after injury for recourse to Emergency Care. Their frequency is probably higher than estimated (given that respiratory diseases are currently underdiagnosed). The trend is towards a further increase due to epidemiologic and demographic factors (foremost amongst which are the widespread diffusion of cigarette smoking, the increasing mean age of the general population, immigration, and pollution). Within the more general problem of chronic disease care, chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) constitute one of the four national priorities in that they represent an important burden for society in terms of mortality, invalidity, and direct healthcare costs. The strategy suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) is an integrated approach consisting of three goals: inform about health, reduce risk exposure, improve patient care. The three goals are translated into practice in the three areas of prevention (1-primary, 2-secondary, 3-tertiary) as: 1) actions of primary (universal) prevention targeted at the general population with the aim to control the causes of disease, and actions of Predictive Medicine - again addressing the general population but aimed at measuring the individual's risk for disease insurgence; 2) actions of early diagnosis targeted at groups or - more precisely - subgroups identified as at risk; 3) continuous improvement and integration of care and rehabilitation support - destined at the greatest possible number of patients, at all stages of disease severity. In Italy, COPD care is generally still inadequate. Existing guidelines, institutional and non-institutional, are inadequately implemented: the international guidelines are not always adaptable

  1. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in Italy already now represent an emergency (they are the 3rd ranking cause of death in the world, and the 2nd if Lung cancer is included). In countries similar to our own, they result as the principal cause for a visit to the general practitioner (GP) and the second main cause after injury for recourse to Emergency Care. Their frequency is probably higher than estimated (given that respiratory diseases are currently underdiagnosed). The trend is towards a further increase due to epidemiologic and demographic factors (foremost amongst which are the widespread diffusion of cigarette smoking, the increasing mean age of the general population, immigration, and pollution). Within the more general problem of chronic disease care, chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) constitute one of the four national priorities in that they represent an important burden for society in terms of mortality, invalidity, and direct healthcare costs. The strategy suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) is an integrated approach consisting of three goals: inform about health, reduce risk exposure, improve patient care. The three goals are translated into practice in the three areas of prevention (1-primary, 2-secondary, 3-tertiary) as: 1) actions of primary (universal) prevention targeted at the general population with the aim to control the causes of disease, and actions of Predictive Medicine - again addressing the general population but aimed at measuring the individual’s risk for disease insurgence; 2) actions of early diagnosis targeted at groups or - more precisely - subgroups identified as at risk; 3) continuous improvement and integration of care and rehabilitation support - destined at the greatest possible number of patients, at all stages of disease severity. In Italy, COPD care is generally still inadequate. Existing guidelines, institutional and non-institutional, are inadequately implemented: the international guidelines are not always adaptable to

  2. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist effects on prefrontal cortical connectivity better model early than chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Anticevic, Alan; Corlett, Philip R; Cole, Michael W; Savic, Aleksandar; Gancsos, Mark; Tang, Yanqing; Repovs, Grega; Murray, John D; Driesen, Naomi R; Morgan, Peter T; Xu, Ke; Wang, Fei; Krystal, John H

    2015-03-15

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) function contributes to schizophrenia onset and progression. However, little is known about neural mechanisms behind PFC functional alterations along illness stages. Recent pharmacologic studies indicate that glutamate dysfunction may produce increased functional connectivity. However, pharmacologic models of schizophrenia overlook effects of illness progression on PFC function. This study compared N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist effects in healthy volunteers with stages of schizophrenia with respect to PFC functional connectivity. First, we tested ketamine effects on PFC functional connectivity in healthy volunteers in a data-driven way (n = 19). Next, we compared healthy subjects (n = 96) with three clinical groups: individuals at high risk for schizophrenia (n = 21), people early in their course of schizophrenia (EC-SCZ) (n = 28), and patients with chronic illness (n = 20). Across independent analyses, we used data-driven global brain connectivity techniques restricted to PFC to identify functional dysconnectivity. Results revealed robust PFC hyperconnectivity in healthy volunteers administered ketamine (Cohen's d = 1.46), resembling individuals at high risk for schizophrenia and EC-SCZ. Hyperconnectivity was not found in patients with chronic illness relative to EC-SCZ patients. Results provide the first evidence that ketamine effects on PFC functional connectivity resemble early course but not chronic schizophrenia. Results suggest an illness phase-specific relevance of NMDAR antagonist administration for prefrontal dysconnectivity associated with schizophrenia. This finding has implications for the neurobiology of illness progression and for the widespread use of NMDAR antagonists in the development of therapeutics for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Relationship between the Use of Inhaled Steroids for Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Early Outcomes in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Almirall, Jordi; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Roig, Jordi; Hospital, Imma; Carandell, Eugenia; Agustí, Mercè; Ayuso, Pilar; Estela, Andreu; Torres, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of inhaled steroids in patients with chronic respiratory diseases is a matter of debate due to the potential effect on the development and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We assessed whether treatment with inhaled steroids in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma and CAP may affect early outcome of the acute pneumonic episode. Methods Over 1-year period, all population-based cases of CAP in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma were registered. Use of inhaled steroids were registered and patients were followed up to 30 days after diagnosis to assess severity of CAP and clinical course (hospital admission, ICU admission and mortality). Results Of 473 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria, inhaled steroids were regularly used by 109 (23%). In the overall sample, inhaled steroids were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (OR=1.96, p = 0.002) in the bivariate analysis, but this effect disappeared after adjusting by other severity-related factors (adjusted OR=1.08, p=0.787). This effect on hospitalization also disappeared when considering only patients with asthma (OR=1.38, p=0.542), with COPD alone (OR=4.68, p=0.194), but a protective effect was observed in CB patients (OR=0.15, p=0.027). Inhaled steroids showed no association with ICU admission, days to clinical recovery and mortality in the overall sample and in any disease subgroup. Conclusions Treatment with inhaled steroids is not a prognostic factor in COPD and asthmatic patients with CAP, but could prevent hospitalization for CAP in patients with clinical criteria of chronic bronchitis. PMID:24039899

  4. Proactive and Early Aggressive Wound Management: A Shift in Strategy Developed by a Consensus Panel Examining the Current Science, Prevention, and Management of Acute and Chronic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Gregory A; Schultz, Gregory S; Liden, Brock A; Desvigne, Michael N; Lullove, Eric J; Zilberman, Igor; Regan, Mary B; Ostler, Marta; Edwards, Karen; Arvanitis, Georgia M; Hartman, Jodi F

    2017-11-01

    Normal wound healing is accomplished through a series of well-coordinated, progressive events with overlapping phases. Chronic wounds are described as not progressing to healing or not being responsive to management in a timely manner. A consensus panel of multidisciplinary wound care professionals was assembled to (1) educate wound care practitioners by identifying key principles of the basic science of chronic wound pathophysiology, highlighting the impact of metalloproteinases and biofilms, as well as the role of the extracellular matrix; and (2) equip practitioners with a systematic strategy for the prevention and healing of acute injuries and chronic wounds based upon scientific evidence and the panel members' expertise. An algorithm is presented that represents a shift in strategy to proactive and early aggressive wound management. With proactive management, adjunct therapies are applied preemptively to acute injuries to reduce wound duration and risk of chronicity. For existing chronic wounds, early aggressive wound management is employed to break the pathophysiology cycle and drive wounds toward healing. Reducing bioburden through debridement and bioburden management and using collagen dressings to balance protease activity prior to the use of advanced modalities may enhance their effectiveness. This early aggressive wound management strategy is recommended for patients at high risk for chronic wound development at a minimum. In their own practices, the panel members apply this systematic strategy for all patients presenting with acute injuries or chronic wounds.

  5. Impact of chronic maternal stress during early gestation on maternal-fetal stress transfer and fetal stress sensitivity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Dreiling, Michelle; Schiffner, Rene; Bischoff, Sabine; Rupprecht, Sven; Kroegel, Nasim; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias; Rakers, Florian

    2018-01-01

    Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development. Six pregnant ewes underwent repeated isolation stress (CMS) between 30 and 100 days of gestation (dGA, term: 150 dGA) and seven pregnant ewes served as controls. At 110 dGA, ewes were chronically instrumented and underwent acute isolation stress. The acute stress decreased UBF by 19% in both the CMS and control groups (p < .05), but this was prolonged in CMS versus control ewes (74 vs. 30 min, p < .05). CMS increased fetal circulating baseline and stress-induced cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations indicating a hyperactive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Increased fetal norepinephrine is endogenous as maternal catecholamines do not cross the placenta. Cortisol in the control but not in the CMS fetuses was correlated with maternal cortisol blood concentrations; these findings indicate: (1) no increased maternal-fetal cortisol transfer with CMS, (2) cortisol production in CMS fetuses when the HPA-axis is normally inactive, due to early maturation of the fetal HPA-axis. CMS fetuses were better oxygenated, without shift towards acidosis compared to the controls, potentially reflecting adaptation to repeated stress. Hence, CMS enhances maternal-fetal stress transfer by prolonged reduction in UBF and increased fetal HPA responsiveness.

  6. [57-year-old female patient in early retirement with underweight and chronic-relapsing diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Allgayer, H; Mainos, D; Dietrich, C F

    2007-02-01

    Underweight as a consequence of chronic diarrhoea may lead to fatigue, tiredness and impaired physical performance, especially when the underlying cause has not been evaluated. In spite of algorithms as a help in the differential diagnosis, an individual approach with critical consideration of diet history, laboratory data and imaging procedures is necessary. Additional difficulties may arise when the history of food intolerance is inconsistent and technical findings including endoscopy are inconclusive. We report on a 57-year-old female patient with underweight, chronic intermittent diarrhoea and cramp-like abdominal pain for more than 10 years following pelvic irradiation due to Hodgkin's disease of the ovary. A systematic diagnostic approach was not undertaken until very recently due to the deterioration of her clinical conditions pointing to jejunal malabsorption. In spite of the absence of a specific history of milk/milk product intolerance a lactose H (2)-breath test was performed showing lactase deficiency with lactose intolerance. The rapid improvement of all her symptoms after a lactose-poor diet had been started supported this diagnosis. Possible reasons for the long time period which had elapsed until the diagnosis was established and the discrepancy of the H (2)-breath test results with the absence of a clear-cut history for milk/milk product intolerance are discussed in terms of the importance of a structured history-taking with regard to nutrition and diet habits. In addition, potential explanations for radiation-induced functional damage in the absence of morphological abnormalities are provided. Based on the experience of this case and considerations regarding the consequences of radiation-induced jejunal damage, we recommend that a lactose-H (2) breath test be routinely included in the diagnostic work-up of patients with unclear chronic diarrhoea even if there is no defined history of milk/milk product intolerance.

  7. Childhood chronic-kidney-disease: a longitudinal-qualitative study of families learning to share management early in the trajectory.

    PubMed

    Swallow, Veronica; Lambert, Heather; Clarke, Charlotte; Campbell, Steve; Jacoby, Ann

    2008-11-01

    To explore the ways families learn to share management during the early stages of childhood chronic-kidney-disease. This longitudinal, descriptive study based on the tenets of grounded theory, aimed to derive meaning about family-professional interactions during shared management. Data were obtained from six newly referred families, four renal nurses, four paediatric nephrologists and one dietician through: 36 semi-structured interviews, 21 case-note reviews and four child/parent learning diaries. Three learning stages were identified: dependent (families' understanding was superficial, they lacked underlying knowledge and were totally reliant on professional guidance); co-dependent (families engaged competently in management but still required extensive guidance); independent (families communicated effectively with staff and competently adjusted management within professionally defined parameters). Five families actively shared management from early in the trajectory and progressed to independent learning when, by mutual agreement, professional input to management gradually decreased. The remaining family adopted a passive approach to management, did not progress to independent learning and remained reliant on professional input. Families in this study demonstrated three learning stages in becoming competent at management. Future research is needed to investigate the ways professionals promote family competence early in the trajectory and the factors that can facilitate or hinder families' progression to independent learning.

  8. Early transcriptional changes in cardiac mitochondria during chronic doxorubicin exposure and mitigation by dexrazoxane in mice

    SciT

    Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L.; Han, Tao

    Identification of early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity could help initiate means to ameliorate the cardiotoxic actions of clinically useful drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX). Since DOX has been shown to target mitochondria, transcriptional levels of mitochondria-related genes were evaluated to identify early candidate biomarkers in hearts of male B6C3F{sub 1} mice given a weekly intravenous dose of 3 mg/kg DOX or saline (SAL) for 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 weeks (6, 9, 12, 18, or 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively). Also, a group of mice was pretreated (intraperitoneally) with the cardio-protectant, dexrazoxane (DXZ; 60 mg/kg) 30 min before eachmore » weekly dose of DOX or SAL. At necropsy a week after the last dose, increased plasma concentrations of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were detected at 18 and 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, whereas myocardial alterations were observed only at the 24 mg/kg dose. Of 1019 genes interrogated, 185, 109, 140, 184, and 451 genes were differentially expressed at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively, compared to concurrent SAL-treated controls. Of these, expression of 61 genes associated with energy metabolism and apoptosis was significantly altered before and after occurrence of myocardial injury, suggesting these as early genomics markers of cardiotoxicity. Much of these DOX-induced transcriptional changes were attenuated by pretreatment of mice with DXZ. Also, DXZ treatment significantly reduced plasma cTnT concentration and completely ameliorated cardiac alterations induced by 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX. This information on early transcriptional changes during DOX treatment may be useful in designing cardioprotective strategies targeting mitochondria. - Highlights: • Altered mitochondria-related gene expression before heart injury by doxorubicin • Dexrazoxane mitigated doxorubicin-induced early expression changes in mitochondria. • Dexrazoxane completely ameliorated doxorubicin-induced pathology in mouse

  9. Skeletal accumulation of fluorescently tagged zoledronate is higher in animals with early stage chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Swallow, E A; Aref, M W; Chen, N; Byiringiro, I; Hammond, M A; McCarthy, B P; Territo, P R; Kamocka, M M; Winfree, S; Dunn, K W; Moe, S M; Allen, M R

    2018-06-11

    This work examines the skeletal accumulation of fluorescently tagged zoledronate in an animal model of chronic kidney disease. The results show higher accumulation in 24-h post-dose animals with lower kidney function due to greater amounts of binding at individual surfaces. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients suffer from increased rates of skeletal-related mortality from changes driven by biochemical abnormalities. Bisphosphonates are commonly used in reducing fracture risk in a variety of diseases, yet their use is not recommended in advanced stages of CKD. This study aimed to characterize the accumulation of a single dose of fluorescently tagged zoledronate (FAM-ZOL) in the setting of reduced kidney function. At 25 weeks of age, FAM-ZOL was administered to normal and CKD rats. Twenty-four hours later, multiple bones were collected and assessed using bulk fluorescence imaging, two-photon imaging, and dynamic histomorphometry. CKD animals had significantly higher levels of FAM-ZOL accumulation in the proximal tibia, radius, and ulna, but not in lumbar vertebral body or mandible, based on multiple measurement modalities. Although a majority of trabecular bone surfaces were covered with FAM-ZOL in both normal and CKD animals, the latter had significantly higher levels of fluorescence per unit bone surface in the proximal tibia. These results provide new data regarding how reduced kidney function affects drug accumulation in rat bone.

  10. Chronic exposure to trichloroethene causes early onset of SLE-like disease in female MRL +/+ mice

    SciT

    Cai Ping; Koenig, Rolf; Boor, Paul J.

    2008-04-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) exacerbates the development of autoimmune responses in autoimmune-prone MRL +/+ mice. Although TCE-mediated autoimmune responses are associated with an increase in serum immunoglobulins and autoantibodies, the underlying mechanism of autoimmunity is not known. To determine the progression of TCE-mediated immunotoxicity, female MRL +/+ mice were chronically exposed to TCE through the drinking water (0.5 mg/ml of TCE) for various periods of time. Serum concentrations of antinuclear antibodies increased after 36 and 48 weeks of TCE exposure. Histopathological analyses showed lymphocyte infiltration in the livers of MRL +/+ mice exposed to TCE for 36 or 48 weeks. Lymphocyte infiltrationmore » was also apparent in the pancreas, lungs, and kidneys of mice exposed to TCE for 48 weeks. Immunoglobulin deposits in kidney glomeruli were found after 48 weeks of exposure to TCE. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to TCE promotes inflammation in the liver, pancreas, lungs, and kidneys, which may lead to SLE-like disease in MRL +/+ mice.« less

  11. Thermally induced chronic developmental stress in coho salmon: Integrating measures of mortality, early growth and fluctuating asymmetry

    Campbell, W.B.; Emlen, J.M.; Hershberger, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    Developmental stability, or homeostasis, facilitates the production of consistent phenotypes by buffering against stress. Fluctuating asymmetry is produced by developmental instability and is manifested as small random departures from bilateral symmetry. Increased fluctuating asymmetry is thought to parallel compromised fitness, in part, because stress promotes energy dissipation. Compensatory energy expenditures within the organism are required to complete development, thus promoting instability through reductions in homeostasis. Increased heterozygosity may enhance developmental stability by reducing energy dissipation from stress through increased metabolic efficiency, possibly by providing greater flexibility in metabolic pathways. Traditionally, fluctuating asymmetry has been used as a bioindicator of chronic stress, provided that selective mortality of less fit individuals did not reduce stress-mediated increases in fluctuating asymmetry to background levels produced by natural developmental error, or create data inconsistencies such as higher asymmetry in groups exposed to lower stress. Unfortunately, absence of selective mortality and its effects, while often assumed, can be difficult to substantiate. We integrated measures of early growth, mortality, fluctuating asymmetry (mandibular pores, pectoral finrays, pelvic finrays, and gillrakers on the upper and lower arms of the first branchial arch) and directional asymmetry (branchiostegal rays) to assess chronic thermal stress (fluctuating temperatures as opposed to ambient temperatures) in developing eggs from two different coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) stocks and their reciprocal hybrids. Hybridization provided insight on the capacity of heterozygosity to reduce stress during development. Although egg losses were consistently higher in crosses exposed to fluctuating temperatures, egg mortality was predominantly a function of maternal stock of origin. Post-hatch losses were higher in crosses exposed to

  12. Exercise facilitates early recognition of cardiac and vascular remodeling in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in swine.

    PubMed

    Stam, Kelly; van Duin, Richard W B; Uitterdijk, André; Cai, Zongye; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2018-03-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) develops in 4% of patients after pulmonary embolism and is accompanied by an impaired exercise tolerance, which is ascribed to the increased right ventricular (RV) afterload in combination with a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs. The present study aimed to investigate changes in arterial Po 2 and hemodynamics in response to graded treadmill exercise during development and progression of CTEPH in a novel swine model. Swine were chronically instrumented and received multiple pulmonary embolisms by 1) microsphere infusion (Spheres) over 5 wk, 2) endothelial dysfunction by administration of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 7 wk, 3) combined pulmonary embolisms and endothelial dysfunction (L-NAME + Spheres), or 4) served as sham-operated controls (sham). After a 9 wk followup, embolization combined with endothelial dysfunction resulted in CTEPH, as evidenced by mean pulmonary artery pressures of 39.5 ± 5.1 vs. 19.1 ± 1.5 mmHg (Spheres, P < 0.001), 22.7 ± 2.0 mmHg (L-NAME, P < 0.001), and 20.1 ± 1.5 mmHg (sham, P < 0.001), and a decrease in arterial Po 2 that was exacerbated during exercise, indicating V/Q mismatch. RV dysfunction was present after 5 wk of embolization, both at rest (trend toward increased RV end-systolic lumen area, P = 0.085, and decreased stroke volume index, P = 0.042) and during exercise (decreased stroke volume index vs. control, P = 0.040). With sustained pulmonary hypertension, RV hypertrophy (Fulton index P = 0.022) improved RV function at rest and during exercise, but this improvement was insufficient in CTEPH swine to result in an exercise-induced increase in cardiac index. In conclusion, embolization in combination with endothelial dysfunction results in CTEPH in swine. Exercise increased RV afterload, exacerbated the V/Q mismatch, and unmasked RV dysfunction. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we present the first

  13. First experience with early dynamic (18)F-NaF-PET/CT in patients with chronic osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Freesmeyer, Martin; Stecker, Franz F; Schierz, Jan-Henning; Hofmann, Gunther O; Winkens, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates whether early dynamic positron emission tomography/computed tomography (edPET/CT) using (18)F-sodium fluoride-((18)F-NaF) is feasible in depicting early phases of radiotracer distribution in patients with chronic osteomyelitis (COM). A total of 12 ed(18)F-NaF-PET/CT examinations were performed on 11 consecutive patients (2 female, 9 male; age 53 ± 12 years) in list mode over 5 min starting with radiopharmaceutical injection before standard late (18)F-NaF-PET/CT. Eight consecutive time intervals (frames) were reconstructed for each patient: four 15 s, then four 60 s. Several volumes of interest (VOI) were selected, representing the affected area as well as different reference areas within the bone and soft tissue. Maximum and mean ed standardized uptake values (edSUVmax, edSUVmean, respectively) were calculated in each VOI during each frame to measure early fluoride influx and accumulation. Results were compared between affected and non-affected (contralateral) bones. Starting in the 31-45 s frame, the affected bone area showed significantly higher edSUVmax and edSUVmean compared to the healthy contralateral region. The affected bone areas also significantly differed from non-affected contralateral regions in conventional late (18)F-NaF-PET/CT. This pilot study suggests that, in patients with COM, ed(18)F-NaF -PET offers additional information about early radiotracer distribution to standard (18)F-NaF -PET/CT, similar to a three-phase bone scan. The results should be validated in larger trials which directly compare ed(18)F-NaF-PET to a three-phase bone scan.

  14. “Sentinel” Circulating Tumor Cells Allow Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Marius; Hofman, Véronique; Long-Mira, Elodie; Selva, Eric; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Padovani, Bernard; Mouroux, Jérôme; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Hofman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for lung cancer. Migration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the blood stream is an early event that occurs during carcinogenesis. We aimed to examine the presence of CTCs in complement to CT-scan in COPD patients without clinically detectable lung cancer as a first step to identify a new marker for early lung cancer diagnosis. The presence of CTCs was examined by an ISET filtration-enrichment technique, for 245 subjects without cancer, including 168 (68.6%) COPD patients, and 77 subjects without COPD (31.4%), including 42 control smokers and 35 non-smoking healthy individuals. CTCs were identified by cytomorphological analysis and characterized by studying their expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. COPD patients were monitored annually by low-dose spiral CT. CTCs were detected in 3% of COPD patients (5 out of 168 patients). The annual surveillance of the CTC-positive COPD patients by CT-scan screening detected lung nodules 1 to 4 years after CTC detection, leading to prompt surgical resection and histopathological diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer. Follow-up of the 5 patients by CT-scan and ISET 12 month after surgery showed no tumor recurrence. CTCs detected in COPD patients had a heterogeneous expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers, which was similar to the corresponding lung tumor phenotype. No CTCs were detected in control smoking and non-smoking healthy individuals. CTCs can be detected in patients with COPD without clinically detectable lung cancer. Monitoring “sentinel” CTC-positive COPD patients may allow early diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:25360587

  15. The effect of early-life stress and chronic high-sucrose diet on metabolic outcomes in female rats.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress affects metabolic outcomes and choice of diet influences the development of metabolic disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic sugar intake exacerbates metabolic deficits induced by early-life stress. Early-life stress was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using limited nesting material in early lactation (LN, postnatal days 2-9), and siblings were given chow alone or with additional sucrose post weaning (n = 9-17 per group). Female control and LN siblings had unlimited access to either chow plus water, or chow and water plus 25% sucrose solution (Sucrose), from 3-15 weeks of age. Weekly body weight and food intake were measured. Glucose and insulin tolerance were tested at 13 and 14 weeks of age, respectively. Rats were killed at 15 weeks. Hepatic triglyceride and markers of lipid synthesis - fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and oxidation - and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Pgc-1α) were examined. Mediators of hepatic glucocorticoid metabolism, specifically 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11βHSD-1), 5-α reductase, and glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNAs were also measured. Sucrose increased caloric intake in both groups, but overall energy intake was not altered by LN exposure. LN exposure had no further impact on sucrose-induced glucose intolerance and increased plasma and liver triglycerides. Hepatic markers of fat synthesis and oxidation were concomitantly activated and 11βHSD-1 mRNA expression was increased by 53% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Adiposity was increased by 26% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Thus, LN exposure had minimal adverse metabolic effects despite high-sugar diet postweaning.

  16. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  17. Quantification of early cutaneous manifestations of chronic venous insufficiency by automated analysis of photographic images: Feasibility and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Becker, François; Fourgeau, Patrice; Carpentier, Patrick H; Ouchène, Amina

    2018-06-01

    We postulate that blue telangiectasia and brownish pigmentation at ankle level, early markers of chronic venous insufficiency, can be quantified for longitudinal studies of chronic venous disease in Caucasian people. Objectives and methods To describe a photographic technique specially developed for this purpose. The pictures were acquired using a dedicated photo stand to position the foot in a reproducible way, with a normalized lighting and acquisition protocol. The image analysis was performed with a tool developed using algorithms optimized to detect and quantify blue telangiectasia and brownish pigmentation and their relative surface in the region of interest. To test the short-term reproducibility of the measures. Results The quantification of the blue telangiectasia and of the brownish pigmentation using an automated digital photo analysis is feasible. The short-term reproducibility is good for blue telangiectasia quantification. It is a less accurate for the brownish pigmentation. Conclusion The blue telangiectasia of the corona phlebectatica and the ankle flare can be assessed using a clinimetric approach based on the automated digital photo analysis.

  18. The early history of dialysis for chronic renal failure in the United States: a view from Seattle.

    PubMed

    Blagg, Christopher R

    2007-03-01

    Forty-seven years have passed since the first patient started treatment for chronic renal failure by repeated hemodialysis (HD) at the University of Washington Hospital in Seattle in March 1960, and some 34 years have elapsed since the United States Congress passed legislation creating the Medicare End-Stage Renal Disease Program. Many nephrologists practicing today are unfamiliar with the history of the clinical and political developments that occurred during the 13 years between these 2 dates and that led to dialysis as we know it today in this country. This review briefly describes these events. Clinical developments following introduction of the Teflon shunt by Belding Scribner and Wayne Quinton included empirical observations leading to better understanding of HD and patient management, out-of-hospital dialysis by nurses, bioethical discussions of the problems of patient selection, home HD, improved dialysis technology, intermittent peritoneal dialysis, including automated equipment for home use and an effective peritoneal access catheter, the arteriovenous fistula for more reliable blood access, dialyzer reuse, the first for-profit dialysis units, understanding of many of the complications of treatment, the first considerations of dialysis adequacy, early development of other technologies, and more frequent HD. Political developments began less than 3 years after the first Seattle patient began dialysis, but it took another 10 years of intermittent activities before Congress acted on legislation to provide almost universal Medicare entitlement to patients with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.

  19. Survival significance of coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with early lung cancer after curative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Yusuke; Tsuda, Masataka; Wakiyama, Yoichi; Marushima, Hideki; Kojima, Koji; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity on survival after curative resection of early‐stage lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been sufficiently elucidated. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 250 consecutive patients who underwent lobectomy with lymph nodal dissection for pathological stage I–II NSCLC. Results Among the COPD patients, 28 were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1, 21 as GOLD 2, and one as GOLD 3. The cumulative overall survival (OS) of the non‐COPD, GOLD 1, and GOLD 2–3 groups at five years was 90.7%, 85.7%, and 55.3%, respectively, (P < 0.0001), while recurrence‐free survival (RFS) between the groups at five years was 84.7%, 80.7%, and 72.9%, respectively. Although RFS in the GOLD 2–3 group tended to indicate a poor prognosis, there was no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.385). In multivariate analysis, age ≥75 years, pN1, and GOLD 2–3 COPD were independent factors for a poor prognosis (P = 0.034, P = 0.010, and P = 0.030, respectively). Conclusions Our results indicate that early stage NSCLC patients with COPD had a significantly increased risk of poorer OS and potentially an increased risk of poor RFS. PMID:28976075

  20. Development of asthmatic inflammation in mice following early-life exposure to ambient environmental particulates and chronic allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Cristan; Siegle, Jessica S.; Shadie, Alexander M.; Nikolaysen, Stina; Garthwaite, Linda; Hansbro, Nicole G.; Foster, Paul S.; Kumar, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Childhood exposure to environmental particulates increases the risk of development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms might include oxidant injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC). We investigated the ability of ambient environmental particulates to contribute to sensitization via the airways, and thus to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. To do so, we devised a novel model in which weanling BALB/c mice were exposed to both ambient particulate pollutants and ovalbumin for sensitization via the respiratory tract, followed by chronic inhalational challenge with a low mass concentration of the antigen. We also examined whether these particulates caused oxidant injury and activation of AEC in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the potential benefit of minimizing oxidative stress to AEC through the period of sensitization and challenge by dietary intervention. We found that characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation developed only in animals that received particulates at the same time as respiratory sensitization, and were then chronically challenged with allergen. However, these animals did not develop airway hyper-responsiveness. Ambient particulates induced epithelial injury in vitro, with evidence of oxidative stress and production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th2-promoting cytokines such as IL-33. Treatment of AEC with an antioxidant in vitro inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to these particulates. Ambient particulates also induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following administration to weanling mice. However, early-life dietary supplementation with antioxidants did not prevent the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in animals that were exposed to particulates, sensitized and challenged. We conclude that injury to airway epithelium by ambient environmental particulates in early life is capable of promoting the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in sensitized and antigen-challenged mice

  1. Early-Onset Acute Recurrent and Chronic Pancreatitis Is Associated with PRSS1 or CTRC Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    Giefer, Matthew J; Lowe, Mark E; Werlin, Steven L; Zimmerman, Bridget; Wilschanski, Michael; Troendle, David; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Pohl, John F; Palermo, Joseph; Ooi, Chee Y; Morinville, Veronique D; Lin, Tom K; Husain, Sohail Z; Himes, Ryan; Heyman, Melvin B; Gonska, Tanja; Gariepy, Cheryl E; Freedman, Steven D; Fishman, Douglas S; Bellin, Melena D; Barth, Bradley; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Uc, Aliye

    2017-07-01

    To assess whether the age of onset was associated with unique features or disease course in pediatric acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP). Demographic and clinical information on children with ARP or CP was collected at INSPPIRE (INternational Study Group of Pediatric Pancreatitis: In Search for a CuRE) centers. The Cochran-Armitage trend test and Jonckheere-Terpstra test were used to examine for differences between pediatric age groups (<6, 6-11, and ≥12 years). Between September 2012 and March 2016, 342 children with ARP or CP were enrolled; 129 (38%) were <6 years of age at the time of first diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, 111 (32%) were 6-11 years of age, and 102 (30%) were ≥12 years of age. Early-onset disease was associated with mutations in cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) (P < .01), chymotrypsin C (CTRC) (P = .01), family history of acute pancreatitis (P = .02), family history of CP (P < .01), biliary cysts (P = .04), or chronic renal failure (P = .02). Later-onset disease was more commonly present with hypertriglyceridemia (P = .04), ulcerative colitis (P = .02), autoimmune diseases (P < .0001), or medication use (P < .01). Children with later-onset disease also were more likely to visit the emergency department (P < .05) or have diabetes (P < .01). Early-onset pancreatitis is associated strongly with PRSS1 or CTRC mutations and family history of pancreatitis. Children with later-onset disease are more likely to have nongenetic risk factors. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the disease course, response to therapy, or clinical outcomes differ relative to the timing of disease onset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma microRNA profile as a predictor of early virological response to interferon treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaonan; Chen, Cuncun; Wu, Min; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Jiming; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhanqin; Wu, Jingdi; Wang, Jiefei; Chen, Xiaorong; Huang, Tao; Chen, Lixiang; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2012-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) treatment of chronic hepatitis B leads to a sustained virological response in a limited proportion of patients and has considerable side effects. To find novel markers associated with prognosis of IFN therapy, we investigated whether a pretreatment plasma microRNA profile could be used to predict early virological response to IFN. We performed microRNA microarray analysis of plasma samples from 94 patients with chronic hepatitis B who received IFN therapy. The microRNA profiles from 13 liver biopsy samples were also measured. The OneR feature ranking and incremental feature selection method were used to rank and optimize the number of features in the model. Support vector machine prediction engine and jack-knife cross-validation were used to generate and evaluate the prediction model. The optimized model consisting of 11 microRNAs yielded a 74.2% overall accuracy in the training group and was independently confirmed in the test group (71.4% accuracy). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed its independent association with early virological response (OR=7.35; P=2.12×10(-5)). Combining the microRNA profile with the alanine aminotransferase level improved the overall accuracy from 73.4% to 77.3%. Co-transfection of an HBV replicative construct with microRNA mimics revealed that let-7f, miR-939 and miR-638 were functionally associated with the HBV life cycle. The 11 microRNA signatures in plasma, together with basic clinical variables, might provide an accurate method to assist in medication decisions and improve the overall sustained response to IFN treatment.

  3. Field bioassays for early detection of chronic impacts of chemical wastes upon marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pequegnat, W. E.; Wastler, T. A.

    1980-03-01

    A major problem facing those who must assess the environmental effects of the disposal in the ocean of industrial and municipal wastes, including dredged materials, is determining whether given wastes elicit chronic deteriorative responses in important species of organisms. The full importance of such low-level, nonlethal effects is not known, but it is suspected that repeated elicitations may result in ecosystem changes as important as those caused by more easily determinable acute effects. Such considerations are important to the marine environment, where dumped pollutants may be quickly diluted to legal nonlethal concentrations, but may still bring forth cumulative chronic response patterns. One objective of this study has been to develop a field method of assessing the impacts of the disposal of various industrial and municipal wastes. The measure of the impact is not mortality measured against time, but the increase or decrease in activity of certain metabolic enzymes that signal whether an organism is under stress from a class of wastes. Also, by analysing tissues of test and indigenous species for the accumulation of metals, PCBs, and high molecular weight hydrocarbons as well as for the enzyme activity, one gains an insight into the actual effect, if any, of the accumulation upon the whole organism. The test organisms are exposed for selected periods of time in the field in devices called Biotal Ocean Monitors (BOMs); they are then assayed for enzyme induction. At present the following enzymes are used: mitochondrial ATPase, which responds particularly to excess biphenyls in the environment; catalase that is dissolved in the cytosol and responds to excesses of toxic metals; and cytochrome P-420 and P-450, which respond to cyclic and long-chain hydrocarbons. The applicability of the adenylate energy charge system to this problem is also studied.

  4. Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Ngoepe, Mpho; Choonara, Yahya E.; Tyagi, Charu; Tomar, Lomas Kumar; du Toit, Lisa C.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Pillay, Viness

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in biosensor design and sensing efficacy need to be amalgamated with research in responsive drug delivery systems for building superior health or illness regimes and ensuring good patient compliance. A variety of illnesses require continuous monitoring in order to have efficient illness intervention. Physicochemical changes in the body can signify the occurrence of an illness before it manifests. Even with the usage of sensors that allow diagnosis and prognosis of the illness, medical intervention still has its downfalls. Late detection of illness can reduce the efficacy of therapeutics. Furthermore, the conventional modes of treatment can cause side-effects such as tissue damage (chemotherapy and rhabdomyolysis) and induce other forms of illness (hepatotoxicity). The use of drug delivery systems enables the lowering of side-effects with subsequent improvement in patient compliance. Chronic illnesses require continuous monitoring and medical intervention for efficient treatment to be achieved. Therefore, designing a responsive system that will reciprocate to the physicochemical changes may offer superior therapeutic activity. In this respect, integration of biosensors and drug delivery is a proficient approach and requires designing an implantable system that has a closed loop system. This offers regulation of the changes by means of releasing a therapeutic agent whenever illness biomarkers prevail. Proper selection of biomarkers is vital as this is key for diagnosis and a stimulation factor for responsive drug delivery. By detecting an illness before it manifests by means of biomarkers levels, therapeutic dosing would relate to the severity of such changes. In this review various biosensors and drug delivery systems are discussed in order to assess the challenges and future perspectives of integrating biosensors and drug delivery systems for detection and management of chronic illness. PMID:23771157

  5. Chronic administration during early adulthood does not alter the hormonally-dependent disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on complex behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Winsauer, Peter J; Sutton, Jessie L

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether chronic Δ(9)-THC during early adulthood would produce the same hormonally-dependent deficits in learning that are produced by chronic Δ(9)-THC during adolescence. To do this, either sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received daily saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ(9)-THC i.p. for 40 days during early adulthood. Following chronic administration, and a drug-free period to train both a learning and performance task, acute dose-effect curves for Δ(9)-THC (0.56-10 mg/kg) were established in each of the four groups (intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline and OVX/THC). The dependent measures of responding under the learning and performance tasks were the overall response rate and the percentage of errors. Although the history of OVX and chronic Δ(9)-THC in early adulthood did not significantly affect non-drug or baseline behavior under the tasks, acute administration of Δ(9)-THC produced both rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects on learning and performance behavior, and these effects were dependent on their hormone condition. More specifically, both intact groups were more sensitive to the rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects of Δ(9)-THC than the OVX groups irrespective of chronic Δ(9)-THC administration, as there was no significant main effect of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between chronic treatment (saline or Δ(9)-THC) and the dose of Δ(9)-THC administered as an adult. Post mortem examination of 10 brain regions also indicated there were significant differences in agonist-stimulated GTPγS binding across brain regions, but no significant effects of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between the chronic treatment and cannabinoid signaling. Thus, acute Δ(9)-THC produced hormonally-dependent effects on learning and performance behavior, but a period of chronic administration during early adulthood did not alter these effects significantly, which is contrary to what we

  6. [Successful treatment of HIV-associated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy by early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy].

    PubMed

    Kume, Kodai; Ikeda, Kazuyo; Kamada, Masaki; Touge, Tetsuo; Deguchi, Kazushi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with HIV infection presented with lower leg dominant dysesthesia, muscle weakness and sensory ataxia of 3 month's duration. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) showed demyelination change in the median and tibial nerves and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) in the sural nerve was not evoked. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) showed the delayed N9 latency. Diagnose of HIV-associated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was made. Although the CD4 lymphocyte counts were relatively preserved (466/μl), highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) was started according to a new guideline for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents recommending early initiation of treatment. After six months, HIV1-RNA was not detected and the CD4 lymphocyte counts showed a recovering trend (585/μl). His symptoms had disappeared, except for dysesthesia in the tip of a toe. Repeated NCS demonstrated full recovery from the demyelination and appearance of SNAP in the sural nerve. The improvement of his symptoms and NCS findings has been maintained for two years. Although effectiveness of immunotherapies such as oral prednisone, high-dose immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis have been reported in HIV-associated CIDP, early initiation of HAART may be also important for favorable prognosis in HIV-associated CIDP.

  7. Prevention of chronic PTSD with early cognitive behavioral therapy. A meta-analysis using mixed-effects modeling.

    PubMed

    Kliem, Sören; Kröger, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is of great interest to public health, due to the high burden it places on both the individual and society. We meta-analyzed randomized-controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of early trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment (TFCBT) for preventing chronic PTSD. Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from on-line databases (Pubmed, PsycINFO, Psyndex, Medline). Using a mixed-effect approach, we calculated effect sizes (ES) for the PTSD diagnoses (main outcome) as well as PTSD and depressive symptoms (secondary outcomes), respectively. Calculations of ES from pre-intervention to first follow-up assessment were based on 10 studies. A moderate effect (ES = 0.54) was found for the main outcome, whereas ES for secondary outcomes were predominantly small (ES = 0.27-0.45). The ES for the main outcome decreased to small (ES = 0.34) from first follow-up to long-term follow-up assessment. The mean dropout rate was 16.7% pre- to post-treatment. There was evidence for the impact of moderators on different outcomes (e.g., the number of sessions on PTSD symptoms). Future studies should include survivors of other trauma types (e.g., burn injuries) rather than predominantly survivors of accidents and physical assault, and should compare early TFCBT with other interventions that previously demonstrated effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Myoxinol (Hydrolyzed Hibiscus esculentus Extract) in the Cure of Chronic Anal Fissure: Early Clinical and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Renzi, Adolfo; Di Sarno, Giandomenico; D'Aniello, Francesco; Ziccardi, Stefania; Paladino, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the early results of the topical application of Hydrolyzed Hibiscus esculentus Extract 3% ointment (Myoxinol 3%), a novel local product with Botox-like activity, in the conservative treatment of chronic anal fissure (CAF). Methods. Among all patients with CAF observed during the study period, 31 subjects met the inclusion criteria and underwent medical therapy with Myoxinol 3% ointment every 12 hours for 6 weeks. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Clinical and manometric follow-up was carried out eight weeks after treatment. Results. At follow-up the success rate was 72.4% (21/29); median VAS score and mean anal resting pressure were significantly lower if compared with respective baseline data. The only one adverse effect of the topical application of Myoxinol 3% ointment was perianal itch, which was reported by 3,4% (1/29) of the patients available for the analysis. However, in this case this symptom did not cause interruption of the treatment. Conclusions. The topical application of Myoxinol 3% ointment in the cure of CAF shows encouraging early results. Further researches with a larger series and a longer follow-up are needed to confirm these data. PMID:25861259

  9. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-κB, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-κB positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  10. FcγRIIb expression in early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Rosa; Mora, Alba; Vicente, Eva Puy; Ferrer, Gerardo; Jansà, Sonia; Damle, Rajendra; Gorlatov, Sergey; Rai, Kanti; Montserrat, Emili; Nomdedeu, Josep; Pratcorona, Marta; Blanco, Laura; Saavedra, Silvana; Garrido, Ana; Esquirol, Albert; Garcia, Irene; Granell, Miquel; Martino, Rodrigo; Delgado, Julio; Sierra, Jorge; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Moreno, Carol

    2017-11-01

    In normal B-cells, B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling can be negatively regulated by the low-affinity receptor FcγRIIb (CD32b). To better understand the role of FcγRIIb in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we correlated its expression on 155 samples from newly-diagnosed Binet A patients with clinical characteristics and outcome. FcγRIIb expression was similar in normal B-cells and leukemic cells, this being heterogenous among patients and within CLL clones. FcγRIIb expression did not correlate with well known prognostic markers [disease stage, serum beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), IGHV mutational status, expression of ZAP-70 and CD38, and cytogenetics] except for a weak concordance with CD49d. Moreover, patients with low FcγRIIb expression (69/155, 44.5%) required therapy earlier than those with high FcγRIIb expression (86/155, 55.5%) (median 151.4 months vs. not reached; p=.071). These results encourage further investigation on the role of FcγRIIb in CLL biology and prognostic significance in larger series of patients.

  11. Determinants of working until retirement compared to a transition to early retirement among older workers with and without chronic diseases: Results from a Dutch prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sewdas, Ranu; van der Beek, Allard J; de Wind, Astrid; van der Zwaan, Lennart G L; Boot, Cécile R L

    2018-05-01

    The ageing society and recent policy changes may lead to an increase of older workers with chronic diseases in the workforce. To date, it is unclear whether workers with chronic diseases have specific needs while employed. The aim of this study is to explore the differences in determinants of working until retirement compared to a reference group who have transitioned to early retirement among workers with and without chronic diseases. Dutch workers aged 57-62 years ( n = 2445) were selected from an existing prospective cohort study, 'STREAM'. The potential determinants were categorized into: individual, health, work-related and social factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between these determinants and working until retirement - once for workers with and once for those without chronic diseases. To test differences, we included an interaction term between the determinant and the covariate 'having a chronic disease yes/no' in the analyses of the total population. In total, 1652 (68%) persons were employed from 2011 to 2013. The majority of the determinants appeared to be similar for workers with or without a chronic disease; the interaction terms for these determinants and the covariate 'having a chronic disease' showed a p-value higher than 0.05, except for one individual factor (i.e. mastery) and one work-related factor (i.e. autonomy), which showed a p-value below 0.05. Higher mastery and higher autonomy were statistically significantly associated with working until retirement for those with chronic diseases, whereas they were not for those without chronic diseases. Differences between workers with and without chronic diseases may exist for working until a statutory retirement age. Interventions aimed at encouraging work participation of older workers should make a distinction between the two groups. Autonomy at work and mastery were found to be factors that may promote work participation until higher age, specifically

  12. Molecular effectors in the chronic exposure to arsenic as early and sensitive biomarkers in developing Rhinella arenarum toads.

    PubMed

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Ceschin, Danilo Guillermo; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Venturino, Andrés

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic, a natural element of ecological relevance, is one of the most toxic elements present in various regions of the world. It can be found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 and 15mgL -1 . The Argentinean autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects and response to the chronic As exposure along its embryonic and larval development. We evaluated the effects on MAPK signal transduction pathway and transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN, and the regulation of the expression at protein levels of different antioxidant enzymes. Our results indicated that As is modulating the MAPK pathway, increasing MEK and ERK levels both in the nuclear and post-nuclear fraction along the embryonic development and mainly at the beginning of the larval stage. Through this pathway, As can upregulate transcription factors like c-FOS and c-JUN, impacting the antioxidant response of the exposed embryos and larvae through antioxidant enzymes and recycling of GSH. Arsenic triggered specifically the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in exposed R. arenarum embryo and larvae. In particular, the expression levels of SOD, CAT and GST enzymes analyzed by Western blot showed a similar behavior to their enzymatic activities in our previous work. This fact suggests that not only the synthesis of these antioxidant enzymes but also their rapid degradation after inactivation would be regulated in response to ROS levels. Antioxidant enzymes may show dual responses of induction and inactivation followed by degradation depending on the levels of oxidative stress and impact on ROS targets when the exposure is sustained in time and intensity. We also performed a probability of exceedence analysis including our previous results to visualize a progression of the response in time and also established the best early-responding biomarkers at the lowest As concentrations. As a conclusion, the molecular

  13. Early functional outcome of a modified Brostrom-Gould surgery using bioabsorbable suture anchor for chronic lateral ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Shahrulazua, A; Ariff Sukimin, M S; Tengku Muzaffar, T M; Yusof, M I

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early functional outcome following the use of a bioabsorbable suture anchor to simplify the repair of injured lateral ankle structures as a variation of an established technique known as the Brostrom-Gould procedure. This was a prospective study of 30 ankles with chronic lateral instability that underwent a modified Brostrom-Gould surgery using a bioabsorbable suture anchor, performed by a single surgeon. A total of 29 patients, aged 15 to 52 (mean is 33) years, were enrolled in the study. The follow-up period ranged from three to six (mean is four) months. The function of the patients' ankles was scored using the Kaikkonen Functional Scale, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Preoperatively, all ankles had poor scores (less than 50). Postoperatively, 28 ankles showed excellent scores and two ankles showed good scores, while none obtained a fair or poor score. The difference in the overall means between the postoperative and preoperative scores was statistically significant (p-value is 0.001). Post surgery, 24 ankles had no symptoms, while six had only mild ankle tightness with extreme inversion movement at the last review. All patients were able to walk normally, and 29 ankles regained their normal running capability. There was marked improvement in the ability to descend stairs, to rise on heels and toes, to perform a single-limb stance, and in range of motions of the ankle dorsiflexion as well as in ankle laxity. The modified Brostrom-Gould procedure using a bioabsorbable suture anchor allowed for early ankle rehabilitation and offered a reproducible and excellent early functional outcome with minimal complications.

  14. Early supplemented low-protein diet restriction for chronic kidney disease patients in Taiwan - A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    You, Joyce H S; Ming, Wai-Kit; Lin, Wei-An; Tarn, Yen-Huei

    2015-10-01

    Low-protein diet (LPD) together with supplementation with ketoanalogs (KA) is associated with slower decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared potential clinical and economic outcomes of KA supplement initiation at eGFR 15 - 29 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. eGFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CKD patients on LPD from the healthcare payer's perspective. Markov model was designed to simulate outcomes of adult patients with eGFR 15 - 29 mL/min/1.73 m2 on two strategies LPD with KA supplementation; watchfulwaiting on LPD alone and KA initiation when eGFR declined to < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2. Medical cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated over 10 years. Results The early-initiation group gained higher QALYs (3.926 QALYs vs. 3.787 QALYs) with lower cost (USD 564,637 vs. USD 914,236) (USD 1 = NTD 30) when compared with the watchful-waiting group in base-case analysis. Sensitivity analysis indicated that early KA initiation at eGFR at 17 - 29 mL/min/1.73 m2 would be the preferred cost-effective option, if relative reduction of eGFR decline associated with LPD plus KA was > 4%. 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations showed the early-initiation group to be less costly with higher QALYs gained than the watchful-waiting group by USD 343,665 (95% CI 342,139 - 345,191) and 0.160 QALYs (95% CI 0.140 - 0.180), respectively. Early KA supplementation with LPD in CKD patients appeared to be cost-saving and gained higher QALYs in Taiwan. Acceptance of early supplemented LPD as cost-effective depended upon the reduction of eGFR decline associated with KA plus LPD and eGFR level to initiate KA supplementation.

  15. Effects of chronic copper exposure during early life in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Araya, Magdalena; Kelleher, Shannon L; Arredondo, Miguel A; Sierralta, Walter; Vial, María Teresa; Uauy, Ricardo; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2005-05-01

    Whether infants regulate copper absorption and the potential effects of excess copper in early life remain poorly defined. The objective of the study was to assess copper retention, liver copper content, and liver function in infant rhesus monkeys fed infant formula containing 6.6 mg Cu/L. From birth to 5 mo of age, infant rhesus monkeys were fed formula that was supplemented with copper (0.6 mg Cu/L; n = 5) or not supplemented (n = 4). In all animals, weight and crown-rump length (by anthropometry), hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma ceruloplasmin activity, and zinc and copper concentrations were measured monthly (birth to 6 mo) and at 8 and 12 mo. When the animals were 1, 5, and 8 mo old, liver copper and metallothionein concentrations, liver histology (by light and electron microscopy), and the number of Kupffer cells were assessed, and 67Cu retention was measured. Liver function was assessed by measurement of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and protein, albumin, bilirubin, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. 67Cu retention was 19.2% and 10.9% after 1 and 5 mo of copper treatment, respectively, compared with approximately 75% in controls at age 2 mo. At age 8 mo, 67Cu retention was 22.9% in copper-treated animals and 31.5% in controls. Liver histology remained normal by light microscopy, with mild ultrastructural signs of cell damage at 5 mo. Liver copper concentration was 4711, 1139, and 498 microg/g dry tissue at 1, 5, and 8 mo, respectively, in copper-treated animals and 250 microg/g at 2 mo in controls. Measurements could not be completed in all animals. No clinical evidence of copper toxicity was observed. Copper absorption was down-regulated; increases in liver copper content at ages 1 and 5 mo did not result in histologic damage. Ultrastructural changes at age 5 mo could signal early cellular damage.

  16. How does early maternal separation and chronic stress in adult rats affect the immunoreactivity of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus?

    PubMed

    Pollano, Antonella; Trujillo, Verónica; Suárez, Marta M

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h between postnatal days (PND) 1-21, or to animal facility rearing (AFR). Between (PND) days 50-74, rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress and were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. We found an interaction between the effects of MS and chronic unpredictable stress on Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells at mid-caudal level of the DR. MS-chronically stressed rats showed an increase of Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells compared with AFR-chronically stressed rats. The ventrolateral (DRL/VLPAG) and dorsal (DRD) subdivisions of the DR were significantly more active than the ventral part (DRV). At the rostral level of the DR, tianeptine decreased the number of Fos-5HT cells in DR in the AFR groups, both unstressed and stressed. Overall, our results support the idea of a match in phenotype exhibited when the early and the adult environment correspond.

  17. Retrograde recanalization of chronic total occlusions from the transradial approach; early Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Rinfret, Stéphane; Joyal, Dominique; Nguyen, Can Manh; Bagur, Rodrigo; Hui, William; Leung, Raymond; Larose, Eric; Love, Michael P; Mansour, Samer

    2011-09-01

    Retrograde approach for chronic total occlusions (CTO) improves recanalization success rates. Eight French (Fr) catheters and the femoral approach are advocated. Evaluate whether transradial operators can achieve similar success rates using smaller catheters. This is a single-operator series of 42 consecutive cases performed between January and December 2010, including 13 while demonstrating CTO recanalization. Patients were referred because of complexity of the CTO or after failed attempt. Most frequent indications for recanalization were CCS 3-4 angina (52%) and CCS 1-2 in 21%. Eighteen (43%) patients underwent previous failed attempts. CTO was in the right coronary in 74%, left anterior descending in 24%, and a left main in 1. Most lesions (88%) were ≥20 mm long and 52% were calcified. We used septal collateral channels (CC) in 33 (79%), epicardial CC in 8 (20%), and a saphenous vein graft in one case. Radial access was used in all patients and was bilateral in 37 (88%). Five cases required one radial and one femoral access. Six French guides were used in 91% for the retrograde side and 71% for the antegrade side. Otherwise, 7 Fr guides were used. The Corsair(®) was used in 38 (90%). Procedural success was achieved in 37 (88%), mostly using reverse controlled antegrade-retrograde tracking (60%) or retrograde crossing (29%). The average <24-h Hb drop was 0.75 ± 0.84 g/dl. No in-hospital major cardiac events occurred. Transradial retrograde CTO recanalization is feasible, safe, and still associated with high success rates despite the use of smaller guide catheters. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Effect of chronic copper and pentachlorophenol exposure to early life stages of Xenopus laevis

    SciT

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorophenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratagenesis Assay Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased inmore » each successive time period. Continuous exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5/{micro}g/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.« less

  19. Early eradication has a lower risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in Helicobacter pylori-infected chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Hui; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Nicole; Chang, Shen-Shong

    2016-09-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) contributes to a higher mortality rate in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) patients. A crucial question is whether early Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy is necessary for H. pylori-infected chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. To explore whether H. pylori eradication therapy has a lower risk of PUB at the pre-ESRD stage than at the ESRD stage. Patients meeting 2 criteria were defined as newly diagnosed ESRD cases: (1) patients diagnosed with ESRD and receiving regular dialysis between 2000 and 2009; and (2) patients with no history of dialysis between 1997 and 1999. We divided the study participants into pre-ESRD and ESRD groups on the basis of the time between H. pylori eradication and dialysis. The date of the first PUB diagnosis was defined as the primary endpoint. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of H. pylori eradication at the pre-ESRD and ESRD stage on the occurrence of PUB. We included 476 patients in the pre-ESRD cohort and 476 patients in the matched ESRD cohort. After adjustment for age, sex, the presence of comorbidities, and medication use, the hazard ratio of PUB was 0.66 times less in the pre-ESRD cohort than in the ESRD cohort. Factors such as Charlson's score more than 3, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with an increased risk of PUB. Our result supports that early H. pylori eradication has a lower risk of PUB in H. pylori-infected CKD patients. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Outcome of dysthymic disorder at 5-year follow-up: the effect of familial psychopathology, early adversity, personality, comorbidity, and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Hayden, E P; Klein, D N

    2001-11-01

    This study sought to identify predictors of course and outcome in dysthymic disorder. Eighty-six outpatients with early-onset dysthymic disorder (before age 21) participated in a prospective 5-year follow-up study. Family history of psychopathology, early home environment, axis I and II comorbidity, social support, and chronic stress were assessed at baseline. The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used in the follow-up assessments conducted at 30 and 60 months. Comorbid anxiety disorder, cluster C and depressive personality features, and chronic stress were associated with a lower rate of recovery from dysthymic disorder, while family history of bipolar disorder was associated with a higher probability of recovery. Family history of dysthymic disorder, poor childhood maternal and paternal relationships, childhood sexual abuse, cluster C features, neuroticism, a history of anxiety and eating disorders, and chronic stress predicted higher levels of depression at follow-up. Multivariate models indicated that almost all domains contributed to the prediction of course and outcome. The course and outcome of dysthymic disorder is best conceptualized within a multifactorial framework, with family history of psychopathology, early adversity, axis I and II comorbidity, and chronic stress all making important contributions.

  1. Early alterations in glycemic control and pancreatic endocrine function in non-diabetic patients with chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Rachel; Beilman, Gregory J.; Dunn, Ty B.; Pruett, Tim L.; Freeman, Martin L.; Ptacek, Peggy E.; Berry, K. Louise; Robertson, R. Paul; Moran, Antoinette; Bellin, Melena D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a frequent consequence of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Little is known about pancreatic endocrine function before the development of DM in CP, particularly in females, or those without calcific and/or alcoholic pancreatitis. Methods Twenty-five non-diabetic adult CP patients (19 female, age 34.2 ± 2.4 yrs) were compared to 25 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and BMI. Subjects underwent frequent sample intravenous glucose tolerance testing (FSIVGTT) and mixed meal tolerance testing (MMTT). Results Mean fasting glucose was higher in CP patients (89.5 ±2.3 mg/dL) than in controls (84.4 ±1.2 mg/dL, p=0.04). On MMTT, CP patients had a higher area under the curve (AUC) glucose and AUC glucagon compared to controls (p≤0.01). AUC C-peptide was equivalent (p=0.6) but stimulated C-peptide at 30 minutes was lower in CP patients (p=0.04). Mean insulin sensitivity index calculated from the FSIVGTT was lower in CP group, indicating reduced insulin sensitivity (p≤0.01). Disposition index (insulin secretion adjusted for insulin sensitivity on FSIVGTT) was lower in CP patients (p=0.01). Conclusions CP patients had higher fasting and MMTT glucose levels, without a compensatory increase in insulin secretion suggesting subtle early islet dysfunction. Our cohort had relative hyperglucagonemia and were less insulin sensitive than controls. PMID:26918872

  2. Early rehabilitation exercise program for inpatients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tang, Clarice Y; Blackstock, Felicity C; Clarence, Michael; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether an early rehabilitation program was safe and feasible for patients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this phase 1 randomized controlled trial, patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD admitted to the hospital were randomly allocated to a low-intensity exercise group, a moderate- to high-intensity exercise group, or a control group, who received routine physical therapy. In addition to routine physical therapy, patients in the exercise group had to participate in an exercise program. The program consisted of twice-daily aerobic and resistance exercise sessions. Primary outcomes were the number and classification of adverse events and program adherence. In 174 exercise sessions, there was 1 serious adverse event of arrhythmia in the low-intensity exercise group that resolved within 1 hour. There were 12 other minor adverse events involving 5 patients with no significant differences between groups. Patients completed an average of 80% of their scheduled sessions with no significant between-group differences. The exercise groups improved significantly in walking distance; however, no significant between-group differences were observed. There was preliminary evidence that it was safe and feasible to implement an exercise program for patients during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to accurately evaluate program effectiveness.

  3. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeão B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dennis; Forsmark, Chris E

    2017-09-01

    Summarize key clinical advances in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2016. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains elusive. Recent studies suggest that endoscopic ultrasound may be less accurate than previously thought and new MRI techniques may be helpful. Genetic predisposition may independently affect the clinical course of chronic pancreatitis and the risk for pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking may have a greater negative impact on chronic pancreatitis than previously thought and moderate alcohol consumption may be protective. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the treatment of type 3 diabetes and nutritional deficiencies in chronic pancreatitis. Although endoscopic therapy remains a reasonable first-line option in treating chronic pancreatitis and its complications, early surgical intervention may be indicated for pain in select patients. Newer endoscopic ultrasound and MRI techniques are being evaluated to help with the early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Both genetic predisposition and cigarette smoking are increasingly recognized as having a major impact in the course of the disease and the risk for pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic therapy is well tolerated and effective for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis and its complications although an early surgical approach for pain may be associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  5. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Anand R; Forsmark, Chris E

    2014-09-01

    We review selected important clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2013. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains difficult, although newer techniques utilizing endoscopic ultrasonography-elastography and MRI hold promise. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Osteoporosis, osteopenia, and bone fracture are particularly common in these patients, and require active intervention and treatment. Diabetes caused by chronic pancreatitis, type 3c diabetes, has specific characteristics and requires careful management. Antioxidants and neuromodulators may decrease pain in some patients with chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic treatment is effective and can be utilized in patients with painful chronic pancreatitis, although randomized trials demonstrate that surgical therapy is somewhat more durable and effective. Although surgery has typically been a last resort, some advocate early surgical intervention but the optimal time remains unknown. Early diagnosis of pancreatitis may be improved by newer techniques associated with endoscopic ultrasonography imaging. Treatment of nutritional deficiencies and diabetes is an important aspect of treating chronic pancreatitis. Pain relief with adjunct means of pain modulation should be tried before starting narcotics for pain control. Endoscopic therapy is appropriate for treating chronic pancreatitis and its local complications and surgical intervention can be considered early in carefully selected individuals.

  6. Early Risk and Resiliency Factors Predict Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Caregivers of Patients Admitted to a Neuroscience ICU.

    PubMed

    Choi, Karmel W; Shaffer, Kelly M; Zale, Emily L; Funes, Christopher J; Koenen, Karestan C; Tehan, Tara; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2018-05-01

    posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during admission is the single most important way to identify the majority of those likely to suffer from chronic posttraumatic stress disorder following discharge. Addressing early posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and their psychosocial correlates during admission may help prevent chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in these at-risk caregivers.

  7. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in early adolescent and adult male rats: effects on tolerance, social behavior, and ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of this study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Juvenile/adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10-day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), nonmanipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), or nonmanipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) upon regaining of righting reflex (RORR) were tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and nonmanipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hours after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals using an 8-day 2 bottle choice, limited-access ethanol intake procedure. In general, adolescent animals showed shorter durations of LORR and higher BECs upon RORR than adults on the first and last ethanol exposure days, regardless of chronic exposure condition. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults

  8. Maternal separation in early life modifies anxious behavior and Fos and glucocorticoid receptor expression in limbic neurons after chronic stress in rats: effects of tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Verónica; Durando, Patricia E; Suárez, Marta M

    2016-01-01

    Early-life adversity can lead to long-term consequence persisting into adulthood. Here, we assess the implications of an adverse early environment on vulnerability to stress during adulthood. We hypothesized that the interplay between early and late stress would result in a differential phenotype regarding the number of neurons immunoreactive for glucocorticoid receptor (GR-ir) and neuronal activity as assessed by Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in brain areas related to stress responses and anxiety-like behavior. We also expected that the antidepressant tianeptine could correct some of the alterations induced in our model. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h during the first 3 weeks of life. As adults, the rats were exposed to chronic stress for 24 d and they were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or vehicle (isotonic saline). Fos-ir was increased by MS in all structures analyzed. Chronic stress reduced Fos-ir in the hippocampus, but increased it in the paraventricular nucleus. Furthermore, chronic stress increased GR-ir in hippocampus (CA1) and amygdala in control non-MS rats. By contrast, when MS and chronic stress were combined, GR-ir was decreased in these structures. Additionally, whereas tianeptine did not affect Fos-ir, it regulated GR-ir in a region-dependent manner, in hippocampus and amygdala opposing in some cases the stress or MS effects. Furthermore, tianeptine reversed the MS- or stress-induced anxious behavior. The interplay between MS and chronic stress observed indicates that MS rats have a modified phenotype, which is expressed when they are challenged by stress in later life.

  9. Hospital at home for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an integrated hospital and community based generic intermediate care service for prevention and early discharge.

    PubMed

    Davison, A G; Monaghan, M; Brown, D; Eraut, C D; O'Brien, A; Paul, K; Townsend, J; Elston, C; Ward, L; Steeples, S; Cubitt, L

    2006-01-01

    Recent randomized controlled studies have reported success for hospital at home for prevention and early discharge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients using hospital based respiratory nurse specialists. This observational study reports results using an integrated hospital and community based generic intermediate care service. The length of care, readmission within 60 days and death within 60 days in the early discharge (9.37 days, 21.1%, 7%) and the prevention of admission (five to six days, 34.1%, 3.8%) are similar to previous studies. We suggest that this generic community model of service may allow hospital at home services for COPD to be introduced in more areas.

  10. Chronic restraint stress during early Theiler’s virus infection exacerbates the subsequent demyelinating disease in SJL mice: II. CNS disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Erin E.; Sieve, Amy N.; Vichaya, Elisabeth G.; Carcoba, Luis M.; Young, Colin R.; Ambrus, Andrew; Storts, Ralph; Welsh, C. Jane R.; Meagher, Mary W.

    2010-01-01

    Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection is a well-characterized model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous research has shown that chronic restraint stress (RS) during early TMEV infection exacerbates behavioral signs of disease. The present data suggest RS-induced increases in CNS inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degeneration may underlie this exacerbation. In addition, we report that males exhibit greater CNS inflammation and higher numbers of demyelinating lesions while females show greater susceptibility to RS-induced exacerbation. These findings indicate RS during early TMEV infection increases CNS lesion formation during the late phase and suggest the effects of RS are sex-dependent. PMID:20167380

  11. A pilot study to explore the effectiveness of "early" rehabilitation after a hospital admission for chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Houchen, Linzy; Watt, Amye; Boyce, Sally; Singh, Sally

    2012-07-01

    People with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience acute exacerbations of their symptoms. These episodes are costly to patients and the health service. The study was a single group, pretest and posttest design. Seventeen patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) started rehabilitation within 4 weeks of hospital discharge. The 6 week rehabilitation programme included exercise and self-management education. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), the incremental and endurance shuttle walking tests (ISWT/ESWT) were assessed at baseline and after rehabilitation. The number and duration of any CHF admissions in the year before and the year after rehabilitation were also recorded. Improvements in the ISWT, ESWT, and depression were, mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) 60.6 (36.0-85.2) metres, 356.0 (173.0-539.0) seconds (both p≤0.001) and (-)1.0 ((-)1.8-(-)0.2) points (p<0.05), respectively. HADS anxiety improvements failed to reach significance. At 1 year, there was a significant decrease in CHF-related hospitalisations, mean change (95% CI) (-)0.8 ((-)1.1-(-)0.4), p≤0.001 and CHF bed days (-)13.0 ((-)24.4-(-)1.6), p<0.05. Early rehabilitation significantly improved exercise capacity and depression and reduced CHF-associated health care utilisation in patients who had recently been hospitalised. The intervention was safe. However, the sample size was small and results were not compared to a control group. Therefore, the effects of natural recovery are unknown.

  12. Procedural and Early Outcomes of Two Re-entry Devices for Subintimal Recanalization of Aortoiliac and Femoropopliteal Chronic Total Occlusions.

    PubMed

    Vuruskan, Ertan; Saracoglu, Erhan

    2017-01-01

    Subintimal angioplasty is a common treatment choice for chronic total occlusions (CTO) in the iliac and femoropopliteal arteries. This article describes the technical aspects and early outcomes of two different re-entry devices and comparison with manual re-entry technique. A retrospective review of 61 patients (re-entry group) treated with Outback or Pioneer Plus catheters was carried out. A matched cohort of patients (n=62) who underwent lower extremity interventions without the use of re-entry devices (manual re-entry group) were also analyzed (overall 123 patients were analyzed). Procedural success, procedural durations, patency estimates, ankle-brachial indices, and complications were analyzed. Sixty-one patients underwent Outback or Pioneer Plus guided subintimal recanalization. After the procedure, ankle-brachial indices significantly increased in all patients during follow-up. Primary patency for the entire cohort was 83% in the first month. When the re-entry device group was compared with manual re-entry group, no difference was found with respect to success, complication, and patencies between the two groups during follow-up. However, procedure duration and the amount of contrast agent used was significantly decreased in re-entry groups (p<0.001). Also, re-entry time was significantly decreased in Pioneer plus group according to Outback group (p<0.001). Recanalization of CTO using re-entry devices for aortoiliac or femoropopliteal arteries is safe and effective. These devices shorten the procedure time, the re-entry time, reduce radiation risk, and reduce the amount of contrast agent employed.

  13. Coadministration of ezetimibe with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin could improve early virological response in chronic hepatitis C obese Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Helal, Gouda K; Gad, Magdy A; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F; Mahgoup, Elsayed M

    2016-05-01

    Ezetimibe has been reported to inhibit viral entry and to reduce BMI and has been proposed as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic hepatitis C (CHC), potentiating the effects of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV). The aim of the study was to assess the effects of ezetimibe coadministration with peg-IFN/RBV combination on the early virological response (EVR) rates in nonobese and obese patients with CHC genotype 4 (CHC-4). A total of 144 CHC-4 patients were divided into two groups; group 1 included nonobese patients (n=76) and group 2 included obese patients (n=68). Each group was further subclassified into equal control and treated groups. The control groups received peg-IFN/RBV combination for 24 weeks, and the treated groups received peg-IFN/RBV plus ezetimibe for 12 weeks and then only peg-IFN/RBV for the remaining 12 weeks. The study revealed that EVR significantly improved in the obese patients (85.3 vs. 64.7% in the treated and control groups, respectively, at P<0.05) without any significant improvement in the nonobese patients. Biochemical responses (defined as normalization of alanine aminotransferase at week 12) were markedly improved in the treated groups in both the nonobese and obese groups compared with their respective controls. The addition of ezetimibe to peg-IFN/RBV combination significantly improves EVR rates in obese patients compared with nonobese patients, and remarkably improves the biochemical responses in both obese and nonobese patients with CHC-4. This may shed light on a new strategy for the treatment of CHC, particularly in obese Egyptian patients.

  14. Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on active and healthy ageing. A debate at the European Union Parliament.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Tanasescu, C C; Camuzat, T; Anto, J M; Blasi, F; Neou, A; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Antunes, J P; Samolinski, B; Yiallouros, P; Zuberbier, T

    2013-01-01

    A debate at the European Union Parliament was held on 13 November 2012 on the Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA). The debate was held under the auspices of the Cyprus Presidency of the European Union (2012) and represents a follow-up of the priorities of the Polish Presidency of the European Union (2011). It highlighted the importance of early life events on the occurrence of chronic respiratory diseases later in life and their impact on active and healthy ageing. Epidemiologic evidence was followed by actions that should be taken to prevent and manage chronic respiratory diseases in children. The debate ended by practical, feasible and achievable projects, demonstrating the strength of the political action in the field. Three projects will be initiated from this debate: The first will be a meeting sponsored by the Région Languedoc-Roussillon on the developmental origins of chronic diseases and ageing: from research to policies and value creation. The second project is being led by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Asthma and Rhinitis: Prevention of Asthma, Prevention of Allergy (PAPA). The third project is the GA(2)LEN sentinel network. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Chronic Gastrointestinal Complications After Radical Hysterectomy and Postoperative Concurrent Nedaplatin-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    SciT

    Isohashi, Fumiaki, E-mail: isohashi@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Mabuchi, Seiji

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 97 patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The organs at risk that were contoured were the small bowel loops, large bowel loop, and peritoneal cavity. DVH parameters subjected to analysis included the volumes of these organs receiving more than 15, 30, 40, and 45 Gy (V15-V45) and their mean dose. Associations between DVH parameters or clinical factors andmore » the incidence of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications were evaluated. Results: Of the clinical factors, smoking and low body mass index (BMI) (<22) were significantly associated with grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications. Also, patients with chronic GI complications had significantly greater V15-V45 volumes and higher mean dose of the small bowel loops compared with those without GI complications. In contrast, no parameters for the large bowel loop or peritoneal cavity were significantly associated with GI complications. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis led to the conclusion that V15-V45 of the small bowel loops has high accuracy for prediction of GI complications. Among these parameters, V40 gave the highest area under the ROC curve. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed with V40 of the small bowel loops and 2 other clinical parameters that were judged to be potential risk factors for chronic GI complications: BMI and smoking. Of these 3 parameters, V40 of the small bowel loops and smoking emerged as independent predictors of chronic GI complications. Conclusions: DVH parameters of the small bowel loops may serve as predictors of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications after postoperative

  16. Perceived Early Childhood Family Influence, Perceived Pain Self-Efficacy, and Chronic Pain Disability: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kate R. M.; Watts, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is an exponentially increasing issue for aging adults in the United States and has stretched the limits of technology and the ability of health care professionals to provide adequate care. Chronic pain deprives individuals of their independence, confidence, quality of life, and often their primary support groups while leaving them…

  17. Left atrial volume index as a predictor for persistent left ventricular dysfunction after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: the role of early postoperative echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jeong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Hong, Geu-Ru; Heo, Ran; Sung, Ji Min; Lee, Sang-Eun; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore whether echocardiographic measurements during the early postoperative period can predict persistent left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). We prospectively recruited 54 patients (59 ± 12 years) with isolated chronic severe AR who subsequently underwent aortic valve surgery. Standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed before the operation, during the early postoperative period (≤2 weeks), and then 1 year after the surgery. Twelve patients with preoperative LVSD demonstrated LVSD at early after the surgery. Of the 42 patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography, 15 patients (36%) developed early postoperative LVSD after surgical correction. All 27 patients without LVSD at early postoperative echocardiography maintained LV function at 1 year after surgery. In the other 27 patients with postoperative LVSD, 17 patients recovered from LVSD and 10 patients did not at 1 year after surgery. Multiple logistic analysis demonstrated that postoperative left atrial volume index (LAVI) was the only independent predictor for persistent LVSD at 1 year after surgery in patients with postoperative LVSD (OR 1.180, 95% CI, 1.003-1.390, P = 0.046). The optimal LAVI cutoff value (>34.9 mL/m(2) ) had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 88% for the prediction of persistent LVSD. Prevalence of early postoperative LVSD was relatively high, even in the patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography. Postoperative LAVI could be useful to predict persistent LVSD after aortic valve surgery in patients with early postoperative LVSD. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparative efficacy of the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy versus Supportive Psychotherapy for early onset chronic depression: design and rationale of a multisite randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective treatment strategies for chronic depression are urgently needed since it is not only a common and particularly disabling disorder, but is also considered treatment resistant by most clinicians. There are only a few studies on chronic depression indicating that traditional psycho- and pharmacological interventions are not as effective as in acute, episodic depression. Current medications are no more effective than those introduced 50 years ago whereas the only psychotherapy developed specifically for the subgroup of chronic depression, the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), faired well in one large trial. However, CBASP has never been directly compared to a non-specific control treatment. Methods/Design The present article describes the study protocol of a multisite parallel-group randomized controlled trial in Germany. The purpose of the study is to estimate the efficacy of CBASP compared to supportive psychotherapy in 268 non-medicated early-onset chronically depressed outpatients. The intervention includes 20 weeks of acute treatment with 24 individual sessions followed by 28 weeks of continuation treatment with another 8 sessions. Depressive symptoms are evaluated 20 weeks after randomisation by means of the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD). Secondary endpoints are depressive symptoms after 12 and 48 weeks, and remission after 12, 20, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome will be analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlled for pre-treatment scores and site. Analyses of continuous secondary variables will be performed using linear mixed models. For remission rates, chi-squared tests and logistic regression will be applied. Discussion The study evaluates the comparative effects of a disorder-specific psychotherapy and a well designed non-specific psychological approach in the acute and continuation treatment phase in a large sample of early-onset chronically depressed patients. Trial

  19. Serum level of CD26 predicts time to first treatment in early B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Molica, Stefano; Digiesi, Giovanna; Mirabelli, Rosanna; Cutrona, Giovanna; Antenucci, Anna; Molica, Matteo; Giannarelli, Diana; Sperduti, Isabella; Morabito, Fortunato; Neri, Antonino; Baldini, Luca; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2009-09-01

    We analyzed the correlation between well-established biological parameters of prognostic relevance in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) [i.e. mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgV(H)), ZAP-70- and CD38-expression] and serum levels of CD26 (dipeptidyl peptidase IV, DPP IV) by evaluating the impact of these variables on the time to first treatment (TFT) in a series of 69 previously untreated Binet stage A B-cell CLL patients. By using a commercial ELISA we found that with exception of a borderline significance for ZAP-70 (P = 0.07) and CD38 (P = 0.08), circulating levels of CD26 did not correlate with either Rai substages (P = 0.520) or other biomarker [beta2-microglobulin (P = 0.933), LDH (P = 0.101), mutational status of IgV(H) (P = 0.320)]. Maximally selected log-rank statistic plots identified a CD26 serum concentration of 371 ng/mL as the best cut-off. This threshold allowed the identification of two subsets of patients with CD26 serum levels higher and lower that 371 ng/mL respectively, whose clinical outcome was different with respect to TFT (i.e. 46% and 71% at 5 yr respectively; P = 0.005). Along with higher serum levels of CD26, the univariate Cox proportional hazard model identified absence of mutation in IgV(H) (P < 0.0001) as predictor of shorter TFT. As in multivariate analysis all these parameters maintained their discriminating power (mutational status of IgV(H,)P < 0.0001; soluble CD26, P = 0.02) their combined effect on clinical outcome was assessed. When three groups were considered: (1) Low-risk group (n = 31), patients with concordant IgVH(mut) and low level of soluble CD26; (2) intermediate risk group (n = 26), patients with discordant pattern; (3) high-risk group (n = 12), patients with concordant IgVH(unmut) and high level of soluble CD26, differences in the TFT were statistically significant, with a TFT at 5 yr of respectively 88%, 51% and 43% (P < 0.0001). Our results indicate that in early B

  20. Effect of Behavior Modification on Outcome in Early- to Moderate-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kunihiro; Makino, Hirofumi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kusano, Eiji; Shibata, Takanori; Tomita, Kimio; Narita, Ichiei; Nishino, Tomoya; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Mitarai, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takashi; Nakamura, Teiji; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent changes in our understanding of the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the importance of lifestyle modification for preventing the progression of kidney dysfunction and complications has become obvious. In addition, effective cooperation between general physicians (GPs) and nephrologists is essential to ensure a better care system for CKD treatment. In this cluster-randomized study, we studied the effect of behavior modification on the outcome of early- to moderate-stage CKD. Stratified open cluster-randomized trial. A total of 489 GPs belonging to 49 local medical associations (clusters) in Japan. A total of 2,379 patients (1,195 in group A (standard intervention) and 1,184 in group B (advanced intervention)) aged between 40 and 74 years, who had CKD and were under consultation with GPs. All patients were managed in accordance with the current CKD guidelines. The group B clusters received three additional interventions: patients received both educational intervention for lifestyle modification and a CKD status letter, attempting to prevent their withdrawal from treatment, and the group B GPs received data sheets to facilitate reducing the gap between target and practice. The primary outcome measures were 1) the non-adherence rate of accepting continuous medical follow-up of the patients, 2) the collaboration rate between GPs and nephrologists, and 3) the progression of CKD. The rate of discontinuous clinical visits was significantly lower in group B (16.2% in group A vs. 11.5% in group B, p = 0.01). Significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates were observed in group B (p<0.01). The average eGFR deterioration rate tended to be lower in group B (group A: 2.6±5.8 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 2.4±5.1 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.07). A significant difference in eGFR deterioration rate was observed in subjects with Stage 3 CKD (group A: 2.4±5.9 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 1.9±4.4 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.03). Our care

  1. Nephrology co-management versus primary care solo management for early chronic kidney disease: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Samal, Lipika; Wright, Adam; Waikar, Sushrut S; Linder, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-12

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) typically manage early chronic kidney disease (CKD), but recent guidelines recommend nephrology co-management for some patients with stage 3 CKD and all patients with stage 4 CKD. We sought to compare quality of care for co-managed patients to solo managed patients. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Patients included in the study were adults who visited a PCP during 2009 with laboratory evidence of CKD in the preceding two years, defined as two estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) between 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) separated by 90 days. We assessed process measures (serum eGFR test, urine protein/albumin test, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker [ACE/ARB] prescription, and several tests monitoring for complications) and intermediate clinical outcomes (mean blood pressure and blood pressure control) and performed subgroup analyses by CKD stage. Of 3118 patients, 11 % were co-managed by a nephrologist. Co-management was associated with younger age (69 vs. 74 years), male gender (46 % vs. 34 %), minority race/ethnicity (black 32 % vs. 22 %; Hispanic 13 % vs. 8 %), hypertension (75 % vs. 66 %), diabetes (42 % vs. 26 %), and more PCP visits (5.0 vs. 3.9; p < 0.001 for all comparisons). After adjustment, co-management was associated with serum eGFR test (98 % vs. 94 %, p = <0.0001), urine protein/albumin test (82 % vs 36 %, p < 0.0001), and ACE/ARB prescription (77 % vs. 69 %, p = 0.03). Co-management was associated with monitoring for anemia and metabolic bone disease, but was not associated with lipid monitoring, differences in mean blood pressure (133/69 mmHg vs. 131/70 mmHg, p > 0.50) or blood pressure control. A subgroup analysis of Stage 4 CKD patients did not show a significant association between co-management and ACE/ARB prescription (80 % vs. 73 %, p = 0.26). For stage 3 and 4 CKD patients, nephrology co-management was associated with increased stage

  2. Impact of 9/11-related chronic conditions and PTSD comorbidity on early retirement and job loss among World Trade Center disaster rescue and recovery workers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengchao; Brackbill, Robert M; Locke, Sean; Stellman, Steven D; Gargano, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    The economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks has rarely been studied. We examined the association between 9/11-related chronic health conditions with or without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and one important aspect of the economic impact, retirement, and job loss before age 60. A total of 7,662 workers who participated in the World Trade Center Health Registry surveys were studied. Logistic regression models examined the association of 9/11-related health and labor force exit. Workers with chronic conditions were more likely to experience early retirement and job loss, and the association was stronger in the presence of PTSD comorbidity: the odds ratios for reporting early retirement or job loss were increased considerably when chronic conditions were comorbid with PTSD. Disaster-related health burden directly impacts premature labor force exit and income. Future evaluation of disaster outcome should include its long-term impact on labor force. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:731-741, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Medicaid programme changes and the chronically ill: early results from a prospective cohort study of the Oregon Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Solotaroff, Rachel; Devoe, Jennifer; Wright, Bill J; Smiths, Jeanene; Boone, Janne; Edlund, Tina; Carlson, Matthew J

    2005-09-01

    To describe the impacts of recent Oregon Health Plan (OHP) policy changes on individuals living with chronic illness in Oregon. A mail survey was conducted of 1374 OHP beneficiaries who were directly affected by the new policies. The analyses reported in this article represent baseline findings from the first of three survey waves in an ongoing prospective cohort study. A significant association was found between Medicaid policy changes and high rates of disenrolment from the OHP. Compared to the non-chronically ill, the chronically ill were more likely to report inability to pay for medications, higher medical debt, more unmet health needs, and poorer health status. Among the chronically ill, those who lost insurance reported decreased access to and utilization of healthcare, more medical debt, and more restriction of medications. As policy-makers restructure public programmes to accommodate tight budgets and rising healthcare costs, people with chronic illness can easily be overlooked. Chronically ill individuals face disproportionate financial and health burdens. Small cost-saving policy changes can lead to widespread disenrolment that cascades into reduced access to healthcare services, altered utilization patterns, and financial strain.

  4. Early response with dasatinib or imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia: 3-year follow-up from a randomized phase 3 trial (DASISION)

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Saglio, Giuseppe; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Shah, Neil P.; Boqué, Concepción; Chuah, Charles; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Mayer, Jiří; Cortes, Jorge; Baccarani, Michele; Kim, Dong-Wook; Bradley-Garelik, M. Brigid; Mohamed, Hesham; Wildgust, Mark; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This analysis explores the impact of early cytogenetic and molecular responses on the outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) in the phase 3 DASatinib versus Imatinib Study In treatment-Naive CML patients trial with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were randomized to receive 100 mg dasatinib (n = 259) or 400 mg imatinib (n = 260) once daily. The retrospective landmark analysis included patients evaluable at the relevant time point (3, 6, or 12 months). Median time to complete cytogenetic response was 3 vs 6 months with dasatinib vs imatinib. At 3 and 6 months, the proportion of patients with BCR-ABL transcript levels ≤10% was higher in the dasatinib arm. Deeper responses at 3, 6, and 12 months were observed in a higher proportion of patients on dasatinib therapy and were associated with better 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival in both arms. First-line dasatinib resulted in faster and deeper responses compared with imatinib. The achievement of an early molecular response was predictive of improved progression-free survival and overall survival, supporting new milestones for optimal response in patients with early CML-CP treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00481247. PMID:24311723

  5. Immunological dynamics associated with rapid virological response during the early phase of type I interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Won; Kwon, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Shin, Hyun Mu; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Min, Chan-Ki; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Won-Woo; Choi, Myung-Sik; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Cho, Nam-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in antiviral immunity as well as immunopathogenesis of diverse chronic viral infections. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the multifaceted effects of type I IFNs on the immune system and pathological inflammation still remain unclear. In order to assess the immunological dynamics associated with rapid viral clearance in chronic hepatitis C patients during the acute phase of type I IFN therapy, we analyzed multiple parameters of virological and immunological responses in a cohort of 59 Korean hepatitis C patients who received pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin (IFN/RBV). Most of the Korean patients had favorable alleles in the IFN-λ loci for responsiveness to IFN/RBV (i.e., C/C in rs12979860, T/T in rs8099917, and TT/TT in rs368234815). Rapid virological response (RVR) was determined mainly by the hepatitis C virus genotype. Among the cytokines analyzed, higher plasma levels of IL-17A and FGF were observed in non-RVR patients infected with viral genotype 1 and IP-10 was consistently elevated in RVR group infected with genotype 2 during the early phase of antiviral therapy. In addition, these three cytokines were correlated each other, suggesting a functional linkage of the cytokines in antiviral responses during IFN/RBV therapy. A low baseline frequencies of regulatory T cells and γδ T cells, but high level of group 2 innate lymphoid cells, in peripheral bloods were also significantly associated with the RVR group, implicating a potential role of the cellular immunity during the early phase of IFN/RBV therapy. Therefore, the immunological programs established by chronic hepatitis C and rapid disruption of the delicate balance by exogenous type I IFN might be associated with the subsequent virological outcomes in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  6. Immunological dynamics associated with rapid virological response during the early phase of type I interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Won; Kwon, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Shin, Hyun Mu; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Min, Chan-Ki; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Won-Woo; Choi, Myung-Sik; Kim, Byeong Gwan

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in antiviral immunity as well as immunopathogenesis of diverse chronic viral infections. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the multifaceted effects of type I IFNs on the immune system and pathological inflammation still remain unclear. In order to assess the immunological dynamics associated with rapid viral clearance in chronic hepatitis C patients during the acute phase of type I IFN therapy, we analyzed multiple parameters of virological and immunological responses in a cohort of 59 Korean hepatitis C patients who received pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin (IFN/RBV). Most of the Korean patients had favorable alleles in the IFN-λ loci for responsiveness to IFN/RBV (i.e., C/C in rs12979860, T/T in rs8099917, and TT/TT in rs368234815). Rapid virological response (RVR) was determined mainly by the hepatitis C virus genotype. Among the cytokines analyzed, higher plasma levels of IL-17A and FGF were observed in non-RVR patients infected with viral genotype 1 and IP-10 was consistently elevated in RVR group infected with genotype 2 during the early phase of antiviral therapy. In addition, these three cytokines were correlated each other, suggesting a functional linkage of the cytokines in antiviral responses during IFN/RBV therapy. A low baseline frequencies of regulatory T cells and γδ T cells, but high level of group 2 innate lymphoid cells, in peripheral bloods were also significantly associated with the RVR group, implicating a potential role of the cellular immunity during the early phase of IFN/RBV therapy. Therefore, the immunological programs established by chronic hepatitis C and rapid disruption of the delicate balance by exogenous type I IFN might be associated with the subsequent virological outcomes in chronic hepatitis C patients. PMID:28614389

  7. Do mental health problems in childhood predict chronic physical conditions among males in early adulthood? Evidence from a community-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, R D; Sourander, A; Duarte, C S; Niemelä, S; Multimäki, P; Nikolakaros, G; Helenius, H; Piha, J; Kumpulainen, K; Moilanen, I; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have documented associations between mental and physical health problems in cross-sectional studies, yet little is known about these relationships over time or the specificity of these associations. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between mental health problems in childhood at age 8 years and physical disorders in adulthood at ages 18-23 years. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between childhood mental health problems, reported by child, parent and teacher, and physical disorders diagnosed by a physician in early adulthood. Significant linkages emerged between childhood mental health problems and obesity, atopic eczema, epilepsy and asthma in early adulthood. Specifically, conduct problems in childhood were associated with a significantly increased likelihood of obesity and atopic eczema; emotional problems were associated with an increased likelihood of epilepsy and asthma; and depression symptoms at age 8 were associated with an increased risk of asthma in early adulthood. Our findings provide the first evidence of an association between mental health problems during childhood and increased risk of specific physical health problems, mainly asthma and obesity, during early adulthood, in a representative sample of males over time. These data suggest that behavioral and emotional problems in childhood may signal vulnerability to chronic physical health problems during early adulthood.

  8. Effect of Behavior Modification on Outcome in Early- to Moderate-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Kunihiro; Makino, Hirofumi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kusano, Eiji; Shibata, Takanori; Tomita, Kimio; Narita, Ichiei; Nishino, Tomoya; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Mitarai, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takashi; Nakamura, Teiji; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Owing to recent changes in our understanding of the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the importance of lifestyle modification for preventing the progression of kidney dysfunction and complications has become obvious. In addition, effective cooperation between general physicians (GPs) and nephrologists is essential to ensure a better care system for CKD treatment. In this cluster-randomized study, we studied the effect of behavior modification on the outcome of early- to moderate-stage CKD. Design Stratified open cluster-randomized trial. Setting A total of 489 GPs belonging to 49 local medical associations (clusters) in Japan. Participants A total of 2,379 patients (1,195 in group A (standard intervention) and 1,184 in group B (advanced intervention)) aged between 40 and 74 years, who had CKD and were under consultation with GPs. Intervention All patients were managed in accordance with the current CKD guidelines. The group B clusters received three additional interventions: patients received both educational intervention for lifestyle modification and a CKD status letter, attempting to prevent their withdrawal from treatment, and the group B GPs received data sheets to facilitate reducing the gap between target and practice. Main outcome measure The primary outcome measures were 1) the non-adherence rate of accepting continuous medical follow-up of the patients, 2) the collaboration rate between GPs and nephrologists, and 3) the progression of CKD. Results The rate of discontinuous clinical visits was significantly lower in group B (16.2% in group A vs. 11.5% in group B, p = 0.01). Significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates were observed in group B (p<0.01). The average eGFR deterioration rate tended to be lower in group B (group A: 2.6±5.8 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 2.4±5.1 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.07). A significant difference in eGFR deterioration rate was observed in subjects with Stage 3 CKD (group A: 2.4±5.9 ml

  9. Survival for patients with chronic leukemias in the US and Britain: Age-related disparities and changes in the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pulte, Dianne; Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Bird, Jenny; Jeffreys, Mona

    2015-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are highly treatable conditions occurring primarily in older patients. Lower survival among older people has been reported in both conditions, but newer treatments may change both the overall survival rate and the relative risk associated with aging. Here, we examine survival for patients with CLL and CML in the United States (US) and England. Patients with CLL and CML were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (US) and National Cancer Registry (England). Five-year relative survival was calculated by major age group. Excess hazard ratios (EHR) by age were calculated for each condition, and multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for the following potential confounders: gender, race or ethnic group (US only), period of diagnosis, and a measure of socioeconomic deprivation (England only). Five-year relative survival increased for both CLL and CML in both England and the US between 1996-2000 and 2006-2010. However, relative age-related disparities persisted. For CLL, the EHR for death was 9.44 (7.84-11.36) in the US and 6.14 (5.65-6.68) in England for ages 85+ compared to ages 55-64. For CML, the EHR was 3.52 (3.17-3.90) in the US and 4.54 (4.13-4.98) in England for ages 75+ compared to ages 45-64. Survival improved for patients with chronic leukemias in the early 21st century. However, age-related disparities persist, despite clinical trial evidence that treatment in older adults with chronic leukemia can be safe and effective. Further research to determine the reasons for the lower survival in older patients and greater awareness of this problem may improve survival for older patients with chronic leukemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Early development of de novo hepatocellular carcinoma after direct-acting agent therapy: Comparison with pegylated interferon-based therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S H; Kwon, J H; Nam, S W; Kim, H Y; Kim, C W; You, C R; Choi, S W; Cho, S H; Han, J-Y; Song, D S; Chang, U I; Yang, J M; Lee, H L; Lee, S W; Han, N I; Kim, S-H; Song, M J; Hwang, S; Sung, P S; Jang, J W; Bae, S H; Choi, J Y; Yoon, S K

    2018-04-16

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C who achieve a sustained viral response after pegylated interferon therapy have a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the risk after treatment with direct-acting antivirals is unclear. We compared the rates of early development of hepatocellular carcinoma after direct-acting antivirals and after pegylated interferon therapy. We retrospectively analysed 785 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had no history of hepatocellular carcinoma (211 treated with pegylated interferon, 574 with direct-acting antivirals) and were followed up for at least 24 weeks after antiviral treatment. De novo hepatocellular carcinoma developed in 6 of 574 patients receiving direct-acting antivirals and in 1 of 211 patients receiving pegylated interferon. The cumulative incidence of early hepatocellular carcinoma development did not differ between the treatment groups either for the whole cohort (1.05% vs 0.47%, P = .298) or for those patients with Child-Pugh Class A cirrhosis (3.73% vs 2.94%, P = .827). Multivariate analysis indicated that alpha-fetoprotein level >9.5 ng/mL at the time of end-of-treatment response was the only independent risk factor for early development of hepatocellular carcinoma in all patients (P < .0001, hazard ratio 176.174, 95% confidence interval 10.768-2882.473) and in patients treated with direct-acting agents (P < .0001, hazard ratio 128.402, 95% confidence interval 8.417-1958.680). In conclusion, the rate of early development of hepatocellular carcinoma did not differ between patients treated with pegylated interferon and those treated with direct-acting antivirals and was associated with the serum alpha-fetoprotein level at the time of end-of-treatment response. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Early diagnosis of interferon-induced myocardial disorder in patients with chronic hepatitis C: evaluation by myocardial imaging with 123I-BMIPP.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Yukinaka, M; Nomura, M; Nakaya, Y; Ito, S

    2000-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis C is sometimes associated with cardiac complications. In the present study, we performed myocardial imaging with 123I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) in order to evaluate myocardial disorders caused by IFN. We studied 40 healthy subjects (H group) and 25 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had been treated with IFN (IFN group). A Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) was performed and the autonomic nervous function was assessed by analyzing the spectral variability and 1/f fluctuation of heart rate. Myocardial planner imaging with 123I-BMIPP was performed to obtain the time activity curve for 20min immediately after administration of 123I-BMIPP (dynamic study). Early and delayed myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were expressed as Bull's eyes and the myocardium was divided into four segments to calculate the washout rate for each segment on early and late SPECT images (early and late SPECT study). No significant differences in autonomic nervous function were observed between the two groups in heart rate variability. In a dynamic study, the reduction rate from the time activity curve was significantly higher in the IFN group compared with the H group (reduction rate, IFN group, 5.3 +/- 3.7% vs H group, 1.2 +/- 3.3%; P < 0.05). In the early and delayed myocardial SPECT study, the washout rate for the IFN group was significantly increased in all myocardial areas compared to that in the H group. However, the metabolic disorder of fatty acids caused by IFN was reversed on the second 123I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy examination several months after IFN therapy. These results indicate that metabolic disorders of fatty acids caused by IFN therapy can be detected before abnormalities are observed by Holter-ECG or echocardiography.

  12. Hepatitis B virus X protein shifts human hepatic transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling from tumor suppression to oncogenesis in early chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Murata, Miki; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Yoshida, Katsunori; Sekimoto, Go; Tahashi, Yoshiya; Mori, Shigeo; Uemura, Yoshiko; Sakaida, Noriko; Fujisawa, Junichi; Seki, Toshihito; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Yokote, Koutaro; Koike, Kazuhiko; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein is suspected to participate in oncogenesis during chronic hepatitis B progression. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling involves both tumor suppression and oncogenesis. TGF-beta activates TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which differentially phosphorylate the mediator Smad3 to become C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C) and linker-phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L). Reversible shifting of Smad3-mediated signaling between tumor suppression and oncogenesis in HBx-expressing hepatocytes indicated that TbetaRI-dependent pSmad3C transmitted a tumor-suppressive TGF-beta signal, while JNK-dependent pSmad3L promoted cell growth. We used immunostaining, immunoblotting, and in vitro kinase assay to compare pSmad3L- and pSmad3C-mediated signaling in biopsy specimens representing chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from 90 patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) with signaling in liver specimens from HBx transgenic mice. In proportion to plasma HBV DNA levels, early chronic hepatitis B specimens showed prominence of pSmad3L in hepatocytic nuclei. HBx-activated JNK/pSmad3L/c-Myc oncogenic pathway was enhanced, while the TbetaRI/pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) tumor-suppressive pathway was impaired as human and mouse HBx-associated hepatocarcinogenesis progressed. Of 28 patients with chronic hepatitis B who showed strong oncogenic pSmad3L signaling, six developed HCC within 12 years; only one of 32 patients showing little pSmad3L developed HCC. In contrast, seven of 30 patients with little Smad3C phosphorylation developed HCC, while no patient who retained hepatocytic tumor-suppressive pSmad3C developed HCC within 12 years. HBx shifts hepatocytic TGF-beta signaling from the tumor-suppressive pSmad3C pathway to the oncogenic pSmad3L pathway in early carcinogenic process. Hepatocytic pSmad3L and pSmad3C assessment in HBV-infected liver specimens should prove

  13. Early administration of inhaled corticosteroids for preventing chronic lung disease in very low birth weight preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vibhuti S; Ohlsson, Arne; Halliday, Henry L; Dunn, Michael

    2017-01-04

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a common complication among preterm infants. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Due to their strong anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids are an attractive intervention strategy. However, there are growing concerns regarding short- and long-term effects of systemic corticosteroids. Theoretically, administration of inhaled corticosteroids may allow for beneficial effects on the pulmonary system with a lower risk of undesirable systemic side effects. To determine the impact of inhaled corticosteroids administered to preterm infants with birth weight up to 1500 grams (VLBW) beginning in the first two weeks after birth for the prevention of CLD as reflected by the requirement for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 12) in the Cochrane Library (searched 5 January 2016), MEDLINE (1966 to 5 January 2016), Embase (1980 to 5 January 2016), CINAHL (1982 to 5 January 2016), reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research or electronically on the Pediatric Academic Societies web-site (1990 to May 2016). We included in this review randomised controlled trials of inhaled corticosteroid therapy initiated within the first two weeks of life in VLBW preterm infants. We evaluated data regarding clinical outcomes, including: CLD at 28 days or 36 weeks' PMA; mortality; combined outcome of death or CLD at 28 days of age and at 36 weeks' PMA; the need for systemic corticosteroids; failure to extubate within 14 days; and adverse effects of corticosteroids. All data were analysed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5. Meta-analyses were performed using relative risk (RR) and risk difference (RD), along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). If RD was significant, the number needed to treat for

  14. Factors associated with early virological response to peginterferon-α-2a/ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    García-Samaniego, Javier; Romero, Miriam; Granados, Rafael; Alemán, Remedios; Jorge Juan, Miguel; Suárez, Dolores; Pérez, Ramón; Castellano, Gregorio; González-Portela, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of sociodemographic/clinical factors on early virological response (EVR) to peginterferon/ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study in Hepatology Units of 91 Spanish hospitals. CHC patients treated with peginterferon α-2a plus ribavirin were included. EVR was defined as undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV)-ribonucleic acid (RNA) or ≥ 2 log HCV-RNA decrease after 12 wk of treatment. A bivariate analysis of sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with EVR was carried out. Independent factors associated with an EVR were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis that included the following baseline demographic and clinical variables: age (≤ 40 years vs > 40 years), gender, race, educational level, marital status and family status, weight, alcohol and tobacco consumption, source of HCV infection, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (≤ 85 IU/mL vs > 85 IU/mL), serum ferritin, serum HCV-RNA concentration (< 400 000 vs ≥ 400 000), genotype (1/4 vs 3/4), cirrhotic status and ribavirin dose (800/1000/1200 mg/d). RESULTS: A total of 1014 patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 44.3 ± 9.8 years, 70% were male, and 97% were Caucasian. The main sources of HCV infection were intravenous drug abuse (25%) and blood transfusion (23%). Seventy-eight percent were infected with HCV genotype 1/4 (68% had genotype 1) and 22% with genotypes 2/3. The HCV-RNA level was > 400 000 IU/mL in 74% of patients. The mean ALT and AST levels were 88.4 ± 69.7 IU/mL and 73.9 ± 64.4 IU/mL, respectively, and mean GGT level was 82 ± 91.6 IU/mL. The mean ferritin level was 266 ± 284.8 μg/L. Only 6.2% of patients presented with cirrhosis. All patients received 180 mg of peginterferon α-2a. The most frequently used ribavirin doses were 1000 mg/d (41

  15. Early-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Is Associated with Female Sex, Maternal Factors, and African American Race in the COPDGene Study

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Marilyn G.; Zhang, Lening; Murphy, James; Hansel, Nadia N.; Make, Barry; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: The characterization of young adults who develop late-onset diseases may augment the detection of novel genes and promote new pathogenic insights. Methods: We analyzed data from 2,500 individuals of African and European ancestry in the COPDGene Study. Subjects with severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 70, age < 55 yr, FEV1 < 50% predicted) were compared with older subjects with COPD (n = 306, age > 64 yr, FEV1 < 50% predicted). Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with severe, early-onset COPD were predominantly females (66%), P = 0.0004. Proportionally, early-onset COPD was seen in 42% (25 of 59) of African Americans versus 14% (45 of 317) of non-Hispanic whites, P < 0.0001. Other risk factors included current smoking (56 vs. 17%, P < 0.0001) and self-report of asthma (39 vs. 25%, P = 0.008). Maternal smoking (70 vs. 44%, P = 0.0001) and maternal COPD (23 vs. 12%, P = 0.03) were reported more commonly in subjects with early-onset COPD. Multivariable regression analysis found association with African American race, odds ratio (OR), 7.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–24; P = 0.0007); maternal COPD, OR, 4.7 (95% CI, 1.3–17; P = 0.02); female sex, OR, 3.1 (95% CI, 1.1–8.7; P = 0.03); and each pack-year of smoking, OR, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–1.0; P = 0.03). Conclusions: These observations support the hypothesis that severe, early-onset COPD is prevalent in females and is influenced by maternal factors. Future genetic studies should evaluate (1) gene-by-sex interactions to address sex-specific genetic contributions and (2) gene-by-race interactions. PMID:21562134

  16. LPL is the strongest prognostic factor in a comparative analysis of RNA-based markers in early chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaderi, Mohd Arifin; Kanduri, Meena; Buhl, Anne Mette; Sevov, Marie; Cahill, Nicola; Gunnarsson, Rebeqa; Jansson, Mattias; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Jurlander, Jesper; Juliusson, Gunnar; Mansouri, Larry; Rosenquist, Richard

    2011-08-01

    The expression levels of LPL, ZAP70, TCL1A, CLLU1 and MCL1 have recently been proposed as prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, few studies have systematically compared these different RNA-based markers. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we measured the mRNA expression levels of these genes in unsorted samples from 252 newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and correlated our data with established prognostic markers (for example Binet stage, CD38, IGHV gene mutational status and genomic aberrations) and clinical outcome. High expression levels of all RNA-based markers, except MCL1, predicted shorter overall survival and time to treatment, with LPL being the most significant. In multivariate analysis including the RNA-based markers, LPL expression was the only independent prognostic marker for overall survival and time to treatment. When studying LPL expression and the established markers, LPL expression retained its independent prognostic strength for overall survival. All of the RNA-based markers, albeit with varying ability, added prognostic information to established markers, with LPL expression giving the most significant results. Notably, high LPL expression predicted a worse outcome in good-prognosis subgroups, such as patients with mutated IGHV genes, Binet stage A, CD38 negativity or favorable cytogenetics. In particular, the combination of LPL expression and CD38 could further stratify Binet stage A patients. LPL expression is the strongest RNA-based prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia that could potentially be applied to predict outcome in the clinical setting, particularly in the large group of patients with favorable prognosis.

  17. Early renal damage among children living in the region of highest burden of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, S B; Amarasinghe, G S; Naotunna, P G C R; Jayasumana, C S; Siribaddana, S H

    2018-05-16

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) in Sri Lanka is grouped with several other epidemics of similar nature across the world as Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities (CINAC). In CKDu endemic countries, the focus has mainly been on adults. We hypothesized that studying distribution and factors associated with elevated urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), an early marker of kidney injury, among children living in a CKDu endemic area may provide important clues about the onset and progression of the disease. This cross sectional study was performed in rural primary schools in North Central Province of Sri Lnaka, a CKDu high endemic region. Total of 2880 students aging 5 to 11 years from 67 schools were enrolled for urinalysis in a random spot urine sample. Bedside Schwartz formula was used to measure estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on all children with UACR > 30 mg/g in Polonnaruwa district and a group of age matched controls. A standard multiple linear regression using log transformed UACR as the dependent variable was performed. Mean eGFR were compared between UACR elevated group and controls using independent sample t test. Median UACR was 10.3 mg/g. Sex, ethnicity, history of having a chronic disease and age uniquely contributed to the multiple regression model which only explained 2.8% of the variance in the log of the UACR (p < 0.001). Only 15 (0.5%) had UACR> 300 mg/g while 8.2% (n = 236) had UACR between 30 to 300 mg/g and 89.8% (n = 203) of them did not have a chronic disease (Chi square 2.21, p = 0.091). Mean eGFR was significantly lower in the group with elevated UACR (88.9 mg/dl/1.73 m2, 95% CI for mean 86.4- 91.3) compared to group with normal UACR (93.7 mg/dl/1.73 m2,95% CI 91.1- 96.3) (t 2.7, p 0.007). Three out of the four students with eGFR less than 60 mg/dl/1.73 m2 had moderately elevated UACR. This study provides evidence to suggest that children in CKDu endemic regions are

  18. Chronic Mild Stress Assay Leading to Early Onset and Propagation of Alzheimer's Disease Phenotype in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Tejedor, Mar; García-Osta, Ana

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure is presented, which consists in the application of unpredictable mild stressors to animal models in a random order for several weeks. This assay can be applied to Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models, leading to accelerated onset and increased severity of AD phenotypes and signs, including memory deficits and the accumulation of amyloid-β and phospho-tau. These assays open the way towards advanced studies on the influence of sustained mild stress, stress responses and pathways on the onset and propagation of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. The enteroinsular axis and endocrine pancreatic function in chronic alcohol consumers: evidence for early beta-cell hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Patto, R J; Russo, E K; Borges, D R; Neves, M M

    1993-09-01

    Chronic alcohol consumers may have, as judged by functional criteria, exocrine as well as endocrine pancreatic dysfunction, the latter represented by a decreased insulin response to an oral glucose load. To investigate whether this decreased insulin response was due to an ethanol-induced beta-cell dysfunction or to an ethanol-induced dysfunction of the enteroinsular axis, we determined glucose, insulin, and C-peptide plasma concentrations following an oral and an intravenous glucose load in 16 healthy volunteer nonalcohol consumers and in 10 chronic alcohol consumers. In each group, total integrated response for glucose did not significantly change whether glucose was given orally or intravenously, indicating isoglycemic glucose loads. The total integrated response values for insulin in the alcoholic group following both glucose loads as well as C-peptide plasma concentrations were significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, in both groups the insulin TIR values following the oral glucose load were significantly greater than the values obtained following the intravenous glucose load, indicating an incretin effect. These results indicate that the decreased insulin response observed in alcoholics was not caused by a dysfunction of the enteroinsular axis because it also occurred following an intravenous glucose load, but by an ethanol-induced beta-cell dysfunction because C-peptide and insulin were proportionally decreased in this group.

  20. Early Detection of Peak Demand Days of Chronic Respiratory Diseases Emergency Department Visits Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Krishan L; Tamil, Lakshman S

    2018-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), affect the lives of people by limiting their activities in various aspects. Overcrowding of hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to respiratory diseases in certain weather and environmental pollution conditions results in the degradation of quality of medical care, and even limits its availability. A useful tool for ED managers would be to forecast peak demand days so that they can take steps to improve the availability of medical care. In this paper, we developed an artificial neural network based classifier using multilayer perceptron with back propagation algorithm that predicts peak event (peak demand days) of patients with respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and COPD visiting EDs in Dallas County of Texas in the United States. The precision and recall for peak event class were 77.1% and 78.0%, respectively, and those for nonpeak events were 83.9% and 83.2%, respectively. The overall accuracy of the system is 81.0%.

  1. The "thirsty dropsy": Early descriptions in medical and non-medical authors of thirst as symptom of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Riva, M A; Cesana, F; Achilli, F; Scordo, F; Cesana, G

    2017-10-15

    Patients with chronic heart failure may suffer from severe thirst, even if mechanisms that cause thirst in subjects affected by this condition are not clear. Medical and non-medical authors may have already recognized this symptom during the classical age. We analyzed association between thirst and dropsy (an ancient medical term used to indicate different conditions including chronic heart failure) in past medical and non-medical literature. Hippocrates and Celsus first recognized thirst as a symptom of dropsy in the classical age. Greco-Roman intellectuals (Polybius, Ovid, Horace) and theologians belonging to the first years of the Christian era (Augustine, Caesarius, Gregory I) showed to know that dropsy people were often thirsty. These authors also influenced medieval poets and writers, including Dante Alighieri. In the Renaissance, the physician and alchemist Paracelsus again evidenced this symptom and the iatrochemist Robert Fludd tried to explain pathophysiology of dropsy, basing on thirst. The relationship between thirst and dropsy was well known by physicians and intellectuals in the classical age and in the first years of the Christian era, so influencing the Renaissance physicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) as a Mesenchymal marker of Early Hepatic Stellate Cells Activation in Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sobia; Syed, Serajuddaula; Kehar, Shahnaz Imdad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to determine expression of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and of Alpha Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) in hepatic stellate cells of CHC cases and their association with stage of fibrosis. Methods: The study was conducted at Ziauddin University, Clifton Campus during the year 2010-2012. Sixty Chronic Hepatitis C cases were immmunostained using anti α-SMA antibody and anti-GFAP antibody. Semi quantitative scoring in pericentral, periportal and perisinusoidal area of each case was done to assess immunoexpression of each marker. Results : Immunoexpression of GFAP showed significant association with α-SMA. GFAP expression was inversely correlated with progression of fibrosis. Conclusion : GFAP could represent a useful marker for early hepatic stellate cells activation. Follow up biopsies showing decline in GFAP levels may help identify the target group requiring aggressive therapy. PMID:25225520

  3. [Efficiency of early diagnosis and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in industrial workers (prospective observation results)].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, S V; Shpagina, L A; Kuznetsova, G V; Burganova, M R

    2011-01-01

    Examination of workers engaged into major industrial enterprises of Novosibirsk demonstrated high prevalence of bronchial obstruction in individuals contacting industrial aerosol. The workers with long length of service proved high level of tobacco addiction and marked psychologic dependence on smoking. Based on the data obtained, the authors specified a program for early diagnosis and prevention of occupational bronchitis among the workers of major industrial enterprises.

  4. Job mobility among parents of children with chronic health conditions: Early effects of the 2010 Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Pinka; Brandon, Peter; Markowitz, Sara

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effects of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) prohibition of preexisting conditions exclusions for children on job mobility among parents. We use a difference-in-difference approach, comparing pre-post policy changes in job mobility among privately-insured parents of children with chronic health conditions vs. privately-insured parents of healthy children. Data come from the 2004 and 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Among married fathers, the policy change is associated with about a 0.7 percentage point, or 35 percent increase, in the likelihood of leaving an employer voluntarily. We find no evidence that the policy change affected job mobility among married and unmarried mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Meta-analysis of fish early life stage tests-Association of toxic ratios and acute-to-chronic ratios with modes of action.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Schreiber, Rene; Armitage, James; Mayer, Philipp; Escher, Beate I; Lidzba, Annegret; Léonard, Marc; Altenburger, Rolf

    2018-04-01

    Fish early life stage (ELS) tests (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 210) are widely conducted to estimate chronic fish toxicity. In these tests, fish are exposed from the embryonic to the juvenile life stages. To analyze whether certain modes of action are related to high toxic ratios (i.e., ratios between baseline toxicity and experimental effect) and/or acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) in the fish ELS test, effect concentrations (ECs) for 183 compounds were extracted from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ecotoxicity database. Analysis of ECs of narcotic compounds indicated that baseline toxicity could be observed in the fish ELS test at similar concentrations as in the acute fish toxicity test. All nonnarcotic modes of action were associated with higher toxic ratios, with median values ranging from 4 to 9.3 × 10 4 (uncoupling < reactivity < neuromuscular toxicity < methemoglobin formation < endocrine disruption < extracellular matrix formation inhibition). Four modes of action were also found to be associated with high ACRs: 1) lysyl oxidase inhibition leading to notochord distortion, 2) putative methemoglobin formation or hemolytic anemia, 3) endocrine disruption, and 4) compounds with neuromuscular toxicity. For the prediction of ECs in the fish ELS test with alternative test systems, endpoints targeted to the modes of action of compounds with enhanced toxic ratios or ACRs could be used to trigger fish ELS tests or even replace these tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:955-969. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  6. Chronic early life stress induced by limited bedding and nesting (LBN) material in rodents: critical considerations of methodology, outcomes and translational potential.

    PubMed

    Walker, Claire-Dominique; Bath, Kevin G; Joels, Marian; Korosi, Aniko; Larauche, Muriel; Lucassen, Paul J; Morris, Margaret J; Raineki, Charlis; Roth, Tania L; Sullivan, Regina M; Taché, Yvette; Baram, Tallie Z

    2017-09-01

    The immediate and long-term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional, and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans. Here, we describe limited bedding and nesting (LBN) procedures, with models that produce altered maternal behavior ranging from fragmentation of care to maltreatment of infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss important issues related to the implementation of this chronic ELS procedure and to describe some of the most prominent endpoints and consequences, focusing on areas of convergence between laboratories. Effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, gut axis and metabolism are presented in addition to changes in cognitive and emotional functions. Interestingly, recent data have suggested a strong sex difference in some of the reported consequences of the LBN paradigm, with females being more resilient in general than males. As both the chronic and intermittent variants of the LBN procedure have profound consequences on the offspring with minimal external intervention from the investigator, this model is advantageous ecologically and has a large translational potential. In addition to the direct effect of ELS on neurodevelopmental outcomes, exposure to adverse early environments can also have intergenerational impacts on mental health and function in subsequent generation offspring. Thus, advancing our understanding of the effect of ELS on brain and behavioral development is of critical concern for the health and wellbeing of both the current

  7. Early Life Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle during Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Fiona B.; Dempsey, Eugene M.; O'Halloran, Ken D.

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life. PMID:26973537

  8. Early diagnosis and follow-up of chronic active Epstein-Barr-virus-associated cardiovascular complications with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu; Li, Xiao; Cao, Jian; Wu, Di; Kong, Lingyan; Lin, Lu; Jin, Zhengyu; An, Jing; Wang, Yining

    2016-08-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) is characterized as chronic or recurrent mononucleosis-like symptoms and elevated EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (EBV-DNA) copies. Cardiovascular complications have high morbidity and mortality. The treatment regimen for CAEBV has not been established yet, resulting in poor prognoses. Herein, we present a case of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) evaluation with a series of sequences for CAEBV-associated cardiovascular involvement, which has never been reported. A 16-year-old female (body weight, 55 kg) developed a persistent fever and a positive EBV-DNA level of 28,000 copies/mL. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed aneurysms involving the aorta and its major branches, as well as multiple aneurysms and stenoses of the coronary arteries. CMRI of the coronary arteries depicted the dilution and stenosis of the arterial lumen as well as the thickening of the arterial wall. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) showed subendocardial and transmural delayed enhancement of the left ventricle, suggesting myocardial infarction.CAEBV and associated cardiovascular complications were diagnosed. After treatment with Medrol and Leflunomide, the clinical manifestation and serological parameters reversed to normal. However, the EBV-DNA level increased again to 13,900 copies/mL 2 months later. A follow-up with aorta CTA showed that the arterial walls of the bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms were thicker with new-onset mural thrombi. The aorta CTA also showed new-onset occlusion of the right coronary artery, but a follow-up of CMRI at the same day did not find new-onset delayed enhancement lesion. This case reminds clinicians of the vital importance of early diagnosis and close follow-up of CAEBV-associated cardiovascular complications. With cine imaging, coronary artery imaging, LGE imaging, and other novel techniques, CMRI can effectively and comprehensively reveal the early and dynamic changes, and

  9. Does Early Resumption of Low-Dose Aspirin After Evacuation of Chronic Subdural Hematoma With Burr-Hole Drainage Lead to Higher Recurrence Rates?

    PubMed

    Kamenova, Maria; Lutz, Katharina; Schaedelin, Sabine; Fandino, Javier; Mariani, Luigi; Soleman, Jehuda

    2016-11-01

    Antiplatelet therapy in patients with chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) presents significant neurosurgical challenges. Given the lack of guidelines regarding perioperative management with antiplatelet therapy, it is difficult to balance the patient's increased cardiovascular risk and prevalence of cSDH. To better understand the risk and recurrence rates related to resuming low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) by evaluating our patients' resumption of low-dose ASA at various times after burr-hole drainage of the hematoma. In our retrospective study, 140 consecutive patients taking low-dose ASA undergoing surgical evacuation of cSDH were included. Data included baseline characteristics and rates of recurrence, morbidity, and mortality. A multivariate logistic regression model analyzed the association between ASA resumption time and recurrence rates. No statistically significant association was observed between early postoperative resumption of low-dose ASA and recurrence of cSDH (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.022; P = .06). Corresponding odds ratios and risk differences for restarting ASA treatment on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, or 42 were estimated at 1.53 and 5.9%, 1.42 and 5.1%, 1.33 and 4.1%, 1.23 and 3.2%, 1.15 and 2.2%, 1.07 and 1.1%, and 1.01 and 0.2%, respectively (P > .05). Cardiovascular event rates, surgical morbidity, and mortality did not significantly differ between patients with or without ASA therapy. Given the few published studies regarding ASA use in cranial neurosurgery, our findings elucidate one issue, showing comparable recurrence rates with early or late resumption of low-dose ASA after burr-hole evacuation of cSDH. ASA, acetylsalicylic acidCAD, coronary artery diseaseCI, confidence intervalcSDH, chronic subdural hematomaGCS, Glasgow Coma ScalemRS, modified Rankin ScaleOR, odds ratioRD, risk difference.

  10. The predictive value of early molecular response in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients treated with imatinib in a single real-world medical centre in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Bee, Ping Chong; Sekaran, Veera; Ng, Richard Rui Jie; Kweh, Ting Yi; Gan, Gin Gin

    2017-03-01

    The prognosis of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) has improved since the introduction of imatinib. However, patients who do not achieve complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and major molecular response (MMR) have poorer prognosis. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that early and deeper cytogenetic and molecular responses predict a better long-term outcome. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between early molecular response and clinical outcome in a real-life setting. This retrospective study included all patients with CML, in chronic or accelerated phase, who were treated with imatinib at University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia. A total of 70 patients were analysed. The median follow-up duration was 74 months, and the cumulative percentages of patients with CCyR and MMR were 80.0% and 65.7%, respectively. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at ten years were 94.3% and 92.9%, respectively. Patients who achieved CCyR and MMR had significantly better OS and EFS than those who did not. At six months, patients who had a BCR-ABL level ≤ 10% had significantly better OS and EFS than those who had a BCR-ABL level > 10%. The target milestone of CCyR at 12 months and MMR at 18 months showed no survival advantage in our patients. Our data showed that imatinib is still useful as first-line therapy. However, vigilant monitoring of patients who have a BCR-ABL level > 10% at six months of treatment should be implemented so that prompt action can be taken to provide the best outcome for these patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  11. Early fiberoptic bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to community-acquired-pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Inefficient clearance of copious respiratory secretion is a cause of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure, especially in chronic respiratory patients with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) and impaired consciousness. We postulated that in such a clinical scenario, when intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) are strongly recommended, the suction of secretions with fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBO) may increase the chance of NPPV success. The objective of this pilot study was, firstly, to verify the safety and effectiveness of early FBO during NPPV and, secondly, to compare the hospital outcomes of this strategy versus a CMV-based strategy in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to CAP who are not appropriate candidates for NPPV because of inefficient mucous clearance and hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). Methods This is a 12-month prospective matched case-control study performed in one respiratory semi-intensive care unit (RSICU) with expertise in NPPV and in one intensive care unit (ICU). Fifteen acutely decompensated COPD patients with copious secretion retention and HE due to CAP undergoing NPPV in RSICU, and 15 controls (matched for arterial blood gases, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score III, Kelly-Matthay scale, pneumonia extension and severity) receiving CMV in the ICU were studied. Results Two hours of NPPV significantly improved arterial blood gases, Kelly and cough efficiency scores without FBO-related complications. NPPV avoided intubation in 12/15 patients (80%). Improvement in arterial blood gases was similar in the two groups, except for a greater PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio with CMV. The rates of overall and septic complications, and of tracheostomy were lower in the NPPV group (20%, 20%, and 0%) versus the CMV group (80%, 60%, and 40%; P < 0.05). Hospital mortality, duration of hospitalisation and duration of ventilation were similar

  12. Early fiberoptic bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to community-acquired-pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Naldi, Mario; Maccari, Uberto

    2010-01-01

    Inefficient clearance of copious respiratory secretion is a cause of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure, especially in chronic respiratory patients with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) and impaired consciousness. We postulated that in such a clinical scenario, when intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) are strongly recommended, the suction of secretions with fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBO) may increase the chance of NPPV success. The objective of this pilot study was, firstly, to verify the safety and effectiveness of early FBO during NPPV and, secondly, to compare the hospital outcomes of this strategy versus a CMV-based strategy in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to CAP who are not appropriate candidates for NPPV because of inefficient mucous clearance and hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This is a 12-month prospective matched case-control study performed in one respiratory semi-intensive care unit (RSICU) with expertise in NPPV and in one intensive care unit (ICU). Fifteen acutely decompensated COPD patients with copious secretion retention and HE due to CAP undergoing NPPV in RSICU, and 15 controls (matched for arterial blood gases, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score III, Kelly-Matthay scale, pneumonia extension and severity) receiving CMV in the ICU were studied. Two hours of NPPV significantly improved arterial blood gases, Kelly and cough efficiency scores without FBO-related complications. NPPV avoided intubation in 12/15 patients (80%). Improvement in arterial blood gases was similar in the two groups, except for a greater PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio with CMV. The rates of overall and septic complications, and of tracheostomy were lower in the NPPV group (20%, 20%, and 0%) versus the CMV group (80%, 60%, and 40%; P < 0.05). Hospital mortality, duration of hospitalisation and duration of ventilation were similar in the two groups. In patients

  13. Oncogenic Smad3 signaling induced by chronic inflammation is an early event in ulcerative colitis-associated carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Seiji; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Murata, Miki; Seki, Toshihito; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Iwao, Yasushi; Hibi, Toshifumi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2011-03-01

    Both chronic inflammation and somatic mutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and cancer. On the other hand, both tumor suppression and oncogenesis can result from transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) and Ras-associated kinases differentially phosphorylate a mediator, Smad3, to become C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C), linker phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L), and both C-terminally and linker phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L/C). The pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) pathway transmits a cytostatic TGF-β signal, while pSmad3L and pSmad3L/C promote cell proliferation by upregulating c-Myc oncoprotein. The purpose of this study was to clarify the alteration of Smad3 signaling during UC-associated carcinogenesis. By immunostaining and immunofluorescence, we compared pSmad3C-, pSmad3L-, and pSmad3L/C-mediated signaling in colorectal specimens representing colitis, dysplasia, or cancer from eight UC patients with signaling in normal colonic crypts. We also investigated p53 expression and mutations of p53 and K-ras genes. We further sought functional meaning of the phosphorylated Smad3-mediated signaling in vitro. As enterocytes in normal crypts migrated upward toward the lumen, cytostatic pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) tended to increase, while pSmad3L/c-Myc shown by progenitor cells gradually decreased. Colitis specimens showed prominence of pSmad3L/C/c-Myc, mediated by TGF-β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in all enterocyte nuclei throughout entire crypts. In proportion with increases in frequency of p53 and K-ras mutations during progression from dysplasia to cancer, the oncogenic pSmad3L/c-Myc pathway came to be dominant with suppression of the pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) pathway. Oncogenic Smad3 signaling, altered by chronic inflammation and eventually somatic mutations, promotes UC-associated neoplastic progression by upregulating growth-related protein. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis

  14. Early detection of subclinical visual damage after blast-mediated TBI enables prevention of chronic visual deficit by treatment with P7C3-S243.

    PubMed

    Dutca, Laura M; Stasheff, Steven F; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Rudd, Danielle S; Batra, Nikhil; Blodi, Frederick R; Yorek, Matthew S; Yin, Terry; Shankar, Malini; Herlein, Judith A; Naidoo, Jacinth; Morlock, Lorraine; Williams, Noelle; Kardon, Randy H; Anderson, Michael G; Pieper, Andrew A; Harper, Matthew M

    2014-12-02

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently leads to chronic visual dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TBI on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and to test whether treatment with the novel neuroprotective compound P7C3-S243 could prevent in vivo functional deficits in the visual system. Blast-mediated TBI was modeled using an enclosed over-pressure blast chamber. The RGC physiology was evaluated using a multielectrode array and pattern electroretinogram (PERG). Histological analysis of RGC dendritic field and cell number were evaluated at the end of the study. Visual outcome measures also were evaluated based on treatment of mice with P7C3-S243 or vehicle control. We show that deficits in neutral position PERG after blast-mediated TBI occur in a temporally bimodal fashion, with temporary recovery 4 weeks after injury followed by chronically persistent dysfunction 12 weeks later. This later time point is associated with development of dendritic abnormalities and irreversible death of RGCs. We also demonstrate that ongoing pathologic processes during the temporary recovery latent period (including abnormalities of RGC physiology) lead to future dysfunction of the visual system. We report that modification of PERG to provocative postural tilt testing elicits changes in PERG measurements that correlate with a key in vitro measures of damage: the spontaneous and light-evoked activity of RGCs. Treatment with P7C3-S243 immediately after injury and throughout the temporary recovery latent period protects mice from developing chronic visual system dysfunction. Provocative PERG testing serves as a noninvasive test in the living organism to identify early damage to the visual system, which may reflect corresponding damage in the brain that is not otherwise detectable by noninvasive means. This provides the basis for developing an earlier diagnostic test to identify patients at risk for developing chronic CNS and visual system damage after TBI at

  15. Early Detection of Subclinical Visual Damage After Blast-Mediated TBI Enables Prevention of Chronic Visual Deficit by Treatment With P7C3-S243

    PubMed Central

    Dutca, Laura M.; Stasheff, Steven F.; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Rudd, Danielle S.; Batra, Nikhil; Blodi, Frederick R.; Yorek, Matthew S.; Yin, Terry; Shankar, Malini; Herlein, Judith A.; Naidoo, Jacinth; Morlock, Lorraine; Williams, Noelle; Kardon, Randy H.; Anderson, Michael G.; Pieper, Andrew A.; Harper, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently leads to chronic visual dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TBI on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and to test whether treatment with the novel neuroprotective compound P7C3-S243 could prevent in vivo functional deficits in the visual system. Methods. Blast-mediated TBI was modeled using an enclosed over-pressure blast chamber. The RGC physiology was evaluated using a multielectrode array and pattern electroretinogram (PERG). Histological analysis of RGC dendritic field and cell number were evaluated at the end of the study. Visual outcome measures also were evaluated based on treatment of mice with P7C3-S243 or vehicle control. Results. We show that deficits in neutral position PERG after blast-mediated TBI occur in a temporally bimodal fashion, with temporary recovery 4 weeks after injury followed by chronically persistent dysfunction 12 weeks later. This later time point is associated with development of dendritic abnormalities and irreversible death of RGCs. We also demonstrate that ongoing pathologic processes during the temporary recovery latent period (including abnormalities of RGC physiology) lead to future dysfunction of the visual system. We report that modification of PERG to provocative postural tilt testing elicits changes in PERG measurements that correlate with a key in vitro measures of damage: the spontaneous and light-evoked activity of RGCs. Treatment with P7C3-S243 immediately after injury and throughout the temporary recovery latent period protects mice from developing chronic visual system dysfunction. Conclusions. Provocative PERG testing serves as a noninvasive test in the living organism to identify early damage to the visual system, which may reflect corresponding damage in the brain that is not otherwise detectable by noninvasive means. This provides the basis for developing an earlier diagnostic test to identify patients at risk for developing chronic

  16. Sensitivity of early life stages of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) to acute and chronic toxicity of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Hardesty, D.K.; May, T.W.; Augspurger, T.; Roberts, A.D.; Van Genderen, E.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of lead, cadmium, or zinc to early life stages of freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea; Neosho mucket, L. rafinesqueana) was evaluated in 48-h exposures with mussel larvae (glochidia), in 96-h exposures with newly transformed (5-d-old) and two- or six-month-old juvenile mussels, or in 28-d exposures with two- or four-month-old mussels in reconstituted soft water. The 24-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) for fatmucket glochidia (>299??g Pb/L, >227??g Cd/L, 2,685??g Zn/L) and 96-h EC50s for two- or six-month-old fatmucket (>426??g Pb/L, 199??g Cd/L, 1,700??g Zn/L) were much higher than 96-h EC50s for newly transformed fatmucket (142 and 298??g Pb/L, 16??g Cd/L, 151 and 175??g Zn/L) and Neosho mucket (188??g Pb/L, 20??g Cd/L, 145??g Zn/L). Chronic values for fatmucket were 10??g Pb/L, 6.0??g Cd/L, and 63 and 68??g Zn/L. When mussel data from the present study and the literature were included in updated databases for deriving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria, mussel genus mean acute values were in the lower percentiles of the sensitivity distribution of all freshwater species for Pb (the 26th percentile), Cd (the 15th to 29th percentile), or Zn (the 12th to 21st percentile). The mussel (Lampsilis) genus mean chronic value was the lowest value ever reported for Pb (the 9th percentile) but was near the middle of the sensitivity distribution for Cd (the 61st percentile) or Zn (the 44th percentile). These results indicate that mussels were relatively sensitive to the acute toxicity of these three metals and to the chronic toxicity of Pb, but were moderately sensitive to the chronic toxicity of Cd or Zn compared to other freshwater species. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  17. Sensitivity of early life stages of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) to acute and chronic toxicity of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Ivey, Christopher D; Hardesty, Douglas K; May, Thomas W; Augspurger, Tom; Roberts, Andy D; van Genderen, Eric; Barnhart, M Chris

    2010-09-01

    Toxicity of lead, cadmium, or zinc to early life stages of freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea; Neosho mucket, L. rafinesqueana) was evaluated in 48-h exposures with mussel larvae (glochidia), in 96-h exposures with newly transformed (5-d-old) and two- or six-month-old juvenile mussels, or in 28-d exposures with two- or four-month-old mussels in reconstituted soft water. The 24-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) for fatmucket glochidia (>299 microg Pb/L, >227 microg Cd/L, 2,685 microg Zn/L) and 96-h EC50s for two- or six-month-old fatmucket (>426 microg Pb/L, 199 microg Cd/L, 1,700 microg Zn/L) were much higher than 96-h EC50s for newly transformed fatmucket (142 and 298 microg Pb/L, 16 microg Cd/L, 151 and 175 microg Zn/L) and Neosho mucket (188 microg Pb/L, 20 microg Cd/L, 145 microg Zn/L). Chronic values for fatmucket were 10 microg Pb/L, 6.0 microg Cd/L, and 63 and 68 microg Zn/L. When mussel data from the present study and the literature were included in updated databases for deriving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria, mussel genus mean acute values were in the lower percentiles of the sensitivity distribution of all freshwater species for Pb (the 26th percentile), Cd (the 15th to 29th percentile), or Zn (the 12th to 21st percentile). The mussel (Lampsilis) genus mean chronic value was the lowest value ever reported for Pb (the 9th percentile) but was near the middle of the sensitivity distribution for Cd (the 61st percentile) or Zn (the 44th percentile). These results indicate that mussels were relatively sensitive to the acute toxicity of these three metals and to the chronic toxicity of Pb, but were moderately sensitive to the chronic toxicity of Cd or Zn compared to other freshwater species. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  18. Early gene expression profiles of patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon-alfa and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Zobair M; Baranova, Ancha; Afendy, Arian; Collantes, Rochelle; Stepanova, Maria; Manyam, Ganiraju; Bakshi, Anita; Sigua, Christopher L; Chan, Joanne P; Iverson, Ayuko A; Santini, Christopher D; Chang, Sheng-Yung P

    2009-03-01

    Responsiveness to hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy depends on viral and host factors. Our aim was to assess sustained virologic response (SVR)-associated early gene expression in patients with HCV receiving pegylated interferon-alpha2a (PEG-IFN-alpha2a) or PEG-IFN-alpha2b and ribavirin with the duration based on genotypes. Blood samples were collected into PAXgene tubes prior to treatment as well as 1, 7, 28, and 56 days after treatment. From the peripheral blood cells, total RNA was extracted, quantified, and used for one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to profile 154 messenger RNAs. Expression levels of messenger RNAs were normalized with six "housekeeping" genes and a reference RNA. Multiple regression and stepwise selection were performed to assess differences in gene expression at different time points, and predictive performance was evaluated for each model. A total of 68 patients were enrolled in the study and treated with combination therapy. The results of gene expression showed that SVR could be predicted by the gene expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT-6) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 in the pretreatment samples. After 24 hours, SVR was predicted by the expression of interferon-dependent genes, and this dependence continued to be prominent throughout the treatment. Early gene expression during anti-HCV therapy may elucidate important molecular pathways that may be influencing the probability of achieving virologic response.

  19. [Treatment of early-onset generalized dystonia by chronic bilateral stimulation of the internal globus pallidus. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Coubes, P; Echenne, B; Roubertie, A; Vayssière, N; Tuffery, S; Humbertclaude, V; Cambonie, G; Claustres, M; Frerebeau, P

    1999-05-01

    Dystonia musculorum deformans is an inherited severe disease, with a wide clinical polymorphism. The most severe clinical forms with early onset carry a high risk of life-threatening complications. In the absence of any efficient medical treatment, bilateral pallidotomy has previously been reported to be of value in the management of this disease. We report the first clinical case of a severe early-onset generalized dystonia dramatically improved by a bilateral stimulation of the internal globus pallidus. In November 1996, we proposed this neurosurgical procedure for a 8-year-old girl, who had suffered since the age of 3 from severe generalized dystonia, and who progressively became totally dependent and bedridden. She had been under sedation and permanent controlled respiratory assistance for the last two months. The etiology of the disease remained unknown (the DYT1 mutation was absent). Under general anesthesia, we bilaterally implanted a four-contacts electrode in the internal globus pallidus, using the Leksell's stereotactic frame and a 1.5 tesla MRI control. A dramatic improvement was noted 6 weeks later and led us to connect the two electrodes to neurostimulators inserted under the abdominal skin.

  20. Oral Effects and Early Implant Survival Results After Imatinib Discontinuation Therapy for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Douglas R; Yassin, Alaa

    2017-08-01

    Little is known regarding the success, failure, or complication rates of advanced implant procedures in patients after discontinuation therapy of long-term medications for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). This case report presents initial results of a case involving implant placement in the mandible and maxilla as well as reduction of palatal oral pigmentation in a patient discontinuing long-term tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for CML. A 57-year-old male was referred to the Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, for an assessment of edentulous areas (tooth sites #3 and #14) and failing tooth #19. Previous medical treatment included oral administration (>10 years) of TKI for the treatment of CML. Systemic complications arising from long-term TKI therapy were treated with discontinuation of this medication. Concurrently, after multispecialty dental and medical consultation, extraction of tooth #19 with immediate implant placement and bilateral sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement were successfully performed during three separate surgical appointments. Additionally, marked reduction of oral palatal pigmentation was observed during the surgical and restorative phases after TKI discontinuation. Patients with a history of long-term TKIs for CML are at risk for developing complications that result in discontinuation of therapy. Long-term benefits of therapy may allow these patients to enjoy remission with an extended and improved quality of life. Patients undergoing discontinuation therapy may seek dental care. Therefore, dental providers need to understand these systemic interactions and, with multispecialty consultation, may help effectively treat these individuals.

  1. Preoperative partitioning of pulmonary vascular resistance correlates with early outcome after thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nick H S; Fesler, Pierre; Channick, Richard N; Knowlton, Kirk U; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Lee, Stephen H; Naeije, Robert; Rubin, Lewis J

    2004-01-06

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is the preferred treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), but persistent pulmonary hypertension after PTE, as a result of either inaccessible distal thrombotic material or coexistent intrinsic small-vessel disease, remains a major determinant of poor outcome. Conventional preoperative evaluation is unreliable in identifying patients at risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension or predicting postoperative hemodynamic outcome. We postulated that pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure waveform analysis, a technique that has been used for partitioning pulmonary vascular resistance, might identify CTEPH patients with significant distal, small-vessel disease. Twenty-six patients underwent preoperative right heart catheterization before PTE. Pulmonary artery occlusion waveform recordings were performed in triplicate. Postoperative hemodynamics after PTE were compared with preoperative partitioning of pulmonary vascular resistance derived from the occlusion data. Preoperative assessment of upstream resistance (Rup) correlated with both postoperative total pulmonary resistance index (R2=0.79, P<0.001) and postoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure (R2=0.75, P<0.001). All 4 postoperative deaths occurred in patients with a preoperative Rup <60%. Pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure waveform analysis may identify CTEPH patients at risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension and poor outcome after PTE. Patients with CTEPH and Rup value <60% appear to be at highest risk.

  2. Betaxolol, a selective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, diminishes anxiety-like behavior during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudoy, C.A.; Van Bockstaele, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Anxiety has been indicated as one of the main symptoms of the cocaine withdrawal syndrome in human addicts and severe anxiety during withdrawal may potentially contribute to relapse. As alterations in noradrenergic transmission in limbic areas underlie withdrawal symptomatology for many drugs of abuse, the present study sought to determine the effect of cocaine withdrawal on β-adrenergic receptor (β1 and β2) expression in the amygdala. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg) once daily for 14 days. Two days following the last cocaine injection, amygdala brain regions were micro-dissected and processed for Western blot analysis. Results showed that β1–adrenergic receptor, but not β2–adrenergic receptor expression was significantly increased in amygdala extracts of cocaine-withdrawn animals as compared to controls. This finding motivated further studies aimed at determining whether treatment with betaxolol, a highly selective β1–adrenergic receptor antagonist, could ameliorate cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety. In these studies, betaxolol (5 mg/kg via i.p. injection) was administered at 24 and then 44 hours following the final chronic cocaine administration. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated using the elevated plus maze test approximately 2 hours following the last betaxolol injection. Following behavioral testing, betaxolol effects on β1-adrenergic receptor protein expression were examined by Western blotting in amygdala extracts from rats undergoing cocaine withdrawal. Results Animals treated with betaxolol during cocaine withdrawal exhibited a significant attenuation of anxiety-like behavior characterized by increased time spent in the open arms and increased entries into the open arms compared to animals treated with only saline during cocaine withdrawal. In contrast, betaxolol did not produce anxiolytic-like effects in control animals treated chronically with saline

  3. Betaxolol, a selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, diminishes anxiety-like behavior during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Rudoy, C A; Van Bockstaele, E J

    2007-06-30

    Anxiety has been indicated as one of the main symptoms of the cocaine withdrawal syndrome in human addicts and severe anxiety during withdrawal may potentially contribute to relapse. As alterations in noradrenergic transmission in limbic areas underlie withdrawal symptomatology for many drugs of abuse, the present study sought to determine the effect of cocaine withdrawal on beta-adrenergic receptor (beta(1) and beta(2)) expression in the amygdala. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg) once daily for 14 days. Two days following the last cocaine injection, amygdala brain regions were micro-dissected and processed for Western blot analysis. Results showed that beta(1)-adrenergic receptor, but not beta(2)-adrenergic receptor expression was significantly increased in amygdala extracts of cocaine-withdrawn animals as compared to controls. This finding motivated further studies aimed at determining whether treatment with betaxolol, a highly selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, could ameliorate cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety. In these studies, betaxolol (5 mg/kg via i.p. injection) was administered at 24 and then 44 h following the final chronic cocaine administration. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated using the elevated plus maze test approximately 2 h following the last betaxolol injection. Following behavioral testing, betaxolol effects on beta(1)-adrenergic receptor protein expression were examined by Western blotting in amygdala extracts from rats undergoing cocaine withdrawal. Animals treated with betaxolol during cocaine withdrawal exhibited a significant attenuation of anxiety-like behavior characterized by increased time spent in the open arms and increased entries into the open arms compared to animals treated with only saline during cocaine withdrawal. In contrast, betaxolol did not produce anxiolytic-like effects in control animals treated chronically with saline. Furthermore

  4. Noninvasive Ventilation With vs Without Early Surfactant to Prevent Chronic Lung Disease in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Isayama, Tetsuya; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; McDonald, Sarah D

    2015-08-01

    Controversy exists regarding which of the 2 major strategies currently used to prevent chronic lung disease (CLD) in preterm infants is optimal: noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) or intubate-surfactant-extubate (INSURE). Preterm infants often require surfactant administration because of respiratory distress syndrome. To evaluate whether early INSURE or NCPAP alone is more effective in preventing CLD, death, or both. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases from their inception to January 2, 2015, along with conference proceedings and trial registrations. Randomized clinical trials that compared early INSURE with NCPAP alone in preterm infants who had never been intubated before the study entry were selected. Among 1761 initially identified articles, 9 trials (1551 infants) were included. Duplicate study selection and data extraction were performed. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models with quality-of-evidence assessment according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Seven main outcomes were selected a priori to be assessed according to GRADE, including a composite outcome of CLD and/or death, CLD alone, death alone, air leakage, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, neurodevelopmental impairment, and a composite outcome of death and/or neurodevelopmental impairment. There were no statistically significant differences between early INSURE and NCPAP alone for all outcomes assessed. However, the relative risk (RR) estimates appeared to favor early INSURE over NCPAP alone, with a 12% RR reduction in CLD and/or death (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.76-1.02; risk difference [RD], -0.04; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.01; moderate quality of evidence), a 14% decrease in CLD (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.71-1.03; RD, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.01; moderate quality of evidence), and a 50% decrease in air leakage (RR

  5. Multicenter study of the COPD-6 screening device: feasible for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care?

    PubMed

    Kjeldgaard, Peter; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Spillemose, Heidi; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of COPD may reduce the future burden of the disease. We aimed to investigate whether prescreening with a COPD-6 screening device (measuring FEV 1 and FEV 6 ) facilitates early detection of COPD in primary care. In primary care, individuals at high risk of COPD (ie, age ≥35 years, relevant exposure, and at least one respiratory symptom) and no previous diagnosis of obstructive lung disease were examined with a COPD-6 screening device. In prioritized order, the criteria for proceeding to confirmatory spirometry were FEV 1 /FEV 6 <0.7, FEV 1 <80%pred, or clinical suspicion of COPD regardless of test result (medical doctor's [MD] decision). Based on spirometry, including bronchodilator (BD) reversibility test, individuals were classified as COPD (post-BD FEV 1 /FVC <0.70), asthma (ΔFEV 1 ≥0.50 L), or no obstructive lung disease. A total of 2,990 subjects (54% men, mean age 59 years, and mean 28 pack-years) were enrolled, of whom 949 (32%) proceeded from COPD-6 screening to confirmative spirometry based on the following criteria: 510 (54%) FEV 1 /FEV 6 <0.70, 382 (40%) FEV 1 <80%pred, and 57 (6%) MD decision. Following confirmative spirometry, the 949 individuals were diagnosed as having COPD (51%), asthma (3%), and no obstructive lung disease (45%). COPD was diagnosed in 487 (16%) of the enrolled subjects in whom confirmative spirometry was performed in 69% based on FEV 1 /FEV 6 <0.7 and in 29% based on FEV 1 ≤80%pred. Prescreening with the COPD-6 device showed acceptable specificity for the selection of subjects for diagnostic spirometry and is likely to be a useful alternative to current practice in primary care.

  6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as a disease of early aging: Evidence from the EpiChron Cohort.

    PubMed

    Divo, Miguel J; Celli, Bartolome R; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; de-Torres, Juan Pablo; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis A; Bertó, Juan; Zulueta, Javier J; Casanova, Ciro; Pinto-Plata, Victor M; Cabrera-Lopez, Carlos; Polverino, Francesca; Carmona Píréz, Jonás; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Marin, Jose M

    2018-01-01

    Aging is an important risk factor for most chronic diseases. Patients with COPD develop more comorbidities than non-COPD subjects. We hypothesized that the development of comorbidities characteristically affecting the elderly occur at an earlier age in subjects with the diagnosis of COPD. We included all subjects carrying the diagnosis of COPD (n = 27,617), and a similar number of age and sex matched individuals without the diagnosis, extracted from the 727,241 records of individuals 40 years and older included in the EpiChron Cohort (Aragon, Spain). We compared the cumulative number of comorbidities, their prevalence and the mortality risk between both groups. Using network analysis, we explored the connectivity between comorbidities and the most influential comorbidities in both groups. We divided the groups into 5 incremental age categories and compared their comorbidity networks. We then selected those comorbidities known to affect primarily the elderly and compared their prevalence across the 5 age groups. In addition, we replicated the analysis in the smokers' subgroup to correct for the confounding effect of cigarette smoking. Subjects with COPD had more comorbidities and died at a younger age compared to controls. Comparison of both cohorts across 5 incremental age groups showed that the number of comorbidities, the prevalence of diseases characteristic of aging and network's density for the COPD group aged 56-65 were similar to those of non-COPD 15 to 20 years older. The findings persisted after adjusting for smoking. Multimorbidity increases with age but in patients carrying the diagnosis of COPD, these comorbidities are seen at an earlier age.

  7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as a disease of early aging: Evidence from the EpiChron Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Bartolome R.; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; de-Torres, Juan Pablo; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis A.; Bertó, Juan; Casanova, Ciro; Pinto-Plata, Victor M.; Cabrera-Lopez, Carlos; Polverino, Francesca; Marin, Jose M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Aging is an important risk factor for most chronic diseases. Patients with COPD develop more comorbidities than non-COPD subjects. We hypothesized that the development of comorbidities characteristically affecting the elderly occur at an earlier age in subjects with the diagnosis of COPD. Methods and findings We included all subjects carrying the diagnosis of COPD (n = 27,617), and a similar number of age and sex matched individuals without the diagnosis, extracted from the 727,241 records of individuals 40 years and older included in the EpiChron Cohort (Aragon, Spain). We compared the cumulative number of comorbidities, their prevalence and the mortality risk between both groups. Using network analysis, we explored the connectivity between comorbidities and the most influential comorbidities in both groups. We divided the groups into 5 incremental age categories and compared their comorbidity networks. We then selected those comorbidities known to affect primarily the elderly and compared their prevalence across the 5 age groups. In addition, we replicated the analysis in the smokers’ subgroup to correct for the confounding effect of cigarette smoking. Subjects with COPD had more comorbidities and died at a younger age compared to controls. Comparison of both cohorts across 5 incremental age groups showed that the number of comorbidities, the prevalence of diseases characteristic of aging and network’s density for the COPD group aged 56–65 were similar to those of non-COPD 15 to 20 years older. The findings persisted after adjusting for smoking. Conclusion Multimorbidity increases with age but in patients carrying the diagnosis of COPD, these comorbidities are seen at an earlier age. PMID:29470502

  8. Corsair microcatheter for retrograde coronary chronic total occlusion recanalization: Early experience outside the realm of dedicated recanalization specialists

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, George; Thomson, Viji Samuel; Radhakrishnan, Shanmugasundaram

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which use of the Corsair microcatheter (CM, Asahi Intecc Co., Japan) improves procedural outcomes when an experienced operator who is not a dedicated recanalization specialist attempts retrograde chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization through collateral channels during percutaneous coronary intervention. Background The recently introduced CM has improved success rates of retrograde CTO recanalization to nearly 100% in the hands of dedicated coronary recanalization specialists; however, the impact the CM has on the results of non-specialist operators attempting retrograde CTO recanalization is not known. Methods A non-specialist operator attempted CM-assisted recanalization in seven consecutive CTO cases requiring retrograde recanalization. The results obtained were compared with those achieved by the same operator in eleven consecutive retrograde CTO recanalization procedures during the last 2 years before the CM became available. Results CM-assisted retrograde CTO recanalization was successful in 6 of 7 cases (86%), but failed in one case attempted through a tortuous epicardial collateral; there were no complications. In contrast, during the 2 years before the CM became available, retrograde CTO recanalization was successful in only 3 of 11 attempted cases (27%), and was associated with significant morbidity. Lesions in the two groups were comparable in terms of technical difficulty and procedural risk. Conclusions The non-specialist operator's retrograde CTO recanalization results improve significantly when using the CM. Given the effectiveness and safety of CM-assisted retrograde CTO recanalization, operators should be less aggressive with anterograde recanalization attempts, and should switch to the retrograde approach earlier and more often. PMID:22929822

  9. Corsair microcatheter for retrograde coronary chronic total occlusion recanalization: early experience outside the realm of dedicated recanalization specialists.

    PubMed

    Joseph, George; Thomson, Viji Samuel; Radhakrishnan, Shanmugasundaram

    2012-01-01

    To determine the extent to which use of the Corsair microcatheter (CM, Asahi Intecc Co., Japan) improves procedural outcomes when an experienced operator who is not a dedicated recanalization specialist attempts retrograde chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization through collateral channels during percutaneous coronary intervention. The recently introduced CM has improved success rates of retrograde CTO recanalization to nearly 100% in the hands of dedicated coronary recanalization specialists; however, the impact the CM has on the results of non-specialist operators attempting retrograde CTO recanalization is not known. A non-specialist operator attempted CM-assisted recanalization in seven consecutive CTO cases requiring retrograde recanalization. The results obtained were compared with those achieved by the same operator in eleven consecutive retrograde CTO recanalization procedures during the last 2 years before the CM became available. CM-assisted retrograde CTO recanalization was successful in 6 of 7 cases (86%), but failed in one case attempted through a tortuous epicardial collateral; there were no complications. In contrast, during the 2 years before the CM became available, retrograde CTO recanalization was successful in only 3 of 11 attempted cases (27%), and was associated with significant morbidity. Lesions in the two groups were comparable in terms of technical difficulty and procedural risk. The non-specialist operator's retrograde CTO recanalization results improve significantly when using the CM. Given the effectiveness and safety of CM-assisted retrograde CTO recanalization, operators should be less aggressive with anterograde recanalization attempts, and should switch to the retrograde approach earlier and more often. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-weaning Environmental Enrichment, But Not Chronic Maternal Isolation, Enhanced Ethanol Intake during Periadolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Berardo, Luciana R.; Fabio, María C.; Pautassi, Ricardo M.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats exposed to maternal separation (MS) during infancy (postnatal days 1–21, PD1–21) and environmental enrichment (EE) during adolescence (PD 21–42). Previous work revealed that MS enhances ethanol consumption during adulthood. It is still unknown if a similar effect is found during adolescence. Several studies, in turn, have revealed that EE reverses stress experiences, and reduces ethanol consumption and reinforcement; although others reported greater ethanol intake after EE. The interactive effects between these treatments upon ethanol’s effects and intake have yet to be explored. We assessed chronic ethanol intake and preference (12 two-bottle daily sessions, spread across 30 days, 1st session on PD46) in rats exposed to MS and EE. The main finding was that male – but not female – rats that had been exposed to EE consumed more ethanol than controls given standard housing, an effect that was not affected by MS. Subsequent experiments assessed several factors associated with heightened ethanol consumption in males exposed to MS and EE; namely taste aversive conditioning and hypnotic-sedative consequences of ethanol. We also measured anxiety response in the light-dark box and in the elevated plus maze tests; and exploratory patterns of novel stimuli and behaviors indicative of risk assessment and risk-taking, via a modified version of the concentric square field (CSF) test. Aversive conditioning, hypnosis and sleep time were similar in males exposed or not to EE. EE males, however, exhibited heightened exploration of novel stimuli and greater risk taking behaviors in the CSF test. It is likely that the promoting effect of EE upon ethanol intake was due to these effects upon exploratory and risk-taking behaviors. PMID:27790100

  11. Rule-Mining for the Early Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Based on Metabolomics and Multi-Source Data

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Margaux; Bertho, Gildas; Bateson, Mathilde; Karras, Alexandre; Yartseva, Anastasia; Thervet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiling is very promising for the diagnostic of the stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because of the high dimension of NMR spectra datasets and the complex mixture of metabolites in biological samples, the identification of discriminant biomarkers of a disease is challenging. None of the widely used chemometric methods in NMR metabolomics performs a local exhaustive exploration of the data. We developed a descriptive and easily understandable approach that searches for discriminant local phenomena using an original exhaustive rule-mining algorithm in order to predict two groups of patients: 1) patients having low to mild CKD stages with no renal failure and 2) patients having moderate to established CKD stages with renal failure. Our predictive algorithm explores the m-dimensional variable space to capture the local overdensities of the two groups of patients under the form of easily interpretable rules. Afterwards, a L2-penalized logistic regression on the discriminant rules was used to build predictive models of the CKD stages. We explored a complex multi-source dataset that included the clinical, demographic, clinical chemistry, renal pathology and urine metabolomic data of a cohort of 110 patients. Given this multi-source dataset and the complex nature of metabolomic data, we analyzed 1- and 2-dimensional rules in order to integrate the information carried by the interactions between the variables. The results indicated that our local algorithm is a valuable analytical method for the precise characterization of multivariate CKD stage profiles and as efficient as the classical global model using chi2 variable section with an approximately 70% of good classification level. The resulting predictive models predominantly identify urinary metabolites (such as 3-hydroxyisovalerate, carnitine, citrate, dimethylsulfone, creatinine and N-methylnicotinamide) as relevant variables indicating that CKD significantly

  12. Mechanisms for renal blood flow control early in diabetes as revealed by chronic flow measurement and transfer function analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Tracy D; DiBona, Gerald F; Wang, Ying; Brands, Michael W

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the roles of the myogenic response and the TGF mechanism in renal blood flow (RBF) control at the very earliest stages of diabetes. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and RBF were measured continuously, 18 h/d, in uninephrectomized control and diabetic rats, and transfer function analysis was used to determine the dynamic autoregulatory efficiency of the renal vasculature. During the control period, MAP averaged 91 +/- 0.5 and 89 +/- 0.4 mmHg, and RBF averaged 8.0 +/- 0.1 and 7.8 +/- 0.1 ml/min in the control and diabetic groups, respectively. Induction of diabetes with streptozotocin caused a marked and progressive increase in RBF in the diabetic rats, averaging 10 +/- 6% above control on day 1 of diabetes and 22 +/- 3 and 34 +/- 1% above control by the end of diabetes weeks 1 and 2. MAP increased approximately 9 mmHg during the 2 wk in the diabetic rats, and renal vascular resistance decreased. Transfer function analysis revealed significant increases in gain to positive values over the frequency ranges of both the TGF and myogenic mechanisms, beginning on day 1 of diabetes and continuing through day 14. These very rapid increases in RBF and transfer function gain suggest that autoregulation is impaired at the very onset of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and may play an important role in the increase in RBF and GFR in diabetes. Together with previous reports of decreases in chronically measured cardiac output and hindquarter blood flow, this suggests that there may be differential effects of diabetes on RBF versus nonrenal BF control.

  13. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  14. International consensus statements on early chronic Pancreatitis. Recommendations from the working group for the international consensus guidelines for chronic pancreatitis in collaboration with The International Association of Pancreatology, American Pancreatic Association, Japan Pancreas Society, PancreasFest Working Group and European Pancreatic Club.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Chari, Suresh T; Forsmark, Christopher E; Frulloni, Luca; Garg, Pramod; Hegyi, Peter; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Isaji, Shuiji; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Philippe; Masamune, Atsushi; Wilcox, Charles M; Windsor, John; Yadav, Dhiraj; Sheel, Andrea; Neoptolemos, John P

    2018-05-21

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammatory disorder currently diagnosed by morphologic features. In contrast, an accurate diagnosis of Early CP is not possible using imaging criteria alone. If this were possible and early treatment instituted, the later, irreversible features and complications of CP could possibly be prevented. An international working group supported by four major pancreas societies (IAP, APA, JPS, and EPC) and a PancreasFest working group sought to develop a consensus definition and diagnostic criteria for Early CP. Ten statements (S1-10) concerning Early CP were used to gauge consensus on the Early CP concept using anonymous voting with a 9 point Likert scale. Consensus required an alpha ≥0.80. No consensus statement could be developed for a definition of Early-CP or diagnostic criteria. There was consensus on 5 statements: (S2) The word "Early" in early chronic pancreatitis is used to describe disease state, not disease duration. (S4) Early CP defines a stage of CP with preserved pancreatic function and potentially reversible features. (S8) Genetic variants are important risk factors for Early CP and can add specificity to the likely etiology, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to make a diagnosis. (S9) Environmental risk factors can provide evidence to support the diagnosis of Early CP, but are neither necessary nor sufficient to make a diagnosis. (S10) The differential diagnosis for Early CP includes other disorders with morphological and functional features that overlap with CP. Morphology based diagnosis of Early CP is not possible without additional information. New approaches to the accurate diagnosis of Early CP will require a mechanistic definition that considers risk factors, biomarkers, clinical context and new models of disease. Such a definition will require prospective validation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hyperhomocysteinaemia as a potential marker of early renal function decline in middle-aged Asian people without chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tak, Young Jin; Jeong, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Song, Sang Heon; Cha, Kwang Soo; Kang, Yang Ho

    2016-02-01

    High levels of serum total homocysteine (tHcy), often observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the relationship between tHcy and renal function in healthy individuals. We examined whether tHcy levels are related to renal function in Asian individuals without CKD. This cross-sectional study examined 2032 subjects, aged 40-64 years. Individuals with kidney diseases or other conditions that could affect tHcy were excluded. Renal function was determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from levels of serum creatinine (sCr) and cystatin C. Age, tHcy, sCr, and cystatin C of the subjects were 54.1 ± 6.0 years, 9.5 (8.0-11.4) μmol/L, 0.81 ± 0.1 mg/dL, and 0.82 ± 0.1 mg/L, respectively. In a multiple linear regression analysis, tHcy was a significant independent determinant of sCr and cystatin C in men (β = 0.206 and β = 0.282, respectively) and women (β = 0.247 and β = 0.229, respectively). Highest tHcy levels were independently associated with increased cystatin C (>s1.10 mg/L) with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.81-8.09] and decreased eGFR (<90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) with an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 1.36-2.11) compared to tHcy levels in the 1st-3rd quartiles. Higher levels of tHcy are independently associated with sCr and cystatin C elevation. Our study suggests that tHcy levels may be influenced by renal function in Asian populations without CKD. Future studies are needed to define the role of tHcy in renal function.

  16. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis, gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer by magnifying endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Soma, Nei

    2016-10-01

    Evaluating the prevalence and severity of gastritis by endoscopy is useful for estimating the risk of gastric cancer (GC). Moreover, understanding the endoscopic appearances of gastritis is important for diagnosing GC due to the fact that superficial mucosal lesions mimicing gastritis (gastritis-like lesions) are quite difficult to be detected even with optimum preparation and the best technique, and in such cases tissue biopsy is often not very accurate for the diagnosis of gastric epithelial neoplasia. Magnifying endoscopy is a highly accurate technique for the detection of early gastric cancer (EGC). Recent reports have described that various novel endoscopic markers which, visualized by magnifying endoscopy with image-enhanced system (ME-IEE), can predict specific histopathological findings. Using ME-IEE with vessels and surface classification system (VSCS) may represent an excellent diagnostic performance with high confidence and good reproducibility to the endoscopists if performed under consistent conditions, including observation under maximal magnification. The aim of this review was to discuss how to identify high-risk groups for GC by endoscopy, and how to detect effectively signs of suspicious lesions by conventional white light imaging (C-WLI) or chromoendoscopy (CE). Furthermore, to characterize suspicious lesions using ME-IEE using the criteria and classification of EGC based upon VSCS. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Outcomes of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients With Early Molecular Response at 3 and 6 Months: A Comparative Analysis of Generic Imatinib and Glivec.

    PubMed

    Eskazan, Ahmet Emre; Sadri, Sevil; Keskin, Dilek; Ayer, Mesut; Kantarcioglu, Bulent; Demirel, Naciye; Aydin, Demet; Aydinli, Fuat; Yokus, Osman; Ozunal, Isil Erdogan; Berk, Selin; Yalniz, Fevzi Firat; Elverdi, Tugrul; Salihoglu, Ayse; Ar, Muhlis Cem; Ongoren, Seniz; Baslar, Zafer; Aydin, Yildiz; Tuzuner, Nukhet; Ozbek, Ugur; Soysal, Teoman

    2017-12-01

    The molecular response at 3 months of the original imatinib (OI) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia has prognostic significance; however, this has never been tested for generic imatinib (GI). We evaluated the BCR-ABL1 [international reporting scale (IS)] transcript levels at 3 and 6 months to determine whether an early molecular response (EMR) had a prognostic effect on the outcome among chronic myeloid leukemia patients receiving GI. Ninety patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the imatinib they received, as OI (group A) and GI (group B). Two groups were equally balanced for age, gender, Sokal risk score, and optimal response. The 2 groups did not differ in achieving an EMR at 3 months, and patients with EMR at 3 months had significantly superior complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response rates compared with patients who did not achieve an EMR in both groups. The percentage of an optimal response [BCR-ABL1 (IS), < 1%] and a warning response [BCR-ABL1 (IS), 1%-10%] at 6 months was 93% and 95% for groups A and B, respectively (P = .553). Patients with an optimal response (OR) at both 3 and 6 months had significantly superior event-free survival rates compared with patients without an OR in groups A and B. The results of the present study have demonstrated most probably for the first time that an OR at 3 and 6 months in patients receiving either first-line GI and OI is clearly associated with greater response and event-free survival rates. Prospective randomized trials with larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up periods are needed to address the effect of EMR in patients receiving GI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial of early intervention for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by practice nurse-general practitioner teams: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability, hospitalization, and premature mortality. General practice is well placed to diagnose and manage COPD, but there is a significant gap between evidence and current practice, with a low level of awareness and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Under-diagnosis of COPD is a world-wide problem, limiting the benefit that could potentially be achieved through early intervention strategies such as smoking cessation, dietary advice, and exercise. General practice is moving towards more structured chronic disease management, and the increasing involvement of practice nurses in delivering chronic care. Design A pragmatic cluster randomised trial will test the hypothesis that intervention by a practice nurse-general practitioner (GP) team leads to improved health-related quality of life and greater adherence with clinical practice guidelines for patients with newly-diagnosed COPD, compared with usual care. Forty general practices in greater metropolitan Sydney Australia will be recruited to identify patients at risk of COPD and invite them to attend a case finding appointment. Practices will be randomised to deliver either practice nurse-GP partnership care, or usual care, to patients newly-diagnosed with COPD. The active intervention will involve the practice nurse and GP working in partnership with the patient in developing and implementing a care plan involving (as appropriate), smoking cessation, immunisation, pulmonary rehabilitation, medication review, assessment and correction of inhaler technique, nutritional advice, management of psycho-social issues, patient education, and management of co-morbidities. The primary outcome measure is health-related quality of life, assessed with the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire 12 months after diagnosis. Secondary outcome measures include validated disease-specific and general health related quality of life measures

  19. Effects of water hardness on the physiological responses to chronic waterborne silver exposure in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Morgan, T P; Guadagnolo, C M; Grosell, M; Wood, C M

    2005-09-30

    Early life stages of rainbow trout were exposed to 0, 0.1 and 1 microg/L Ag (as AgNO(3)) in very soft water (2mg/L CaCO(3)), moderately hard water (150 mg/L CaCO(3)) and hard water (400mg/L CaCO(3)) of low dissolved organic carbon concentration (0.5mg C/L) from fertilization to swim-up (64 days) under flow-through conditions, and monitored for whole embryo/larval silver accumulation, Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, Na(+) uptake and Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity. The objective of the study was to investigate potential protective effects of water hardness on the physiological responses to chronic silver exposure. In the absence of silver, there was little effect of hardness on the ionoregulatory parameters studied, though higher hardness did improve survival post-hatch. At all three water hardness levels, whole embryo/larval Na(+) uptake was low and relatively constant prior to 50% hatch, but dramatically increased following 50% hatch, whereas Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity steadily increased over development. Whole embryo/larval Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were low and constant prior to 50% hatch, but following 50% hatch Na(+) concentration increased, while Cl(-) concentration decreased. Following 50% hatch, exposure to 0.1 and 1 microg/L Ag resulted in a decrease in whole embryo/larval Na(+) concentration, Cl(-) concentration, Na(+) uptake and Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, indicating that the mechanism of chronic silver toxicity involves an ionoregulatory disturbance, and is similar to the mechanism of acute silver toxicity. An increase in water hardness reduced or eliminated the effect of silver on these parameters while enhancing survival, suggesting that the nature of the protective effect of hardness involves effects on the ionoregulatory disturbance associated with silver exposure. An increase in water hardness did not fully protect against the accumulation of silver associated with silver exposure. These results suggest that it may be possible to model chronic silver

  20. Exogenous Stimulation of Type I Interferon Protects Mice with Chronic Granulomatous Disease from Aspergillosis through Early Recruitment of Host-Protective Neutrophils into the Lung.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Davis, Michael J; Sugui, Janyce A; Pinkhasov, Tzvia; Moyer, Shannon; Salazar, Andres M; Chang, Yun C; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

    2018-03-27

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients, often due to infection by Aspergillus species refractory to antifungals. This motivates the search for alternative treatments, including immunotherapy. We investigated the effect of exogenous type I interferon (IFN) activation on the outcome of IA caused by three Aspergillus species, A. fumigatus , A. nidulans , and A. tanneri , in CGD mice. The animals were treated with poly(I):poly(C) carboxymethyl cellulose poly-l-lysine (PICLC), a mimetic of double-stranded RNA, 24 h preinfection and postinfection. The survival rates and lung fungal burdens were markedly improved by PICLC immunotherapy in animals infected with any one of the three Aspergillus species. While protection from IA was remarkable, PICLC induction of type I IFN in the lungs surged 24 h posttreatment and returned to baseline levels by 48 h, suggesting that PICLC altered early events in protection against IA. Immunophenotyping of recruited leukocytes and histopathological examination of tissue sections showed that PICLC induced similar cellular infiltrates as those in untreated-infected mice, in both cases dominated by monocytic cells and neutrophils. However, the PICLC immunotherapy resulted in a marked earlier recruitment of the leukocytes. Unlike with conidia, infection with A. nidulans germlings reduced the protective effect of PICLC immunotherapy. Additionally, antibody depletion of neutrophils totally reversed the protection, suggesting that neutrophils are crucial for PICLC-mediated protection. Together, these data show that prophylactic PICLC immunotherapy prerecruits these cells, enabling them to attack the conidia and thus resulting in a profound protection from IA. IMPORTANCE Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are highly susceptible to invasive aspergillosis (IA). While Aspergillus fumigatus is the most-studied Aspergillus species, CGD patients

  1. Early diagnosis and follow-up of chronic active Epstein–Barr-virus-associated cardiovascular complications with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu; Li, Xiao; Cao, Jian; Wu, Di; Kong, Lingyan; Lin, Lu; Jin, Zhengyu; An, Jing; Wang, Yining

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) is characterized as chronic or recurrent mononucleosis-like symptoms and elevated EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (EBV-DNA) copies. Cardiovascular complications have high morbidity and mortality. The treatment regimen for CAEBV has not been established yet, resulting in poor prognoses. Herein, we present a case of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) evaluation with a series of sequences for CAEBV-associated cardiovascular involvement, which has never been reported. Case presentation: A 16-year-old female (body weight, 55 kg) developed a persistent fever and a positive EBV-DNA level of 28,000 copies/mL. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed aneurysms involving the aorta and its major branches, as well as multiple aneurysms and stenoses of the coronary arteries. CMRI of the coronary arteries depicted the dilution and stenosis of the arterial lumen as well as the thickening of the arterial wall. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) showed subendocardial and transmural delayed enhancement of the left ventricle, suggesting myocardial infarction. CAEBV and associated cardiovascular complications were diagnosed. After treatment with Medrol and Leflunomide, the clinical manifestation and serological parameters reversed to normal. However, the EBV-DNA level increased again to 13,900 copies/mL 2 months later. A follow-up with aorta CTA showed that the arterial walls of the bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms were thicker with new-onset mural thrombi. The aorta CTA also showed new-onset occlusion of the right coronary artery, but a follow-up of CMRI at the same day did not find new-onset delayed enhancement lesion. Conclusion: This case reminds clinicians of the vital importance of early diagnosis and close follow-up of CAEBV-associated cardiovascular complications. With cine imaging, coronary artery imaging, LGE imaging, and other novel techniques, CMRI can effectively and

  2. Early trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy to prevent chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and related symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kornør, Hege; Winje, Dagfinn; Ekeberg, Øivind; Weisæth, Lars; Kirkehei, Ingvild; Johansen, Kjell; Steiro, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    Background Early trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (TFCBT) holds promise as a preventive intervention for people at risk of developing chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this review was to provide an updated evaluation of the effectiveness of early TFCBT on the prevention of PTSD in high risk populations. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in international electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL, ISI and PILOTS) and included randomised controlled trials comparing TFCBT delivered within 3 months of trauma, to alternative interventions. All included studies were critically appraised using a standardised checklist. Two independent reviewers selected studies for inclusion and assessed study quality. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer and controlled by another. Where appropriate, we entered study results into meta-analyses. Results Seven articles reporting the results of five RCTs were included. All compared TFCBT to supportive counselling (SC). The study population was patients with acute stress disorder (ASD) in four trials, and with a PTSD diagnosis disregarding the duration criterion in the fifth trial. The overall relative risk (RR) for a PTSD diagnosis was 0.56 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.76), 1.09 (95% CI 0.46 to 2.61) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.04) at 3–6 months, 9 months and 3–4 years post treatment, respectively. A subgroup analysis of the four ASD studies only resulted in RR = 0.36 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.78) for PTSD at 3–6 months. Anxiety and depression scores were generally lower in the TFCBT groups than in the SC groups. Conclusion There is evidence for the effectiveness of TFCBT compared to SC in preventing chronic PTSD in patients with an initial ASD diagnosis. As this evidence originates from one research team replications are necessary to assess generalisability. The evidence about the effectiveness of TFCBT in traumatised populations without an ASD diagnosis is insufficient

  3. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kleeff, Jorg; Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Esposito, Irene; Lerch, Markus M; Gress, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rebours, Vinciane; Akisik, Fatih; Muñoz, J Enrique Domínguez; Neoptolemos, John P

    2017-09-07

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a pathological fibro-inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas in individuals with genetic, environmental and/or other risk factors who develop persistent pathological responses to parenchymal injury or stress. Potential causes can include toxic factors (such as alcohol or smoking), metabolic abnormalities, idiopathic mechanisms, genetics, autoimmune responses and obstructive mechanisms. The pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis is fairly complex and includes acinar cell injury, acinar stress responses, duct dysfunction, persistent or altered inflammation, and/or neuro-immune crosstalk, but these mechanisms are not completely understood. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by ongoing inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive loss of the endocrine and exocrine compartment owing to atrophy and/or replacement with fibrotic tissue. Functional consequences include recurrent or constant abdominal pain, diabetes mellitus (endocrine insufficiency) and maldigestion (exocrine insufficiency). Diagnosing early-stage chronic pancreatitis is challenging as changes are subtle, ill-defined and overlap those of other disorders. Later stages are characterized by variable fibrosis and calcification of the pancreatic parenchyma; dilatation, distortion and stricturing of the pancreatic ducts; pseudocysts; intrapancreatic bile duct stricturing; narrowing of the duodenum; and superior mesenteric, portal and/or splenic vein thrombosis. Treatment options comprise medical, radiological, endoscopic and surgical interventions, but evidence-based approaches are limited. This Primer highlights the major progress that has been made in understanding the pathophysiology, presentation, prevalence and management of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

  4. Keto-supplemented Low Protein Diet: A Valid Therapeutic Approach for Patients with Steroid-resistant Proteinuria during Early-stage Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Xie, H; Fang, M; Wang, K; Chen, J; Sun, W; Yang, L; Lin, H

    2016-04-01

    Low protein diets supplemented with keto acid (sLPD) are recommended for patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study assessed whether sLPD is beneficial for patients with steroid-resistant proteinuria during early-stage CKD. A 1-year randomized controlled trial was conducted from 2010 to 2012. In this study, 108 proteinuric patients who were steroid-resistant were assigned to a sLPD group (0.6 g/kg/d with 0.09 g/kg/d keto acids) or a normal protein diet group (NPD, 1.0 g/kg/d). Estimated dietary protein intake, urinary protein excretion, remission rate, renal function, nutritional status, and blood pressure were measured. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the sLPD group (47 patients) and the NPD group (49 patients). Urinary protein excretion significantly decreased in sLPD compared to NPD in months 6, 9, and 12 (P<0.05). Proteinuria reduction was higher in sLPD than in NPD (P<0.001) at the end of the study. Complete remission and partial remission rates were higher in sLPD than in NPD. Serum albumin and pre-albumin levels were higher in sLPD than in NPD in months 9 and 12 (P<0.05). Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels declined more significantly in sLPD than in NPD (P<0.01) at the end of the study. There were no differences in nutritional status, renal function, hemoglobin, or blood pressure between the two groups. sLPD is both nutritionally safe and beneficial, providing nephroprotective effects for early-stage CKD patients with steroid-resistant proteinuria.

  5. Clinical performances of two real-time PCR assays and bDNA/TMA to early monitor treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Martinot-Peignoux, Michelle; Khiri, Hacène; Leclere, Laurence; Maylin, Sarah; Marcellin, Patrick; Halfon, Philippe

    2009-11-01

    Early viral monitoring is essential for the management of treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A variety of commercially available assays are now available to quantify HCV-RNA in routine clinical practice. Compare the clinical results of 3 commercially available assays to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of rapid virological response (RVR) at week 4 and early virological response (EVR) at week 12. 287 patients treated with standard care regimen combination therapy were studied. HCV-RNA values measured at baseline, week 4, week 12 with VERSANT HCV 3.0 Assay (bDNA), and VERSANT HCV-RNA Qualitative Assay (TMA) (bDNA/TMA); COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS/TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and Abbott m2000sp extraction/m2000rt amplification system (ART). RVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA and EVR as a > OR =2 log decline in baseline viral load (BLV). Median (range) BVLs were: 5.585(2.585-6.816), 5.189(2.792-7.747) and 4.804(2.380-6.580) log(10)IU/ml, with bDNA/TMA, CAP/CTM and ART, respectively (p<0.01); RVR was observed in 22%, 30% and 27% of the patients and PPVs were 97%, 91% and 94% with bDNA/TMA, CAP/CTM and ART, respectively (p=0.317). EVR was observed in 76%, 73% and 67% of the patients and NPVs were 93%, 83% and 79% with bDNA/TMA, CAP/CTM and ART, respectively (p=0.09). Treatment monitoring should include both detection of serum HCV-RNA at week 4 to predict SVR and at week 12 to predict non-SVR. The value of all 3 assays was similar for evaluating RVR or EVR. Because of viral load discrepancies the same assay should be used throughout patient treatment follow-up.

  6. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts decline in renal function and cardiovascular events in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Shin, Dong Il; Kim, Sung Jun; Koh, Eun Sil; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Shin, Seok Joon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the predictive capacity of the brachial-ankle aortic pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, for the decline in renal function and for cardiovascular events in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent a comprehensive check-up were included and were divided into two groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR): patients with CKD categories G2, G3a and G3b (30 ≤ eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73m(2), eGFR < 90 group; n=117) and those with eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (eGFR ≥ 90 group; n=124). The change in renal function, the eGFR change, was determined by the slope of eGFR against time. We analysed whether baPWV was associated with eGFR change or predicted cardiovascular events. baPWV was independently associated with eGFR change in a multivariate analysis of the total patients (β=-0.011, p=0.011) and remained significantly associated with eGFR change in a subgroup analysis of the eGFR < 90 group (β=-0.015, p=0.035). baPWV was independently associated with cardiovascular events (odds ratio=1.002, p=0.048) in the eGFR < 90 group, but not in the eGFR ≥ 90 group. The receiver operative characteristic curve analysis showed that 1,568 cm/sec was the cut-off value of baPWV for predicting CV events in the eGFR < 90 group (area under curve=0.691, p=0.03) CONCLUSIONS: In patients with early stages of CKD, baPWV was independently associated with the decline in renal function and short-term cardiovascular events.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle biopsy (FNB) with the Procore™ needle provides inadequate material for the histological diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Iglesias García, Julio; Lariño-Noia, José; Abdulkader Nallib, Ihab; Lindkvist, Björn; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2018-05-03

    diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis (CP) is hampered due to the low accuracy of current imaging techniques and the absence of methods for histological confirmation. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) for the histological diagnosis of early CP. a prospective, cross-sectional, single-center study was designed. Consecutive patients referred for EUS with a clinical suspicion of CP were evaluated for inclusion into the study. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years and indeterminate EUS findings for the diagnosis of CP according to the Rosemont classification. EUS-FNB of the body of the pancreas was performed with Procore™ needles. Tissue samples were immersed into a methanol-based buffered preservative solution for cytohistological evaluation. The quality of the samples obtained and the histological findings were evaluated. Procedure-related complications were recorded. the study was stopped after eleven patients were included due to safety concerns and poor diagnostic yield. The mean age of the patients was 50.3 years (range 33-70 years) and six were male. Samples were of poor quality in five cases, but were sufficient for cell-block evaluation. An inflammatory infiltration with mild fibrosis was identified in two cases and neither inflammatory infiltration nor fibrosis was identified in three cases. With regard to the other six cases, isolated inflammatory cells were observed in one case, although the cellularity was poor and unsuitable for cytological evaluation in five cases. There was one major complication (9.1%) of acute pancreatitis that required hospitalization for 48 hours. EUS-FNB is technically feasible in patients with EUS findings categorized as indeterminate for a CP diagnosis. However, the diagnostic yield is poor and there is a non-negligible risk of complications.

  8. The proteome pattern cGvHD_MS14 allows early and accurate prediction of chronic GvHD after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weissinger, E M; Human, C; Metzger, J; Hambach, L; Wolf, D; Greinix, H T; Dickinson, A M; Mullen, W; Jonigk, D; Kuzmina, Z; Kreipe, H; Schweier, P; Böhm, O; Türüchanow, I; Ihlenburg-Schwarz, D; Raad, J; Durban, A; Schiemann, M; Könecke, C; Diedrich, H; Holler, E; Beutel, G; Krauter, J; Ganser, A; Stadler, M

    2017-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) may be curative, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD), characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of multiple target organs, considerably contributes to the morbidity and mortality even years after allo-HSCT. Diagnosis of cGvHD is based on clinical features and histology of biopsies. Here, we report the generation of a urinary cGvHD-specific proteome-pattern (cGvHD_MS14) established by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry to predict onset and severity of cGvHD as an unbiased laboratory test. cGvHD_MS14 was evaluated on samples from 412 patients collected prospectively in four transplant centers. Sensitivity and specificity was 84 and 76% by cGvHD_MS14 classification. Sensitivity further increased to 93% by combination of cGvHD_MS14 with relevant clinical variables to a logistic regression model. cGvHD was predicted up to 55 days prior to clinical diagnosis. Acute GvHD is not recognized by cGvHD_MS14. cGvHD_MS14 consists of 14 differentially excreted peptides, six of those have been sequenced to date and are fragments from thymosin β-4, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4γ2, fibrinogen β-chain or collagens. In conclusion, the cGvHD_MS14-pattern allows early, highly sensitive and specific prediction of cGvHD as an independent diagnostic criterion of clinical diagnosis potentially allowing early therapeutic intervention.

  9. Behavioral analysis of the consequences of chronic blockade of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the early postnatal period in rats.

    PubMed

    Latysheva, N V; Raevskii, K S

    2003-02-01

    Considering data on the possible glutamatergic nature of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we attempted to model cognitive derangements in animals by chronic blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors. Wistar rats received daily s.c. injections of the non-competitive NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) from days 7 to day 49 of postnatal life. One day after the antagonist injections given on days 27 and 28 of life, animals of the experimental group showed decreased levels of spontaneous movement and orientational-investigative activity as compared with controls, where there was no change in the elevated locomotor reaction produced in response to the direct action of MK-801. These animals showed decreases in the level of anxiety (on day 40 of life) and derangement in spatial learning with food reinforcement (days 50-54 of life). It is suggested that early neonatal blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors leads to the development in animals of disturbances to situational perception and assessment of incoming sensory information.

  10. Children's, parents' and other stakeholders' perspectives on early dietary self-management to delay disease progression of chronic disease in children: a protocol for a mixed studies systematic review with a narrative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Pearl; Hemingway, Pippa; Christian, Martin; Higginbottom, Gina

    2018-01-25

    Chronic disease of childhood may be delayed by early dietary intervention. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide decision-makers with a perspective on the role of early dietary intervention, as a form of self-management, to delay disease progression in children with early chronic disease, as described by children, parents and other stakeholders. The study will systematically review empirical research (qualitative, quantitative and mixed method designs), including grey literature, using a narrative synthesis. A four-stage search process will be conducted involving a scoping search, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Patient Issues search filter on MEDLINE, the search of seven databases using a chronic disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) search strategy, and hand searching the reference lists of identified papers for additional studies. All studies retrieved during the search process will undergo a screening and selection process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Methodological quality of relevant studies will be assessed using a validated Mixed Studies Review scoring system, before inclusion in the review. Relevant grey literature will be assessed for methodological quality and relative importance using McGrath et al.'s framework and the Academy Health advisory committee categories, respectively. Data extraction will be guided by the Centre for Review and Dissemination guidance and Popay et al.'s work. The narrative synthesis of the findings will use elements of Popay et al.'s methodology of narrative synthesis, applying recognised tools for each of the four elements: (1) developing a theory of how the intervention works, why and for whom; (2) developing a preliminary synthesis of findings of included studies; (3) exploring relationships in the data; and (4) assessing the robustness of the synthesis. This mixed studies systematic review with a narrative synthesis seeks to elucidate the gaps in current knowledge and

  11. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO).

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Saucedo-Martínez, Rodrigo; Mújica-Rosales, Ricardo; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor; Lee, Evan; Waugh, Craig; Guajardo, Lucía; Torres-Beltrán, Braulio; Quijano-González, Úrsula; López-Mendez, Mauricio; Atkinson, Elena Rose

    2017-02-20

    Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM), or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals-about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL), and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL). However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should consider the need for

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of hypertensive patients towards prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease: a cross sectional study from Palestine.

    PubMed

    Sa'adeh, Hala H; Darwazeh, Razan N; Khalil, Amani A; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension is the second most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, the aims of the study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of hypertensive patients towards prevention and early detection of CKD, and to determine the clinical and socio-demographic factors, which affect the KAP regarding prevention of CKD. A cross-sectional study was held using the CKD screening Index to assess the KAP of 374 hypertensive patients who were selected from multiple primary healthcare centers in Nablus, Palestine. The CKD Screening Index is formed of three scales. First, the knowledge scale was a dichotomous scale of 30 items, while the attitude scale used 5-point Likert-type scale for 18 items and finally the practice scale was measured using 4-point Likert-type scale for 12 items. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and practices. In total, 374 hypertensive patients participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 59.14 ± 10.4 years, (range 26-85). The median (interquartile range) of the knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of hypertensive patients towards prevention and early detection of CKD were 20 (16-23), 69 (65-72), and 39 (36-42), respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, patients age < 65 years ( p  < 0.001) and patients with high education level ( p  = 0.009) were the only factors significantly associated with higher knowledge scores. Additionally, patients age < 65 years ( p  = 0.007), patients with high income ( p  = 0.005), and patients with high knowledge score ( p  < 0.001) were the only factors significantly associated with higher attitude scores. Furthermore, regression analysis showed that patients with higher total knowledge ( p  = 0.001) as well as higher total attitudes scores towards CKD prevention ( p  < 0.001), male gender ( p  = 0.048), and patients with

  13. Brain region-specific gene expression changes after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and early withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Roberto I.; McGinty, Jacqueline F.; Kalivas, Peter W.; Becker, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroadaptations that participate in the ontogeny of alcohol dependence are likely a result of altered gene expression in various brain regions. The present study investigated brain region-specific changes in the pattern and magnitude of gene expression immediately following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure and 8 hours following final ethanol exposure [i.e. early withdrawal (EWD)]. High-density oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix 430A 2.0, Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and bioinformatics analysis were used to characterize gene expression and function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of C57BL/6J mice (Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, ME, USA). Gene expression levels were determined using gene chip robust multi-array average followed by statistical analysis of microarrays and validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Results indicated that immediately following CIE exposure, changes in gene expression were strikingly greater in the PFC (284 genes) compared with the HPC (16 genes) and NAc (32 genes). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that most of the transcriptionally responsive genes in the PFC were involved in Ras/MAPK signaling, notch signaling or ubiquitination. In contrast, during EWD, changes in gene expression were greatest in the HPC (139 genes) compared with the PFC (four genes) and NAc (eight genes). The most transcriptionally responsive genes in the HPC were involved in mRNA processing or actin dynamics. Of the few genes detected in the NAc, the most representatives were involved in circadian rhythms. Overall, these findings indicate that brain region-specific and time-dependent neuroadaptive alterations in gene expression play an integral role in the development of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. PMID:21812870

  14. Early autologous stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-term follow-up of the German CLL Study Group CLL3 trial.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Peter; Döhner, Hartmut; McClanahan, Fabienne; Busch, Raymonde; Ritgen, Matthias; Greinix, Hildegard; Fink, Anna-Maria; Knauf, Wolfgang; Stadler, Michael; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Dührsen, Ulrich; Brittinger, Günter; Hensel, Manfred; Schetelig, Johannes; Winkler, Dirk; Bühler, Andreas; Kneba, Michael; Schmitz, Norbert; Hallek, Michael; Stilgenbauer, Stephan

    2012-05-24

    The CLL3 trial was designed to study intensive treatment including autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) as part of first-line therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we present the long-term outcome of the trial with particular focus on the impact of genomic risk factors, and we provide a retrospective comparison with patients from the fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab (FCR) arm of the German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG) CLL8 trial. After a median observation time of 8.7 years (0.3-12.3 years), median progression-free survival (PFS), time to retreatment, and overall survival (OS) of 169 evaluable patients, including 38 patients who did not proceed to autoSCT, was 5.7, 7.3, and 11.3 years, respectively. PFS and OS were significantly reduced in the presence of 17p- and of an unfavorable immunoglobulin heavy variable chain mutational status, but not of 11q-. Five-year nonrelapse mortality was 6.5%. When 110 CLL3 patients were compared with 126 matched patients from the FCR arm of the CLL8 trial, 4-year time to retreatment (75% vs 77%) and OS (86% vs 90%) was similar despite a significant benefit for autoSCT in terms of PFS. In summary, early treatment intensification including autoSCT can provide very effective disease control in poor-risk CLL, although its clinical benefit in the FCR era remains uncertain. The trial has been registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00275015.

  15. Urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein, albumin, vitamin D-binding protein, and retinol-binding protein as early biomarkers of chronic kidney disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chacar, Fernanda; Kogika, Márcia; Sanches, Talita R; Caragelasco, Douglas; Martorelli, Cínthia; Rodrigues, Camila; Capcha, Jose Manuel C; Chew, Dennis; Andrade, Lúcia

    2017-06-01

    Proteinuria is a marker and mediator of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In clinical practice, the urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C) is of limited usefulness, because it indicates only the magnitude of proteinuria and not the origin of the loss (glomerular or tubular). The complete assessment of proteinuria includes quantitative and qualitative evaluations, both of which are required in order to optimize the therapy. In addition to measuring the UP/C, we performed SDS-PAGE and western blotting to determine the expression of albumin, vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), retinol-binding protein (RBP), and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) in urine samples of 49 dogs: healthy (control) dogs ( n  =   9); and dogs with CKD ( n  =   40), stratified by stage. In the dogs with stage 3 or 4 CKD, there was a predominance of tubular proteins. Neither VDBP nor RBP was observed in the urine of the control dogs. Among the dogs with stage 1 or 2 CKD, VDBP and RBP were detected in those without proteinuria or with borderline proteinuria. The expression of urinary albumin was significantly higher in the stage 4 group than in any other group ( P  ≤   0.01). In the stage 4 group, urinary THP was either undetectable or lower than in the control group ( P  ≤   0.01). In conclusion, urinary VDBP and RBP might act as early markers of kidney injury, and a decrease in urinary THP could be an indicator of CKD progression. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. [The value of coexisting pneumonia and British Thoracic Society CURB-65 score in predicting early mortality rate in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Yun-feng; Luo, Yi-min; Wang, Xi-hua; Yang, Yuan; Lin, Yong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the value of coexisting pneumonia and British Thoracic Society CURB-65 score in predicting early mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). In this prospective study, 483 consecutive in-patients with AECOPD were recruited between January 2010 and September 2012, including 295 males and 188 females. The patients were aged 45 to 92 years. They were divided into 2 groups: non-pneumonia (npAECOPD) and with pneumonia (pAECOPD). The start point of this study was the date when the patients were admitted into the respiratory ward, and the endpoint was the 30 day mortality. Clinical and demographic data were collected for all the patients, and the value of coexisting pneumonia and CURB-65 in predicting in-hospital mortality and 30 day mortality were assessed and compared. According to the inclusion/exclusion criteria, eventually 457 patients were included in this research, with 278 males and 179 females, and an average age of (75 ± 9) years. Of the 457 patients, 120 (26.3%) patients were in the pAECOPD group and 337 (73.7%) patients in the npAECOPD group. The in-hospital mortality, the 30 day mortality and the assisted ventilation rate were significantly higher in the pAECOPD group as compared to the npAECOPD group 18.3% (22/120) vs 4.7% (16/337), 21.7% (26/120) vs 7.4% (25/337); 49.2% (59/120) vs 27.0% (91/337), χ(2) = 18.1 - 21.4, all P < 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, the in-hospital mortality of the pAECOPD patients with CURB-65 score < 2, = 2 and > 2 was 4.4% (2/45), 15.2% (7/46) and 44.8% (13/29), respectively, while that of the npAECOPD patients was 0.9% (1/113), 3.4% (4/119) and 10.5% (11/105), respectively. The 30 day mortality of the pAECOPD patients with CURB-65 score < 2, = 2 and > 2 was 4.4% (2/45), 19.6% (9/46) and 51.7% (15/29), respectively, while that of the npAECOPD patients was 0.9% (1/113), 5.0% (6/119) and 17.1% (18/105), respectively. Stratified by CURB-65 Score, the in

  17. Thermo spectral analysis (TSA) of living human skin by FT-IR -Development of a diagnostic method for the early detection of chronic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folberth, W.; Heim, G.

    1985-12-01

    A Fourier spectrometer was used in order to measure the spectral emissivity E(k) of human skin in the FIR region k=190-420 cm-1. Three studies on patient groups with defined chronic diseases have been performed: patients with untreated bronchial carcinoma, patients with rheumatic arthritis and patients with chronic renal insufficiency. In comparison with a symptomfree control group all patient groups show significant differences in E(k). As result of a discriminant analysis a separation of 95.7% between carcinoma patients and control persons is possible. The separation quotes between the other groups indicate that patients with malignant neoplasms can be discriminated from other chronically ill persons.

  18. Early low-dose erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy and progression of moderate chronic kidney disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fliser, Danilo; Dellanna, Frank; Koch, Michael; Wiggenhauser, Alfons

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown whether early intervention with low-dose erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in non-anaemic patients delays progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a single-blind, 24-month trial, adults with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 and either Type 2 diabetes mellitus or previous kidney transplantation were randomized to low-dose continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator (CERA; monthly dose 30–75 µg; n = 115) or placebo (n = 120). The primary endpoint was the annual change in eGFR (abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula). Mean (standard deviation) eGFR was 40.7 (9.8) mL/min/1.73 m2 versus 39.8 (9.2) mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline for CERA and placebo, respectively, and 39.0 (11.6) g/dL versus 39.7 (10.6) g/dL at the final visit. The median (interquartile range) annual reduction in eGFR was 0.5 (−2.2, 3.8) mL/min/1.73 m2 with CERA versus 0.4 (−2.0, 3.2) mL/min/1.73 m2 with placebo (P = 0.657). No significant difference in the annual change in eGFR was observed between treatment groups in the subpopulations with Type 2 diabetes or kidney transplant. Adverse events with a suspected relation to study drug occurred in 22.0% and 16.2% of patients randomized to CERA or placebo, respectively, and adverse events led to study drug discontinuation in 11.0% and 8.5% of patients. Patients with moderate CKD and Type 2 diabetes or previous kidney transplantation showed stable renal function that was unaffected by administration of low-dose ESA. In addition, there was no clinically meaningful effect of 2-year low-dose ESA treatment on albuminuria, an important surrogate marker of kidney injury. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel comparative pattern count analysis reveals a chronic ethanol-induced dynamic shift in immediate early NF-κB genome-wide promoter binding during liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kuttippurathu, Lakshmi; Patra, Biswanath; Hoek, Jan B; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth

    2016-03-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a clinically important process that is impaired by adaptation to chronic alcohol intake. We focused on the initial time points following partial hepatectomy (PHx) to analyze the genome-wide binding activity of NF-κB, a key immediate early regulator. We investigated the effect of chronic alcohol intake on immediate early NF-κB genome-wide localization, in the adapted state as well as in response to partial hepatectomy, using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by promoter microarray analysis. We found many ethanol-specific NF-κB binding target promoters in the ethanol-adapted state, corresponding to the regulation of biosynthetic processes, oxidation-reduction and apoptosis. Partial hepatectomy induced a diet-independent shift in NF-κB binding loci relative to the transcription start sites. We employed a novel pattern count analysis to exhaustively enumerate and compare the number of promoters corresponding to the temporal binding patterns in ethanol and pair-fed control groups. The highest pattern count corresponded to promoters with NF-κB binding exclusively in the ethanol group at 1 h post PHx. This set was associated with the regulation of cell death, response to oxidative stress, histone modification, mitochondrial function, and metabolic processes. Integration with the global gene expression profiles to identify putative transcriptional consequences of NF-κB binding patterns revealed that several of ethanol-specific 1 h binding targets showed ethanol-specific differential expression through 6 h post PHx. Motif analysis yielded co-incident binding loci for STAT3, AP-1, CREB, C/EBP-β, PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α, likely participating in co-regulatory modules with NF-κB in shaping the immediate early response to PHx. We conclude that adaptation to chronic ethanol intake disrupts the NF-κB promoter binding landscape with consequences for the immediate early gene regulatory response to the acute challenge of PHx.

  20. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data ...

  1. The Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (familial, early onset encephalopathy with calcifications of the basal ganglia and chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis).

    PubMed Central

    Tolmie, J L; Shillito, P; Hughes-Benzie, R; Stephenson, J B

    1995-01-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (Mendelian inheritance in man Catalog No *225750) is an autosomal recessive encephalopathy which causes developmental arrest, intracerebral calcification, and white matter disease in the presence of chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis, and a raised level of cerebrospinal fluid interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Diagnosis requires the presence of progressive encephalopathy with onset shortly after birth, and characteristic clinical neurological and neuroimaging signs together with chronic CSF lymphocytosis. The syndrome has superficial resemblance to the neurological sequelae of congenital infection, thus a rigorous search for microbiological and serological evidence of embryopathic infections should be carried out in each case. Images PMID:8592332

  2. Impact of an Early Invasive Strategy versus Conservative Strategy for Unstable Angina and Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Catriona; Nitsch, Dorothea; Lee, Jasmine; Fogarty, Damian; Sharpe, Claire C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines support an early invasive approach after NSTE-ACS in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is no direct randomised controlled trial evidence in the CKD population, and whether the benefit of an early invasive approach is maintained across the spectrum of severity of CKD remains controversial. Methods We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the association between an early invasive approach and all-cause mortality in patients with CKD. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (1990-May 2015) and article reference lists. Data describing study design, participants, invasive management strategies, renal function, all-cause mortality and risk of bias were extracted. Results 3,861 potentially relevant studies were identified. Ten studies, representing data on 147,908 individuals with NSTE-ACS met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative heterogeneity in the definitions of early invasive approach, comparison groups and renal dysfunction existed. Meta-analysis of the RCT derived and observational data were generally supportive of an early invasive approach in CKD (RR0.76 (95% CI 0.49–1.17) and RR0.50 (95%CI 0.42–0.59) respectively). Meta-analysis of the observational studies demonstrated a large degree of heterogeneity (I2 79%) driven in part by study size and heterogeneity across various kidney function levels. Conclusions The observational data support that an early invasive approach after NSTE-ACS confers a survival benefit in those with early-moderate CKD. Local opportunities for quality improvement should be sought. Those with severe CKD and the dialysis population are high risk and under-studied. Novel and inclusive approaches for CKD and dialysis patients in cardiovascular clinical trials are needed. PMID:27195786

  3. How Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloid Leukemia? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  4. Chronic Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with chronic bronchitis are current or former smokers. Chronic bronchitis is usually part of the spectrum ... and emphysema often coexist in current or former smokers with COPD. Less commonly, chronic cough may be ...

  5. Development of Alternatives to Chronic Ecotoxicity Tests: Predicting Early-life Stage and Endocrine-mediated Toxicity in Aquatic Vertebrate Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June 2010, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) with support from sanofi-aventis, NC3Rs, the Humane Society, L’Oreal, and ECVAM, held a workshop aimed at examining critical science needs related to the development of alternatives to chronic fish toxicity...

  6. On-treatment decrease of NKG2D correlates to early emergence of clinically evident hepatocellular carcinoma after interferon-free therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Chu, Po-Sung; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Taniki, Nobuhito; Ojiro, Keisuke; Amiya, Takeru; Makita, Yuko; Murata, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Shiba, Shunsuke; Miyake, Rei; Katayama, Tadashi; Ugamura, Aya; Ikura, Akihiko; Takeda, Karin; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Saito, Hidetsugu; Kanai, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)- free direct antiviral agents (DAAs) with rapid HCV eradication might evoke immunological reconstitutions, and some early recurrences of HCC after IFN-free DAAs have been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) predicts early emergence of HCC after IFN-free DAAs. We conducted a clinical practice-based observational study of 101 patients infected with genotype 1 HCV who received IFN-free (DAAs), and stratified them into those who did or did not develop early (i.e., during the 6-month surveillance period following treatment.) recurrence or occurrence of clinically evident HCC. We also analyzed the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, both before treatment and at end of treatment (EOT), of 24 of the patients who received IFN-free DAAs, and 16 who received IFN-combined protease inhibitor. We found early emergence of clinically evident HCC after IFN-free DAAs in 12 (12%) patients. Higher pre-treatment NKG2D expression, higher FIB-4 score, previous HCC history and failure to achieve sustained viral response were significant factors correlating to early HCC emergence. After IFN-free DAAs, a rapid decrease of NKG2D at EOT correlated with early HCC emergence in the IFN-free DAA-treated patients, but not in patients treated with the IFN-combined regimen. The decrease of NKG2D until EOT was predictive of early HCC emergence at a cut-off of -52% (AUC = 0.92). On-treatment decrease of NKG2D may be a useful predictor of early emerging HCC in patients treated with IFN-free DAAs.

  7. T2 -Mapping evaluation of early cartilage alteration of talus for chronic lateral ankle instability with isolated anterior talofibular ligament tear or combined with calcaneofibular ligament tear.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hongyue; Hu, Yiwen; Qiao, Yang; Ma, Kui; Yan, Xu; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Shuang

    2018-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the cartilage alteration of talus for chronic lateral ankle instability (LAI) with isolated anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) tear and combined ATFL and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) tear using T 2 -mapping at 3.0T. In all, 27 patients including 17 with isolated ATFL tear and 10 with ATFL+CFL tear, and 21 healthy subjects were recruited. All participants underwent T 2 -mapping scan at 3T and patients completed American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring. The total talar cartilage (TTC) was segmented into six compartments: medial anterior (MA), medial center (MC), medial posterior (MP), lateral anterior (LA), lateral center (LC), and lateral posterior (LP). The T 2 value of each compartment was measured from T 2 -mapping images. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The T 2 values of MA, MC, MP, TTC in the ATFL group and MA, MC, MP, LC, LP, TTC in the ATFL+CFL group were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the T 2 values of MC, MP, LC, and TTC in the ATFL+CFL group were higher than those in the ATFL group (P < 0.05). The T 2 values of MA in both patient groups were negatively correlated with AOFAS scores (r = -0.596, r = -0.690, P < 0.05). Chronic LAI with ATFL tear had a trend of increasing cartilage T 2 values in talar trochlea, mainly involving medial cartilage compartments. Chronic LAI with ATFL+CFL tear might result in higher T 2 values in a much larger cartilage region than with ATFL tear. MA could be the main cartilage compartment that may affect the patient's clinical symptoms. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:69-77. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Kidney Disease and the Nexus of Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Kidney Injury: The Role of Novel Biomarkers as Early and Accurate Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Yerramilli, Murthy; Farace, Giosi; Quinn, John; Yerramilli, Maha

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are interconnected and the presence of one is a risk for the other. CKD is an important predictor of AKI after exposure to nephrotoxic drugs or major surgery, whereas persistent or repetitive injury could result in the progression of CKD. This brings new perspectives to the diagnosis and monitoring of kidney diseases highlighting the need for a panel of kidney-specific biomarkers that reflect functional as well as structural damage and recovery, predict potential risk and provide prognosis. This article discusses the kidney-specific biomarkers, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), clusterin, cystatin B, and inosine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary Prevention of Chronic PTSD by Early and Short-Term Administration of Escitalopram: A Prospective Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Joseph; Fostick, Leah; Juven-Wetzler, Alzabeta; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Hadar; Schreiber, Gavriel; Miroshnik, Natalie; Shalev, Arieh Y; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Suliman, Sharain; Klein, Ehud

    Prospective studies have not identified a viable pharmacologic strategy for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether preventive intervention via early and short-term administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), within 1 month of exposure to a traumatic event (before diagnosis of PTSD could be made), may reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-IV at 13 months' follow-up. Over 25,000 screening calls to patients referred to an emergency department for a traumatic event performed between June 2006 and December 2008 yielded 353 participants who were recruited within the month following a traumatic event . Participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to escitalopram (n = 176) or placebo (n = 177). The per-protocol analysis comprised 198 participants (escitalopram, n = 102; placebo, n = 96) who received treatment for 12 to 24 weeks and were available for follow-up at week 56. The primary outcome measure, the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), revealed no prevention effect. However, a secondary outcome, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), showed better results for the SSRI group than for the placebo group. For a subset of participants who experienced intentional trauma (missile attacks, rape, or physical assault; n = 50), the prevention effect was found on both primary and secondary measures (CAPS, PSQI and measures of depression and global illness severity). Early and short-term administration of escitalopram was not shown to prevent PTSD, although it did improve sleep quality. In a subgroup of participants who experienced intentional trauma, however, this early-treatment approach may be effective as secondary prevention. This large study is the first to investigate the preventive effect of early administration of escitalopram on PTSD. It highlights the relevance of the type of trauma (intentional vs unintentional) to the outcome. Clinical

  11. Effect of early and late rehabilitation onset in a chronic rat model of ischemic stroke- assessment of motor cortex signaling and gait functionality over time.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Rasmus K; Samson, Katrine L; Simonsen, Daniel; Jensen, Winnie

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ischemic stroke and onset of subsequent rehabilitation of gait function in rats. Nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with a 16-channel intracortical (IC) electrode array. An ischemic stroke was induced within the hindlimb area of the left motor cortex. The rehabilitation consisted of a repetitive training paradigm over 28 days, initiated on day one ("Early-onset", 5 rats) and on day seven, ("Late-onset", 4 rats). Data were obtained from IC microstimulation tests, treadmill walking tests, and beam walking tests. Results revealed an expansion of the hindlimb representation within the motor cortex area and an increased amount of cortical firing rate modulation for the "Early-onset" group but not for the "Late-onset" group. Kinematic data revealed a significant change for both intervention groups. However, this difference was larger for the "Early-onset" group. Results from the beam walking test showed functional performance deficits following stroke which returned to pre-stroke level after the rehabilitative training. The results from the present study indicate the existence of a critical time period following stroke where onset of rehabilitative training may be more effective and related to a higher degree of true recovery.

  12. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of sofosbuvir, peginterferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C: Early treatment in the initial stage of fibrosis vs. delayed treatment in advanced fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Buti, María; Domínguez-Hernández, Raquel; Oyagüez, Itziar; Casado, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of sofosbuvir combined with peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavirin (SOF/Peg-IFN/RBV) in early versus advanced fibrosis in previously untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 (CHC-GT1), from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System (NHS). A Markov model was developed to compare lifetime costs and outcomes (life years gained [LYGs] and quality-adjusted life years [QALYs]) of 2 treatment strategies: SOF/Peg-IFN/RBV administered during early fibrosis (mild-moderate fibrosis; F2-F3) or advanced fibrosis (cirrhosis; F4). Efficacy (sustained virologic response), annual transition probabilities, disease management costs and utilities were obtained from the literature. Costs and outcomes were discounted annually at 3%. Direct costs were considered, expressed in Euros (€, 2014). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was also performed. SOF/Peg-IFN/RBV therapy at F2-F3 was more effective (19.12 LYGs and 14.14 QALYs) compared to F4. In a cohort of 1,000 patients, SOF/Peg-IFN/RBV prevented 66 cases of decompensated cirrhosis, 60 hepatocellular carcinomas and 4 liver transplantations compared with therapy in advanced fibrosis. The total lifetime cost of early therapy (€43,263) was less than the cost of treatment in the advanced stage (€49,018). Early therapy was a dominant strategy, more effective and less costly in all simulations. In the PSA analysis, administration of SOF/PEG-IFN/RBV at F2-F3 was dominant in all simulations. Starting SOF/Peg-IFN/RBV therapy at F2-F3, compared with therapy at F4, reduced the incidence of liver disease complications and was associated with cost savings for the Spanish NHS in CHC-GT1 patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased numbers of chemotactic factor receptors in chronic neutropenia with defective chemotaxis: spontaneous recovery from the neutrophil abnormalities during early childhood

    SciT

    Yasui, K.; Yamazaki, M.; Miyagawa, Y.

    Childhood chronic neutropenia with decreased numbers of chemotactic factor receptors as well as defective chemotaxis was first demonstrated in an 8-month-old girl. Chemotactic factor receptors on neutrophils were assayed using tritiated N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (/sup 3/H-FMLP). The patient's neutrophils had decreased numbers of the receptors: numbers of the receptors were 20,000 (less than 3 SD) as compared with those of control cells of 52,000 +/- 6000 (mean +/- SD) (n = 10). The neutropenia disappeared spontaneously by 28 months of age parallel with the improvement of chemotaxis and increase in numbers of chemotactic factor receptors. These results demonstrate a transient decrease ofmore » neutrophil chemotactic factor receptors as one of the pathophysiological bases of a transient defect of neutrophil chemotaxis in this disorder.« less

  14. Validity of retrospective measures of early maltreatment and depressive episodes using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) instrument -- A life-course study of adult chronic depression - 2.

    PubMed

    Brown, George W; Craig, Tom K J; Harris, Tirril O; Handley, Rachel V; Harvey, Anna L

    2007-11-01

    A previous paper, using data collected retrospectively from sister pairs, reported substantial associations of adult depressive episodes lasting at least 12 months with childhood maltreatment [Brown, G.W., Craig, T.K.J., Harris, T.O. Handley, R.V. & Harvey, A.L. 2007a-this issue. Development of a retrospective interview measure of parental maltreatment using the Childhood Experience of Care & Abuse (CECA) instrument - a life-course study of adult chronic depression - 1. J. Affect. Disord. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2007.05.022]. Risk was far less when depressive episodes of any duration were considered. This paper considers how much scientific weight can be placed on these findings in the light of doubt often expressed about retrospective collection of childhood and adult data. The retrospectively gathered material was obtained from adult sister pairs within 5 years of age, comprising a high-risk series (n = 118) where the first sister was selected as likely to have experienced childhood abuse or neglect, and a comparison series (n = 80) where she was selected at random. Current age ranged between early 20s and 50s. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews, using investigator-based ratings covering a wide range of parental behaviour and childhood behaviour. A series of analyses failed to reveal evidence of significant bias in the collection of material about adult depression or parental maltreatment. There was, however, some evidence of under reporting. Conclusions from such analyses can only be judged in terms of degree of plausibility. Nothing emerged to suggest the presence of significant bias in the aetiological findings of our earlier paper. There is evidence of some underreporting of both early adverse experience and adult depressive episodes, but this is unlikely to threaten the conclusions drawn about the link of parental maltreatment with adult chronic depressive episodes.

  15. Attendance at specialist hepatitis clinics and initiation of antiviral treatment among persons chronically infected with hepatitis C: examining the early impact of Scotland's Hepatitis C Action Plan.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S A; Hutchinson, S J; Innes, H A; Allen, S; Bramley, P; Bhattacharyya, D; Carman, W; Dillon, J F; Fox, R; Fraser, A; Goldberg, D J; Kennedy, N; Mills, P R; Morris, J; Stanley, A J; Wilks, D; Hayes, P C

    2014-05-01

    Primary goals of the Hepatitis C Action Plan for Scotland Phase II (May 2008-March 2011) were to increase, among persons chronically infected with the hepatitis C (HCV) virus, attendance at specialist outpatient clinics and initiation on antiviral therapy. We evaluated progress towards these goals by comparing the odds, across time, of (a) first clinic attendance within 12 months of HCV diagnosis (n = 9747) and (b) initiation on antiviral treatment within 12 months of first attendance (n = 5736). Record linkage between the national HCV diagnosis (1996-2009) and HCV clinical (1996-2010) databases and logistic regression analyses were conducted for both outcomes. For outcome (a), 32% and 45% in the respective pre-Phase II (before 1 May 2008) and Phase II periods attended a specialist clinic within 12 months of diagnosis; the odds of attendance within 12 months increased over time (OR = 1.05 per year, 95% CI: 1.04-1.07), but was not significantly greater for persons diagnosed with HCV in the Phase II era, compared with the pre-Phase II era (OR = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.3), after adjustment for temporal trend. For outcome (b), 13% and 28% were initiated on treatment within 12 months of their first clinic attendance in the pre-Phase II and Phase II periods, respectively. Higher odds of treatment initiation were associated with first clinic attendance in the Phase II (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.5-2.4), compared with the pre-Phase II era. Results were consistent with a positive impact of the Hepatitis C Action Plan on the treatment of chronically infected individuals, but further monitoring is required to confirm a sustained effect. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Early trends in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values after left ventricular assist device implantation for chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hasin, Tal; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Lesnick, Timothy G; Kremers, Walter; Boilson, Barry A; Schirger, John A; Clavell, Alfredo L; Rodeheffer, Richard J; Frantz, Robert P; Edwards, Brooks S; Pereira, Naveen L; Stulak, John M; Joyce, Lyle; Daly, Richard; Park, Soon J; Jaffe, Allan S

    2014-10-15

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) acutely decrease left ventricular wall stress. Thus, early postoperative levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) should decrease. This study investigated postoperative changes in NT-proBNP levels, the parameters related to changes, and the possible association with complications by performing a retrospective analysis of changes in daily NT-proBNP (pg/ml) levels from admission to discharge both before and after LVAD implantation in a tertiary referral center. For 72 patients implanted with HeartMate II LVADs, baseline NT-proBNP levels were elevated at 3,943 ng/ml (interquartile range 1,956 to 12,964). Preoperative stabilization led to marked decreases in NT-proBNP. Levels peaked 3 days after surgery and subsequently decreased. Patients with complicated postoperative courses had higher early postoperative elevations. By discharge, NT-proBNP decreased markedly but was still 2.83 (1.60 to 5.76) times the age-based upper limit of normal. The 26% reduction in NT-proBNP between admission and discharge was due mostly to the preoperative reductions and not those induced by the LVAD itself. The decrease was not associated with decreases in LV volume. In conclusion, preoperative treatment reduces NT-proBNP values. The magnitude of early postoperative changes is related to the clinical course. Levels at discharge remain markedly elevated and similar to values after preoperative stabilization despite presumptive acute LV unloading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex differences in the combined effect of chronic stress with impaired vascular endothelium functioning and the development of early atherosclerosis: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The syndrome of vital exhaustion (VE), characterized by fatigue and irritability, may contribute to an increased risk of atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to explore sex differences in the interactions of VE with endothelial dysfunction and VE with reduced carotid elasticity, the important contributors to the development of early atherosclerosis, on preclinical atherosclerosis. Methods The participants were 1002 women and 719 men aged 24-39 examined in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Vital exhaustion was measured using the Maastricht Questionnaire. Preclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), endothelial function was measured by brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), and arterial elasticity by carotid artery compliance (CAC) using ultrasound techniques. Results We found a significant CAC x VE interaction for IMT only for the men. Our results imply that high VE level significantly related to high IMT levels among the men with low CAC, but not among the women with low CAC or among the women or men with high CAC. No significant FMD x VE interactions for IMT for the women or men were found. Conclusions High VE may exert an effect on IMT for men with impaired arterial elasticity. The results suggest that high vitally exhausted men with reduced arterial elasticity are at increased risk of atherosclerosis in early life and imply men's decreased stress coping in relation to stressful psychological coronary risk factors. PMID:20624297

  18. Death or Neurodevelopmental Impairment at 18 To 22 Months in a Randomized Trial of Early Dexamethasone to Prevent Death or Chronic Lung Disease in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Ann R.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Vohr, Betty R; Papile, Lu Ann; Saha, Shampa; Bauer, Charles R.; Donovan, Edward F.; Oh, William; Shankaran, Seetha; Tyson, Jon E.; Wright, Linda L.; Poole, W. Kenneth; Das, Abhik; Stoll, Barbara J.; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Korones, Sheldon B.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Stevenson, David K.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Heyne, Roy J.; Johnson, Yvette R.; Lee, Kimberly Gronsman; Steichen, Jean J.; Hintz, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18 to 22 months corrected age in subjects enrolled in a trial of early dexamethasone treatment to prevent death or chronic lung disease in extremely low birth weight infants. Methods Evaluation of infants at 18 to 22 months corrected age included anthropomorphic measurements, a standard neurological examination, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, including the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI). NDI was defined as moderate or severe cerebral palsy, MDI or PDI less than 70, blindness, or hearing impairment. Results Death or NDI at 18 to 22 months corrected age was similar in the dexamethasone and placebo groups (65 vs 66 percent, p= 0.99 among those with known outcome). The proportion of survivors with NDI was also similar, as were mean values for weight, length, and head circumference and the proportion of infants with poor growth (50 vs 41 percent, p=0.42 for weight less than 10th percentile). Forty nine percent of infants in the placebo group received treatment with corticosteroid compared to 32% in the dexamethasone group (p=0.02). Conclusion The risk of death or NDI and rate of poor growth were high but similar in the dexamethasone and placebo groups. The lack of a discernible effect of early dexamethasone on neurodevelopmental outcome may be due to frequent clinical corticosteroid use in the placebo group. PMID:23992673

  19. Changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network during early period of ibrutinib therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: the significant decrease in T regulatory cells number.

    PubMed

    Podhorecka, Monika; Goracy, Aneta; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Kowal, Malgorzata; Ibanez, Blanca; Jankowska-Lecka, Olga; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Nowaczynska, Aleksandra; Drab-Urbanek, Elzbieta; Chocholska, Sylwia; Jawniak, Dariusz; Hus, Marek

    2017-05-23

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and kinase inhibitors directed toward the BCR pathway are now the promising anti-leukemic drugs. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates promising clinical activity in CLL. It is reported that ibrutinib, additionally to directly targeting leukemic cells, also inhibits the interactions of these cells with T cells, macrophages and accessory cells. Assessment of these mechanisms is important because of their non -direct anti-leukemic effects and to identify possible side effects connected with long-term drug administration.The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL. The analysis was performed on a group of 19 patients during first month of ibrutinib therapy. The standard multicolor flow cytometry and cytometric bead array methods were used for assessment of T-cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines, respectively.The data obtained indicates that Ibrutinib treatment results in changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL patients. Particularly, a significant reduction of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood was observed. By targeting these populations of T cells Ibrutinib can stimulate rejection of tumor cells by the immune system.

  20. Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic disease among indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maaori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand and do not enjoy the same oral health status as the non-Indigenous majority. To overcome oral health disparities, the life course approach affords a valid foundation on which to develop a process that will contribute to the protection of the oral health of young infants. The key to this process is the support that could be provided to the parents or care givers of Maaori infants during the pregnancy of the mother and the early years of the child. This study seeks to determine whether implementing a kaupapa Maaori (Maaori philosophical viewpoint) in an early childhood caries (ECC) intervention reduces dental disease burden among Maaori children. The intervention consists of four approaches to prevent early childhood caries: dental care provided during pregnancy, fluoride varnish application to the teeth of children, motivational interviewing, and anticipatory guidance. Methods/design The participants are Maaori women who are expecting a child and who reside within the Maaori tribal area of Waikato-Tainui. This randomised-control trial will be undertaken utilising the principles of kaupapa Maaori research, which encompasses Maaori leadership, Maaori relationships, Maaori customary practices, etiquette and protocol. Participants will be monitored through clinical and self-reported information collected throughout the ECC intervention. Self-report information will be collected in a baseline questionnaire during pregnancy and when children are aged 24 and 36 months. Clinical oral health data will be collected during standardised examinations at ages 24 and 36 months by calibrated dental professionals. All participants receive the ECC intervention benefits, with the intervention delayed by 24 months for participants who are randomised to the control-delayed arm. Discussion The development and evaluation of oral health interventions may produce evidence that supports the application of the principles of kaupapa

  1. Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic disease among indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Broughton, John R; Maipi, Joyce Te H; Person, Marie; Thomson, W Murray; Morgaine, Kate C; Tiakiwai, Sarah-Jane; Kilgour, Jonathan; Berryman, Kay; Lawrence, Herenia P; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2013-12-13

    Maaori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand and do not enjoy the same oral health status as the non-Indigenous majority. To overcome oral health disparities, the life course approach affords a valid foundation on which to develop a process that will contribute to the protection of the oral health of young infants. The key to this process is the support that could be provided to the parents or care givers of Maaori infants during the pregnancy of the mother and the early years of the child. This study seeks to determine whether implementing a kaupapa Maaori (Maaori philosophical viewpoint) in an early childhood caries (ECC) intervention reduces dental disease burden among Maaori children. The intervention consists of four approaches to prevent early childhood caries: dental care provided during pregnancy, fluoride varnish application to the teeth of children, motivational interviewing, and anticipatory guidance. The participants are Maaori women who are expecting a child and who reside within the Maaori tribal area of Waikato-Tainui.This randomised-control trial will be undertaken utilising the principles of kaupapa Maaori research, which encompasses Maaori leadership, Maaori relationships, Maaori customary practices, etiquette and protocol. Participants will be monitored through clinical and self-reported information collected throughout the ECC intervention. Self-report information will be collected in a baseline questionnaire during pregnancy and when children are aged 24 and 36 months. Clinical oral health data will be collected during standardised examinations at ages 24 and 36 months by calibrated dental professionals. All participants receive the ECC intervention benefits, with the intervention delayed by 24 months for participants who are randomised to the control-delayed arm. The development and evaluation of oral health interventions may produce evidence that supports the application of the principles of kaupapa Maaori research in the research

  2. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    PubMed Central

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H.; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis. Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods. Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results. Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion. Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27154182

  3. Clinical utility of the ARCHITECT HCV Ag assay for early treatment monitoring in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Vermehren, Johannes; Susser, Simone; Berger, Annemarie; Perner, Dany; Peiffer, Kai-Henrik; Allwinn, Regina; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    Virologic response-monitoring is essential for determining therapy duration in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This is usually performed using highly sensitive HCV-RNA assays. However, HCV-RNA assays are time-consuming, expensive and require highly trained personnel. Quantitative determination of HCV core-antigen (HCVAg) levels may be used to supplement treatment monitoring. The clinical utility of the ARCHITECT HCV Ag assay (Abbott Diagnostics) for response-guided therapy was investigated. We analyzed serum from 160 patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had been treated with peg-interferon alfa-2b/ribavirin. HCVAg levels were determined at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12. HCVAg levels were compared to those obtained with HCV-RNA assays: VERSANT HCV Quantitative 3.0 (bDNA) and Qualitative (TMA, both Siemens Healthcare) assay and the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (ART; Abbott Diagnostics). Baseline HCVAg levels correlated well with HCV-RNA as assessed by bDNA (r=0.91; p<0.0001) and ART (r=0.92; p<0.0001), respectively. Patients with undetectable HCVAg levels at week 1 had a 90.9% probability (positive predictive value) to achieve a rapid virologic response (HCV-RNA undetectable at week 4) based on TMA and 86.4% based on ART, respectively. Patients with less than 1 log(10) reduction in HCVAg between baseline and week 12 had a 90% probability (negative predictive value) to achieve a nonresponse (<2 log(10) decline in HCV-RNA between baseline and week 12) based on bDNA and 100% based on ART, respectively. Determination of HCVAg may be useful for antiviral response-monitoring in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of placental vascularization indices and uterine artery peak systolic velocity in early detection of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, chronic or gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia at risk.

    PubMed

    Altorjay, Ábel T; Surányi, Andrea; Nyári, Tibor; Németh, Gábor

    2017-04-14

    We aimed to investigate correlations between uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV), and placental vascularization in groups of normal blood pressure (NBP) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (chronic hypertension (CHT), gestational hypertension (GHT) and preeclampsia (PE)) alone or in combination with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and hypothesized that AUtPSV rises when GDM complicates pregnancy hypertension. Placental 3-dimensional power Doppler indices, such as vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI), and uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV) were measured in CHT (N=43), CHT+GDM (N=15), GHT (N=57), GHT+GDM (N=23) and PE (N=17) pregnancies, and compared to NBP (N=109). Correlations were analyzed between vascularization indices, AUtPSV, pregestational BMI and adverse pregnancy outcome rates. In our results VI was higher in CHT (P=0.010), while FI was lower in CHT (P=0.009), GHT and PE (P=0.001) compared to NBP. In case of VFI, significant difference was found between CHT and GHT (P=0.002), and NBP and PE (P=0.001). FI was found prognostic for umbilical pH and neonatal birth weight. Pre-gestational BMI was significantly higher in GHT+GDM compared to GHT, and in CHT+GDM compared to the CHT group. As for AUtPSV, significant difference was found between NBP and CHT (P=0.012), NBP and CHT+GDM (P=0.045), NBP and GHT+GDM (P=0.007), NBP and PE (P=0.032), and GHT and GHT+GDM (P=0.048) groups. Our study revealed that vascularization indices and AUtPSV show significant differences due to gestational pathology, and can be useful in detection of pregnancies at risk.

  5. Interdisciplinary model of care (RADICALS) for early detection and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Australian primary care: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jenifer; Abramson, Michael J; Zwar, Nicholas; Russell, Grant; Holland, Anne E; Bonevski, Billie; Mahal, Ajay; van Hecke, Benjamin; Phillips, Kirsten; Eustace, Paula; Paul, Eldho; Petrie, Kate; Wilson, Sally; George, Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Up to half of all smokers develop clinically significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Gaps exist in the implementation and uptake of evidence-based guidelines for managing COPD in primary care. We describe the methodology of a cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) evaluating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an interdisciplinary model of care aimed at reducing the burden of smoking and COPD in Australian primary care settings. Methods and analysis A cRCT is being undertaken to evaluate an interdisciplinary model of care (RADICALS — Review of Airway Dysfunction and Interdisciplinary Community-based care of Adult Long-term Smokers). General practice clinics across Melbourne, Australia, are identified and randomised to the intervention group (RADICALS) or usual care. Patients who are current or ex-smokers, of at least 10 pack years, including those with an existing diagnosis of COPD, are being recruited to identify 280 participants with a spirometry-confirmed diagnosis of COPD. Handheld lung function devices are being used to facilitate case-finding. RADICALS includes individualised smoking cessation support, home-based pulmonary rehabilitation and home medicines review. Patients at control group sites receive usual care and Quitline referral, as appropriate. Follow-ups occur at 6 and 12 months from baseline to assess changes in quality of life, abstinence rates, health resource utilisation, symptom severity and lung function. The primary outcome is change in St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score of patients with COPD at 6 months from baseline. Ethics and dissemination This project has been approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee and La Trobe University Human Ethics Committee (CF14/1018 – 2014000433). Results of the study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and research conferences. If the intervention is successful, the RADICALS programme could potentially be integrated into

  6. Development of chronic tests for endocrine active chemicals. Part 2: an extended fish early-life stage test with an androgenic chemical in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rinus; De Vries-Buitenweg, Selinda; Van Gils, Mariëlle; Baltussen, Erik; Hargreaves, Adam; van de Waart, Beppy; De Roode, Daphne; Legler, Juliette; Murk, Albertinka

    2006-11-16

    The Endocrine Modulators Study Group (EMSG) of the European Chemical Industry has proposed an extended fish early-life stage (ELS) test based on OECD test guideline 210 in combination with a fish pair-breeding reproduction study as a possible alternative for fish full life cycle testing. In this paper the androgen methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) was tested in an extended ELS test with fathead minnow supplementary to such a test with the weak estrogen 4-tert-pentylphenol (4TPP). Main endpoints were secondary sexual characteristics (SSC), plasma vitellogenin (VTG) induction and gonadal development. Early blastula embryos were exposed to 0, 0.10, 0.32 and 1.0 microgMDHTl(-1) for up to 114 days post-hatch (dph). A batch of fish exposed to 1.0 microg l(-1) was transferred to clean water after 30 or 63 dph for the remainder of the study. Ethinylestradiol (EE2) was included as estrogenic reference substance at 0.01 microg l(-1). Exposure to MDHT had no significant effect on hatching success or survival, but significantly increased the condition factor of fish exposed for 63 and 114 dph (up to 150% of the control). At 63 dph MDHT exposure induced appearance of tubercles on the snout (a male SSC) of more than 80% of fish. Compared to the controls, plasma VTG was not detectable or significantly lower in fish exposed to MDHT at 0.10 microg/l, but not significantly affected at higher MDHT concentrations. Both lower levels of MDHT significantly inhibited the development of female gonads as of 30 dph. Fish exposed to MDHT at 0.32 and 1.0 microg l(-1) showed higher incidences of mixed sex gonads (10-25%) and smaller testes or dysplasia of gonadal tissue. Dysplasia was present in 80% of the fish continuously exposed to 1.0 microg l(-1) up to 114 dph, but reversible when fish were transferred to dilution water. Results indicate that suppression of ovarian development was the most sensitive endpoint for MDHT exposure after 30 dph. Other endpoints (e.g., growth and SSC) required

  7. Early virologic response and IL28B polymorphisms in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Scherzer, Thomas-Matthias; Hofer, Harald; Staettermayer, Albert Friedrich; Rutter, Karoline; Beinhardt, Sandra; Steindl-Munda, Petra; Kerschner, Heidrun; Kessler, Harald H; Ferenci, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Polymorphisms of the IL28B gene (rs12979860 and rs8099917) are associated with high sustained virological response (SVR) rates in HCV genotype 1 patients. This study analyzes the impact of these IL28B polymorphisms on early treatment response (weeks 2 and 4) and SVR in HCV genotype 3 patients. rs12979860 and rs8099917 were analyzed by the Step-OnePlus Real-time PCR system in 71 out of 72 Caucasian HCV genotype 3 patients participating, at our center, in a randomized study comparing 400mg with 800 mg ribavirin/day. HCV RNA was determined at weeks 2 and 4 of 180 μg/week peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin treatment. Sixty-nine patients completed the treatment and follow-up. rs12979860 genotyping revealed that 27 (37.5%) patients had C/C, 39 (54.2%) T/C, and 5 (6.9%) T/T. Thirteen patients (18.1%) became HCV RNA negative at week 2 and an additional 30 (41.7%) at week 4 (rapid virologic response; RVR); thus a total of 43 had a RVR (C/C: 77.8%; T/C or T/T: 50.0%). Irrespective of the ribavirin dose, the viral load decline was larger than in those with the T allele (T/C or T/T) (week 2: 4.46; [0.36-6.02] median; [range] vs. 3.50; [0.14-5.62]; log IU HCV-RNA/ml; p<0.001; week 4: 4.97; [1.21-6.20] vs. 4.49; [1.16-6.23]; p=0.003). Despite the faster initial viral response in C/C carriers, SVR rates were not different compared to T-allele carriers. Results of the SNP in the rs8099917 region were similar. IL28B polymorphisms modulate early virologic response to peginterferon/ribavirin treatment. In contrast to HCV genotype 1 patients, no effect on SVR rates was observed in genotype 3 patients. The clinical relevance of an earlier viral decline in C/C patients needs to be determined. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interdisciplinary model of care (RADICALS) for early detection and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Australian primary care: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jenifer; Abramson, Michael J; Zwar, Nicholas; Russell, Grant; Holland, Anne E; Bonevski, Billie; Mahal, Ajay; Hecke, Benjamin van; Phillips, Kirsten; Eustace, Paula; Paul, Eldho; Petrie, Kate; Wilson, Sally; George, Johnson

    2017-09-18

    Up to half of all smokers develop clinically significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Gaps exist in the implementation and uptake of evidence-based guidelines for managing COPD in primary care. We describe the methodology of a cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) evaluating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an interdisciplinary model of care aimed at reducing the burden of smoking and COPD in Australian primary care settings. A cRCT is being undertaken to evaluate an interdisciplinary model of care (RADICALS - Review of Airway Dysfunction and Interdisciplinary Community-based care of Adult Long-term Smokers). General practice clinics across Melbourne, Australia, are identified and randomised to the intervention group (RADICALS) or usual care. Patients who are current or ex-smokers, of at least 10 pack years, including those with an existing diagnosis of COPD, are being recruited to identify 280 participants with a spirometry-confirmed diagnosis of COPD. Handheld lung function devices are being used to facilitate case-finding. RADICALS includes individualised smoking cessation support, home-based pulmonary rehabilitation and home medicines review. Patients at control group sites receive usual care and Quitline referral, as appropriate. Follow-ups occur at 6 and 12 months from baseline to assess changes in quality of life, abstinence rates, health resource utilisation, symptom severity and lung function. The primary outcome is change in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score of patients with COPD at 6 months from baseline. This project has been approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee and La Trobe University Human Ethics Committee (CF14/1018 - 2014000433). Results of the study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and research conferences. If the intervention is successful, the RADICALS programme could potentially be integrated into general practices across Australia and sustained over time. ACTRN

  9. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patrick S; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max), versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p = 0.001), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.028), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.045). Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p = 0.035), reduced plasma LDL (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.029), and total cholesterol (p = 0.002), increased plasma albumin (p = 0.047), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.005), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.048). These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD.

  10. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Patrick S.; Scanlan, Aaron T.; Dalbo, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max), versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p = 0.001), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.028), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.045). Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p = 0.035), reduced plasma LDL (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.029), and total cholesterol (p = 0.002), increased plasma albumin (p = 0.047), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.005), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.048). These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD. PMID:26090382

  11. Financial impact of two different ways of evaluating early virological response to peginterferon-alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1.

    PubMed

    Buti, Maria; Casado, Miguel A; Fosbrook, Leslie; Esteban, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 are the least responsive to peginterferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin therapy. The monitoring of early virological response (EVR) is therefore an important tool for quickly identifying non-responders, permitting therapy discontinuation and avoiding adverse effects and costs. To analyse the financial impact, in treatment-naive patients infected with HCV genotype 1, of two different measurement techniques for evaluating the EVR during pegIFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy, and to compare the results of a 48-week standard course of therapy with pegIFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin without measuring EVR. A budget impact model was constructed using a decision-tree analysis. EVR was defined as a >2 log decline in HCV RNA levels at week 12 either tested with two quantitative HCV RNA tests or undetectable HCV core antigen (HCV core Ag) protein levels at week 12 (one HCV core Ag test). Clinical data were taken from multicentre trials and costs from the published literature (euro, 2003 values). The analysis was carried out from the perspective of the Spanish healthcare system and therefore only direct costs were considered. The base-case scenario assumed that a potential study population of 18,504 people in Spain with chronic HCV genotype 1 would be eligible for treatment with pegIFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin. In the base case, the most effective strategy was testing EVR by HCV core Ag. This resulted in 12,745 patients reaching a sustained virological response (SVR) at an overall cost of 243.98 million euro (19,142 euro per SVR). Conversely, quantitative HCV RNA testing resulted in 11,776 patients with an SVR at a cost of 232.73 million euro ( 19,763 euro per SVR). The incremental cost per successfully treated patient with HCV core Ag testing versus quantitative HCV RNA testing was 11,597 euro. One-way sensitivity analyses demonstrated that changes in the study parameters did not modify the outcomes, except when

  12. Could an endoneurial endothelial crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and Sonic Hedgehog pathways underlie the early disruption of the infra-orbital blood-nerve barrier following chronic constriction injury?

    PubMed

    Moreau, Nathan; Mauborgne, Annie; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette B; Villanueva, Luis; Pohl, Michel; Boucher, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Blood–nerve barrier disruption is pivotal in the development of neuroinflammation, peripheral sensitization, and neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Activation of toll-like receptor 4 and inactivation of Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathways within the endoneurial endothelial cells are key events, resulting in the infiltration of harmful molecules and immunocytes within the nerve parenchyma. However, we showed in a previous study that preemptive inactivation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling or sustained activation of Sonic Hedgehog signaling did not prevent the local alterations observed following peripheral nerve injury, suggesting the implication of another signaling pathway. Using a classical neuropathic pain model, the infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI), we investigated the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in chronic constriction injury-mediated blood–nerve barrier disruption and in its interactions with the toll-like receptor 4 and Sonic Hedgehog pathways. In the IoN-CCI model versus control, mRNA expression levels and/or immunochemical detection of major Wnt/Sonic Hedgehog pathway (Frizzled-7, vascular endothelial-cadherin, Patched-1 and Gli-1) and/or tight junction proteins (Claudin-1, Claudin-5, and Occludin) readouts were assessed. Vascular permeability was assessed by sodium fluorescein extravasation. IoN-CCI induced early alterations in the vascular endothelial-cadherin/β-catenin/Frizzled-7 complex, shown to participate in local blood–nerve barrier disruption via a β-catenin-dependent tight junction protein downregulation. Wnt pathway also mediated a crosstalk between toll-like receptor 4 and Sonic Hedgehog signaling within endoneurial endothelial cells. Nevertheless, preemptive inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling before IoN-CCI could not prevent the downregulation of key Sonic Hedgehog pathway readouts or the disruption of the infraorbital blood–nerve barrier, suggesting that Sonic Hedgehog pathway

  13. Early Supported Discharge/Hospital At Home For Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Carlos; Brewin, Karen; Horobin, Hazel; Bryant, Andrew; Corbett, Sally; Steer, John; Bourke, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the safety, efficacy and cost of Early Supported Discharge (ESD) and Hospital at Home (HAH) compared to Usual Care (UC) for patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). The structure of ESD/HAH schemes was reviewed, and analyses performed assuming return to hospital during the acute period (prior to discharge from home treatment) was, and was not, considered a readmission. The pre-defined search strategy completed in November 2014 included electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Amed, BNI, Cinahl and HMIC), libraries, current trials registers, national organisations, key respiratory journals, key author contact and grey literature. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ESD/HAH to UC in patients admitted with AECOPD, or attending the emergency department and triaged for admission, were included. Outcome measures were mortality, all-cause readmissions to 6 months and cost. Eight RCTs were identified; seven reported mortality and readmissions. The structure of ESD/HAH schemes, particularly selection criteria applied and level of support provided, varied considerably. Compared to UC, ESD/HAH showed a trend towards lower mortality (RRMH = 0.66; 95% CI 0.40-1.09, p = 0.10). If return to hospital during the acute period was not considered a readmission, ESD/HAH was associated with fewer readmissions (RRMH = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90, p = 0.003), but if considered a readmission, the benefit was lost (RRMH = 0.84; 95% CI 0.69-1.01, p = 0.07). Costs were lower for ESD/HAH than UC. ESD/HAH is safe in selected patients with an AECOPD. Further research is required to define optimal criteria to guide patient selection and models of care.

  14. Effectiveness and safety of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin: An early access programme for Spanish patients with genotype 1/4 chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Perelló, C; Carrión, J A; Ruiz-Antorán, B; Crespo, J; Turnes, J; Llaneras, J; Lens, S; Delgado, M; García-Samaniego, J; García-Paredes, F; Fernández, I; Morillas, R M; Rincón, D; Porres, J C; Prieto, M; Lázaro Ríos, M; Fernández-Rodríguez, C; Hermo, J A; Rodríguez, M; Herrero, J I; Ruiz, P; Fernández, J R; Macías, M; Pascasio, J M; Moreno, J M; Serra, M Á; Arenas, J; Real, Y; Jorquera, F; Calleja, J L

    2017-03-01

    Over the last 5 years, therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have improved significantly, achieving sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of up to 100% in clinical trials in patients with HCV genotype 1. We investigated the effectiveness and safety of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir±dasabuvir in an early access programme. This was a retrospective, multicentre, national study that included 291 treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients with genotype 1 or 4 HCV infection. Most patients (65.3%) were male, and the mean age was 57.5 years. The mean baseline viral load was 6.1 log, 69.8% had HCV 1b genotype, 72.9% had cirrhosis and 34.7% were treatment-naïve. SVR at 12 weeks posttreatment was 96.2%. Four patients had virological failure (1.4%), one leading to discontinuation. There were no statistical differences in virological response according to genotype or liver fibrosis. Thirty patients experienced serious adverse events (SAEs) (10.3%), leading to discontinuation in six cases. Hepatic decompensation was observed in five patients. Four patients died during treatment or follow-up, three of them directly related to liver failure. Multivariate analyses showed a decreased probability of achieving SVR associated with baseline albumin, bilirubin and Child-Pugh score B, and a greater probability of developing SAEs related to age and albumin. This combined therapy was highly effective in clinical practice with an acceptable safety profile and low rates of treatment discontinuation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of chronic iTBS-rTMS and enriched environment on visual cortex early critical period and visual pattern discrimination in dark-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Padilla, Diana V; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Early cortical critical period resembles a state of enhanced neuronal plasticity enabling the establishment of specific neuronal connections during first sensory experience. Visual performance with regard to pattern discrimination is impaired if the cortex is deprived from visual input during the critical period. We wondered how unspecific activation of the visual cortex before closure of the critical period using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could affect the critical period and the visual performance of the experimental animals. Would it cause premature closure of the plastic state and thus worsen experience-dependent visual performance, or would it be able to preserve plasticity? Effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) were compared with those of an enriched environment (EE) during dark-rearing (DR) from birth. Rats dark-reared in a standard cage showed poor improvement in a visual pattern discrimination task, while rats housed in EE or treated with iTBS showed a performance indistinguishable from rats reared in normal light/dark cycle. The behavioral effects were accompanied by correlated changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and atypical PKC (PKCζ/PKMζ), two factors controlling stabilization of synaptic potentiation. It appears that not only nonvisual sensory activity and exercise but also cortical activation induced by rTMS has the potential to alleviate the effects of DR on cortical development, most likely due to stimulation of BDNF synthesis and release. As we showed previously, iTBS reduced the expression of parvalbumin in inhibitory cortical interneurons, indicating that modulation of the activity of fast-spiking interneurons contributes to the observed effects of iTBS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  17. Development of chronic tests for endocrine active chemicals. Part 1. An extended fish early-life stage test for oestrogenic active chemicals in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Panter, G H; Hutchinson, T H; Hurd, K S; Bamforth, J; Stanley, R D; Duffell, S; Hargreaves, A; Gimeno, S; Tyler, C R

    2006-05-10

    An extended early-life stage test (based on OECD test guideline 210) was developed to allow the evaluation of a weak environmental oestrogen, 4-tert-pentyphenol (4TPP), on sexual differentiation and gonadal development. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos were exposed to three concentrations of 4TPP (56, 180 and 560 microg l(-1)) in a flow-through system, at 25+/-1 degrees C, for <107 days post-hatch (dph). In addition, some embryos were exposed to 180 microg 4TPPl(-1) until 30 or 60 dph, after which they were exposed to dilution water only until 107 dph. At 30, 60 and 107 dph fish were evaluated for growth and gonadal development (via histology), and at 107 dph fish were also evaluated for secondary sexual characteristics (SSC), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). There were no effects of 4TPP on hatching success or survival, however, there was a delay in the time taken for embryos to hatch (560 microg 4TPPl(-1)). No treatment-related effects were observed on fish growth, with the exception of at 107 dph when the condition factor in female fish was reduced in all 4TPP continuous exposure treatments. Plasma VTG was only elevated in female fish exposed to 180 microg 4TPPl(-1) and inhibition of gonadal growth (GSI) occurred only in females exposed to 560 microg 4TPPl(-1). Histological examination of the gonads revealed delays and disruption in male sexual differentiation and development (180 microg 4TPPl(-1)) and no testicular tissue was observed in any fish exposed to 560 microg 4TPPl(-1). Mixed gonads (predominately testes with a scattering of primary oocytes) were present in fish exposed to all doses of 180 microg 4TPPl(-1) at 107 dph. Feminisation of the reproductive ducts (formation of an ovarian like cavity) occurred in the testis of all males exposed to 180 microg l(-1), regardless of length of 4TPP exposure. Results indicate that the period of 30-60 dph appears to be the sensitive window for disruption of formation of the

  18. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    DiMagno, Matthew J; DiMagno, Eugene P

    2012-09-01

    We review important new clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2011. Smoking increases the risk of nongallstone acute pancreatitis and the progression of acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis. Binge drinking during Oktoberfest did not associate with increased hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis. The unfolded protein response is an adaptive mechanism to maintain pancreatic health in response to noxious stimuli such as alcohol. Onset of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis is likely due to progressive disease rather than individual variables. Insufficient pancreatic enzyme dosing is common for treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea; 90 000 United States Pharmacopeia units of lipase should be given with meals. Surgical drainage provides sustained, superior pain relief compared with endoscopic treatment in patients advanced chronic pancreatitis with a dilated main duct ± pancreatic stones. The central acting gabapentoid pregabalin affords a modest 12% pain reduction in patients with chronic pancreatitis but approximately 30% of patients have significant side effects. Patients with nongallstone-related acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis of any cause should cease smoking. Results of this year's investigations further elucidated the pancreatic pathobiology due to alcohol, onset of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis, and the mechanisms and treatment of neuropathic pain in chronic pancreatitis.

  19. Chronic Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... connected to chronic sinusitis Aspirin sensitivity that causes respiratory symptoms An immune system disorder, such as HIV/AIDS or cystic fibrosis Hay fever or another allergic condition that affects your sinuses Regular exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke Complications Chronic ...

  20. Increased vascularization during early healing after biologic augmentation in repair of chronic rotator cuff tears using autologous leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF): a prospective randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Zumstein, Matthias A; Rumian, Adam; Lesbats, Virginie; Schaer, Michael; Boileau, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs using leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in a standardized, modified protocol is technically feasible and results in a higher vascularization response and watertight healing rate during early healing. Twenty patients with chronic rotator cuff tears were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups. In the test group (N = 10), L-PRF was added in between the tendon and the bone during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The second group served as control (N = 10). They received the same arthroscopic treatment without the use of L-PRF. We used a double-row tension band technique. Clinical examinations including subjective shoulder value, visual analog scale, Constant, and Simple Shoulder Test scores and measurement of the vascularization with power Doppler ultrasonography were made at 6 and 12 weeks. There have been no postoperative complications. At 6 and 12 weeks, there was no significant difference in the clinical scores between the test and the control groups. The mean vascularization index of the surgical tendon-to-bone insertions was always significantly higher in the L-PRF group than in the contralateral healthy shoulders at 6 and 12 weeks (P = .0001). Whereas the L-PRF group showed a higher vascularization compared with the control group at 6 weeks (P = .001), there was no difference after 12 weeks of follow-up (P = .889). Watertight healing was obtained in 89% of the repaired cuffs. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the application of L-PRF is technically feasible and yields higher early vascularization. Increased vascularization may potentially predispose to an increased and earlier cellular response and an increased healing rate. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unavailability of thymidine kinase does not preclude the use of German comprehensive prognostic index: results of an external validation analysis in early chronic lymphocytic leukemia and comparison with MD Anderson Cancer Center model.

    PubMed

    Molica, Stefano; Giannarelli, Diana; Mirabelli, Rosanna; Levato, Luciano; Russo, Antonio; Linardi, Maria; Gentile, Massimo; Morabito, Fortunato

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive prognostic index that includes clinical (i.e., age, sex, ECOG performance status), serum (i.e., ß2-microglobulin, thymidine kinase [TK]), and molecular (i.e., IGVH mutational status, del 17p, del 11q) markers developed by the German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG) was externally validated in a prospective, community-based cohort consisting of 338 patients with early chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) using as endpoint the time to first treatment (TTFT). Because serum TK was not available, a slightly modified version of the model based on seven instead of eight prognostic variables was used. By German index, 62.9% of patients were scored as having low-risk CLL (score 0-2), whereas 37.1% had intermediate-risk CLL (score 3-5). This stratification translated into a significant difference in the TTFT [HR = 4.21; 95% C.I. (2.71-6.53); P < 0.0001]. Also the 2007 MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) score, barely based on traditional clinical parameters, showed comparable reliability [HR = 2.73; 95% C.I. (1.79-4.17); P < 0.0001]. A comparative performance assessment between the two models revealed that prediction of the TTFT was more accurate with German score. The c-statistic of the MDACC model was 0.65 (range, 0.53-0.78) a level below that of the German index [0.71 (range, 0.60-0.82)] and below the accepted 0.7 threshold necessary to have value at the individual patient level. Results of this external comparative validation analysis strongly support the German score as the benchmark for comparison of any novel prognostic scheme aimed at evaluating the TTFT in patients with early CLL even when a modified version which does not include TK is utilized. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Chronic arsenicism].

    PubMed

    Bourgeais, A M; Avenel-Audran, M; Le Bouil, A; Bouyx, C; Allain, P; Verret, J L

    2001-04-01

    Arsenic is an ubiquitous natural element. Chronic and low level ingestion or inhalation may result in chronic arsenicism first characterized by skin changes. A 75 year old man, non-insulin-dependent diabetic, presented a diffuse hyperpigmentation with scattered white spots on the trunk. He complained of asthenia. Clinical diagnosis of chronic arsenicism was confirmed by arsenic determination in urine, plasma and phaneres. Thorough investigations led to discover very high arsenic levels in the own wine of the patient. This was probably the result of a wrong use of sodium arsenite-based fungicide, for cultivating his vine yard. Chronic arsenicism has become rare but it should always be kept in mind. Clinical presentation, with particular cutaneous features and routes of exposure are reviewed. Treatment is symptomatic. As arsenic is known to be a strong carcinogenic agent, patients with chronic arsenicism have to be followed up during a long time.

  3. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-05-07

    Chronic pancreatitis describes a wide spectrum of fibro-inflammatory disorders of the exocrine pancreas that includes calcifying, obstructive, and steroid-responsive forms. Use of the term chronic pancreatitis without qualification generally refers to calcifying chronic pancreatitis. Epidemiology is poorly defined, but incidence worldwide seems to be on the rise. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors for chronic calcifying pancreatitis. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of chronic calcifying pancreatitis, focusing on pain management, the role of endoscopic and surgical intervention, and the use of pancreatic enzyme-replacement therapy. Management of patients is often challenging and necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do We Know What Causes Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be Prevented? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  5. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosendahl, Jonas; Bödeker, Hans; Mössner, Joachim; Teich, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP) is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic pancreatitis of other causes. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic abdominal pain, impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, nausea and vomiting, maldigestion, diabetes, pseudocysts, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. Fortunately, most patients have a mild disease. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene, encoding cationic trypsinogen, play a causative role in chronic pancreatitis. It has been shown that the PRSS1 mutations increase autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, and thus probably cause premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation disturbing the intrapancreatic balance of proteases and their inhibitors. Other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2), the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary) as well. Genetic testing should only be performed in carefully selected patients by direct DNA sequencing and antenatal diagnosis should not be encouraged. Treatment focuses on enzyme and nutritional supplementation, pain management, pancreatic diabetes, and local organ complications, such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction. The disease course and prognosis of patients with HCP is unpredictable. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated. Therefore, HCP patients should strongly avoid environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer. PMID:17204147

  6. Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Dilip; Natarajan, Sathima

    2015-10-01

    Advances over the past decade have indicated that a complex interplay between environmental factors, genetic predisposition, alcohol abuse, and smoking lead towards the development of chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a complex disorder that causes significant and chronic incapacity in patients and a substantial burden on the society. Major advances have been made in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease and the role of genetic predisposition is increasingly coming to the fore. Advances in noninvasive diagnostic modalities now allow for better diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at an early stage of the disease. The impact of these advances on surgical treatment is beginning to emerge, for example, patients with certain genetic predispositions may be better treated with total pancreatectomy versus lesser procedures. Considerable controversy remains with respect to the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern understanding of the neurobiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis suggests that a window of opportunity exists for effective treatment of the intractable pain after which central sensitization can lead to an irreversible pain syndrome in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Effective surgical procedures exist for chronic pancreatitis; however, the timing of surgery is unclear. For optimal treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis, close collaboration between a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pain management physicians is needed.

  7. Combination of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, early lactate area, and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide levels as a predictor of mortality in geriatric patients with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Li, Zhong; Yin, Mei; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Ding, Shi-Fang; Li, Chen; Zhai, Qian; Li, Yuan; Liu, Han; Wu, Da-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Given the high mortality rates in elderly patients with septic shock, the early recognition of patients at greatest risk of death is crucial for the implementation of early intervention strategies. Serum lactate and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels are often elevated in elderly patients with septic shock and are therefore important biomarkers of metabolic and cardiac dysfunction. We hypothesized that a risk stratification system that incorporates the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and lactate and NT-proBNP biomarkers would better predict mortality in geriatric patients with septic shock than the APACHE II score alone. A single-center prospective study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2013 in a 30-bed intensive care unit of a triservice hospital. The lactate area score was defined as the sum of the area under the curve of serial lactate levels measured during the 24 hours following admission divided by 24. The NT-proBNP score was assigned based on NT-proBNP levels measured at admission. The combined score was calculated by adding the lactate area and NT-proBNP scores to the APACHE II score. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate which variables and scoring systems served as the best predictors of mortality in elderly septic patients. A total of 115 patients with septic shock were included in the study. The overall 28-day mortality rate was 67.0%. When compared to survivors, nonsurvivors had significantly higher lactate area scores, NT-proBNP scores, APACHE II scores, and combined scores. In the multivariate regression model, the combined score, lactate area score, and mechanical ventilation were independent risk factors associated with death. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that the combined score had significantly greater predictive power when compared to the APACHE II score or the NT-proBNP score

  8. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... of mainstream medical care. Acupuncture and massage are examples of these treatments. Talk to your doctor before trying any CAM procedures. Severe cases of chronic pain could require more invasive treatment. ...

  9. Chronic MK-801 Application in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Spatial Working Memory Deficit in Adult Long-Evans Rats But No Changes in the Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Subunits.

    PubMed

    Uttl, Libor; Petrasek, Tomas; Sengul, Hilal; Svojanovska, Marketa; Lobellova, Veronika; Vales, Karel; Radostova, Dominika; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubova, Hana; Mikulecka, Anna; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlik, Ales

    2018-01-01

    The role of NMDA receptors in learning, memory and hippocampal function has long been recognized. Post-mortem studies have indicated that the expression or subunit composition of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype might be related to the impaired cognitive functions found in schizophrenia patients. NMDA receptor antagonists have been used to develop animal models of this disorder. There is accumulating evidence showing that not only the acute but also the chronic application of NMDA receptor antagonists may induce schizophrenia-like alterations in behavior and brain functions. However, limited evidence is available regarding the consequences of NMDA receptor blockage during periods of adolescence and early adulthood. This study tested the hypothesis that a 2-week treatment of male Long-Evans and Wistar rats with dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.5 mg/kg daily) starting at postnatal days (PD) 30 and 60 would cause a long-term cognitive deficit and changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits. The working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM) and active place avoidance with reversal on a rotating arena (Carousel) requiring cognitive coordination and flexibility probed cognitive functions and an elevated-plus maze (EPM) was used to measure anxiety-like behavior. The western blot method was used to determine changes in NMDA receptor subunit levels in the hippocampus. Our results showed no significant changes in behaviors in Wistar rats. Slightly elevated anxiety-like behavior was observed in the EPM in Long-Evans rats with the onset of treatment on PD 30. Furthermore, Long-Evans rats treated from PD 60 displayed impaired working memory in the MWM. There were; however, no significant changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits because of MK-801 administration. These findings suggest that a 2-week treatment starting on PD 60 in Long-Evans rats leads to long-term changes in working memory, but this deficit is not paralleled by changes in NMDA receptor subunits. These

  10. Chronic MK-801 Application in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Spatial Working Memory Deficit in Adult Long-Evans Rats But No Changes in the Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Libor; Petrasek, Tomas; Sengul, Hilal; Svojanovska, Marketa; Lobellova, Veronika; Vales, Karel; Radostova, Dominika; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubova, Hana; Mikulecka, Anna; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlik, Ales

    2018-01-01

    The role of NMDA receptors in learning, memory and hippocampal function has long been recognized. Post-mortem studies have indicated that the expression or subunit composition of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype might be related to the impaired cognitive functions found in schizophrenia patients. NMDA receptor antagonists have been used to develop animal models of this disorder. There is accumulating evidence showing that not only the acute but also the chronic application of NMDA receptor antagonists may induce schizophrenia-like alterations in behavior and brain functions. However, limited evidence is available regarding the consequences of NMDA receptor blockage during periods of adolescence and early adulthood. This study tested the hypothesis that a 2-week treatment of male Long-Evans and Wistar rats with dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.5 mg/kg daily) starting at postnatal days (PD) 30 and 60 would cause a long-term cognitive deficit and changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits. The working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM) and active place avoidance with reversal on a rotating arena (Carousel) requiring cognitive coordination and flexibility probed cognitive functions and an elevated-plus maze (EPM) was used to measure anxiety-like behavior. The western blot method was used to determine changes in NMDA receptor subunit levels in the hippocampus. Our results showed no significant changes in behaviors in Wistar rats. Slightly elevated anxiety-like behavior was observed in the EPM in Long-Evans rats with the onset of treatment on PD 30. Furthermore, Long-Evans rats treated from PD 60 displayed impaired working memory in the MWM. There were; however, no significant changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits because of MK-801 administration. These findings suggest that a 2-week treatment starting on PD 60 in Long-Evans rats leads to long-term changes in working memory, but this deficit is not paralleled by changes in NMDA receptor subunits. These

  11. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  12. Chronic Early Absence: What States Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hedy N.; Russell-Tucker, Charlene M.; Sullivan, Kari

    2016-01-01

    When troubling attendance data in New Britain, Conn., caught district leaders by surprise, they reconsidered their focus on truancy in the older grades and turned their attention on their elementary schools. With support from local philanthropy and assistance from Attendance Works, the district significantly reduced the incidence of chronic…

  13. Decreased expression of CD69 in chronic fatigue syndrome in relation to inflammatory markers: evidence for a severe disorder in the early activation of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Mihaylova, Ivana; DeRuyter, Marcel; Rummens, Jean-Luc; Bosmans, Eugene; Maes, Michael

    2007-08-01

    There is some evidence that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) suffer from immune abnormalities, such as immune activation and decreased immune cell responsivity upon polyclonal stimili. This study was designed to evaluate lymphocyte activation in CFS by using a CD69 expression assay. CD69 acts as a costimulatory molecule for T- and natural killer (NK) cell activation. We collected whole blood from CFS patients, who met CDC criteria, and healthy volunteers. The blood samples were stimulated with mitogens during 18 h and the levels of activated T and NK cells expressing CD69 were measured on a Coulter Epics flow cytometer using a three color immunofluorescence staining protocol. The expression of the CD69 activation marker on T cells (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+) and on NK cells (CD45+CD56+) was significantly lower in CFS patients than in healthy subjects. These differences were significant to the extent that a significant diagnostic performance was obtained, i.e. the area under the ROC curve was around 89%. No differences either in the number of leukocytes or in the number or percentage of lymphocytes, i.e. CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD19, could be found between CFS patients and the controls. Patients with CFS show defects in T- and NK cell activation. Since induction of CD69 surface expression is dependent on the activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) activation pathway, it is suggested that in CFS there is a disorder in the early activation of the immune system involving PKC.

  14. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    MedlinePlus

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; CGL; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  15. Chronic gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines. PMID:25901896

  16. Chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  17. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kay, Neil E; Hamblin, Terry J; Jelinek, Diane F; Dewald, Gordon W; Byrd, John C; Farag, Sherif; Lucas, Margaret; Lin, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This update of early stage B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) embraces current information on the diagnosis, biology, and intervention required to more fully develop algorithms for management of this disease. Emphasis on early stage is based on the rapid advancement in our understanding of the disease parameters and our increasing ability to predict for a given early stage patient whether there is a need for more aggressive management. In Section I, Dr. Terry Hamblin addresses the nature of the disease, accurate diagnostic procedures, evidence for an early "preclinical" phase, the use of newer prognostic features to distinguish who will be likely to progress or not, and whether it is best to watch or treat early stage disease. In Section II, Dr. Neil Kay and colleagues address the biologic aspects of the disease and how they may relate to disease progression. Review of the newer insights into gene expression, recurring genetic defects, role of cytokines/autocrine pathways, and the interaction of the CLL B cell with the microenvironment are emphasized. The relationship of these events to both trigger disease progression and as opportunities for future therapeutic intervention even in early stage disease is also considered. In Section III, Dr. John Byrd and colleagues review the historical and now current approaches to management of the previously untreated progressive B-CLL patient. They discuss what decision tree could be used in the initial decision to treat a given patient. The use of single agents versus newer combination approaches such as chemoimmunotherapy are discussed here. In addition, the place of marrow transplant and some of the newer antibodies available for treatment of B-CLL are considered. Finally, a challenge to utilize our growing knowledge of the biology of B-CLL in the early stage B-CLL is proffered.

  18. First-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Since the introduction of imatinib just over a decade ago, there has been a dramatic change in the treatment and prognosis of early chronic phase chronic myeloid Leukaemia (CML). This review article focuses on recent advances, culminating in the approval of nilotinib by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed CML in the chronic phase.

  19. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide About Chronic Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Chronic kidney disease ( ... about Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that ...

  20. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org National ...

  1. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  2. Low back pain - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  3. Beyond the "First Hit": Marked Inhibition by N-Acetyl Cysteine of Chronic Ethanol Intake But Not of Early Ethanol Intake. Parallel Effects on Ethanol-Induced Saccharin Motivation.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, María Elena; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Berríos-Cárcamo, Pablo; Salinas-Luypaert, Catalina; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have shown that acetaldehyde synthesized in the brain is necessary to induce ethanol (EtOH) reinforcement in naïve animals (acquisition phase). However, after chronic intake is achieved (maintenance phase), EtOH intake becomes independent of acetaldehyde generation or its levels. Glutamate has been reported to be associated with the maintenance of chronic EtOH intake. The levels of brain extracellular glutamate are modulated by 2 glial processes: glutamate reabsorption via an Na(+) -glutamate transporter (GLT1) and a cystine-glutamate exchanger. Chronic EtOH intake lowers GLT1 levels and increases extracellular glutamate. The administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of cystine, has been shown to reduce the relapse of several drugs of abuse, while NAC has not been tested on chronic EtOH intake or on EtOH's influence on the motivation for another drug. These were investigated in the present study. (i) Rats bred for their high EtOH intake were allowed access to 10% EtOH and water up to 87 days. NAC was administered (30 and 60 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally) for 14 consecutive days, either during the acquisition phase or the maintenance phase of EtOH drinking. (ii) In additional experiments, rats were allowed EtOH (10%) and water access for 61 days, after which EtOH was replaced by saccharin (0.3%) to determine both if chronic EtOH consumption influences saccharin intake and whether NAC modifies the post chronic EtOH saccharin intake. NAC did not influence the acquisition ("first hit") of chronic EtOH intake, but greatly inhibited (60 to 70%; p < 0.0001) EtOH intake when NAC was administered to animals that were consuming EtOH chronically. NAC did not influence saccharin intake in naïve animals. In animals that had consumed EtOH chronically and were thereafter offered a saccharin solution (0.3%), saccharin intake increased over 100% versus that of EtOH-untreated animals, an effect that was fully suppressed by NAC. N

  4. Chronic pancreatitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Sinead N; Ní Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Lawal, Oladapo; O’Connor, Donal B; Conlon, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Typical clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are vague and non-specific and therefore diagnostic tests are required, none of which provide absolute diagnostic certainly, especially in the early stages of disease. Recently-published guidelines bring much needed structure to the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis. In addition, novel diagnostic modalities bring promise for the future. The assessment and diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency remains challenging and this review contests the accepted perspective that steatorrhea only occurs with > 90% destruction of the gland. PMID:26900292

  5. Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz, J

    2016-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the definition of the disease, the etiological diagnosis of idiopathic disease, the correlation between fibrosis degree and pancreatic secretion in the early stages of chronic pancreatitis, the treatment of the disease and of pain, the clinical relevance of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. A new mechanistic definition of chronic pancreatitis has been proposed. Genetic testing is mainly of help in patients with relapsing idiopathic pancreatitis. A significant correlation has been shown between the degree of pancreatic fibrosis as evaluated by elastography and pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate. New data supports the efficacy of antioxidants and simvastatin for the therapy of chronic pancreatitis. The pancreatoscopy-guided intraductal lithotripsy is an effective alternative to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis. The presence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is associated with a significant risk of cardiovascular events. Fine needle biopsy and contrast enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography are of help for the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and its differential diagnosis with pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Valade, D

    2013-05-01

    The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2006 (ICHD-2R) gives a definition which requires 15 or more headache days per month over the past 3months with at least eight headache days per month that meet criteria for migraine without aura or that responds to migraine specific treatment. Approximately 2% of the global population suffers of chronic migraine (CM). Frequency of headache and degree of disability distinguish CM from episodic migraine (EM). There is a high frequency of medication overuse. The treatment depends on evaluation with education, lifestyle modifications, and trigger management, behavioral and pharmacologic therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…

  8. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Muñoz, J Enrique

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the treatment of symptoms and complications, mainly pain and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis and therapy of autoimmune pancreatitis. The multimodal dynamic endoscopic ultrasound-guided secretin-stimulated evaluation of the pancreas provides relevant morphological and functional information for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at early stages. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with calcifying pancreatitis and endoscopic pancreatic stent placement are effective alternatives for pain therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Presence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is associated with a significantly increase of mortality rate. Despite that, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is not prescribed in the majority of patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, or it is prescribed at a low dose. The newly developed and commercialized needles for endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic biopsy are effective in retrieving appropriate tissue samples for the histological diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Maintenance therapy with azathioprine is effective and safe to prevent relapses in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic pretrigeminal and cerveau isolé cats.

    PubMed

    Slósarska, M; Zernicki, B

    1973-01-01

    Ten pretrigeminal and ten cerveau isole cats were observed chronically. During 24-36 h sessions EEG activity was continuously recorded and the EEG and ocular responses to visual and olfactory stimuli were studied. In the pretrigeminal cat acute and chronic stages were distinguished, and in the cerveau isole, acute, "early chronic" and "late chronic" stages. During the acute stage, the pretrigeminal cat is continuously awake, whereas the cerveau isole is comatose. During the "early chronic stage", which lasted at least about 3 weeks, the cerveau isole is semicomatose. During the chronic stage in the pretrigeminal cat and the "late chronic stage" in the cerveau isole, the sleep-waking cycle is present. In both preparations alert wakefulness, drowsiness, light .synchronized sleep and deep synchronized sleep occupy, respectively, about 30 percent, 45 percent, 15 percent and 10 percent of the time. Thus, synchronized sleep is strikingly reduced in comparison with an intact cat, while desynchronized sleep is absent.

  10. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the prediction of the fibrosis degree of the gland, the evaluation of patients with asymptomatic hyperenzimemia, the medical and surgical treatment of abdominal pain and the knowledge of the natural history of the autoimmune pancreatitis. In patients with indetermined EUS findings of chronic pancreatitis, a new endoscopic ultrasound examination in the follow-up is of help to confirm or to exclude the disease. Smoking, number of relapses, results of pancreatic function tests and EUS findings allow predicting the degree of pancreatic fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidant therapy has shown to be effective in reducing pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis, although the type and optimal dose of antioxidants remains to be elucidated. Development of intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frequent in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but its impact on symptoms is unknown and deserves further investigations. Finally, autoimmune pancreatitis relapses in about half of the patients with either type 1 or type 2 disease; relapses frequently occur within the first two years of follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Now Give Monthly Give In Honor Chronic kidney disease (CKD) www.kidneyfund.org > Kidney Disease > Chronic ... Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people ...

  12. Chronic Diseases Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases of blindness among adults. 6 Health Risk Behaviors that Cause Chronic Diseases Health risk behaviors are ... The Cost of Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Behaviors In the United States, chronic diseases and conditions ...

  13. Chronic subdural hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    Subdural hemorrhage - chronic; Subdural hematoma - chronic; Subdural hygroma ... A subdural hematoma develops when bridging veins tear and leak blood. These are the tiny veins that run between the ...

  14. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  15. Models of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Markus M; Gorelick, Fred S

    2013-06-01

    Animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis have been created to examine mechanisms of pathogenesis, test therapeutic interventions, and study the influence of inflammation on the development of pancreatic cancer. In vitro models can be used to study early stage, short-term processes that involve acinar cell responses. Rodent models reproducibly develop mild or severe disease. One of the most commonly used pancreatitis models is created by administration of supraphysiologic concentrations of caerulein, an ortholog of cholecystokinin. Induction of chronic pancreatitis with factors thought to have a role in human disease, such as combinations of lipopolysaccharide and chronic ethanol feeding, might be relevant to human disease. Models of autoimmune chronic pancreatitis have also been developed. Most models, particularly of chronic pancreatitis, require further characterization to determine which features of human disease they include. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CHRONIC URTICARIA

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Gupta, Vibhanshu; Amin, Syed Suhail; Tahseen, Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Chronic urticaria (CU) is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ‘idiopathic’ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented. PMID:22345759

  17. Chronic insomnia.

    PubMed

    Morin, Charles M; Benca, Ruth

    2012-03-24

    Insomnia is a prevalent complaint in clinical practice that can present independently or comorbidly with another medical or psychiatric disorder. In either case, it might need treatment of its own. Of the different therapeutic options available, benzodiazepine-receptor agonists (BzRAs) and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) are supported by the best empirical evidence. BzRAs are readily available and effective in the short-term management of insomnia, but evidence of long-term efficacy is scarce and most hypnotic drugs are associated with potential adverse effects. CBT is an effective alternative for chronic insomnia. Although more time consuming than drug management, CBT produces sleep improvements that are sustained over time, and this therapy is accepted by patients. Although CBT is not readily available in most clinical settings, access and delivery can be made easier through use of innovative methods such as telephone consultations, group therapy, and self-help approaches. Combined CBT and drug treatment can optimise outcomes, although evidence to guide clinical practice on the best way to integrate these approaches is scarce. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phosphate Additive Avoidance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Goldfarb, David S; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-05-01

    IN BRIEF Dietary guidelines for patients with diabetes extend beyond glycemic management to include recommendations for mitigating chronic disease risk. This review summarizes the literature suggesting that excess dietary phosphorus intake may increase the risk of skeletal and cardiovascular disease in patients who are in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite having normal serum phosphorus concentrations. It explores strategies for limiting dietary phosphorus, emphasizing that food additives, as a major source of highly bioavailable dietary phosphorus, may be a suitable target. Although the evidence for restricting phosphorus-based food additives in early CKD is limited, diabetes clinicians should monitor ongoing research aimed at assessing its efficacy.

  19. Phosphate Additive Avoidance in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, David S.; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-01-01

    IN BRIEF Dietary guidelines for patients with diabetes extend beyond glycemic management to include recommendations for mitigating chronic disease risk. This review summarizes the literature suggesting that excess dietary phosphorus intake may increase the risk of skeletal and cardiovascular disease in patients who are in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite having normal serum phosphorus concentrations. It explores strategies for limiting dietary phosphorus, emphasizing that food additives, as a major source of highly bioavailable dietary phosphorus, may be a suitable target. Although the evidence for restricting phosphorus-based food additives in early CKD is limited, diabetes clinicians should monitor ongoing research aimed at assessing its efficacy. PMID:28588376

  20. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  1. Lung Function in Rural Guatemalan Women Before and After a Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Wood Smoke Exposure: Results From the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects and Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter Study.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Michael; Diaz, Esperanza; Pope, Daniel; Eisen, Ellen A; Mann, Jennifer; Smith, Kirk R; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Bruce, Nigel G; Balmes, John R

    2015-11-01

    COPD is the third most frequent cause of death globally, with much of this burden attributable to household biomass smoke exposure in developing countries. As biomass smoke exposure is also associated with cardiovascular disease, lower respiratory infection, lung cancer, and cataracts, it presents an important target for public health intervention. Lung function in Guatemalan women exposed to wood smoke from open fires was measured throughout the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) stove intervention trial and continued during the Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) cohort study. In RESPIRE, early stove households received a chimney woodstove at the beginning of the 18-month trial, and delayed stove households received a stove at trial completion. Personal exposure to wood smoke was assessed with exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO) and personal CO tubes. Change in lung function between intervention groups and as a function of wood smoke exposure was assessed using random effects models. Of 306 women participating in both studies, acceptable spirometry was collected in 129 early stove and 136 delayed stove households (n = 265), with a mean follow-up of 5.6 years. Despite reduced wood smoke exposures in early stove households, there were no significant differences in any of the measured spirometric variables during the study period (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and annual change) after adjustment for confounding. In these young Guatemalan women, there was no association between lung function and early randomization to a chimney stove or personal wood smoke exposure. Future stove intervention trials should incorporate cleaner stoves, longer follow-up, or potentially susceptible groups to identify meaningful differences in lung function.

  2. Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia: A Rare Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Barret, Maximilien; Martineau, Chloé; Rahmi, Gabriel; Pellerin, Olivier; Sapoval, Marc; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Malamut, Georgia; Samaha, Elia; Cellier, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia is a rare disease with nonspecific clinical symptoms, such as chronic postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss. Diagnostic modalities and revascularization techniques have evolved during the past 20 years. The significance of stenosis in a single splanchnic vessel remains unclear. Our aims were to assess the outcomes of 2 revascularization techniques and report on the diagnostic modalities of splanchnic vessel stenoses. The demographic data, medical history, technical characteristics, and outcomes of the revascularization procedures were recorded for all of the patients admitted for endovascular revascularization or open surgical revascularization of the splanchnic vessels as treatment for chronic mesenteric ischemia in our tertiary referral center since 2000. Fifty-four patients were included in this study: 43 received endovascular revascularization, and 11 had open surgical revascularization. The symptoms were abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea in 98%, 53%, and 25% of the cases, respectively. Computed tomography angiography was the key diagnostic tool for 60% of the patients. A single-vessel stenosis was found in one-third of the patients. Endovascular and open revascularization had similar early and late outcomes, and no 30-day mortality was observed. However, we did observe higher morbidity in the open revascularization group (73% vs 19%, P <.03). Chronic mesenteric ischemia may be diagnosed in the presence of a splanchnic syndrome and stenosis of a single splanchnic vessel, typically assessed using computed tomography angiography. In selected patients, endovascular revascularization had similar efficacy as, and lower complication rates than open revascularization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and as late as 9:00 a.m. on weekends. Her nighttime sleep problems result in daytime irritability and difficulty focusing and organizing her thoughts, which subjectively impair her work as an administrative assistant, although her performance evaluations have been satisfactory. She says that she has “no energy for anything extra,” that her house is a mess, and that she routinely declines invitations to join social and even family activities. Her insomnia began approximately 5 years ago during a period of increased life stress related to a difficult divorce and a job change. At that time she was diagnosed with major depression and was started on a successful trial of escitalopram, which she continues at a dose of 10 mg/day. Her current symptoms are distinct from those that were associated with her episode of major depression. She denies pervasive sadness or loss of interest, but she is very frustrated with her inability to function more effectively, which she attributes to her insomnia. In fact, she believes that her cognitive difficulties and irritability are most noticeable after nights of particularly poor sleep. Her medical history is unremarkable other than a past history of Graves’ disease. She has been treated with levothyroxine for the past 15 years. How should Ms. F be evaluated? What medical testing, if any, would be appropriate? What factors should be considered in formulating a treatment plan? What treatments would be appropriate? PMID:18519533

  4. Supporting Self-management of Chronic Pain

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-04

    Chronic Pain Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Chronic Pain Due to Injury; Chronic Pain Due to Trauma; Chronic Pain Due to Malignancy (Finding); Chronic Pain Post-Procedural; Chronic Pain Hip; Chronic Pain, Widespread

  5. Cloning of a long HIV-1 readthrough transcript and detection of an increased level of early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) mRNA in chronically infected U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Hameau, L; Benboudjema, L; Guymarho, J; Cajean-Feroldi, C; Rizza, P; Godard, C; Jasmin, C; Tovey, M G; Lang, M C

    1999-01-01

    To identify the pathways involved in HIV-1 modification of cellular gene expression, chronically infected U937 cells were screened by mRNA differential display. A chimeric transcript consisting of the 3' end of the LTR of a HIV-1 provirus, followed by 3.7 kb of cellular RNA was identified suggesting that long readthrough transcription might be one of the mechanisms by which gene expression could be modified in individual infected cells. Such a phenomenon may also be the first step towards the potential transduction of cellular sequences. Furthermore, the mRNA encoding for the transcription factor Egr-1 was detected as an over-represented transcript in infected cells. Northern blot analysis confirmed the increase of Egr-1 mRNA content in both HIV-1 infected promonocytic U937 cells and T cell lines such as Jurkat and CEM. Interestingly a similar increase of Egr-1 mRNA has previously been reported to occur in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infected T cell lines. Despite the consistent increase in the level of Egr-1 mRNA, the amount of the encoded protein did not appear to be modified in HIV-1 infected cells, suggesting an increased turn over of the protein in chronically infected cells.

  6. First-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of imatinib just over a decade ago, there has been a dramatic change in the treatment and prognosis of early chronic phase chronic myeloid Leukaemia (CML). This review article focuses on recent advances, culminating in the approval of nilotinib by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed CML in the chronic phase. PMID:23556068

  7. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    PubMed

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Chronic Absenteeism: A Key Indicator of Student Success. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafa, Alyssa

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that chronic absenteeism can affect academic performance in later grades and is a key early warning sign that a student is more likely to drop out of high school. Several states enacted legislation to address this issue, and many states are currently discussing the utility of chronic absenteeism as an indicator of school quality or…

  9. A case of fatal necrotizing fasciitis arising from chronic lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young Joon; Kang, In Sook; Lee, Jung Ho; Kim, Sue Min; Kim, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    Chronic lymphedema and lymphangitis are common adverse effects following treatment for gynecological cancer. Because the early symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis are similar to those of lymphangitis, fatal outcome can occur if patients or physicians underestimate this condition. Here, we present a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a patient with chronic lymphedema.

  10. Early-stage chronic kidney disease, insulin resistance, and osteoporosis as risk factors of sarcopenia in aged population: the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Kim, J E; Lee, Y-H; Huh, J H; Kang, D R; Rhee, Y; Lim, S-K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcopenia means the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with aging. In this study, we found that insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease stage 3, and osteoporosis at the femur neck were closely associated with sarcopenia in elderly men. These conditions modified to slow down the progression of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is known to have multiple contributing factors; however, its modifiable risk factors have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the most influential and modifiable risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study using data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009. This study included 940 men and 1,324 women aged 65 years and older who completed a body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height(2) of less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group. Using univariate analysis, age, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, high-risk drinking, family income, osteoporosis, daily energy, and protein intake were associated with sarcopenia in men; age, BMI, limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, occupation, osteoporosis at the total hip, and daily energy intake were associated with sarcopenia in women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR ≥2.5 (odds ratio [OR] for sarcopenia, 2.27; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.25), chronic kidney disease stage 3 (OR, 3.13; 95 % CI, 1.14-8.61), and osteoporosis at the femur neck (OR, 6.83; 95 % CI, 1.08-43.41) were identified as risk factors for sarcopenia in men. Insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease, and osteoporosis at the femur neck should be modified to prevent the acceleration of skeletal muscle

  11. Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED).

    PubMed

    Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2017-02-06

    Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP <130 mmHg) at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include: (1) mean change in systolic BP; (2) control of other vascular risk factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity

  12. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: The unknown disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Munarriz, P M; Paredes, B; Alén, J F

    2017-04-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neurodegenerative disease produced by accumulated minor traumatic brain injuries; no definitive premortem diagnosis and no treatments are available for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Risk factors associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy include playing contact sports, presence of the apolipoprotein E4, and old age. Although it shares certain histopathological findings with Alzheimer disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy has a more specific presentation (hyperphosphorylated tau protein deposited as neurofibrillary tangles, associated with neuropil threads and sometimes with beta-amyloid plaques). Its clinical presentation is insidious; patients show mild cognitive and emotional symptoms before progressing to parkinsonian motor signs and finally dementia. Results from new experimental diagnostic tools are promising, but these tools are not yet available. The mainstay of managing this disease is prevention and early detection of its first symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure of mother rats to chronic unpredictable stress before pregnancy alters the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in the right hippocampus of offspring in early adolescence in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuejun; Shen, Zhiwei; Hu, Liu; Xia, Fang; Li, Yuewa; Zhuang, Jingwen; Chen, Peishan; Huang, Qingjun

    2016-12-30

    There is increasing evidence that mothers' exposure to stress before or during pregnancy is linked to an incidence of psychiatric disorders in offspring. However, a few studies have estimated the role of sex in the detrimental effects of pre-gestational stress on the offspring rats at early adolescence. Sex differences regarding the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in the right hippocampus were investigated by MRS when the offspring rats reached 30 days. Additionally, the impact of pre-gestational stress exposed on an additional short-term acute stressor, such as forced swim, was examined in the male and female offspring rats. Our findings showed female offspring rats were more vulnerable to stressful conditions for either pre-gestational stress or acute stress in early adolescence, and had decreased GABA/Cr+PCr and Glu/Cr+PCr in the right hippocampus. Interestingly, in response to forced swim, male offspring rats whose mothers were exposed to pre-gestational stress were more affected by the short-term acute stressor and this was manifested by change of Glu/GABA and Glu/Gln in the right hippocampus. These data indicated that although female offspring rats were more vulnerable to pre-gestational stress from their mothers than males, in response to an additional acute stressor they showed better response. Therefore, both sexually dimorphic manner and combination of stressful procedures should be carefully considered in the study of stress-related psychiatric disorders in early adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic Daily Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... headache New daily persistent headache Hemicrania continua Chronic migraine This type typically occurs in people with a history of episodic migraines. Chronic migraines tend to: Affect one side or ...

  15. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth / For Kids / Chronic Kidney Diseases What's ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  16. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... chronic medical conditions have a higher risk of depression. The same factors that increase risk of depression ... a chronic or long-term illness. People with depression are at higher risk for other medical conditions. ...

  17. Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Waddell, B.

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20??C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for razorback

  18. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  19. Genetic polymorphism and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cunhua; Chang, De; Lu, Guangming; Deng, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic disease, and its morbidity and mortality are increasing. There are many studies that have tried to explain the pathogenesis of COPD from genetic susceptibility, to identify the susceptibility of COPD factors, which play a role in early prevention, early detection and the early treatment. However, it is well known that COPD is an inflammatory disease characterized by incomplete reversible airflow limitation in which genes interact with the environment. In recent years, many studies have proved gene polymorphisms and COPD correlation. However, there is less research on the relationship between COPD and genome-wide association study (GWAS), epigenetics and apoptosis. In this paper, we summarized the correlation between gene level and COPD from the following four aspects: the GWAS, the gene polymorphism, the epigenetics and the apoptosis, and the relationship between COPD and gene is summarized comprehensively.

  20. Health disparities in chronic diseases: where the money is.

    PubMed

    Crook, Errol D; Peters, Mosha

    2008-04-01

    Chronic diseases account for three-quarters of the U.S. health care expenditures and a majority of early deaths and lost of productive years of life. Health disparities exist among the common chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, HIV/AIDS, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and obesity, with ethnic minorities and the poor having higher incidence or worse outcomes. Strategies to eliminate these disparities in chronic diseases need to be multidisciplinary and focus on increasing access to all aspects of health care, including prevention. This article discusses the impact of health disparities on chronic diseases and offers some factors to consider for solutions to the problem.

  1. SECRETED KLOTHO AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming Chang; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble Klotho (sKl) in the circulation can be generated directly by alterative splicing of the Klotho transcript or the extracellular domain of membrane Klotho can be released from membrane-anchored Klotho on the cell surface. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), sKl, acts as hormonal factor and plays important roles in anti-aging, anti-oxidation, modulation of ion transport, and Wnt signaling. Emerging evidence reveals that Klotho deficiency is an early biomarker for chronic kidney diseases as well as a pathogenic factor. Klotho deficiency is associated with progression and chronic complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In multiple experimental models, replacement of sKl, or manipulated up-regulation of endogenous Klotho protect the kidney from renal insults, preserve kidney function, and suppress renal fibrosis, in chronic kidney disease. Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease. PMID:22396167

  2. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    During the 19th century, rocket enthusiasts and inventors began to appear in almost every country. Some people thought these early rocket pioneers were geniuses, and others thought they were crazy. Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in Paris, apparently rocketed small animals into space as early as 1806. The payloads were recovered by parachute. As depicted here by artist Larry Toschik, French authorities were not always impressed with rocket research. They halted Ruggieri's plans to launch a small boy using a rocket cluster. (Reproduced from a drawing by Larry Toschik and presented here courtesy of the artist and Motorola Inc.)

  3. Modification in CSF specific gravity in acutely decompensated cirrhosis and acute on chronic liver failure independent of encephalopathy, evidences for an early blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicolas; Rosselli, Matteo; Mouri, Sarah; Galanaud, Damien; Puybasset, Louis; Agarwal, Banwari; Thabut, Dominique; Jalan, Rajiv

    2017-04-01

    Although hepatic encephalopathy (HE) on the background of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with high mortality rates, it is unknown whether this is due to increased blood-brain barrier permeability. Specific gravity of cerebrospinal fluid measured by CT is able to estimate blood-cerebrospinal fluid-barrier permeability. This study aimed to assess cerebrospinal fluid specific gravity in acutely decompensated cirrhosis and to compare it in patients with or without ACLF and with or without hepatic encephalopathy. We identified all the patients admitted for acute decompensation of cirrhosis who underwent a brain CT-scan. Those patients could present acute decompensation with or without ACLF. The presence of hepatic encephalopathy was noted. They were compared to a group of stable cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. Quantitative brain CT analysis used the Brainview software that gives the weight, the volume and the specific gravity of each determined brain regions. Results are given as median and interquartile ranges and as relative variation compared to the control/baseline group. 36 patients presented an acute decompensation of cirrhosis. Among them, 25 presented with ACLF and 11 without ACLF; 20 presented with hepatic encephalopathy grade ≥ 2. They were compared to 31 stable cirrhosis patients and 61 healthy controls. Cirrhotic patients had increased cerebrospinal fluid specific gravity (CSF-SG) compared to healthy controls (+0.4 %, p < 0.0001). Cirrhotic patients with ACLF have decreased CSF-SG as compared to cirrhotic patients without ACLF (-0.2 %, p = 0.0030) that remained higher than in healthy controls. The presence of hepatic encephalopathy did not modify CSF-SG (-0.09 %, p = 0.1757). Specific gravity did not differ between different brain regions according to the presence or absence of either ACLF or HE. In patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis, and those with ACLF, CSF specific gravity is modified compared to

  4. Early use of noninvasive techniques for clearing respiratory secretions during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnic encephalopathy: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinrong; Cui, Zhaobo; Liu, Shuhong; Gao, Xiuling; Gao, Pan; Shi, Yi; Guo, Shufen; Li, Peipei

    2017-03-01

    Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) might be superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs). Inefficient clearance of respiratory secretions provokes NPPV failure in patients with hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This study compared CMV and NPPV combined with a noninvasive strategy for clearing secretions in HE and AECOPD patients.The present study is a prospective cohort study of AECOPD and HE patients enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 in a critical care unit of a major university teaching hospital in China.A total of 74 patients received NPPV and 90 patients received CMV. Inclusion criteria included the following: physician-diagnosed AECOPD, spontaneous airway clearance of excessive secretions, arterial blood gas analysis requiring intensive care, moderate-to-severe dyspnea, and a Kelly-Matthay scale score of 3 to 5. Exclusion criteria included the following: preexisting psychiatric/neurological disorders unrelated to HE, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, upper airway obstruction, acute coronary syndromes, preadmission tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation, and urgent endotracheal intubation for cardiovascular, psychomotor agitation, or severe hemodynamic conditions.Intensive care unit participants were managed by NPPV. Participants received standard treatment consisting of controlled oxygen therapy during NPPV-free periods; antibiotics, intravenous doxofylline, corticosteroids (e.g., salbutamol and ambroxol), and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin; and therapy for comorbidities if necessary. Nasogastric tubes were inserted only in participants who developed gastric distension. No pharmacological sedation was administered.The primary and secondary outcome measures included comparative complication rates, durations of ventilation and hospitalization, number of invasive devices/patient, and in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates

  5. Early Rockets

    1950-01-01

    Test firing of a Redstone Missile at Redstone Test Stand in the early 1950's. The Redstone was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the von Braun Team under the management of the U.S. Army. The Redstone was the first major rocket development program in the United States.

  6. Early Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  7. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  8. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  9. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  10. What happens to the heart in chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    Rutherford, E; Mark, P B

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. The increased risk of cardiovascular disease seen in this population is attributable to both traditional and novel vascular risk factors. Risk of sudden cardiac or arrhythmogenic death is greatly exaggerated in chronic kidney disease, particularly in patients with end stage renal disease where the risk is roughly 20 times that of the general population. The reasons for this increased risk are not entirely understood and while atherosclerosis is accelerated in the presence of chronic kidney disease, premature myocardial infarction does not solely account for the excess risk. Recent work demonstrates that the structure and function of the heart starts to alter early in chronic kidney disease, independent of other risk factors. The implications of cardiac remodelling and hypertrophy may predispose chronic kidney disease patients to heart failure, arrhythmia and myocardial ischaemia. Further research is needed to minimise cardiovascular risk associated with structural and functional heart disease associated with chronic kidney disease.

  11. Complex adaptive chronic care.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carmel; Sturmberg, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is widely taken up as the universal operational framework for redesigning health systems to address the increasing chronic disease burden of an ageing population. Chronic care encompasses health promotion, prevention, self management, disease control, treatment and palliation to address 'chronicity' of long journeys through disease, illness and care in the varying contexts of complex health systems. Yet at an operational level, CCM activities are predominantly based on an evidence-base of discreet chronic disease interventions in specific settings; and their demonstrable impact is limited to processes of select disease management such as diabetes in specific disease management programs. This paper proposes a framework that makes sense of the nature of chronicity and its multiple dimensions beyond disease and argues for a set of building blocks and leverage points that should constitute the starting points for 'redesign'? Complex Adaptive Chronic Care is proposed as an idea for an explanatory and implementation framework for addressing chronicity in existing and future chronic care models. Chronicity is overtly conceptualized to encompass the phenomena of an individual journey, with simple and complicated, complex and chaotic phases, through long term asymptomatic disease to bodily dysfunction and illness, located in family and communities. Chronicity encompasses trajectories of self-care and health care, as health, illness and disease co-exist and co-evolve in the setting of primary care, local care networks and at times institutions. A systems approach to individuals in their multi-layered networks making sense of and optimizing experiences of their chronic illness would build on core values and agency around a local vision of health, empowerment of individuals and adaptive leadership, and it responds in line with the local values inherent in the community's disease-based knowledge and the local service's history and dynamics. Complex

  12. [Differential chronic hepatitis diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Hinterberger, W

    2000-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis comprises a group of disorders of the liver exhibiting a chronic necroinflammatory process that differs in etiology, clinical course and treatment strategies. A diagnosis of chronic hepatitis is usually made when inflammation and liver cell necrosis persist for longer than 6 months. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic patients to those with advanced hepatic failure. Both sexes and all age groups are affected. Chronic hepatitis may emerge as a sequelae of hepatitis C and less often after hepatitis B. Both diseases are treatable and require rapid and exact diagnosis. The differential diagnosis must exclude autoimmune hepatitis, chronic steatohepatitis, congenital metabolic hepatopathies and drug-induced hepatopathies. Laboratory tests, histologic investigations and clinical differential diagnosis must exclude other causes of chronic liver disease.

  13. Strongyloidiasis and chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Corsini, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    Two patients with strongyloidiasis developed chronic urticaria. The cases provide support for inappropriate interactions of the effector mechanisms in helminthiasis resulting in urticaria in man. PMID:7111108

  14. Effects of early administration of acetazolamide on the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or obesity-hypoventilation syndrome with metabolic alkalosis. A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Rialp Cervera, G; Raurich Puigdevall, J M; Morán Chorro, I; Martín Delgado, M C; Heras la Calle, G; Mas Serra, A; Vallverdú Perapoch, I

    2017-06-01

    Metabolic alkalosis (MA) inhibits respiratory drive and may delay weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV). MA is common in CO 2 -retainer patients that need MV. Acetazolamide (ACTZ) decreases serum bicarbonate concentration and stimulates respiratory drive. This study evaluated the effects of ACTZ on the duration of MV in patients with MA and COPD or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) intubated with acute respiratory failure. Multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind study, with COPD or OHS patients with MV < 72 h and initial bicarbonate >28 mmol/L and pH > 7.35. Test-treatment, ACTZ 500 mg or placebo, was daily administered if pH > 7.35 and bicarbonate >26 mmol/L. Clinical, respiratory and laboratory parameters were recorded. 47 patients (36 men) were randomized. There were no significant differences between groups in comorbidities, baseline characteristics or arterial blood gases at inclusion. The mean difference in the duration of MV between placebo and ACTZ group was 1.3 days (95%CI, -2.1-4.8; p = 0.44). Kaplan-Meier curves showed no differences in the duration of MV (Log-Rank p = 0.41). Between-group comparison of estimated marginal means (CI 95%) during MV were, respectively: PaCO 2 55 (51-59) vs 48 (47-50) mm Hg, p = 0.002; bicarbonate concentration 34 (32-35) vs 29 (28-30) mmol/L, p < 0.0001; and minute volume 9.7 (8.9-10.4) vs 10.6 (9.2-12.0) L/min, p = 0.26. There were no severe adverse effects with ACTZ administration. Among patients with MA and COPD or OHS, early treatment with ACTZ did not shorten significantly the duration of MV compared with placebo. clinical.trials.gov; NCT01499485; URL:.www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Risers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Chistina

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author features Bard High School Early College, the first public school in the country to offer a free, full-time college curriculum--and all the credits that go with it--to high schoolers. In Bard's four-year program, students race through high school requirements in 9th and 10th grades, then take college courses in 11th and…

  16. Insights into Mechanisms of Chronic Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Diack, Abigail B.; Alibhai, James D.; Barron, Rona; Bradford, Barry; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and prion diseases are characterised by the accumulation of abnormal conformers of a host encoded protein in the central nervous system. The process leading to neurodegeneration is still poorly defined and thus development of early intervention strategies is challenging. Unique amongst these diseases are Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases, which have the ability to transmit between individuals. The infectious nature of these diseases has permitted in vivo and in vitro modelling of the time course of the disease process in a highly reproducible manner, thus early events can be defined. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the cell-to-cell spread of protein aggregates by a “prion-like mechanism” is common among the protein misfolding diseases. Thus, the TSE models may provide insights into disease mechanisms and testable hypotheses for disease intervention, applicable to a number of these chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26771599

  17. [Chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Propionibacterium acnes].

    PubMed

    Kocur, I; Baráková, D; Kuchynka, P; Fiser, I

    1998-07-01

    There is a report of three cases of chronic postoperative endophthalmitis following cataract operations. In two patients there was proven Propionibacterium acnes. There is presented a technique to obtain specimens for microbiological examination and an overview of clinical experience in treatment of the mentioned less common types of endophthalmitis. Early surgical treatment as well as intraocular injection of vancomycin can help to restore a good visual acuity despite of longlasting inflammation.

  18. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  19. [Chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Maurer, C; Hallek, M

    2013-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder that accounts for approximately 30 % of adult leukemias and 25 % of Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). It is the most common form of leukemia in the western world (incidence 3-5/100 000). Elderly people are mainly affected, median age at diagnosis is around 70 years and there is a slight predominance in men. The etiology of the disease is unknown. The initial symptoms are nonspecific. Cervical lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly followed by general fatigue are seen most commonly. Other possible symptoms include night sweats, fever, loss of weight (so-called B symptoms) and frequent infections. Several patients develop autoimmune complications as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) or immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). To confirm the diagnosis more than 5000 B-lymphocytes/µl need to be present. The expression of the typical surface markers CD5, CD19, and CD23 has to be confirmed by flow cytometry. Imaging studies as X-ray of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, or CT scan are used to assess the degree of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. A bone marrow biopsy is not mandatory for the diagnosis. According to the European Binet staging system, CLL is divided into 3 stages (A, B and C). Patients in Binet stage A have 0 to 2 areas of node or organ enlargement with normal levels of hemoglobin and platelets. Binet stage B patients have 3 to 5 areas of node or organ enlargement and normal or slightly decreased levels of hemoglobin and platelets. Binet stage C patients have anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) and/or thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 100 000/µl), with or without lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. As there is no survival benefit associated with early intervention, asymptomatic patients with early stage CLL (Binet stage A and B) are usually not treated but are followed on a "watch and wait" principle. Treatment indications include stage Binet C or signs of an active disease as rapidly progressive

  20. Living With Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Barby

    2015-01-01

    A health educator who has reflex sympathetic dystrophy, an autoimmune condition involving chronic pain, shares her knowledge about living life to the fullest while dealing with a chronic health condition. Her advice encompasses dealing with the health care system, managing information, and obtaining physical and emotional self-care.

  1. Battling Chronic Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauer, Kim

    2016-01-01

    While the principal of a New York elementary school (P.S. 48) took on chronic absenteeism from 2011 to 2013, a research team at the Center for New York City Affairs followed her efforts. The school drove down chronic absenteeism almost 10 percentage points. School staff routinely touched base with students, outside "success mentors"…

  2. Chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Stein, Sharon L

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is pain lasting longer than 6 months and is estimated to occur in 15% of women. Causes of pelvic pain include disorders of gynecologic, urologic, gastroenterologic, and musculoskeletal systems. The multidisciplinary nature of chronic pelvic pain may complicate diagnosis and treatment. Treatments vary by cause but may include medicinal, neuroablative, and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic gastritis - an update.

    PubMed

    Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. [Chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Gosch, Markus

    2008-08-01

    As a consequence of the increasing life expectancy the number of patients suffering from chronic heart failure has been growing continuously in the past few decades, especially in the group of the old and oldest. Frailty is a clinical syndrome that geriatricians attach great importance to. Like many other diseases chronic heart failure can cause frailty. Based on the experience that we see only a small correlation between the functional capacity of patients with heart failure and the results of cardiological findings, the model of peripheral myopathy in chronic heart failure was developed. Different pathophysiological changes may cause the increasing exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure. We can already consider different experimental approaches to the therapy of frailty caused by chronic heart failure. At the moment we have to focus our efforts on an optimal therapy of heart failure, especially with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers, and on individual endurance and strength training.

  5. Pneumococcal vaccination and chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Froes, Filipe; Roche, Nicolas; Blasi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Patients with COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases are especially vulnerable to viral and bacterial pulmonary infections, which are major causes of exacerbations, hospitalization, disease progression, and mortality in COPD patients. Effective vaccines could reduce the burden of respiratory infections and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, but what is the evidence for this? This article reviews and discusses the existing evidence for pneumococcal vaccination efficacy and its changing role in patients with chronic respiratory diseases, especially COPD. Specifically, the recent Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA) showed the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in older adults, many of whom had additional risk factors for pneumococcal disease, including chronic lung diseases. Taken together, the evidence suggests that pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations can prevent community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, while pneumococcal vaccination early in the course of COPD could help maintain stable health status. Despite the need to prevent pulmonary infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and evidence for the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine coverage and awareness are low and need to be improved. Respiratory physicians need to communicate the benefits of vaccination more effectively to their patients who suffer from chronic respiratory diseases.

  6. Oxalate nephropathy associated with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cartery, Claire; Faguer, Stanislas; Karras, Alexandre; Cointault, Olivier; Buscail, Louis; Modesto, Anne; Ribes, David; Rostaing, Lionel; Chauveau, Dominique; Giraud, Patrick

    2011-08-01

    Enteric overabsorption of oxalate may lead to hyperoxaluria and subsequent acute oxalate nephritis (AON). AON related to chronic pancreatitis is a rare and poorly described condition precluding early recognition and treatment. We collected the clinical characteristics, treatment, and renal outcome of 12 patients with chronic pancreatitis-associated AON followed in four French renal units. Before AON, mild to moderate chronic kidney disease was present in all patients, diabetes mellitus in eight (insulin [n = 6]; oral antidiabetic drugs [n = 2]), and known chronic pancreatitis in only eight. At presentation, pancreas imaging showed gland atrophy/heterogeneity, Wirsung duct dilation, calcification, or pseudocyst. Renal findings consisted of rapidly progressive renal failure with tubulointerstitial profile. Acute modification of glomerular filtration preceded the AON (i.e., diarrhea and diuretics). Increase in urinary oxalate excretion was found in all tested patients and hypocalcemia in nine (<1.5 mmol/L in four patients). Renal biopsy showed diffuse crystal deposits, highly suggestive of oxalate crystals, with tubular necrosis and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltrates. Treatment consisted of pancreatic enzyme supplementation, oral calcium intake, and an oxalate-free diet in all patients and renal replacement therapy in five patients. After a median follow-up of 7 months, three of 12 patients reached end-stage renal disease. AON is an under-recognized severe crystal-induced renal disease with features of tubulointerstitial nephritis that may occur in patients with a long history of chronic pancreatitis or reveal the pancreatic disease. Extrinsic triggering factors should be prevented.

  7. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition ... they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic ...

  8. Vitamin D and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanmin; Chen, Weiwen; Li, Dongqing; Yin, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xiaode; Olsen, Nancy; Zheng, Song Guo

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is one of the essential nutrients to sustain the human health. As a member of the steroid hormone family, it has a classic role in regulating metabolism of calcium and a non-classic role in affecting cell proliferation and differentiation. Epidemiological studies have shown that 25OHD deficiency is closely associated with common chronic diseases such as bone metabolic disorders, tumors, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. 25OHD deficiency is also a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases. 25OHD deficiency is highly prevalent in the world. It is therefore necessary to know the adverse health effects of 25OHD deficiency, and to design interventions and early treatments for those who are likely to have low levels of 25OHD. PMID:28580189

  9. Embryonic development during chronic acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Abbott, U. K.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments carried out on chicken eggs indicate that the embryo is affected during very early development, especially over the first four days, and during hatching. In the first four days, the brain develops as well as the anlage for all other organs. In addition, the heart commences to function and the extraembryonic membranes that compartmentalize the egg contents form. The latter require an appreciable extension and folding of tissue which may be disrupted by the mechanical load. Observations of embryonic abnormalities that occur during chronic acceleration suggest an inhibition of development of the axial skeleton, which is rarely seen otherwise, a general retardation of embryonic growth, and circulatory problems. The final stages of development (after 18 days) involve the uptake of fluids, the transition to aerial respiration, and the reorientation of the embryo into a normal hatching position. At 4 G mortality is very high during this period, with a majority of embryos failing to reorient into the normal hatching position.

  10. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  11. Pathophysiology of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Francis, G S

    2001-05-07

    Heart failure is a changing paradigm. The hemodynamic model, which served our needs well from the 1950s through the early 1980s, has now been largely abandoned, except for the management of decompensated patients in the hospital. The pathophysiology is exceedingly complex and involves structural changes, such as loss of myofilaments, apoptosis and disorganization of the cytoskeleton, as well as disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, alteration in receptor density, signal transduction, and collagen synthesis. A more contemporary working hypothesis is that heart failure is a progressive disorder of left ventricular remodeling, usually resulting from an index event, that culminates in a clinical syndrome characterized by impaired cardiac function and circulatory congestion. This change in the framework of our understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure is predicated on the results of numerous clinical trials conducted during the past 20 years. New therapies are now evolving that are designed to inhibit neuroendocrine and cytokine activation, whereas drugs specifically designed to heighten cardiac contractility and "unload" the left ventricle have proven to be unhelpful in long-term management of patients with chronic heart failure. However, the hemodynamic model is still relevant for patients in the hospital with decompensated heart failure, where positive inotropic drugs and vasodilators are still widely used. The modern treatment of chronic heart failure is now largely based on the neurohormonal hypothesis, which states that neuroendocrine activation is important in the progression of heart failure and that inhibition of neurohormones is likely to have long-term benefit with regard to morbidity and mortality. Thus, the evolution of treatment for chronic heart failure as a result of clinical trials has provided much enlightenment for our understanding of the fundamental biology of the disorder, a reversal of the usual flow of information from basic science to

  12. Nutritional Needs and Support for Children with Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Christine H.; Yoo, Eric R.; Kerner, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition has become a dangerously common problem in children with chronic liver disease, negatively impacting neurocognitive development and growth. Furthermore, many children with chronic liver disease will eventually require liver transplantation. Thus, this association between malnourishment and chronic liver disease in children becomes increasingly alarming as malnutrition is a predictor of poorer outcomes in liver transplantation and is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition requires aggressive and appropriate management to correct nutritional deficiencies. A comprehensive review of the literature has found that infants with chronic liver disease (CLD) are particularly susceptible to malnutrition given their low reserves. Children with CLD would benefit from early intervention by a multi-disciplinary team, to try to achieve nutritional rehabilitation as well as to optimize outcomes for liver transplant. This review explains the multifactorial nature of malnutrition in children with chronic liver disease, defines the nutritional needs of these children, and discusses ways to optimize their nutritional. PMID:29035331

  13. Compartmental and temporal dynamics of chronic inflammation and airway remodelling in a chronic asthma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Alrifai, Mohammed; Marsh, Leigh M; Dicke, Tanja; Kılıç, Ayse; Conrad, Melanie L; Renz, Harald; Garn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway inflammation and progressive airway remodelling. However, the dynamics of the development of these features and their spontaneous and pharmacological reversibility are still poorly understood. We have therefore investigated the dynamics of airway remodelling and repair in an experimental asthma model and studied how pharmacological intervention affects these processes. Using BALB/c mice, the kinetics of chronic asthma progression and resolution were characterised in absence and presence of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. Airway inflammation and remodelling was assessed by the analysis of bronchoalveolar and peribronichal inflammatory cell infiltrate, goblet cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition and smooth muscle thickening. Chronic allergen exposure resulted in early (goblet cell hyperplasia) and late remodelling (collagen deposition and smooth muscle thickening). After four weeks of allergen cessation eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition were resolved, full resolution of lymphocyte inflammation and smooth muscle thickening was only observed after eight weeks. ICS therapy when started before the full establishment of chronic asthma reduced the development of lung inflammation, decreased goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition, but did not affect smooth muscle thickening. These effects of ICS on airway remodelling were maintained for a further four weeks even when therapy was discontinued. Utilising a chronic model of experimental asthma we have shown that repeated allergen exposure induces reversible airway remodelling and inflammation in mice. Therapeutic intervention with ICS was partially effective in inhibiting the transition from acute to chronic asthma by reducing airway inflammation and remodelling but was ineffective in preventing smooth muscle hypertrophy.

  14. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    This photograph is of the engine for the Redstone rocket. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of its versatility, the Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile.

  15. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    The image depicts Redstone missile being erected. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  16. Early Rockets

    1958-05-15

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  17. Inflammation in Chronic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang

    2016-12-11

    Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research.

  18. [Chronic transplant nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Campistol Plana, J M

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 there were important scientific contributions in the field of kidney transplant and specifically in chronic transplant nephropathy (interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy). A new nomenclature and classification of chronic kidney disease was probably the most important contribution in this entity. Use of the C4d stain has allowed the concepts of glomerulopathy to be updated and to reveal the frequency of this entity and its impact in kidney transplant. Finally, two experimental studies provide new perspectives on the treatment of chronic kidney disease such as the use of statins or the use of pyridoxamine to block glycation end products.

  19. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos AC; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. PMID:27703382

  20. Inflammation in Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang

    2016-01-01

    Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research. PMID:27973441

  1. Understanding chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Matthew; Burch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The key principles of chronic heart failure and the development of clinical management strategies are described. The physiological changes in chronic heart failure and the clinical management of children with heart failure are considered, but the treatment of heart failure related to congenital heart disease or the intensive care management of heart failure are not mentioned as both topics require consideration in their own right. A greater understanding of the maladaptive responses to chronic heart failure has enabled targeted therapy to be introduced with consequent improvement in symptoms, reduction in hospitalisation and lower mortality. PMID:17715446

  2. Unusual presentation of a familiar pathology: chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Sierakowski, Kyra; Pattichis, Andrew; Russell, Patrick; Wattchow, David

    2016-02-11

    We present a case of a man who experienced night sweats, abdominal pain and fever for over 3 months, with incomplete response to broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Although CT imaging was insufficient to identify the cause for his chronic abdominal pain, the abnormality of a 'misty mesentery' was crucial in guiding further investigation. The final diagnosis of chronic appendicitis was made through laparoscopic and pathological examination. This case highlights the utility of a collaborative diagnostic effort between disciplines. Chronic appendicitis can cause lingering abdominal pain. Early recognition and appropriate referral can save patients months and even years of unnecessary suffering. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. An unusual renal manifestation of chronic HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Ananthakrishnapuram; Yong, Jim; Killingsworth, Murray; Strasser, Simone; Suranyi, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis B viral infection is usually a self-limiting disease in immunocompetent individuals. Chronic infection can be seen in up to 5% of infected patients. Renal manifestations of chronic HBV infection are usually glomerular. We describe here an uncommon presentation of a patient with chronic HBV infection with very high viral load and rapidly progressive renal failure. Renal biopsy showed features of tubulointerstitial nephritis and tubular epithelial inclusion bodies suggestive of HBV infection. Entecavir treatment slowed down the progression of his renal disease. Tubulointerstitial nephritis should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis in patients with HBV infection. Early antiviral treatment may halt the progression of renal disease.

  4. Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Webster, Angela C; Nagler, Evi V; Morton, Rachael L; Masson, Philip

    2017-03-25

    The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m 2 , or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence. Many people are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms such as lethargy, itch, or loss of appetite. Diagnosis is commonly made after chance findings from screening tests (urinary dipstick or blood tests), or when symptoms become severe. The best available indicator of overall kidney function is GFR, which is measured either via exogenous markers (eg, DTPA, iohexol), or estimated using equations. Presence of proteinuria is associated with increased risk of progression of CKD and death. Kidney biopsy samples can show definitive evidence of CKD, through common changes such as glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Complications include anaemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidney; reduced red blood cell survival and iron deficiency; and mineral bone disease caused by disturbed vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate metabolism. People with CKD are five to ten times more likely to die prematurely than they are to progress to end stage kidney disease. This increased risk of death rises exponentially as kidney function worsens and is largely attributable to death from cardiovascular disease, although cancer incidence and mortality are also increased. Health-related quality of life is substantially lower for people with CKD than for the general population, and falls as GFR

  5. [Inpatient rehabilitation of chronic dermatoses illustrated by atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Nürnberg, W

    2005-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is defined as a chronically relapsing skin disease resulting from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. It usually occurs during early childhood and shows typical clinical manifestations, depending on the patient's age. In cases of chronic atopic dermatitis, negative effects on professional and social activities and participation have to be expected. To counteract or overcome these threatening impairments in the different facets of life, prescribing inpatient rehabilitative measures should be considered early. Dermatological rehabilitation according to guidelines guarantees an interdisciplinary and multimodal treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  6. Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering.

    PubMed

    Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered. Findings are taken to suggest that sympathetic activity may be an early marker of heightened risk for chronic stuttering.

  7. Subacute and Chronic Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections can also cause chronic meningitis. They include Sarcoidosis Certain disorders that cause inflammation, such as systemic ... For disorders that are not infections, such as sarcoidosis and Behçet syndrome: Corticosteroids or other drugs that ...

  8. Dealing with chronic cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... enjoying the present instead of worrying about the future. Focus on the small things that bring you ... E. The chronic leukemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is possible that two or more triggers might work together to cause the illness. How is chronic fatigue ... your family, and your health care provider should work together to decide on a plan. You should figure ...

  10. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication. Protein Synthesis Inhibitor Therapy. Omacetaxine (Synribo®) a non-TKI, chemotherapy drug, is approved for chronic and ... as BCR-ABL 10%. This reduction is approximately equivalent to a major cytogenetic response. {{ A 2-log ...

  11. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  12. Employees with Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... definition of disability that each person must meet (EEOC Regulations . . ., 2011). Therefore, some people with chronic pain will ... impairment, or is regarded as having an impairment (EEOC Regulations . . . , 2011). For more information about how to determine ...

  13. Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... org/ by guest on June 19, 2018 Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy Ellen W. Seely, MD; Cynthia Maxwell, ... M any women have been diag- nosed with hypertension (blood pressure Ͼ 140/ 90 mm Hg) when ...

  14. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

    MedlinePlus

    ... del paciente Transplant process Diseases treated by transplant Acute myeloid leukemia Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) ... SCID) Sickle cell disease (SCD) Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Other diseases Treatment decisions Learn ...

  15. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... are described below. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms sometimes become acute leukemia , in which too many abnormal white blood ... higher. Patients also have an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia or primary myelofibrosis . Symptoms of polycythemia ...

  16. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes chronic exertional compartment syndrome is mistaken for shin splints, a more common cause of leg pain in ... such as running. If you think you have shin splints but they don't get better with self- ...

  17. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newman LS. Re-examination of the blood lymphocyte transformation test in the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease. ... et al. A study on the beryllium Lymphocyte Transformation Test and the beryllium levels in working environment. ...

  18. [Chronic kidney disease and dyslipidaemia].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Vicente; Serrano, Adalberto; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Ascaso, Juan; Barrios, Vivencio; Millán, Jesús; Pintó, Xavier; Cases, Aleix

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has to be considered as a high, or even very high risk cardiovascular risk condition, since it leads to an increase in cardiovascular mortality that continues to increase as the disease progresses. An early diagnosis of CKD is required, together with an adequate identification of the risk factors, in order to slow down its progression to more severe states, prevent complications, and to delay, whenever possible, the need for renal replacement therapy. Dyslipidaemia is a factor of the progression of CKD that increases the risk in developing atherosclerosis and its complications. Its proper control contributes to reducing the elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality presented by these patients. In this review, an assessment is made of the lipid-lowering therapeutic measures required to achieve to recommended objectives, by adjusting the treatment to the progression of the disease and to the characteristics of the patient. In CKD, it seems that an early and intensive intervention of the dyslipidaemia is a priority before there is a significant decrease in kidney function. Treatment with statins has been shown to be safe and effective in decreasing LDL-Cholesterol, and in the reduction of cardiovascular events in individuals with CKD, or after renal transplant, although there is less evidence in the case of dialysed patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    Soni, Resha S; Ebersole, Barbara; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cough remains a challenging condition, especially in cases where it persists despite comprehensive medical management. For these particular patients, there appears to be an emerging role for behavior modification therapy. We report a series of patients with refractory chronic cough to assess if there is any benefit of adding behavioral therapy to their treatment regimen. Study Design A case series with planned chart review of patients treated for chronic cough. Setting The review was performed with an outpatient electronic health record system at a tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods The charts of all patients treated for chronic cough by a single laryngologist over a 30-month period were analyzed. Patients' response to treatment and rate of cough improvement were assessed for those with refractory chronic cough who underwent behavior modification therapy. Results Thirty-eight patients with chronic cough were initially treated empirically for the most common causes of cough, of which 32% experienced improvement. Nineteen patients who did not significantly improve with medical management underwent behavior modification therapy with a speech-language pathologist. Of these patients, 84% experienced resolution or marked improvement of their symptoms. Conclusion Behavioral therapy may be underutilized in practice and could lead to improvement of otherwise recalcitrant cough.

  20. Smoking and early retirement due to chronic disability.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Tommy; Nilsson, Anton

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the long-term effects of smoking on disability retirement in Sweden. Smoking is known to have damaging effects on health, but there is limited evidence on how the effects of smoking translate into worse labour market outcomes, such as the inability to work. In contrast to the few previous studies on smoking and disability retirement, we use a large population sample with registry information on smoking, which is recorded for all women who give birth in Sweden. Thanks to these comprehensive data, we are able to account for a much broader range of potential confounders. In particular, by the use of sibling and twin fixed effects, we account for unobserved heterogeneity in childhood environment and family characteristics. Given that smoking is often initiated in adolescence, one would suspect such factors to play important roles. Among individuals aged 50-64 in 2011, a simple model suggested smokers to have a 5 percentage point higher probability of receiving (full) disability pension, making them more than twice as likely as non-smokers to receive this. However, in a model with sibling fixed effects, the size of the effect was reduced by more than a third. The results point to the importance of confounders, such as childhood circumstances or behaviours, which were not accounted for by previous studies. We also consider effects on disability due to different health conditions. In relative terms, effects are the largest for circulatory conditions and tumours. Results are largely driven by health problems severe enough to merit hospitalization, and there is no evidence of a role played by financial incentives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Through FDDNP PET Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    imaging correlates with, and/or can predict, decline in cognitive function in those exposed to cumulative head trauma. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Traumatic...sheet-containing brain amyloid neuroaggregates. This project will examine whether FDDNP PET imaging correlates with, and/or can predict, decline in...with age. Table 1 - Regional uptake in ROIs with Age, Years of Pro Fighting, and Number of Pro Fights (Pearson’s correlations ; ns – non significant

  2. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    several cognitive measures: Table 3: Uptake and Verbal Processi Psychomo Reaction cognitive tests Memory ng Speed tor Speed Time amygdala, ns ns ns Ns... hippocampus ns ns ns Ns parahippocampal gyrus ns -.437* -.313 .374 brainstem ns ns ns Ns temporal ns ns ns Ns We have also conducted analyses of

  3. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles Bernick, MD, MPH...Traumatic Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0486 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... Encephalopathy . This project will examine whether FDDNP PET imaging correlates with, and/or can predict, decline in cognitive function in those exposed to

  4. Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Process Research Training & Career Development Funded Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  5. The influence of chronic hypoxia upon chemoreception

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Carotid body chemoreceptors are essential for time-dependent changes in ventilatory control during chronic hypoxia. Early theories of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia focused on time-dependent changes in known ventilatory stimuli, such as small changes in arterial pH that may play a significant role in some species. However, plasticity in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of carotid body chemoreception play a major role in ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in all species studied. Chronic hypoxia causes changes in (a) ion channels (potassium, sodium, calcium) to increase glomus cell excitability, and (b) neurotransmitters (dopamine, acetylcholine, ATP) and neuromodulators (endothelin-1) to increase carotid body afferent activity for a given PO2 and optimize O2-sensitivity. O2-sensing heme-containing molecules in the carotid body have not been studied in chronic hypoxia. Plasticity in medullary respiratory centers processing carotid body afferent input also contributes to ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. It is not known if the same mechanisms occur in patients with chronic hypoxemia from lung disease or high altitude natives. PMID:17291837

  6. Global Gene Expression Profiling of Hyperkeratotic Skin Lesions from Inner Mongolians Chronically Exposed to Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    The skin is an organ that is highly sensitive to chronic arsenic exposure. Skin lesions such as hyperkeratoses (HKs), which are characterized by hyperproliferation and aberrations in terminal epidermal differentiation, are common early manifestations of arsenicosis in humans. H...

  7. College Freshmen with Chronic Illness: A Comparison with Healthy First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; Wallis, Elizabeth; Maslow, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Over the past four decades, advances in medicine have decreased the mortality rates of many previously fatal chronic diseases. Children who would have died early in life are now living well into adulthood, and many are matriculating as college students. Data regarding the prevalence of chronic illness among college students, the college experience…

  8. Chronic Absenteeism and Its Effects on Students' Academic and Socioemotional Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent policy dialogue suggests that chronic absenteeism is not only underdocumented, but is also detrimental to the success of students as early as kindergarten. That said, almost no empirical research has examined the effects of chronic absenteeism on student outcomes. This study addresses this underresearched issue in more depth. Using a…

  9. Acute and chronic pancreatitis: surgical management.

    PubMed

    Dzakovic, Alexander; Superina, Riccardo

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis is becoming increasingly prevalent in children, posing new challenges to pediatric health care providers. Although some general adult treatment paradigms are applicable in the pediatric population, diagnostic workup and surgical management of acute and chronic pancreatitis have to be tailored to anatomic and pathophysiological entities peculiar to children. Nonbiliary causes of acute pancreatitis in children are generally managed nonoperatively with hydration, close biochemical and clinical observation, and early initiation of enteral feeds. Surgical intervention including cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is often required in acute biliary pancreatitis, whereas infected pancreatic necrosis remains a rare absolute indication for pancreatic debridement and drainage via open, laparoscopic, or interventional radiologic procedure. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by painful irreversible changes of the parenchyma and ducts, which may result in or be caused by inadequate ductal drainage. A variety of surgical procedures providing drainage, denervation, resection, or a combination thereof are well established to relieve pain and preserve pancreatic function. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Alfuzosin and symptoms of chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J Curtis; Krieger, John N; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; Anderson, Rodney U; Pontari, Michel; Shoskes, Daniel A; Litwin, Mark S; Alexander, Richard B; White, Paige C; Berger, Richard; Nadler, Robert; O'Leary, Michael; Liong, Men Long; Zeitlin, Scott; Chuai, Shannon; Landis, J Richard; Kusek, John W; Nyberg, Leroy M; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2008-12-18

    In men with chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome, treatment with alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers early in the course of the disorder has been reported to be effective in some, but not all, relatively small randomized trials. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of alfuzosin, an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker, in reducing symptoms in men with chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Participation in the study required diagnosis of the condition within the preceding 2 years and no previous treatment with an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker. Men were randomly assigned to treatment for 12 weeks with either 10 mg of alfuzosin per day or placebo. The primary outcome was a reduction of at least 4 points (from baseline to 12 weeks) in the score on the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) (range, 0 to 43; higher scores indicate more severe symptoms). A 4-point decrease is the minimal clinically significant difference in the score. A total of 272 eligible participants underwent randomization, and in both study groups, 49.3% of participants had a decrease of at least 4 points in their total NIH-CPSI score (rate difference associated with alfuzosin, 0.1%; 95% confidence interval, -11.2 to 11.0; P=0.99). In addition, a global response assessment showed similar response rates at 12 weeks: 33.6% in the placebo group and 34.8% in the alfuzosin group (P=0.90). The rates of adverse events in the two groups were also similar. Our findings do not support the use of alfuzosin to reduce the symptoms of chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men who have not received prior treatment with an alpha-blocker. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00103402.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  11. Alfuzosin and Symptoms of Chronic Prostatitis–Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis; Krieger, John N.; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; Anderson, Rodney U.; Pontari, Michel; Shoskes, Daniel A.; Litwin, Mark S.; Alexander, Richard B.; White, Paige C.; Berger, Richard; Nadler, Robert; O'Leary, Michael; Liong, Men Long; Zeitlin, Scott; Chuai, Shannon; Landis, J. Richard; Kusek, John W.; Nyberg, Leroy M.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Background In men with chronic prostatitis–chronic pelvic pain syndrome, treatment with alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers early in the course of the disorder has been reported to be effective in some, but not all, relatively small randomized trials. Methods We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of alfuzosin, an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker, in reducing symptoms in men with chronic prostatitis–chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Participation in the study required diagnosis of the condition within the preceding 2 years and no previous treatment with an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker. Men were randomly assigned to treatment for 12 weeks with either 10 mg of alfuzosin per day or placebo. The primary outcome was a reduction of at least 4 points (from baseline to 12 weeks) in the score on the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) (range, 0 to 43; higher scores indicate more severe symptoms). A 4-point decrease is the minimal clinically significant difference in the score. Results A total of 272 eligible participants underwent randomization, and in both study groups, 49.3% of participants had a decrease of at least 4 points in their total NIH-CPSI score (rate difference associated with alfuzosin, 0.1%; 95% confidence interval, −11.2 to 11.0; P = 0.99). In addition, a global response assessment showed similar response rates at 12 weeks: 33.6% in the placebo group and 34.8% in the alfuzosin group (P = 0.90). The rates of adverse events in the two groups were also similar. Conclusions Our findings do not support the use of alfuzosin to reduce the symptoms of chronic prostatitis–chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men who have not received prior treatment with an alpha-blocker. PMID:19092152

  12. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment. Most clinical neurologists will be involved in the management of patients with these disorders, and should be familiar with available therapies for CIDP. We review the distinctive clinical, laboratory, and electro-diagnostic features that aid in diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of clinical patterns that define treatment responsiveness and the most appropriate therapies in order to improve prognosis. PMID:23564314

  13. Chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Jerry L; Barosi, Giovanni; Tognoni, Gianni; Barbui, Tiziano; Finazzi, Guido; Marchioli, Roberto; Marchetti, Monia

    2003-01-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), have overlapping clinical features but exhibit different natural histories and different therapeutic requirements. Phenotypic mimicry amongst these disorders and between them and nonclonal hematopoietic disorders, lack of clonal diagnostic markers, lack of understanding of their molecular basis and paucity of controlled, prospective therapeutic trials have made the diagnosis and management of PV, ET and IMF difficult. In Section I, Dr. Jerry Spivak introduces current clinical controversies involving the CMPD, in particular the diagnostic challenges. Two new molecular assays may prove useful in the diagnosis and classification of CMPD. In 2000, the overexpression in PV granulocytes of the mRNA for the neutrophil antigen NBI/CD177, a member of the uPAR/Ly6/CD59 family of plasma membrane proteins, was documented. Overexpression of PRV-1 mRNA appeared to be specific for PV since it was not observed in secondary erythrocytosis. At this time, it appears that overexpression of granulocyte PRV-1 in the presence of an elevated red cell mass supports a diagnosis of PV; absence of PRV-1 expression, however, should not be grounds for excluding PV as a diagnostic possibility. Impaired expression of Mpl, the receptor for thrombopoietin, in platelets and megakaryocytes has been first described in PV, but it has also been observed in some patients with ET and IMF. The biologic basis appears to be either alternative splicing of Mpl mRNA or a single nucleotide polymorphism, both of which involve Mpl exon 2 and both of which lead to impaired posttranslational glycosylation and a dominant negative effect on normal Mpl expression. To date, no Mpl DNA structural abnormality or mutation has been identified in PV, ET or IMF. In Section II, Dr. Tiziano Barbui reviews the best clinical evidence for treatment

  14. Identifying the Determinants of Chronic Absenteeism: A Bioecological Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Gee, Kevin A.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Chronic school absenteeism is a pervasive problem across the US; in early education, it is most rampant in kindergarten and its consequences are particularly detrimental, often leading to poorer academic, behavioral and developmental outcomes later in life. Though prior empirical research has identified a broad range of…

  15. Chronic periodontitis, inflammatory cytokines, and interrelationship with other chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Elsa Maria; Reis, Cátia; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, share common inflammatory risk factors with other systemic and chronic inflammatory disorders. Mucosal tissues, such as oral epithelia, are exposed to environmental stressors, such as tobacco and oral bacteria, that might be involved in promoting a systemic inflammatory state. Conversely, chronic disorders can also affect oral health. This review will summarize recent evidence for the interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and other prevalent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. The association with pregnancy is also included due to possible obstetric complications. We will focus on inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6, because they have been shown to be increased in patients with chronic periodontitis, in patients with chronic systemic diseases, and in patients with both chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Therefore, an imbalance towards a proinflammatory immune response could underline a bidirectional link between chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Finally, we highlight that a close coordination between dental and other health professionals could promote oral health and prevent or ameliorate other chronic diseases.

  16. Aetiology of chronic prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Skerk, Visnja; Schönwald, Slavko; Krhen, Ivan; Markovinović, Leo; Beus, Ante; Kuzmanović, Natasa-Sterk; Kruzić, Vladimira; Vince, Adriana

    2002-06-01

    A total of 388 patients with symptoms of chronic prostatitis and inflammatory findings in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) or in a urine sample collected immediately after prostate massage, were examined over a 2 year period at the Outpatient Department for Urogenital Infections, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases 'Dr Fran Mihaljević', Zagreb, Croatia. The infective aetiology was determined in 276 (71.13%) patients. Chlamydia trachomatis was the causative pathogen in 109 patients, Trichomonas vaginalis in 52, Escherichia coli in 26, enterococci in 25, Proteus mirabilis in 14, Klebsiella pneumoniae in six, Streptococcus agalactiae in eight, Ureaplasma urealyticum in seven patients with chronic prostatitis. Other patients had a mixed infection.

  17. Readmission patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure and diabetes mellitus: an administrative dataset analysis.

    PubMed

    Brand, C; Sundararajan, V; Jones, C; Hutchinson, A; Campbell, D

    2005-05-01

    Comprehensive disease management programmes for chronic disease aim to improve patient outcomes and reduce health-care utilization. Readmission rates are often used as an outcome measure of effectiveness. This study aimed to document readmission rates, and risk for early and late readmission, for patients discharged from the Royal Melbourne Hospital with a disease diagnosis of chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or diabetes mellitus compared to those with other general medical conditions. Eighty five (8.6%) of patients were readmitted within 28 days and 183 (20.8%) were readmitted between 29 and 180 days. No risk factors for early readmission were identified. Patients with a primary disease diagnosis of CHF and COPD are at increased risk of late readmissions (29-180 days).

  18. [Cognitive disorders in patients with chronic mercury intoxication].

    PubMed

    Katamanova, E V; Shevchenko, O I; Lakhman, O L; Denisova, I A

    2014-01-01

    To assess severity of cognitive disorders in chronic mercury intoxication, the authors performed claster and discrimination analysis of neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic research data from workers exposed to mercury during long length of service, from patients with early and marked stages of chronic mercurial intoxication. Cognitive disorders in chronic mercurial intoxication have three severity degrees, in the light degree disorders patients demonstrate lower amplitude of cognitive evoked potentials, poor long-term memory and associative thinking. Moderate cognitive disorders are characterized by decreased visual, long-term memory, concentration of attention, poor optic and spatial gnosis. Marked cognitive disorders with chronic mercurial intoxication present with more decreased long-term, short-term, picturesque memory, poor intellect, optic and spatial gnosis and associative thinking.

  19. EBV Chronic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Eligio, Pizzigallo; Delia, Racciatti; Valeria, Gorgoretti

    2010-01-01

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpes viruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS) aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA), really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.). However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious). Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse. Thanks to both

  20. Chronic toxicology of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter. A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms "cannabis," "marijuana," "marihuana," "toxicity," "complications," and "mechanisms" identified 5,198 papers. This list was screened by hand, and papers describing mechanisms and those published in more recent years were chosen preferentially for inclusion in this review. There is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use. Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state. Respiratory conditions linked with cannabis include reduced lung density, lung cysts, and chronic bronchitis. Cannabis has been linked in a dose-dependent manner with elevated rates of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrythmias. It is known to affect bone metabolism and also has teratogenic effects on the developing brain following perinatal exposure. Cannabis has been linked to cancers at eight sites, including children after in utero maternal exposure, and multiple molecular pathways to oncogenesis exist. Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use.

  1. Helping to combat chronic wasting disease

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a disease of the nervous system that results in distinctive brain lesions. CWD affects elk, white-tailed deer, and mule deer, but has not been documented in livestock or humans. The origins of the disease, as well as the modes of transmission, remain unknown. Infected deer and elk appear robust and healthy in the early stages of CWD; clinical signs might not show for years. Mortality typically occurs within months after the appearance of clinical signs. The route of transmission is unknown; likely routes include direct transmission between infected and noninfected animals and infected animals contaminating local environments.

  2. Retrospective dosimetry related to chronic environmental exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degteva, M. O.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Neta, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment occurred in the early fifties as a result of the releases from the Mayak plutonium production complex (Southern Urals, Russia). The releases of liquid wastes into the Techa river resulted in chronic exposure of 30,000 residents of the riverside communities. Since 1951 90Sr body burdens have been measured for over half of this cohort. This paper presents the analysis of data on 90Sr in humans and describes the reconstruction of internal doses for these people.

  3. Retrospective dosimetry related to chronic environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Degteva, M O; Kozheurov, V P; Tolstykh, E I

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment occurred in the early fifties as a result of the releases from the Mayak plutonium production complex (Southern Urals, Russia). The releases of liquid wastes into the Techa river resulted in chronic exposure of 30,000 residents of the riverside communities. Since 1951 90Sr body burdens have been measured for over half of this cohort. This paper presents the analysis of data on 90Sr in humans and describes the reconstruction of internal doses for these people.

  4. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nitin; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-08-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are being studied as potential therapeutic targets. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation and affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in patients with CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is encouraging. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early environments and the ecology of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of a wide range of chronic degenerative diseases, although inflammation has long been recognized as a critical line of defense against infectious disease. However, current scientific understandings of the links between chronic low-grade inflammation and diseases of aging are based primarily on research in high-income nations with low levels of infectious disease and high levels of overweight/obesity. From a comparative and historical point of view, this epidemiological situation is relatively unique, and it may not capture the full range of ecological variation necessary to understand the processes that shape the development of inflammatory phenotypes. The human immune system is characterized by substantial developmental plasticity, and a comparative, developmental, ecological framework is proposed to cast light on the complex associations among early environments, regulation of inflammation, and disease. Recent studies in the Philippines and lowland Ecuador reveal low levels of chronic inflammation, despite higher burdens of infectious disease, and point to nutritional and microbial exposures in infancy as important determinants of inflammation in adulthood. By shaping the regulation of inflammation, early environments moderate responses to inflammatory stimuli later in life, with implications for the association between inflammation and chronic diseases. Attention to the eco-logics of inflammation may point to promising directions for future research, enriching our understanding of this important physiological system and informing approaches to the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:23045646

  6. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for chronic pancreatitis 2015.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ohara, Hirotaka; Kamisawa, Terumi; Sakagami, Junichi; Sata, Naohiro; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Hirota, Morihisa; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Hisato; Lee, Lingaku; Fujiyama, Takashi; Hijioka, Masayuki; Ueda, Keijiro; Tachibana, Yuichi; Sogame, Yoshio; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Kato, Ryusuke; Kataoka, Keisho; Shiratori, Keiko; Sugiyama, Masanori; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Tando, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Mamoru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is considered to be an irreversible progressive chronic inflammatory disease. The etiology and pathology of chronic pancreatitis are complex; therefore, it is important to correctly understand the stage and pathology and provide appropriate treatment accordingly. The newly revised Clinical Practice Guidelines of Chronic Pancreatitis 2015 consist of four chapters, i.e., diagnosis, staging, treatment, and prognosis, and includes a total of 65 clinical questions. These guidelines have aimed at providing certain directions and clinically practical contents for the management of chronic pancreatitis, preferentially adopting clinically useful articles. These revised guidelines also refer to early chronic pancreatitis based on the Criteria for the Diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis 2009. They include such items as health insurance coverage of high-titer lipase preparations and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, new antidiabetic drugs, and the definition of and treatment approach to pancreatic pseudocyst. The accuracy of these guidelines has been improved by examining and adopting new evidence obtained after the publication of the first edition.

  7. Gait Kinematics in Individuals with Acute and Chronic Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Fox, Aaron; Ferber, Reed; Saunders, Natalie; Osis, Sean; Bonacci, Jason

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the discriminating kinematic gait characteristics between individuals with acute and chronic patellofemoral pain (PFP) and healthy controls. Ninety-eight runners with PFP (39 male, 59 female) and 98 healthy control runners (38 male, 60 female) ran on a treadmill at a self-selected speed while three-dimensional lower limb kinematic data were collected. Runners with PFP were split into acute (n = 25) and chronic (n = 73) subgroups on the basis of whether they had been experiencing pain for less or greater than 3 months, respectively. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to determine the combination of kinematic gait characteristics that optimally separated individuals with acute PFP and chronic PFP and healthy controls. Compared with controls, both the acute and chronic PFP subgroups exhibited greater knee flexion across stance and greater ankle dorsiflexion during early stance. The acute PFP subgroup demonstrated greater transverse plane hip motion across stance compared with healthy controls. In contrast, the chronic PFP subgroup demonstrated greater frontal plane hip motion, greater knee abduction, and reduced ankle eversion/greater ankle inversion across stance when compared with healthy controls. This study identified characteristics that discriminated between individuals with acute and chronic PFP when compared with healthy controls. Certain discriminating characteristics were shared between both the acute and chronic subgroups when compared with healthy controls, whereas others were specific to the duration of PFP.

  8. Use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for chronic pruritus.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Ali, Basma Mourad; Hegab, Doaa Salah; El Saadany, Hanan Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Pruritus is a distressing symptom in many dermatological as well as systemic conditions, and it is sometimes very chronic and relapsing. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an inexpensive form of analgesia that could also ameliorate itching. This study aimed to evaluate TENS efficacy in patients with pruritus due to some types of chronic eczema, and in patients with chronic hepatic disease. Ten patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), 20 patients with lichen simplex chronicus (LSC), and 16 patients with chronic liver disease having chronic distressing pruritus received three sessions of TENS weekly for 12 sessions, and the effect on the visual analogue scale (VAS) scores was recorded after 2 weeks of therapy, at treatment end, and after an additional month for follow up. There was a statistically significant decline in the mean VAS score for studied groups at weeks 2 and 4 of therapy compared to baseline, but the improvement was more significant in patients with AD, and LSC (p < 0.001 for both) than in those with chronic liver disease (p < 0.01) who also showed an early re-elevation of VAS score on follow up. TENS therapy holds promise as a palliative, alternative, safe and inexpensive treatment for patients with some chronic pruritic conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis: diagnosis, classification, and new genetic developments.

    PubMed

    Etemad, B; Whitcomb, D C

    2001-02-01

    The utilization of recent advances in molecular and genomic technologies and progress in pancreatic imaging techniques provided remarkable insight into genetic, environmental, immunologic, and pathobiological factors leading to chronic pancreatitis. Translation of these advances into clinical practice demands a reassessment of current approaches to diagnosis, classification, and staging. We conclude that an adequate pancreatic biopsy must be the gold standard against which all diagnostic approaches are judged. Although computed tomography remains the initial test of choice for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, the roles of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are considered. Once chronic pancreatitis is diagnosed, proper classification becomes important. Major predisposing risk factors to chronic pancreatitis may be categorized as either (1) toxic-metabolic, (2) idiopathic, (3) genetic, (4) autoimmune, (5) recurrent and severe acute pancreatitis, or (6) obstructive (TIGAR-O system). After classification, staging of pancreatic function, injury, and fibrosis becomes the next major concern. Further research is needed to determine the clinical and natural history of chronic pancreatitis developing in the context of various risk factors. New methods are needed for early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, and new therapies are needed to determine whether interventions will delay or prevent the progression of the irreversible damage characterizing end-stage chronic pancreatitis.

  10. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Furman, Richard R; Zent, Clive S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is usually diagnosed in asymptomatic patients with early-stage disease. The standard management approach is careful observation, irrespective of risk factors unless patients meet the International Workshop on CLL (IWCLL) criteria for "active disease," which requires treatment. The initial standard therapy for most patients combines an anti-CD20 antibody (such as rituximab, ofatumumab, or obinutuzumab) with chemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide [FC], bendamustine, or chlorambucil) depending on multiple factors including the physical fitness of the patient. However, patients with very high-risk CLL because of a 17p13 deletion (17p-) with or without mutation of TP53 (17p-/TP53mut) have poor responses to chemoimmunotherapy and require alternative treatment regimens containing B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway inhibitors. The BCR signaling pathway inhibitors (ibrutinib targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase [BTK] and idelalisib targeting phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase delta [PI3K-delta], respectively) are currently approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory CLL and all patients with 17p- (ibrutinib), and in combination with rituximab for relapsed/refractory patients (idelalisib). These agents offer great efficacy, even in chemotherapy refractory CLL, with increased tolerability, safety, and survival. Ongoing studies aim to determine the best therapy combinations with the goal of achieving long-term disease control and the possibility of developing a curative regimen for some patients. CLL is associated with a wide range of infectious, autoimmune, and malignant complications. These complications result in considerable morbidity and mortality that can be minimized by early detection and aggressive management. This active monitoring requires ongoing patient education, provider vigilance, and a team approach to patient care.

  11. Chronic bronchitis in farmers.

    PubMed

    Melbostad, E; Eduard, W; Magnus, P

    1997-08-01

    Chronic bronchitis was studied in relation to work time and years of exposure in farming, as well as to production type, dusty occupation outside farming, and the combination of work exposure and smoking, in a population of farmers. In 1989 a representative cohort of 10,792 farmers and spouses was selected from a government register and invited to participate in a cross-sectional study in 1991. The total response rate was 80%. There were 33% part-time farmers, and among the men 32% of the full-time and 42% of the part-time farmers had worked in dusty occupations outside farming. Bronchitis symptoms were recorded on a self-administered questionnaire, spirometric data were obtained, and internal reference equations were calculated for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0). The exposure factors of importance for chronic bronchitis were full-time farming versus part-time farming, livestock production types (poultry, dairy, swine, horse and combinations), and occupational dust exposure outside agriculture. The combinations of the work exposure factors were significant and showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in risk for chronic bronchitis. Combinations with smoking showed up to a 6-fold increase in risk. Over the age of 50 years, chronic bronchitis was a risk factor for airway obstruction defined as the standardized residuals for FEV1.0 less than -2 for both nonsmokers (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-6.8) and smokers (OR 8.5, 95% CI 5.1-14.3). Work exposure factors in farming and other dusty occupations enhance the risk for chronic bronchitis from 2- to 3-fold for farmers. In combination with smoking the risk increases to up to 6-fold.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines

  13. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarged veins in the pelvis have no associated pain. Psychological factors. Depression, chronic stress or a history of sexual or physical abuse may increase your risk of chronic pelvic pain. Emotional distress makes pain worse, and living with ...

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Managing Chronic Kidney Disease If you have chronic kidney disease (CKD), ... hard, but it’s worthwhile. Ten ways to manage kidney disease Control your blood pressure Meet your blood ...

  15. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic / Diarrheal Diseases – Acute and Chronic Diarrheal Diseases – Acute and Chronic Basics Resources Overview Acute diarrhea is ... bulky, greasy or very bad smelling stools. Causes – Acute Diarrhea Most cases of acute, watery diarrhea are ...

  16. Impaired theta phase-resetting underlying auditory N1 suppression in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Fuentemilla, Lluis; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Gual, Antoni; Escera, Carles; Polo, Maria Dolores; Grau, Carles

    2009-02-18

    It has been suggested that chronic alcoholism may lead to altered neural mechanisms related to inhibitory processes. Here, we studied auditory N1 suppression phenomena (i.e. amplitude reduction with repetitive stimuli) in chronic alcoholic patients as an early-stage information-processing brain function involving inhibition by the analysis of the N1 event-related potential and time-frequency computation (spectral power and phase-resetting). Our results showed enhanced neural theta oscillatory phase-resetting underlying N1 generation in suppressed N1 event-related potential. The present findings suggest that chronic alcoholism alters neural oscillatory synchrony dynamics at very early stages of information processing.

  17. Movement disorders and chronic psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose of review: To discuss selected peer-reviewed research articles published between 2014 and 2016 and highlight 5 clinically relevant messages related to hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders in patients with chronic psychosis. Recent findings: A recent population-based study complemented data from clinical trials in showing increased risk of developing extrapyramidal symptoms with antipsychotic use. A community service–based longitudinal study showed that dopamine transporter imaging could help identify subgroups of patients with parkinsonism associated with antipsychotics with a progressive course, potentially manageable with l-dopa. Data from recent noteworthy clinical trials showed that a new VMAT-2 inhibitor and, for pharmacologically refractory tardive dyskinesia, deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus are promising interventions. Finally, a population-based study has confirmed that hyperkinesias (encompassing chorea, dystonia, and stereotypies) may be early predictors of psychosis even in childhood and adolescence. Summary: Movement disorders associated with new-generation antipsychotics, including widely used agents (e.g., aripiprazole), are not rare occurrences. Better monitoring is needed to assess their true effect on patients' quality of life and functioning and to prevent underascertainment. PMID:29185545

  18. [Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Balke, M; Wunderlich, G; Brunn, A; Fink, G R; Lehmann, H C

    2016-12-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic progressive or relapsing autoimmune neuropathy with heterogeneous clinical presentation. Symptoms typically include symmetrical, proximal and/or distal paresis and sensory loss. Atypical CIDP variants are increasingly recognized, including subtypes with rapid onset as well as variants with pure sensory, focal or marked asymmetrical deficits. Diagnosis is established by compatible symptoms, characteristic electrophysiological features and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. In unequivocal cases, inflammatory infiltrates in sural nerve biopsy support the diagnosis. Recent studies suggest that diagnostic imaging techniques such as MRI and nerve ultrasound may become useful tools for establishing the diagnosis. First-line therapies include immunoglobulines, steroids, and plasmapheresis. Immunosuppressant agents and monoclonal antibodies are used in therapy-refractory cases or as cortison-saving agents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic Stress and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this...permission to manufacture, use , or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th...multitude of effects of chronic stressors on rodent performances of spatial learning, anxiety, and depression. The following review will be used to

  1. [Nutrition and chronic polyarthritis].

    PubMed

    Diethelm, U

    1993-03-23

    Patients suffering from chronic and incurable diseases often try to influence their symptoms by dietary modification. The effect of complete fasting on pain in rheumatoid arthritis is remarkable, but not fully understood. Polyunsaturated fatty-acids, specially omega-3-fatty-acids from fish oil, are significant as precursors of mediators for inflammation. In rare instances food allergy may cause or aggravate arthritis. The actual knowledge is presented in a concentrated form and some practical advice is given.

  2. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine