Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elizaveta; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Madry, Henning; Marchettini, Paolo; Marmotti, Antonio; Van Assche, Dieter; Zanon, Giacomo; Peretti, Giuseppe M
Non-surgical treatments are usually the first choice for the management of knee degeneration, especially in the early osteoarthritis (OA) phase when no clear lesions or combined abnormalities need to be addressed surgically. Early OA may be addressed by a wide range of non-surgical approaches, from non-pharmacological modalities to dietary supplements and pharmacological therapies, as well as physical therapies and novel biological minimally invasive procedures involving injections of various substances to obtain a clinical improvement and possibly a disease-modifying effect. Numerous pharmaceutical agents are able to provide clinical benefit, but no one has shown all the characteristic of an ideal treatment, and side effects have been reported at both systemic and local level. Patients and physicians should have realistic outcome goals in pharmacological treatment, which should be considered together with other conservative measures. Among these, exercise is an effective conservative approach, while physical therapies lack literature support. Even though a combination of these therapeutic options might be the most suitable strategy, there is a paucity of studies focusing on combining treatments, which is the most common clinical scenario. Further studies are needed to increase the limited evidence on non-surgical treatments and their combination, to optimize indications, application modalities, and results with particular focus on early OA. In fact, most of the available evidence regards established OA. Increased knowledge about degeneration mechanisms will help to better target the available treatments and develop new biological options, where preliminary results are promising, especially concerning early disease phases. Specific treatments aimed at improving joint homoeostasis, or even counteracting tissue damage by inducing regenerative processes, might be successful in early OA, where tissue loss and anatomical changes are still at very initial stages.
Roux, Nathalie; Jakubowicz, Déborah; Salomon, Laurent; Grangé, Gilles; Giuseppi, Agnès; Rousseau, Véronique; Khen-Dunlop, Naziha; Beaudoin, Sylvie
Giant omphalocele often represents a major surgical challenge and is reported with high mortality and morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of neonates with giant omphalocele managed with early operative surgical treatment, and subsequently to identify possible factors that could alter the prognosis. We reviewed the medical records of 29 consecutive newborns with prenatally diagnosed giant omphalocele. In these cases one of two procedures had been performed: either staged closure after silo, or immediate closure with a synthetic patch. The cases were separated into 2 groups: Isolated giant omphalocele (IO group) and giant omphalocele associated with malformation (NIO group). Infants in the IO group had a lower size of the omphalocele (p<0,001), a shorter hospital stay (95 days [45-915] vs. 41.5 days [10-110] p= 0, 02), and a shorter median ventilation length (10 days [1-33] vs. 27, 5 [6-65] p = 0, 05). In the NIO group, 5 cases displayed a significantly more difficult course than the others. They were compared to the remaining cases for prenatal and anatomic features. Four factors associated with greater morbidity were identified: CONCLUSIONS: Isolated omphalocele, even containing the whole liver, has a very good prognosis with early surgical treatment. Without associated anomalies, 95% of giant omphaloceles can be discharged with a median of 41.5 days in hospital. However, associated anomalies (especially cardiopathies) may burden the prognosis and should be both carefully assessed during pregnancy and taken into account in parental information. Retrospective Study LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Drobnic, Matej; Madry, Henning; Jelic, Mislav; van Dijk, Niek; Della Villa, Stefano
Conservative approach is usually the first choice for the management of the knee degeneration processes, especially in the phase of the disease recognized as early osteoarthritis (OA) with no clear lesions or associated abnormalities requiring to be addressed surgically. A wide spectrum of treatments is available, from non-pharmacological modalities to dietary supplements and pharmacological therapies, as well as minimally invasive procedures involving injections of various substances aiming to restore joint homeostasis and provide clinical improvement and possibly a disease-modifying effect. Numerous pharmaceuticals have been proposed, but since no therapy has shown all the characteristic of an ideal treatment, and side effects have been reported at both systemic and local level, the use of pharmacological agents should be considered with caution by assessing the risk/benefit ratio of the drugs prescribed. Both patients and physicians should have realistic outcome goals in pharmacological treatment, which should be considered together with other conservative measures. A combination of these therapeutic options is a more preferable scenario, in particular considering the evidence available for non-pharmacological management. In fact, exercise is an effective conservative approach, even if long-term effectiveness and optimal dose and administration modalities still need to be clarified. Finally, physical therapies are emerging as viable treatment options, and novel biological approaches are under study. Further studies to increase the limited medical evidence on conservative treatments, optimizing results, application modalities, indications, and focusing on early OA will be necessary in the future. Level of evidence IV.
McAllister, Kerrie; Walker, David; Donnan, Peter T; Swan, Iain
Bell's palsy is an acute paralysis of one side of the face of unknown aetiology. Bell's palsy should only be used as a diagnosis in the absence of all other pathology. As the proposed pathophysiology is swelling and entrapment of the nerve, some surgeons suggest surgical decompression of the nerve as a possible management option. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To assess the effects of surgery in the management of Bell's palsy. On 29 October 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2012) and EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012). We also handsearched selected conference abstracts for the original version of the review. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving any surgical intervention for Bell's palsy. We compared surgical interventions to no treatment, sham treatment, other surgical treatments or medical treatment. Two review authors independently assessed whether trials identified from the searches were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Two trials with a total of 69 participants met the inclusion criteria. The first study considered the treatment of 403 people but only included 44 participants in the surgical trial, who were randomised into surgical and non-surgical groups. However, the report did not provide information on the method of randomisation. The second study randomly allocated 25 participants into surgical or control groups using statistical charts. There was no attempt in either study to conceal allocation. Neither participants nor outcome assessors were blind to the interventions, in either study. The first study lost seven participants to follow-up and there were no losses to follow-up in the second study.Surgeons in both studies decompressed the nerves of all the surgical group participants using a retroauricular approach. The
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. Most cases are diagnosed at an early stage and have low-grade histology, portending an overall excellent prognosis. There exists a subgroup of patients with early, high-risk disease, whose management remains controversial, as current data is clouded by inclusion of early stage tumors with different high-risk features for recurrence, unstandardized protocols for surgical staging, and an evolving staging system by which we are grouping these patients. Here, we present preoperative and intraoperative considerations that should be taken into account when planning surgical management for this population of patients. PMID:23878545
Falcone, Francesca; Balbi, Giancarlo; Di Martino, Luca; Grauso, Flavio; Salzillo, Maria Elena; Messalli, Enrico Michelino
In the last few years technical improvements have produced a dramatic shift from traditional open surgery towards a minimally invasive approach for the management of early endometrial cancer. Advancement in minimally invasive surgical approaches has allowed extensive staging procedures to be performed with significantly reduced patient morbidity. Debate is ongoing regarding the choice of a minimally invasive approach that has the most effective benefit for the patients, the surgeon, and the healthcare system as a whole. Surgical treatment of women with presumed early endometrial cancer should take into account the features of endometrial disease and the general surgical risk of the patient. Women with endometrial cancer are often aged, obese, and with cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities that increase the risk of peri-operative complications, so it is important to tailor the extent and the radicalness of surgery in order to decrease morbidity and mortality potentially derivable from unnecessary procedures. In this regard women with negative nodes derive no benefit from unnecessary lymphadenectomy, but may develop short- and long-term morbidity related to this procedure. Preoperative and intraoperative techniques could be critical tools for tailoring the extent and the radicalness of surgery in the management of women with presumed early endometrial cancer. In this review we will discuss updates in surgical management of early endometrial cancer and also the role of preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of lymph node status in influencing surgical options, with the aim of proposing a management algorithm based on the literature and our experience.
Falcone, Francesca; Balbi, Giancarlo; Di Martino, Luca; Grauso, Flavio; Salzillo, Maria Elena; Messalli, Enrico Michelino
In the last few years technical improvements have produced a dramatic shift from traditional open surgery towards a minimally invasive approach for the management of early endometrial cancer. Advancement in minimally invasive surgical approaches has allowed extensive staging procedures to be performed with significantly reduced patient morbidity. Debate is ongoing regarding the choice of a minimally invasive approach that has the most effective benefit for the patients, the surgeon, and the healthcare system as a whole. Surgical treatment of women with presumed early endometrial cancer should take into account the features of endometrial disease and the general surgical risk of the patient. Women with endometrial cancer are often aged, obese, and with cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities that increase the risk of peri-operative complications, so it is important to tailor the extent and the radicalness of surgery in order to decrease morbidity and mortality potentially derivable from unnecessary procedures. In this regard women with negative nodes derive no benefit from unnecessary lymphadenectomy, but may develop short- and long-term morbidity related to this procedure. Preoperative and intraoperative techniques could be critical tools for tailoring the extent and the radicalness of surgery in the management of women with presumed early endometrial cancer. In this review we will discuss updates in surgical management of early endometrial cancer and also the role of preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of lymph node status in influencing surgical options, with the aim of proposing a management algorithm based on the literature and our experience. PMID:25063051
Chandra, Dinesh; Gupta, Anubhav; Nath, Ranjit K.; kazmi, Aamir; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay K.
Background The anatomical variability in patients with anomalous pulmonary venous connection to superior vena cava presents a surgical challenge. The problem is further compounded by the common occurrence of postoperative complications like arrhythmias and obstruction of the superior vena cava or pulmonary veins. We present our experience of managing this subset using the two patch and Warden's techniques. Patients and methods Between June 2011 and September 2012, 7 patients with APVC to the SVC were operated in our institute. After delineating the anatomy, five of them had a two patch repair and two were managed with Warden's technique. Results There was no in-hospital mortality or early mortality over a mean follow-up of 9.66 ± 3.88 months (range 6–15 months). All the patients on follow-up had unobstructed pulmonary venous and SVC drainage on echocardiography and all of them were in normal sinus rhythm. Conclusions Anomalous pulmonary venous connection to superior vena cava is a challenging subset of patients in whom the surgical management needs to be individualized. The detailed anatomy must be delineated using echocardiography with or without CT angiography before deciding the surgical plan. This entity can be repaired with excellent immediate and early results. However, these patients must be closely followed up for complications like systemic and pulmonary venous obstruction and sinus node dysfunction. PMID:24206880
Heare, Austin; Kramer, Nicholas; Salib, Christopher; Mauffrey, Cyril
Despite overall improved outcomes with open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures, posterior wall fractures show disproportionately poor results. The effect of weight bearing on outcomes of fracture management has been investigated in many lower extremity fractures, but evidence-based recommendations in posterior wall acetabular fractures are lacking. The authors systematically reviewed the current literature to determine if a difference in outcome exists between early and late postoperative weight-bearing protocols for surgically managed posterior wall acetabular fractures. PubMed and MEDLINE were searched for posterior wall acetabular fracture studies that included weight-bearing protocols and Merle d'Aubigné functional scores. Twelve studies were identified. Each study was classified as either early or late weight bearing. Early weight bearing was defined as full, unrestricted weight bearing at or before 12 weeks postoperatively. Late weight bearing was defined as restricted weight bearing for greater than 12 weeks postoperatively. The 2 categories were then compared by functional score using a 2-tailed t test and by complication rate using chi-square analysis. Six studies (152 fractures) were placed in the early weight-bearing category. Six studies (302 fractures) were placed in the late weight-bearing category. No significant difference in Merle d'Aubigné functional scores was found between the 2 groups. No difference was found regarding heterotopic ossification, avascular necrosis, superficial infections, total infections, or osteoarthritis. This systematic review found no difference in functional outcome scores or complication rates between early and late weight-bearing protocols for surgically treated posterior wall fractures. [Orthopedics. 2017: 40(4):e652-e657.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Harwood, B; Nansel, T
Objective This study compares quality of life (QOL) and acceptability of medical versus surgical treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Design A randomised clinical trial of treatment for EPF compared misoprostol vaginally versus vacuum aspiration (VA). Setting A multisite trial at four US Urban University Hospitals. Population A total of 652 women with an EPF were randomised to treatment. Methods Participants completed a daily symptom diary and a questionnaire 2 weeks after treatment. Main outcome measures The questionnaire assessment included subscales of the Short Form-36 Health Survey Revised for QOL and measures of wellbeing, recovery difficulties, and treatment acceptability. Results The two groups did not differ in mean scores for QOL except bodily pain; medical treatment was associated with higher levels of bodily pain than VA (P < 0.001). Success of treatment was not related to QOL, but acceptability of the procedure was decreased for medical therapy if unsuccessful (P = 0.003). Type of treatment was not associated with differences in recovery, and the two groups reported similar acceptability except for cramping (P = 0.02), bleeding (P < 0.001), and symptom duration (P = 0.03). Conclusions Despite reporting greater pain and lower acceptability of treatment-related symptoms, QOL and treatment acceptability were similar for medical and surgical treatment of EPF. Acceptability, but not QOL, was influenced by success or failure of medical management. PMID:18271887
Harris, Lisa H; Dalton, Vanessa K; Johnson, Timothy R B
Early pregnancy failure and induced abortion are often managed differently, even though safe uterine evacuation is the goal in both. Early pregnancy failure is commonly treated by curettage in operating room settings in anesthetized patients. Induced abortion is most commonly managed by office vacuum aspiration in awake or sedated patients. Medical evidence does not support routine operating room management of early pregnancy failure. This commentary reviews historical origins of these different care standards, explores political factors responsible for their perpetuation, and uses experience at University of Michigan to dramatize the ways in which history, politics, and biomedicine intersect to produce patient care. The University of Michigan initiated office uterine evacuations for early pregnancy failure treatment. Patients previously went to the operating room. These changes required faculty, staff, and resident education. Our efforts blurred the lines between spontaneous and induced abortion management, improved patient care and better utilized hospital resources.
Claude, O; Picard, A; O'Sullivan, N; Baccache, S; Momtchilova, M; Enjolras, O; Vazquez, M P; Diner, P A
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the early surgical excision of periorbital haemangiomas with an ultrasonic scalpel in infants at risk of visual impairment. A retrospective analysis of 67 infants diagnosed to be at risk of amblyopia from periorbital haemangiomas, treated consecutively with the Dissectron between 1994 and 2005. Ophthalmic outcome parameters included the pre- and postoperative measurement of visual axis occlusion, strabismus, astigmatism, and degree of amblyopia. Visual performance showed an overall improvement of 30% following treatment. Seventy-six patients were found to have abnormal ophthalmic examinations preoperatively, compared to 46 following surgery. After surgery, visual axis occlusion decreased from 73 to 6%; amblyopia decreased from 67 to 22%, strabismus decreased from 26 to 18% and astigmatism (>onedioptre) decreased from 66 to 31%. Mean astigmatism values decreased from 3.5 to 1.9 dioptres. No new cases of astigmatism, strabismus or amblyopia were diagnosed postoperatively. Three minor complications resolved with conservative treatment. All patients were satisfied with the outcome of their surgery. Early surgical excision of periorbital haemangiomas using the Dissectron in infants with an established risk of visual impairment is a safe and effective alternative to pharmacological therapy. The use of the Dissectron is associated with reduced operative times and a shorter hospital stay.
Michels, R G
Pars plana vitrectomy technic can be used in the early management of certain penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, including selected intraocular foreign bodies. This study reports the results of ten consecutive cases of intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment treated by a combination of vitrectomy (including lensectomy when necessary) and foreign-body extraction with forceps. The foreign body was successfully removed in nine of ten eyes, and nine of ten eyes were salvaged. This favorable experience using early vitreous surgery suggests that the vitrectomy technic can be used in other penetrating injuries involving the posterior segment that are not associated with intraocular foreign bodies. Possible indications for early vitrectomy are presented, including cases with a poor prognosis when managed by conventional methods.
Anantha Narayanan, Mahesh; Mahfood Haddad, Toufik; Kalil, Andre C; Kanmanthareddy, Arun; Suri, Rakesh M; Mansour, George; Destache, Christopher J; Baskaran, Janani; Mooss, Aryan N; Wichman, Tammy; Morrow, Lee; Vivekanandan, Renuga
Infective endocarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality and optimal timing for surgical intervention is unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare early surgical intervention with conservative therapy in patients with infective endocarditis. PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL and Google-scholar databases were searched from January 1960 to April 2015. Randomised controlled trials, retrospective cohorts and prospective observational studies comparing outcomes between early surgery at 20 days or less and conservative management for infective endocarditis were analysed. A total of 21 studies were included. OR of all-cause mortality for early surgery was 0.61 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.74, p<0.001) in unmatched groups and 0.41 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.54, p<0.001) in the propensity-matched groups (matched for baseline variables). For patients who had surgical intervention at 7 days or less, OR of all-cause mortality was 0.61 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.96, p=0.034) and in those who had surgical intervention within 8-20 days, the OR of mortality was 0.64 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.86, p=0.003) compared with conservative management. In propensity-matched groups, the OR of mortality in patients with surgical intervention at 7 days or less was 0.30 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.54, p<0.001) and in the subgroup of patients who underwent surgery between 8 and 20 days was 0.51 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.72, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality, embolisation, heart failure and recurrence of endocarditis between the overall unmatched cohorts. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that early surgical intervention is associated with significantly lower risk of mortality in patients with infective endocarditis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Quérat, C; Germain, N; Dumollard, J-M; Estour, B; Peoc'h, M; Prades, J-M
Hyperthyroidism includes several clinical and histopathological situations. Surgery is commonly indicated after failure of medical treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the indications and complications of surgery as well as endocrine results. Patients operated on for hyperthyroidism between 2004 and 2012 were included in a retrospective study. Total thyroidectomy was performed for Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter and amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis; patients with toxic nodule underwent hemithyroidectomy. Pathologic analysis assessed surgical specimens; postoperative complications and resolution of hyperthyroidism were noted. Two hundred patients from 15 to 83 years old were included. One hundred and eighty-eight underwent primary surgery and 12 were re-operated for recurrent goiter (6 with subtotal thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter 25 years previously; 6 with hemithyroidectomy for solitary nodule 15 years previously). Eighty-two patients suffered from toxic multinodular goiter, 78 from Graves' disease, 35 from solitary toxic nodules and 5 from amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. Fourteen papillary carcinomas (including 11 papillary microcarcinomas) and 34 healthy parathyroid glands (17%) were identified in the pathological specimens. Postoperative complications comprised 4% permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (1 year follow-up), 9% hematoma requiring surgical revision, and 3% definitive hypocalcemia. Normalization of thyroid hormone levels was observed in 198 patients. Two recurrences occurred due to incomplete resection (1 case of Graves' disease and 1 intrathoracic toxic goiter that occurred respectively 18 and 5 months after resection). Postoperative complications were more frequent in multinodular goiter (23%) than in Graves' disease (13%) (ns: P>0.05). Surgical management of hyperthyroidism enables good endocrinal control if surgery is complete. Patients need to be fully informed of all possible postoperative complications
Agbo, S. P.
Hemorrhoids are common human afflictions known since the dawn of history. Surgical management of this condition has made tremendous progress from complex ligation and excision procedures in the past to simpler techniques that allow the patient to return to normal life within a short period. Newer techniques try to improve on the post-operative complications of older ones. The surgical options for the management of hemorrhoids today are many. Capturing all in a single article may be difficult if not impossible. The aim of this study therefore is to present in a concise form some of the common surgical options in current literature, highlighting some important post operative complications. Current literature is searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. The conclusion is that even though there are many surgical options in the management of hemorrhoids today, most employ the ligature and excision technique with newer ones having reduced post operative pain and bleeding. PMID:22413048
Bleu, Géraldine; Merlot, Benjamin; Boulanger, Loïc; Vinatier, Denis; Kerdraon, Olivier; Collinet, Pierre
Objective Since European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) recommendations and French guidelines, pelvic lymphadenectomy should not be systematically performed for women with early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) preoperatively assessed at presumed low- or intermediate-risk. The aim of our study was to evaluate the change of our surgical practices after ESMO recommendations, and to evaluate the rate and morbidity of second surgical procedure in case of understaging after the first surgery. Methods This retrospective single-center study included women with EEC preoperatively assessed at presumed low- or intermediate-risk who had surgery between 2006 and 2013. Two periods were defined the times before and after ESMO recommendations. Demographics characteristics, surgical management, operative morbidity, and rate of understaging were compared. The rate of second surgical procedure required for lymph node resection during the second period and its morbidity were also studied. Results Sixty-one and sixty-two patients were operated for EEC preoperatively assessed at presumed low-or intermediate-risk before and after ESMO recommendations, respectively. Although immediate pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed more frequently during the first period than the second period (88.5% vs. 19.4%; p<0.001), the rate of postoperative risk-elevating or upstaging were comparable between the two periods (31.1% vs. 27.4%; p=0.71). Among the patients requiring second surgical procedure during the second period (21.0%), 30.8% did not undergo the second surgery due to their comorbidity or old age. For the patients who underwent second surgical procedure, mean operative time of the second procedure was 246.1±117.8 minutes. Third operation was required in 33.3% of them because of postoperative complications. Conclusion Since ESMO recommendations, second surgical procedure for lymph node resection is often required for women with EEC presumed at low- or intermediate-risk. This
Bonato, Luke J; Edwards, Elton R; Gosling, Cameron McR; Hau, Raphael; Hofstee, Dirk Jan; Shuen, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda J
Tibial plafond fractures represent a small but complex subset of fractures of the lower limb. The aim of this study was to describe the health related quality of life, pain and return to work outcomes 12 months following surgically managed tibial plafond fracture. The Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR) database was used to identify patients with tibial plafond fractures. All patients captured by VOTOR with a tibial plafond fracture between September 2003 and July 2009, were identified consecutively and comprised the initial cohort. The radiographs of all identified patients were classified using the AO/OTA fracture classification. A review of the included patient's medical records was performed. Data were collected on the injury event, management and complications. Outcomes at 12 months were prospectively collected by telephone interview and included return to work, a numerical rating scale for assessment of pain and the Short Form 12 (SF-12). There were 98 unilateral tibial plafond fractures; 91 fractures were managed operatively, 4 non-operatively and 3 underwent amputation. The 91 operatively managed patients were the focus of this study. A two-stage management approach, involving temporary external fixation, followed by definitive open reduction and internal fixation, was the most common operative treatment. The follow-up rate at 12 months was 70%. 57% had returned to work by 12 months post-injury, the median (IQR) pain score was 2 (0-5) and 27% reported moderate to severe persistent pain. Mean PCS-12 scores were significantly lower than Australian norms (p=0.99), 38.2 for males and 37.5 for females. The presence of persistent pain, loss of physical health and a low return to work rate highlights the profound impact of tibial plafond fractures on patients' lives. Although this study looked at the early 12 month results, it is expected these outcomes will continue to improve over time. Further studies, with larger patient numbers, must focus
Gillaspie, Erin A; Lim, Kaiser; Nichols, Francis C
Chyloptysis is a rare clinical presentation. Diagnosis is challenging and requires recognition of milky-sputum or bronchial casts. We describe a case of chyloptysis secondary to thoracic lymphangiectasia that necessitated surgical ligation of the main thoracic duct and accessory branches. The patient had no postoperative complications, and at 6-month follow-up remained symptom-free. A paucity of literature describes the management of chyloptysis. We review diagnosis, treatment considerations and operative principles. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miner, Jason; Gruber, Paul; Perry, Travis L
Levamisole-adulterated cocaine as a cause of retiform purpura progressing to full-thickness skin necrosis was first documented in 2003 and currently comprises over 200 reported cases. Whereas, its presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic workup have been reasonably well-defined, only one publication has significantly detailed its surgical management. For this reason there exists a relative absence of data in comparison to its reported incidence to suggest a preferred treatment strategy. In the case mentioned, treatment emphasized delayed surgical intervention while awaiting lesion demarcation and the monitoring of autoantibodies. At our institution we offer an alternative approach and present the case of a 34 year old female who presented with 49% TBSA, levamisole-induced skin necrosis managed with early surgical excision and skin grafting. The patient presented three days following cocaine exposure with painful, purpura involving the ears, nose, buttocks, and bilateral lower extremities which quickly progressed to areas of full-thickness necrosis. Lab analysis demonstrated elevated p-ANCA and c-ANCA, as well as leukopenia, decreased C4 complement, and urinalysis positive for levamisole, corroborating the diagnosis. Contrasting the most thoroughly documented case in which the patient underwent first surgical excision on hospital day 36 and underwent 18 total excisions, our patient underwent first excision on hospital day 10 and received only one primary excision prior to definitive autografting. To our knowledge, this is the largest surface area surgically treated that did not result in surgical amputation or autoamputation of limbs or appendages, respectively. We contend that early excision and grafting provides optimal surgical management of this syndrome while avoiding the morbidity seen with delayed intervention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Parekh, Dilip; Natarajan, Sathima
Advances over the past decade have indicated that a complex interplay between environmental factors, genetic predisposition, alcohol abuse, and smoking lead towards the development of chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a complex disorder that causes significant and chronic incapacity in patients and a substantial burden on the society. Major advances have been made in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease and the role of genetic predisposition is increasingly coming to the fore. Advances in noninvasive diagnostic modalities now allow for better diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at an early stage of the disease. The impact of these advances on surgical treatment is beginning to emerge, for example, patients with certain genetic predispositions may be better treated with total pancreatectomy versus lesser procedures. Considerable controversy remains with respect to the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern understanding of the neurobiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis suggests that a window of opportunity exists for effective treatment of the intractable pain after which central sensitization can lead to an irreversible pain syndrome in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Effective surgical procedures exist for chronic pancreatitis; however, the timing of surgery is unclear. For optimal treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis, close collaboration between a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pain management physicians is needed.
Moir, C R; Scudamore, C H; Benny, W B
Typhlitis is a neutropenic enterocolitis of varying severity. Its incidence is increasing, particularly in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia undergoing high dose cytosine arabinoside chemotherapy. The onset is heralded by prodromal fever, watery or bloody diarrhea, abdominal distension, and nausea during the phase of severe neutropenia. The symptoms may then localize to the right lower quadrant with an associated increase in systemic toxicity. The diagnosis can be confirmed in these and other less specific cases by serial reexamination and abdominal radiographs, ultrasonography, computerized tomograms, or radionucleotide scans. The mainstay of management is complete bowel rest with nasogastric suction and total parenteral nutrition. Broad-spectrum combination antibiotics are essential, as is the avoidance of laxatives or antidiarrheal agents. Granulocyte support may be helpful. Patients with a history of nonspecific gastrointestinal complaints or of true typhlitis, successfully managed nonoperatively, should have prophylactic bowel rest and total parenteral nutrition instituted at the beginning of further chemotherapy. Patients with ongoing severe systemic sepsis who do not respond to chemotherapy and those with overt perforation, obstruction, massive hemorrhage, or abscess formation require surgical intervention. All necrotic material must be resected, usually by a right hemicolectomy, ileostomy, and mucous fistula. Divided ileostomy for less severe cases may be useful. Failure to remove the necrotic focus in these severely immunocompromised patients is fatal. With adequate recognition of typhlitis and its precipitating factors, the incidence of complications can be reduced through prevention and timely surgical intervention. Although typhlitis developed in a quarter of our acute myeloblastic leukemia patients, use of this combined approach was successful in all cases.
Lu, Kim C; Hunt, Steven R
Although medical management can control symptoms in a recurring incurable disease, such as Crohn's disease, surgical management is reserved for disease complications or those problems refractory to medical management. In this article, we cover general principles for the surgical management of Crohn's disease, ranging from skin tags, abscesses, fistulae, and stenoses to small bowel and extraintestinal disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Most experts would agree that the standard surgical treatment for endometrial cancer includes a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, the benefit of full surgical staging with lymph node dissection in patients with apparent early stage disease remains a topic of debate. Recent prospective data and advances in laparoscopic techniques have transformed this disease into one that can be successfully managed with minimally invasive surgery. This review will discuss the current surgical management of apparent early stage endometrial cancer and some of the new techniques that are being incorporated. PMID:24596812
Bluemel, Christina; Cramer, Andreas; Grossmann, Christoph; Kajdi, Georg W; Malzahn, Uwe; Lamp, Nora; Langen, Heinz-Jakob; Schmid, Jan; Buck, Andreas K; Grimminger, Hanns-Jörg; Herrmann, Ken
To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization (iROLL) and to compare iROLL with wire-guided localization (WGL) in patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). WGL (standard procedure) and iROLL in combination with SLNB were performed in 31 women (mean age 65.1 ± 11.2 years) with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Patient comfort in respect of both methods was assessed using a ten point scale. SLNB and iROLL were guided by freehand SPECT (fhSPECT). The results of the novel 3-D image-based method were compared with those of WGL, ultrasound-based lesion localization, and histopathology. iROLL successfully detected the malignant primary and at least one sentinel lymph node in 97% of patients. In a single patient (3%), only iROLL, and not WGL, enabled lesion localization. The variability between fhSPECT and ultrasound-based depth localization of breast lesions was low (1.2 ± 1.4 mm). Clear margins were achieved in 81% of the patients; however, precise prediction of clear histopathological surgical margins was not feasible using iROLL. Patients rated iROLL as less painful than WGL with a pain score 0.8 ± 1.2 points (p < 0.01) lower than the score for iROLL. iROLL is a well-tolerated and feasible technique for localizing early-stage breast cancer in the course of breast-conserving surgery, and is a suitable replacement for WGL. As a single image-based procedure for localization of breast lesions and sentinel nodes, iROLL may improve the entire surgical procedure. However, no advantages of the image-guided procedure were found with regard to prediction of complete tumour resection.
During the Great War, the French surgeon Alexis Carrel, in collaboration with the English chemist Henry Dakin, devised an antiseptic treatment for infected wounds. This paper focuses on Carrel’s attempt to standardise knowledge of infected wounds and their treatment, and looks closely at the vision of surgical skill he espoused and its difference from those associated with the doctrines of scientific management. Examining contemporary claims that the Carrel–Dakin method increased rather than diminished demands on surgical work, this paper further shows how debates about antiseptic wound treatment opened up a critical space for considering the nature of skill as a vital dynamic in surgical innovation and practice. PMID:26090737
Tricuspid valve stenosis (TS) is rare, affecting less than 1% of patients in developed nations and approximately 3% of patients worldwide. Detection requires careful evaluation, as it is almost always associated with left-sided valve lesions that may obscure its significance. Primary TS is most frequently caused by rheumatic valvulitis. Other causes include carcinoid, radiation therapy, infective endocarditis, trauma from endomyocardial biopsy or pacemaker placement, or congenital abnormalities. Surgical management of TS is not commonly addressed in standard cardiac texts but is an important topic for the practicing surgeon. This paper will elucidate the anatomy, pathophysiology, and surgical management of TS. PMID:28706872
McCoy, Jacob A.; Beck, David E.
For the select small number of constipated patients that cannot be managed medically, surgical options should be considered. Increases in our knowledge of colorectal physiology and experience have fostered improvements in patient evaluation and surgical management. Currently, patients with refractory colonic inertia are offered total abdominal colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis, often with laparoscopic techniques. With proper patient selection, the results have been excellent for resolving the frequency and quality of bowel movements. However, symptoms such as bloating and abdominal pain, which may be related to irritable bowel syndrome rather than the colonic inertia, may persist. PMID:23449085
Dzakovic, Alexander; Superina, Riccardo
Pancreatitis is becoming increasingly prevalent in children, posing new challenges to pediatric health care providers. Although some general adult treatment paradigms are applicable in the pediatric population, diagnostic workup and surgical management of acute and chronic pancreatitis have to be tailored to anatomic and pathophysiological entities peculiar to children. Nonbiliary causes of acute pancreatitis in children are generally managed nonoperatively with hydration, close biochemical and clinical observation, and early initiation of enteral feeds. Surgical intervention including cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is often required in acute biliary pancreatitis, whereas infected pancreatic necrosis remains a rare absolute indication for pancreatic debridement and drainage via open, laparoscopic, or interventional radiologic procedure. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by painful irreversible changes of the parenchyma and ducts, which may result in or be caused by inadequate ductal drainage. A variety of surgical procedures providing drainage, denervation, resection, or a combination thereof are well established to relieve pain and preserve pancreatic function. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lee, Jae Hyun; Lim, Soo Yeon; Lee, Jang Hyun; Ahn, Hee Chang
Localized scleroderma is characterized by a thickening of the skin from excessive collagen deposits. It is not a fatal disease, but quality of life can be adversely affected due to changes in skin appearance, joint contractures, and, rarely, serious deformities of the face and extremities. We present six cases of localized scleroderma in face from our surgical practice. We reviewed six localized scleroderma cases that were initially treated with medication and then received follow-up surgery between April 2003 and February 2015. Six patients had facial lesions. These cases presented with linear dermal sclerosis on the forehead, oval subcutaneous and dermal depression in the cheek. En coup de sabre (n=4), and oval-shaped lesion of the face (n=2) were successfully treated. Surgical methods included resection with or without Z-plasty (n=3), fat graft (n=1), dermofat graft (n=1), and adipofascial free flap (n=1). Deformities of the affected parts were surgically corrected without reoccurrence. We retrospectively reviewed six cases of localized scleroderma that were successfully treated with surgery. And we propose an algorithm for selecting the best surgical approach for individual localized scleroderma cases. Although our cases were limited in number and long-term follow-up will be necessary, we suggest that surgical management should be considered as an option for treating scleroderma patients.
Tuli, Sonal; Gray, Matthew
The purpose of this review is to discuss the options for, and recent developments in, the surgical treatment of corneal infections. Although the mainstay of treatment of corneal infections is topical antimicrobial agents, surgical intervention may be necessary in a number of cases. These include advanced disease at presentation, resistant infections, and progressive ulceration despite appropriate treatment. Prompt and appropriate treatment can make the difference between a good outcome and loss of vision or the eye. There are a number of surgical therapies available for corneal infections. Preferred therapeutic modalities differ based on the size, causation, and location of the infection but consist of either replacement of the infected tissue or structural support of the tissue to allow healing. Although there are no completely novel therapies that have been developed recently, there have been incremental improvements in the existing treatment modalities making them more effective, easier, and safer. Several options are available for surgically managing corneal infections. Ophthalmologists should select the optimal procedure based on the individual patient's situation. http://links.lww.com/COOP/A20.
Tuli, Sonal; Gray, Matthew
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to discuss the options for, and recent developments in, the surgical treatment of corneal infections. While the mainstay of treatment of corneal infections is topical antimicrobial agents, surgical intervention may be necessary in a number of cases. These include advanced disease at presentation, resistant infections, and progressive ulceration despite appropriate treatment. Prompt and appropriate treatment can make the difference between a good outcome and loss of vision or the eye. Recent findings There are a number of surgical therapies available for corneal infections. Preferred therapeutic modalities differ based on the size, causation, and location of the infection but consist of either replacement of the infected tissue or structural support of the tissue to allow healing. While there are no completely novel therapies that have been developed recently, there have been incremental improvements in the existing treatment modalities making them more effective, easier, and safer. Summary Several options are available for surgically managing corneal infections. Ophthalmologists should select the optimal procedure based on the individual patient’s situation. PMID:27096375
Tuli, Sonal; Gray, Matthew; Shah, Ankit
The purpose of this review is to discuss the options for, and recent developments in, the surgical treatment of herpes keratitis. Although the mainstay of treatment of herpetic keratitis is topical or oral antiviral agents, surgical intervention may be necessary for corneal melting or long-term complications such as scarring, lipid keratopathy, necrotizing keratitis, and neurotrophic keratitis. There are a number of surgical therapies available for herpes keratitis. Preferred therapeutic modalities differ based on the size, causation, and location of the infection but consist of either replacement of the infected tissue or structural support of the tissue to allow healing. Incremental improvements in the existing treatment modalities have made them more effective, easier, and safer, whereas novel therapies such as corneal neurotization are starting to be described in ophthalmic literature. Several options are available for surgically managing the complications of herpes keratitis. Ophthalmologists should select the optimal procedure based on the individual patient's situation. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COOP/A28.
During the past 25 years, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy has progressively increased while the morbidity and mortality have substantialy decreased, and the treatment has progressed from salpingectomy by laparotomy to conservative surgery by laparoscopy and more recently to medical therapy with Methotrexate or expectant management. This therapeutic transition from surgical emergency to non surgical managment has been attributed to early diagnosis through the use of sensitive assays for hCG and the high definition of vaginal ultrasound. By using these sensitive diagnostic tools, we are now able to select those patients who are most likely to respond to expectant or medical managment versus those who are at high risk of rupture and require surgery. We have reviewed the scientific literature on ectopic pregnancy published over the past 20 years, with the aim to assess the value of non surgical managment of etopic pregnancy. Predictor factors of expectant managment are discussed. Medical therapy with methotrexate: results, indications, Unpleasant side effects and complications are detailed. Several protocols are defined and therapeutic supervision is etablished. The authors offred several recommandations for OB/GY wich will optimize the effectivness of non invasive methods for treatment of ectopic pregnancy.
Considerable investigation has been devoted to the gastric dilatation-torsion complex. An adequate explanation of its cause has yet to be made, or a means of prevention described. We do know of its highly lethal nature, especially if not aggressively treated, of the high incidence of recurrence, and of the associated pathophysiology. As surgeons, we must approach the patient in an aggressive systematic manner. Decompression and patient stabilization must be achieved prior to definitive surgical management. The surgery planned must correct the obvious pathologic state and include procedures designed to prevent recurrence of this condition. The tube gastrostomy technique promotes gastric fixation by dense adhesion bands exceeding that attainable by gastropexy alone. The procedure is easy to perform, requires little surgical time, and does not appear to be discomforting to the patient. In addition, the tube gastrostomy acts as a convenient decompressive pathway during the postoperative period, circumventing gastric intubation or pharyngostomy tube placement should distention occur.
Caterson, E J; Shetye, Pradip R; Grayson, Barry H; McCarthy, Joseph G
The classic Le Fort III procedure was recommended in syndromic craniosynostotic children to reduce exorbitism, improve airway function, and decrease dysmorphism. This study reports on a cohort of syndromic craniosynostosis patients who have undergone early primary subcranial (classic Tessier) Le Fort III advancement and who have been followed longitudinally through skeletal maturity and beyond. In this study, the Le Fort III advancements all occurred between the ages of 3 to 5 years, with a mean age of 4.6 years. Subsequently, these early Le Fort III patients were followed throughout development with longitudinal dental, medical, radiographic, and photographic evaluations conducted through skeletal maturity and beyond. For study inclusion, the patients had to have preoperative medical photographs and cephalometric studies at 6 months and 1, 5, and 10 years postoperatively after the primary Le Fort III advancement as well as cephalometric documentation 6 months and 1 year after the secondary midface advancement after skeletal maturity. After early or primary Le Fort III advancement, there was no evidence of relapse and only minimal anterior or horizontal postoperative growth of the midface. However, there was also a return of occlusal disharmony from "anticipated" mandibular growth, approaching a maximum at skeletal maturity. The dysmorphic concave facial profile and malocclusion, and airway and ocular considerations, provided the impetus for secondary midface surgery after skeletal maturity was attained. The data demonstrate that early Le Fort III advancement performed before the age of mixed dentition does not obviate the need for a secondary advancement after skeletal maturity is reached. Therapeutic, IV.
Keung, Emily Z; Fairweather, Mark; Raut, Chandrajit P
Sarcomas are rare cancers of mesenchymal cell origin that include many histologic subtypes and molecularly distinct entities. For primary resectable sarcoma, surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Despite treatment, approximately 50% of patients with soft tissue sarcoma are diagnosed with or develop distant metastases, significantly affecting their survival. Although systemic therapy with conventional chemotherapy remains the primary treatment modality for those with metastatic sarcoma, increased survival has been achieved in select patients who receive multimodality therapy, including surgery, for their metastatic disease. This article provides an overview of the literature on surgical management of pulmonary and hepatic sarcoma metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moche, Jason A; Palmer, Orville
The proper evaluation of the patient with nasal obstruction relies on a comprehensive history and physical examination. Once the site of obstruction is accurately identified, the patient may benefit from a trial of medical management. At times however, the definitive treatment of nasal obstruction relies on surgical management. Recognizing the nasal septum, nasal valve, and turbinates as possible sites of obstruction and addressing them accordingly can dramatically improve a patient's nasal breathing. Conservative resection of septal cartilage, submucous reduction of the inferior turbinate, and structural grafting of the nasal valve when appropriate will provide the optimal improvement in nasal airflow and allow for the most stable results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kabirian, Nima; Hunt, Leonel A; Ganjavian, Mohammad S; Akbarnia, Behrooz A
Conradi-Hunermann syndrome (CHS) is a rare metabolic syndrome with several orthopaedic problems. Early-onset scoliosis is of great importance because of often rapidly progressive nature and high risk of postoperative complications. To report the 34-year follow-up and outcome of a patient with CHS treated with combined anterior and posterior fusion without instrumentation. All available clinical and radiographs of a female patient with CHS retrospectively reviewed. Overall health status, sagittal and coronal deformity, pulmonary function test, and outcome questionnaires were evaluated. Initial films at the age of 4 months showed a curve of 37 degrees from T6-T11 and a curve of 17 degrees from T11-L2. Thoracic kyphosis was measured at 43 degrees. Standing films at the age of 2 years and 2 months showed progression of both the curves to 50 and 66 degrees, respectively, and a significant spinal imbalance. The kyphosis also progressed to 57 degrees. She underwent a staged anterior inlay graft spinal fusion with autograft and allograft ribs from T8-L1 and posterior in situ fusion from T6-L1 with corticocancellous allograft. Solid radiographic fusion was observed 18 months after surgery. She was 36 years old at her latest follow-up, 34 years after surgery, with neutral clinical coronal and sagittal balance. No significant pain and respiratory complaint at moderate sports and normal daily life activity. "Vital capacity" and "total lung capacity" were 65% and 75%, respectively, of the normal. Thoracic curve of 35 degrees (T6-T11) and right thoracolumbar curve of 53 degrees from T11-L2 with a solid fusion fromT6-L1 with kyphosis measured over the fused area of 40 degrees were observed. Her overall mean Scoliosis Research Society-22 score was 3.68. She is an MBA graduate from a competitive school and currently works full-time. Although the treatment of early-onset scoliosis has significantly evolved over the past 3 decades, the traditional method of anterior release and
Enterocutaneous (EC) fistula is an abnormal connection between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and skin. The majority of EC fistulas result from surgery. About one third of fistulas close spontaneously with medical treatment and radiologic interventions. Surgical treatment should be reserved for use after sufficient time has passed from the previous laparotomy to allow lysis of the fibrous adhesion using full nutritional and medical treatment and until a complete understanding of the anatomy of the fistula has been achieved. The successful management of GI fistula requires a multi-disciplinary team approach including a gastroenterologist, interventional radiologist, enterostomal therapist, dietician, social worker and surgeons. With this coordinated approach, EC fistula can be controlled with acceptable morbidity and mortality.
Enterocutaneous (EC) fistula is an abnormal connection between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and skin. The majority of EC fistulas result from surgery. About one third of fistulas close spontaneously with medical treatment and radiologic interventions. Surgical treatment should be reserved for use after sufficient time has passed from the previous laparotomy to allow lysis of the fibrous adhesion using full nutritional and medical treatment and until a complete understanding of the anatomy of the fistula has been achieved. The successful management of GI fistula requires a multi-disciplinary team approach including a gastroenterologist, interventional radiologist, enterostomal therapist, dietician, social worker and surgeons. With this coordinated approach, EC fistula can be controlled with acceptable morbidity and mortality. PMID:22563283
Son, Daegu; Harijan, Aram
Management of incisional scar is intimately connected to stages of wound healing. The management of an elective surgery patient begins with a thorough informed consent process in which the patient is made aware of personal and clinical circumstances that cannot be modified, such as age, ethnicity, and previous history of hypertrophic scars. In scar prevention, the single most important modifiable factor is wound tension during the proliferative and remodeling phases, and this is determined by the choice of incision design. Traditional incisions most often follow relaxed skin tension lines, but no such lines exist in high surface tension areas. If such incisions are unavoidable, the patient must be informed of this ahead of time. The management of a surgical incision does not end when the sutures are removed. Surgical scar care should be continued for one year. Patient participation is paramount in obtaining the optimal outcome. Postoperative visits should screen for signs of scar hypertrophy and has a dual purpose of continued patient education and reinforcement of proper care. Early intervention is a key to control hyperplastic response. Hypertrophic scars that do not improve by 6 months are keloids and should be managed aggressively with intralesional steroid injections and alternate modalities.
Garlipp, Benjamin; Schwalenberg, Jens; Adolf, Daniela; Lippert, Hans; Meyer, Frank
The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiologic parameters, treatment-related data and prognostic factors in the management of gastric cancer patients of a university surgical center under conditions of routine clinical care before the onset of the era of multimodal therapies. By analyzing our data in relation with multi-center quality assurance trials [German Gastric Cancer Study - GGCS (1992) and East German Gastric Cancer Study - EGGCS (2004)] we aimed at providing an instrument of internal quality control at our institution as well as a base for comparison with future analyses taking into account the implementation of evolving (multimodal) therapies and their influence on treatment results. Retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered data of gastric cancer patients treated at a single institution during a defined 10-year time period with multivariate analysis of risk factors for early postoperative outcome. From 04/01/1993 through 03/31/2003, a total of 328 gastric cancer patients were treated. In comparison with the EGGCS cohort there was a larger proportion of patients with locally advanced and proximally located tumors. 272 patients (82.9%) underwent surgery with curative intent; in 88.4% of these an R0 resection was achieved (EGGCS/GGCS: 82.5%/71.5%). 68.2% of patients underwent preoperative endoluminal ultrasound (EUS) (EGGCS: 27.4%); the proportion of patients undergoing EUS increased over the study period. Diagnostic accuracy of EUS for T stage was 50.6% (EGGCS: 42.6%). 77.2% of operated patients with curative intent underwent gastrectomy (EGGCS/GGCS: 79.8%/71.1%). Anastomotic leaks at the esophagojejunostomy occurred slightly more frequently (8.8%) than in the EGGCS (5.9%) and GGCS (7.2%); however, postoperative morbidity (36.1%) and early postoperative mortality (5.3%) were not increased compared to the multi-center quality assurance study results (EGGCS morbidity, 45%); EGGCS/GGCS mortality, 8%/8.9%). D2 lymphadenectomy was performed in 72
Howell, J G; Johnson, L W; Sehon, J K; Lee, W C
This study reviewed the results of surgery for chronic pancreatitis. We also attempted to identify any factors that may influence outcome. A 10-year retrospective chart review was carried out on all patients undergoing surgery for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Twenty-three patients were identified. Alcohol was the most common etiology, but other causes were identified. All but two patients had abnormal ductal anatomy on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A total of 23 patients underwent six different operations. There were five complications and no perioperative deaths. Only one patient had to be readmitted for pancreatitis during follow-up. The majority of patients reported some improvement with their pain. Patients who continued to use alcohol had the worst results in regard to weight gain and pain control. The results of our study are consistent with the current literature in regard to morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment had minimal effect on endocrine and exocrine function. Weight loss was avoided in the majority of patients. Addition of biliary bypass to the Puestow procedure did not increase morbidity. Poorest results were obtained in patients who continued to use alcohol. A basic algorithm for management of this disease process is given.
Swanson, Daniel E W; Polackwich, A Scott; Helfand, Brian T; Masson, Puneet; Hwong, James; Dugi, Daniel D; Martinez Acevedo, Ann C; Hedges, Jason C; McVary, Kevin T
To report a series of penile fractures, describing preoperative evaluation, surgical repair, and long-term outcomes. Medical records from Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Oregon Health & Science University from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. Clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, time from injury, mechanism and site of injury, and presence of urethral injury were assessed. Outcomes including erectile dysfunction, penile curvature, and voiding symptoms were evaluated using International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function scores. Twenty-nine patients with 30 separate episodes of penile fractures presenting to the emergency room were identified. Mean patient age was 43 ± 9.6 years. The time from presentation to the initiation of surgery was 5.5 ± 4.4 hours. Mechanism of injury was intercourse in 26 of 30 fractures with the remaining attributed to masturbation or "rolling over." Immediate surgical repair was offered to all patients. Twenty-seven patients underwent surgery. Urethral injury was noted in 5 of the 27. The site of fracture was at the proximal shaft in 11, mid shaft in 12, and distal shaft in 4 patients. The mean follow-up period was 14.3 ± 15.8 weeks. Nine patients reported new mild erectile dysfunction or penile curvature. One patient reported new irritative voiding symptoms. The most common mechanism of penile fracture was from sexual intercourse, and frequent concomitant urethral injuries were observed. The frequency of concomitant urethral injury was higher than in previous studies. Although we observed high incidence of erectile dysfunction or penile curvature with early surgical repair, we retain it as the favored approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Petrone, Patrizio; Asensio, Juan A
Chest injuries were reported as early as 3000 BC in the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. Ancient Greek chronicles reveal that they had anatomic knowledge of the thoracic structures. Even in the ancient world, most of the therapeutic modalities for chest wounds and traumatic pulmonary injuries were developed during wartime. The majority of lung injuries can be managed non-operatively, but pulmonary injuries that require operative surgical intervention can be quite challenging. Recent progress in treating severe pulmonary injuries has relied on finding shorter and simpler lung-sparing techniques. The applicability of stapled pulmonary tractotomy was confirmed as a safe and valuable procedure. Advancement in technology have revolutionized thoracic surgery and ushered in the era of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), providing an alternative method for accurate and direct evaluation of the lung parenchyma, mediastinum, and diaphragmatic injuries. The aim of this article is to describe the incidence of the penetrating pulmonary injuries, the ultimate techniques used in its operative management, as well as the diagnosis, complications, and morbidity and mortality. PMID:19236703
Oyo-Ita, Angela; Ugare, Udey G; Ikpeme, Ikpeme A
Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries. To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, issue 1), MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), and ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) all until January 2012; CINAHL until January 2009. We also searched the reference lists of all eligible studies and the trial registers www.controlled-trials.com and www.clinicaltrials.gov in January 2012. Randomised controlled trials of surgical and non surgical interventions among patients with abdominal injury who are haemodynamically stable and with no signs of peritonitis. Two review authors independently applied the search criteria. One study involving participants with penetrating abdominal injury met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two authors using a standard data extraction form. One study including 51 participants with moderate risk of bias was included. Participants were randomised to surgery or an observation protocol. There were no deaths among the participants. Seven participants had complications; 5 (18.5%) in the surgical group and 2 (8.3%) in the non-surgical group; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.42; Fischer's exact). Among the 27 who had surgery six (22.2%) surgeries were negative laparotomies, and 15 (55.6%) were non-therapeutic. Based on the findings of one study involving 51 participants, which was at moderate risk of bias, there is no evidence to support the use of surgery over observation for people with abdominal trauma.
Samsom, D S; Hodosh, R M; Clark, W K
The natural history of unruptured asymptomatic aneurysms in nuclear. Because of this uncertainty regarding risk of ultimate enlargement and/or hemorrhage, and in view of the significant mortality and morbidity traditionally involved in aneurysm surgery, clinicans have varied in their advocacy of surgical management of such lesions. Forty-nine consecutive patients harboring 52 such aneurysms were treated surgically over a 57-month period. There were no surgical deaths and morbidity was within acceptable limits. Patient population characteristic and surgical technique are discussed.
van Overdam, Koen A; Missotten, Tom; Kilic, Emine; Spielberg, Leigh H
To evaluate the clinical course after early surgical treatment with excision of retinal hemangioblastomas (RHs) before development of major complications. Interventional case series of four eyes (four patients) with a peripheral RH that had not yet been treated by laser or cryotherapy prior to surgery. All eyes underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy with lesion excision. One patient underwent ligation of the feeder vessel prior to lesion excision. Best-corrected visual acuity and clinical course were assessed during a follow-up period of at least 4 years. Four patients (mean age 27.3 years; range 19-32) were included, of whom two had von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Visual acuity improved in three patients (mean 4.8 lines; range 3-10) and remained stable at 0.0 logMAR in one patient. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications included transient mild vitreous haemorrhage (n = 2), and local epiretinal membrane formation at the excision location (n = 1). At 4 years postoperatively, there were no long-term complications. There was one case of a new lesion, which was effectively treated with laser. Vitrectomy with RH excision seems to be an effective approach for larger RHs and could be considered an early treatment option in selected cases. Postoperative complications were limited in scope of this case series. Important points to consider during vitrectomy are effective closure of feeder and draining vessels as well as complete removal of posterior hyaloid and epiretinal membranes in order to avoid postoperative vitreous haemorrhage and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cassera, Maria A; Hammill, Chet W; Ujiki, Michael B; Wolf, Ronald F; Swanström, Lee L; Hansen, Paul D
Introduction Selected patients with isolated breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) may benefit from surgical management; however, indications remain unclear and the risks may outweigh the benefits in patients with a generally poor prognosis. Methods Between 1998 and 2006, 17 patients diagnosed with BCLM were considered for surgical management (<4 tumours, tumour <4 cm in diameter and no/stable extrahepatic metastases). Peri-operative and outcomes data were analysed and compared. Results Eight patients were found to have extensive or untreatable disease on staging laparoscopy and intra-operative ultrasound (SL/IOUS). The remaining nine patients underwent surgical management [seven laparoscopic radiofrequency ablations (RFA) and two hepatic resections]. Median length of follow-up for patients treated surgically was 40.0 months, median disease-free survival (DFS) was 32.2 months and median time to disease progression was 17.7 months. Of the eight patients not amenable to surgery, median length of follow-up was 21.8 months. Conclusion SL/IOUS prevented unnecessary laparotomy in half of the patients taken to the operating room for surgical treatment of BCLM. In patients with BCLM, SL/IOUS should be considered standard of care before surgical intervention. The small number of patients and short follow-up may be inadequate to determine the true value of surgical management in this group of patients with BCLM. PMID:21418133
Loose, D A
Among vascular malformations, the predominantly venous malformations represent the majority of cases. They form a clinical entity and therefore need clear concepts concerning diagnosis and treatment. This paper presents an overview of contemporary classification as well as tactics and techniques of treatment. According to the Hamburg Classification, predominantly venous malformations are categorized into truncular and extratruncular forms, with truncular forms distinguished as obstructions and dilations, and extratruncular forms as limited or infiltrating. The tactics of treatment represent surgical and non-surgical methods or combined techniques. Surgical approaches utilize different tactics and techniques that are adopted based on the pathologic form and type of the malformation: (I) operation to reduce the haemodynamic activity of the malformation; (II) operation to eliminate the malformation; and (III) reconstructive operation. As for (I), a type of a tactic is the operation to derive the venous flow. In (II), the total or partial removal of the venous malformation is demonstrated subdivided into three different techniques. In this way, the infiltrating as well as the limited forms can be treated. An additional technique is dedicated to the treatment of a marginal vein. Approach (III) involves the treatment of venous aneurysms, where a variety of techniques have been successful. Long-term follow-up demonstrates positive results in 91% of the cases. Congenital predominantly venous malformations should be treated according to the principles developed during the past decades in vascular surgery, interventional treatment and multidisciplinary treatment. The days of predominantly conservative treatment should be relegated to the past. Special skills and experiences are necessary to carry out appropriate surgical strategy, and the required operative techniques should be dictated by the location and type of malformation and associated findings.
Haritoglou, C; Wolf, A
The detachment of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium can be related to breaks of the retina allowing vitreous fluid to gain access to the subretinal space, to exudative changes of the choroid such as tumours or inflammatory diseases or to excessive tractional forces exerted by interactions of the collagenous vitreous and the retina. Tractional retinal detachment is usually treated by vitrectomy and exudative detachment can be addressed by treatment of the underlying condition in many cases. In rhegmatogenous retinal detachment two different surgical procedures, vitrectomy and scleral buckling, can be applied for functional and anatomic rehabilitation of our patients. The choice of the surgical procedure is not really standardised and often depends on the experience of the surgeon and other more ocular factors including lens status, the number of retinal breaks, the extent of the detachment and the amount of preexisting PVR. Using both techniques, anatomic success rates of over 90 % can be achieved. Especially in young phakic patients scleral buckling offers the true advantage to prevent the progression of cataract formation requiring cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Therefore, scleral buckling should be considered in selected cases as an alternative surgical option in spite of the very important technical refinements in modern vitrectomy techniques. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Halawi, Mohamad J.
Pelvic ring injuries present a therapeutic challenge to the orthopedic surgeon. Management is based on the patient's physiological status, fracture classification, and associated injuries. Surgical stabilization is indicated in unstable injury patterns and those that fail nonsurgical management. The optimal timing for definitive fixation is not clearly defined, but early stabilization is recommended. Surgical techniques include external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation, and minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis. Special considerations are required for concomitant acetabular fractures, sacral fractures, and those occurring in skeletally immature patients. Long-term outcomes are limited by lack of pelvis-specific outcome measures and burden of associated injuries. PMID:26908968
Moir, Christopher R
Crohn's disease in childhood is changing. The incidence is increasing, colonic disease is becoming more prevalent in younger children, and colon reconstruction is more acceptable. Genetic phenotypes are influencing decisions for surgery, and targeted immunotherapy has renewed hope for more durable remissions following less extensive resections. The tasks facing the surgeon evaluating a child with Crohn's colitis include confirming the specific diagnostic subtype and selecting the correct procedure. This chapter will review the unique aspects of pediatric Crohn's colitis and the increased complexity of surgical choice for this most challenging presentation. Recent success with less extensive surgery offers renewed hope for children with intractable colonic disease.
Covens, Allan L; Dodge, Jason E; Lacchetti, Christina; Elit, Laurie M; Le, Tien; Devries-Aboud, Michaela; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael
To systematically review the existing literature in order to determine the optimal recommended protocols for the surgical management of adnexal masses suspicious for apparent early stage malignancy. A review of all systematic reviews and guidelines published between 1999 and 2009 was conducted as a first step. After the identification of two systematic reviews on the topic, searches of MEDLINE for studies published since 2004 were also conducted to update and supplement the evidentiary base. The updated literature search identified 31 studies that met the inclusion criteria. A bivariate random effects analysis of 15 frozen section diagnosis studies yielded an overall sensitivity of 89.2% (95% CI, 86.3 to 91.5%) and specificity of 97.9% (95% CI, 96.6 to 98.7%). The surgical evidence suggests that systematic lymphadenectomy and proper surgical staging improve survival. Conservative fertility-preserving surgical approaches are an acceptable option in women with low malignant potential tumours. The accuracy and the adequacy of surgical staging by laparotomy or laparoscopic approaches appear to be comparable, with neither approach conferring a survival advantage. Intraoperative tumour rupture was indeed reported to occur more frequently in patients undergoing laparoscopy versus laparotomy in two retrospective cohort studies. The best available evidence was collected and included in this rigorous systematic review. The abundant evidentiary base provided the context and direction for the surgical management of adnexal masses suspicious for apparent early stage malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Sang H; Jang, Jeong H; Lee, Dongjun; Lee, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Kyu-Yup
To introduce a simple and alternative surgical technique, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), for early stage congenital cholesteatoma in children and to evaluate the feasibility and results of MITM for management of early stage congenital cholesteatoma with respect to its effectiveness and safety. Retrospective review. Between August 2008 and September 2012, a total of 36 patients with congenital cholesteatoma met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Patient medical records, including demographic characteristics, intraoperative findings, and follow-up records, were reviewed. Subjects consisted of 23 males (64%) and 13 females (36%), and the age at operation ranged from 12 months to 6 years (mean age = 3 years and 6 months). The number of congenital cholesteatoma was as follows: 26 patients at stage I and 10 patients at stage II. The follow-up duration was between 12 and 56 months, with an average of 30 months. There were no postoperative complications such as tympanic membrane perforation, dizziness, or secondary middle ear infection. Among 36 patients who had undergone the MITM approach for the treatment of congenital cholesteatoma, five (13.8%) showed recurrence and underwent a second-look operation. On the basis of our data, the MITM approach is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma in children. It has many advantages, in that there is no external wound and it is a simple surgical technique that involves easy postoperative care, a short operation time and hospitalization period, avoidance of serious complications, and easy repeatability for recurrence. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Bartels, Ronald H M A; Hosman, Allard J F; van de Meent, Henk; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Vos, Pieter E; Slooff, Willem Bart; Öner, F Cumhur; Coppes, Maarten H; Peul, Wilco C; Verbeek, André L M
Incomplete cervical cord syndrome without spinal instability is a very devastating event for the patient and the family. It is estimated that up to 25% of all traumatic spinal cord lesions belong to this category. The treatment for this type of spinal cord lesion is still subject of discussion. From a biological point of view early surgery could prevent secondary damage due to ongoing compression of the already damaged spinal cord. Historically, however, conservative treatment was propagated with good clinical results. Proponents for early surgery as well those favoring conservative treatment are still in debate. The proposed trial will contribute to the discussion and hopefully also to a decrease in the variability of clinical practice. A randomized controlled trial is designed to compare the clinical outcome of early surgical strategy versus a conservative approach. The primary outcome is clinical outcome according to mJOA. This also measured by ASIA score, DASH score and SCIM III score. Other endpoints are duration of the stay at a high care department (medium care, intensive care), duration of the stay at the hospital, complication rate, mortality rate, sort of rehabilitation, and quality of life. A sample size of 36 patients per group was calculated to reach a power of 95%. The data will be analyzed as intention-to-treat at regular intervals, but the end evaluation will take place at two years post-injury. At the end of the study, clinical outcomes between treatments attitudes can be compared. Efficacy, but also efficiency can be determined. A goal of the study is to determine which treatment will result in the best quality of life for the patients. This study will certainly contribute to more uniformity of treatment offered to patients with a special sort of spinal cord injury. Gov: NCT01367405.
Wagenaar, Amy E; Tashiro, Jun; Hirzel, Alicia; Rodriguez, Luis I; Perez, Eduardo A; Hogan, Anthony R; Neville, Holly L; Sola, Juan E
Bronchopulmonary malformations (BPM) are rare conditions, which typically arise below the carina and can result in significant morbidity (infection and/or hemorrhage) and mortality (respiratory failure). All children with BPM surgically treated from 2001-2014 at a tertiary care children's hospital were identified. Patient demographics, surgical indications, procedure type, estimated blood loss, pathology, perioperative complications, length of stay, and outcomes were analyzed. A total of 41 BPM patients underwent surgery with 98% overall survival (one abdominal BPM expired) but 100% for thoracic lesions. Resections were performed thoracoscopically (37%), thoracoscopy converted to open (22%), and via thoracotomy (37%). Poor visualization (67%) or inability to tolerate single lung ventilation (33%) led to conversions. No conversions resulted from hemorrhage or received blood transfusions. Patients with prenatally diagnosed BPM were more likely to undergo thoracoscopic surgery (odds ratio [OR], 18.2) versus nonprenatally diagnosed, P = 0.002. Open/converted patients had longer chest tube days (6.2) versus thoracoscopic (2.9), P = 0.048. Additionally, respiratory distress was a more common indication in patients aged <4 mo (OR, 28.0) versus ≥4 mo and <6 kg (OR, 40.5) versus ≥6 kg, P < 0.001. Open resections were more common in patients aged <4 mo (OR, 26.3) versus ≥4 mo, P = 0.002. Operative time was shorter and estimated blood loss (mL/kg) was greater for <6 versus ≥6 kg, P < 0.05. BPM resections have high overall survival. Chest tube days are shorter among thoracoscopic patients, but conversion to thoracotomy can avoid hemorrhage and need for transfusion. Size and respiratory distress limit use of thoracoscopy in young infants with BPM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oyo-Ita, Angela; Chinnock, Paul; Ikpeme, Ikpeme A
Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, intestine, and large blood vessels. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries. To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma in a haemodynamically stable and non-peritonitic abdomen. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), EMBASE Classic+EMBASE (Ovid), ISI WOS (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S & CPSI-SSH), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), and clinical trials registers, and screened reference lists. We ran the most recent search on 17 September 2015. Randomised controlled trials of surgical interventions and non-surgical interventions involving people with abdominal injury who were haemodynamically stable with no signs of peritonitis. The abdominal injury could be blunt or penetrating. Two review authors independently applied the selection criteria. Data were extracted by two authors using a standard data extraction form, and are reported narratively. Two studies are included, which involved a total of 114 people with penetrating abdominal injuries. Both studies are at moderate risk of bias because the randomisation methods are not fully described, and the original study protocols are no longer available. The studies were undertaken in Finland between 1992 and 2002, by the same two researchers.In one study, 51 people were randomised to surgery or an observation protocol. None of the participants in the study died. Seven people had complications: 5 (18.5%) in the surgical group and 2 (8.3%) in the observation group; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42; Fischer's exact). Among the 27 people who had surgery, 6 (22.2%) surgeries were negative laparotomies, and 15 (55.6%) were non
Bosscher, Marianne R F; van Leeuwen, Barbara L; Hoekstra, Harald J
For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed. A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days. In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%. In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy.
Humphreys, R. P.
A variety of associated lesions may require the neurosurgeon's assistance in the management of bacterial meningitis. As treatment of this infection of the central nervous system proceeds, the surgeon will have to decide about the concurrent or subsequent operative treatment of congenital dysraphic states, paraneural infections, compound fractures or penetrating wounds of thecranium or spine, or infected bypass shunts for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In patients with intractable meningitic infections the surgeon may have to insert a ventricular drainage-irrigation system to permit adequate perfusion of the CSF pathways with antibiotic. Hydrocephalus or subdural effusions complicating meningitis may bring the patient to the surgeon long after the infection has been cured. This paper examines these problems and outlines the current principles of management. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1098760
Jones, Kory; Lebron, Ricardo A; Mangram, Alicia; Dunn, Ernest
Surgical education has undergone radical changes in the past decade. The introductions of laparoscopic surgery and endovascular techniques have required program directors to alter surgical training. The 6 competencies are now in place. One issue that still needs to be addressed is the business aspect of surgical practice. Often residents complete their training with minimal or no knowledge on coding of charges or basic aspects on how to set up a practice. We present our program, which has been in place over the past 2 years and is designed to teach the residents practice management. The program begins with a series of 10 lectures given monthly beginning in August. Topics include an introduction to types of practices available, negotiating a contract, managed care, and marketing the practice. Both medical and surgical residents attend these conferences. In addition, the surgical residents meet monthly with the business office to discuss billing and coding issues. These are didactic sessions combined with in-house chart reviews of surgical coding. The third phase of the practice management plan has the coding team along with the program director attend the outpatient clinic to review in real time the evaluation and management coding of clinic visits. Resident evaluations were completed for each of the practice management lectures. The responses were recorded on a Likert scale. The scores ranged from 4.1 to 4.8 (average, 4.3). Highest scores were given to lectures concerning negotiating employee agreements, recruiting contracts, malpractice insurance, and risk management. The medical education department has tracked resident coding compliance over the past 2 years. Surgical coding compliance increased from 36% to 88% over a 12-month period. The program director who participated in the educational process increased his accuracy from 50% to 90% over the same time period. When residents finish their surgical training they need to be ready to enter the world of business
Mishra, Shashi K.; Ganpule, A.; Manohar, T.; Desai, Mahesh R.
Pediatric urolithiasis poses a technical challenge to the urologist. A review of the recent literature on the subject was performed to highlight the various treatment modalities in the management of pediatric stones. A Medline search was used to identify manuscripts dealing with management options such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy and cystolithotripsy in pediatric stone diseases. We also share our experience on the subject. Shock wave lithotripsy should be the treatment modality for renal stone less than 1cm or < 150 mm2 and proximal non-impacted ureteric stone less than 1 cm with normal renal function, no infection and favorable anatomy. Indications for PCNL in children are large burden stone more than 2cm or more than 150mm2 with or without hydronephrosis, urosepsis and renal insufficiency, more than 1cm impacted upper ureteric stone, failure of SWL and significant volume of residual stones after open surgery. Shock wave lithotripsy can be offered for more soft (< 900 HU on CT scan) renal stones between 1-2cm. Primary vesical stone more than 1cm can be tackled with percutaneous cystolithomy or open cystolithotomy. Open renal stone surgery can be done for renal stones with associated structural abnormalities, large burden infective and staghorn stones, large impacted proximal ureteric stone. The role of laparoscopic surgery for stone disease in children still needs to be explored. PMID:19718300
Bosscher, Marianne R. F.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Hoekstra, Harald J.
Objectives For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed. Method A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days. Results In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%. Conclusion In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy. PMID:25933135
Lapid, O; Jolink, F
Gynecomastia, breast hypertrophy in men, is a common finding. The diagnosis is clinical, and ancillary tests may be performed; however, there is no unanimity in the literature about their use or utility. The mainstay of management is conservative, with a minority of patients being operated on. The surgical treatment of gynecomastia is not restricted to one discipline and is performed by plastic, general, and pediatric surgeons. The aim of this study was to assess the experience treating gynecomastia in a university hospital and the practices of the different surgical disciplines in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of gynecomastia; this knowledge could be used for the formulation of guidelines and the allocation of health-care resources. a university medical center. A retrospective cohort study in which all records of patients operated on for gynecomastia over a 20-year period were retrieved. Data were obtained concerning patient demographics, responsible surgical discipline, the workup and etiology found, the surgical technique used, the occurrence of reoperations and revisions, and the use of pathological examination and its results. A total of 179 patients were treated. There was a difference between the patient groups operated on by the different disciplines regarding the indication, the workup, as well as in the operative techniques used. Plastic surgeons performed more bilateral operations than the other disciplines. Surgeons used more radiology and cytology testing. These results most probably represent differences in the population and pathologies treated. This is possibly due to a bias in the referrals by primary care physicians.
Wang, Jian; Li, Wuyi; Liu, Jianhan; Xu, Chunxiao; Yang, Dahai; Huo, Hong; Tian, Xu; Zhang, Zhuhua; Chen, Yu
To explore the methods and results of surgical management for refractory dysphagia and aspiration. The clinical data of 24 refractory dysphagia and aspiration patients who accepted surgical management were retrospectively analysed. Twenty-four refractory dysphagia and aspiration patients accepted 26 operations between 2001 and 2014. Of the 26 operations, 17 were cricopharyngeal myectomy (CPM), 6 were scarectomy, 3 were laryngeal-tracheal separation. No severe complications occurred. Assessments of dysphagia were completed in 18 operations before and after operation. Aspiration scores of videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were 4.50 [4.00;7.00] vs 2.00 [1.00; 3.25], P = 0.000; swallow dysfunction scroes of VFSS were 5.00 [4.00; 12.00] vs 1.00 [1.50; 10.00], P = 0.001; aspiration scores of fibroptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) were 4.00 [5.00; 7.00] vs 2.00 [1.75; 3.00], P = 0.000. But the surgical results for post radiotherapy dysphagia were not successful (n = 5): aspiration scores of VFSS were 7.00 [6.50; 8.00] vs 6.00 [2.00; 7.50], P = 0.109;swallow dysfunction scroes of VFSS were 12.00 [10.50; 12.00] vs 12.00 [7.50; 12.00], P = 0.180;aspiration scores of FEES were 7.00 [6.50; 8.00] vs 6.00 [2.00; 7.50], P = 0.109. Surgical management was effective for refractory dysphagia and aspiration, but the surgical indication selection should be strict.
Ortega Molina, José María; Mora Horna, Eduardo Ramón; Salgado Miranda, Andrés David; Rubio, Rosa; Solans Pérez de Larraya, Ana; Salcedo Casillas, Guillermo
Purpose. The goal was to describe our experience in the surgical management and treatment of four patients with congenital upper eyelid colobomas. Methods. A descriptive, observational, retrospective study was performed including patients with congenital eyelid colobomas referred to Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México I.A.P. “Dr. Luis Sánchez Bulnes” between 2004 and 2014 and assessed by the Oculoplastics and Orbit Service. Results. The four cases required surgical treatment of the eyelid defects before one year of age and their evolution was monitored from the time of referral to the present day. One of the patients needed a second surgical procedure to repair the eyelid defect and correct the strabismus. Conclusions. Eyelid colobomas are a potential threat to vision at an early age, which requires close monitoring of the visual development of patients. PMID:26366313
Ortega Molina, José María; Mora Horna, Eduardo Ramón; Salgado Miranda, Andrés David; Rubio, Rosa; Solans Pérez de Larraya, Ana; Salcedo Casillas, Guillermo
Purpose. The goal was to describe our experience in the surgical management and treatment of four patients with congenital upper eyelid colobomas. Methods. A descriptive, observational, retrospective study was performed including patients with congenital eyelid colobomas referred to Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México I.A.P. "Dr. Luis Sánchez Bulnes" between 2004 and 2014 and assessed by the Oculoplastics and Orbit Service. Results. The four cases required surgical treatment of the eyelid defects before one year of age and their evolution was monitored from the time of referral to the present day. One of the patients needed a second surgical procedure to repair the eyelid defect and correct the strabismus. Conclusions. Eyelid colobomas are a potential threat to vision at an early age, which requires close monitoring of the visual development of patients.
McMullen, Richard Joseph; Fischer, Britta Maria
Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is characterized by recurrent bouts of inflammation interrupted by periods of quiescence that vary in duration. There is little consensus on the clinical manifestations, the underlying causes, or the management. The 3 commonly recognized syndromes of ERU (classic, insidious, and posterior) do not accurately separate the clinical manifestations of disease into distinct categories. An accurate diagnosis and early intervention are essential to minimizing the effects of disease and preserving vision. There are multiple medical and surgical options for controlling ERU as long as the disease is recognized early and targeted treatment is initiated immediately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ducruet, Andrew F; Grobelny, Bartosz T; Zacharia, Brad E; Hickman, Zachary L; DeRosa, Peter L; Andersen, Kristen N; Anderson, Kristen; Sussman, Eric; Carpenter, Austin; Connolly, E Sander
Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is an increasingly common neurological disease process. Despite the wide prevalence of cSDH, there remains a lack of consensus regarding numerous aspects of its clinical management. We provide an overview of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of cSDH and discuss several controversial management issues, including the timing of post-operative resumption of anticoagulant medications, the effectiveness of anti-epileptic prophylaxis, protocols for mobilization following evacuation of cSDH, as well as the comparative effectiveness of the various techniques of surgical evacuation. A PubMed search was carried out through October 19, 2010 using the following keywords: "subdural hematoma", "craniotomy", "burr-hole", "management", "anticoagulation", "seizure prophylaxis", "antiplatelet", "mobilization", and "surgical evacuation", alone and in combination. Relevant articles were identified and back-referenced to yield additional papers. A meta-analysis was then performed comparing the efficacy and complications associated with the various methods of cSDH evacuation. There is general agreement that significant coagulopathy should be reversed expeditiously in patients presenting with cSDH. Although protocols for gradual resumption of anti-coagulation for prophylaxis of venous thrombosis may be derived from guidelines for other neurosurgical procedures, further prospective study is necessary to determine the optimal time to restart full-dose anti-coagulation in the setting of recently drained cSDH. There is also conflicting evidence to support seizure prophylaxis in patients with cSDH, although the existing literature supports prophylaxis in patients who are at a higher risk for seizures. The published data regarding surgical technique for cSDH supports primary twist drill craniostomy (TDC) drainage at the bedside for patients who are high-risk surgical candidates with non-septated cSDH and craniotomy as a first-line evacuation technique for c
Touzet-Roumazeille, S; Jayyosi, L; Plenier, Y; Guyot, E; Guillard, T; François, C
Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. In more than half the cases, the child knows the animal, which are dogs and cats by frequency argument. The bite episode occurs mostly when the child is alone with the pet without direct supervision, while playing or stroking the animal. As in all bites, pediatric lesions are infectious, functional and aesthetic emergencies, but the goal of this work was primarily to make a point on principles of surgical management of animal bites in children, highlighting pediatric specificities. Animal bites require psychological, anesthetic and surgical treatment, adapted to the child, in a specialized structure. Hospitalization and general anesthesia are more frequent in children. Any suspicion of mistreatment (and/or abuse) should lead to the child's hospitalization, even if wounds do not justify monitoring in a surgical environment. Emergency surgery is essential to limit functional and aesthetic consequences. The healing capacities of the child and the frequent lack of co-morbidity allow a conservative surgical treatment with suture, repositioning skin flaps and controlled healing in the first place. Immobilization, drainage, and antibiotics will complete the surgery. The healing process, however, leads to a specific management during scar remodeling phase and growth. Psychological care of the child and parents should not be forgotten, and has to start at the same time as surgical treatment at in acute phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Whitla, Laura; Lennon, Paul
Obstructive sleep apnoea is common in children and, if untreated, can lead to multiple medical sequelae. The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial demonstrated benefit from early surgical intervention, but rapid access to such treatment is not always available. To examine the recent literature on non-surgical aspects of the management of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The English language literature was searched for articles on the conservative management of OSA. In mild cases of OSA, intra-nasal steroids and other anti-inflammatory medications may give relief in mild cases of OSA, but the long-term safety of these treatments has not been established. Weight loss in obese children has been shown to be effective in selected patients but is limited in practice. Non-invasive ventilation may be effective but compliance can be a major obstacle. Oral appliances are effective by stenting the pharyngeal airway, but research in this area is limited. There are number of potential, if not proven, alternative management strategies for children with OSA, which could be considered in the absence of early surgical intervention.
Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão; Stalmans, Ingeborg
Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32.
Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Forrest, Damien; Pandey, Vikas; Undre, Shabnam; Vincent, Charles; Darzi, Ara
Background: Intraoperative surgical crisis management is learned in an unstructured manner. In aviation, simulation training allows aircrews to coordinate and standardize recovery strategies. Our aim was to develop a surgical crisis simulation and evaluate its feasibility, realism, and validity of the measures used to assess performance. Methods: Surgical trainees were exposed to a bleeding crisis in a simulated operating theater. Assessment of performance consisted of a trainee’s technical ability to control the bleeding and of their team/human factors skills. This assessment was performed in a blinded manner by 2 surgeons and one human factors expert. Other measures consisted of time measures such as time to diagnose the bleeding (TD), inform team members (TT), achieve control (TC), and close the laceration (TL). Blood loss was used as a surrogate outcome measures. Results: There were considerable variations within both senior (n = 10) and junior (n = 10) trainees for technical and team skills. However, while the senior trainees scored higher than the juniors for technical skills (P = 0.001), there were no differences in human factors skills. There were also significant differences between the 2 groups for TD (P = 0.01), TC (P = 0.001), and TL (0.001). The blood loss was higher in the junior group. Conclusions: We have described the development of a novel simulated setting for the training of crisis management skills and the variability in performance both in between and within the 2 groups. PMID:16794399
Quinn, Robert H; Murray, Jayson N; Pezold, Ryan; Sevarino, Kaitlyn S
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications of patients under consideration for surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature to identify the appropriateness of the three treatments. The 864 patient scenarios and 3 treatments were developed by the writing panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, a separate, multidisciplinary, voting panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).
Balaji, S M; Balaji, Preetha
Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NSM) is a rare benign, inflammatory disease of both major and minor salivary glands, although more commonly reported in the minor glands of the palate. The characteristic clinical presentation can perplex the clinician and may be mistaken for a malignant neoplasm, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, as well as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The clinical and histological similarity between this entity and a malignant lesion may result in unnecessary or mis-treatment. Though clinically mimics malignancy, NSM is considered to be a self-limiting disease, and takes about 3-12 weeks to resolve. Majority of the case resolves itself or by supportive and symptomatic treatment. Surgical intervention is rarely required in NSM except the diagnostic biopsy. Herein we report the clinical, histopathological feature and surgical management of a case of NSM of hard palate in a young adult male.
Zhang, Zhiqi; Yin, Kanhua; Dong, Lili; Sun, Yongxin; Guo, Changfa; Lin, Yi; Wang, Chunsheng
This study reviews our experience with traumatic tricuspid insufficiency (TTI) following blunt chest trauma. From January 2010 to June 2016, 10 patients (nine males, mean age 49.0 ± 12.4 years) underwent surgical treatment of TTI following blunt chest trauma. The mean intervals between trauma and diagnosis and between trauma and surgery were 74.1 and 81.8 months, respectively. Preoperatively, all patients exhibited severe tricuspid regurgitation. Five patients underwent tricuspid valve repair, and the remaining patients underwent valve replacement. The mean follow-up duration (with echocardiography) was 29.7 months. There was no early or late death. Seven patients had anterior chordal rupture, two patients had anterior papillary muscle rupture, and one patient had both anterior chordal and anterior leaflet rupture. The median postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stays were 1 and 6 days, respectively. There were no severe postoperative complications. During follow-up, four patients exhibited trivial to mild tricuspid regurgitation, and the remaining six patients exhibited no regurgitation. Surgical treatment of TTI via either valve repair or replacement can be performed with low perioperative morbidity and mortality. Early surgery is recommended for achieving a successful valve repair and preserving right ventricular function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Prot, Thomas; Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas
Surgery offer the only curative treatment for colorectal hepatic metastasis. Nowadays, five-year survival increases up to 58% in selected cases, due to the improvement and combination of chemotherapy, surgery and ablative treatment like embolisation, radio-frequency or cryoablation. Surgery should be integrated in a multi disciplinary approach and initial work-up must take in account patient general conditions, tumor location, and possible extra hepatic extension. Thus, a surgical resection may be performed immediately or after preparation with chemotherapy or selective portal embolization. Management of liver metastasis should be carried out in oncological hepato-biliary centre.
Aldelaimi, Tahrir N; Khalil, Afrah A
Surgical treatment of pediatric maxillofacial region is a complex and challenging task to maxillofacial surgeons. Incorrect and inappropriate treatment of trauma will end with a secondary deformity that is very difficult to correct. Twenty-eight children with mandibular trauma were seen at the maxillofacial surgery department of Ramadi Teaching Hospital during the period from July 2009 to June 2012. Age, sex, etiology, associated injuries, pattern of fractures, and treatments were reviewed. Road traffic accident was the most common cause for pediatric mandibular trauma. Significant advances have been made in the management of these injuries, decreasing the incidence of secondary deformities.
Yudoyono, Farid; Sidabutar, Roland; Dahlan, Rully Hanafi; Gill, Arwinder Singh; Ompusunggu, Sevline Estethia; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah
Objective: Surgical management of giant skull osteomas Osteomas are benign, generally slow growing, bone forming tumors limited to the craniofacial and jaw bones. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all cases of osteoma diagnosed from 2009 to 2013 treated in our hospital. The data collected included age at diagnosis, gender, lesion location, size, presenting and duration of symptoms, treatment, complication and outcome. Results: During our study period there were 15 cases that were treated surgically. Their mean age was 42 years (range: 15–65 years) and all of our patients were female. The average duration of symptoms was 3 years and size varying from 4 cm to 12 cm. Eight patients complained of headache, whereas 6 patients complained about esthetics, and 1 patient presented with proptosis. The tumor was excised by cutting the base of the tumor and then residual tumor was grinded using a round head cutting bar. Osteoma was removed with esthetically acceptable appearance. Conclusion: There were no major complications during operative and postoperative period. Although osteomas are usually slow growing but surgery is usually performed due to esthetic reasons. It is important to plan an appropriate surgical approach that minimizes any damage to the adjacent structures. PMID:28761516
Noyola-Villalobos, Héctor Faustino; Loera-Torres, Marco Antonio; Jiménez-Chavarría, Enrique; Núñez-Cantú, Olliver; García-Núñez, Luis Manuel; Arcaute-Velázquez, Fernando Federico
Hepatic trauma is a common cause for admissions in the Emergency Room. Currently, non-surgical management is the standard treatment in haemodynamically stable patients with a success rate of around 85 to 98%. This haemodynamic stability is the most important factor in selecting the appropriate patient. Adjuncts in non-surgical management are angioembolisation, image-guided drainage and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Failure in non-surgical management is relatively rare but potentially fatal, and needs to be recognised and aggressively treated as early as possible. The main cause of failure in non-surgical management is persistent haemorrhage. The aim of this paper is to describe current evidence and guidelines that support non-surgical management of liver injuries in blunt trauma. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Engel, Jerome; McDermott, Michael P.; Wiebe, Samuel; Langfitt, John T.; Stern, John M.; Dewar, Sandra; Sperling, Michael R.; Gardiner, Irenita; Erba, Giuseppe; Fried, Itzhak; Jacobs, Margaret; Vinters, Harry V.; Mintzer, Scott; Kieburtz, Karl
Context Despite reported success, surgery for pharmacoresistant seizures is often seen as a last resort. Patients are typically referred for surgery after 20 years of seizures, often too late to avoid significant disability and premature death. Objective We sought to determine whether surgery soon after failure of 2 antiepileptic drug (AED) trials is superior to continued medical management in controlling seizures and improving quality of life (QOL). Design, Setting, and Participants The Early Randomized Surgical Epilepsy Trial (ERSET) is a multicenter, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial performed at 16 US epilepsy surgery centers. The 38 participants (18 men and 20 women; aged ≥ 12 years) had mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and disabling seizues for no more than 2 consecutive years following adequate trials of 2 brand-name AEDs. Eligibility for anteromesial temporal resection (AMTR) was based on a standardized presurgical evaluation protocol. Participants were randomized to continued AED treatment or AMTR 2003–2007, and observed for 2 years. Planned enrollment was 200, but the trial was halted prematurely due to slow accrual. Intervention Receipt of continued AED treatment (n=23) or a standardized AMTR plus AED treatment (n = 15). In the medical group, 7 participants underwent AMTR prior to the end of follow-up and 1 participant in the surgical group never received surgery. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome variable was freedom from disabling seizures during year 2 of follow-up. Secondary outcome variables were health-related QOL (measured primarily by the 2-year change in the Quality of Life in Epilepsy 89 [QOLIE-89] overall T-score), cognitive function, and social adaptation. Results Zero of 23 participants in the medical group and 11 of 15 in the surgical group were seizure free during year 2 of follow-up (odds ratio=∞; 95% CI, 11.8 to ∞;P <.001). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the mean improvement in QOLIE-89 overall T-score was
Geltzeiler, Cristina B; Hart, Kyle D; Lu, Kim C; Deveney, Karen E; Herzig, Daniel O; Tsikitis, Vassiliki L
Although medical management of Crohn's disease has changed in recent years, it is unclear whether surgical management has altered. We examined rate changes of surgical interventions, stoma constructions, and subset of ileostomy and colostomy constructions. We reviewed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 1988 to 2011. We examined the number of Crohn's-related operations and stoma constructions, including ileostomies and colostomies; a multivariable logistic regression model was developed. A total of 355,239 Crohn's-related operations were analyzed. Operations increased from 13,955 in 1988 to 17,577 in 2011, p < 0.001. Stoma construction increased from 2493 to 4283, p < 0.001. The subset of ileostomies increased from 1201 to 3169, p < 0.001 while colostomies decreased from 1351 to 1201, p = 0.05. Operation percentages resulting in stoma construction increased from 18 to 24 %, p < 0.001. Weight loss (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.88, 2.69) and presence of perianal fistulizing disease (OR 2.91, 95 % CI 2.31, 3.67) were most predictive for requiring stoma construction. Crohn's-related surgical interventions and stoma constructions have increased. The largest predictors for stoma construction are weight loss and perianal fistulizing disease. As a result, nutrition should be optimized and the early involvement of a multidisciplinary team should be considered.
Mazeh, H; Sippel, R S
Although thyroid cancer accounts for only 1.5% of all malignancies in the US it is the most rapidly increasing cancer in incidence and it is the most common endocrine malignancy that accounts for over 95% of the endocrine malignancies. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) originates from the parafollicular C cells and it represents 6-8% of all thyroid cancer cases. As many as 25% of the MTCs are familial and carry a specific germline mutation as compared to only than 10% familial inheritance in non-medullary thyroid cancers. While well-differentiated thyroid malignancies carry a very good prognosis, recurrence and survival rates of patients with MTC are significantly worse. The difference in cell origin and differentiation also results in different available adjunct therapy. The aim of this study is to review in detail the surgical management of patients with MTC.
Spivey, Tara Lynn; Carlson, Kjirsten Ayn; Janssen, Imke; Witt, Thomas R; Jokich, Peter; Madrigrano, Andrea
Breast surgeons often see women for second opinions for abnormalities found on breast imaging. For second opinions, these images are submitted for review and interpretation by dedicated breast imagers. This study evaluated the conformity of results among interpretation of imaging submitted from outside hospitals both from tertiary care centers, as well as community programs, in an attempt to evaluate the utility of this practice for the sake of clinical management and resource utilization. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all breast patients that submitted outside imaging films for the years 2011 to 2013 at Rush University Medical Center (RUMC). The radiologic diagnosis and each patient's proposed management plan was collected and evaluated for concordance between the outside institutions and RUMC. A total of 380 patients who presented for second opinions with an interpretation of outside exams were evaluated. In 47.4 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 42.4-52.4] of cases there was distinct variance in radiologic impression. For 53.5 % (95 % CI 48.4-58.5) of patients, there was a change in recommended management plan, which included recommendations for either additional imaging or need for additional biopsy. In total, this changed the overall surgical management in 27.1 % (95 % CI 22.8-31.9) of cases. In six patients, the reinterpretation of outside imaging detected new malignancies not previously identified. Overall, 83.7 % (95 % CI 79.7-87.1) of patients who submitted imaging from outside institutions chose to complete the remainder of their treatment at RUMC. The practice of second opinion review changed overall definitive management at our specialty center in more than one in four cases. In addition, the review identified six previously unrecognized malignancies. Given this data, the practice of second opinions and interpretation of outside exams should continue despite the additional resources required.
Ito, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Go; Tsuruta, Wataro; Uemura, Kazuya; Komatsu, Yoji; Matsumura, Akira
Although a rerupture after surgical clipping of ruptured intracranial aneurysms is rare, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causes for retreatment and rupture after surgical clipping are not clearly defined. From a prospectively maintained database of 244 patients who had undergone surgical clipping of ruptured intracranial aneurysms, we selected patients who experienced retreatment or rerupture within 30 days after surgical clipping. Aneurysm occlusions were examined by microvascular Doppler ultrasonography and indocyanine green video-angiography. Indications for retreatment included rerupture and partial occlusion. We analyzed the characteristics and causes of early retreatment. Six patients (2.5%, 95% CI 0.9 to 5.3%) were retreated within 30 days after surgical clipping, including two patients (0.8%, 95% CI 0.1 to 2.9%) who experienced a rerupture. The retreated aneurysms were found in the anterior communicating artery (AcomA) (n = 5) and basilar artery (n = 1). Retreatment of the AcomA (7.5%) was performed significantly more frequently than that of other arteries (0.56%) (p < 0.01). A laterally projected AcomA aneurysm (17.4%) was more frequently retreated than were other aneurysm types (2.3%). Cases of laterally projecting AcomA aneurysms tended to result from an incomplete clip placed using a pterional approach from the opposite side of the aneurysm projection. Despite developments, the rates of retreatment and rerupture after surgical clipping remain similar to those reported previously. Retreatment of the AcomA was significantly more frequent than was retreatment of other arteries. Patients underwent retreatment more frequently when they were originally treated for lateral type aneurysms using a pterional approach from the opposite side of the aneurysm projection. The treatment method and evaluation modalities should be considered carefully for AcomA aneurysms in particular.
Haller, Julia A; Stark, Walter J; Azab, Amr; Thomsen, Robert W; Gottsch, John D
To review management strategies for treatment of anterior chamber epithelial cysts. Retrospective review of consecutive interventional case series. Charts of patients treated for epithelial ingrowth over a 10-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed. Cases of anterior chamber epithelial cysts were identified and recorded, including details of ocular history, preoperative and postoperative acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular examination, type of surgical intervention, and details of further procedures performed. Seven eyes with epithelial cysts were identified. Patient age ranged from 1.5 to 53 years at presentation. Four patients were children. In four eyes, cysts were secondary to trauma, one case was presumably congenital, one case developed after corneal perforation in an eye with Terrien's marginal degeneration, and one case developed after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Three eyes were treated with vitrectomy, en bloc resection of the cyst and associated tissue, fluid-air exchange and cryotherapy. The last four eyes were treated with a new conservative strategy of cyst aspiration (three cases) or local excision (one keratin "pearl" cyst), and endolaser photocoagulation of the collapsed cyst wall/base. All epithelial tissue was successfully eradicated by clinical criteria; one case required repeat excision (follow-up, 9 to 78 months, mean 45). Two eyes required later surgery for elevated IOP, two for cataract extraction and one for repeat PK. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to hand motions, depending on associated ocular damage. Best-corrected visual results were obtained in the more conservatively managed eyes. Anterior chamber epithelial cysts can be managed conservatively in selected cases with good results. This strategy may be particularly useful in children's eyes, where preservation of the lens, iris, and other structures may facilitate amblyopia management. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.
Fairchild, Pamela S; Haefner, Hope K
Lichen planus is a rare dermatological disorder that is often associated with painful and disfiguring vulvovaginal effects. At the University of Michigan Center for Vulvar Diseases, we see many women with vulvovaginal lichen planus each year, with marked scarring and vulvovaginal agglutination that precludes vaginal intercourse and causes difficulty with urination. Through our experience, we developed a protocol for the operative management and postoperative care for severe vulvovaginal agglutination. Our objective is to share this protocol with a wider audience so that providers who see patients with these devastating effects of lichen planus can benefit from our experience to better serve this patient population. The figure represents a case of erosive lichen planus with early vaginal agglutination. The video reviews the pathophysiology and presentation of lichen planus. We then present a case of scarring and agglutination in a young woman, including our surgical management and postoperative care recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patrinely, J R; Koch, D D
Ocular adnexal amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid deposition within the deep connective tissue layers of the eyelids, conjunctiva, and anterior orbit. Management of advanced cases has traditionally been unsatisfactory, with either no surgery offered because of fear of hemorrhage or an en bloc resection performed of the entire involved area. We present two cases of advanced periorbital amyloidosis successfully managed by preserving the anatomic planes of the eyelids and meticulously debulking the deposits with a spooned curette. Lax eyelid tendons and aponeuroses were simultaneously repaired, and no sacrifice of eyelid tissues was necessary. One patient remained asymptomatic for 2 years after surgery before developing early reaccumulation in the lower eyelids. The other patient required additional eyelid debulking and ptosis revision 8 months after surgery, but was in stable condition at follow-up 2 years after surgery. This technique offers safe, easily repeatable, nondestructive treatment for advanced periocular amyloidosis.
Varma, Vibha; Behera, Arunanshu; Kaman, Leileshwar; Chattopadhyay, Somnath; Nundy, Samiran
The majority of patients with portal cavernoma cholangiopathy (PCC) are asymptomatic, however some (5-38%) present with obstructive jaundice, cholangitis, or even biliary pain due to bile duct stones which form as a result of stasis. Most patients with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) present with variceal bleeding and hypersplenism and these are the usual indications for surgery. Those who present with PCC may also need decompression of their portosystemic system to reverse the biliary obstruction. It is important to realize that though endoscopic drainage has been proposed as a non-surgical approach to the management of PCC it is successful in only certain specific situations like those with bile duct calculi, cholangitis, etc. A small proportion of such patients will continue to have biliary obstruction and these patients are thought to have a mechanical ischemic stricture. These patients will require a second stage procedure in the form of a bilioenteric bypass to reverse the symptoms related to PCC. In the absence of a shuntable vein splenectomy and devascularization may resolve the PCC in a subset of patients by decreasing the portal pressure.
Kasielska, Anna; Antoszewski, Bogusław
The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical management of gynecomastia focusing on techniques, complications, and aesthetic results. The authors also proposed an evaluation scale of the cosmetic results after the treatment. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 113 patients undergoing the surgery for gynecomastia in our department. Preoperative clinical evaluation included the grade of gynecomastia, its etiology, and side, whereas postoperative analysis concerned histologic findings, complications, and cosmetic results. Operative techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy through circumareolar approach in 94 patients, subcutaneous mastectomy with skin excision in 9 patients, inverted-T reduction mastopexy with nipple-areola complex (NAC) transposition in 6 subjects, and breast amputation through inframammary fold approach with free transplantation of NAC in 4 cases. Complications occurred in a total of 25 patients and did not differ statistically within Simon stages. The operative technique appeared to be the crucial determinant of good aesthetic outcome. The postoperative result of shape and symmetry of the NAC was not as satisfactory as postoperative breast size and symmetry. We showed that subcutaneous mastectomy using a circumareolar incision without additional liposuction provides a good or very good aesthetic outcome in patients with Simon grades I to IIa gynecomastia and that it is challenging to achieve a very good or even a good aesthetic outcome in patients with Simon grades IIb to III gynecomastia.
Glaser, D L; Dormans, J P; Stanton, R P; Davidson, R S
Unicameral bone cysts are not seen commonly in the calcaneus. Little is known about the etiology and natural history of these lesions. Calcaneal cysts often are symptomatic, although some of these lesions are detected as incidental findings. Treatment has been advocated based on the fear of pathologic fracture and collapse. Several published series have been divided in their favor for either open treatment or injection management. These series are small, and the optimal treatment is still in question. The current study compared the efficacy of methylprednisolone acetate injection treatment with curettage and bone grafting in the treatment of unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus. All patients treated for unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus during the past 7 years at two institutions were reviewed. Eleven patients met inclusion criteria. All diagnoses were confirmed radiographically or histologically. Demographic information, presenting complaints, diagnostic imaging, treatment modalities, and outcome were analyzed. Long term radiographic and subjective followup was obtained. Eighteen surgical procedures were performed on 11 patients with 12 cysts. Nine injections performed on six patients failed to show healing of the cyst. Nine cysts treated with curettage and bone grafting showed cyst healing. At mean followup of 28 months (range, 12-77 months), all 11 patients had no symptoms; there were no recurrences of the cyst in the nine patients who underwent bone grafting and persistence of the cyst in the two patients who underwent injection therapy. This review reports one of the largest series of cysts in this location. The results indicate that steroid injection treatment, although useful in other locations, may not be the best option for the management of unicameral bone cysts in the calcaneus. Curettage and bone grafting yielded uniformly good results.
Libot, Jérômie; Guillon, Benoit
A cerebrovascular accident requires urgent diagnosis and treatment.The management of a stroke must be early and adapted in order to improve the overall clinical outcome and lower the risk of mortality.
Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F
Metabolic disturbances are common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Obesity is the major link in the association of PCOS with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, low-grade chronic inflammation and increased body iron stores, among others. Metabolic prevention in PCOS women should start as early as possible, usually meaning at diagnosis. Among preventive strategies, those promoting a healthy life-style based on diet, regular exercising and smoking cessation are possibly the most effective therapies, but also are the most difficult to achieve. To this regard, every effort must be made to avoid weight gain and obesity, given the deleterious impact that obesity exerts on the metabolic and cardiovascular associations of PCOS. Unfortunately, classic strategies that address obesity by life-style modification and dieting are seldom successful on a long-term basis, especially in women with severe obesity. In selected cases, metabolic surgery in severely obese women may resolve signs and symptoms of PCOS restoring insulin sensitivity and fertility, and avoiding the long-term risks associated with PCOS and morbid obesity. Surgical techniques for bariatric surgery have evolved in the past decades and newer procedures do not longer carry the severe side effects associated with earlier bariatric procedures. The choice of bariatric procedure should consider both the severity of obesity and the possibility of future pregnancy, since fertility may be restored by the sustained and marked weight loss usually attained after bariatric surgery. Finally, avoidance of the risks associated with morbid obesity compensate for the possible residual risks for pregnancy derived from the previous bariatric procedure itself. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slack, Alex; Jackson, Simon
Prolapse is an extremely common condition, for which 11% of women will have a surgical procedure at some point in their lives. The recurrence rate after most of the traditional surgical procedures is high and upto 29% of women who have had surgery for prolapse will require a further operation. In order to improve the surgical outcome, there is currently much interest in the use of grafts to augment traditional repairs and new procedures have been developed using specifically developed grafts. These have been combined with minimally invasive surgical techniques in an attempt to reduce surgical morbidity. These procedures may improve the outcome of surgery for prolapse. However, there is currently a lack of long-term data from randomized trials to demonstrate their effectiveness and safety.
Kusuda, Kaori; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohnishi, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyohito; Komino, Masaru; Honda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinichi; Okubo, Takashi; Tripette, Julien; Ohta, Yuji
To prevent malpractices, medical staff has adopted inventory time-outs and/or checklists. Accurate inventory and maintenance of surgical instruments decreases the risk of operating room miscounting and malfunction. In our previous study, an individual management of surgical instruments was accomplished using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a new management method of RFID-tagged instruments. The management system of RFID-tagged surgical instruments was used for 27 months in clinical areas. In total, 13 study participants assembled surgical trays in the central sterile supply department. While using the management system, trays were assembled 94 times. During this period, no assembly errors occurred. An instrument malfunction had occurred after the 19th, 56th, and 73 th uses, no malfunction caused by the RFID tags, and usage history had been recorded. Additionally, the time it took to assemble surgical trays was recorded, and the long-term usability of the management system was evaluated. The system could record the number of uses and the defective history of each surgical instrument. In addition, the history of the frequency of instruments being transferred from one tray to another was recorded. The results suggest that our system can be used to manage instruments safely. Additionally, the management system was acquired of the learning effect and the usability on daily maintenance. This finding suggests that the management system examined here ensures surgical instrument and tray assembly quality.
Bergamin, Paul A.
There are many causes of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) which are amenable to surgical management. This usually follows a lengthy trial of conservative management. Aetiological classification of rUTI requiring surgical management may be divided into congenital or acquired. Predisposing factors are classified into two groups; those providing a source for organisms, or by maintaining favourable conditions for the proliferation of organisms. Sources of infections include calculi, fistulae or abscesses. Conditions which predispose to bacterial proliferation include malignancies, foreign bodies, high post void residuals, and neuropathic bladders. Removal of identified sources, treating the obstruction, and improving urinary drainage, are all goals of surgical management. Surgical options for rUTI management can range from minimally invasive procedures such as endoscopic or percutaneous, through to more invasive requiring laparoscopic or an open approach. Surgery remains a very important and viable solution. PMID:28791234
Cohen, Seth M.; Haynes, David S.
This article discusses the surgical management of children receiving cochlear implants. It identifies preoperative considerations to select patients likely to benefit, contraindications, some new surgical techniques, complications, special considerations (otitis media, meningitis, head growth, inner ear malformations, and cochlear obstruction).…
Davila, Victor J; Chang, James M; Stone, William M; Fowl, Richard J; Bower, Thomas C; Hinni, Michael L; Money, Samuel R
Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are rare. Management guidelines may include genetic testing for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutations. We performed an institutional review of the surgical management of CBT. A retrospective analysis (1994-2015) of CBT excisions at our institution was performed. Data obtained included demographics, genetic testing (if performed), intraoperative details, postoperative morbidity, and long-term outcomes. Data from the first CBT excision were included in patients with bilateral tumors. Genetic testing was routinely offered in patients with a family history of CBT or multiple paragangliomas. A total of 183 CBTs (124 female [67.7%]) were excised. A neck mass was present in 106 patients (57.9%), 24 patients (12.1%) presented with tenderness or neck pain, and 3 (1.6%) presented with cranial nerve dysfunction. Computed tomography (57.9%) or magnetic resonance imaging (51.3%) were the most commonly used imaging modalities. Preoperative angiography was performed in 73 patients (39.8%), and 62 of them (84.5%) underwent embolization or internal carotid balloon occlusion testing, or both. Mean tumor diameter was 3.2 cm (range, 0.6-7.2 cm). There were 71 (38.8%), 75 (41%), and 37 (20.2%) Shamblin type 1, 2, and 3 tumors, respectively. Average operating time was 224 minutes (range, 52-696 minutes). Average blood loss was 143.9 mL (range, 10-2000 mL). Arterial reconstruction with an interposition graft was required in 10, and patch angioplasty was performed in four. Cranial nerve injury was permanent in 10 (5.5%), and the rate of stroke was 1% (n = 2). A total of 382 lymph nodes were excised, and all were benign. There were no deaths ≤30 days. Only one patient presented with malignant disease 2 years after CBT excision, and this patient did not undergo genetic testing. Thirty-four (18.6%) had a family history of CBT. SDH testing was performed in 18 patients, and 17 tested positive. Positive genetic testing had a correlation with earlier age
Maggiori, Léon; Panis, Yves
For IBD surgical management, laparoscopic approach offers several theoretical advantages over the open approach. However, the frequent presence of adhesions from previous surgery and the high rate of inflammatory lesions have initially questioned its feasibility and safety. In the present review article, we will discuss the role of laparoscopic approach for IBD surgical management, along with its potential benefits as compared to the open approach.
Kyprianou, Katerina; Pericleous, Agamemnon; Stavrou, Antonio; Dimitrakaki, Inetzi A; Challoumas, Dimitrios; Dimitrakakis, Georgios
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a huge public health burden associated with significant morbidity and mortality. For decades an increasing number of patients have undergone surgical treatment of AF, mainly during concomitant cardiac surgery. This has sparked a drive for conducting further studies and researching this field. With the cornerstone Cox-Maze III “cut and sew” procedure being technically challenging, the focus in current literature has turned towards less invasive techniques. The introduction of ablative devices has revolutionised the surgical management of AF, moving away from the traditional surgical lesions. The hybrid procedure, a combination of catheter and surgical ablation is another promising new technique aiming to improve outcomes. Despite the increasing number of studies looking at various aspects of the surgical management of AF, the literature would benefit from more uniformly conducted randomised control trials. PMID:26839656
Gadiwalla, Yusuf; Burnham, Richard; Warfield, Adrian; Praveen, Prav
The authors report a case of amyloidosis-induced macroglossia treated with surgical reduction of the tongue using a keyhole to inverted T method with particular emphasis on the postoperative sequelae. Significant tongue swelling persisted for longer than anticipated requiring tracheostomy to remain in situ for 14 days. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Dobrowolsky, Adrian; Fisichella, P Marco
The goal of this review is to illustrate our approach to patients with achalasia in terms of preoperative evaluation and surgical technique. Indications, patient selection and management are herein discussed. Specifically, we illustrate the pathogenetic theories and diagnostic algorithm with current up-to-date techniques to diagnose achalasia and its manometric variants. Finally, we focus on the therapeutic approaches available today: medical and surgical. A special emphasis is given on the surgical treatment of achalasia and we provide the reader with a detailed description of our pre and postoperative management.
Latham, Kerry; Buchanan, Edward P; Suver, Daniel; Gruss, Joseph S
Neurofibromatosis is common and presents with variable penetrance and manifestations in one in 2500 to one in 3000 live births. The management of these patients is often multidisciplinary because of the complexity of the disease. Plastic surgeons are frequently involved in the surgical management of patients with head and neck involvement. A 20-year retrospective review of patients treated surgically for head and neck neurofibroma was performed. Patients were identified according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for neurofibromatosis and from the senior author's database. A total of 59 patients with head and neck neurofibroma were identified. These patients were categorized into five distinct, but not exclusive, categories to assist with diagnosis and surgical management. These categories included plexiform, cranioorbital, facial, neck, and parotid/auricular neurofibromatosis. A surgical classification system and clinical characteristics of head and neck neurofibromatosis is presented to assist practitioners with diagnosis and surgical management of this complex disease. The surgical management of the cranioorbital type is discussed in detail in 24 patients. The importance and safety of facial nerve dissection and preservation using intraoperative nerve monitoring were validated in 16 dissections in 15 patients. Massive involvement of the neck extending from the skull base to the mediastinum, frequently considered inoperable, has been safely resected by the use of access osteotomies of the clavicle and sternum, muscle takedown, and brachial plexus dissection and preservation using intraoperative nerve monitoring. Therapeutic, IV.
Dym, Harry; Tagliareni, Jonathan M
Mucogingival conditions are deviations from the normal anatomic relationship between the gingival margin and the mucogingival junction. Mucogingival surgery is plastic surgery designed to correct defects in the gingiva surrounding the teeth. Common mucogingival conditions are recession, absence, or reduction of keratinized tissue, and probing depths extending beyond the mucogingival junction. Surgical techniques used to augment cosmetic mucogingival defects include the free gingival autograft, the subepithelial connective tissue graft, rotational flaps, lateral sliding flaps, coronally repositioned flaps, and the use of acellular dermal matrix grafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stanton, Robert P; Ippolito, Ernesto; Springfield, Dempsey; Lindaman, Lynn; Wientroub, Shlomo; Leet, Arabella
The surgical management of Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia (FD) of bone is technically demanding. The most effective methods to manage the associated bone deformity remain unclear. The marked variation in the degree and pattern of bone involvement has made it difficult to acquire data to guide the surgeon's approach to these patients. In light of the paucity of data, but need for guidance, recognized experts in the management of these patients came together at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland as part of an International meeting to address issues related to fibrous dysplasia of bone to discuss and refine their recommendations regarding the surgical indications and preferred methods for the management of these challenging patients. The specific challenges, recommended approaches, and "lessons learned" are presented in hopes that surgeons faced with typical deformities can be guided in the surgical reconstruction of both children and adults with FD.
Singh, Anupam; Bahuguna, Chirag; Nagpal, Ritu; Kumar, Barun
Third nerve paralysis has been known to be associated with a wide spectrum of presentation and other associated factors such as the presence of ptosis, pupillary involvement, amblyopia, aberrant regeneration, poor bell's phenomenon, superior oblique (SO) overaction, and lateral rectus (LR) contracture. Correction of strabismus due to third nerve palsy can be complex as four out of the six extraocular muscles are involved and therefore should be approached differently. Third nerve palsy can be congenital or acquired. The common causes of isolated third nerve palsy in children are congenital (43%), trauma (20%), inflammation (13%), aneurysm (7%), and ophthalmoplegic migraine. Whereas, in adult population, common etiologies are vasculopathic disorders (diabetes mellitus, hypertension), aneurysm, and trauma. Treatment can be both nonsurgical and surgical. As nonsurgical modalities are not of much help, surgery remains the main-stay of treatment. Surgical strategies are different for complete and partial third nerve palsy. Surgery for complete third nerve palsy may involve supra-maximal recession - resection of the recti. This may be combined with SO transposition and augmented by surgery on the other eye. For partial third nerve, palsy surgery is determined according to nature and extent of involvement of extraocular muscles. PMID:27433033
Matlaga, Brian R.; Lingeman, James E.
In recent years, the surgical treatment of kidney stone disease has undergone tremendous advances, many of which were possible only as a result of improvements in surgical technology. Rigid intracorporeal lithotrites, the mainstay of percutaneous nephrolithotomy, are now available as combination ultrasonic and ballistic devices. These combination devices have been reported to clear a stone burden with much greater efficiency than devices that operate by either ultrasonic or ballistic energy alone. The laser is the most commonly used flexible lithotrite; advances in laser lithotripsy have led to improvements in the currently utilized Holmium laser platform, as well as the development of novel laser platforms such as Thulium and Erbium devices. Our understanding of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)has been improved over recent years as a consequence of basic science investigations. It is now recognized that there are certain maneuvers with SWL that the treating physician can do that will increase the likelihood of a successful outcome while minimizing the likelihood of adverse treatment-related events. PMID:19095207
Calvinho, Paulo; Antunes, Manuel
From Walton Lillehei, who performed the first successful open mitral valve surgery in 1956, until the advent of robotic surgery in the 21st Century, only 50 years have passed. The introduction of the first heart valve prosthesis, in 1960, was the next major step forward. However, correction of mitral disease by valvuloplasty results in better survival and ventricular performance than mitral valve replacement. However, the European Heart Survey demonstrated that only 40% of the valves are repaired. The standard procedures (Carpentier's techniques and Alfieri's edge-to-edge suture) are the surgical basis for the new technical approaches. Minimally invasive surgery led to the development of video-assisted and robotic surgery and interventional cardiology is already making the first steps on endovascular procedures, using the classical concepts in highly differentiated approaches. Correction of mitral regurgitation is a complex field that is still growing, whereas classic surgery is still under debate as the new era arises.
Pushkaran, Anish; Stainer, Victoria; Muir, Gordon; Shergill, Iqbal S
An ideal treatment option for symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) should relieve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and restore Quality of Life (QoL). Currently available medical therapies and surgical options for symptomatic BPH have side effects that adversely affects quality of life. Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a novel endourology procedure that promises to relieve LUTS without the aforementioned side effects. Areas covered: We diligently reviewed all the published literature on PUL, till July 2016 using standard search criteria. Expert commentary: There is good quality evidence to establish the efficiency of PUL in treating symptomatic BPH without adversely affecting the QoL. Based on the current literature, PUL can be considered as an option for those symptomatic BPH patients with small or medium size prostates (< 80 ml) without median lobe enlargement, who failed on medical therapy or are intolerant to it and wish to preserve their sexual function.
García Y Sánchez, J M; Gómez Rodríguez, C L; Romero Flores, J
Each year around the world, various surgical procedures are carried out with the goal of correcting laterognathia; both the intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (OSB) have been the most used techniques in mandibular surgery. These techniques have advantages and disadvantages; for example the advantages of the OSB include: increased coefficient of friction between bony segments, for both the forward and the retroposition, as well as decrease in the time of intermaxillary fixation (IMF). Disadvantages include injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), hemorrhage, bad split, among others. The advantages of IVRO include decrease of possibility of injury to the IAN, ease of implementation of the technique, a lower incidence of hemorrhage and the short duration of the surgical procedure. Their disadvantages include: lower coefficient of friction between bony segments, requires a relatively long period of IMF. The combination between the techniques of mandibular osteotomy for the correction of minor 10 mm laterognathia is the ideal treatment, since it avoids potential recurrence. We describe two cases of patients with laterognathia greater than 6 mm associated with maxilla deformity, which were treated with combined osteotomies. At Maxillofacial Surgery Service, Specialty Hospital, National Medical Center XXI Century, we describe the advantages and disadvantages, pre and postoperative nosocomial, by comparing them with the reports of the literature. The combination of techniques in the correction of laterognathias greater than 4 mm (smaller than 10 mm) is the ideal treatment, eliminating problems of articular compression, recurrence and damage to the alveolar nerve.
Murthy, Prashanth Sadashiva; Deshmukh, Seema; Bhagyalakshmi, A; Srilatha, KT
Background: Alveolar and nasal reconstruction for patients with cleft lip and palate is a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Various procedures have been attempted to reduce the cleft gap so as to obtain esthetic results post surgically. Yet there is need of continuous exploration of newer and better methods. Rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate generally requires a team approach with paedodontists playing a major role of performing nasoalveolar molding. Presurgical Nasoalveolar Molding (PNAM) was introduced to reshape the alveolar and nasal segments prior to surgical repair. Over the time there have been changes in the concepts of the same. To assess these changing concepts a pubmed search was performed with different related terminologies and articles over a period of 30 years were obtained. Among the articles retrieved, studies performed over different concepts in early management of cleft lip and palate was selected for the systematic review. Aims This paper describes the changing paradigms in the management of patients with cleft lip and palate, focuses on the current concept of Presurgical nasoalveolar molding(PNAM) and discusses the long term benefits of the same. Conclusion The concept of the management of cleft lip and palate has changed over the time with more emphasis on the nasal and alveolar molding prior to the primary lip repair. This molding reduces the number reconstructive surgeries performed later for the purpose of esthetics. How to cite this article: Murthy P S, Deshmukh S, Bhagyalakshmi A, Srilatha K T. Pre Surgical Nasoalveolar Molding: Changing Paradigms in Early Cleft Lip and Palate Rehabilitation. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):76-86. PMID:24155594
Valente, Michael A; Hull, Tracy L
Rectovaginal fistula is a disastrous complication of Crohn’s disease (CD) that is exceedingly difficult to treat. It is a disabling condition that negatively impacts a women’s quality of life. Successful management is possible only after accurate and complete assessment of the entire gastrointestinal tract has been performed. Current treatment algorithms range from observation to medical management to the need for surgical intervention. A wide variety of success rates have been reported for all management options. The choice of surgical repair methods depends on various fistula and patient characteristics. Before treatment is undertaken, establishing reasonable goals and expectations of therapy is essential for both the patient and surgeon. This article aims to highlight the various surgical techniques and their outcomes for repair of CD associated rectovaginal fistula. PMID:25400993
El-Messidi, Amira; Alsarraj, Ghazi; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Mishkin, Daniel S; Abenhaim, Haim Arie
To evaluate the management of pregnancies complicated by acute cholecystitis (AC) and determine whether pregnant women are more likely to have medical and surgical complications. We carried out a population-based matched cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2011. Pregnant women with AC were age matched to non-pregnant women with AC on a 1:5 ratio. Management and outcomes were compared using descriptive analysis and conditional logistic regression. There were 11,835 pregnant women admitted with AC who were age matched to 59,175 non-pregnant women. As compared to non-pregnant women, women with AC were more commonly managed conservatively, odds ratio (OR) 6.1 (5.8-6.4). As compared to non-pregnant women, pregnant women with AC more commonly developed sepsis [OR 1.4 (1.0-1.9)], developed venous thromboembolism [OR 8.7 (4.3-17.8)] and had bowel obstruction [OR 1.3 (1.1-1.6)]. Among pregnant women with AC, surgical management was associated with a small but significant increased risk of septic shock and bile leak. AC, in the context of pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Although the literature favors early surgical intervention, pregnancies with AC appear to be more commonly managed conservatively with overall comparable outcomes to surgically managed AC. Conservative management may have a role in select pregnant women with AC.
Sadler, Erin M; Hawley, Philippa H; Easson, Alexandra M
Palliative care has long been described in medical literature but only recently is being discussed in the surgical domain. Mounting evidence suggests that early integration of palliative care improves patient outcomes and this is especially true of oncology patients. Thus, the pendulum is swinging toward recognizing that palliative care and active disease management are not mutually exclusive but rather synergistic in modern surgical oncology. Here we use a patient vignette to demonstrate the new challenges and possibilities in modern surgical oncology, we then discuss the historic perspective of palliative care and describe how the paradigm is shifting. Finally, we introduce a model that may be beneficial in conceptualizing this new way of thinking about and integrating palliative care into surgical oncology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Management of cleft lip and palate requires a unique understanding of the various dimensions of care to optimize outcomes of surgery. The breadth of treatment spans multiple disciplines and the length of treatment spans infancy to adulthood. Although the focus of reconstruction is on form and function, changes occur with growth and development. This review focuses on the surgical management of the primary cleft lip and nasal deformity. In addition to surgical treatment, the anatomy, clinical spectrum, preoperative care, and postoperative care are discussed. Principles of surgery are emphasized and controversies are highlighted. PMID:24179447
Allouch, H; Shousha, M; Böhm, H
Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory rheumatic disease that is often associated with back pain and restricted spinal movement. In the later stages of the disease, complete ossification of the entire spine and severe deformity can occur, often resulting in a marked reduction in quality of life and an increased risk of loss of independence due to diminished visual field. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis are at greater risk of spinal fractures. These are generally complex fractures associated with high morbidity and mortality; in addition, neurological deficits are not unusual. Conventional radiological diagnosis is often insufficient to establish a diagnosis. Conservative treatment of fractures of the spine in this patient group is unsatisfactory. Surgical procedures, if necessary combined with decompression, are often the preferred treatment of choice in the fractured or malaligned ankylosed spine. Rebalancing of the sagittal profile with normalization of the visual axis and an improvement of quality of life is achieved through corrective osteotomies. Despite the high rate of complications, long-term results following spinal surgery in patients with ankylosing spondylitis are good. Minimally invasive surgery is appropriate for a further reduction in the complication rate. Meticulous preoperative planning is essential in the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei
To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.
Amavi, Ayi Kossigan; Kouadio, Laurent; Adabra, Komlan; Tengue, Kodjo; Tijami, Fouad; Jalil, Abdelouahed
To analyze our surgical management and the result of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of vulva. Retrospectively, we collected 38 cases of SCC; 17 cases of them were early SCC and 21 cases were locally advanced. The patients underwent primary surgery. The survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test. The mean age was 60.78 years. Total vulvectomy was performed in all patients. Superficial and deep incision of bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed by separates incisions for SCC infiltrating more than 1mm. The average tumor size was 53 mm (10 to 140mm). Morbidity was 42.1%. Lateral resection margin ≥8mm was obtained in 57.1%. Eighteen patients benefited from adjuvant radiotherapy. The follow-up median was 19.4 months (6 to 61.5 month) with 05 recurrences in 12 months. The survival using the Kaplan-Meyer analysis at 5 years, was 62.1% (71.2%N(-) vs 46.7%N(+); p = 0.13). We identified two groups for locally advanced vulva cancer. Primary surgery keeps its place. Neo adjuvant radio chemotherapy followed by surgery is the alternative treatment for locally extensive lesions.
Amavi, Ayi Kossigan; Kouadio, Laurent; Adabra, Komlan; Tengue, Kodjo; Tijami, Fouad; Jalil, Abdelouahed
To analyze our surgical management and the result of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of vulva. Retrospectively, we collected 38 cases of SCC; 17 cases of them were early SCC and 21 cases were locally advanced. The patients underwent primary surgery. The survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test. The mean age was 60.78 years. Total vulvectomy was performed in all patients. Superficial and deep incision of bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed by separates incisions for SCC infiltrating more than 1mm. The average tumor size was 53 mm (10 to 140mm). Morbidity was 42.1%. Lateral resection margin ≥8mm was obtained in 57.1%. Eighteen patients benefited from adjuvant radiotherapy. The follow-up median was 19.4 months (6 to 61.5 month) with 05 recurrences in 12 months. The survival using the Kaplan-Meyer analysis at 5 years, was 62.1% (71.2%N- vs 46.7%N+; p = 0.13). We identified two groups for locally advanced vulva cancer. Primary surgery keeps its place. Neo adjuvant radio chemotherapy followed by surgery is the alternative treatment for locally extensive lesions. PMID:27642483
Gebhart, John B; Schmitt, Jennifer J
Management of the constricted or obliterated vagina demands an understanding and recognition of the potential etiologies leading to this presentation. A thorough and comprehensive medical and surgical review is required to arrive at an accurate diagnosis, which then will guide medical or surgical intervention. It is paramount to recognize when underlying medical conditions are contributing to these conditions and to begin medical therapy; failure to do so will often yield suboptimal results. When these conditions arise after surgical interventions, compensatory surgical techniques that correct upper and lower vaginal strictures or obliteration include incision through the stricture, vaginal advancement, Z-plasty, skin grafts, perineal flaps, and abdominal flaps and grafts. Postoperative surveillance and dilation are critical to optimize long-term success.
Helling, T S; McNabney, W K; Whittaker, C K; Schultz, C C; Watkins, M
Surgical management of gunshot wounds of the head has remained a controversial issue in the care of civilian patients. In an attempt to determine who might benefit from aggressive surgical intervention, we examined 89 patients over a 3-year period who had suffered cranial gunshot wounds and had at least one computed tomographic scan of the head after admission. Patients were divided into those receiving early (less than 24 hours) surgical intervention (ES, n = 27), late (greater than 24 hours) surgical intervention (LS, n = 6) or no surgical intervention (NS, n = 56). Overall mortality was 63%. Ten of 27 patients (37%) in the ES group died compared with 46 of 56 patients (82%) in the NS group (p less than 0.0001). Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores in the ES group averaged 7.86 +/- 4.72 and in the NS group 5.59 +/- 4.42 (p less than 0.05). The GCS scores in the LS group (all of whom survived) were significantly higher than those of the other two groups, 12.17 +/- 4.10. The number of patients with GCS scores of 3 or 4 on admission was significantly less in the ES (41%) than in the NS group (66%, p = 0.035) and survival was better with surgery (36%) than without (3%, p = 0.007). Patients with mass lesions (clot, ventricular blood) were more often found in the ES group (17/27) than in the NS group (18/56) (p = 0.008). Patients with bihemispheric injuries fared better with surgery (7 of 14 survivors) than without (2 of 33 survivors, p = 0.0003). Only one infectious complication (brain abscess) was encountered in the LS group. No delayed intracranial complications in survivors in the NS group were seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Liebmann, Philipp; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Wiedemann, Peter; Neumuth, Thomas
Sensor systems in the operating room may encounter intermittent data losses that reduce the performance of surgical workflow management systems (SWFMS). Sensor data loss could impact SWFMS-based decision support, device parameterization, and information presentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the robustness of surgical process models when sensor information is partially missing. SWFMS changes caused by wrong or no data from the sensor system which tracks the progress of a surgical intervention were tested. The individual surgical process models (iSPMs) from 100 different cataract procedures of 3 ophthalmologic surgeons were used to select a randomized subset and create a generalized surgical process model (gSPM). A disjoint subset was selected from the iSPMs and used to simulate the surgical process against the gSPM. The loss of sensor data was simulated by removing some information from one task in the iSPM. The effect of missing sensor data was measured using several metrics: (a) successful relocation of the path in the gSPM, (b) the number of steps to find the converging point, and (c) the perspective with the highest occurrence of unsuccessful path findings. A gSPM built using 30% of the iSPMs successfully found the correct path in 90% of the cases. The most critical sensor data were the information regarding the instrument used by the surgeon. We found that use of a gSPM to provide input data for a SWFMS is robust and can be accurate despite missing sensor data. A surgical workflow management system can provide the surgeon with workflow guidance in the OR for most cases. Sensor systems for surgical process tracking can be evaluated based on the stability and accuracy of functional and spatial operative results.
Bennett, Samuel C; Goonewardene, Mithran S
Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH), also known as hemimandibular hypertrophy, is characterised by excessive unilateral three-dimensional growth of the mandible after birth. Vertical unilateral elongation of the mandible becomes clinically evident as a rare form of vertical facial asymmetry. Aberrant growth of the facial skeleton affects the developing dentition and the dental compensatory mechanism is usually unable to maintain optimal occlusal relationships. The resulting malocclusion is effectively managed by combined surgical-orthodontic care to address the facial, skeletal and dental problems that confront clinicians. Orthodontists are advised to assess patients with HH during the post-treatment retention stage for continuing mandibular growth and assess the stability of treatment outcomes with long-term follow-up and records as required. To present a case of hemimandibular hyperplasia treated successfully by combined surgical-orthodontic care and evaluated for stability over a seven-year follow-up period. Surgical-orthodontic management was accomplished in four stages: 1) pre-surgical orthodontic; 21 surgical; 3) post-surgical orthodontic; and 4) post-treatment orthodontic retention. Complete orthodontic records, including extra- and intra-oral photographs, study models, and cephalograms plus panoramic radiographs were taken at the pretreatment, post-treatment, and seven-year orthodontic retention time-points. Facial, skeletal and dental goals were achieved in the three planes of space and the long-term stability of the treatment results was shown during a post-treatment orthodontic retention period of seven years. Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a true growth anomaly which may be managed effectively. Clinicians may expect successful long-term correction and stability by utilising a comprehensive surgical-orthodontic treatment approach.
Eisenstein, Diana Hill
Many people receiving maintenance anticoagulation therapy require surgery each year in ambulatory surgery centers. National safety organizations focus attention toward improving anticoagulation management, and the American College of Chest Physicians has established guidelines for appropriate anticoagulation management to balance the risk of thromboembolism when warfarin is discontinued with the risk of bleeding when anticoagulation therapy is maintained. The guidelines recommend that patients at high or moderate risk for thromboembolism should be bridged with subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin or IV unfractionated heparin with the interruption of warfarin, and low-risk patients may require subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin or no bridging with the interruption of warfarin. The guidelines recommend the continuation of warfarin for patients who are undergoing minor dermatologic or dental procedures or cataract removal. The literature reveals, however, that there is not adequate adherence to these recommendations and guidelines. Management of anticoagulation therapy by a nurse practitioner may improve compliance and safety in ambulatory surgery centers. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karadag, Ali; Sandal, Evren; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Senoglu, Mehmet
Ochronotic arthropathy related to alkaptonuria is a rare condition. Cervical spine involvement with myelopathic features has been even more rarely described, particularly related to atlantoaxial instability. As such, little is known about the optimal surgical management in these patients. We described the first case, to our knowledge, of a patient with alkaptonuria and related cervical spondylotic myelopathy from pannus formation at the atlantoaxial joint. We describe our choices in surgical management of this rare condition in a patient with an excellent outcome. Ochronotic cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a rare condition and may require additional considerations in surgical treatment compared to more common causes of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. In our case, we elected for decompression with posterior occipitocervical screw fixation and were able to achieve neurologic recovery with no complications, currently at 2-year follow-up. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Neill, J A; Betts, J; Ziegler, M M; Schnaufer, L; Bishop, H C; Templeton, J M
The etiology of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in infancy is related to developmental factors, and there is a high incidence of associated conditions such as neurologic syndromes and esophageal atresia (60%). This is different from the situation in adults. Experience with 18 consecutive children with peptic esophageal strictures is reviewed to determine if conservative surgical management is effective. Eighteen children 14 months to 13 years (mean 6.3 years) of age took an average of 3.5 years from the time of onset of symptoms of GER to develop tight strictures diagnosed by esophagography and esophagoscopy. The incidence of stricture in patients with GER was approximately 15%. Preoperative dilation or direct surgical management prior to correction of reflux is ineffective. All 18 children were managed by intraoperative dilatation, Nissen fundoplication, and guided dilatation after operation. More aggressive surgical procedures were not required nor were associated operations such as pyloroplasty; they are rarely necessary. An average three-year follow-up indicates that this conservative surgical approach is effective in the management of peptic esophageal strictures in childhood with relief of symptoms and gratifying improvement in growth. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:7125730
Koutlas, T C; Wernovsky, G; Slack, M C; Weinberg, P M; Spray, T L
An anomalous left brachiocephalic vein is an uncommon systemic venous anomaly, which usually has no clinical significance. We describe a case of tricuspid atresia with such an anomalous left brachiocephalic vein. The presence of this unusual venous anomaly had a number of implications in the surgical management of the tricuspid atresia.
Kelekci, Sefa; Ekmekci, Emre; Aydogmus, Serpil; Gencdal, Servet
Abstract We aimed to present a combined surgical procedure in conservative treatment of placenta accreta based on surgical outcomes in our cohort of patients. The study was designed as a prospective cohort series study. The setting involved two education and research hospitals in Turkey. This study included 12 patients with placenta accreta who were prenatally diagnosed and managed. We offered the patients the choice of conservative or nonconservative treatment. We then offered 2 choices for patients who had preferred conservative treatment, leaving the placenta in situ as is the classical procedure, or our surgical procedure. One patient preferred nonconservative treatment, the others opted for our procedure. We evaluated demographic and obstetric characteristics of patients, sonographic and operative parameters of patients, and surgical outcomes. We operated on 11 patients using this surgical procedure that we have developed for placenta accreta cases. We found that there was no need for hysterectomy in any patient, and we preserved the uterus for all of these patients. No patient presented any septic complication or secondary vaginal bleeding. Our surgical procedure seems to be effective and useful in the conservative treatment of placenta accreta. PMID:25700315
Evans, Kimberly A; Clark, Colby W; Vogel, Stephen B; Behrns, Kevin E
Endoscopic therapy of acute and chronic pancreatitis has decreased the need for operative intervention. However, a significant proportion of patients treated endoscopically require definitive surgical management for persistent symptoms. Our aim was to determine which patients are likely to fail with endoscopic therapy, and to assess the clinical outcome of surgical management. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes for pancreatic disease as well as CPT codes for endoscopic therapy followed by surgery. Patients with documented acute or chronic pancreatitis treated endoscopically prior to surgical therapy were included (N = 88). The majority of patients (65%) exhibited chronic pancreatitis due to alcohol abuse. Common indicators for surgery were: persistent symptoms, anatomy not amenable to endoscopic treatment and unresolved common bile duct or pancreatic duct strictures. Surgical salvage procedures included internal drainage of a pseudocyst or an obstructed pancreatic duct (46%), debridement of peripancreatic fluid collections (25%), and pancreatic resection (31%). Death occurred in 3% of patients. The most common complications were hemorrhage (16%), wound infection (13%), and pulmonary complications (11%). Chronic pancreatitis with persistent symptoms is the most common reason for pancreatic surgery following endoscopic therapy. Surgical salvage therapy can largely be accomplished by drainage procedures, but pancreatic resection is common. These complex procedures can be performed with acceptable mortality but also with significant risk for morbidity.
Dong, Dexin; Li, Hanzhong; Yan, Weigang; Ji, Zhigang; Mao, Quanzong
To study the relationship between surgical management and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in order to guide the surgical management of ACC. Clinical data of 45 cases of ACC treated in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The 45 cases included 3 cases in stage I, 12 cases in stage II, 7 cases in stage III, and 23 cases in stage IV. 17 cases underwent complete excision, 14 cases underwent palliative excision, 8 cases had non-operative treatment and 6 cases gave up treatment. All patients were followed up from 2 to 141 months. The average survival time of 31 patients with surgery was 32.46 months, and the average survival time of 14 patients without surgery was 4.75 months. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in survival time in stage III and stage IV (p > 0.05). Surgery is considered to be the only method to cure ACC. For ACC in stage I and II, tumor resection is the most effective treatment, and second surgical operation is recommended for local recurrence. For ACC in stage III, extensive surgical operation is recommended, and for ACC in stage IV, surgical operation has no effect on the prognosis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kellermann, Tanja S; Wagner, Janelle L; Smith, Gigi; Karia, Samir; Eskandari, Ramin
First-line treatment for epilepsy is antiepileptic drug and requires an interdisciplinary approach and enduring commitment and adherence from the patient and family for successful outcome. Despite adherence to antiepileptic drugs, refractory epilepsy occurs in approximately 30% of children with epilepsy, and surgical treatment is an important intervention to consider. Surgical management of pediatric epilepsy is highly effective in selected patients with refractory epilepsy; however, an evidence-based protocol, including best methods of presurgical imaging assessments, and neurodevelopmental and/or behavioral health assessments, is not currently available for clinicians. Surgical treatment of epilepsy can be critical to avoid negative outcomes in functional, cognitive, and behavioral health status. Furthermore, it is often the only method to achieve seizure freedom in refractory epilepsy. Although a large literature base can be found for adults with refractory epilepsy undergoing surgical treatment, less is known about how surgical management affects outcomes in children with epilepsy. The purpose of the review was fourfold: (1) to evaluate the available literature regarding presurgical assessment and postsurgical outcomes in children with medically refractory epilepsy, (2) to identify gaps in our knowledge of surgical treatment and its outcomes in children with epilepsy, (3) to pose questions for further research, and (4) to advocate for a more unified presurgical evaluation protocol including earlier referral for surgical candidacy of pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy. Despite its effectiveness, epilepsy surgery remains an underutilized but evidence-based approach that could lead to positive short- and long-term outcomes for children with refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eroglu, Umit; Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Dogan, Ihsan; Yakar, Fatih; Al-Beyati, Eyyub S M; Ozgural, Onur; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Ugur, Hasan Caglar
Intracerebral hemorrhage continues to be a major global problem. No standard treatment or surgical procedure has been identified for intracerebral hemorrhages. High morbidity and mortality rates caused by conventional approaches and the disease itself have necessitated more-invasive treatment methods. The endoscopic approach is a more minimally invasive method than craniotomy, which is another alternative surgical treatment. We compared intracerebral hematoma drainage in 2 groups of 17 patients each, treated with minimally invasive endoscopic method versus craniotomy. All the patients were treated for supratentorial spontaneous hemorrhage between December 2013 and February 2017 at the Neurosurgery Clinic of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine. We retrospectively evaluated 34 patients surgically treated between December 2013 and February 2017. All patients underwent surgery within the first 24 hours. Patients in the early surgery group had better surgical outcomes. In the neuroendoscopic group, Glasgow Coma Scale increased from 6 to 11 at 1 week postoperatively compared with 5 to 9 in the craniotomy group. Minimally invasive endoscopic hematoma evacuation may be a good alternative surgical method for treating supratentorial spontaneous cerebral hematomas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schwab, Joseph H; Healey, John H; Rose, Peter; Casas-Ganem, Jorge; Boland, Patrick J
Retrospective case series. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to improved local control and survival. In addition, we sought to define the expected morbidity associated with treatment. Sacral chordomas are rare tumors presumed to arise from notochordal cells. Local recurrence presents a major problem in the management of these tumors and it has been correlated with survival. Resection of sacral tumors is associated with significant morbidity. Forty-two patients underwent resection for sacral chordoma between 1990 and 2005. Twelve patients had their initial surgery elsewhere. There were 12 female and 30 male patients. The proximal extent of the sacrectomy was at least S2 in 32 patients. Median survival was 84 months, and 5-year disease-free (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSF) were 56% and 77%, respectively. Local recurrence (LR) and metastasis occurred in 17 (40%) and 13 (31%) patients, respectively. Local recurrence (P=0.0001), metastasis (P=0.0001), prior resection (P=0.046), and higher grade (P=0.05) were associated with a worse DSF. Prior resections (P=0.0001) and intralesional resections (P=0.01) were associated with a higher rate of LR. Intralesional resections were associated with a lower DSF (P=0.0001). Wide contaminated margins treated with cryosurgery and/or radiation were not associated with a higher LR rate. Rectus abdominus flaps were associated with decreased wound complications (P=0.01). Thirty-one (74%) patients reported that they self catheterize; and 16 (38%) patients required bowel training, while an additional twelve (29%) patients had a colostomy. Twenty-eight (67%) patients reported sexual dysfunction. Two (5%) patients died due to sepsis. Intralesional resection should be avoided as it is associated with a higher LR rate and worse survival. Rectus abdominus flaps ought to be considered as they lower the wound complication rate. Sacral resection is associated with significant morbidity.
Barr, Jason S; Katz, Karin A; Hazen, Alexes
In the pediatric patient population, both the pathology and the surgical managements of seventh cranial nerve palsy are complicated by the small size of the patients. Adding to the technical difficulty is the relative infrequency of the diagnosis, thus making it harder to become proficient in the management of the condition. The magnitude of the functional and aesthetic deficits these children manifest is significantly troubling to both the patient and the parents, which makes immediate attention, treatment, and functional restoration essential. A literature search using PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) was undertaken to identify the current state of surgical management of pediatric facial paralysis. Although a multitude of techniques have been used, the ideal reconstructive procedure that addresses all of the functional and cosmetic needs of these children has yet to be described. Certainly, future research and innovative thinking will yield progressively better techniques that may, one day, emulate the native facial musculature with remarkable precision. The necessity for surgical intervention in children with facial nerve paralysis differs depending on many factors including the acute/chronic nature of the defect as well as the extent of functional and cosmetic damage. In this article, we review the surgical procedures that have been used to treat pediatric facial nerve paralysis and provide therapeutic facial reanimation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tavares, Alessandro; Padovani, Guilherme Philomeno; Guglielmetti, Giuliano Betoni; Cury, José; Srougi, Miguel
Purpose Early surgical management is the standard of care for penile fracture. Conservative treatment is an option with recent reports revealing lower success rates. We reviewed the data and long-term outcomes of patients with penile injury submitted to surgical or conservative treatment. Materials and Methods Between January 2004 and February 2012, 42 patients with penile blunt trauma on an erect penis were admitted to our center. We analyzed the following variables: age, etiology, symptoms and signs, diagnostic tests, treatment used, complications and erectile function during the follow-up. One patient was excluded due to missing information. Thirty-five patients underwent surgical repair and 6 patients were submitted to conservative management. Results Mean follow-up was 19.2 months (range, 7 days to 72 months). The mean elapsed time from trauma to surgery was 21.3±12.5 hours. Trauma during sexual relationship was the main cause (80.9%) of penile fracture. Urethral injury was present in five patients submitted to surgery. Dorsal vein injury occurred in three patients with false penile fracture and concomitant spongious corpus lesion was present in three patients. During follow-up, 31 cases (88.6%) of the surgical group and four cases (66.7%) of the conservative group reported sufficient erections for intercourse, with no voiding dysfunction and no penile curvature. However, the remaining two patients (33.3%) from the conservative group developed erectile dysfunction and three patients (50%) developed penile deviation. Conclusions Surgical approach provides excellent functional outcomes and lower complications. Early surgical management of penile fracture provides superior results and conservative approach should be avoided. PMID:23878691
Yamaçake, Kleiton Gabriel Ribeiro; Tavares, Alessandro; Padovani, Guilherme Philomeno; Guglielmetti, Giuliano Betoni; Cury, José; Srougi, Miguel
Early surgical management is the standard of care for penile fracture. Conservative treatment is an option with recent reports revealing lower success rates. We reviewed the data and long-term outcomes of patients with penile injury submitted to surgical or conservative treatment. Between January 2004 and February 2012, 42 patients with penile blunt trauma on an erect penis were admitted to our center. We analyzed the following variables: age, etiology, symptoms and signs, diagnostic tests, treatment used, complications and erectile function during the follow-up. One patient was excluded due to missing information. Thirty-five patients underwent surgical repair and 6 patients were submitted to conservative management. Mean follow-up was 19.2 months (range, 7 days to 72 months). The mean elapsed time from trauma to surgery was 21.3±12.5 hours. Trauma during sexual relationship was the main cause (80.9%) of penile fracture. Urethral injury was present in five patients submitted to surgery. Dorsal vein injury occurred in three patients with false penile fracture and concomitant spongious corpus lesion was present in three patients. During follow-up, 31 cases (88.6%) of the surgical group and four cases (66.7%) of the conservative group reported sufficient erections for intercourse, with no voiding dysfunction and no penile curvature. However, the remaining two patients (33.3%) from the conservative group developed erectile dysfunction and three patients (50%) developed penile deviation. Surgical approach provides excellent functional outcomes and lower complications. Early surgical management of penile fracture provides superior results and conservative approach should be avoided.
Dresen, William; Mason, Pamela K
The prevalence of atrial fibrillation is increasing and surgical ablation is becoming more common, both as a stand-alone procedure and when performed concomitantly with other cardiac surgery. Although surgical ablation is effective, with it unique challenges arise, including iatrogenic macroreentrant tachycardias that are often highly symptomatic and difficult to manage conservatively. Postsurgical ablation, localization of the arrhythmic circuit is difficult to determine using surface ECG alone because of alterations in the atrial myocardium, and multiple different pathways are often present. Most, however, localize to the left atrium, and percutaneous catheter ablation is emerging as an effective treatment modality. Patients with complex postoperative arrhythmias should be referred to a dedicated atrial fibrillation center when possible and symptomatic arrhythmias mapped and ablated. Knowledge of the previously performed surgical lesion set is of vital importance in understanding the mechanism of the arrhythmia and increasing procedural success rates. http://links.lww.com/HCO/A31.
Templeman, C; Hertweck, S P
The management of vaginal agenesis-Mayer-Rokitanksy-Kuster-Hauser syndrome-has always been a controversial topic. Initially, the arguments centered on whether to do surgery or try passive dilation as well as at what age to intervene. As surgical techniques have recently become refined, the question is, if surgery is selected, what type of tissue should one use (bowel vs. skin graft) and, if skin graft, from what area to select. Now we are faced with new surgical techniques from the realm of pelviscopy and ask the question: Is one of these better than the other, and is this approach superior to previously established surgical techniques? Drs. Claire Templeman and S. Paige Hertweck from the University of Louisville School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology here present a concise discussion of these diverse issues.
Finco, Andrea; Centini, Gabriele; Lazzeri, Lucia; Zupi, Errico
Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common gynecological disease and represents one of the most frequent reasons for hospital admission to a specialist unit, often requiring further surgical treatment. Following the so-called PALM-COEIN system we will attempt to further clarify the surgical treatments available today. The first group (PALM) is characterized by structural lesions, which may be more appropriately treated by means of surgical management. Although hysterectomy remains the definitive and decisive choice, there are many alternative techniques available. These minimally invasive procedures offer the opportunity for a more conservative approach. Precise and accurate counseling facilitates better patient selection, based on the patient's desires, age and disease type, allowing treatment to be individually tailored to each woman.
Akagi, Ichiro; Furukawa, Kiyonori; Miyashita, Masao; Kiyama, Teruo; Matsuda, Akihisa; Nomura, Tsutomu; Makino, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Takahashi, Ken; Uchida, Eiji
Evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) have been published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to these guidelines, a wound should usually be covered with a sterile dressing for 24 to 48 h when a surgical incision is closed primarily. However, it is not recommended that an incision be covered by a dressing beyond 48 h. In this study, patients were stratified into two groups for analysis: patients whose surgical wound was sterilized and whose gauze was changed once daily until postoperative day 7 (7POD; group A); and patients whose surgical wound was sterilized and whose gauze was changed once daily until 2POD (group B). We evaluated the incidence of SSI, nursing hours and cost implications. The results showed that there was no significant difference in SSI occurrence between the two groups (group A, 10% vs. group B, 7.3%). By contrast, the average nursing time differed by 2.8 min (group A, 3.8 min vs. group B, 0.9 min). The material costs per patient were also reduced by $14.70 (group A, $61.80 vs. group B, $47.10). In conclusion, we applied our knowledge of the evidence-based CDC guidelines to determine whether 48-h wound management can be made easier, more uniform and more cost-effective compared to conventional wound management. The results of the present study showed that surgical wound management methods can be more convenient and inexpensive.
Hill, Brian W; Jacobson, Aaron R; Anavian, Jack; Cole, Peter A
The coracoid process plays a pivotal role in the foundation of the coracoacromial arch and in cases of displaced fractures; surgical management may be warranted to avoid functional compromise or impingement. A direct approach through Langer's lines allows for easy exposure and direct visualization for an anatomic reduction of simple fractures through the shaft or base of the coracoid. An anterior approach for fractures that extend into the superior glenoid fossa allows for direct exposure to obtain an anatomic articular reduction and indirect reduction of the coracoid fracture. In cases where a complex glenoid or scapula neck/body fracture is being addressed simultaneously either a posterior Judet approach can be used with an indirect reduction method or a separate anterior approach must be combined to address it if not in continuity with the superior scapular segment. Implant selection, primarily interfragmentary screws or a buttress plate, should be based on the size of the fragment, the degree of comminution, and the degree of articular involvement to ensure adequate stabilization. The purpose of this manuscript was to describe a stepwise approach to the surgical management of displaced coracoid fractures, describe surgical tips and techniques, and to present the clinical outcomes in 22 patients after surgical treatment with this approach.
Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Kellner, Maximiliane; Tait, Iain Stephen
Objectives This study evaluates the role of interventional radiology (IR) in the management of postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Methods A total of 120 consecutive patients were reviewed to identify IR procedures performed for early complications after PD. Results Findings showed that 24 patients (20.0%) required urgent radiological or surgical re-intervention for early complications, including 11 instances of post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH), six intra-abdominal abscesses, two bile leaks, one pancreatic fistula and one bowel ischaemia. Three of 24 complications were managed by surgery and 21 were managed by IR. Two of 11 PPHs involved intraluminal haemorrhage (ILH) and nine involved intra-abdominal haemorrhage (IAH). One ILH was managed conservatively and one required surgical intervention. In eight of nine patients with IAH, the bleeding site was identified on computed tomography angiography, and endovascular stenting or coil embolization were performed. No patient required a re-look laparotomy following IR for haemorrhage or intra-abdominal abscess. Overall, three of 120 patients required an urgent re-look laparotomy for early complications. Conclusions Rates of major morbidity after PD remain high. However, many significant complications (PPH, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess) can be managed by IR, reducing the need for reoperation. Re-look surgery is still required in a small percentage (2.5%) of patients. PMID:23134182
Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Kellner, Maximiliane; Tait, Iain Stephen
This study evaluates the role of interventional radiology (IR) in the management of postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). A total of 120 consecutive patients were reviewed to identify IR procedures performed for early complications after PD. Findings showed that 24 patients (20.0%) required urgent radiological or surgical re-intervention for early complications, including 11 instances of post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH), six intra-abdominal abscesses, two bile leaks, one pancreatic fistula and one bowel ischaemia. Three of 24 complications were managed by surgery and 21 were managed by IR. Two of 11 PPHs involved intraluminal haemorrhage (ILH) and nine involved intra-abdominal haemorrhage (IAH). One ILH was managed conservatively and one required surgical intervention. In eight of nine patients with IAH, the bleeding site was identified on computed tomography angiography, and endovascular stenting or coil embolization were performed. No patient required a re-look laparotomy following IR for haemorrhage or intra-abdominal abscess. Overall, three of 120 patients required an urgent re-look laparotomy for early complications. Rates of major morbidity after PD remain high. However, many significant complications (PPH, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess) can be managed by IR, reducing the need for reoperation. Re-look surgery is still required in a small percentage (2.5%) of patients. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.
Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Daggett, Matt; Gardon, Roland; Pupim, Barbara; Clechet, Julien; Thaunat, Mathieu
Background: Hamstring injury is the most common muscular lesion in athletes. The conservative treatment is well described, and surgical management is often indicated for proximal tendinous avulsions. To our knowledge, no surgical treatment has been proposed for failure of conservative treatment in musculotendinous hamstring lesions. Purpose: To describe the surgical management of proximal and distal hamstring musculotendinous junction lesions in professional athletes after failure of conservative treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A consecutive series of 10 professional athletes, including 4 soccer players, 4 rugby players, and 2 handball players, underwent surgical intervention between October 2010 and June 2014 for the treatment of recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injuries. All athletes had failed at least 3 months of conservative treatment for a recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injury. Surgical resection of the musculotendinous scar tissue was performed using a longitudinal muscular suture. Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Marx scores were obtained at the 3-month follow-up, and a final phone interview was completed to determine recurrence of hamstring injury and return to previous level of play. Results: The mean age at surgery was 25.2 years (range, 19-35 years). The musculotendinous hamstring lesions involved 8 semitendinosus and 2 biceps femoris, with 6 injuries located proximally and 4 distally. Conservative treatment lasted a mean 5.1 months (range, 3-9 months) after last recurrence, and the patients had an average of 2.7 (range, 2-5) separate incidents of injury recurrence before surgical intervention was decided upon. At the 3-month follow-up, all patients had Marx activity scores of 16 and LEFS scores of 80. All 10 patients returned to the same level of play at a mean 3.4 months (range, 2-5 months). At a mean follow-up of 28.7 months, none of the athletes had suffered a recurrence. No surgical
Gollapalli, Rajesh Babu; Naiman, Ana Nusa; Merry, David
Cervical necrotizing fasciitis secondary to epiglottitis is rare. The standard treatment of this severe condition has long been early and aggressive surgical debridement and adequate antimicrobial therapy. We report the case of an immunocompetent 59-year-old man who developed cervical necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of acute epiglottitis. We were able to successfully manage this patient with conservative surgical treatment (incision and drainage, in addition to antibiotic therapy) that did not involve aggressive debridement.
Coupland, R. M.
The nature of modern conflicts precludes adequate medical care for most people wounded in wars. The traditional military approach of echeloned care for those wounded on the battlefield has limited relevance. I present an alternative, epidemiological approach whereby some effective care may reach many more. For a surgical facility to have a positive impact by using surgical and anaesthetic competence there must be access to the wounded; security for staff and patients; and a functioning hospital infrastructure. These all depend on respect for the first Geneva convention. Early hospital admission for urgent surgery is not so important if there is adequate first aid beforehand. The hospitals of the International Committee of the Red Cross have provided surgical care for thousands of wounded people by fulfilling these conditions. People wounded in modern conflicts would fare better if these priorities were recognised and less emphasis was placed on the more spectacular aspects of surgical care that benefit only a few. Images p1695-a FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 1 PMID:8025468
Sindermann, J R; Klotz, S; Rahbar, K; Hoffmeier, A; Drees, G
The German Disease Management Guideline "Chronic Heart Failure" intends to guide physicians working in the field of diagnosis and treatment of heart failure. The guideline provides a tool on the background of evidence based medicine. The following short review wants to give insights into the role of some surgical treatment options to improve heart failure, such as revascularization, ventricular reconstruction and aneurysmectomy, mitral valve reconstruction, ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
Malik, Ajaz A; Bari, Shams UL; Amin, Ruquia; Jan, Masooda
AIM: To review the clinical presentation and surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver and to assess whether conservative surgery is adequate in the management of complicated hydatid cysts of liver. METHODS: The study was carried out at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Science, Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Sixty nine patients with hydatid disease of the liver were surgically managed from April 2004 to October 2005 with a follow up period of three years. It included 27 men and 42 women with a median age of 35 years. An abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and serology established diagnosis. Patients with jaundice and high suspicion of intrabiliary rupture were subjected to preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cysts with infection, rupture into the biliary tract and peritoneal cavity were categorized as complicated cysts. Eighteen patients (26%) had complicated cysts and formed the basis for this study. RESULTS: Common complications were infection (14%), intrabiliary rupture (9%) and intraperitoneal rupture (3%). All the patients with infected cysts presented with pain and fever. All the patients with intrabiliary rupture had jaundice, while only four with intrabiliary rupture had pain and only two had fever. Surgical procedures performed in complicated cysts were: infection-omentoplasty in three and external drainage in seven; intrabiliary rupture-omentoplasty in two and internal drainage in four patients. Two patients with intraperitoneal rupture underwent external drainage. There was no mortality. The postoperative morbidity was 50% in complicated cysts and 16% in uncomplicated cysts. CONCLUSION: Complicated hydatid cyst of the liver can be successfully managed surgically with good long term results. PMID:21160854
Cobb, Alistair R M; Boyapati, Raghu; Walker, Donald Murray; Dunaway, David J; Lloyd, Timothy W
Amyloidosis is a disease characterised by the deposition in body tissues of amyloid: abnormal protein in a beta pleated sheet formation. It is a systemic disorder and macroglossia may be seen in all forms. Changes to the normal architecture of the tissues and systemic features of the disease and its underlying cause can complicate the surgical management of the enlarged tongue. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Velat, Gregory J; Zabramski, Joseph M; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F
Giant posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (> 25 mm) are rare lesions associated with a poor prognosis and high rates of morbidity and mortality. To review the clinical results of giant PCoA aneurysms surgically treated at our institution, focusing on operative nuances. All cases of giant PCoA aneurysms treated surgically at our institution were identified from a prospectively maintained patient database. Patient demographic factors, medical comorbidities, rupture status, neurological presentation, clinical outcomes, and surgical records were critically reviewed. From 1989 to 2010, 11 patients (10 women) underwent surgical clipping of giant PCoA aneurysms. Presenting signs and symptoms included cranial nerve palsies, diminished mental status, headache, visual changes, and seizures. Five aneurysms were ruptured on admission. All aneurysms were clipped primarily except 1, which was treated by parent artery sacrifice and extracranial-to-intracranial bypass after intraoperative aneurysm rupture. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates were 36% (4 of 11) and 18.3% (2 of 11), respectively. Excellent or good clinical outcomes, defined as modified Rankin Scale scores ≤ 2, were achieved in 86% (5 of 6) of patients available for long-term clinical follow-up (mean, 12.5 ± 13.6 months). Giant PCoA aneurysms are rare vascular lesions that may present with a variety of neurological signs and symptoms. These lesions can be successfully managed surgically with satisfactory morbidity and mortality rates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest surgical series of giant PCoA aneurysms published to date.
Ott, R; Schön, M R; Seidel, S; Schuster, E; Josten, C; Hauss, J
Hepatic trauma is a rare surgical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. Extensive experience in liver surgery is a prerequisite for the management of these injuries. The medical records of 68 consecutive patients with hepatic trauma were retrospectively reviewed for the severity of liver injury, management, morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Of the patients, 14 were treated conservatively and 52 surgically (24 suture/fibrin glue, 16 perihepatic packing, 11 resections, 1 liver transplantation). Two patients died just before emergency surgery could be performed. Overall mortality was 21% (14/68), and 13, 14, 6, 27, and 50% for types I, II, III, IV, and V injuries, respectively. Only nine deaths (all type IV and V) were liver related, while four were caused by extrahepatic injuries and one by concomitant liver cirrhosis. With respect to treatment, conservative management, suture, and resection had a low mortality of 0, 4, and 9%, respectively. In contrast, mortality was 47% in patients in whom only packing was performed (in severe injuries). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis proved prothrombin values <40%, ISS scores >30, and transfusion requirements of more than 10 red packed cells to be significant risk factors for post-traumatic death. Type I-III hepatic injuries can safely be treated by conservative or simple surgical means. However, complex hepatic injuries (types IV and V) carry a significant mortality and may require hepatic surgery, including liver resection or even transplantation. Therefore, patients with severe hepatic injuries should be treated in a specialized institution.
Papadopoulos, V N; Michalopoulos, A; Apostolidis, S; Paramythiotis, D; Ioannidis, A; Mekras, A; Panidis, S; Stavrou, G; Basdanis, G
Several factors have been considered important for the decision between diversion and primary repair in the surgical management of colorectal injuries. The aim of this study is to clarify whether patients with colorectal injuries need diversion or not. From 2008 to 2010, ten patients with colorectal injuries were surgically treated by primary repair or by a staged repair. The patients were five men and five women, with median age 40 years (20-55). Two men and two women had rectal injuries, while 6 patients had colon injuries. The mechanism of trauma in two patients was firearm injuries, in two patients was a stab injury, in four patients was a motor vehicle accident, in one woman was iatrogenic injury during vaginal delivery, and one case was the transanal foreign body insertion. Primary repair was possible in six patients, while diversion was necessary in four patients. Primary repair should be attempted in the initial surgical management of all penetrating colon and intraperitoneal rectal injuries. Diversion of colonic injuries should only be considered if the colon tissue itself is inappropriate for repair due to severe edema or ischemia. The role of diversion in the management of unrepaired extraperitoneal rectal injuries and in cases with anal sphincter injuries is mandatory.
Bergsneider, Marvin; Black, Peter McL; Klinge, Petra; Marmarou, Anthony; Relkin, Norman
To develop evidence-based guidelines for surgical management of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). Compared with the diagnostic phase, the surgical management of INPH has received less scientific attention. The quality of much of the literature concerning the surgical management has been limited by many factors. These include retrospective analysis, small patient numbers, analysis of a mixed NPH population, and sometimes a lack of detail as to what type of shunt system was used. Many earlier studies predated our current understanding of the hydrodynamics of cerebrospinal fluid shunts, and therefore, the conclusions drawn may no longer be valid. A MEDLINE and PubMed search from 1966 to the present was conducted using the following key terms: normal-pressure hydrocephalus and idiopathic adult-onset hydrocephalus. Only English-language literature in peer-reviewed journals was reviewed. The search was further limited to articles that described the method of treatment and outcome selectively for INPH patients. Finally, only studies that included 20 or more INPH patients were considered with respect to formulating the recommendations in these Guidelines (27 articles). For practical reasons, it is important to identify probable shunt responders diagnosed with INPH. If the patient is an acceptable candidate for anesthesia, then an INPH-specific risk-benefit analysis should be determined. In general, patients exhibiting negligible symptoms may not be suitable candidates for surgical management, given the known risks and complications associated with shunting INPH. The choice of valve type and setting should be based on empirical reasoning and a basic understanding of shunt hydrodynamics. The most conservative choice is a valve incorporating an antisiphon device, with the understanding that underdrainage (despite a low opening pressure) may occur in a small percentage of patients because of the antisiphon device. On the basis of retrospective studies, the use
Bliss, Lindsay A; Yang, Catherine J; Eskander, Mariam F; de Geus, Susanna W L; Callery, Mark P; Kent, Tara S; Moser, A James; Freedman, Steven D; Tseng, Jennifer F
Surgical intervention is uncommon in chronic pancreatitis. Literature largely describes single institution or international experiences. This study describes US-based chronic pancreatitis surgical management. Retrospective analysis of chronic pancreatitis patients in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Florida State Inpatient Database 2007-2011. Patients with malignancy or congenital abnormalities were excluded. Univariate analysis using the chi-square test. The number of readmissions, inpatient length of stay and cost using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. Multivariate analysis of surgery by logistic regression. Twenty-one thousand four hundred and forty-five patients with chronic pancreatitis. 10.8% (2 307) underwent surgery including 1652 cholecystectomies, 564 drainage procedures and 498 pancreatectomies. Procedures decreased from 12.1% to 8.3% over time (P < 0.001), but intervention within 3 months increased (7.2% to 8.4%; P = 0.017). 15.3% (3 278) had pancreatic cysts/pseudocysts and 43.4% (9 312) had diabetes. The median numbers of admissions were 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 1,5] and 3 (IQR 2,7) among non-surgical and surgical patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Predictors of surgery were fewer co-morbidities, private insurance, and either diabetes mellitus or pancreatic cyst/pseudocyst. Chronic pancreatitis leads to numerous inpatient readmissions, but surgical intervention only occurs in a minority of cases. Complicated patients are more likely to undergo surgery. The complexities of chronic pancreatitis management warrant early multidisciplinary evaluation and ongoing consideration of surgical and non-surgical options. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.
Takahashi, Yukiko; Shoji, Fumi; Katori, Yukio; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Naoya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kakuta, Risako Kakuta; Suzuki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yusuke; Ohta, Nobuo; Kakehata, Seiji; Okamoto, Yoshitaka
Sinonasal inverted papilloma has been traditionally managed with external surgical approaches. Advances in imaging guidance systems, surgical instrumentation, and intraoperative multi-visualization have led to a gradual shift from external approaches to endoscopic surgery. However, for anatomical and technical reasons, endoscopic surgery of sinonasal inverted papilloma extending to the frontal sinuses is still challenging. Here, we present our experience in endoscopic surgical management of sinonasal inverted papilloma extending to one or both frontal sinuses. We present 10 cases of sinonasal inverted papilloma extending to the frontal sinuses and successfully removed by endoscopic median drainage (Draf III procedure) under endoscopic guidance without any additional external approach. The whole cavity of the frontal sinuses was easily inspected at the end of the surgical procedure. No early or late complications were observed. No recurrence was identified after an average follow-up period of 39.5 months. Use of an endoscopic median drainage approach to manage sinonasal inverted papilloma extending to one or both frontal sinuses is feasible and seems effective.
Soccorso, Giampiero; Anbarasan, Ravindar; Singh, Michael; Lindley, Richard M; Marven, Sean S; Parikh, Dakshesh H
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is managed in accordance with the adult British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines due to lack of paediatric evidence and consensus. We aim to highlight the differences and provide a best practice surgical management strategy for PSP based on experience of two major paediatric surgical centres. Retrospective review of PSP management and outcomes from two UK Tertiary Paediatric hospitals between 2004 and 2015. Fifty children with 55 PSP (5 bilateral) were referred to our Thoracic Surgical Services after initial management: 53% of the needle aspirations failed. Nine children (20%) were associated with visible bullae on the initial chest X-ray. Forty-nine children were assessed with computed tomography scan (CT). Apical emphysematous-like changes (ELC) were identified in 37 children (75%). Ten children had also bullae in the asymptomatic contralateral lungs (20%). In two children (4%), CT demonstrated other lung lesions: a tumour of the left main bronchus in one child; a multi-cystic lesion of the right middle lobe in keeping with a congenital lung malformation in another child. Contralateral asymptomatic ELC were detected in 20% of the children: of those 40% developed pneumothorax within 6 months. Best surgical management was thoracoscopic staple bullectomy and pleurectomy with 11% risk of recurrence. Histology confirmed ELC in 100% of the apical lung wedge resections even in those apexes apparently normal at the time of thoracoscopy. Our experience suggests that adult BTS guidelines are not applicable to children with large PSP. Needle aspiration is ineffective. We advocate early referral to a Paediatric Thoracic Service. We suggest early chest CT scan to identify ELC, for counselling regarding contralateral asymptomatic ELC and to rule out secondary pathological conditions causing pneumothorax. In rare instance if bulla is visible on presenting chest X-ray, thoracoscopy could be offered as primary option.
Crawford, Jennifer M; Warne, Garry; Grover, Sonia; Southwell, Bridget R; Hutson, John M
Controversy persists surrounding early management of disorders of sex development. We assessed genital appearance, gender identity, and quality of life in prepubertal children who have had early surgical intervention. Children treated for disorders of sex development who were 5 to 10 years of age were eligible (n = 54). Children were scored (modified Creighton scale) for anatomical and cosmetic outcome, and both patients and parents completed PedsQL quality-of-life and gender identity questionnaires, with ethics approval. Of 54 patients, 41 presented for review. Treatment began at 13.2 (1.8-250.1) months (median; range) and were reviewed at 7.5 +/- 2.1 (mean +/- SD) years of age. Nineteen were raised as girls and 22 as boys. Girls had good (85%) or satisfactory (15%) anatomical/cosmetic outcome, whereas 52% boys had good, 38% satisfactory, and 10% poor cosmetic outcomes. On gender identity questionnaire, boys scored 3.9 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) and girls 3.6 +/- 0.5; 1 of 19 boys and 3 of 19 girls had lower scores, suggesting risk of gender identity disorder. Quality-of-life scores were 80+ for physical and 65 to 80 for psychosocial scores. Early intervention is generally associated with positive outcomes for patients and parents. Girls had better anatomical outcomes than boys, and gender dysphoria risks were low in both sexes.
McGuirk, S P; Griselli, M; Stumper, O F; Rumball, E M; Miller, P; Dhillon, R; de Giovanni, J V; Wright, J G; Barron, D J; Brawn, W J
Objective To describe a 12 year experience with staged surgical management of the hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and to identify the factors that influenced outcome. Methods Between December 1992 and June 2004, 333 patients with HLHS underwent a Norwood procedure (median age 4 days, range 0–217 days). Subsequently 203 patients underwent a bidirectional Glenn procedure (stage II) and 81 patients underwent a modified Fontan procedure (stage III). Follow up was complete (median interval 3.7 years, range 32 days to 11.3 years). Results Early mortality after the Norwood procedure was 29% (n = 95); this decreased from 46% (first year) to 16% (last year; p < 0.05). Between stages, 49 patients died, 27 before stage II and 22 between stages II and III. There were one early and three late deaths after stage III. Actuarial survival (SEM) was 58% (3%) at one year and 50% (3%) at five and 10 years. On multivariable analysis, five factors influenced early mortality after the Norwood procedure (p < 0.05). Pulmonary blood flow supplied by a right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV‐PA) conduit, arch reconstruction with pulmonary homograft patch, and increased operative weight improved early mortality. Increased periods of cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest increased early mortality. Similar factors also influenced actuarial survival after the Norwood procedure. Conclusion This study identified an improvement in outcome after staged surgical management of HLHS, which was primarily attributable to changes in surgical technique. The RV‐PA conduit, in particular, was associated with a notable and independent improvement in early and actuarial survival. PMID:15939721
de Jong, M B; Kokke, M C; Hietbrink, F; Leenen, L P H
Rib fractures can cause significant problems in trauma patients, often resulting in pain and difficulty with respiration. To prevent pulmonary complications and decrease the morbidity and mortality rates of patients with rib fractures, currently there is a trend to provide surgical management of patients with flail chest. However, the indications for rib fracture fixation require further specification. Past and current strategies are described according to a review of the medical literature. A systematic review was performed including current indications for rib fracture fixation. MEDLINE (2000-2013) was searched, as well as Embase (2000-2013) and Cochrane Databases, using the keywords rib, fracture, fixation, plate, repair, and surgery. Three retrospective studies were found that described different techniques for rib fracture fixation. The results demonstrated a reduced number of ventilation days, decreased long-term morbidity and pain, and satisfactory rehabilitation after surgical treatment. In addition to flail chest, age, Injury Severity Score, and the number of rib fractures were important predictive factors for morbidity and mortality. Surgical rib fracture fixation might be indicated in a broader range of cases than is currently performed. Prospective randomized trials are needed for further confirmation. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.
Rethnam, Ulfin; Yesupalan, Rajam S; Nair, Rajagopalan
Background Floating Knee injuries are complex injuries. The type of fractures, soft tissue and associated injuries make this a challenging problem to manage. We present the outcome of these injuries after surgical management. Methods 29 patients with floating knee injuries were managed over a 3 year period. This was a prospective study were both fractures of the floating knee injury were surgically fixed using different modalities. The associated injuries were managed appropriately. Assessment of the end result was done by the Karlstrom criteria after bony union. Results The mechanism of injury was road traffic accident in 27/29 patients. There were 38 associated injuries. 20/29 patients had intramedullary nailing for both fractures. The complications were knee stiffness, foot drop, delayed union of tibia and superficial infection. The bony union time ranged from 15 – 22.5 weeks for femur fractures and 17 – 28 weeks for the tibia. According to the Karlstrom criteria the end results were Excellent – 15, Good – 11, Acceptable – 1 and Poor – 3. Conclusion The associated injuries and the type of fracture (open, intra-articular, comminution) are prognostic indicators in the Floating knee. Appropriate management of the associated injuries, intramedullary nailing of both the fractures and post operative rehabilitation are necessary for good final outcome. PMID:18271992
Taware, C P; Kulkarni, S R
The Present article describes in short etiology of cleft lip and cleft palate. With this in-born defect, patient develops crucial problems with feeding, phonation, overall growth and development of affected and allied soft and hard tissue structures. This in turn results in deformity and asymmetry which is going to affect functional requirements as well as aesthetic outlook. Hence it really becomes mandatory to correct this defect surgically as early as possible, at stipulated timings so as to avoid present and future anticipated problems.
Rollins, Michael D; Meyers, Rebecka L
The authors adopted the Frey procedure for the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis after one of their patients had recurrent disease in the head of the gland after a longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ or modified Puestow procedure). This is the first description of its use in children. A retrospective chart review was performed of all children undergoing a drainage or resection procedure for chronic pancreatitis from 1995 to 2002. Eleven children (6 boys, 5 girls, ages 8 to 18 years) underwent either the LPJ (3) or Frey (8) procedure. Etiologies included: idiopathic (5), familial (2), congenital anomaly of the major papilla (1), pancreatic head mass (1), short bowel syndrome (1), and pancreatic divisum (1). Before surgical therapy, patients had been symptomatic 2.3 years (range, 1 month to 6 years) and had been hospitalized for pancreatitis 4 times (range, 1 to 10). Four patients did not respond to endoscopic stenting, and 5 had a pancreatic pseudocyst. Patients were followed up in clinic an average of 2.5 years, with total time elapsed since surgery averaging 4.6 years. Eight of 11 patients experienced excellent or good results subsequent to surgical intervention. The Frey procedure is effective for children who have not responded to conservative management of chronic pancreatitis and may prevent recurrent disease in the head of the gland.
O'Mara, Susan K
Postoperative fever after cardiac surgery is a common occurrence. Most fevers are benign and self-limiting resulting from inflammation caused by surgical trauma and blood contact with cardiopulmonary bypass circuit resulting in the release of cytokines. Only a small percentage of time is postoperative fever due to an infection complicating surgery. The presence of fever frequently triggers a battery of diagnostic tests that are costly, could expose the patient to unnecessary risks, and can produce misleading or inconclusive results. It is therefore important that fever be evaluated in a systematic, prudent, clinically appropriate, and cost-effective manner. This article focuses on the current evidence regarding pathophysiology, incidence, causes, evaluation, and management of fever in postoperative adult cardiac surgical patients.
Yang, Tianyou; Huang, Yongbo; Xu, Tao; Tan, Tianbao; Yang, Jiliang; Pan, Jing; Hu, Chao; Li, Jiahao; Zou, Yan
Clinical researches about the management and outcomes of ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed are limited. We report the surgical outcomes of ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed in a single institution. Ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed diagnosed and resected between May 2009 and May 2015 in a tertiary children's hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' demographic data, INSS stage, surgical complications, residual tumor size and outcomes were collected. Thirty-four patients were included in the current study. All had localized tumors and were surgically managed. The overall acute complications rates were 8.8% (3/34) and none were fatal. Thirty-three of 34 patients had at least macroscopic tumor resection. Six patients had radiographically detected residual tumor after surgery, 25 none and 3 undocumented. Thirty-three (97.1%) patients were alive during a median follow-up of 36 months (range 1-82). In subgroup analysis, no significant difference regarding surgical complications and survival was found between ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed. Increased complete resection rates were observed in thoracic tumor compared with abdominal ones (p = 0.03). However, no significant difference (p = 0.089) regarding overall survival was found between patients with residual tumors and those without. Of the six patients with residual tumors, three showed complete resolution, two were unchanged and one died 3 years after initial surgery (the only death in this study). Ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed can be safely and effectively resected, the residual tumor seems not to influence overall survival.
Adegbola, Samuel O.; Pisani, Anthea; Sahnan, Kapil; Tozer, Phil; Ellul, Pierre; Warusavitarne, Janindra
Crohn’s disease is increasingly thought to encompass multiple possible phenotypes. Perianal manifestations account for one such phenotype and represent an independent disease modifier. In its more severe form, perianal Crohn’s disease confers a higher risk of a severe and disabling disease course, relapses, hospital admissions and operations. This, in turn, imposes a considerable burden and disability on patients. Identification of the precise manifestation is important, as management is nuanced, with both medical and surgical components, and is best undertaken in a multidisciplinary setting for both diagnosis and ongoing treatment. The introduction of biologic medication has heralded a significant addition to the management of fistulizing perianal Crohn’s disease in particular, albeit with modest results. It remains a very challenging condition to treat and further work is required to optimize management in this group of patients. PMID:29507460
Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Bradley, J Andrew; Harper, Simon; Butler, Andrew; Jah, Asif; Huguet, Emmanuel; Praseedom, Raaj K; Allison, Michael; Gibbs, Paul
Acute umbilical hernia rupture in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and ascites is an unusual, but potentially life-threatening complication, with postoperative morbidity about 70% and mortality between 60%-80% after supportive care and 6%-20% after urgent surgical repair. Management options include primary surgical repair with or without concomitant portal venous system decompression for the control of the ascites. We present a retrospective analysis of our centre’s experience over the last 6 years. Our cohort consisted of 11 consecutive patients (median age: 53 years, range: 36-63 years) with advanced hepatic cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Appropriate patient resuscitation and optimisation with intravenous fluids, prophylactic antibiotics and local measures was instituted. One failed attempt for conservative management was followed by a successful primary repair. In all cases, with one exception, a primary repair with non-absorbable Nylon, interrupted sutures, without mesh, was performed. The perioperative complication rate was 25% and the recurrence rate 8.3%. No mortality was recorded. Median length of hospital stay was 14 d (range: 4-31 d). Based on our experience, the management of ruptured umbilical hernias in patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis and refractory ascites is feasible without the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt routinely in the preoperative period, provided that meticulous patient optimisation is performed. PMID:25780312
Solares, C Arturo; Mason, Eric; Panizza, Benedict J
The surgical management of perineural spread of head and neck cancers has become an integral part in the contemporary treatment of this pathology. We now understand that tumour spreads within the epineurium and in a continuous fashion. We also can rely on the accuracy of magnetic resonance neurography in detecting and defining the extent of disease. With modern skull base techniques and a greater understanding of the anatomy in this region, specific operations can be designed to help eradicate disease. We review the current approaches and techniques used that enable us to better obtain tumour free margins and hence improve survival.
Alghamdi, Hamdan; Babay, Nadir; Sukumaran, Anil
Gingival recession is defined as the apical migration of the junctional epithelium with exposure of root surfaces. It is a common condition seen in both dentally aware populations and those with limited access to dental care. The etiology of the condition is multifactorial but is commonly associated with underlying alveolar morphology, tooth brushing, mechanical trauma and periodontal disease. Given the high rate of gingival recession defects among the general population, it is imperative that dental practitioners have an understanding of the etiology, complications and the management of the condition. The following review describes the surgical techniques to treat gingival recession. PMID:23960465
Burnett, Arthur L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J
Advances have recently been made in both medical and surgical management of priapism, and these offer improvements in the level of care afforded such patients. Further developments can be expected based on ongoing progress, particularly in the area of molecular science, which is the primary source for driving novel therapeutic approaches. Continued action to address the health care administrative concerns of those most commonly affected by priapism, specifically individuals with sickle cell disease, is also appropriate. All successes in these arenas ensure that afflicted individuals avoid the health burdens of priapism and preserve sexual function. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, David; Dip, Fernando; Hendricks, LéShon; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Raul
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is gaining acceptance as the preferred option for treating obesity. Risks of leak and subsequent fistula after sleeve gastrectomy still present significant concerns in clinical practice. This current series presents unusual fistulas post-LSG and their surgical management. The series presents chronic leaks that have progressed into fistulas. Three patients with fistulas are presented: gastrocolic, gastropleural, and gastrosplenic. Surgical intervention was warranted in all cases with en-bloc resection of the fistula with subtotal gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy reconstruction. A subtotal colectomy with ileo-descending colon anastomosis was additionally necessary in the gastrocolic patient. The patients with the gastropleural and gastrosplenic fistulas were discharged home on postoperative Day 6 and Day 7, respectively. The patient with the gastrocolic fistula had an extended postoperative hospital course and was discharged home on postoperative Day 35. All cases were negative for staple line leaks. To date, the fistulas healed with no recurrence. En-bloc resection of the fistula with proximal gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy (PGRYEJ) is a surgical option to treat chronic staple line leakage when non-operative therapy is rendered ineffective. Adequate preoperative planning with optimization of nutritional status and control of local and systemic sepsis is paramount for ultimate success. A symptomatic leak requires immediate operation regardless of the time interval between the primary sleeve operation and appearance of the leak.
Meneghelli, P; Cozzi, F; Hasanbelliu, A; Locatelli, F; Pasqualin, Alberto
From 1991 until 2013, 304 patients with intracranial hematomas from aneurysmal rupture were managed surgically in our department, constituting 17 % of all patients with aneurysmal rupture. Of them, 242 patents presented with isolated intracerebral hematomas (in 69 cases associated with significant intraventricular hemorrhage), 50 patients presented with combined intracerebral and subdural hematomas (in 11 cases associated with significant intraventricular hemorrhage), and 12 presented with an isolated subdural hematoma. The surgical procedure consisted of simultaneous clipping of the aneurysm and evacuation of the hematoma in all cases. After surgery, 16 patients (5 %) submitted to an additional decompressive hemicraniectomy, and 66 patients (21 %) submitted to a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Clinical outcomes were assessed at discharge and at 6 months, using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS); a favorable outcome (mRS 0-2) was observed in 10 % of the cases at discharge, increasing to 31 % at 6 months; 6-month mortality was 40 %. Applying uni- and multivariate analysis, the following risk factors were associated with a significantly worse outcome: age >60; preoperative Hunt-Hess grades IV-V; pupillary mydriasis (only on univariate); midline shift >10 mm; hematoma volume >30 cc; and the presence of hemocephalus (i.e., packed intraventricular hemorrhage). Based on these results, an aggressive surgical treatment should be adopted for most cases with aneurysmal hematomas, excluding patients with bilateral mydriasis persisting after rescue therapy.
Furlan, Julio C; Craven, B Catharine; Massicotte, Eric M; Fehlings, Michael G
This cost-utility analysis was undertaken to compare early (≤24 hours since trauma) versus delayed surgical decompression of spinal cord to determine which approach is more cost effective in the management of patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). This study includes the patients enrolled into the Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS) and admitted at Toronto Western Hospital. Cases were grouped into patients with motor complete SCI and individuals with motor incomplete SCI. A cost-utility analysis was performed for each group of patients by the use of data for the first 6 months after SCI. The perspective of a public health care insurer was adopted. Costs were estimated in 2014 U.S. dollars. Utilities were estimated from the STASCIS. The baseline analysis indicates early spinal decompression is more cost-effective approach compared with the delayed spinal decompression. When we considered the delayed spinal decompression as the baseline strategy, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio analysis revealed a saving of US$ 58,368,024.12 per quality-adjusted life years gained for patients with complete SCI and a saving of US$ 536,217.33 per quality-adjusted life years gained in patients with incomplete SCI for the early spinal decompression. The probabilistic analysis confirmed the early-decompression strategy as more cost effective than the delayed-decompression approach, even though there is no clearly dominant strategy. The results of this economic analysis suggests that early decompression of spinal cord was more cost effective than delayed surgical decompression in the management of patients with motor complete and incomplete SCI, even though no strategy was clearly dominant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fankhauser, Grant T; Stone, William M; Fowl, Richard J; O'Donnell, Mark E; Bower, Thomas C; Meyer, Fredric B; Money, Samuel R
Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECCAs) are extremely rare with limited information about management options. Our purpose was to review our institution's experience with ECCAs during 15 years and to discuss the presentation and treatment of these aneurysms. A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with ECCAs from 1998 to 2012 was performed. Symptoms, risk factors, etiology, diagnostic methods, treatments, and outcomes were reviewed. During the study period, 141 aneurysms were diagnosed in 132 patients (mean age, 61 years; 69 men). There were 116 (82%) pseudoaneurysms and 25 (18%) true aneurysms; 69 (49%) aneurysms were asymptomatic, whereas 72 (52%) had symptoms (28 painless masses; 10 transient ischemic attacks; 10 vision symptoms; 9 ruptures; 8 strokes; 4 painful mass; 1 dysphagia; 1 tongue weakness; 1 bruit). Causes of true aneurysms included fibromuscular dysplasia in 15 patients, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in three, Marfan syndrome in one, and uncharacterized connective tissue diseases in two. Of 25 true aneurysms, 11 (44%) were symptomatic; 15 (60%) true aneurysms underwent open surgical treatment, whereas 10 (40%) were managed nonoperatively. Postoperative complications included one stroke during a mean follow-up of 31 months (range, 0-166 months). No aneurysms managed nonoperatively required intervention during a mean follow-up of 77 months (range, 1-115 months). Of 116 pseudoaneurysms, 60 (52%) were symptomatic; 33 (29%) pseudoaneurysms underwent open surgery, 18 (15%) underwent endovascular intervention, and 65 (56%) were managed medically. Pseudoaneurysm after endarterectomy (28 patients; 24%) presented at a mean of 82 months from the surgical procedure. Mean follow-up for all aneurysms was 33.9 months. One (0.7%) aneurysm-related death occurred (rupture treated palliatively). No patient undergoing nonoperative management suffered death or major morbidity related to the aneurysm. Nonoperative management was more common in asymptomatic patients (71
Palacios-Jaraquemada, José Miguel; Bruno, Claudio Hernán; Martín, Eduardo
To determine the usefulness of placental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and surgical management of abnormal placentation. Retrospective follow-up. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 547 pregnant women. In all cases, a direct and reliable description of abnormal placentation features was obtained by the operating surgeon. Placental MRI was analyzed according to: (1) primary description, (2) invasion topography, (3) modification required to the surgical tactics or techniques and (4) by positive and negative predictive values. Ultrasound and MRI findings were compared with surgical results, which were considered a final diagnosis in relation to primary diagnostic indications. Placental MRI was obtained because of diagnostic doubt in 78 cases, for deep invasion diagnosis in 148 cases and to define the invasion area in 346 cases. Placental MRI allowed accurate demarcation and assessment of the degree of placental invasion, parametrial involvement and cervico-trigonal vascular hyperplasia, permitting changes in the surgical tactical approach. Ultrasound and MRI differences were associated with placenta previa, uterine scar thinning and use of different criteria for placental invasion through definitions or terminology. Six cases of false-negative and 11 of false-positive findings were reported. Placental MRI provides excellent characterization of the degree and extension of placental invasion. Its usefulness in cases of adherent placentation is directly associated to the therapeutic measures, especially where dissection maneuvers are needed. Diagnostic differences between ultrasound and MRI related to the presence or not of placenta previa and uterine scar thinning. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Azaïs, Henri; Bresson, Lucie; Bassil, Alfred; Katdare, Ninad; Merlot, Benjamin; Houpeau, Jean-Louis; El Bedoui, Sophie; Meurant, Jean-Pierre; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Narducci, Fabrice
Totally implantable venous access port systems (TIVAPS) are a widely used and an essential tool in the efficient delivery of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drug extravasation (CDE) can have dire consequences and will delay treatment. The purpose of this study is to both clarify the management of CDE and show the effectiveness of early surgical lavage (ESL). Patients who had presented to the Cancer Center of Lille (France) with TIVAPS inserted between January 2004 and April 2013 and CDE had their medical records reviewed retrospectively. Thirty patients and 33 events were analyzed. Implicated agents were vesicants (51.5%), irritants (45.5%) and non-vesicants (3%). Huber needle malpositionning was involved in 27 cases. Surgery was performed in 97% of cases, 87.5% of which were for ESL with 53.1% of the latter requiring TIVAPS extraction. Six patients required a second intervention due to adverse outcomes (severe cases). Vesicants were found to be implicated in four out of six severe cases and oxaliplatin in two others. Extravasated volume was above 50 ml in 80% of cases. Only one patient required a skin graft. CDEs should be managed in specialized centers. ESL allows for limited tissue contact of the chemotherapy drug whilst using a simple, widely accessible technique. The two main factors that correlate with adverse outcome seem to be the nature of the implicated agent (vesicants) and the extravasated volume (above 50 ml) leading to worse outcomes. Oxaliplatin should be considered as a vesicant.
Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Eshini; Perera, Marlon; Sawhney, Raja
Chemical burns are common and may cause significant physical, psychological, social and economic burden. Despite a wide variety of potentially harmful chemicals, important general principals may be drawn in the assessment and initial management of such injuries. Early treatment of chemical burns is crucial and may reduce the period of resulting morbidity. This article reviews the assessment and management of cutaneous chemical burns. Assessment of the patient should be rapid and occur in conjunction with early emergency management. Rapid history and pri-mary and secondary survey may be required to exclude systemic side effects of the injury. Depth of wound assessment is difficult given that necrosis caused by various chemicals can continue despite cessation of exposure. Early management should be conducted with consideration of clinician's safety, and appropriate precautions should be taken. Excluding specific situations and chemical exposure, copious irrigation with water remains the mainstay of early management. Referral to a centre of higher acuity may be required for expert evaluation.
Magdy, Emad A; Ashram, Yasmine A
First branchial cleft (FBC) anomalies are uncommon. The aim of this retrospective clinical study is to describe our experience in dealing with these sporadically reported lesions. Eighteen cases presenting with various FBC anomalies managed surgically during an 8-year period at a tertiary referral medical institution were included. Ten were males (56 %) and eight females (44 %) with age range 3-18 years. Anomaly was right-sided in 12 cases (67 %). None were bilateral. Nine patients (50 %) had prior abscess incision and drainage procedures ranging from 1 to 9 times. Two also had previous unsuccessful surgical excisions. Clinical presentations included discharging tract openings in external auditory canal/conchal bowl (n = 9), periauricular (n = 6), or upper neck (n = 4); cystic postauricular, parotid or upper neck swellings (n = 5); and eczematous scars (n = 9). Three distinct anatomical types were encountered: sinuses (n = 7), fistulas (n = 6), and cysts (n = 5). Complete surgical excision required superficial parotidectomy in 11 patients (61 %). Anomaly was deep to facial nerve (FN) in three cases (17 %), in-between its branches in two (11 %) and superficial (but sometimes adherent to the nerve) in remaining cases (72 %). Continuous intraoperative electrophysiological FN monitoring was used in all cases. Two cases had postoperative temporary lower FN paresis that recovered within 2 months. No further anomaly manifestation was observed after 49.8 months' mean postoperative follow-up (range 10-107 months). This study has shown that awareness of different presentations and readiness to identify and protect FN during surgery is essential for successful management of FBC anomalies. Intraoperative electrophysiological FN monitoring can help in that respect.
Salazar-Báez, Israel; Salazar-Campos, Jessica E; López-Arias, Alhely; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica; Coronel-Martínez, Jaime; Candelaria-Hernández, Myrna; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Cantú de León, David
Vulvar cancer accounts for approximately 4% of gynecological malignancies. At the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico it occupies the fourth place. The purpose of this study is to assess the management of squamous carcinoma of the vulva with initial surgical treatment. It is a descriptive retrospective, observational study, from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2012. Twenty-seven patients, clinical stages I, II, or III, initial surgical management, with at least one year of follow-up were included. In 51.85% a partial vulvectomy was performed and in 40.74% a wide excision; 66.66% underwent inguinofemoral dissection. Recurrence occurred in 25.91% of cases and the overall survival at 10 years was 63%. It is concluded that with invasion of up to 1 mm of lymph node, affection is 0%; with invasion of 1 mm and up to 5 mm this increases to 25%; an invasion of more than 5 mm implies up to 45%. Recurrence in our study was primarily distant, necessitating long-term monitoring with emphasis on symptoms to request imaging studies when suspected. Adjuvant therapy should be offered to patients with positive nodes, close or positive margins, and tumors larger than 4 cm.
Hachach-Haram, Nadine; Gerarchi, Paul; Benyon, Sarah L; Saggar, Anand; McLellan, Guy; Kirkpatrick, W Niall A
Cherubism is a rare, autosomal dominant, mostly self-limiting disease of the jaw. It is characterized by bilateral fibrous tissue hyperplasia, giant cell proliferation, and bony degeneration in the lower facial skeleton, which can result in a massive and severely deforming prominence of the maxillomandibular structure. This case study examines the multidisciplinary management of a severe case of cherubism complicated by neurofibromatosis type 1, 2 codominant nonsegregating conditions that were clinically and genetically diagnosed, an extremely rare combination. Adequate mandibular reduction, reconstruction, and dental implantation afforded good restoration of oral function as well as a marked aesthetic improvement. A 14-year-old Fijian girl was referred to our unit for management of severe overgrowth of her mandible that compromised her speech and deglutition. In addition, she displayed clinical features consistent with neurofibromatosis type 1. Radiologic, histologic, and genetic analyses confirmed the diagnosis of both conditions. Our craniofacial multidisciplinary team undertook mandibular reconstruction followed by placement of osseointegrated dental implants. Mandibular reduction, reconstruction, and dental implantation resulted in a significantly improved functional and aesthetic outcome with no further regrowth at 3-year follow-up when she returned to the United Kingdom for osseointegrated dental implant insertion. The successful outcome of this surgically challenging, grossly disfiguring, and rare condition was largely a result of the combined input from our multidisciplinary team, adequate preoperative planning, and the use of a novel surgical technique in debulking and reconstructing her mandible.
Jinescu, G; Lica, I; Beuran, M
This study sought to evaluate current trends in surgical management of colon injuries in a level I urban trauma centre, in the light of our increasing confidence in primary repair. Our retrospective study evaluates the results of 116 patients with colon injuries operated at Bucharest Clinical Emergency Hospital, in the light of some of the most commonly cited factors which could influence the surgeon decision-making process towards primary repair or colostomy. Blunt injuries were more common than penetrating injuries (65% vs. 31%). Significant other injuries occurred in 85 (73%) patients. Primary repair was performed in 95 patients (82%). Fecal diversion was used in 21 patients(18%). Multiple factors influence the decision-making process: shock, fecal contamination, associated injuries and higher scores on the Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI) and Colon Injury Scale (CIS). Colon related intra-abdominal complications occurred in 7% of patients in whom the colon injury was closed primarily and in 14% of patients in whom a stoma was created, ATI having a predictive role in their occurrence. The overall mortality rate was 19%. Primary repair of colon injuries, either by primary suture or resection and anastomosis, is a safe method in the management of the majority of colonic injuries. Colostomy is preferred for patients with ATI ≥ 30 and CIS ≥ 4. Surgical judgment remains the final arbiter in decision making. Celsius.
Sozeri, Yasemin; Salim, Sarwat
A large subset of patients with glaucoma uses anticlotting agents. No standardized guidelines currently exist for managing these agents in the specific perioperative setting of glaucoma surgery. The present review focuses on currently available anticlotting agents, their influence on hemorrhagic complications following glaucoma surgery, and management strategies for their use in the perioperative period RECENT FINDINGS: Anticlotting agents increase the risk of perioperative hemorrhagic complications following glaucoma surgery. Other factors that increase that risk have been identified as well, including the type of glaucoma surgery, preoperative intraocular pressure, postoperative hypotony, previous ocular surgeries, and race. Although general guidelines in the perioperative management of blood thinning agents exist, the best way to apply these guidelines specifically to glaucoma surgery remains unclear. Blood thinners are widely used and can increase the risk of hemorrhagic complications in patients undergoing glaucoma surgery. Managing these agents in the perioperative setting is challenging and should be done in collaboration with the patient's primary care provider, hematologist, or cardiologist. Management strategies should be tailored to each individual's risk of hemorrhage versus thromboembolism. Additionally, surgical plans can be modified to help minimize hemorrhagic outcomes, especially in patients who are deemed to be at high risk for perioperative bleeding.
Bove, Thierry; François, Katrien; De Wolf, Daniel
The surgical treatment of tetralogy of Fallot can be considered as a success story in the history of congenital heart diseases. Since the early outcome is no longer the main issue, the focus moved to the late sequelae of TOF repair, i.e. the pulmonary insufficiency and the secondary adaptation of the right ventricle. This review provides recent insights into the pathophysiological alterations of the right ventricle in relation to the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Its clinical relevance is documented by addressing the policy changes regarding the optimal management at the time of surgical repair as well as properly defining criteria and timing for late pulmonary valve implantation.
Sarne, Ofer; Shapira, Yehoshua; Blumer, Sigalit; Finkelstein, Tamar; Schonberger, Shirley; Bechor, Naomi; Shpack, Nir
Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomalies in the maxillary anterior region causing interference to the developing permanent incisors resulting in poor dental and facial esthetics. Two different opinions regarding the timing for surgical removal of the supernumerary teeth are presented. In this case report, three brothers with supernumerary teeth in the maxillary anterior region are presented, their surgical and orthodontic management and outcome are discussed.
Ferraro, Giuseppe Andrea; De Francesco, Francesco; Romano, Tiziana; Grandone, Anna; D’Andrea, Francesco; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Perrone, Laura; Nicoletti, Gianfranco
INTRODUCTION Gynecomastia is the benign proliferation of the glandular tissue in the male breast. This condition is thought to be caused by the imbalance between estrogen action relative to androgen action at the breast tissue level. Bilateral gynecomastia is frequently found in the neonatal period, early in puberty, and with increasing age. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities is extremely rare, with only a few cases in literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present an otherwise healthy boy of 12 years old with unilateral breast masses. No abnormalities were found on ultrasonography and on all endocrine parameters. Treatment consisted in a new “modified” Webster technique. DISCUSSION The results confirmed validity of this technique in terms of esthetic and functional results, and patient satisfaction. Atypical presentations of gynecomastia are often not recognized. The main pathophysiology of gynecomastia is alteration in the balance between the stimulatory effect of estrogen and the inhibitory effects of androgens on the development of the breast. If there is no causal treatment, surgical resection is the therapy of first choice. CONCLUSION The exact mechanism of unilateral gynecomastia formation in our case is unclear. The evaluation of unilateral gynecomastia can therefore be complex. In conclusion, the surgical treatment of unilateral gynecomastia requires an individual approach, based on an appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:25437663
Williams, Brian J; Fox, Benjamin D; Sciubba, Daniel M; Suki, Dima; Tu, Shi Ming; Kuban, Deborah; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Rhines, Laurence D; Rao, Ganesh
Significant improvements in neurological function and pain relief are the benefits of aggressive surgical management of spinal metastatic disease. However, there is limited literature regarding the management of tumors with specific histological features. In this study, a series of patients undergoing spinal surgery for metastatic prostate cancer were reviewed to identify predictors of survival and functional outcome. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who were treated with surgery for prostate cancer metastases to the spine between 1993 and 2005 at a single institution. Particular attention was given to initial presentation, operative management, clinical and neurological outcomes, and factors associated with complications and overall survival. Forty-four patients underwent a total of 47 procedures. The median age at spinal metastasis was 66 years (range 50-84 years). Twenty-four patients had received previous external-beam radiation to the site of spinal involvement, with a median dose of 70 Gy (range 30-74 Gy). Frankel scores on discharge were significantly improved when compared with preoperative scores (p = 0.001). Preoperatively, 32 patients (73%) were walking and 33 (75%) were continent. On discharge, 36 (86%) of 42 patients were walking, and 37 (88%) of 42 were continent. Preoperatively, 40 patients (91%) were taking narcotics, with a median morphine equivalent dose of 21.5 mg/day, and 28 patients (64%) were taking steroids, with a median dose of 16 mg/day. At discharge, the median postoperative morphine equivalent dose was 12 mg/day, and the median steroid dose was 0 mg/day (p < 0.001). Complications occurred in 15 (32%) of 47 procedures, with 9 (19%) considered major, and there were 4 deaths within 30 days of surgery. The median overall survival was 5.4 months. Gleason score (p = 0.002), total number of metastases (p = 0.001), and the degree of spinal canal compression (p = 0.001) were independent predictors of survival. Age
Devaraj, Bikash; Kaiser, Andreas M
Proctocolectomy has been a curative option for patients with severe ulcerative colitis. In recent years, there has been a growing use of medical salvage therapy in the management of patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. We aimed at reviewing the role of surgical management in a time of intensified medical management on the basis of published trial data. The aim was to determine the efficacy of aggressive medical versus surgical management in achieving multifaceted treatment goals. A comprehensive search of Pubmed, Medline, the Cochrane database was performed. Abstracts were evaluated for relevance. Selected articles were then reviewed in detail, including references. Recommendations were then drafted based on evidence and conclusions in the selected articles. The majority of patients with UC will not need surgery. However, steroid-refractoriness and steroid-dependence signal a subset of patients with more challenging disease. Biological therapy has been shown to achieve short-term improvement and temporarily reduce the need for a colectomy. However, there is a substantial financial and medical price to pay because a high fraction of these salvaged patients will still need a curative colectomy but may be exposed to the negative impact of prolonged immunosuppression, chronic illness, and a higher probability to require 3 rather than 2 operations. Proctocolectomy with ileo-anal pouch anastomosis-performed in 1, 2, or 3 steps depending on the patient's condition-remains the surgical procedure of choice. Even though it has its share of possible complications, it has been associated with excellent long-term outcomes and high levels of satisfaction, such that in the majority of patients they become indistinguishable from unaffected normal individuals. The current data demonstrate that use of medical salvage therapy in the treatment of UC will likely continue to grow and evolve. Consensus is being developed to better define and predict failure of medical
Akowuah, E F; Davies, W; Oliver, S; Stephens, J; Riaz, I; Zadik, P; Cooper, G
Objective: To compare the early and late outcome of medical and surgical treatment in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis within a single unit. Design: All patients with proven prosthetic valve endocarditis treated in one institution between 1989 and 1999 were studied. Results: There were 66 patients (24 female, 42 male), mean (SD) age 57 (14) years. Of these, 28 were treated with antibiotics alone and 38 with a combination of antibiotics and surgery. The in-hospital mortality for the antibiotic group was 46% and for the surgical group, 24%. However, seven patients in the antibiotic group were considered too sick for curative treatment. The mortality in the remaining 21 medically treated patients (6/21; 29%) was not significantly different from that in the surgically treated patients (p = 0.15). Six patients in the medically treated group and one in the surgically treated group required late reoperation. Endocarditis recurred in three patients in the medically treated group, two of whom were treated surgically, and in one patient in the surgically treated group. Kaplan–Meier survival at 10 years was 28% in the medically treated group v 58% in the surgically treated group (p = 0.04). Freedom from endocarditis at five years was 60% in the surgically treated group and 65% in the medically treated group. Conclusions: Prosthetic valve endocarditis is a serious condition with high early and late mortality, irrespective of the treatment employed. These data show that selected patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis can be successfully treated with antibiotics alone. If required, surgery in this difficult group of patients can provide satisfactory freedom from recurrent infection. PMID:12591827
Rizvi, Syed A; Sultan, Sajid; Ijaz, Hussain; Mirza, Zafar N; Ahmed, Bashir; Saulat, Sherjeel; Umar, Sadaf Aba; Naqvi, Syed A
To describe decision factors and outcome of open surgical procedures in the management of children with stone. Between January 2004 and December 2008, 3969 surgical procedures were performed in 3053 children with stone disease. Procedures employed included minimally invasive techniques shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), ureterorenoscopy (URS), perurethral cystolithotripsy (PUCL), percutaneous cystolithotripsy (PCCL), and open surgery. From sociomedical records demographics, clinical history, operative procedures, complications, and outcome were recorded for all patients. Of 3969 surgeries, 2794 (70%) were minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques to include SWL 19%, PCNL 16%, URS 18.9%, and PUCL+PCCL 16% and 1175 (30%) were open surgeries. The main factors necessitating open surgery were large stone burden 37%, anatomical abnormalities 16%, stones with renal failure 34%, gross hydronephrosis with thin cortex 58%, urinary tract infection (UTI) 25%, and failed MIS 18%. Nearly 50% of the surgeries were necessitated by economic constraints and long distance from center where one-time treatment was preferred by the patient. Stone-free rates by open surgeries were pyelolithotomy 91%, ureterolithotomy 100%, and cystolithotomy 100% with complication rate of upto 3%. In developing countries, large stone burden, neglected stones with renal failure, paucity of urological facilities, residence of poor patients away from tertiary centers necessitate open surgical procedures as the therapy of choice in about 1/3rd of the patients. Open surgery provides comparable success rates to MIS although the burden and nature of disease is more complex. The scope of open surgery will remain much wide for a large population for considered time in developing countries.
Fan, Xianqun; Shao, Chunyi; Fu, Yao; Zhou, Huifang; Lin, Ming; Zhu, Huimin
To present the clinical manifestations and outcome of the surgical management of subjects with Tessier number 10 clefts. Retrospective, interventional case series. Twelve patients with Tessier number 10 clefts treated at the Department of Ophthalmology of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital between January of 2002 and December of 2005. All 12 patients (15 eyes) underwent a standard ophthalmologic assessment, and the orbits were examined by a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan. Reconstructive techniques included eyebrow reconstruction with a frontal hairline transposition flap, eyelid reconstruction with a hard palate mucosa-lined sliding myocutaneous flap, and conjunctival fornix reconfiguration using a mucous membrane graft. In patients requiring enucleation, hydroxyapatite implant was used, followed by fitting of ocular prosthesis. Postoperative upper eyelid and eyebrow contour and viability, recurrence of symblepharon, and ability to hold prosthesis. All reconstructed eyelids achieved the surgical goal of providing corneal coverage and the ability to hold a cosmetic contact lens or an ocular prosthesis. Eyebrow reconstruction was performed in 4 patients. The reconstructed eyebrow was symmetrical with the opposite side. There was no recurrence of symblepharon. Three patients wore cosmetic contact lenses, and their eyelid function appeared adequate. Two patients underwent enucleation along with insertion of a hydroxyapatite implant, followed by fitting of ocular prosthesis. The surgical approach described in our series of cases seems to be effective in repairing Tessier number 10 clefts. Eyebrow reconstruction with a frontal hairline transposition flap followed by eyelid repair with a hard palate mucosa-lined sliding myocutaneous flap is a suitable technique for correcting eyebrow and eyelid malformations in adults. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
Croft, Chasen A; Moore, Frederick A; Efron, Philip A; Marker, Peggy S; Gabrielli, Andrea; Westhoff, Lynn S; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Jordan, Janeen; Klink, Victoria; Sailors, R Matthew; McKinley, Bruce A
A system to provide surveillance, diagnosis, and protocolized management of surgical intensive care unit (SICU) sepsis was undertaken as a performance improvement project. A system for sepsis management was implemented for SICU patients using paper followed by a computerized system. The hypothesis was that the computerized system would be associated with improved process and outcomes. A system was designed to provide early recognition and guide patient-specific management of sepsis including (1) modified early warning signs-sepsis recognition score (MEWS-SRS; summative point score of ranges of vital signs, mental status, white blood cell count; after every 4 hours) by bedside nurse; (2) suspected site assessment (vascular access, lung, abdomen, urinary tract, soft tissue, other) at bedside by physician or extender; (3) sepsis management protocol (replicable, point-of-care decisions) at bedside by nurse, physician, and extender. The system was implemented first using paper and then a computerized system. Sepsis severity was defined using standard criteria. In January to May 2012, a paper system was used to manage 77 consecutive sepsis encounters (3.9 ± 0.5 cases per week) in 65 patients (77% male; age, 53 ± 2 years). In June to December 2012, a computerized system was used to manage 132 consecutive sepsis encounters (4.4 ± 0.4 cases per week) in 119 patients (63% male; age, 58 ± 2 years). MEWS-SRS elicited 683 site assessments, and 201 had sepsis diagnosis and protocol management. The predominant site of infection was abdomen (paper, 58%; computer, 53%). Recognition of early sepsis tended to occur more using the computerized system (paper, 23%; computer, 35%). Hospital mortality rate for surgical ICU sepsis (paper, 20%; computer, 14%) was less with the computerized system. A computerized sepsis management system improves care process and outcome. Early sepsis is recognized and managed with greater frequency compared with severe sepsis or septic shock. The system
Theodosopoulos, Theodosios; Stafyla, Vaia K; Tsiantoula, Paraskevi; Yiallourou, Anneza; Marinis, Athanasios; Kondi-Pafitis, Agathi; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Boviatsis, Efstathios; Voros, Dionysios
Retroperitoneal schwannomas are rare, usually benign tumors that originate in the neural sheath and account for only a small percentage of retroperitoneal tumors. The aim of this clinical study is to present our experience in managing retroperitoneal schwannomas with a review of the current literature and to point out the surgical technical difficulties we faced, due to the tumor's strange behavior that eroded the vertebra in two cases without causing malignant invasion. We reviewed the medical files of 69 patients treated in our department for retroperitoneal tumors from January 1991 until December 2006. Five patients had retroperitoneal schwannomas according to pathology report. There were two male and three female patients, with a mean age of 56 years (range 44-67 years). All patients were asymptomatic and none suffered from von Recklinghausen disease. Imaging workup included ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. One patient, after having a non-diagnostic computed tomography fine needle aspiration (CT-FNA), underwent exploratory laparotomy and incisional biopsy that established the diagnosis of schwannoma. After complete excision of the tumors, postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. Tumors' maximum diameter was 12.7 cm (range 7-20 cm). No recurrences were detected during the follow up period (6-75 months). Preoperative establishment of diagnosis is difficult in case of retroperitoneal schwannomas, however close relationship of retroperitoneal tumors with adjacent neural structures in imaging studies should raise a suspicion. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Histology and Immunohistochemistry confirms the diagnosis.
Schey, Ron; Cromwell, John; Rao, Satish S.C.
Pelvic floor disorders that affect stool evacuation include structural (example: rectocele) and functional disorders (example: dyssynergic defecation). Meticulous history, digital rectal examination, and physiological tests such as anorectal manometry, colonic transit study, balloon expulsion and imaging studies such as anal ultrasound, defecography, and static and dynamic MRI can facilitate an objective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Management consists of education and counseling regarding bowel function, diet, laxatives, most importantly behavioral and biofeedback therapies, and lastly surgery. Randomized clinical trials have established that biofeedback therapy is effective in treating dyssynergic defecation. Because dyssynergic defecation may co-exist with conditions such as solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS), and rectocele, before considering surgery, biofeedback therapy should be tried and an accurate assessment of the entire pelvis and its function should be performed. Several surgical approaches have been advocated for the treatment of pelvic floor disorders including open, laparoscopic and trans-abdominal approach, stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR), and robotic colon and rectal resections. However, there is lack of well controlled randomized studies and efficacy of these surgical procedures remains to be established. PMID:22907620
Ditto, Antonino; Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Di Donato, Violante; Laufer, Joel; Scasso, Santiago; Chiappa, Valentina; Signorelli, Mauro; Indini, Alice; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco
The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical management and the role of different prognostic factors on survival outcomes of women affected by genital (i.e., vulvar and vaginal) melanoma. Data of patients undergoing primary surgical treatment for genital melanoma were evaluated in this retrospective study. Baseline, pathological, and postoperative variables were tested to identify prognostic factors. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, 98 patients met the inclusion criteria. Sixty-seven (68%) and 31 (32%) patients in this study population were diagnosed with vulvar and vaginal melanoma, respectively. Median (range) DFS and OS were 12 (1-70) and 22 (1-70) months, respectively. Considering factors influencing DFS, we observed that at multivariate analysis, only vaginal localization (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.72; 95% CI = 1.05-13.2) and number of mitoses (HR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.11-1.39) proved to be associated with worse DFS. Nodal status was the only independent factor influencing 5-year OS in patients with vulvar (HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.22-2.54; p = .002) and vaginal (HR = 3.65; 95% CI = 1.08-12.3; p = .03) melanoma. Genital melanomas are characterized by a poor prognosis. Number of mitoses and lymph node status are the main factors influencing survival. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. A correct and prompt diagnosis is paramount.
Davis, Richard E; Hrisomalos, Emily N
When executed properly, open structure rhinoplasty can dramatically improve the consistency, durability, and quality of the cosmetic surgical outcome. Moreover, in expert hands, dramatic transformations in skeletal architecture can be accomplished with minimal risk and unparalleled control, all while preserving nasal airway function. While skeletal enhancements have become increasingly more controlled and precise, the outer skin-soft tissue envelope (SSTE) often presents a formidable obstacle to a satisfactory cosmetic result. In noses with unusually thick skin, excessive skin volume and characteristically hostile healing responses frequently combine to obscure or sometimes even negate cosmetic skeletal modifications and taint the surgical outcome. For this challenging patient subgroup, care must be taken to optimize the SSTE using a graduated treatment strategy directed at minimizing skin thickness and controlling unfavorable healing responses. When appropriate efforts are implemented to manage thick nasal skin, cosmetic outcomes are often substantially improved, sometimes even negating the ill-effects of thick skin altogether. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Stigliano, Serena; Sternby, Hanna; de Madaria, Enrique; Capurso, Gabriele; Petrov, Maxim S
In the 20th century early management of acute pancreatitis often included surgical intervention, despite overwhelming mortality. The emergence of high-quality evidence (randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses) over the past two decades has notably shifted the treatment paradigm towards predominantly non-surgical management early in the course of acute pancreatitis. The present evidence-based review focuses on contemporary aspects of early management (which include analgesia, fluid resuscitation, antibiotics, nutrition, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) with a view to providing clear and succinct guidelines on early management of patients with acute pancreatitis in 2017 and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heinrichs, Jutta; Sinzobahamvya, Nicodème; Arenz, Claudia; Kallikourdis, Antonios; Photiadis, Joachim; Schindler, Ehrenfried; Hraska, Vicktor; Asfour, Boulos
The Aristotle basic complexity (ABC) score (1.5-15 points) is the sum of potentials for early mortality, morbidity and anticipated surgical technique difficulty. The Aristotle comprehensive complexity (ACC) score (1.5-25 points) is the sum of ABC score and patient-adjusted complexity score; it comprises six complexity levels. We used the ACC score to evaluate quality in surgical management of congenital heart disease. Procedures performed in year 2002 and 2007 were analysed. Proportion of procedures requiring at least 1 week of stay in the intensive care unit was chosen as the marker of morbidity. We adopted threshold duration of 120 min for cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) cases and the same duration for operations without CPB as surrogate of surgical technical difficulty. The ACC scores were correlated to mortality, morbidity and technical difficulty. This study included 758 patients who underwent 787 primary procedures. The mean ABC and ACC scores amounted to 7.61+/-2.46 and 9.51+/-3.84. Early mortality was 3.05% (24/787), 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.97-4.51%. Zero at ACC levels 1 and 2, it increased from 1.2% (2/161) for level 3 up to 22.2% (2/9) for level 6. Morbidity index was evaluated at 25.9% (204/787), 95% CI: 22.9-29.1%. 1.9% at level 1, it escalated up to 77.8% at level 6. Index of technique difficulty was estimated at 35.2% (277/787), 95% CI: 31.8-38.6%, ranging from 4.8% for level 1 to 66.7% for level 6. A high correlation was found between the ACC scores and mortality, indices of morbidity and technique difficulty, Spearman's correlation coefficient r being 0.9856, 1 and 0.9429, respectively. Mortality (p=0.037) and morbidity (p=0.041) were lower in year 2007 than in 2002 with ABC (p=0.18) and ACC (p=0.37) surgical performance being not significantly different. The Aristotle score is still under development. Morbidity evaluation should be ideally based on observed postoperative complications; estimation of surgical technical difficulty chosen in
Barrisford, Glen W.; Singer, Eric A.; Rosner, Inger L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Bratslavsky, Gennady
Familial renal cancer (FRC) is a heterogeneous disorder comprised of a variety of subtypes. Each subtype is known to have unique histologic features, genetic alterations, and response to therapy. Through the study of families affected by hereditary forms of kidney cancer, insights into the genetic basis of this disease have been identified. This has resulted in the elucidation of a number of kidney cancer gene pathways. Study of these pathways has led to the development of novel targeted molecular treatments for patients affected by systemic disease. As a result, the treatments for families affected by von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC), hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC), and Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) are rapidly changing. We review the genetics and contemporary surgical management of familial forms of kidney cancer. PMID:22312516
Barr, John; Woodburn, Kathryn W; Ng, Steven Y; Shen, Hui-Rong; Heller, Jorge
Poly(ortho esters), POE, are synthetic bioerodible polymers that can be prepared as solid materials, or as viscous, injectable polymers. These materials have evolved through a number of families, and the latest member of this family, POE IV, is particularly well suited to drug delivery since latent acid is integrated into the polymer backbone, thereby, modulating surface erosion. POE IV predominantly undergoes surface erosion and is able to moderate drug release over periods from days to many months. One indication in which the POE IV polymer is currently being investigated is in sustained post-surgical pain management. The local anesthetic agent, mepivacaine, has been incorporated into a viscous, injectable POE IV and its potential to provide longer-acting anesthesia has been explored in non-clinical models.
Ward, R F; Jones, J; Arnold, J A
Congenital saccular cysts of the larynx are unusual lesions that commonly present with respiratory obstruction in infants and children. The saccular cyst may result from an atresia of the laryngeal saccule orifice or may represent the retention of mucus in the collecting ducts of submucosal glands located around the ventricle. Traditionally, the treatment of the lesions has been endoscopic unroofing or marsupialization. Frequently, this modality requires multiple procedures as well as concomitant tracheotomy. There also have been reports of acquired subglottic stenosis. We have found that removal of the recurrent saccular cyst can be achieved relatively safely and effectively via a lateral cervical approach to the thyrohyoid membrane. We review our experience with four patients with congenital saccular cysts and detail the evaluation and surgical management of these lesions.
Michaels, Joseph; Coon, Devin; Calotta, Nicholas A; Peter Rubin, J
The obesity pandemic continues to produce an inexorable increase in the number of patients requiring surgical treatment of obesity and obesity-related complications. Along with this growing number of patients, there is a concomitant increase in the complexity of management. One particular example is the treatment of patients with an exceptionally large and morbid pannus. In this report, we detail the management of seven patients suffering from a giant pannus. Medical and surgical variables were assessed. A quality of life questionnaire was administered pre- and postoperatively. All seven patients suffered some obesity-related medical morbidity and six of seven (86%) had local complications of the giant pannus. Each patient underwent giant panniculectomy [resection weight > 13. 6 kg (30 lb)]. The mean resection weight was 20.0 kg. Four of seven (57%) patients experienced postoperative complications, with two (29%) requiring re-operation and blood transfusion. Six patients were available for long-term follow-up; 100% of participants indicated an increased quality of life while five (83%) reported additional postoperative weight loss, increase in exercise frequency and walking ability, and improved ability to work. Our results indicate that giant panniculectomy is a challenging and risky procedure, but careful patient selection and intraoperative scrutiny can ameliorate these risks and afford patients a dramatically improved quality of life. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Nagpal, R C; Raj, Anuradha; Maitreya, Amit
To report a unique surgical approach for congenital double elevator palsy with sensory exotropia. A 7-year-old boy with congenital double elevator palsy and sensory exotropia was managed surgically by Callahan's procedure with recession and resection of the horizontal recti for exotropia without inferior rectus recession, followed by frontalis sling surgery for congenital ptosis. Favourable surgical outcome was achieved without any complication.
Dupree, James M; Patel, Kavita; Singer, Sara J; West, Mallory; Wang, Rui; Zinner, Michael J; Weissman, Joel S
The Affordable Care Act supports the growth of accountable care organizations (ACOs) as a potentially powerful model for health care delivery and payment. The model focuses on primary care. However, surgeons and other specialists have a large role to play in caring for ACOs' patients. No studies have yet investigated the role of surgical care in the ACO model. Using case studies and a survey, we examined the early experience of fifty-nine Medicare-approved ACOs in providing surgical care. We found that ACOs have so far devoted little attention to surgical care. Instead, they have emphasized coordinating care for patients with chronic conditions and reducing unnecessary hospital readmissions and ED visits. In the years to come, ACOs will likely focus more on surgical care. Some ACOs have the ability to affect surgical practice patterns through referral pressures, but local market conditions may limit ACOs' abilities to alter surgeons' behavior. Policy makers, ACO administrators, and surgeons need to be aware of these trends because they have the potential to affect the surgical care provided to ACO patients as well as the success of ACOs themselves. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Kajiwara, Naohiro; Taira, Masahiro; Yoshida, Koichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Usuda, Jitsuo; Uchida, Osamu; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko
The da Vinci Surgical System has been used in only a few cases for treating mediastinal tumors in Japan. Recently, we used the da Vinci Surgical System for various types of anterior and middle mediastinal tumors in clinical practice. We report our early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System. Seven patients gave written informed consent to undergo robotic surgery for mediastinal tumor dissection using the da Vinci Surgical System. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of this system for the surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors. Two specialists in thoracic surgery who are certified to use the da Vinci S Surgical System and another specialist acted as an assistant performed the tumor dissection. We were able to access difficult-to-reach areas, such as the mediastinum, safely. All the resected tumors were classified as benign tumors histologically. The average da Vinci setting time was 14.0 min, the average working time was 55.7 min, and the average overall operating time was 125.9 min. The learning curve for the da Vinci setup and manipulation time was short. Robotic surgery enables mediastinal tumor dissection in certain cases more safely and easily than conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and less invasively than open thoracotomy.
Ma, Wei-Guo; Hou, Bin; Abdurusul, Adiljan; Gong, Ding-Xu; Tang, Yue; Chang, Qian; Xu, Jian-Ping
Background Dysfunction of mechanical heart valve prostheses is an unusual but potentially lethal complication after mechanical prosthetic valve replacement. We seek to report our experience with mechanical valve dysfunction regarding etiology, surgical techniques and early outcomes. Methods Clinical data of 48 patients with mechanical valve dysfunction surgically treated between October 1996 and June 2011 were analyzed. Results Mean age was 43.7±10.9 years and 34 were female (70.8%). The median interval from primary valve implantation to dysfunction was 44.5 months (range, 1 hour to 20 years). There were 21 emergent and 27 elective reoperations. The etiology was thrombosis in 19 cases (39.6%), pannus in 12 (25%), thrombosis and pannus in 11 (22.9%), improper disc orientation in 2 (4.1%), missing leaflet in 1 (2.1%), excessively long knot end in 1 (2.1%), endogenous factor in 1 (2.1%) and unidentified in 1 (2.1%). Surgical procedure was mechanical valve replacement in 37 cases (77.1%), bioprosthetic valve replacement in 7 (14.9%), disc rotation in 2 (4.2%) and excision of excessive knot end in 1 (2.1%). Early deaths occurred in 7 patients (14.6%), due to low cardiac output in 3 (6.3%), multi-organ failure in 2 (4.2%) and refractory ventricular fibrillation in 2 (4.2%). Complications occurred in 10 patients (20.8%). Conclusions Surgical management of mechanical valve dysfunction is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Earlier identification and prompt reoperation are vital to achieving better clinical outcomes. The high incidence of thrombosis in this series highlights the need for adequate anticoagulation and regular follow-up after mechanical valve replacement. PMID:26793354
Yanagawa, Bobby; Pettersson, Gosta B; Habib, Gilbert; Ruel, Marc; Saposnik, Gustavo; Latter, David A; Verma, Subodh
There has been an overall improvement in surgical mortality for patients with infective endocarditis (IE), presumably because of improved diagnosis and management, centered around a more aggressive early surgical approach. Surgery is currently performed in approximately half of all cases of IE. Improved survival in surgery-treated patients is correlated with a reduction in heart failure and the prevention of embolic sequelae. It is reported that between 20% and 40% of patients with IE present with stroke or other neurological conditions. It is for these IE patients that the timing of surgical intervention remains a point of considerable discussion and debate. Despite evidence of improved survival in IE patients with earlier surgical treatment, a significant proportion of patients with IE and preexisting neurological complications either undergo delayed surgery or do not have surgery at all, even when surgery is indicated and guideline endorsed. Physicians and surgeons are caught in a common conundrum where the urgency of the heart operation must be balanced against the real or perceived risks of neurological exacerbation. Recent data suggest that the risk of neurological exacerbation may be lower than previously believed. Current guidelines reflect a shift toward early surgery for such patients, but there continue to be important areas of clinical equipoise. Individualized clinical assessment is of major importance for decision making, and, as such, we emphasize the need for the functioning of an endocarditis team, including cardiac surgeons, cardiologists, infectious diseases specialists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and interventional neuroradiologists. Here, we present 2 illustrative cases, critically review contemporary data, and offer conceptual and practical suggestions for clinicians to address this important, common, and often fatal cardiac condition. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Nouira, F; Ben Ahmed, Y; Sarrai, N; Ghorbel, S; Jlidi, S; Khemakhem, R; Charieg, A; Chaouachi, B
Over the years, the surgical management of recto-sigmoid Hirschsprung's disease (HD) has evolved radically and at present a single stage transanal pull-through can be done in suitable cases, which obviates the need for multiple surgeries. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the role of transanal pull-through in the management of recto-sigmoid HD in our institution. A retrospective analysis (between January 2003 and December 2009) was carried out on all cases of Hirschsprung's reporting to unity of pediatric surgery of Tunis Children's Hospital that were managed by transanal pull-through as a definitive treatment. All selected patients including neonates had an aganglionic segment confined to the rectosigmoid area, confirmed by preoperative barium enema and postoperative histology. Twenty-six children (86%) had their operation done without construction of prior colostomy. Transanal pull-through was performed in 31 children. Mean operating time was 150 minutes (range 64 to 300 minutes). No patients required laparotomy because all patients including neonates had an aganglionic segment confined to the rectosigmoid area. Blood loss ranged between 20 to 56 ml without blood replacement. Since all children were given an epidural caudal block, the requirement of analgesia in these cases was minimal. Postoperative complications included perianal excoriation in 7 out of 31 patients lasting from 3 weeks to 6 months. Complete anorectal continence was noted in 21 of 31 (67%) children in follow up of 3-5 years. Transanal endorectal pull-through procedure for the management of rectosigmoid HD is now a well-established and preferred approach. Parental satisfaction is immense due to the lack of scars on the abdomen. As regards the continence, a long-term follow-up is necessary to appreciate better the functional results of this surgery.
Awad, R A
he occurrence of esophageal and gastric motor dysfunctions happens, when the software of the esophagus and the stomach is injured. This is really a program previously established in the enteric nervous system as a constituent of the newly called neurogastroenterology. The enteric nervous system is composed of small aggregations of nerve cells, enteric ganglia, the neural connections between these ganglia, and nerve fibers that supply effectors tissues, including the muscle of the gut wall. The wide range of enteric neuropathies that includes esophageal achalasia and gastroparesis highlights the importance of the enteric nervous system. A classification of functional gastrointestinal disorders based on symptoms has received attention. However, a classification based solely in symptoms and consensus may lack an integral approach of disease. As an alternative to the Rome classification, an international working team in Bangkok presented a classification of motility disorders as a physiology-based diagnosis. Besides, the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility was developed to facilitate the interpretation of clinical high-resolution esophageal pressure topography studies. This review covers exclusively the medical and surgical management of the esophageal and gastric motor dysfunction using evidence from well-designed studies. Motor control of the esophagus and the stomach, motor esophageal and gastric alterations, treatment failure, side effects of PPIs, overlap of gastrointestinal symptoms, predictors of treatment, burden of GERD medical management, data related to conservative treatment vs. antireflux surgery, and postsurgical esophagus and gastric motor dysfunction are also taken into account.
Camalier, Corrie R.; Konrad, Peter E.; Gill, Chandler E.; Kao, Chris; Remple, Michael R.; Nasr, Hana M.; Davis, Thomas L.; Hedera, Peter; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Molinari, Anna L.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Charles, David
Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience progressive neurological decline, and future interventional therapies are thought to show most promise in early stages of the disease. There is much interest in therapies that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with surgical access. While locating STN in advanced disease patients (Hoehn–Yahr Stage III or IV) is well understood and routinely performed at many centers in the context of deep brain stimulation surgery, the ability to identify this nucleus in early-stage patients has not previously been explored in a sizeable cohort. We report surgical methods used to target the STN in 15 patients with early PD (Hoehn–Yahr Stage II), using a combination of image guided surgery, microelectrode recordings, and clinical responses to macrostimulation of the region surrounding the STN. Measures of electrophysiology (firing rates and root mean squared activity) have previously been found to be lower than in later-stage patients, however, the patterns of electrophysiology seen and dopamimetic macrostimulation effects are qualitatively similar to those seen in advanced stages. Our experience with surgical implantation of Parkinson’s patients with minimal motor symptoms suggest that it remains possible to accurately target the STN in early-stage PD using traditional methods. PMID:24678307
Lai, Jin-Yao; Yang, Wendy; Ming, Yung-Ching
There are no well-established indications for the surgical management of acute necrotizing pneumonitis in children. This study presents our experience regarding this challenging topic. Between 2002 and 2009, 56 necrotizing pneumonitis patients with empyema were treated surgically. The outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Computed tomography findings of massive lung necrosis or large cavities involving more than 50% of the involved lobe were deemed to be complicated necrotizing pneumonitis. Patients without the above indications were considered uncomplicated. Thirty-one cases were uncomplicated and 25 were complicated. Operative procedures included 38 decortications (31 uncomplicated and seven complicated), 14 wedge resections, and four lobectomies (complicated only). Preoperatively, patients with complicated necrotizing pneumonia had a higher incidence of pneumothorax (32% vs. 14.3%; p = 0.001), endotracheal intubation (44% vs. 9.7%; p = 0.008), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (20% vs. 3.2%; p = 0.01). These patients also had higher incidences of intraoperative transfusion (68% vs. 9.7%; p = 0.03), major postoperative complications (16% vs. 0%; p = 0.02), reoperations (16% vs. 0%; p = 0.02), and longer postoperative stay (19.8 ± 24.2 days vs. 11.2 ± 5.8 days; p = 0.03). Four complicated patients, who initially had decortications and limited resections, underwent reoperations. Compared with uncomplicated patients, those who underwent decortications and wedge resection required longer postoperative stays (23.6 ± 9.9 days, p < 0.01 and 21.1 ± 30.7 days, p = 0.04, respectively), whereas patients who had lobectomy had a similar duration of recovery (9.0 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.23). All patients improved significantly at follow-up. Children with complicated necrotizing pneumonitis have more preoperative morbidities, more major postoperative complications, and require longer postoperative stays. Aggressive surgical treatment results in
Plummer, J M; McFarlane, M E C; Newnham
To determine the management of perforated duodenal ulcer at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) in this era of Helicobacter pylori, the medical records of all patients seen at the UHWI during the period July 1997 to June 2002 with an intra-operative diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer were reviewed The records were analyzed for the following: age, gender, duration of symptoms, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, smoking status, operative repair duration of hospitalization, Helicobacter pylori status and medical therapy, peri-operative complications, mortality and recurrence. Ninety per cent of the cases were males. All females in whom perforation occurred were age 50 years and older compared to males where 58% of cases presented before age 50 years. Perforations in acute ulcers occurred in 80% of cases. The majority of patients were male smokers. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use was also an important risk factor in elderly females. Simple surgical closure and standard triple therapy antibiotics to eradicate Helicobacter pylori was the most common treatment offered. Mortality was one per cent and follow-up poor but 11% of patients had documented recurrent peptic ulceration. In this study population, perforated duodenal ulcer occured overwhelmingly in males less than 50 years of age. There is a trend towards exclusive simple surgical closure and H pylori eradication at the UHWI for patients with perforated duodenal ulcer but this needs to be supported by documentation of H pylori prevalence in the population of patients presenting with perforated peptic ulcers.
Oberlin, Daniel T; Flum, Andrew S; Bachrach, Laurie; Matulewicz, Richard S; Flury, Sarah C
Upper tract nephrolithiasis is a common surgical condition that is treated with multiple surgical techniques, including shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We analyzed case logs submitted to the ABU by candidates for initial certification and recertification to help elucidate the trends in management of upper tract urinary calculi. Annualized case logs from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed. We used logistic regression models to assess how surgeon specific attributes affected the way that upper tract stones were treated. Cases were identified by the CPT code of the corresponding procedure. A total of 6,620 urologists in 3 certification groups recorded case logs, including 2,275 for initial certification, 2,381 for first recertification and 1,964 for second recertification. A total of 441,162 procedures were logged, of which 54.2% were ureteroscopy, 41.3% were shock wave lithotripsy and 4.5% were percutaneous nephrolithotomy. From 2003 to 2013 there was an increase in ureteroscopy from 40.9% to 59.6% and a corresponding decrease in shock wave lithotripsy from 54% to 36.3%. For new urologists ureteroscopy increased from 47.6% to 70.9% of all stones cases logged and for senior clinicians ureteroscopy increased from 40% to 55%. Endourologists performed a significantly higher proportion of percutaneous nephrolithotomies than nonendourologists (10.6% vs 3.69%, p <0.0001) and a significantly smaller proportion of shock wave lithotripsies (34.2% vs 42.2%, p = 0.001). Junior and senior clinicians showed a dramatic adoption of endoscopic techniques. Treatment of upper tract calculi is an evolving field and provider specific attributes affect how these stones are treated. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaya, Ugur; Colak, Abdurrahim; Becit, Necip; Ceviz, Munacettin; Kocak, Hikmet
Objective: In the present study, we aimed to retrospectively investigate the early and late results of different surgical treatment techniques applied in different age groups with coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Materials and Methods: Between January 2007 and February 2017, 26 patients (12 males, 14 females; mean age: 12.2±12.4 years; range: 29 days–34 years) who underwent surgery with the diagnosis of CoA were evaluated. Overall, 11 of these patients (42.3%) were in the infantile period, whereas 15 patients (57.7%) aged between 6 and 34 years. Resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed in 13 patients (50%). Bypass grafting was performed in six patients (23.1%), and patch plasty was performed in seven patients (26.9%). Results: A patient (3.8%) who was operated on during the infantile period died early, whereas another patient (3.8%) died 2 years after the surgery. Recoarctation was detected in two patients. A patient underwent balloon dilatation, whereas another patient underwent balloon dilatation and stenting. In patients who underwent re-section and end-to-end anastomosis based on postoperative echocardiography results during follow-up, a lower statistically significant gradient was observed compared with the preoperative period. Despite the decrease in the left ventricular systolic diameter (LVSD) and the increase in the ejection fraction (EF) the decrease in LVSD and increase in EF were not statistically significant. In patients who underwent patch plasty or graft interposition, the low values of the gradient and left ventricular diastolic diameter in the postoperative follow-up were statistically significant. However, the decrease in LVSD and increase in EF were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our clinical experience suggests that repairing with resection and end-to-end anastomosis is a more appropriate treatment option during the infancy, whereas patch plasty or bypass grafting may be preferred in advanced ages. PMID:29531485
Patel, Madhukar S; Mowlds, Donald S; Khalsa, Bhavraj; Foe-Parker, Jennifer E; Rama, Asheen; Jafari, Fariba; Whealon, Matthew D; Salibian, Ara; Hoyt, David B; Stamos, Michael J; Endres, Jill E; Smith, Brian R
Concerns about projected workforce shortages are growing, and attrition rates among surgical residents remain high. Early exposure of medical students to the surgical profession may promote interest in surgery and allow students more time to make informed career decisions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a simple, easily reproducible intervention aimed at increasing first- and second-year medical student interest in surgery. Surgery Saturday (SS) is a student-organized half-day intervention of four faculty-led workshops that introduce suturing, knot tying, open instrument identification, operating room etiquette, and basic laparoscopic skills. Medical students who attended SS were administered pre-/post-surveys that gauged change in surgical interest levels and provided a self-assessment (1-5 Likert-type items) of knowledge and skills acquisition. First- and second-year medical students. Change in interest in the surgical field as well as perceived knowledge and skills acquisition. Thirty-three first- and second-year medical students attended SS and completed pre-/post-surveys. Before SS, 14 (42%) students planned to pursue a surgical residency, 4 (12%) did not plan to pursue a surgical residency, and 15 (46%) were undecided. At the conclusion, 29 (88%) students indicated an increased interested in surgery, including 87% (13/15) who were initially undecided. Additionally, attendees reported a significantly (p < 0.05) higher comfort level in the following: suturing, knot tying, open instrument identification, operating room etiquette, and laparoscopic instrument identification and manipulation. SS is a low resource, high impact half-day intervention that can significantly promote early medical student interest in surgery. As it is easily replicable, adoption by other medical schools is encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McGrory, Brian J; Weber, Kristy L; Jevsevar, David S; Sevarino, Kaitlyn
Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Evidence-based Guideline is based on a systematic review of the current scientific and clinical research. The guideline contains 38 recommendations pertaining to the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative care of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee who are considering surgical treatment. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to help improve surgical management of patients with OA of the knee based on current best evidence. In addition to guideline recommendations, the work group highlighted the need for better research on the surgical management of OA of the knee.
Prabhu, Vinod; Ingrams, Duncan
First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon, and only sporadic case reports are published in the literature. They account for 1% to 8% of all the branchial abnormalities. The often variable presentation and tract siting of first arch fistulae have led to misdiagnosis. The misdiagnosis results in inappropriate/ineffective treatment and recurrence of the sinus tract. We present a 19-year-old woman who presented to the ENT outpatient department with episodic discharge from a long-standing fistula anterior to the left sternomastoid muscle. This was associated with repeated episodes of ipsilateral tonsillitis. In relation to the history and because of the position of the fistula, a diagnosis of second branchial arch fistula was made. An attempt at excision was unfortunately followed by early recurrence of discharge. At review following the procedure, a defect of the left tympanic membrane in the form of a fibrous band was noted, and a revised diagnosis of first branchial arch sinus was made. Wide surgical excision of the tract with partial parotidectomy was performed. An uneventful postoperative course followed, with no recurrence of symptoms after 24 months of review. We discuss the case, the diagnostic pathway, and the wide local excision technique used for removal of branchial fistulae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheng, S J; Ma, A Y; Qiao, C X; Zheng, Z Q
The presence of early pregnancy factor (EPF) has been repeatedly confirmed as indispensable to successful pregnancy. However, there is as yet little reported about how surgical abortion would affect the EPF activity, owing to the induced embryo loss. The aim of this study was to pursue this among a large number of patients available in the People's Republic of China. Sera from aborters were collected before surgical abortion and again on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day after treatment. EPF activity was detected by rosette inhibition assay. Before surgical abortion, the mean level of EPF in pregnancy sera was about the same as that of the positive control. After surgical abortion, the EPF level declined rapidly for the first 3 days and then dropped gradually within the negative control range after 5-7 days. Quantitative study of EPF activity along temporal dimensions (duration) due to surgical abortion further promotes the efficiency to take EPF activity and its rate of change as truly index for monitoring embryonic care and development of normal pregnancy.
Geltzeiler, Cristina B; Lu, Kim C; Diggs, Brian S; Deveney, Karen E; Keyashian, Kian; Herzig, Daniel O; Tsikitis, Vassiliki L
The initial minimum operation for ulcerative colitis is a total abdominal colectomy. Healthy patients may undergo proctectomy at the same time; however, for ill patients, proctectomy is delayed. Since the introduction of biologic medications in 2005, ulcerative colitis medical management has changed dramatically. We examined how operative management for ulcerative colitis has changed from the prebiologic to biologic eras. We conducted a retrospective review of data on patients with ulcerative colitis who were included in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. This study was conducted at a single university. A total of 1,547,852 patients with ulcerative colitis who were admitted to a US hospital from 1991 to 2011 were included in the study. We examined patients whose initial operation consisted of total abdominal colectomy without proctectomy versus a total proctocolectomy with or without a pouch. We also examined which operation was done at the time of the construction of an ileoanal pouch. Patients who underwent colectomy and pouch construction in the same hospitalization were compared with those who received pouch formation at a subsequent hospitalization. Ulcerative colitis-related admissions rose by 170% during the years examined, and the number of patients who required total abdominal colectomy increased by 44%. Total abdominal colectomy increased by 15%, as opposed to total proctocolectomy (p < 0.001). Pouch construction at a subsequent operation increased by 16% (p = 0.002). Since 2008, total abdominal colectomy has surpassed total proctocolectomy as the most common initial surgical intervention for ulcerative colitis. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample is a retrospective database, and we were limited to examining the variables within it. Total abdominal colectomy is currently the most common initial operation for patients with ulcerative colitis, and an ileoanal pouch is more frequently constructed at a subsequent hospitalization. These trends coincide with
Xavier, Rose; Abraham, Bobby; Cherian, Vinod Jacob; Joseph, Jobin I.
Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is an extremely rare complication of a rather common paediatric viral exanthem varicella. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Laboratory risk indicator of NF score aids in early clinical diagnosis in suspected cases of post-varicella NF thus enabling timely intervention. Surgery delayed for more than 24 hours, is an independent risk factor for death. Surgical debridement with good antibiotic coverage is the definitive treatment for NF. PMID:27251524
Ducatman, Barbara S.; Williams, H. James; Hobbs, Gerald; Gyure, Kymberly A.
Objectives To determine whether a longitudinal, case-based evaluation system can predict acquisition of competency in surgical pathology and how trainees at risk can be identified early. Design Data were collected for trainee performance on surgical pathology cases (how well their diagnosis agreed with the faculty diagnosis) and compared with training outcomes. Negative training outcomes included failure to complete the residency, failure to pass the anatomic pathology component of the American Board of Pathology examination, and/or failure to obtain or hold a position immediately following training. Findings Thirty-three trainees recorded diagnoses for 54 326 surgical pathology cases, with outcome data available for 15 residents. Mean case-based performance was significantly higher for those with positive outcomes, and outcome status could be predicted as early as postgraduate year-1 (P = .0001). Performance on the first postgraduate year-1 rotation was significantly associated with the outcome (P = .02). Although trainees with unsuccessful outcomes improved their performance more rapidly, they started below residents with successful outcomes and did not make up the difference during training. There was no significant difference in Step 1 or 2 United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores when compared with performance or final outcomes (P = .43 and P = .68, respectively) and the resident in-service examination (RISE) had limited predictive ability. Discussion Differences between successful- and unsuccessful-outcome residents were most evident in early residency, ideal for designing interventions or counseling residents to consider another specialty. Conclusion Our longitudinal case-based system successfully identified trainees at risk for failure to acquire critical competencies for surgical pathology early in the program. PMID:21975705
Patel, Amit R; Alton, Timothy B; Bransford, Richard J; Lee, Michael J; Bellabarba, Carlo B; Chapman, Jens R
treated with antibiotics alone (group 1), 77 with surgery and antibiotics (group 2). Within group 1, 21 patients (41%) failed medical management (progressive MS loss or worsening pain) requiring delayed surgery (group 3). Irrespective of treatment, MS improved by 3.37 points. Thirty patients had successful medical management (MS: pretreatment, 96.5; post-treatment, 96.8). Twenty-one patients failed medical therapy (41%; MS: pretreatment, 99.86, decreasing to 76.2 [mean change, -23.67 points], postoperative improvement to 85.0; net deterioration, -14.86 points). This is significantly worse than the mean improvement of immediate surgery (group 2; MS: pretreatment, 80.32; post-treatment, 89.84; recovery, 9.52 points). Diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein greater than 115, white blood count greater than 12.5, and positive blood cultures predict medical failure: None of four parameters, 8.3% failure; one parameter, 35.4% failure; two parameters, 40.2% failure; and three or more parameters, 76.9% failure. Early surgery improves neurologic outcomes compared with surgical treatment delayed by a trial of medical management. More than 41% of patients treated medically failed management and required surgical decompression. Diabetes, C-reactive protein greater than 115, white blood count greater than 12.5, and bacteremia predict failure of medical management. If a SEA is to be treated medically, great caution and vigilance must be maintained. Otherwise, early surgical decompression, irrigation, and debridement should be the mainstay of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vandeweyer, E; Deraemaecker, R
This case report is presented to assess safety and efficiency of early suction and saline washout of extravasated cytotoxic drugs. Through multiple small skin incisions, the area of extravasation is first suctioned and subsequently extensively washed out with saline. Incisions are left open and the arm is elevated for 24 hours. A complete healing was obtained in five days without any skin or soft tissue loss. No additional treatment was needed. Early referral and surgical treatment by suction and washout is a safe and reliable treatment protocol for major cytotoxic drug extravasation injuries.
Obeidat, Rana F.
To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council), the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers’ support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system. PMID:27981122
Obeidat, Rana F
To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council), the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers' support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system.
Antonini, Angelo; Moro, Elena; Godeiro, Clecio; Reichmann, Heinz
Advanced Parkinson's disease is characterized by the presence of motor fluctuations, various degree of dyskinesia, and disability with functional impact on activities of daily living and independence. Therapeutic management aims to extend levodopa benefit while minimizing motor complications and includes, in selected cases, the implementation of drug infusion and surgical techniques. In milder forms of motor complications, these can often be controlled with manipulation of levodopa dose and the introduction of supplemental therapies such as catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, monoamine oxidase B inhibitors, and dopamine agonists including apomorphine. Clinical experience and evidence from published studies indicate that when these agents cannot satisfactorily control motor complications, patients should be assessed and considered for device-aided therapies. This review article summarizes some of the newer available therapeutic opportunities such as use of enzyme inhibitors like opicapone and safinamide, adenosine A 2A receptor antagonists, apomorphine and levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel infusion, deep brain stimulation including the role of closed-loop and adaptive stimulation, and MRI-guided focused ultrasound. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Riyadh, Safaa; Abdulrazaq, Saif Saadedeen; Zirjawi, Ali Mhana Sabeeh
Maxillofacial trauma affects sensitive and essential functions for the human being such as smell, breathing, talking, and the most importantly the sight. Trauma to the orbit may cause a vision loss especially if this trauma yields a high kinetic energy like that encountered during wars. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes of the orbital war trauma, enriching the literature with the experience of the authors in this field. A total of 16 patients were injured, evacuated, and managed, between June 2014 and June 2017, from the fight between the Iraqi army and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) in different areas of Iraq. Two-stage protocol was adopted, that is debridement and reconstruction. There were 14 military patients and 2 civilians. The cause of trauma was either bullet or shrapnel from an explosion. In the battlefield, delayed evacuation of the casualties led to increase the morbidity and mortality. Wearing a protective shield over the eye during the war along with fast evacuation highly improved the survival rates.
Rey, Amanda; Jürgens, Ignasi; Maseras, Xavier; Carbajal, Miriam
To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic characteristics, natural course and surgical management for eyes with myopic foveoschisis. The medical records of 39 consecutive patients (56 eyes) with myopic foveoschisis were retrospectively reviewed. Pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and Brilliant Blue G staining was performed on 16 symptomatic eyes (14 patients). Optical coherence tomography at baseline showed an isolated foveoschisis in 62.5%, foveal detachment in 21.4%, and a lamellar hole in 16.1% of the eyes. After a mean follow-up period of 15.7 months, 1.8% of the eyes developed a full-thickness macular hole and 28.5% of the eyes required surgery. The mean preoperative visual acuity (VA) was 20/63 and the mean central retinal thickness (CRT) was 507.6 µm. The mean postoperative VA was 20/40 and the mean CRT 282.9 µm. Anatomical success was achieved in 75% of the eyes at a mean of 3.3 months after surgery, and 81.2% of the eyes had an improvement of 2 lines of VA. Myopic foveoschisis remained stable in most eyes; however, 28.5% of the eyes had decreases in VA secondary to progression of the foveoschisis and required surgery. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Qureshi, Muhammad Asad; Khalique, Ahmed Bilal; Afzal, Waseem; Pasha, Ibrahim Farooq; Aebi, Max
Tuberculous spondylitis (TBS) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The mainstay of TBS management is anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. Most of the patients with TBS are treated conservatively; however in some patients surgery is indicated. Most common indications for surgery include neurological deficit, deformity, instability, large abscesses and necrotic tissue mass or inadequate response to anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. The most common form of TBS involves a single motion segment of spine (two adjoining vertebrae and their intervening disc). Sometimes TBS involves more than two adjoining vertebrae, when it is called multilevel TBS. Indications for correct surgical management of multilevel TBS is not clear from literature. We have retrospectively reviewed 87 patients operated in 10 years for multilevel TBS involving the thoracolumbar spine at our spine unit. Two types of surgeries were performed on these patients. In 57 patients, modified Hong Kong operation was performed with radical debridement, strut grafting and anterior instrumentation. In 30 patients this operation was combined with pedicle screw fixation with or without correction of kyphosis by osteotomy. Patients were followed up for correction of kyphosis, improvement in neurological deficit, pain and function. Complications were noted. On long-term follow-up (average 64 months), there was 9.34 % improvement in kyphosis angle in the modified Hong Kong group and 47.58 % improvement in the group with pedicle screw fixation and osteotomy in addition to anterior surgery (p < 0.001). Seven patients had implant failures and revision surgeries in the modified Hong Kong group. Neurological improvement, pain relief and functional outcome were the same in both groups. We conclude that pedicle screw fixation with or without a correcting osteotomy should be added in all patients with multilevel thoracolumbar tuberculous spondylitis undergoing radical debridement and anterior column
Lonser, Russell R; Mehta, Gautam U; Kindzelski, Bogdan A; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Dickerman, Robert; Oldfield, Edward H
Carney complex (CNC) is a familial neoplasia syndrome that is associated with pituitary-associated hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) (acromegaly). The underlying cause of pituitary GH hypersecretion and its management have been incompletely defined. To provide biological insight into CNC-associated pituitary pathology and improve management, we analyzed findings in CNC patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Consecutive CNC patients at the National Institutes of Health with acromegaly and imaging evidence of a pituitary adenoma(s) who underwent transsphenoidal resection of tumor(s) were included. Prospectively acquired magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical, surgical, and histological data were analyzed. Seven acromegalic CNC patients (2 male, 5 female) were included. The mean age at surgery was 29.7 years (range, 18-44 years). The mean follow-up was 4.7 years (range, 0.2-129 months). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a single pituitary adenoma in 4 patients and multiple pituitary adenomas in 3 patients. Whereas patients with single discrete pituitary adenomas underwent selective adenomectomy, patients with multiple adenomas underwent selective adenomectomy of multiple tumors, as well as partial or total hypophysectomy. All adenomas were either GH and prolactin positive or exclusively prolactin positive. Pituitary tissue surrounding the adenomas in patients with multiple adenomas revealed hyperplastic GH- and prolactin-positive tissue. CNC-associated acromegaly results from variable pituitary pathology, including a single GH-secreting adenoma or multiple GH-secreting adenomas and/or GH hypersecretion of the pituitary gland surrounding multiple adenomas. Although selective adenomectomy is the preferred treatment for cases of GH-secreting adenomas, multiple adenomas with associated pituitary gland GH hypersecretion may require partial or complete hypophysectomy to achieve biochemical remission. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological
Mehta, Gautam U.; Kindzelski, Bogdan A.; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Dickerman, Robert; Oldfield, Edward H.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Carney complex (CNC) is a familial neoplasia syndrome that is associated with pituitary-associated hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) (acromegaly). The underlying cause of pituitary GH hypersecretion and its management have been incompletely defined. OBJECTIVE: To provide biological insight into CNC-associated pituitary pathology and improve management, we analyzed findings in CNC patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: Consecutive CNC patients at the National Institutes of Health with acromegaly and imaging evidence of a pituitary adenoma(s) who underwent transsphenoidal resection of tumor(s) were included. Prospectively acquired magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical, surgical, and histological data were analyzed. RESULTS: Seven acromegalic CNC patients (2 male, 5 female) were included. The mean age at surgery was 29.7 years (range, 18-44 years). The mean follow-up was 4.7 years (range, 0.2-129 months). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a single pituitary adenoma in 4 patients and multiple pituitary adenomas in 3 patients. Whereas patients with single discrete pituitary adenomas underwent selective adenomectomy, patients with multiple adenomas underwent selective adenomectomy of multiple tumors, as well as partial or total hypophysectomy. All adenomas were either GH and prolactin positive or exclusively prolactin positive. Pituitary tissue surrounding the adenomas in patients with multiple adenomas revealed hyperplastic GH- and prolactin-positive tissue. CONCLUSION: CNC-associated acromegaly results from variable pituitary pathology, including a single GH-secreting adenoma or multiple GH-secreting adenomas and/or GH hypersecretion of the pituitary gland surrounding multiple adenomas. Although selective adenomectomy is the preferred treatment for cases of GH-secreting adenomas, multiple adenomas with associated pituitary gland GH hypersecretion may require partial or complete hypophysectomy to achieve biochemical
Hodge, Stacie; Helliar, Sebastian; Macdonald, Hamish Ian; Mackey, Paul
Until now, there have been no published surgical triage tools. We have developed the first such tool with a tiered escalation policy, aiming to improve identification and management of critically unwell patients. The existing sheet which is used to track new referrals and admissions to the surgical assessment unit was reviewed. The sheet was updated and a traffic light triage tool generated using National Early Warning Scores (NEWS), sepsis criteria and user discretion. A tiered escalation policy to guide urgency of assessment was introduced and education sessions for all staff undertaken, to ensure understanding and compliance. Through multiple 'plan-do-study-act' cycles, the new system and its efficiency have been analysed. Prior to intervention, documentation of NEWS did not occur and only 13% of admission observations were communicated to the surgical team. Following multiple cycles and interventions, 93% of patients were fully triaged, and 80% of 'red' and 'amber' patients' observations were communicated to the surgical team. The average time for a registrar to review a 'red' patient was 37 min and 79% of 'green' patients were reviewed within an hour of their presentation. Rapid identification of the unwell patient is crucial. Here we publish the first triage tool that enables early assessment of septic and otherwise potentially unwell surgical patients.
Zittel, T T; Jehle, E C; Becker, H D
The current surgical management of peptic ulcer disease and its outcome have been reviewed. Today, surgery for peptic ulcer disease is largely restricted to the treatment of complications. In peptic ulcer perforation, a conservative treatment trial can be given in selected cases. If laparotomy is necessary, simple closure is sufficient in the large majority of cases, and definitive ulcer surgery to reduce gastric acid secretion is no longer justified in these patients. Laparoscopic surgery for perforated peptic ulcer has failed to prove to be a significant advantage over open surgery. In bleeding peptic ulcers, definitive hemostasis can be achieved by endoscopic treatment in more than 90% of cases. In 1-2% of cases, immediate emergency surgery is necessary. Some ulcers have a high risk of re-bleeding, and early elective surgery might be advisable. Surgical bleeding control can be achieved by direct suture and extraluminal ligation of the gastroduodenal artery or by gastric resection. Benign gastric outlet obstruction can be controlled by endoscopic balloon dilatation in 70% of cases, but gastrojejunostomy or gastric resection are necessary in about 30% of cases. Elective surgery for peptic ulcer disease has been largely abandoned, and bleeding or obstructing ulcers can be managed safely by endoscopic treatment in most cases. However, surgeons will continue to encounter patients with peptic ulcer disease for emergency surgery. Currently, laparoscopic surgery has no proven advantage in peptic ulcer surgery.
Ionna, Franco; Amantea, Massimiliano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Ballini, Andrea; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Aversa, Corrado; De Cecio, Rossella; Russo, Daniela; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco
Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is an uncommon disease characterized by a benign nodular cartilaginous proliferation arising from the joint synovium, bursae, or tendon sheaths. Although the temporomandibular joint is rarely affected by neoplastic lesions, SC is the most common neoplastic lesion of this joint. The treatment of this disease consists in the extraoral surgery with a wide removal of the lesion; in this study, the authors described a more conservative intraoral surgical approach. Patient with SC of temporomandibular joint typically refer a limitation in the mouth opening, together with a persistent not physiological mandibular protrusion and an appearance of a neoformation located at the right preauricular region: the authors reported 1 scholar patient. After biopsy of the neoformation, confirming the synovial chondromatosis, the patient underwent thus to the surgical excision of the tumor, via authors' conservative transoral approach, to facilitate the enucleation of the neoformation. The mass fully involved the pterygo-maxillary fossa with involvement of the parotid lodge and of the right TMJ: this multifocal extension suggested for a trans-oral surgical procedure, in the light of the suspicion of a possible malignant nature of the neoplasm. Our intraoral conservative approach to surgery is aimed to reduce the presence of unaesthetic scars in preauricular and facial regions, with surgical results undoubtedly comparable to the traditional surgical techniques much more aggressive. Our technique could be a valid, alternative, and safe approach to treat this rare and complex kind of oncological disease.
Zuccato, Jeffrey A; Kulkarni, Abhaya V
Medical student interest in neurosurgery is decreasing and resident attrition is trending upwards in favor of more lifestyle-friendly specialties that receive greater exposure during medical school. The University of Toronto began offering an annual two week comprehensive, focused surgical experience (Surgical Exploration and Discovery (SEAD) program) to 20 first year medical students increasing exposure to surgical careers. This study determines how SEAD affects students' views of a career in neurosurgery. Surveys were administered to 38 SEAD participants over two program cycles. Information was obtained regarding demographics, impacts of SEAD, and factors affecting career decision making. Subgroup analyses assessed for factors predicting pre- and post-intervention interest in neurosurgery. Ninety-seven percent (n=37) of students completed the survey. Before SEAD, 25% were interested in neurosurgery but this decreased to 10% post-SEAD (p=0.001). However, post-SEAD interest increased from 10% to 38% if lifestyle factors were theoretically controlled across surgical specialties (p<0.005). A majority (81%) felt SEAD improved their understanding of neurosurgery, 62.2% felt that exposure to other surgical specialties reduced their interest in neurosurgery, and 21% felt SEAD increased their interest in neurosurgery. Nineteen percent intended to explore neurosurgery further with observerships and one student planned to organize neurosurgical research. This surgical exposure intervention increased understanding about neurosurgery and reduced overall interest in neurosurgery as a career. However, those remaining interested were motivated to plan further neurosurgical clinical experiences. The SEAD program may, therefore, aid in early selection of students motivated to satisfy the demands of a neurosurgical career.
Huang, Nai-Si; Liu, Meng-Ying; Chen, Jia-Jian; Yang, Ben-Long; Xue, Jing-Yan; Quan, Chen-Lian; Mo, Miao; Liu, Guang-Yu; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Shao, Zhi-Min; Wu, Jiong
.Mastectomy remains the most prevalent surgical modality used to manage early stage breast cancer in China, although the utilization of BCS has increased in the past decade. However, surgical management was not a prognostic factor for RFS. The selection of appropriate patients depended on the assessment of multiple clinicopathological factors, which is essential for making surgical decisions.
Khan, Salma; Zafar, Hasnain; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Haroon, Naveed
Outcomes of surgical emergencies are associated with promptness of the appropriate surgical intervention. However, delayed presentation of surgical patients is common in most developing countries. Delays commonly occur due to transfer of patients between facilities. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of delays in treatment caused by inter-facility transfers of patients presenting with surgical emergencies as measured by objective and subjective parameters. We prospectively collected data on all patients presenting with an acute surgical emergency at Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH). Information regarding demographics, social class, reason and number of transfers, and distance traveled were collected. Patients were categorized into two groups, those transferred to AKUH from another facility (transferred) and direct arrivals (non-transfers). Differences between presenting physiological parameters, vital statistics, and management were tested between the two groups by the chi square and t tests. Ninety-nine patients were included, 49 (49.5 %) patients having been transferred from another facility. The most common reason for transfer was "lack of satisfactory surgical care." There were significant differences in presenting pulse, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, fluid for resuscitation, glasgow coma scale, and revised trauma score (all p values <0.001) between transferred and non-transferred patients. In 56 patients there was a further delay in admission, and the most common reason was bed availability, followed by financial constraints. Three patients were shifted out of the hospital due to lack of ventilator, and 14 patients left against medical advice due to financial limitations. One patient died. Inter-facility transfer of patients with surgical emergencies is common. These patients arrive with deranged physiology which requires complex and prolonged hospital care. Patients who cannot afford treatment are most vulnerable to transfers and
LONGHEU, A.; MEDAS, F.; CORRIAS, F.; FARRIS, S.; TATTI, A.; PISANO, G.; ERDAS, E.; CALÒ, P.G.
Aim Gynecomastia is a common finding in male population of all ages. The aim of our study was to present our experience and goals in surgical treatment of gynecomastia. Patients and Methods Clinical records of patients affected by gynecomastia referred to our Department of Surgery between September 2008 and January 2015 were analyzed. 50 patients were included in this study. Results Gynecomastia was monolateral in 12 patients (24%) and bilateral in 38 (76%); idiopathic in 41 patients (82%) and secondary in 9 (18%). 39 patients (78%) underwent surgical operation under general anaesthesia, 11 (22%) under local anaesthesia. 3 patients (6%) presented recurrent disease. Webster technique was performed in 28 patients (56%), Davidson technique in 16 patients (32%); in 2 patients (4%) Pitanguy technique was performed and in 4 patients (8%) a mixed surgical technique was performed. Mean surgical time was 80.72±35.14 minutes, median postoperative stay was 1.46±0.88 days. 2 patients (4%) operated using Davidson technique developed a hematoma, 1 patient (2%) operated with the same technique developed hypertrophic scar. Conclusions Several surgical techniques are described for surgical correction of gynecomastia. If performed by skilled general surgeons surgical treatment of gynecomastia is safe and permits to reach satisfactory aesthetic results. PMID:27938530
Longheu, A; Medas, F; Corrias, F; Farris, S; Tatti, A; Pisano, G; Erdas, E; Calò, P G
Gynecomastia is a common finding in male population of all ages. The aim of our study was to present our experience and goals in surgical treatment of gynecomastia. Clinical records of patients affected by gynecomastia referred to our Department of Surgery between September 2008 and January 2015 were analyzed. 50 patients were included in this study. Gynecomastia was monolateral in 12 patients (24%) and bilateral in 38 (76%); idiopathic in 41 patients (82%) and secondary in 9 (18%). 39 patients (78%) underwent surgical operation under general anaesthesia, 11 (22%) under local anaesthesia. 3 patients (6%) presented recurrent disease. Webster technique was performed in 28 patients (56%), Davidson technique in 16 patients (32%); in 2 patients (4%) Pitanguy technique was performed and in 4 patients (8%) a mixed surgical technique was performed. Mean surgical time was 80.72±35.14 minutes, median postoperative stay was 1.46±0.88 days. 2 patients (4%) operated using Davidson technique developed a hematoma, 1 patient (2%) operated with the same technique developed hypertrophic scar. Several surgical techniques are described for surgical correction of gynecomastia. If performed by skilled general surgeons surgical treatment of gynecomastia is safe and permits to reach satisfactory aesthetic results.
Howard, N E; Phaff, M; Aird, J; Wicks, L; Rollinson, P
We compared early post-operative rates of wound infection in HIV-positive and -negative patients presenting with open tibial fractures managed with surgical fixation. The wounds of 84 patients (85 fractures), 28 of whom were HIV positive and 56 were HIV negative, were assessed for signs of infection using the ASEPIS wound score. There were 19 women and 65 men with a mean age of 34.8 years. A total of 57 fractures (17 HIV-positive, 40 HIV-negative) treated with external fixation were also assessed using the Checkett score for pin-site infection. The remaining 28 fractures were treated with internal fixation. No significant difference in early post-operative wound infection between the two groups of patients was found (10.7% (n = 3) vs 19.6% (n = 11); relative risk (RR) 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 1.8); p = 0.32). There was also no significant difference in pin-site infection rates (17.6% (n = 3) vs 12.5% (n = 5); RR 1.62 (95% CI 0.44 to 6.07); p = 0.47). The study does not support the hypothesis that HIV significantly increases the rate of early wound or pin-site infection in open tibial fractures. We would therefore suggest that a patient's HIV status should not alter the management of open tibial fractures in patients who have a CD4 count > 350 cells/μl.
BENNETT, JAMES E.
Radionecrosis in skin and deeper tissues and its surgical repair are described in 16 cases. The observed epithelial changes included both atrophy and hypertrophy, but atrophy was the dominant feature. Epidermal hypertrophy, which preceded malignant change, developed more slowly and was less likely to occur in areas subjected to deep irradiation than in skin treated with multiple small doses of x-ray over a long period. The indolent ulceration that developed in skin augmented the changes in underlying tissues so that successful management of these ulcerations required adequate excision of the damaged area and replacement with fat-bearing pedicle flap tissue. Whenmore » adjacent flaps were used, permanent blood supply to the region was assured. In cases of radiotherapy for basal cell carcinoma of the scalp, skin necrosis resulted in skull exposure with subsequent osteomyelitis and/or bone necrosis. Excision included the full thickness of the skull, and pedicle flap tissue from the scalp was used for coverage. Cranioplasty was performed after good skin and soft tissue cover had been obtained. Therapeutic radiation of the neck invariably produces marked skin changes, and when ulceration occurs, the vulnerability of underlying structures demands surgical treatment. Lesions of the upper extremity can be excised and covered with direct pedicle flaps from the trunk. Therapeutic radiation of the retroperitoneal area may produce extensive visceral damage as well as injury to the anterior abdominal wall, and anterior suprapubic ulcerations are particularly difficult to deal with since mobile adjacent tissue is scarce. The avascular midline is a limiting factor in flap design. Abdominal flaps extending onto the thigh can be used, but these require multiple delaying procedures to insure adequate blood supply. Patients being managed by these procedures are described. Most patients underwent their operative procedures with few serious complications. While postoperative bleeding
Greason, Kevin L; Lahr, Brian D; Stulak, John M; Cha, Yong-Mei; Rea, Robert F; Schaff, Hartzell V; Dearani, Joseph A
The need for pacemaker implantation is a well-described complication of aortic valve replacement. Not so well described is the effect such an event has on long-term outcome. This study reviewed a 21-year experience at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) with aortic valve replacement to understand the influence of early postoperative pacemaker implantation on long-term mortality rates more clearly. This study retrospectively reviewed the records of 5,842 patients without previous pacemaker implantation who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement from January 1993 through June 2014. The median age of these patients was 73 years (range, 65 to 79 years), the median ejection fraction was 62% (range, 53% to 68%), 3,853 patients were male (66%), and coronary artery bypass graft operation was performed in 2,553 (44%) of the patients studied. Early pacemaker implantation occurred in 146 patients (2.5%) within 30 days of surgical aortic valve replacement. The median follow-up of patients was 11.1 years (range, 5.8 to 16.5 years), and all-cause mortality rates were 2.4% at 30 days, 6.4% at 1 year, 23.1% at 5 years, 48.3% at 10 years, and 67.9% at 15 years postoperatively. Early pacemaker implantation was associated with an increased risk of death after multivariable adjustment for baseline patients' characteristics (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.20, 1.84; p < 0.001). Early pacemaker implantation as a complication of surgical aortic valve replacement is associated with an increased risk of long-term death. Valve replacement-related pacemaker implantation rates should be important considerations with respect to new valve replacement paradigms, especially in younger and lower-risk patients. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Dae Hwa; Byun, Il Hwan; Lee, Won Jai; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Ji Ye; Lee, Dong Won
The treatment of gynecomastia depends on multiple factors, and the best modality is controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the best management approach by comparing outcomes of two groups of patients with gynecomastia who received subcutaneous mastectomy combined with liposuction and liposuction only. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 64 patients who underwent surgery for gynecomastia. We divided the patients into two groups: group A, patients who underwent liposuction only; and group B, patients who underwent liposuction and subcutaneous mastectomy. The serial photographs of all patients were clinically evaluated with respect to size, shape, scarring, and overall outcome by three plastic surgeons, and patient satisfaction was surveyed with regard to palpable lumps, size, shape, scarring, and overall outcome. Of the 64 subjects, 16 received liposuction only, and 48 received the combination procedure. A total of 125 breasts were involved. The doctors' scores for size and overall outcome were significantly better in the combination group, whereas scarring was better in the liposuction-only group. Similarly, patient satisfaction regarding size was significantly higher in the combination group, and satisfaction regarding scarring was significantly higher in the liposuction-only group. The scores for scarring in the combination treatment group were acceptable. Our study shows that combination treatment with liposuction and subcutaneous mastectomy results in satisfactory outcomes, including the extent of scarring. We conclude that this combination treatment should be recommended as the standard surgical treatment for gynecomastia and can provide excellent results in cases where glandular tissue needs to be removed. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www
Chee, Lai Chuang; Siregar, Johari Adnan; Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izani; Idris, Zamzuri; Rahman Mohd, Noor Azman A
Ruptured cerebral aneurysm is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent medical attention. In Malaysia, a prospective study by the Umum Sarawak Hospital, Neurosurgical Center, in the year 2000-2002 revealed an average of two cases of intracranial aneurysms per month with an operative mortality of 20% and management mortality of 25%. Failure to diagnose, delay in admission to a neurosurgical centre, and lack of facilities could have led to the poor surgical outcome in these patients. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that significantly predict the outcome of patients undergoing a surgical clipping of ruptured aneurysm in the local population. A single center retrospective study with a review of medical records was performed involving 105 patients, who were surgically treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the Sultanah Aminah Hospital, in Johor Bahru, from July 2011 to January 2016. Information collected was the patient demographic data, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) prior to surgery, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Scale (WFNS), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) grading system, and timing between SAH ictus and surgery. A good clinical grade was defined as WFNS grade I-III, whereas, WFNS grades IV and V were considered to be poor grades. The outcomes at discharge and six months post surgery were assessed using the modified Rankin's Scale (mRS). The mRS scores of 0 to 2 were grouped into the "favourable" category and mRS scores of 3 to 6 were grouped into the "unfavourable" category. Only cases of proven ruptured aneurysmal SAH involving anterior circulation that underwent surgical clipping were included in the study. The data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and a P -value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 105 patients were included. The group was comprised of 42.9% male and 57.1% female patients
Asimakopoulos, P.; Nixon, I.J.; Shaha, A.R.
Thyroid cancer metastasises to the central and lateral compartments of the neck frequently and early. The impact of nodal metastases on outcome is affected by the histological subtype of the primary tumour and the patient’s age, as well as the size, number and location of those metastases. The impact of extranodal extension has recently been highlighted as an important prognosticating factor. Although clinically evident nodal disease in the lateral neck compartments has a significant impact on both survival and recurrence, microscopic metastases to the central or the lateral neck in well-differentiated thyroid cancer do not significantly affect outcome. Here we discuss the surgical management of neck metastases in well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:28094086
Lee, Jessica Y.
Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice. PMID:24723953
Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter
Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.
Sattur, Sandeep S
There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today. PMID:21976899
Rosenberg, Andrew; Steensma, Elizabeth A; Napolitano, Lena M
Necrotizing pancreatitis is a challenging condition that requires surgical treatment commonly and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, new definitions have been developed for standardization of severity of acute and necrotizing pancreatitis, and new management techniques have emerged based on prospective, randomized clinical trials. Review of English-language literature. A new international classification of acute pancreatitis has been developed by PANCREA (Pancreatitis Across Nations Clinical Research and Education Alliance) to replace the Atlanta Classification. It is based on the actual local (whether pancreatic necrosis is present or not, whether it is sterile or infected) and systemic determinants (whether organ failure is present or not, whether it is transient or persistent) of severity. Early management requires goal-directed fluid resuscitation (with avoidance of over-resuscitation and abdominal compartment syndrome), assessment of severity of pancreatitis, diagnostic computed tomography (CT) imaging to assess for necrotizing pancreatitis, consideration of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for biliary pancreatitis and early enteral nutrition support. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended. Therapeutic antibiotics are required for treatment of documented infected pancreatic necrosis. The initial treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis is percutaneous catheter or endoscopic (transgastric/transduodenal) drainage with a second drain placement as required. Lack of clinical improvement after these initial procedures warrants consideration of minimally invasive techniques for pancreatic necrosectomy including video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD), minimally invasive retroperitoneal pancreatectomy (MIRP), or transluminal direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN). Open necrosectomy is associated with substantial morbidity, but to date no randomized trial has documented superiority of either
Wang, L S; Zhou, F T; Han, C B; He, X P; Zhang, Z X
Objective: To investigate the different pattern of neck lymph node metastasis, the choice of surgical methods and prognosis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A total of 157 patients with early oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the pattern of lymph node metastasis, to determine the best surgical procedure and to analyze the prognosis. Results: The occurrence of cervical lymph node metastasis rate was 31%(48/157). Neck lymphatic metastasis was significantly related to tumor size ( P= 0.026) and histology differentiation type ( P= 0.022). The rate of metastasis was highest in level Ⅱ [33% (16/48)]. In level Ⅳ, the incidence of lymph node metastasis was 5%(7/157), and there was no skip metastases. The possibility of level Ⅳ metastasis was higher, when level Ⅱ ( P= 0.000) or Ⅲ ( P= 0.000) involved. The differentiation tumor recurrence, neck lymphatic metastasis and adjuvant radiotherapy were prognostic factors ( P< 0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed histology differentiation type, neck lymphatic metastases and adjuvant radiotherapy were the independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: Neck lymphatic metastasis rate is high in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma, simultaneous glossectomy and neck dissection should be performed. Level Ⅳ metastasis rate is extremely low, so supraomohyoid neck dissection is sufficient for most of the time. The histology differentiation type, neck lymphatic metastasis and adjuvant radiotherapy are independent prognostic factors.
Hong, Y-W; Kuo, I-M; Liu, Y-Y; Yeh, T-S
Information on primary small intestinal lymphoma is more limited than for gastric lymphoma because most of the previous studies did not focus on the former. Few prognostic indicators in primary intestinal lymphoma have been reliably established because of limited patient numbers and variations in criteria for patient selection. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathological characteristics of small intestinal lymphoma cases from our hospital, to determine prognostic factors and to clarify the effect of surgical resection on prognosis. Eighty-two patients were enrolled in this retrospective study between January 1997 and December 2012. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not they underwent surgical management. Gross resection was defined as complete removal of the primary lesion(s), as confirmed by the naked eye. Combined therapy refers to concurrent surgery and chemotherapy. The clinicopathological characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Most of the patients had abdominal pain (75.6%), and some had loss of body weight (29.3%) and bowel perforation (22.0%). Sixty-two patients (75.6%) underwent surgical management. Patients in the surgery group presented with fewer B symptoms (fever, night sweats, and weight loss; P = 0.035) but more bulky disease (P = 0.009). The ileocecal region was the most common site of solitary involvement (34.1%). The most common reason for surgery was for tumor-related complications (61.3%). Seven patients (11.3%) developed major complications of surgery, but these were not related to the indication, timing, or type of surgery. Only major surgical complications were statistically significant in relation to early mortality (P = 0.004). The estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 35.1% and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 43.2%. Univariate analysis revealed that patients in the surgery group had improved 5-year PFS
Erstad, Derek J; Tanabe, Kenneth K
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death and is increasing in incidence. This review focuses on HCC surveillance and treatment of early-stage disease, which are essential to improving outcomes. Multiple societies have published HCC surveillance guidelines, but screening efforts have been limited by noncompliance and overall lack of testing for patients with undiagnosed chronic liver disease. Treatment of early-stage HCC has become increasingly complex due to expanding therapeutic options and better outcomes with established treatments. Surgical indications for HCC have broadened with improved preoperative liver testing, neoadjuvant therapy, portal vein embolization, and perioperative care. Advances in post-procedural monitoring have improved efficacies of transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, and novel therapies involving delivery of radiochemicals are being studied in small trials. Finally, advances in liver transplantation have allowed for expanded indications beyond Milan criteria with non-inferior outcomes. More clinical trials evaluating new therapies and multimodal regimens are necessary to help clinicians design better treatment algorithms and improve outcomes. PMID:28721349
Sanders, David S; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C; Lambert, William E; Choi, Dongseok; Almario, Bella M; Yackel, Thomas R; Brown, Anna S; Chiang, Michael F
Although electronic health record (EHR) systems have potential benefits, such as improved safety and quality of care, most ophthalmology practices in the United States have not adopted these systems. Concerns persist regarding potential negative impacts on clinical workflow. In particular, the impact of EHR operating room (OR) management systems on clinical efficiency in the ophthalmic surgery setting is unknown. To determine the impact of an EHR OR management system on intraoperative nursing documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing requirements. For documentation time and circulating nurses per procedure, a prospective cohort design was used between January 10, 2012, and January 10, 2013. For surgical volume and overall staffing requirements, a case series design was used between January 29, 2011, and January 28, 2013. This study involved ophthalmic OR nurses (n = 13) and surgeons (n = 25) at an academic medical center. Electronic health record OR management system implementation. (1) Documentation time (percentage of operating time documenting [POTD], absolute documentation time in minutes), (2) surgical volume (procedures/time), and (3) staffing requirements (full-time equivalents, circulating nurses/procedure). Outcomes were measured during a baseline period when paper documentation was used and during the early (first 3 months) and late (4-12 months) periods after EHR implementation. There was a worsening in total POTD in the early EHR period (83%) vs paper baseline (41%) (P < .001). This improved to baseline levels by the late EHR period (46%, P = .28), although POTD in the cataract group remained worse than at baseline (64%, P < .001). There was a worsening in absolute mean documentation time in the early EHR period (16.7 minutes) vs paper baseline (7.5 minutes) (P < .001). This improved in the late EHR period (9.2 minutes) but remained worse than in the paper baseline (P < .001). While cataract procedures required more
Handschin, A E; Bietry, D; Hüsler, R; Banic, A; Constantinescu, M
Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Most studies on surgical treatment of gynecomastia show only small series and lack histopathology results. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approach in the treatment of gynecomastia and the related outcome over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical gynecomastia corrections in our department between 1996 and 2006 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and histological results. A total of 100 patients with 160 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional hand-assisted liposuction, isolated liposuction, and formal breast reduction. Atypical histological findings were found in 3% of the patients (spindle-cell hemangioendothelioma, papilloma). The surgical revision rate among all patients was 7%. Body mass index and a weight of the resected specimen higher than 40 g were identified as significant risk factors for complications (p < 0.05). The treatment of gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Caution must be taken in performing large resections, which are associated with increased complication rates. Histological tissue analysis should be routinely performed in all true gynecomastia corrections, because histological results may reveal atypical cellular pathology.
Yu, Guang-rong; Pang, Qing-jiang; Yu, Xiao; Chen, Da-wei; Yang, Yun-feng; Li, Bing; Zhou, Jia-qian
To discuss the operative methods and curative effect of calcaneal tuberosity fracture. A retrospective study was done to analyze 15 patients with calcaneal tuberosity fracture who received surgical management between January 2008 and June 2011. There were nine males and six females, with the age ranging from 31 to 68 years (average, 51.4 years). All the patients had unilateral acute injury, with the left foot in 7 cases and the right foot in 8 cases. According to the Beavis classification, there were three cases in type I and 12 cases in type II. All the cases in type I and 10 cases in type II were treated with open reduction and screw fixation. The other two cases in type II with larger fragment involving a portion of the subtalar joint were treated with plate and screw fixation. The effect of the treatment was assessed according to the ankle and hindfoot score system of American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) after the operation. Ten patients were followed up for 12 to 36 months (average, 20 months). The healing time in these patients ranged from 8 to 25 weeks (average, 12 weeks). The postoperative score ranged from 47 to 100 points (average, 91.1 points). Seven cases were rated as excellent, two as good, and one as poor. The rate of excellent and good was 90%. Necrosis of skin and soft tissue and exposure of the plate happened in one patient, who eventually healed after 3 weeks by debridement with plate preserved and peroneal artery perforator flap transplantation. Loss of reduction happened to another patient, who was treated with revision surgery by open reduction and screw fixation again. To patients with obvious fracture displacement, whose soft tissues are irritated severely, emergency open reduction and internal fixation operation should be offered to prevent the necrosis of the flaps as far as possible. To patients with small fractures, it is advisable to choose open reduction and large diameter screw fixation, while plate and screw fixation
Toon, Clare D; Lusuku, Charnelle; Ramamoorthy, Rajarajan; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan
Most surgical procedures involve a cut in the skin that allows the surgeon to gain access to the deeper tissues or organs. Most surgical wounds are closed fully at the end of the procedure (primary closure). The surgeon covers the closed surgical wound with either a dressing or adhesive tape. The dressing can act as a physical barrier to protect the wound until the continuity of the skin is restored (within about 48 hours) and to absorb exudate from the wound, keeping it dry and clean, and preventing bacterial contamination from the external environment. Some studies have found that the moist environment created by some dressings accelerates wound healing, although others believe that the moist environment can be a disadvantage, as excessive exudate can cause maceration (softening and deterioration) of the wound and the surrounding healthy tissue. The utility of dressing surgical wounds beyond 48 hours of surgery is, therefore, controversial. To evaluate the benefits and risks of removing a dressing covering a closed surgical incision site within 48 hours permanently (early dressing removal) or beyond 48 hours of surgery permanently with interim dressing changes allowed (delayed dressing removal), on surgical site infection. In March 2015 we searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched the references of included trials to identify further potentially-relevant trials. Two review authors independently identified studies for inclusion. We included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) conducted with people of any age and sex, undergoing a surgical procedure, who had their wound closed and a dressing applied. We included only trials that compared
Toon, Clare D; Ramamoorthy, Rajarajan; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan
Most surgical procedures involve a cut in the skin that allows the surgeon to gain access to the deeper tissues or organs. Most surgical wounds are closed fully at the end of the procedure (primary closure). The surgeon covers the closed surgical wound with either a dressing or adhesive tape. The dressing can act as a physical barrier to protect the wound until the continuity of the skin is restored (within about 48 hours) and to absorb exudate from the wound, keeping it dry and clean, and preventing bacterial contamination from the external environment. Some studies have found that the moist environment created by some dressings accelerates wound healing, although others believe that the moist environment can be a disadvantage, as excessive exudate can cause maceration (softening and deterioration) of the wound and the surrounding healthy tissue. The utility of dressing surgical wounds beyond 48 hours of surgery is, therefore, controversial. To evaluate the benefits and risks of removing a dressing covering a closed surgical incision site within 48 hours permanently (early dressing removal) or beyond 48 hours of surgery permanently with interim dressing changes allowed (delayed dressing removal), on surgical site infection. In July 2013 we searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched the references of included trials to identify further potentially-relevant trials. Two review authors independently identified studies for inclusion. We included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) conducted with people of any age and sex, undergoing a surgical procedure, who had their wound closed and a dressing applied. We included only trials that compared
Geltzeiler, Cristina B.; Wieghard, Nicole; Tsikitis, Vassiliki L.
Perianal manifestations of Crohn’s disease (CD) are common and, of them, fistulas are the most common. Perianal fistulas can be extremely debilitating for patients and are often very challenging for clinicians to treat. CD perianal fistulas usually require multidisciplinary and multimodality treatment, including both medical and surgical approaches. The majority of patients require multiple surgical interventions. CD patients with perianal fistulas have a high rate of primary non-healing, surgical morbidity, and high recurrence rates. This has led to constant efforts to improve surgical management of this disease process. PMID:25331917
Clancy, Sharon L.; Erhunmwunsee, Loretta J.
Synopsis Radiation to the chest wall is common before resection of tumors. History of radiation does not necessarily change the surgical approach of soft tissue coverage needed for reconstruction. Osteoradionecrosis can occur after radiation treatment, particularly after high dose radiation treatment. Radical resection and reconstruction is feasible and can be life saving. Soft tissue coverage using myocutaneous flap or omental flap is determined by the quality of soft tissue available and the status of the vascular pedicle supplying available myocutaneous flaps. Radiation induced sarcomas of the chest wall occur most commonly after radiation therapy for breast cancer. While angiosarcomas are the most common histology of radiation induced sarcoma, osteosarcoma, myosarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcomas also occur. The most effective treatment is surgical resection. Tumors not amenable to surgical resection are treated with chemotherapy with low response rates. PMID:28363372
Bohan, Eileen; Glass-Macenka, Deanna
To provide an overview of the diagnostic work-up, intraoperative technologies, postoperative treatment options, and investigational new therapies in patients with malignant brain tumors. Published textbooks and articles and other reference materials. Recent improvements in diagnostic and surgical equipment have influenced outcomes and overall quality of life for patients with central nervous system tumors. The ability to more accurately target and more safely remove brain tumors has enhanced the postoperative period and decreased hospital stays. However, malignant neoplasms continue to be refractory to current treatments, necessitating innovative surgical approaches at the time of initial diagnosis and at tumor recurrence. Nurses with an understanding of current diagnostic and surgical treatment modalities for brain tumors are able to provide accurate patient education and comprehensive care, enhancing the overall hospital and outpatient experience.
Aim of study: the possible effects on dental postsurgical management using small and not invasive devices: RecoveryRx or ActiPatch producted by Bioelectronics company (USA) Materials and methods: review of literature using searching engines Keywords: PEMFs, postsurgical treatment, pain, wound healing, RecoveryRx, ActiPatch Results: Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields have been used extensively for decades for many conditions and medical disciplines. Imperceptible cell dysfunction that is not corrected early can lead to disease. Fine-tuning can be done daily in only minutes, using pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs). In addition, when there is a known imbalance (when symptoms are present) or there is a known disease or condition, PEMF treatments, used either alone or along with other therapies, can often help cells rebalance dysfunction faster. It is seen in literature that RecoveryRX and ActiPatch improve the cell metabolism, rebalance the membrane potential difference, improve the circulation and the oxigenation of the tissues, acceleration of osteogenesis, acceleration repair of soft tissues, reduce pain. Conclusion: the RecoveryRX and ActiPatch devices could improve the postsurgical healing reducing the patient discomfort.
Stone, Anne M; Lammers, John C
To describe experiences of uncertainty and management strategies for staff working with families in a hospital waiting room. A 288-bed, nonprofit community hospital in a Midwestern city. Data were collected during individual, semistructured interviews with 3 volunteers, 3 technical staff members, and 1 circulating nurse (n = 7), and during 40 hours of observation in a surgical waiting room. Interview transcripts were analyzed using constant comparative techniques. The surgical waiting room represents the intersection of several sources of uncertainty that families experience. Findings also illustrate the ways in which staff manage the uncertainty of families in the waiting room by communicating support. Staff in surgical waiting rooms are responsible for managing family members' uncertainty related to insufficient information. Practically, this study provided some evidence that staff are expected to help manage the uncertainty that is typical in a surgical waiting room, further highlighting the important role of communication in improving family members' experiences.
Sartelli, Massimo; Malangoni, Mark A; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Griffiths, Ewen A; Di Bella, Stefano; McFarland, Lynne V; Eltringham, Ian; Shelat, Vishal G; Velmahos, George C; Kelly, Ciarán P; Khanna, Sahil; Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Alrahmani, Layan; Ansaloni, Luca; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Barbut, Frédéric; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Bhangu, Aneel; Biffl, Walter L; Brecher, Stephen M; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Caínzos, Miguel A; Canterbury, Laura A; Catena, Fausto; Chan, Shirley; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Clanton, Jesse; Coccolini, Federico; Cocuz, Maria Elena; Coimbra, Raul; Cook, Charles H; Cui, Yunfeng; Czepiel, Jacek; Das, Koray; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Di Saverio, Salomone; Dumitru, Irina Magdalena; Eckert, Catherine; Eckmann, Christian; Eiland, Edward H; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Faro, Mario; Ferrada, Paula; Forrester, Joseph Derek; Fraga, Gustavo P; Frossard, Jean Louis; Galeiras, Rita; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gorrepati, Venkata; Ahmed, Mohamed Hassan; Herzog, Torsten; Humphrey, Felicia; Kim, Jae Il; Isik, Arda; Ivatury, Rao; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Juang, Paul; Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Ko, Wen Chien; LaBarbera, Francis D; Lee, Jae Gil; Leppaniemi, Ari; Lohsiriwat, Varut; Marwah, Sanjay; Mazuski, John E; Metan, Gokhan; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick Alan; Nord, Carl Erik; Ordoñez, Carlos A; Júnior, Gerson Alves Pereira; Petrosillo, Nicola; Portela, Francisco; Puri, Basant K; Ray, Arnab; Raza, Mansoor; Rems, Miran; Sakakushev, Boris E; Sganga, Gabriele; Spigaglia, Patrizia; Stewart, David B; Tattevin, Pierre; Timsit, Jean Francois; To, Kathleen B; Tranà, Cristian; Uhl, Waldemar; Urbánek, Libor; van Goor, Harry; Vassallo, Angela; Zahar, Jean Ralph; Caproli, Emanuele; Viale, Pierluigi
In the last two decades there have been dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), with increases in incidence and severity of disease in many countries worldwide. The incidence of CDI has also increased in surgical patients. Optimization of management of C difficile, has therefore become increasingly urgent. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts prepared evidenced-based World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of CDI in surgical patients.
Hong, Jennifer; Barrena, Benjamin G; Lollis, S Scott; Bauer, David F
Arrested hydrocephalus is stable ventriculomegaly without evidence of neurologic deterioration or symptoms. Management of arrested hydrocephalus in asymptomatic adults is controversial, with little clinical data. This case highlights the potential for decompensation in adults with arrested hydrocephalus and reviews the literature regarding pathophysiology and management of this clinical entity. A 39 year-old gentleman with arrested hydrocephalus incidentally found during work-up for new-onset seizure and managed conservatively for ten years presented with increasing headache, memory loss, gait instability and urinary and fecal incontinence. Stable massive triventriculomegaly was documented on serial brain imaging, and ophthalmologic exam revealed no papilledema. The patient underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy with immediate post-operative improvement of headache, resolution of incontinence, and cessation of seizures. At 15 months after surgery, neuropsychiatric testing demonstrated improvement in visuomotor skills, problem solving, verbal fluency and cognitive flexibility compared to his pre-operative baseline. At 18 months after surgery he remained seizure free with full continence and significant improvement in headaches. Early recognition of arrested hydrocephalus and its potential for decompensation may prompt surgical treatment and prevent neurologic deterioration. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tremolada, G; Milovancev, M; Culp, W T N; Bleedorn, J A
To report the clinical presentation, surgical treatment and outcomes of dogs with retrobulbar abscesses refractory to intra-oral lancing and antibiotics. Medical records from January 2006 through September 2014 were reviewed and dogs with retrobulbar abscesses failing treatment with antibiotics and intra-oral lancing were included. Clinicopathologic, imaging and surgical details were extracted from the medical records. Referring veterinarians and owners were interviewed via telephone for follow-up data. A total of six dogs were included in the study. The most common clinical signs were pain upon opening of the mouth, exophthalmos and prolapsed nictitans. Computed tomography was performed in five dogs, ultrasound in four and magnetic resonance imaging in one. Imaging identified an abscess in all dogs, with a suspected foreign body in four dogs. Surgical approach was a modified lateral orbitotomy in five dogs. No foreign body was identified during surgery in all dog. All dogs surviving to discharge did not have recurrence of clinical signs (follow-up time range: 27 to 95 months). Dogs with retrobulbar abscesses refractory to standard therapy can experience long-term resolution of clinical signs with surgical treatment, most commonly via a modified lateral orbitotomy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Chen, Weidan; Ma, Li; Cui, Hujun; Yang, Shengchun; Xia, Yuansheng; Zou, Minghui; Chen, Xinxin
Heterotaxy syndrome is a recognized risk factor for surgical cardiac interventions. We evaluated the early- and middle-term results of a surgical intervention for patients with heterotaxy syndrome. A total of 42 patients with heterotaxy syndrome were enrolled (September 2008 to March 2015). Left and right atrial isomerism were identified in 26% (11 out of 42) and 74% of patients (31 out of 42), respectively. The median age of the patients at the time of surgery was 6.8 months (range: 5 days to 22.3 years). Biventricular repair was completed in 3 patients with left atrial isomerism. Seventeen out of 39 patients who were scheduled for single ventricular repair completed a modified Fontan procedure. The hospital mortality rate was 4.7% (2 out of 42). Another 5 deaths occurred in the remaining survivors following hospital discharge with a follow-up duration of 45.8 ± 23.6 months (range: 13-111 months). The 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 88.1% (37/42) and 83.3% (35/42), respectively. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis identified pulmonary venous obstruction and atrioventricular valve replacement as additional risk factors for mortality. Right ventricular bypass surgery remains the preferred palliative procedure for patients with heterotaxy syndrome. Based on the current results, the early- and middle-term outcomes are satisfactory. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Park, Do Joong; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ho
Recently, the incidence of upper third gastric cancer has increased, and with it the number of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) procedures performed has been increasing. However, if ESD is not indicated or non-curable, surgical treatment may be necessary. In the case of lower third gastric cancer, it is possible to preserve the upper part of the stomach; however, in the case of upper third gastric cancer, total gastrectomy is still the standard treatment option, regardless of the stage. This is due to the complications associated with upper third gastric cancer, such as gastroesophageal reflux after proximal gastrectomy rather than oncologic problems. Recently, the introduction of the double tract reconstruction method after proximal gastrectomy has become one of the surgical treatment methods for upper third early gastric cancer. However, since there has not been a prospective comparative study evaluating its efficacy, the ongoing multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial (KLASS-05) comparing laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with double tract reconstruction and laparoscopic total gastrectomy is expected to be important for determining the future of treatment of upper third early gastric cancer.
Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S
Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.
Francis, Howard W; Buchman, Craig A; Visaya, Jiovani M; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Zwolan, Teresa A; Fink, Nancy E; Niparko, John K
To assess the impact of surgical factors on electrode status and early communication outcomes in young children in the first 2 years of cochlear implantation. Prospective multicenter cohort study. Six tertiary referral centers. Children 5 years or younger before implantation with normal nonverbal intelligence. Cochlear implant operations in 209 ears of 188 children. Percent active channels, auditory behavior as measured by the Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and Reynell receptive language scores. Stable insertion of the full electrode array was accomplished in 96.2% of ears. At least 75% of electrode channels were active in 88% of ears. Electrode deactivation had a significant negative effect on Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores at 24 months but no effect on receptive language scores. Significantly fewer active electrodes were associated with a history of meningitis. Surgical complications requiring additional hospitalization and/or revision surgery occurred in 6.7% of patients but had no measurable effect on the development of auditory behavior within the first 2 years. Negative, although insignificant, associations were observed between the need for perioperative revision of the device and 1) the percent of active electrodes and 2) the receptive language level at 2-year follow-up. Activation of the entire electrode array is associated with better early auditory outcomes. Decrements in the number of active electrodes and lower gains of receptive language after manipulation of the newly implanted device were not statistically significant but may be clinically relevant, underscoring the importance of surgical technique and the effective placement of the electrode array.
Tod, Laura; Ghosh, Jonathan; Lieberman, Ilan; Baguneid, Mohamed
We report the use of a spinal cord stimulator (SCS) for non-surgical management of superior mesenteric artery thrombosis. A 59-year-old woman with polycythaemia rubra vera presented with extensive superior mesenteric artery thrombosis not amenable to surgical or endovascular revascularisation. A SCS was implanted for analgesia thereby allowing enteral feeding to be tolerated during the acute period. Four months later the patient developed a focal ischaemic jejunal stricture and underwent resection of a short segment of small bowel with primary anastomosis that healed without complication. Spinal cord stimulation can facilitate non-surgical management of mesenteric ischaemia. PMID:23917358
Loehrer, Andrew P; Murthy, Shilpa S; Song, Zirui; Lubitz, Carrie C; James, Benjamin C
26% increased rate of undergoing a thyroidectomy (incident rate ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.52; P = .02) and a 22% increased rate of neck dissection (incident rate ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37; P = .002) for treating cancer compared with control states. The 2006 Massachusetts health reform, which is a model for the Affordable Care Act, was associated with a 26% increased rate of thyroidectomy for treating thyroid cancer. Our study suggests that insurance expansion may be associated with increased access to the surgical management of thyroid cancer. Further studies need to be conducted to evaluate the effect of healthcare expansion at a national level.
Wallace, Robin; Dehlendorf, Christine; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gold, Katherine J; Dalton, Vanessa K
Family physicians, as primary care providers for reproductive-aged women, frequently initiate or refer patients for management of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Safe and effective options for EPF treatment include expectant management, medical management with misoprostol, and aspiration in the office or operating room. Current practice does not appear to reflect patient preferences or to utilize the most cost-effective treatments. We compared characteristics and practice patterns among family physicians who do and do not provide multiple options for EPF care. We performed a secondary analysis of a national survey of women's health providers to describe demographic and practice characteristics among family physicians who care for women with EPF. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of providing more than one option for EPF management. The majority of family physicians provide only one option for EPF; expectant management was most frequently used among our survey respondents. Misoprostol and office-based aspiration were rarely used. Providing more than one option for EPF management was associated with more years in practice, smaller county population, larger proportions of Medicaid patients, intrauterine contraception provision, and prior training in office-based aspiration. Family physicians are capable of providing a comprehensive range of options for EPF management in the outpatient setting but few providers currently do so. To create a more patient-centered and cost-effective model of care for EPF, additional resources should be directed at education, skills training, and system change initiatives to prepare family physicians to offer misoprostol and office-based aspiration to women with EPF.
Theodros, Debebe; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Lim, Michael; Bettegowda, Chetan
Pituitary adenomas are among the most common central nervous system tumors. They represent a diverse group of neoplasms that may or may not secrete hormones based on their cell of origin. Epidemiologic studies have documented the incidence of pituitary adenomas within the general population to be as high as 16.7%. A growing body of work has helped to elucidate the pathogenesis of these tumors. Each subtype has been shown to demonstrate unique cellular changes potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Surgical advancements over several decades have included microsurgery and the employment of the endoscope for surgical resection. These advancements increase the likelihood of gross-total resection and have resulted in decreased patient morbidity. PMID:26497533
Marini, Roberta; Pacifici, Luciano
Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic benign jaws tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum, and pulp tissue. According to the World Health Organization classification, two distinct types of odontomas are acknowledged: complex and compound odontoma. In complex odontomas, all dental tissues are formed, but appeared without an organized structure. In compound odontomas, all dental tissues are arranged in numerous tooth-like structures known as denticles. Compound odontomas are often associated with impacted adjacent permanent teeth and their surgical removal represents the best therapeutic option. A case of a 20-year-old male patient with a compound odontoma-associated of impacted maxillary canine is presented. A minimally invasive surgical technique is adopted to remove the least amount of bone tissue as far as possible. PMID:26199762
Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Ferreira, Sabrina; Ferreira, Gabriel Ramalho; Coléte, Juliana Zorzi; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Garcia Júnior, Idelmo Rangel
Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is an intraosseous lesion consisting of fibrous cellular tissue that contains multiple foci of hemorrhage, multinucleated giant cells, and occasional trabeculae of woven bone. An 8-year-old boy presented himself complaining of a painless swelling in the left maxilla that had started 1 year. Computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed a poorly defined multilocular radiolucent lesion in the left maxilla crossing the midline. The patient underwent enucleation through an intraoral approach of the lesion. The biopsy revealed multinucleated giant cells in a fibrous stroma. A CT was taken approximately 1 year postoperatively. There was no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence. Therefore, surgical treatment of CGCG can be performed, trying to preserve the surrounding anatomic structures, which can be maintained in case the lesion does not show an aggressive clinical behavior, avoiding large surgical defects which are undesirable in children.
Talving, Peep; Nicol, Andrew J; Navsaria, Pradeep H
Low-velocity gunshot wounds cause most civilian duodenal injuries. The objective of this study was to describe a simplified surgical algorithm currently in use in a South African civilian trauma center and to verify its validity by measuring morbidity and mortality. A retrospective chart review of patients with duodenal gunshot injuries during the study period January 1999 to December 2003 was performed. Data points accrued included patient demographics, admission hemodynamic status and resuscitative measures, laparotomy damage control procedures, methods of surgical repair of the duodenal injury, associated injuries, length of intensive care and hospital stays, complications, and mortality. A total of 75 consecutive patients with gunshot injuries to the duodenum were reviewed. Primary repair was performed in 54 patients (87%), resection and reanastomosis in 7 (11%), and pancreatoduodenectomy in 1 (2%) during the initial phases. The overall morbidity and mortality were 58% and 28%, respectively. Duodenum-related complications were recorded in nine (15%) patients: two duodenal fistulas, one duodenal obstruction, and six cases of suture-line dehiscence. Overall and duodenum-related morbidity rates in patients with combined pancreatoduodenal injuries were 83% and 17%, respectively. Duodenum-related mortality occurred in three (4.8%) patients. Most civilian low-velocity duodenal gunshot injuries treated with simple primary repair result in overall morbidity, mortality, and duodenum-related complication rates comparable to those in reports where more complex surgical procedures were employed. Primary repair is also applicable for most combined pancreatic and duodenal gunshot injuries.
Gallot, V; Nedellec, S; Capmas, P; Legendre, G; Lejeune-Saada, V; Subtil, D; Nizard, J; Levêque, J; Deffieux, X; Hervé, B; Vialard, F
To establish recommendations for early recurrent miscarriages (≥3 miscarriages before 14weeks of amenorrhea). Literature review, establishing levels of evidence and recommendations for grades of clinical practice. Women evaluation includes the search for a diabetes (grade A), an antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (grade A), a thyroid dysfunction (grade A), a hyperprolactinemia (grade B), a vitamin deficiency and a hyperhomocysteinemia (grade C), a uterine abnormality (grade C), an altered ovarian reserve (grade C), and a couple chromosome analysis (grade A). For unexplained early recurrent miscarriages, treatment includes folic acid and progesterone supplementation, and a reinsurance policy in the first quarter (grade C). It is recommended to prescribe the combination of aspirin and low-molecular-weight heparin when APS (grade A), glycemic control in diabetes (grade A), L-Thyroxine in case of hypothyroidism (grade A) or the presence of thyroid antibodies (grade B), bromocriptine if hyperprolactinemia (grade B), a substitution for vitamin deficiency or hyperhomocysteinemia (grade C), sectionning a uterine septum (grade C) and treating an uterine acquired abnormality (grade C). These recommendations should improve the management of couples faced with early recurrent miscarriages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Verity, D H; Rose, G E
The active inflammatory phase of thyroid eye disease (TED) is mediated by the innate immune system, and management is aimed at aborting this self-limited period of autoimmune activity. In most patients with TED, ocular and adnexal changes are mild and management involves controlling thyroid dysfunction, cessation of smoking, and addressing ocular surface inflammation and exposure. In patients with acute moderate disease, this being sufficient to impair orbital functions, immunosuppression reduces the long-term sequelae of acute inflammation, and adjunctive fractionated low-dose orbital radiotherapy is used as a steroid-sparing measure. Elective surgery is often required following moderate TED, be it for proptosis, diplopia, lid retraction, or to debulk the eyelid, and this should be delayed until the disease is quiescent, with the patient stable and weaned off all immunosuppression. Thus, surgical intervention during the active phase of moderate disease is rarely indicated, although clinical experience suggests that, where there is significant orbital congestion, early orbital decompression can limit progression to more severe disease. Acute severe TED poses a major risk of irreversible loss of vision due to marked exposure keratopathy, 'hydraulic' orbital congestion, or compressive optic neuropathy. If performed promptly, retractor recession with or without a suture tarsorrhaphy protects the ocular surface from severe exposure and, in patients not responding to high-dose corticosteroid treatment, decompression of the deep medial orbital wall and floor can rapidly relieve compressive optic neuropathy, as well as alleviate the inflammatory and congestive features of raised orbital pressure.
Verity, D H; Rose, G E
The active inflammatory phase of thyroid eye disease (TED) is mediated by the innate immune system, and management is aimed at aborting this self-limited period of autoimmune activity. In most patients with TED, ocular and adnexal changes are mild and management involves controlling thyroid dysfunction, cessation of smoking, and addressing ocular surface inflammation and exposure. In patients with acute moderate disease, this being sufficient to impair orbital functions, immunosuppression reduces the long-term sequelae of acute inflammation, and adjunctive fractionated low-dose orbital radiotherapy is used as a steroid-sparing measure. Elective surgery is often required following moderate TED, be it for proptosis, diplopia, lid retraction, or to debulk the eyelid, and this should be delayed until the disease is quiescent, with the patient stable and weaned off all immunosuppression. Thus, surgical intervention during the active phase of moderate disease is rarely indicated, although clinical experience suggests that, where there is significant orbital congestion, early orbital decompression can limit progression to more severe disease. Acute severe TED poses a major risk of irreversible loss of vision due to marked exposure keratopathy, ‘hydraulic' orbital congestion, or compressive optic neuropathy. If performed promptly, retractor recession with or without a suture tarsorrhaphy protects the ocular surface from severe exposure and, in patients not responding to high-dose corticosteroid treatment, decompression of the deep medial orbital wall and floor can rapidly relieve compressive optic neuropathy, as well as alleviate the inflammatory and congestive features of raised orbital pressure. PMID:23412559
Anderson, Mark A; Simeone, F Joseph; Palmer, William E; Chang, Connie Y
To correlate MRI findings of patients with posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury and surgical management. A retrospective search yielded 79 acute PCL injuries (36 ± 16 years old, 21 F, 58 M). Two independent readers graded PCL tear location (proximal, middle, or distal third) and severity (low-grade or high-grade partial/complete) and evaluated injury of other knee structures. When available, operative reports were examined and the performed surgical procedure was compared with injury grade, location, and presence of associated injuries. The most commonly injured knee structures in acute PCL tears were posterolateral corner (58/79, 73%) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (48/79, 61%). Of the 64 patients with treatment information, 31/64 (48%) were managed surgically: 12/31 (39%) had PCL reconstruction, 13/31 (42%) had ACL reconstruction, 10/31 (32%) had posterolateral corner reconstruction, 9/31 (29%) had LCL reconstruction, 8/31 (26%) had meniscectomy, and 8/31 (26%) had fixation of a fracture. Proximal third PCL tear and multiligamentous injury were more commonly associated with surgical management (P < 0.05). Posterolateral and posteromedial corner, ACL, collateral ligament, meniscus, patellar retinaculum, and gastrocnemius muscle injury, and fracture were more likely to result in surgical management (P < 0.05). Patients with high-grade partial/complete PCL tear were more likely to have PCL reconstruction as a portion of surgical management (P < 0.05). Location of PCL tear and presence of other knee injuries were associated with surgical management while high-grade/complete PCL tear grade was associated with PCL reconstruction. MRI reporting of PCL tear location, severity, and of other knee structure injuries is important for guiding clinical management.
Sophonsritsuk, Areepan; Appt, Susan E; Clarkson, Thomas B; Shively, Carol A; Espeland, Mark A; Register, Thomas C
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of estrogen therapy (ET) on carotid artery inflammation when initiated early and late relative to surgical menopause. Female cynomolgus macaques consuming atherogenic diets were ovariectomized and randomized to control or oral estradiol (E2; human equivalent dose of 1 mg/d micronized E2) initiated at 1 month (early menopause, n = 24) or 54 months (late menopause, n = 40) after ovariectomy. The treatment period was 8 months. Carotid artery expression of the markers of monocyte/macrophages (CD68 and CD163), dendritic cells (CD83), natural killer cells (neural cell adhesion molecule-1), and interferon-γ was significantly lower in E2-treated animals in the early menopause group but not in the late menopause group (P < 0.05). In contrast, carotid artery transcripts for T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD25), interleukin-10, type I collagen, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and tumor necrosis factor-α were lower in E2-treated monkeys regardless of menopausal stage (P < 0.05). ET initiated soon after menopause inhibits macrophage accumulation in the carotid artery, an effect that is not observed when E2 is administered after several years of estrogen deficiency. No evidence for pro-inflammatory effects of late ET is observed. The results provide support for the timing hypothesis of postmenopausal ET with implications for the interpretation of outcomes in the Women's Health Initiative.
Young, John; Geraci, Travis; Milman, Steven; Maslow, Andrew; Jones, Richard N; Ng, Thomas
To reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection, Surgical Care Improvement Project 9 mandates the removal of urinary catheters within 48 hours postoperatively. In patients with thoracic epidural anesthesia, we sought to determine the rate of catheter reinsertion, the complications of reinsertion, and the factors associated with reinsertion. We conducted a prospective observational study of consecutive patients undergoing major pulmonary or esophageal resection with thoracic epidural analgesia over a 2-year period. As per Surgical Care Improvement Project 9, all urinary catheters were removed within 48 hours postoperatively. Excluded were patients with chronic indwelling catheter, patients with urostomy, and patients requiring continued strict urine output monitoring. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for urinary catheter reinsertion. Thirteen patients met exclusion criteria. Of the 275 patients evaluated, 60 (21.8%) required reinsertion of urinary catheter. There was no difference in the urinary tract infection rate between patients requiring reinsertion (1/60 [1.7%]) versus patients not requiring reinsertion (1/215 [0.5%], P = .389). Urethral trauma during reinsertion was seen in 1 of 60 patients (1.7%). After reinsertion, discharge with urinary catheter was required in 4 of 60 patients (6.7%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis found esophagectomy, lower body mass index, and benign prostatic hypertrophy to be independent risk factors associated with catheter reinsertion after early removal in the presence of thoracic epidural analgesia. When applying Surgical Care Improvement Project 9 to patients undergoing thoracic procedures with thoracic epidural analgesia, consideration to delayed removal of urinary catheter may be warranted in patients with multiple risk factors for reinsertion. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Okada, Noritaka; Oshima, Hideki; Narita, Yuji; Abe, Tomonobu; Araki, Yoshimori; Mutsuga, Masato; Fujimoto, Kazuro L; Tokuda, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihiko
Thoracic aortic operations still remain associated with substantial risks of death and neurologic injury. This study investigated the impact of surgical stroke on the early and late outcomes, focusing on the physical status and quality of life (QOL). From 1986 to 2008, 500 patients (aged 63 ± 13 years) underwent open thoracic aortic repair for root and ascending (31%), arch (39%), extended arch (10%), and descending and thoracoabdominal (19%) aneurysms. Brain protection consisted of retrograde cerebral perfusion (52%), antegrade cerebral perfusion (29%), and simple deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (19%). Surgical stroke was defined as a neurologic deficit persisting more than 72 hours after the operation. QOL was assessed with the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire 5.9 ± 4.2 years after the operation. Stroke occurred in 10.3% of patients. Hospital mortality was 21% in the stroke group and 2.7% in the nonstroke group (p < 0.001). At hospital discharge, 76% of survivors in the stroke group had permanent neurologic deficits (PNDs), with sustained tracheostomy in 39%, tube feeding in 46%, and gastrostomy in 14%, and 89% required transfer to other facilities. PND was an independent risk factor for late death (hazard ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 4.62; p = 0.041) in a multivariate analysis. The physical component of the QOL score was worse in the PND group (51% vs 100%; p = 0.039), whereas the mental component was similar in both groups (14% vs 14%). Surgical stroke is associated with high hospital mortality and PNDs that decrease late survival and the physical component score of the QOL survey. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bourgin, C; Saidani, M; Poupon, C; Cauchois, A; Foucher, F; Leveque, J; Lavoue, V
Endometrial cancer primarily affects elderly women. The aim of the present literature review is to define the population of elderly women with this disease and to define the characteristics of this cancer in elderly people as well as its surgical treatment. A systematic review of the English-language literature of the last 20 years indexed in the PubMed database. Endometrial cancer is more aggressive in elderly women. However, surgical staging performed in elderly patients is often not concomitant with the disease's aggressiveness in this group. Mini-invasive surgery is performed less often, for no obvious reason. Of note, oncogeriatric evaluation was not usually ruled out to determine the most appropriate surgical modality. Studies are needed to evaluate surgical management of endometrial cancer in elderly women, notably with the aid of oncogeriatric scores to predict surgical morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allahabadi, Sachin; Haroun, Kareem B.; Musher, Daniel M.; Lipsky, Benjamin A.; Barshes, Neal R.
Background The aim of this study was to develop consensus statements that may help share or even establish ‘best practices’ in the surgical aspects of managing diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) that can be applied in appropriate clinical situations pending the publication of more high-quality data. Methods We asked 14 panelists with expertise in DFO management to participate. Delphi methodology was used to develop consensus statements. First, a questionnaire elicited practices and beliefs concerning various aspects of the surgical management of DFO. Thereafter, we constructed 63 statements for analysis and, using a nine-point Likert scale, asked the panelists to indicate the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with the statements. We defined consensus as a mean score of greater than 7.0. Results The panelists reached consensus on 38 items after three rounds. Among these, seven provide guidance on initial diagnosis of DFO and selection of patients for surgical management. Another 15 statements provide guidance on specific aspects of operative management, including the timing of operations and the type of specimens to be obtained. Ten statements provide guidance on postoperative management, including wound closure and offloading, and six statements summarize the panelists’ agreement on general principles for surgical management of DFO. Conclusions Consensus statement on the perioperative management of DFO were formed with an expert panel comprised of a variety of surgical specialties. We believe these statements may serve as ‘best practice’ guidelines until properly performed studies provide more robust evidence to support or refute specific surgical management steps in DFO. PMID:27414481
Caes, Frank; Bové, Thierry; Van Belleghem, Yves; Vandenplas, Guy; Van Nooten, Guido; François, Katrien
OBJECTIVES We studied a contemporary cohort of adult patients treated surgically for infective endocarditis (IE) in order to evaluate the surgical approach and predictors of outcomes, in relation to the intercurrent adaptation of the 2006 ACC/AHA guidelines. METHODS One hundred and eighty-six consecutive patients operated on for active IE from August 1999 to September 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, surgical management and outcomes in the two study periods before and after January 2007 were compared (Period 1: n = 95 and Period 2: n = 91). RESULTS The mean (SD) follow-up was 4.3 (3.8) years and was 99.5% complete. Patients in Period 2 had more frequently associated coronary artery disease (31 vs 18%, P = 0.06), while the microbiology revealed more Staphylococcus species (43 vs 26%, P = 0.02), predominantly Staphylococcus aureus (31 vs 19%; P = 0.07), and less culture-negative cases (7 vs 17%; P = 0.05). The median delay between diagnosis and surgery was 7 days in Period 2 compared with 14 days in Period 1 (P = 0.001). Surgery in Period 2 included more root replacements for aortic valve endocarditis (11 vs 2%; P = 0.02) and mitral valve repairs (18 vs 5%; P = 0.01), while the use of homografts for aortic valve endocarditis was almost abandoned (1 vs 15%; P = 0.001). Hospital mortality was 13% and did not change significantly over both periods (P = 0.66). The independent predictors of hospital mortality were age (P = 0.03), female gender (P = 0.02), previous cardiac surgery (P = 0.02), preoperative serum creatinine level >2 mg/dl (P = 0.05), S. aureus infection (P = 0.02), emergent or salvage operation (P = 0.001) and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (P = 0.03). The 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year survival were 84, 72, 64 and 57%, respectively. Late survival was negatively influenced by S. aureus endocarditis (P < 0.001) and peripheral vascular disease (P = 0.03), whereas associated coronary artery disease (P = 0.07) had a strong impact
Fermaut, M; Nyangoh Timoh, K; Lebacle, C; Moszkowicz, D; Benoit, G; Bessede, T
Deep pelvic endometriosis surgery may need substantial excisions, which in turn expose to risks of injury to the pelvic nerves. To limit functional complications, nerve-sparing surgical techniques have been developed but should be adapted to the specific multifocal character of endometriotic lesions. The objective was to identify the anatomical areas where the pelvic nerves are most at risk of injury during endometriotic excisions. The Medline and Embase databases have been searched for available literature using the keywords "hypogastric nerve or hypogastric plexus [Mesh] or autonomic pathway [Mesh], anatomy, endometriosis, surgery [Mesh]". All relevant French and English publications, selected based on their available abstracts, have been reviewed. Five female adult fresh cadavers have been dissected to localize the key anatomical areas where the pelvic nerves are most at risk of injury. Six anatomical areas of high risk for pelvic nerves have been identified, analysed and described. Pelvic nerves can be damaged during the dissection of retrorectal space and the anterolateral rectal excision. Furthermore, before an uterosacral ligament excision, a parametrial excision, a colpectomy or a dissection of the vesico-uterine ligament, the hypogastric nerves, splanchnic nerves, inferior hypogastric plexus and its efferent pathways must be mapped out to avoid injury. The distance between the deep uterin vein and the pelvic splanchnic nerves were measured on four cadavers and varied from 2.5cm to 4cm. Six key anatomical pitfalls must be known in order to limit the functional complications of the endometriotic surgical excision. Applying nerve-sparing surgical techniques for endometriosis would lead to less urinary functional complications and a better short-term postoperative satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Davis, Frank M; Albright, Jeremy; Gallagher, Katherine A; Gurm, Hitinder S; Koenig, Gerald C; Schreiber, Theodore; Grossman, P Michael; Henke, Peter K
Acute limb ischemia (ALI) of the lower extremity is a potentially devastating condition that requires urgent and definitive management. This challenging scenario is often treated with endovascular, open surgical, or hybrid revascularization (HyR) in an urgent basis, but the comparative effects of such therapies remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of endovascular, open surgical, and HyR for ALI in the contemporary era. A large statewide cardiovascular consortium of 45 hospitals was queried for patients between January 2012 and June 2015 who underwent an endovascular, open surgical, or HyR for ALI deemed at high risk of limb loss if not treated within 24 hr (Rutherford class IIA or IIB). A propensity score weighted analysis was performed controlling for demographics, medical history, and procedure type for patients. The primary outcomes were 30-day morbidity and mortality. A total of 1,480 patients underwent endovascular revascularization (ER; n = 818), open surgical revascularization (OSR; n = 195), or hybrid revascularization (HyR; n = 467) for ALI. The mean age was similar across revascularization technique with an increased predominance of male gender in open surgery cohort. Comorbidities for all groups were consistent with peripheral arterial disease. The most common endovascular procedures were angioplasty (93%) and thrombolysis (49.8%), whereas the most common surgical revascularization was femoral to popliteal bypass (32.8%), femoral to tibial bypass (28.2%), and thrombectomy (19.0%); ER as compared with OSR and HyR procedures was associated with less transfusion (OSR versus ER, odds ratio [OR] 2.7; HyR versus ER, OR 2.8; P < 0.001) and major amputation (OSR versus ER, OR 3.4; HyR versus ER, OR 4.0; P < 0.001) within 30 days of intervention. There was no difference in 30-day freedom from reintervention, myocardial infarction (MI), or mortality. Among patients requiring urgent revascularization for Rutherford
Saltzman, Bryan M; Leroux, Timothy; Cole, Brian J
Isolated, full-thickness chondral lesions of the glenohumeral joint are a significant pathology encountered by laborers, athletes, and the elderly. A thorough history should be obtained in any patient presenting to the office with shoulder pain and concern for the etiology being an articular cartilage defect. The first-line imaging should include plain radiographs of the glenohumeral joint; MRI and CT can be ordered as necessary to provide greater detail. Typically, the initial treatment of glenohumeral chondral disease is nonsurgical; however, many surgical treatment options have been refined to provide pain relief, create reparative tissue, or restore the articular surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bertranou, Enrique; Davignon, André; Chartrand, Claude; Kratz, Christa; Stanley, Paul
We have reviewed the cases operated upon for correction of congenital aortic stenosis at l'Hôpital Ste-Justine between 1959 and 1969. Twenty-five of the 26 patients were readmitted for complete clinical, radiological and hemodynamic investigation. Fourteen had a valvular stenosis, eight a diaphragmatic subvalvular lesion, and three had mixed lesions. The results lead us to believe that the surgical treatment of this malformation is justified. The indications for surgery must take into account all available clinical, radiological, electrocardiographic and hemodynamic data. PMID:4107480
Lipke, K J
The face plays a central role in interpersonal communication and aesthetic perception. Moreover, due to the heavy dependence of ocular function on lid anatomy, the treatment of periocular injuries, particularly those involving soft tissue loss, requires profound knowledge of both anatomy and reconstructive plastic surgery. Numerous surgical procedures are described in the literature. The aim of these procedures is to achieve an optimal functional and aesthetic result according to injury localization and extent. Against this background, treating eyelid injuries presents certain challenges. Close collaboration between all areas of head surgery is required particularly in the case of large defects.
Borlase, B C; Baxter, J T; Benotti, P N; Stone, M; Wood, E; Forse, R A; Blackburn, G L; Steele, G
The rationing of medical care prioritizes the need for early predictors of death in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). We prospectively studied 100 consecutive SICU admissions, looking for predictors of early death in the SICU and the cost implications of these findings. Serial APACHE II scores on days 1, 3, and 5 were subjected to multinomial logistic regression analysis to determine significant predictors of death in the SICU on day 1. Survivors had significantly lower (p less than 0.05) mean day-1 APACHE II scores than had nonsurvivors (13.6 vs 22.1). Half of the patients with scores greater than 18 died, and all patients with scores on day 1 of 25 or greater died. Significant predictors of death on SICU day 1 were APACHE II scores, Acute Physiology Score, Glasgow Coma Score, creatinine level, and Chronic Health Evaluation Score. Forty-one patients had been transferred from community hospitals as a results of acute illness; this population accounted for two thirds of the deaths in the SICU. Ten of 18 nonsurvivors were predicted on day 1, with these patients incurring a total cost of approximately $1 million. If therapy had been modified on days 5, 10, or 15, the potential cost savings would have been $340,000, $240,000, or $140,000, respectively. Integration of the results of this study into the management decision-making process and treatment guidelines may reduce the cost of care in the SICU.
Salimi, Amrollah; Kooraki, Soheil; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad
Children often swallow foreign bodies. Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can result in serious complications. This study presents three unique cases of multiple magnet ingestion: one case an 8-year-old boy with multiple magnet ingestion resulting in gastric obstruction and the other two cases with intestinal perforations due to multiple magnet intake. History and physical examination are unreliable in children who swallow multiple magnets. Sometimes radiological findings are not conclusive, whether one magnet is swallowed or more. If magnets are not moved in sequential radiology images, we recommend early surgical intervention before gastrointestinal complications develop. Toy companies, parents, physicians, and radiologists should be warned about the potential complications of such toys.
Kruse, Tamara N; Bowman, Michelle R; Ramer, Jan C; Fayette, Melissa A; Greer, Leah L; Stadler, Cynthia K; Garner, Michael M; Proudfoot, Jeffry S
Uterine lesions in two orangutans were effectively managed with surgical intervention. A 26-year-old hybrid orangutan ( Pongo spp.) was diagnosed with uterine adenomyosis based on advanced imaging. Histologic evaluation identified multifocal myometrial endometriosis, a variant of adenomyosis. A 27-year-old Bornean orangutan ( Pongo pygmaeus) was diagnosed with a focal uterine fibroid based on histologic examination. The animals were housed at separate institutions and initially presented with dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia. Both animals were treated intermittently for episodes of dysmenorrhea, with recurrence of clinical signs after each treatment. Due to the lack of consistent response to medical management, an ovariohysterectomy in the hybrid orangutan and a myomectomy in the Bornean orangutan were performed and resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs. Surgical management of adenomyosis and neoplasia has previously been reported in nonhuman primates. These cases are the first known documentation of surgical management of multifocal myometrial endometriosis and a fibroid in orangutans.
Trillsch, Fabian; Ruetzel, Jan David; Herwig, Uwe; Doerste, Ulrike; Woelber, Linn; Grimm, Donata; Choschzick, Matthias; Jaenicke, Fritz; Mahner, Sven
Surgery is the cornerstone for clinical management of patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOT). As these patients have an excellent overall prognosis, perioperative morbidity is the critical point for decision making when the treatment strategy is developed and the primary surgical approach is defined. Clinical and surgical parameters of patients undergoing surgery for primary BOT at our institutions between 1993 and 2008 were analyzed with regard to perioperative morbidity depending on the surgical approach (laparotomy vs. laparoscopy). A total of 105 patients were analyzed (44 with primary laparoscopy [42%], 61 with primary laparotomy [58%]). Complete surgical staging was achieved in 33 patients at primary surgical approach (31.4%) frequently leading to formal indication of re-staging procedures. Tumor rupture was significantly more frequent during laparoscopy compared to laparotomy (29.5% vs. 13.1%, p = 0.038) but no other intraoperative complications were seen in laparoscopic surgery in contrast to 7 of 61 laparotomies (0% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.020). Postoperative complication rates were similar in both groups (19.7% vs. 18.2%, p = 0.848). Irrespective of the surgical approach, surgical management of BOT has acceptable rates of perioperative complications and morbidity. Choice of initial surgical approach can therefore be made independent of complication-concerns. As the recently published large retrospective AGO ROBOT study observed similar oncologic outcome for both approaches, laparoscopy can be considered for staging of patients with BOT if this appears feasible. An algorithm for the surgical management of BOT patients has been developed.
Klingensmith, Mary E; Potts, John R; Merrill, Walter H; Eberlein, Timothy J; Rhodes, Robert S; Ashley, Stanley W; Valentine, R James; Hunter, John G; Stain, Steven C
The Early Specialization Program (ESP) in surgery was designed by the American Board of Surgery, the American Board of Thoracic Surgery, and the Residency Review Committees for Surgery and Thoracic Surgery to allow surgical trainees dual certification in general surgery (GS) and either vascular surgery (VS) or cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) after 6 to 7 years of training. After more than 10 years' experience, this analysis was undertaken to evaluate efficacy. American Board of Surgery and American Board of Thoracic Surgery records of VS and CTS ESP trainees were queried to evaluate qualifying exam and certifying exam performance. Case logs were examined and compared with contemporaneous non-ESP trainees. Opinions of programs directors of GS, VS, and CTS and ESP participants were solicited via survey. Twenty-six CTS ESP residents have completed training at 10 programs and 16 VS ESP at 6 programs. First-time pass rates on American Board of Surgery qualifying and certifying exams were superior to time-matched peers; greater success in specialty specific examinations was also found. Trainees met required case minimums for GS despite shortened time in GS. By survey, 85% of programs directors endorsed satisfaction with ESP, and 90% endorsed graduate readiness for independent practice. Early Specialization Program participants report increased mentorship and independence, greater competence for practice, and overall satisfaction with ESP. Individuals in ESP programs in VS and CTS were successful in passing GS and specialty exams and achieving required operative cases, despite an accelerated training track. Programs directors and participants report satisfaction with the training and confidence that ESP graduates are prepared for independent practice. This documented success supports ESP training in any surgical subspecialty, including comprehensive GS. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malvasi, Antonio; Hurst, Brad S.; Tsin, Daniel A.; Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Dell'edera, Domenico; Cavallotti, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Gustapane, Sarah; Teigland, Chris M.; Mettler, Liselotte
The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes. PMID:22906340
Morales, Jose; Al Shahwan, Sami; Al Odhayb, Sami; Al Jadaan, Ibrahim; Edward, Deepak P.
Currently, there are numerous choices for the treatment of pediatric glaucoma depending on the type of glaucoma, the age of the patient, and other particularities of the condition discussed in this review. Traditionally, goniotomy and trabeculotomy ab externo have been the preferred choices of treatment for congenital glaucoma, and a variety of adult procedures adapted to children have been utilized for other types of pediatric glaucoma with variable results and complications. More recently, seton implantations of different types have become more popular to use in children, and newer techniques have become available including visualized cannulation and opening of Schlemm's canal, deep sclerectomy, trabectome, and milder more directed cyclodestructive procedures such as endolaser and transcleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation. This paper reviews the different surgical techniques currently available, their indications, results, and most common complications to allow the surgeon treating these conditions to make a more informed choice in each particular case. Although the outcome of surgical treatment in pediatric glaucoma has improved significantly, its treatment remains challenging. PMID:23738051
Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Mattila, Kimmo; Vaittinen, Samuli; Orava, Sakari
Tendon disorders are common problems in sports and are known to be difficult to treat. Only limited information is available concerning treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy. To the authors' knowledge, no histopathologic findings of proximal hamstring tendinosis have been published. Surgery (semimembranosus tenotomy and exploration of the sciatic nerve) is an effective treatment for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 103 cases of proximal hamstring tendinopathy in athletes (58 men, 32 women; 13 bilateral operations) with surgical treatment were included. The cases were retrospectively analyzed, and a 4-category rating system was used to evaluate the overall result. At the follow-up, the patients were asked about possible symptoms and their return to sports. Biopsy samples from 15 of the operated tendons were taken and analyzed by a pathologist. The average follow-up was 49 months (range, 12-156 months). The result was evaluated to be excellent in 62 cases, good in 30, fair in 5, and poor in 6. After surgery, 80 of the 90 patients were able to return to the same level of sporting activity as before the onset of the symptoms. This took a mean of 5 months (range, 2-12 months). Typical morphologic findings of tendinosis were found in all biopsy specimens. Given the good functional outcome and low complication rate, the authors present surgical treatment as a valuable option in proximal hamstring tendinopathy if conservative treatment fails.
Delrue, Stefan; Verhaert, Nicolas; Dinther, Joost van; Zarowski, Andrzej; Somers, Thomas; Desloovere, Christian; Offeciers, Erwin
The purpose of this study was to investigate etiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics of traumatic injuries of the middle ear ossicular chain and to evaluate hearing outcome after surgery. Thirty consecutive patients (31 ears) with traumatic ossicular injuries operated on between 2004 and 2015 in two tertiary referral otologic centers were retrospectively analyzed. Traumatic events, clinical features, ossicular lesions, treatment procedures, and audiometric results were evaluated. Air conduction (AC), bone conduction (BC), and air-bone gap (ABG) were analyzed preoperatively and postoperatively. Amsterdam Hearing Evaluation Plots (AHEPs) were used to visualize the individual hearing results. The mean age at the moment of trauma was 27.9±17.1 years (range, 2-75 years) and the mean age at surgery was 33.2±16.3 years (range, 5-75 years). In 10 cases (32.3%), the injury occurred by a fall on the head and in 9 (29.0%) by a traffic accident. Isolated luxation of the incus was observed in 8 cases (25.8%). Dislocation of the stapes footplate was seen in 4 cases (12.9%). The postoperative ABG closure to within 10 and 20 dB was 30% and 76.7%, respectively. Ossicular chain injury by direct or indirect trauma can provoke hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. As injuries are heterogeneous, they require a tailored surgical approach. In this study, the overall hearing outcome after surgical repair was favorable.
Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael; Nocera, Antony
The capacity for surgical teams to ensure their own safety when dealing with the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb is primarily determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type of event. This review article defines the associated radiological terminology with an emphasis on the personal safety of surgical team members in respect to the principles of radiological protection. The article also describes a technique for use of hand held radiation monitors and will discuss the identification and management of radiologically contaminated patients who may pose a significant danger to the surgical team. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The author gives an account of his experience of the use in some 1600 patients of adhesive polyurethane membrane, marketed as Op-site, both for skin closure and wound dressing, in combination, as a routine method of surgical wound management in a wide variety of surgical operations. The technique of utilising this method is described in detail, as also are the advantages for patients, nursing and medical staff. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6870136
Meier, Raphael P H; de Saussure, Wassila Oulhaci; Orci, Lorenzo A; Gutzwiller, Eveline M; Morel, Philippe; Ris, Frédéric; Schwenter, Frank
Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is characterized by a high rate of recurrence. In the present study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of patients managed either by conservative treatment or surgical operation for an episode of SBO. The outcomes of all patients hospitalized at a single center for acute SBO between 2004 and 2007 were assessed. The occurrence of recurrent hospitalization, surgery, SBO symptoms at home, and mortality was determined. Among 221 patients admitted with SBO, 136 underwent a surgical procedure (surgical group) and 85 were managed conservatively (conservative group). Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups. The median follow-up time (interquartile range) was 4.7 (3.7-5.8) years. Nineteen patients (14.0 %) of the surgical group were hospitalized for recurrent SBO versus 25 (29.4 %) of the conservative group [hazard ratio (HR), 0.5; 95 % CI, 0.3-0.9]. The need for a surgical management of a new SBO episode was similar between the two groups, ten patients (7.4 %) in the surgical group and six patients (7.1 %) in the conservative group (HR, 1.1; 95 % CI, 0.4-3.1). Five-year mortality from the date of hospital discharge was not significantly different between the two groups (age- and sex-adjusted HR, 1.1; 95 % CI, 0.6-2.1). A follow-up evaluation was obtained for 130 patients. Among them, 24 patients (34.8 %) of the surgical group and 35 patients (57.4 %) of the conservative group had recurrent SBO symptoms (odds ratio, 0.4; 95 % CI, 0.2-0.8). The recurrence of SBO symptoms and new hospitalizations were significantly lower after surgical management of SBO compared with conservative treatment.
Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Barbosa, Nuno Camelo; Tuteja, Sanesh; Gardon, Roland; Daggett, Matt; Monnot, Damien; Kajetanek, Charles; Thaunat, Mathieu
Background: Rectus femoris injuries are common among athletes, especially in kicking sports such as soccer; however, proximal rectus femoris avulsions in athletes are a relatively rare entity. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to describe and report the results of an original technique of surgical excision of the proximal tendon remnant followed by a muscular suture repair. Our hypothesis was that this technique limits the risk of recurrence in high-level athletes and allows for rapid recovery without loss of quadriceps strength. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Our retrospective series included 5 players aged 31.8 ± 3.9 years with acute proximal rectus femoris avulsion injuries who underwent a surgical resection of the proximal tendon between March 2012 and June 2014. Four of these players had recurrent rectus femoris injuries in the 9 months before surgery, while 1 player had surgery after a first injury. Mean follow-up was 18.2 ± 12.6 months, and minimum follow-up was 9 months. We analyzed the age, sex distribution, physical examination outcomes, type and mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and complications during surgery, postoperative follow-up, and time to return to play. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Marx scores were obtained at 3-month follow-up, and isokinetic tests were performed before return to sports. A telephone interview was completed to determine the presence of recurrence at an average follow-up of 18.2 months. Results: At 3-month follow-up, all patients had Marx activity scores of 16 and LEFS scores of 80. Return to the previous level of play occurred at a mean of 15.8 ± 2.6 weeks after surgery, and none of the athletes suffered a recurrence. Isokinetic test results were comparable between both sides. Conclusion: The surgical treatment of proximal rectus femoris avulsions, consisting of resection of the tendinous part of the muscle, is a reliable and safe technique allowing a
Waltho, Daniel; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas
Gynecomastia is a common deformity of the male breast, where certain cases warrant surgical management. There are several surgical options, which vary depending on the breast characteristics. To guide surgical management, several classification systems for gynecomastia have been proposed. A systematic review was performed to (1) identify all classification systems for the surgical management of gynecomastia, and (2) determine the adequacy of these classification systems to appropriately categorize the condition for surgical decision-making. The search yielded 1012 articles, and 11 articles were included in the review. Eleven classification systems in total were ascertained, and a total of 10 unique features were identified: (1) breast size, (2) skin redundancy, (3) breast ptosis, (4) tissue predominance, (5) upper abdominal laxity, (6) breast tuberosity, (7) nipple malposition, (8) chest shape, (9) absence of sternal notch, and (10) breast skin elasticity. On average, classification systems included two or three of these features. Breast size and ptosis were the most commonly included features. Based on their review of the current classification systems, the authors believe the ideal classification system should be universal and cater to all causes of gynecomastia; be surgically useful and easy to use; and should include a comprehensive set of clinically appropriate patient-related features, such as breast size, breast ptosis, tissue predominance, and skin redundancy. None of the current classification systems appears to fulfill these criteria.
Niddam, J; Bosc, R; Hersant, B; Bouhassira, J; Meningaud, J-P
Necrotizing cellulitis (NC) is a severe infection of the skin and soft tissues, requiring an urgent multidisciplinary approach. We aimed to clarify the surgical management of NC in French plastic surgery departments. Thirty-two French plastic surgery departments were invited to complete a survey sent by email. Questions focused on diagnostic and therapeutic management of NC in France. Twenty-five plastic surgery departments completed the survey (78%) and each center had a lead plastic surgeon. Overall, 88% of surgeons declared to have managed at least five NC patients within the year. The plastic surgeon was the lead surgical specialist for NC in 80% of cases. Conversely, 76% of interviewed facilities reported not to have any lead medical specialist. Time between surgical indication and surgical management was less than six hours in 92% of cases. Overall, 24% of responding facilities declared that access to the operating room never delayed management. Finally, 80% of facilities declared to be in favor of dedicated care pathways to improve the management of necrotizing cellulitis patients. Our study results highlight the heterogeneity of necrotizing cellulitis management in France. The lack of a dedicated care pathway may lead to diagnostic and treatment delays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The prevalence of chest wall invasion by non-small cell lung cancer is < 10% in published surgical series. The role of radiation or chemotherapy around the complete resection of lung cancer invading the chest wall, excluding the superior sulcus of the chest, is poorly defined. Survival of patients with lung cancer invading the chest wall is dependent on lymph node involvement and completeness of en-bloc resection. In some patients harboring T3N0 disease, 5-year survival in excess of 50% can be achieved. Offering en-bloc resection of lung cancer invading chest wall to patients with T3N1 or T3N2 disease is controversial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goldstein, Christina L; Brodke, Darrel S; Choma, Theodore J
Osteoporosis, the most common form of metabolic bone disease, leads to alterations in bone structure and density that have been shown to compromise the strength of spinal instrumentation. In addition, osteoporosis may contribute to high rates of fracture and instrumentation failure after long posterior spinal fusions, resulting in proximal junctional kyphosis and recurrent spinal deformity. As increasing numbers of elderly patients present for surgical intervention for degenerative and traumatic spinal pathologies, current and future generations of spine surgeons will increasingly be faced with the challenge of obtaining adequate fixation in osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with the impact of osteoporosis on spinal instrumentation, the broad variety of techniques that have been developed for addressing these issues, and the biomechanical and clinical evidence in support of the use of these techniques.
Stephen, Antonia E; Mannstadt, Michael; Hodin, Richard A
Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common clinical entity, with approximately 100 000 new cases diagnosed each year in the United States. Most patients with pHPT have a relatively mild form of the disease and present with few if any overt signs or symptoms. This has led to a dilemma regarding which patients should be considered for parathyroid surgery. In this article, we review the established literature on the indications for surgery in asymptomatic pHPT and discuss the most recent consensus conference guidelines. The reviewed literature suggests that there were improved outcomes among patients with asymptomatic pHPT who underwent curative surgery. Most patients with pHPT should be considered for parathyroidectomy. More randomized clinical trials are needed to strongly support a surgical recommendation for all asymptomatic patients with pHPT.
Lambeth, R R; Dart, A J; Vogelnest, L; Dart, C M; Hodgson, D R
A captive Malayan tapir was observed to have inappetence, weight loss, signs of depression, mild dehydration and diarrhoea. Haematological and serum biochemical tests showed anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, hyperfibrinogenaemia and neutrophilia with a left shift. Ultrasonic examination of the abdomen under anaesthesia revealed a well-encapsulated abscess. The abscess was marsupialised to the ventral body wall. Culture of the pus produced a mixed bacterial growth. Antimicrobial therapy was based on bacterial sensitivity results. Follow-up ultrasonic examinations showed resolution of the abscess. Ninety-one days after surgery the tapir began regurgitating food and water. An abscess originating from the stomach and occluding the lumen of the duodenum was identified at surgery. The abscess ruptured during surgical manipulations and the tapir was euthanased.
Dallan, Iacopo; Seccia, Veronica; Bruschini, Luca; Ciancia, Eugenio; Franceschini, Stefano Sellari
Branchial cleft anomalies represent a common cause of cervical mass in adults. Describing a case report, we reviewed embryology, clinical elements, and treatment options for parapharyngeal congenital cysts. A case of a parapharyngeal cyst mimicking a tonsillar abscess is presented. A second branchial cleft cyst was hypothesized on a clinical and radiologic basis and then confirmed by histologic data. Magnetic resonance imaging provided fundamental information for the study of the parapharyngeal mass and its relationship with surrounding structures. In literature, surgical excision is the recommended therapy. We removed the cyst through a transcervical approach, with no complications or recurrence after 3 years. In our opinion, cervicotomy should be considered the gold standard approach, even for lesions not palpable in the cervical area. When dealing with a parapharyngeal cyst, second branchial cleft anomalies should be considered. Our experience confirms that cervicotomy is a safe approach to parapharyngeal congenital lesions.
Armstrong, David G; Lipsky, Benjamin A
Foot complications are common among diabetic patients; foot ulcers are among the more serious consequences. These ulcers frequently become infected, with potentially disastrous progression to deeper spaces and tissues. If not treated promptly and appropriately, diabetic foot infections can become incurable or even lead to septic gangrene, which may require foot amputation. Diagnosing infection in a diabetic foot ulcer is based on clinical signs and symptoms of inflammation. Properly culturing an infected lesion can disclose the pathogens and provide their antibiotic susceptibilities. Specimens for culture should be obtained after wound debridement to avoid contamination and optimise identification of pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common isolate in these infections; the increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus over the past two decades has further complicated antibiotic treatment. While chronic infections are often polymicrobial, many acute infections in patients not previously treated with antibiotics are caused by a single pathogen, usually a gram-positive coccus. We offer a stepwise approach to treating diabetic foot infections. Most patients must first be medically stabilised and any metabolic aberrations should be addressed. Antibiotic therapy is not required for uninfected wounds but should be carefully selected for all infected lesions. Initial therapy is usually empirical but may be modified according to the culture and sensitivity results and the patient's clinical response. Surgical intervention is usually required in cases of retained purulence or advancing infection despite optimal medical therapy. Possible additional indications for surgical procedures include incision and drainage of an abscess, debridement of necrotic material, removal of any foreign bodies, arterial revascularisation and, when needed, amputation. Most foot ulcers occur on the plantar surface of the foot, thus requiring a plantar incision for any drainage
Novoa, Nuria M; Varela, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Marcelo F
The oligometastatic stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers a new surgical opportunity. New reported data is showing that surgery can offer a reasonable benefit, in terms of long-term survival, to some patients. The advantages of surgical treatment rely on a more adequate patient selection and a better understanding of the biology of these tumors. Currently, mediastinal involvement of the primary tumor can be identified as the most important prognostic variable after curative-intent of synchronous or metachronous metastasis. It seems clear that the routine use of combined FDG-PET and CT will help to detect the more favorable cohort of oligometastatic patients. As expected, pathological T staging of the primary tumor and the completeness of its resection are also crucial factors influencing final results. The real benefit of the local treatment over synchronous or metachronous metastasis is controversial with series showing better outcomes for metachronous lesions than for synchronous and others offering equal results. Also non conclusive results appear when analyzing different sites of metastasis. Retrospective series tend to show different outcomes depending on the affected organ while usually no differences are found in prospective ones. Most of the current evidence is based on retrospective studies on patients collected along extended periods of time. That represents a great limitation to the knowledge on this topic. Some prospective analyses have added some insight, but still the quality of the evidence is too low to allow drawing robust conclusions. As frequently concluded, prospective well designed investigation is requested to ascertain the value of surgery in this specific population of patients with extended NSCLC.
Ahmed, Firdos; Jash, Prabir Kumar; Gupta, Madhumita; Suba, Santanu
Context Functionality of the hands is the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors. If contractures or scarring affect the dominant hand, as they do on most occasions, the vocation and there by the economic status of the patient suffer. Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the different surgical procedures for resurfacing after release of post-burn hand contractures in terms of functional recovery and aesthetic outcome. Settings and Design It’s a prospective, non-randomised study of 50 patients admitted and undergoing surgical reconstructive procedures for post burn hand contractures in our plastic surgery department. Materials and Methods Resurfacing procedures were done according to type of contracture with individualisation for each case. All cases were followed up with physiotherapy and splinting advices. Functional and aesthetic outcome and recurrence of contracture for each procedure was noted at 6 months. Results Forty seven percent of the cases were reconstructed with skin grafting, 30% cases with Z plasties and 23% with flap coverage. Split thickness skin grafts (STSG) and full thickness graft (FTSG) reconstructed cases had good recovery of joint mobility in 43% and 75% of cases respectively. Reconstructive procedures were aesthetically acceptable to the patients in 63%, 75% and 94% of STSG, FTSG and Z plasty cases respectively. Recurrence was seen in 17% of STSG done cases. Conclusion Most of the cases can be resurfaced with skin grafting and few cases have clear indication for flap coverage which needs to be planned and executed cautiously. Z plasties with proper planning gives maximum length gain with no donor morbidity as other procedures. Postoperative physiotherapy and splinting is must for better outcome in all cases. PMID:26435994
Pennock, Andrew T; Edmonds, Eric W; Bae, Donald S; Kocher, Mininder S; Li, Ying; Farley, Frances A; Ellis, Henry B; Wilson, Philip L; Nepple, Jeffrey; Gordon, J Eric; Willimon, Samuel C; Busch, Michael T; Spence, David D; Kelly, Derek M; Pandya, Nirav K; Sabatini, Coleen S; Shea, Kevin G; Heyworth, Benton E
Clavicle nonunions in adolescent patients are exceedingly rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a series of clavicle nonunions from a pediatric multicenter study group to assess potential risk factors and treatment outcomes. A retrospective review of all clavicle nonunions in patients younger than 19 years was performed at 9 pediatric hospitals between 2006 and 2016. Demographic and surgical data were documented. Radiographs were evaluated for initial fracture classification, displacement, shortening, angulation, and nonunion type. Clinical outcomes were evaluated, including rate of healing, time to union, return to sports, and complications. Risk factors for nonunion were assessed by comparing the study cohort with a separate cohort of age-matched patients with a diaphyseal clavicle fracture. There were 25 nonunions (mean age, 14.5 years; range, 10.0-18.9 years) identified, all of which underwent surgical fixation. Most fractures were completely displaced (68%) initially, but 21% were partially displaced and 11% were nondisplaced. Bone grafting was performed in 24 of 25 cases, typically using the hypertrophic callus. Radiographic healing was achieved in 96% of cases. One patient (4%) required 2 additional procedures to achieve union. The primary risk factor for development of a nonunion was a previous history of an ipsilateral clavicle fracture. Clavicle nonunions can occur in the adolescent population but are an uncommon clinical entity. The majority occur in male patients with displaced fractures, many of whom have sustained previous fractures of the same clavicle. High rates of union were achieved with plate fixation and the use of bone graft. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miesner, Matt D; Anderson, David E
Procedures to improve animal and handler safety, shape production parameters, and directly address the prosperity of individuals in need of assistance are performed routinely. Techniques to accomplish these tasks have been described in many venues. Painful procedures are expected in feedlot practice. Assessing and managing pain and welfare for these procedures has strengthened significantly over the past decade to address increased public concerns and also to support the desires of the operators/managers to progress. Methods to perform common procedures are described, including evidence and techniques for managing the pain and distress while performing them. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Obeidat, Rana F; Dickerson, Suzanne S; Homish, Gregory G; Alqaissi, Nesreen M; Lally, Robin M
Despite the fact that breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Jordanian women, practically nothing is known about their perceptions of early-stage breast cancer and surgical treatment. The objective of this study was to gain understanding of the diagnosis and surgical treatment experience of Jordanian women with a diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used for this study. A purposive sample of 28 Jordanian women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer within 6 months of the interview was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Fear had a profound effect on Jordanian women's stories of diagnosis and surgical treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Women's experience with breast cancer and its treatment was shaped by their preexisting fear of breast cancer, the disparity in the quality of care at various healthcare institutions, and sociodemographic factors (eg, education, age). Early after the diagnosis, fear was very strong, and women lost perspective of the fact that this disease was treatable and potentially curable. To control their fears, women unconditionally trusted God, the healthcare system, surgeons, family, friends, and/or neighbors and often accepted treatment offered by their surgeons without questioning. Jordanian healthcare providers have a responsibility to listen to their patients, explore meanings they ascribe to their illness, and provide women with proper education and the support necessary to help them cope with their illness.
Kass, Jason I; Giraldez, Laureano; Gooding, William; Choby, Garret; Kim, Seungwon; Miles, Brett; Teng, Marita; Sikora, Andrew G; Johnson, Jonas T; Myers, Eugene N; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Genden, Eric M; Ferris, Robert L
The purpose of this study was to characterize oncologic outcomes in early (T1-T2, N0) and intermediate (T1-T2, N1) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after surgery. Patients with oropharyngeal SCC treated with surgery were identified from 2 academic institutions. Of 188 patients, 143 met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-six (60%) had T1 to T2 N0 and 57 (40%) had T1 to T2 N1 disease. Sixty-five patients (45%) underwent a robotic-assisted resection, whereas the remaining had transoral (n = 60; 42%), mandible-splitting (n = 11; 8%), or transhyoid approaches (n = 7; 5%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) status was known for 97 patients (68%), and 54 (55%) were HPV positive. Three-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.89). Since 2008, HPV infection was protective of recurrence (log-rank p = .0334). A single node did not increase the risk of recurrence (p = .467) or chance of a second primary (p = .175). Complete surgical resection is effective therapy for early and intermediate oropharyngeal SCC. HPV-negative patients were at increased risk for locoregional recurrence or second primary disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: First-1471, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Grundmann, R T; Petersen, M; Lippert, H; Meyer, F
This review comments on epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of surgical management in patients with acute abdomen. DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: The most common cause of acute abdominal pain is non-specific abdominal pain (24 - 44.3 % of the study populations), followed by acute appendicitis (15.9 - 28.1 %), acute biliary disease (2.9 - 9.7 %) and bowel obstruction or diverticulitits in elderly patients. Acute appendicitis represents the cause of surgical intervention in two-thirds of the children with acute abdomen. A standardised physical examination combined with ultrasonography (US) represents the initial investigation in patients with acute abdominal pain. Due to the risk associated with radiation and due to the costs, a selective use of CT imaging is recommended. The work-flow given in this paper restricts the use of CT imaging to less than 50 % of patients with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered in patients without a specific diagnosis after appropriate imaging and as an alternative to active clinical observation which is the current practice in patients with non-specific abdominal pain. Acute small bowel obstruction has previously been considered as a relative contraindication for laparoscopic management, but it has been shown in the meantime that laparoscopic treatment is an elegant tool for the management of simple band small bowel obstruction. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute abdomen or sepsis of unknown origin, in suspicion of acute cholecystitis, diffuse gut hypoperfusion and mesenteric ischaemia or in refractory lactic acidosis, especially after cardiac surgery. Early administration of analgesia to patients with acute abdominal pain in the emergency department will reduce the patient's discomfort without impairing clinically important diagnostic accuracy and is recommended on the basis of some prospective randomised trials. However, the impact on
Capuano, G P; Capuano, C
The objective of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries to guide their surgical management. 64 patients with hydroceles were operated in 2009-2010, in Level II hospitals (WHO classification), during two visits to Fiji, by the same mobile surgical team. The number of hydroceles treated was 83. We developed and evaluated a much needed clinical classification of hydroceles based on four criteria: Type (uni/bilateral); Side (left/right); Stage of enlargement of the scrotum rated from I to VI; Grade of burial of the penis rated from 0 to 4. It lead to the conclusion that 1) A Stage I or II hydrocele, associated with Grade 0 or 1 penis burial could be considered a "Simple Hydrocele". The surgical treatment is simple with no anticipated early complication. WHO Level II of health care structure seems adapted. 2) A Stage III or IV hydrocele associated with Grade 2, 3 or 4 penis burial could be considered a "Complicated Hydrocele". The operation is longer, more complicated and the possibility of occurrence of complications seems greater. A level III health care facility would be more adapted under the normal functioning of the health system. We conclude that a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles based on the Stage of enlargement of the scrotum and the Grade of burial of the penis appears to be a useful tool to guide the decision about the level of care and the surgical technique required. We use the same classification for penoscrotal lymphoedema. A decision tree is presented for the management of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries which could usefully complement the "Algorithm for management of scrotal swelling" proposed by WHO in 2002. An international classification system of hydroceles would also allow standardization and facilitate study design and comparisons of their results.
Burssa, Daniel; Teshome, Atlibachew; Iverson, Katherine; Ahearn, Olivia; Ashengo, Tigistu; Barash, David; Barringer, Erin; Citron, Isabelle; Garringer, Kaya; McKitrick, Victoria; Meara, John; Mengistu, Abraham; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Reynolds, Cheri; Shrime, Mark; Varghese, Asha; Esseye, Samson; Bekele, Abebe
Recognizing the unmet need for surgical care in Ethiopia, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) has pioneered innovative methodologies for surgical system development with Saving Lives through Safe Surgery (SaLTS). SaLTS is a national flagship initiative designed to improve access to safe, essential and emergency surgical and anaesthesia care across all levels of the healthcare system. Sustained commitment from the FMOH and their recruitment of implementing partners has led to notable accomplishments across the breadth of the surgical system, including but not limited to: (1) Leadership, management and governance-a nationally scaled surgical leadership and mentorship programme, (2) Infrastructure-operating room construction and oxygen delivery plan, (3) Supplies and logistics-a national essential surgical procedure and equipment list, (4) Human resource development-a Surgical Workforce Expansion Plan and Anaesthesia National Roadmap, (5) Advocacy and partnership-strong FMOH partnership with international organizations, including GE Foundation's SafeSurgery2020 initiative, (6) Innovation-facility-driven identification of problems and solutions, (7) Quality of surgical and anaesthesia care service delivery-a national peri-operative guideline and WHO Surgical Safety Checklist implementation, and (8) Monitoring and evaluation-a comprehensive plan for short-term and long-term assessment of surgical quality and capacity. As Ethiopia progresses with its commitment to prioritize surgery within its Health Sector Transformation Plan, disseminating the process and outcomes of the SaLTS initiative will inform other countries on successful national implementation strategies. The following article describes the process by which the Ethiopian FMOH established surgical system reform and the preliminary results of implementation across these eight pillars.
Shephard, David A.E.; Grogono, Basil J.S.
A casebook written by Dr. John Mackieson (1795–1885), of Charlottetown, contains the records of 49 surgical cases he managed between 1826 and 1857. In view of the rarity of first-hand accounts of surgical practice in Canada in the mid-19th century, Mackieson’s case records are a significant source of information. These cases are discussed in order to delineate Mackieson’s approach to the surgical problems he faced in his general practice. His case records also illustrate some of the general problems that beset surgeons in that era. PMID:11939660
Early Systems Engineering: Strategic Information Management Review 2 Table of Contents Executive Summary...5 Center for Systems Engineering (CSE) .............................................................................. 6...Collaborative Early Systems Engineering .......................................................................... 6 Development Planning
Tipirneni, Kiranya E.; Woodworth, Bradford A.
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to provide otolaryngologists with the most up-to-date advancements in both the medical and surgical management of CF-related sinus disease. Recent findings Recent studies have supported more aggressive CRS management, often with a combination of both medical and surgical therapies. Comprehensive treatment strategies have been shown to reduce hospital admissions secondary to pulmonary exacerbations in addition to improving CRS symptoms. Still, current management strategies are lacking in both high-level evidence and standardized guidelines. Summary The unified airway model describes the bi-directional relationship between the upper and lower airways as a single functional unit and suggests that CRS may play a pivotal role in both the development and progression of lower airway disease. Current strategies for CF CRS focus primarily on amelioration of symptoms with antibiotics, nasal saline and/or topical medicated irrigations, and surgery. However, there are no definitive management guidelines and there remains a persistent need for additional studies. Nevertheless, otolaryngologists have a significant role in the overall management of CF, which requires a multi-disciplinary approach and a combination of both surgical and medical interventions for optimal outcomes of airway disease. Here we present a review of currently available literature and summarize medical and surgical therapies best suited for the management of CF-related sinus disease. PMID:28989817
Ergin, Giray; Kirac, Mustafa; Unsal, Ali; Kopru, Burak; Yordam, Mustafa; Biri, Hasan
In spite of the fact that urologic surgical techniques used by urologists are becoming more and more minimally invasive and easier because of developing technologies, surgical approaches for the urinary stones in kidneys with abnormal anatomy are still confusing. The objective of this article is to determine the treatment options in these kidneys. For this purpose, between 2005 and 2015, we retrospectively evaluated patients operated for urolithiasis with various congenital renal anomalies in five referral urology clinics in our country. Of the 178 patients (110 male, 60 female), 96 had horseshoe kidneys, 42 had pelvic ectopic kidneys (PEKs), and 40 had isolated rotation anomalies (IRAs) of the kidney. We evaluated the patients for stone-free rate (SFR), mean operation time, mean hospitalization time, and complication rate. In horseshoe kidney, SFRs for retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) groups were 72.2% and 90%, respectively. In PEKs, these rates were 83.6% and 100% for RIRS and laparoscopic pyelolithotomy, respectively. SFRs in kidneys with IRA were 75% for RIRS and 83.3% for PNL. The mean operation time for RIRS and PNL groups in horseshoe kidney was 40.5±11.2 minutes and 74.5±19.3 minutes, respectively. In PEKs, these times were 52.1±19.3 minutes and 53.1±24.3 minutes for RIRS and laparoscopic pyelolithotomy, respectively. Mean operation time in kidneys with IRA was 48.7±14.4 minutes for RIRS and 53.2±11.3 minutes for PNL. Mean hospitalization times for RIRS and PNL groups in horseshoe kidneys were 1.4±0.7 days and 2.2±1.4 days, respectively. In PEKs, these times were 2.7±1.8 days and 1.9±0.4 days for RIRS and laparoscopic pyelolithotomy, respectively. Mean operation time in kidneys with IRA was 1.5±0.9 days for RIRS and 1.8±0.6 days for PNL. The results of our study showed that RIRS could be used in all of types of abnormal kidneys with small- and medium-sized renal calculi safely and satisfactorily
. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult to reach, despite performing a bronchoscopy or a transparietal needle aspiration. Different classifications have been proposed for PIP. Either medical, radiation or surgical therapy has been used for PIP. Whenever possible, surgery should be considered the standard treatment. Complete surgical resection is advocated to prevent recurrence. PMID:21345228
Fonseca, Elizabeth; Georgiev, Stanimir G; Gorenflo, Matthias; Loukanov, Tsvetomir S
Patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates leads to significant morbidity. Surgery is indicated when pharmacological treatment fails or is contraindicated, but the optimal timing remains unclear. We retrospectively studied all 41 preterm neonates with symptomatic ductus arteriosus who underwent ligation between 1988 and 2009. We compared early complications rates and late neurological outcomes of patients operated on before 21 days of age with these operated on later. The median gestational age at birth was 26 weeks (range 23-31 weeks) and median weight at birth was 930 g (range 510-1500 g); 34 (82.9%) received pharmacological treatment before surgery. Fourteen (34.1%) patients underwent surgical closure before 21 days of age and 27 (65.9%) after 21 days. The 2 groups did not differ significantly in gestational age and weight at birth, but those operated on after 21 days received significantly more pharmacological treatment cycles. Patients in the early closure group had shorter intubation times: median 23 days (range 13-35 days) vs. 43 days (range 27-84 days; p < 0.001) and shorter neonatal intensive care unit stay: median 44 days (range 31-66 days) vs. 76 days (range 41-97 days; p < 0.001), with significantly lower rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and acute renal failure, and significantly better neurological outcomes. Performing early ligation of symptomatic ductus arteriosus after unsuccessful pharmacological therapy in preterm neonates might lower complication rates and improve neurological outcome. Prospective randomized studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment.
Tomulescu, V; Stănciulea, O; Dima, S; Herlea, V; Stoica Mustafa, E; Dumitraşcu, T; Pechianu, C; Popescu, I
Neuroendocrine tumors, known as carcinoid tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They secrete peptides and neuroamines that cause specific clinical syndromes. Assessment of specific or general tumors markers offers high sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis and they also have prognostic significance. Management strategies include curative surgery, whenever possible-that can be rarely achieved, palliative surgery, chemotherapy, radiologic therapy, such as radiofrequency ablation and chemoembolisations and somatostatin analogues therapy in order to control the symptoms. The aim of this paper is to review recent publications in this field and to give recommendations that take into account current advances in order to facilitate improvement in management and outcome.
Givens, Daniel J; Buchmann, Luke O; Park, Albert H
To review our experience treating hypopharyngeal branchial anomalies utilizing an open transcervical approach that: (1) includes recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) monitoring and identification if needed; (2) resection of tract if present; and (3) a superiorly based sternothyroid muscle flap for closure. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all patients at a tertiary level children's hospital with branchial anomalies from 2005 to 2014. The clinical presentation, evaluation, treatment and outcome were analyzed for those patients with hypopharyngeal branchial anomalies. Forty-seven patients who underwent excision of branchial anomalies with a known origin were identified. Thirteen patients had hypopharyngeal branchial anomalies. Six of these patients were treated by the authors of this study and are the focus of this analysis. All six underwent an open transcervical procedure with a sternothyroid muscle flap closure of a piriform sinus opening over a nine year period. Definitive surgery included a microlaryngoscopy and an open transcervical approach to close a fistula between the piriform sinus and neck with recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring or dissection. A superiorly based sternothyroid muscle flap was used to close the sinus opening. There were no recurrences, recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries or other complications from these procedures. This study supports complete surgical extirpation of the fistula tract using an open cervical approach, recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring or identification, and rotational muscle flap closure to treat patients with hypopharyngeal branchial anomalies. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Osborn, David James; Martinez, Andy J; Jezior, James R
To assess the efficacy and safety of circumferential cremasteric lysis in the treatment of adult symptomatic retractile testicles. This is a retrospective chart review of all patients who had undergone circumferential cremasteric lysis at a single institution performed by a single surgeon between January 2010 and December 2011. We evaluated the etiology, pre- and postoperative pain intensity, postoperative pain alleviation, and any surgical complications. We used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare pain levels before and at last follow-up after surgery. Eight patients (mean age, 31.5 ± 10.60; range, 22-51 years) underwent circumferential cremasteric lysis. The procedure resulted in a clinically meaningful and statistically significant difference in postoperative pain intensity. The mean pain levels decreased from 5.6 (preoperatively) to 1.5 (at last follow-up) (5.6 vs 1.5, P < .01, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The mean follow-up was 21.63 ± 13.70 months (range, 9-50 months). Four patients (50%) reported complete resolution and four (50%) reported partial resolution of their testicular pain at last follow-up. In this limited retrospective study, we demonstrated that circumferential lysis of the cremasteric muscle through a small subinguinal incision is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for physical activity-precipitated painful retractile testicular pain. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Walcott, Brian P; Choudhri, Omar; Lawton, Michael T
While brainstem cavernous malformations were once considered inoperable, improvements in patient selection, surgical exposures, intraoperative MRI-guidance, MR tractography, and neurophysiologic monitoring have resulted in good outcomes in the majority of operated patients. In a consecutive series of 104 patients with brainstem cavernous malformations, only 14% of patients experienced cranial nerve or motor dysfunction that was worse at late follow-up, relative to their preoperative condition. Outcomes were predicted by several factors, including larger lesion size, lesions that crossed the midline, the presence of a developmental venous anomaly, older age, and greater time interval from lesion hemorrhage to surgery. The 14% of patients who experienced a persistent neurological deficit as a result of surgery, while substantial from any perspective, compares favorably with the risks of observation based on a recent meta-analysis. Curative resection is a safe and effective treatment for brainstem cavernous malformations that will prevent re-hemorrhage in symptomatic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cortet-Rudelli, Christine; Bonneville, Jean-François; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Clavier, Lorraine; Coche Dequéant, Bernard; Desailloud, Rachel; Maiter, Dominique; Rohmer, Vincent; Sadoul, Jean Louis; Sonnet, Emmanuel; Toussaint, Patrick; Chanson, Philippe
Post-surgical surveillance of non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 or 6 months then 1 year. When there is no adenomatous residue, annual surveillance is recommended for 5 years and then at 7, 10 and 15 years. In case of residue or doubtful MRI, prolonged annual surveillance monitors any progression. Reintervention is indicated if complete residue resection is feasible, or for symptomatic optic pathway compression, to create a safety margin between the tumor and the optic pathways ahead of complementary radiation therapy (RT), or in case of post-RT progression. In case of residue, unless the tumor displays elevated growth potential, it is usually recommended to postpone RT until progression is manifest, as efficacy is comparable whether treatment is immediate or postponed. The efficacy of the various RT techniques in terms of tumor volume control is likewise comparable. RT-induced hypopituitarism is frequent, whatever the technique. The choice thus depends basically on residue characteristics: size, delineation, and proximity to neighboring radiation-sensitive structures. Reduced rates of vascular complications and secondary brain tumor can be hoped for with one-dose or hypofractionated stereotactic RT, but there has been insufficient follow-up to provide evidence. Somatostatin analogs and dopaminergic agonists have yet to demonstrate sufficient efficacy. Temozolomide is an option in aggressive NFPA resistant to surgery and RT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Waters, Alicia M; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Thorne, Vivian; Bousvaros, Athos; Noel, R Adam; Beierle, Elizabeth A
Foreign body ingestion remains a common reason for emergency room visits and operative interventions in the pediatric population. Rare earth magnet ingestion represents a low percentage of all foreign bodies swallowed by children; however, magnets swallowed in multiplicity can result in severe injuries. Pediatric surgeons with membership in the Surgical Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics were surveyed to determine the magnitude and consequences of magnet ingestions in the pediatric population. About 100 (16%) participant responses reported on 99 magnet ingestions. The median age at ingestion was 3.7 y, and the majority of ingestions (71%) occurred after year 2010. Thirty-two children underwent endoscopy with successful removal in 70% of cases, and multiple magnets were found in 65% of these patients. Seventy-three children required either laparotomy (51) or laparoscopy (22) for magnet removal, and 90% of these children were discovered to have ingested more than one magnet. In addition, 17% of the children were found to have at least one perforation or fistula, and 34% of the children had multiple perforations or fistulae. Nine children required long-term care for their injuries including repeat endoscopies. One child died after hemorrhage from an esophago-aortic fistula. These results demonstrated the increasing need for magnet regulations and public awareness to prevent potentially serious complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mangiante, Gerardo; Padoan, Roberto; Mengardo, Valentina; Bencivenga, Maria; de Manzoni, Giovanni
The acute abdomen (AA) still remains a challenging situation for surgeons. New pathological conditions have been imposed to our attention in this field in recent years. The definition of abdominal compartmental syndrome (ACS) in surgical practice and the introduction of new biological matrices, with the concepts of tension-free (TS) repair of incisional hernias, prompted us to set up new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with AA. Thus we reviewed the cases of AA that we observed in recent years in which we performed a laparostomy in order to prevent or to treat an ACS. They are all cases of acute abdomen (AA), but from different origin, including chronic diseases, as in the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and acute pancreatitis. In all the cases, the open abdominal cavity was covered with a polyethylene sheet. The edges of the wound were sutured to the plastic sheet, and a traction exerted by a device that causes a negative pressure was added. This method was adopted in several cases without randomization, and resulted in excellent patient's outcomes. Abdominal compartmental syndrome, Acute abdomen, Laparostomy.
Welk, B; Shariff, S; Ordon, M; Catharine Craven, B; Herschorn, S; Garg, A X
Retrospective cohort study, using linked, population-based health-care data. To describe the incidence, management and outcomes of surgically treated kidney stones after spinal cord injury (SCI). To evaluate the impact of a past history of kidney stones on the occurrence of kidney stones. Ontario, Canada. A total of 5121 patients were followed a median of 4 years after an incident SCI (occurring between 2002 and 2011). The primary outcome was surgical intervention for upper tract kidney stones. In follow-up, 66 patients (1.3%) had 89 episodes of surgically treated kidney stones. Treatments included: ureteroscopic lithotripsy (34%), ureteral stent/percutaneous nephrostomy (30%), shockwave lithotripsy (19%) or percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (17%). Following stone treatment, the 30-day mortality rate was low, and the 30-day admission rate to an intensive care unit was 12%. A history of surgically treated kidney stones before SCI (compared with no such history) was associated with a higher risk of kidney stones after SCI (27 vs 3 per 1000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio 14.74, 95% confidence interval 5.69-38.22). During intermediate follow-up after SCI, surgically treated upper tract kidney stones occur in 1.3% of patients. Ureteroscopy with lithotripsy is the most common treatment. A history of surgically managed kidney stones before SCI portends a higher risk of stones after SCI.
Nasim, Sana; Chawla, Tabish; Murtaza, Ghulam
To determine the outcomes of surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease. The retrospective case series was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised medical record of adult patients operated between January 1986 and December 2010 for inflammatory bowel disease. Outcomes consisted of complications till last follow-up and 30-day mortality (disease or procedure related). Functional status of patients with ileal pouch was determined via telephone. SPSS 16 was used to analyse data. Of the 36 patients whose records were reviewed, 21(58%) were males, and body mass index was less than 23 in 34(91%). A total of 27(75%) patients underwent elective surgery for their condition. Ileal pouch was formed in 9(25%). Overall mortality was 14(38.8%). Overall incidence of complications was 26(72%), with wound infection being the most common early morbidity in 11(30.5%). Late morbidity included pouchitisin 4/9 (44.9%) and strictures 2/36 (5.5%).On telephonic follow-up, 6 of the remaining 7patients (85%) with ileal pouch were satisfied with the functional results of the procedure. The retrospective case series represents results from a developing country with low prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease and hence limited experience.
Desai, Manthan; Jain, Anoop; Sumra, Nida
The idea of absolute anchorage has always been an elusive goal for clinicians. Orthodontic mini-implants or temporary anchorage devices allow tooth movements previously thought to be impossible or difficult. Although extensive literature exists on use of temporary anchorage devices, their failures have been hardly focused upon, especially implant fracture. The following case report describes successful management of fractured orthodontic mini-implant.
Menahem, Benjamin; Lim, Chetana; Lahat, Eylon; Salloum, Chady; Osseis, Michael; Lacaze, Laurence; Compagnon, Philippe; Pascal, Gerard
Background The management of pancreatic trauma is complex. The aim of this study was to report our experience in the management of pancreatic trauma. Methods All patients hospitalized between 2005 and 2013 for pancreatic trauma were included. Traumatic injuries of the pancreas were classified according to the American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) in five grades. Mortality and morbidity were analyzed. Results A total of 30 patients were analyzed (mean age: 38±17 years). Nineteen (63%) patients had a blunt trauma and 12 (40%) had pancreatic injury ≥ grade 3. Fifteen patients underwent exploratory laparotomy and the other 15 patients had nonoperative management (NOM). Four (13%) patients had a partial pancreatectomy [distal pancreatectomy (n=3) and pancreaticoduodenectomy (n=1)]. Overall, in hospital mortality was 20% (n=6). Postoperative mortality was 27% (n=4/15). Mortality of NOM group was 13% (n=2/15) in both cases death was due to severe head injury. Among the patients who underwent NOM, three patients had injury ≥ grade 3, one patient had a stent placement in the pancreatic duct and two patients underwent endoscopic drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst. Conclusions Operative management of pancreatic trauma leads to a higher mortality. This must not be necessarily related to the pancreas injury alone but also to the associated injuries including liver, spleen and vascular trauma which may cause impaired outcome more than pancreas injury. PMID:28124001
Eze, Justus Ndulue; Anozie, Okechukwu Bonaventure; Lawani, Osaheni Lucky; Ndukwe, Emmanuel Okechukwu; Agwu, Uzoma Maryrose; Obuna, Johnson Akuma
Uterine rupture is an obstetric calamity with surgery as its management mainstay. Uterine repair without tubal ligation leaves a uterus that is more prone to repeat rupture while uterine repair with bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) or (sub)total hysterectomy predispose survivors to psychosocial problems like marital disharmony. This study aims to evaluate obstetricians' perspectives on surgical decision making in managing uterine rupture. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of obstetricians at the 46th annual scientific conference of Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria in 2012. Data was analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Seventy-nine out of 110 obstetricians (71.8%) responded to the survey, of which 42 (53.2%) were consultants, 60 (75.9%) practised in government hospitals and 67 (84.8%) in urban hospitals, and all respondents managed women with uterine rupture. Previous cesarean scars and injudicious use of oxytocic are the commonest predisposing causes, and uterine rupture carries very high incidences of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Uterine repair only was commonly performed by 38 (48.1%) and uterine repair with BTL or (sub) total hysterectomy by 41 (51.9%) respondents. Surgical management is guided mainly by patients' conditions and obstetricians' surgical skills. Obstetricians' distribution in Nigeria leaves rural settings starved of specialist for obstetric emergencies. Caesarean scars are now a rising cause of ruptures. The surgical management of uterine rupture and obstetricians' surgical preferences vary and are case scenario-dependent. Equitable redistribution of obstetricians and deployment of medical doctors to secondary hospitals in rural settings will make obstetric care more readily available and may reduce the prevalence and improve the outcome of uterine rupture. Obstetrician's surgical decision-making should be guided by the prevailing case scenario and the ultimate aim should be to avert
Bauman, Brent; Stephens, Daniel; Gershone, Hannah; Bongiorno, Connie; Osterholm, Erin; Acton, Robert; Hess, Donavon; Saltzman, Daniel; Segura, Bradley
Despite the numerous methods of closure for giant omphaloceles, uncertainty persists regarding the most effective option. Our purpose was to review the literature to clarify the current methods being used and to determine superiority of either staged surgical procedures or nonoperative delayed closure in order to recommend a standard of care for the management of the giant omphalocele. Our initial database search resulted in 378 articles. After de-duplification and review, we requested 32 articles relevant to our topic that partially met our inclusion criteria. We found that 14 articles met our criteria; these 14 studies were included in our analysis. 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for nonoperative delayed closure, and 4 studies met the inclusion criteria for staged surgical management. Numerous methods for managing giant omphaloceles have been described. Many studies use topical therapy secondarily to failed surgical management. Primary nonoperative delayed management had a cumulative mortality of 21.8% vs. 23.4% in the staged surgical group. Time to initiation of full enteric feedings was lower in the nonoperative delayed group at 14.6days vs 23.5days. Despite advances in medical and surgical therapies, giant omphaloceles are still associated with a high mortality rate and numerous morbidities. In our analysis, we found that nonoperative delayed management with silver therapy was associated with lower mortality and shorter duration to full enteric feeding. We recommend that nonoperative delayed management be utilized as the primary therapy for the newborn with a giant omphalocele. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tan, Stephen Thong Soon; Tan, Wei Ping Marcus; Jaipaul, Josephine; Chan, Siew Pang; Sathappan, Sathappan S
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of elderly hip fracture patients who received surgical treatment with those who received non-surgical treatment. This retrospective study involved 2,756 elderly patients with hip fractures who were admitted over a six-year period. The patients' biodata, complications, ambulatory status at discharge and length of hospital stay were obtained from the institution's hip fracture registry. Among the 2,756 hip fracture patients, 2,029 (73.6%) underwent surgical intervention, while 727 (26.4%) opted for non-surgical intervention. The complication rate among the patients who underwent surgical intervention was 6.6%, while that among the patients who underwent non-surgical intervention was 12.5% (p < 0.01). The mean length of hospital stay for the surgical and non-surgical hip fracture patients was 15.7 days and 22.4 days, respectively (p < 0.01). Surgical management of hip fractures among the elderly is associated with a lower complication rate, as well as a reduced length of hospital stay. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association
Rosen, Orna; Angert, Robert M
This technical report describes the creation of a gastroschisis model for a newborn. This is a simple, low-cost task trainer that provides the opportunity for Neonatology providers, including fellows, residents, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and nurses, to practice the management of a baby with gastroschisis after birth and prior to surgery. Included is a suggested checklist with which the model can be employed. The details can be modified to suit different learning objectives.
Rosen, Orna; Angert, Robert M
This technical report describes the creation of a myelomeningocele model of a newborn baby. This is a simple, low-cost, and easy-to-assemble model that allows the medical team to practice the delivery room management of a newborn with myelomeningocele. The report includes scenarios and a suggested checklist with which the model can be employed.
Angert, Robert M
This technical report describes the creation of a gastroschisis model for a newborn. This is a simple, low-cost task trainer that provides the opportunity for Neonatology providers, including fellows, residents, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and nurses, to practice the management of a baby with gastroschisis after birth and prior to surgery. Included is a suggested checklist with which the model can be employed. The details can be modified to suit different learning objectives. PMID:28439484
Sun, Xiaofang; Xie, Ting
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe and rapidly progressive infectious disease that attacks superficial an as well as deep fascia, subcutaneous fat tissue, and muscle. Although the incidence is of relatively low frequency, the median mortality is high. NF is a great burden to patients and hospitals. The most common cause of NF is trauma injuries, followed by other conditions with comorbidity. A classification for NF was presented concerning microbial cause, depth of infection, and anatomy. But the value of classification is not convincing. Early diagnosis of NF is essential and still to be realized by far. Information from clinic or laboratory might contribute to the purpose. Surgery is used in exploration debridement and tissue reconstruction as the main method with NF. Negative pressure wound therapy has proved to be useful in improving wound bed preparation and healing. © The Author(s) 2015.
Moultrie, Fiona; Horne, Margaret A; Josephson, Colin B; Hall, Julie M; Counsell, Carl E; Bhattacharya, Jo J; Papanastassiou, Vakis; Sellar, Robin J; Warlow, Charles P; Murray, Gordon D; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam
There have been few comparative studies of microsurgical excision vs conservative management of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) and none of them has reliably demonstrated a statistically and clinically significant difference. We conducted a prospective, population-based study to identify and independently validate definite CCM diagnoses first made in 1999-2003 in Scottish adult residents. We used multiple sources of prospective follow-up to assess adults' dependence and to identify and independently validate outcome events. We used univariate and multivariable survival analyses to test the influence of CCM excision on outcome, adjusted for prognostic factors and baseline imbalances. Of 134 adults, 25 underwent CCM excision; these adults were younger (34 vs 43 years at diagnosis, p = 0.004) and more likely to present with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or focal neurologic deficit than adults managed conservatively (48% vs 26%; odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-6.5). During 5 years of follow-up, CCM excision was associated with a deterioration to an Oxford Handicap Scale score 2-6 sustained over at least 2 successive years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.3) and the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or new focal neurologic deficit (adjusted HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-10.0). CCM excision was associated with worse outcomes over 5 years compared to conservative management. Long-term follow-up will determine whether this difference is sustained over patients' lifetimes. Meanwhile, a randomized controlled trial appears justified. This study provides Class III evidence that CCM excision worsens short-term disability scores and increases the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and new focal neurologic deficits. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.
Tala, H; Tuttle, R M
Risk assessment is the cornerstone of contemporary management of thyroid cancer. Following thyroid surgery, an initial risk assessment of recurrence and disease-specific mortality is made using important intra-operative findings, histologic characteristics of the tumor, molecular profile of the tumor, post-operative serum thyroglobulin and any available cross-sectional imaging studies. This initial risk assessment is used to guide recommendations regarding the need for remnant ablation, external beam irradiation, systemic therapy, degree of TSH suppression, and follow-up disease detection strategy over the first 2 years after initial therapy. While this initial risk stratification provides valuable information, it is a static representation of the patient in the first few weeks post-operatively that does not change over time. Depending on how the patient responds to our initial therapies, the risk of recurrence and death may change significantly during follow-up. In order to account for differences in response to therapy in individual patients and to incorporate the impact of treatment on our initial risk estimates, we recommend a re-stratification of risk at the 2-year point of follow-up. This re-stratification provides an updated risk estimate that can be used to guide ongoing management recommendations including the frequency and intensity of follow-up, degree of ongoing TSH suppression, and need for additional therapies. Ongoing management recommendations must be tailored to realistic, evolving risk estimates that are actively updated during follow-up. By individualizing therapy on the basis of initial and ongoing risk assessments, we can maximize the beneficial effects of aggressive therapy in patients with thyroid cancer who are likely to benefit from it, while minimizing potential complications and side effects in low-risk patients destined to have a full healthy and productive life after minimal therapeutic intervention. Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal College
Humayun, Hassan Nabeel; Akhtar, Shabbir; Ahmed, Shakeel
Otits media is a common problem. Some of its complications that were seen frequently in the preantibiotic era are rare today. We report a case of an 8 year boy who presented with earache, retro-orbital pain and diplopia secondary to a sixth nerve palsy--Gradenigo's syndrome. In this syndrome infection from the middle ear spreads medially to the petrous apex of the temporal bone. Work-up includes CT scan of the temporal bones. Timely management with intravenous antibiotics (+ surgery) is needed to prevent intra-cranial complications.
Tolis, George; Sundt, Thoralf M
In contrast to mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by structural abnormality of the valve ("primary" MR), about which there is increasing consensus regarding treatment, there is increasing controversy around the management of functional or "secondary" MR, of which "ischemic mitral regurgitation" (IMR) is a common cause. While the trend in the management of primary MR is increasingly aggressive, with wide agreement on the preference for repair over replacement such that debate centers on earlier and earlier repair even among asymptomatic patients, the situation is reversed in the setting of secondary MR with uncertainly beyond the mode of management (repair or replacement) to the value of intervening at all. This is, in part, because the term IMR has been somewhat loosely applied by the medical and surgical communities to include regurgitation secondary to active myocardial ischemia, as well as that resulting from a completed myocardial infarct. As a result, there is considerable variability in reported outcomes of surgical interventions for IMR. In addition, the natural history of IMR is quite adverse-more so than that of many solid organ malignancies-and its surgical treatment has traditionally carried a higher operative mortality than many cardiac surgical procedures, including similar operations for primary MR and incidental coronary artery disease. Added to this, with recent advances in both the medical and surgical treatment of heart failure improving nonoperative outcomes and simultaneously reducing operative risk compared to reports from previous decades, the landscape has been quite dynamic. Here, we review the issues surrounding surgical treatment for IMR, along with available evidence supporting different approaches, to lend an informed perspective on the divergent opinions among experts in this field and guide the appropriate management of the individual patient.
Api, Murat; Kayatas, Semra; Boza, Aysen Telce; Nazik, Hakan; Adiguzel, Cevdet; Guzin, Kadir; Eroglu, Mustafa
Background The aim of the present study was to compare the laparotomy (LT) and laparoscopy (LS) in patients who undergone surgical staging for early stage endometrium cancer. Methods Retrospective data were collected and analyzed for amount of intraoperative bleeding, complication rates, total resected and laterality specific number of lymph nodes and duration of operation in patients operated with either LT or LS. Results Seventy-nine stage I endometrium cancer patients were found to be eligible for the trial purposes: 58 (73.4%) treated by LT and 21 (26.6%) treated by LS. The number of lymph nodes was similar in LT (8.9 ± 5.3) and LS (9.2 ± 4.8) (P = 0.8). In LT group, there was no difference in the number of lymph nodes between the right and left sides (10 ± 5.8 and 8.7 ± 4.8 respectively, P = 0.19); in LS group, the number of lymph nodes resected from the right side was higher than the left side (9.8 ± 5 and 7 ± 3.5 respectively, P = 0.039). The amount of intraoperative bleeding and hospitalization period were significantly higher in LT group. Seventy-nine patients had a median follow-up of 30 months. The two groups were similar for disease-free survival (P = 0.46, log rank test). Conclusions There was no significant difference between the two methods in terms of number of total resected lymph nodes. In early stage endometrial carcinoma, LS has provided adequate staging and similar survival rates with LT. PMID:29147363
Chapman, George W.
Ovarian cancer represents a formidable challenge to physicians. Early symptoms are nonspecific, and are usually attributed to disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Especially important is suspicion of this neoplasm in its early stage. This article discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, evaluation, and treatment of early carcinomas of the ovary. PMID:3071612
Almudhafer, Muayyad M.; AI-Hassani, Fouzi A.A.; Benyan, Abdul-Khalik Z.
Background: Tracheal stenosis is more frequent as a result of wide-spread use of endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy. Resection and tracheal reconstruction remain the treatment of choice in benign tracheal stenosis. Objectives: To report our experience in Basra and to identify the result of anastomosis after tracheal resection and management of those patients preoperatively and postoperatively. Methodology: A descriptive study of sixteen patients (aged 11–28 years, 10 male and 6 female) with tracheal stenosis who underwent tracheal resection and reconstruction in Basrah thoracic unit (Basra teaching hospital) from January 2008 to January 2011. Results: The result was excellent in 62.5%, good in 25%, and satisfactory in 12.5%. Postoperative complication occurred in 25% and treated successfully with no mortality. Follow-up was every 3 months for an average of 3.6 years. Conclusion: Resection and tracheal reconstruction is the treatment of choice in benign tracheal stenosis and achieved excellent results in management of the patients. PMID:25003058
This article draws on interviews with 29 managers and deputy managers within 15 nurseries in the private sector in England. The author argues that, whilst there is a growing literature on management and professionalism within the Early Years (EY) sector, there is less known about the actual experiences of being a manager in this context. Many of…
Trost, O; Péron, J-M
The surgical treatment of mandibular condylar fractures is commonly performed. We had for aim to present the latest trends in the surgical management of condylar fractures in France, between 2005 and 2012. A survey was performed among the 49 members of the French college of oral and maxillofacial surgeons between January and September 2012, with a questionnaire sent by email. We analyzed the therapeutic management, the surgical indications; the techniques used according to the fracture, and the postoperative treatment protocols. The data was compared to that of a similar study performed in 2005. The overall reply rate was 86%. Low subcondylar fractures were operated on in all institutions (100%), compared to 76% in 2005. The most popular technique was the high submandibular approach with intraoral miniplate fixation osteosynthesis. High subcondylar and diacapitular fractures were operated on in respectively 82% and 35% of the cases compared to 29% and 10% in 2005 with various surgical techniques and postoperative management. French maxillofacial surgeons operated on more mandibular condylar fractures in 2012 than in 2005. As observed in 2005, the lower and the more dislocated the fractures were, the more they were operated on. The high submandibular approach has become the most popular approach. The use of miniplates for bone fixation has become common. Diacapitular fractures were usually treated functionally. The postoperative management varied greatly from one team to the other. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Cruz, Christiane V.; Soares, Andrea L.; Braga, David N.; Costa, Marcelo C.
Nonsyndromic multiple supernumerary teeth (ST) and Leong's tubercle are a condition with a very low prevalence and a multidisciplinary approach is required to restore function and aesthetics. So, this case report aimed at presenting a rare case of nonsyndromic nine supernumerary teeth and Leong's tubercle in a pediatric patient, without any evident familial history, showing its diagnosis and surgical management. PMID:27066278
Miyake, Hiromu; Fukumoto, Koji; Yamoto, Masaya; Nouso, Hiroshi; Kaneshiro, Masakatsu; Koyama, Mariko; Urushihara, Naoto
Purpose Patients with asplenia syndrome (AS) are likely to have upper gastrointestinal tract malformations such as hiatal hernia. This report discusses the treatment of such conditions. Methods Seventy-five patients with AS underwent initial palliation in our institution between 1997 and 2013. Of these, 10 patients had hiatal hernia. Of the patients with hiatal hernia, 6 had brachyesophagus and 7 had microgastria. Results Of the 10 patients with hiatal hernia, 9 underwent surgery in infancy (7 before Glenn operation, 2 after Glenn operation). Two underwent typical Toupet fundoplication, and the other 7 underwent atypical repair including reduction of the stomach. Two patients with atypical repair showed recurrence of hernia and required reoperation. Three patients required reoperation due to duodenal obstruction. Duodenal obstruction occurred due to preduodenal portal vein or abnormal vessels compressing the duodenum. Obstructive symptoms were not seen in any cases preoperatively. Conclusions In patients with hiatal hernia, typical fundoplication is often difficult because most have concomitant brachyesophagus, microgastria, and hypoplasia of the esophageal hiatus. However, we should at least reduce the stomach to the abdominal cavity as early as possible to increase thoracic cavity volume and allow good feeding. Increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity thus makes Glenn and Fontan circulations more stable. Duodenal obstruction secondary to vascular anomalies is also common, so the anatomy in the area near the duodenum should be evaluated pre- and intraoperatively. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Dralle, Henning; Musholt, Thomas J; Schabram, Jochen; Steinmüller, Thomas; Frilling, Andreja; Simon, Dietmar; Goretzki, Peter E; Niederle, Bruno; Scheuba, Christian; Clerici, Thomas; Hermann, Michael; Kußmann, Jochen; Lorenz, Kerstin; Nies, Christoph; Schabram, Peter; Trupka, Arnold; Zielke, Andreas; Karges, Wolfram; Luster, Markus; Schmid, Kurt W; Vordermark, Dirk; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Mühlenberg, Reinhard; Schober, Otmar; Rimmele, Harald; Machens, Andreas
Over the past years, the incidence of thyroid cancer has surged not only in Germany but also in other countries of the Western hemisphere. This surge was first and foremost due to an increase of prognostically favorable ("low risk") papillary thyroid microcarcinomas, for which limited surgical procedures are often sufficient without loss of oncological benefit. These developments called for an update of the previous practice guideline to detail the surgical treatment options that are available for the various disease entities and tumor stages. The present German Association of Endocrine Surgeons practice guideline was developed on the basis of clinical evidence considering current national and international treatment recommendations through a formal expert consensus process in collaboration with the German Societies of General and Visceral Surgery, Endocrinology, Nuclear Medicine, Pathology, Radiooncology, Oncological Hematology, and a German thyroid cancer patient support organization. The practice guideline for the surgical management of malignant thyroid tumors includes recommendations regarding preoperative workup; classification of locoregional nodes and terminology of surgical procedures; frequency, clinical, and histopathological features of occult and clinically apparent papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, undifferentiated, and sporadic and hereditary medullary thyroid cancers, thyroid lymphoma and thyroid metastases from primaries outside the thyroid gland; extent of thyroidectomy; extent of lymph node dissection; aerodigestive tract resection; postoperative follow-up and surgery for recurrence and distant metastases. These evidence-based recommendations for surgical therapy reflect various "treatment corridors" that are best discussed within multidisciplinary teams and the patient considering tumor type, stage, progression, and inherent surgical risk.
Li, Yu-Ting; Jacob, Mithun; Akingba, George; Wachs, Juan P
The standard practice in the operating room (OR) is having a surgical technician deliver surgical instruments to the surgeon quickly and inexpensively, as required. This human "in the loop" system may result in mistakes (eg, missing information, ambiguity of instructions, and delays). Errors can be reduced or eliminated by integrating information technology (IT) and cybernetics into the OR. Gesture and voice automatic acquisition, processing, and interpretation allow interaction with these new systems without disturbing the normal flow of surgery. This article describes the development of a cyber-physical management system (CPS), including a robotic scrub nurse, to support surgeons by passing surgical instruments during surgery as required and recording counts of surgical instruments into a personal health record (PHR). The robot used responds to hand signals and voice messages detected through sophisticated computer vision and data mining techniques. The CPS was tested during a mock surgery in the OR. The in situ experiment showed that the robot recognized hand gestures reliably (with an accuracy of 97%), it can retrieve instruments as close as 25 mm, and the total delivery time was less than 3 s on average. This online health tool allows the exchange of clinical and surgical information to electronic medical record-based and PHR-based applications among different hospitals, regardless of the style viewer. The CPS has the potential to be adopted in the OR to handle surgical instruments and track them in a safe and accurate manner, releasing the human scrub tech from these tasks.
Gor, Ronak A; Elliott, Sean P
Surgery for patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction (nLUTD) is indicated when medical therapy fails, to correct conditions affecting patient safety, or when surgery can enhance the quality of life better than nonoperative management. Examples include failure of maximal medical therapy, inability to perform or aversion to clean intermittent catheterization, refractory incontinence, and complications from chronic, indwelling catheters. Adults with nLUTD have competing risk factors, including previous operations, obesity, poor nutritional status, complex living arrangements, impaired dexterity/paralysis, and impaired executive and cognitive function. Complications are common in this subgroup of patients requiring enduring commitments from surgeons, patients, and their caretakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Urcelay, Gonzalo; Arancibia, Francisca; Retamal, Javiera; Springmuller, Daniel; Clavería, Cristián; Garay, Francisco; Frangini, Patricia; González, Rodrigo; Heusser, Felipe; Arretz, Claudio; Zelada, Pamela; Becker, Pedro
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a lethal congenital heart disease in 95% of non-treated patients. Surgical staging is the main form of treatment, consisting of a 3-stage approach, beginning with the Norwood operation. Long term survival of treated patients is unknown in our country. 1) To review our experience in the management of all patients seen with HLHS between January 2000 and June 2012. 2) Identify risk factors for mortality. Retrospective analysis of a single institution experience with a cohort of patients with HLHS. Clinical, surgical, and follow-up records were reviewed. Of the 76 patients with HLHS, 9 had a restrictive atrial septal defect (ASD), and 8 had an ascending aorta ≤2mm. Of the 65 out of 76 patients that were treated, 77% had a Norwood operation with pulmonary blood flow supplied by a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit, 17% had a Norwood with a Blalock-Taussig shunt, and 6% other surgical procedure. Surgical mortality at the first stage was 23%, and for Norwood operation 21.3%. For the period between 2000-2005, surgical mortality at the first stage was 36%, and between 2005-2010, 15% (P=.05). Actuarial survival was 64% at one year, and 57% at 5years. Using a multivariate analysis, a restrictive ASD and a diminutive aorta were high risk factors for mortality. Our immediate and long term outcome for staged surgical management of HLHS is similar to that reported by large centres. There is an improvement in surgical mortality in the second half of our experience. Risk factors for mortality are also identified. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
This issue of the Australian Early Childhood Association Research in Practice Series provides staff management strategies for directors and others involved with the management of early childhood settings and suggests ways to effectively delegate authority and tasks in order to reduce administrative pressures and workload. The booklet presents…
Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Imani, Mohammad Taghi; Kardeh, Sina; Karami, Mehrab Mohammad; Kherad, Masoomeh
BACKGROUND Unlike congenital auricular malformations which are identified by underdevelopment of dermal and cartilaginous tissues, deformed ears are less sever congenital anomalies characterized only by a misshaped pinna structure and can be improved with acceptable cosmetic results and minimal cost through ear molding if treated in early neonatal period. In this study, authors present the first report of using splinting techniques for treatment of deformational auricular anomalies in Iranian children. METHODS Our case load consisted of a series of 29 patients (Male=16, Female=13) who were referred to Plastic Surgery Unit of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from September 2011 to December 2014. Children aged more than 6 moths were excluded. Twenty-nine children affected by various deformities including prominent ears (n=11), lop ears (n=8) and constricted ears (n=10) were treated by splintage as a nonsurgical technique. The mean time of treatment was 13.33±2 weeks. RESULTS Eight (27.6%) patients did not complete the treatment. Splinting resulted in excellent or satisfactory results in 12 (57.14%) of treated cases. No improvement was observed at the end of the molding treatment in 9 patients. No complication was observed during the treatment in any of the patients. CONCLUSION The nonsurgical molding can be used as an effective approach for achieving natural outcomes and correcting cosmetic abnormalities. Rate of satisfaction is dependent on type of deformity, the neonatal age in which treatment started and also parents’ adherence to treatment methods and principals. Concerning the low rate of complications and high satisfactory results the method can be used instead of surgery in appropriate cases. PMID:27579269
Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Imani, Mohammad Taghi; Kardeh, Sina; Karami, Mehrab Mohammad; Kherad, Masoomeh
Unlike congenital auricular malformations which are identified by underdevelopment of dermal and cartilaginous tissues, deformed ears are less sever congenital anomalies characterized only by a misshaped pinna structure and can be improved with acceptable cosmetic results and minimal cost through ear molding if treated in early neonatal period. In this study, authors present the first report of using splinting techniques for treatment of deformational auricular anomalies in Iranian children. Our case load consisted of a series of 29 patients (Male=16, Female=13) who were referred to Plastic Surgery Unit of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from September 2011 to December 2014. Children aged more than 6 moths were excluded. Twenty-nine children affected by various deformities including prominent ears (n=11), lop ears (n=8) and constricted ears (n=10) were treated by splintage as a nonsurgical technique. The mean time of treatment was 13.33±2 weeks. Eight (27.6%) patients did not complete the treatment. Splinting resulted in excellent or satisfactory results in 12 (57.14%) of treated cases. No improvement was observed at the end of the molding treatment in 9 patients. No complication was observed during the treatment in any of the patients. The nonsurgical molding can be used as an effective approach for achieving natural outcomes and correcting cosmetic abnormalities. Rate of satisfaction is dependent on type of deformity, the neonatal age in which treatment started and also parents' adherence to treatment methods and principals. Concerning the low rate of complications and high satisfactory results the method can be used instead of surgery in appropriate cases.
Goddard, Jonathan C; Vickery, Richard M; Qureshi, Assad; Summerton, Duncan J; Khoosal, Deenesh; Terry, Tim R
To examine the early and late surgical outcomes of feminizing genitoplasty (FG) in adult transsexuals in a UK single surgeon practice over a 10-year period. Computerized and manual databases were searched over the period 1994-2004 to identify patients who had undergone male to female FG. Case-notes were retrieved and analysed to identify epidemiological data, the number and type of perioperative problems, early results at outpatient review, late occurring problems and patient satisfaction. A telephone questionnaire was then conducted targeting all FG patients in our series. The questions were directed at identifying surgical complications, outcome and patient satisfaction. In all, 233 case-notes were identified and 222 (95%) were retrieved. All patients had penectomy, urethroplasty and labiaplasty, 207 (93%) had formation of a neoclitoris, and 202 (91%) had a skin-lined neovagina. The median (range) age was 41 (19-76) years. The median hospital stay was 10 (6-21) days. A record of the first outpatient visit was available in 197 (84.5%) cases. The median time to follow up was 56 (8-351) days. Over all, 82.2% had an adequate vaginal depth, with a median depth of 13 (5-15) cm and 6.1% had developed vaginal stenosis. Three (1.7%) patients had had a vaginal prolapse, two (1.1%) had a degree of vaginal skin flap necrosis and one (0.6%) was troubled with vaginal hair growth. In 86.3% of the patients the neoclitorizes were sensitive. There was urethral stenosis in 18.3% of the patients and 5.6% complained of spraying of urine. Minor corrective urethral surgery was undertaken in 36 patients including 42 urethral dilatations, and eight meatotomies were performed. At the first clinic visit 174 (88.3%) patients were 'happy', 13 (6.6%) were 'unhappy' and 10 (5.1%) made no comment. Of the 233 patients, we successfully contacted 70 (30%). All had had penectomy and labioplasty, 64 (91%) had a clitoroplasty and 62 (89%) a neovagina. The median age was 43 (19-76) years and the
Talanian, M.; Azari, F.; Agarwal, A.
Introduction Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a clinical syndrome of progressive fibrotic change in response to prolonged, repetitive, and typically severe insult to the peritoneal mesothelium, often occurring in the setting of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Clear guidelines for successful management remain elusive. We describe the successful surgical management of EPS in a 28-year-old male s/p deceased donor kidney transplant for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This patient received PD for 7 years but changed to hemodialysis (HD) in the year of transplant due to consistent signs and symptoms of underdialysis. EPS was visualized at the time of transplant. Despite successful renal transplantation, EPS progressed to cause small bowel obstruction (SBO) requiring PEG-J placement for enteral nutrition and gastric decompression. The patient subsequently developed a chronic gastrocutaneous fistula necessitating chronic TPN and multiple admissions for pain crises and bowel obstruction. He was elected to undergo surgical intervention due to deteriorating quality of life and failure to thrive. Surgical management included an exploratory laparotomy with extensive lysis of adhesions (LOA), repair of gastrocutaneous fistula, and end ileostomy with Hartmann's pouch. Postoperative imaging confirmed resolution of the SBO, and the patient was transitioned to NGT feeds and eventually only PO intake. He is continuing with PO nutrition, gaining weight, and free from dialysis. Conclusion Surgical intervention with LOA and release of small intestine can be successful for definitive management of EPS in the proper setting. In cases such as this, where management with enteral nutrition fails secondary to ongoing obstructive episodes, surgical intervention can be pursued in the interest of preserving quality of life. PMID:29682387
Shahbazov, R; Talanian, M; Alejo, J L; Azari, F; Agarwal, A; Brayman, K L
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a clinical syndrome of progressive fibrotic change in response to prolonged, repetitive, and typically severe insult to the peritoneal mesothelium, often occurring in the setting of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Clear guidelines for successful management remain elusive. We describe the successful surgical management of EPS in a 28-year-old male s/p deceased donor kidney transplant for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This patient received PD for 7 years but changed to hemodialysis (HD) in the year of transplant due to consistent signs and symptoms of underdialysis. EPS was visualized at the time of transplant. Despite successful renal transplantation, EPS progressed to cause small bowel obstruction (SBO) requiring PEG-J placement for enteral nutrition and gastric decompression. The patient subsequently developed a chronic gastrocutaneous fistula necessitating chronic TPN and multiple admissions for pain crises and bowel obstruction. He was elected to undergo surgical intervention due to deteriorating quality of life and failure to thrive. Surgical management included an exploratory laparotomy with extensive lysis of adhesions (LOA), repair of gastrocutaneous fistula, and end ileostomy with Hartmann's pouch. Postoperative imaging confirmed resolution of the SBO, and the patient was transitioned to NGT feeds and eventually only PO intake. He is continuing with PO nutrition, gaining weight, and free from dialysis. Surgical intervention with LOA and release of small intestine can be successful for definitive management of EPS in the proper setting. In cases such as this, where management with enteral nutrition fails secondary to ongoing obstructive episodes, surgical intervention can be pursued in the interest of preserving quality of life.
Fisher, N; McCafferty, I; Dolapci, M; Wali, M; Buckels, J; Olliff, S; Elias, E
BACKGROUND—The role of percutaneous hepatic vein angioplasty in the management of Budd-Chiari syndrome has not been well defined. Over a 10 year period at our unit, we have often used this technique in cases of short length hepatic vein stenosis or occlusion, reserving surgical mesocaval shunting for cases of diffuse hepatic vein occlusion or failed angioplasty. AIMS—To review the outcome of angioplasty and surgical shunting to define their respective roles. PATIENTS—All patients treated by angioplasty or surgical shunting for non-malignant hepatic vein obstruction over a ten year period from 1987 to 1996. METHODS—A case note review of pretreatment features and clinical outcome. RESULTS—Angioplasty was attempted in 21 patients with patent hepatic vein branches and was succesful in 18; in three patients treatment was unsuccessful and these patients had surgical shunts. Fifteen patients were treated by surgical shunting only. Mortality according to definitive treatment was 3/18 following angioplasty and 8/18 following surgery; in most cases this reflected high risk status prior to treatment. Venous or shunt reocclusion rates were similar for both groups and were associated with subtherapeutic warfarin in half of these cases. Most surviving patients in both groups are asymptomatic although one surgical patient has chronic hepatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION—With appropriate case selection, many patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome caused by short length hepatic vein stenosis or occlusion may be managed successfully by angioplasty alone. Medium term outcome is good following this procedure provided that anticoagulation is maintained. Further follow up is required to assess for definitive benefits but we suggest that this should be included as a valid initial approach in the algorithm for management of Budd-Chiari syndrome. Keywords: Budd-Chiari syndrome; short length hepatic vein stenosis; hepatic vein occlusion; percutaneous hepatic vein
Silber, Jeff S; Anderson, D Greg; Hayes, Victor M; Vaccaro, Alexander R
The past several years have seen many advances in spine technology. Some of these advances have improved the quality of life of patients suffering from disabling low back pain from degenerative disk disease. Traditional fusion procedures are trending toward less invasive approaches with less iatrogenic soft-tissue morbidity. The diversity of bone graft substitutes is increasing with the potential for significant improvements in fusion success with the future introduction of several well tested bone morphogenic proteins to the spinal market. Biologic solutions to modify the natural history of disk degeneration are being investigated. Recently, electrothermal modulation of the posterior annulus fibrosis has been published as a semi-invasive technique to relieve low back pain generated by fissures in the outer annulus and ingrowing nociceptors (intradiskal electrothermal therapy, and intradiskal electrothermal annuloplasty). Initial results are promising, however, prospective randomized studies comparing this technique with conservative therapy are still lacking. The same is true for artificial nucleus pulposus replacement using hydrogel cushions implanted in the intervertebral space after removal of the nucleus pulposus posterior or through an anterior approach. Intervertebral disk prostheses are presently being studied in small prospective patient cohorts. As with all new developments, careful prospective, long-term trials are needed to fully define the role of these technologies in the management of symptomatic lumbar degenerative disk disease.
Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Wong, Carlos K H
The issue of whether all incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) should be managed by early surgery (ES) has been questioned and there is a growing acceptance that a non-surgical approach (NSA) might be more appropriate. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the two strategies in managing incidental PTMC. Our base case was a hypothetical 40-year-old female diagnosed with a unifocal intra-thyroidal 9 mm PTMC. The PTMC was considered suitable for either strategy. A Markov decision tree model was constructed to compare the estimated cost-effectiveness between ES and NSA after 20 years. Outcome probabilities, utilities and costs were derived from the literature. The threshold for cost-effectiveness was set at USD 50,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY). A further analysis was done for patients < 40 and ≥ 40 years. Sensitivity and threshold analyses were used to examine model uncertainty. Each patient who adopted NSA over ES cost an extra USD 682.54 but gained an additional 0.260 QALY. NSA was cost saving (i.e. less costly and more effective) up to 16 years from diagnosis and remained cost-effective from 17 years onward. In the sensitivity analysis, NSA remained cost-effective regardless of patient age (< 40 and ≥ 40 years), complications, rates of progression, year cycle and discount rate. In the threshold analysis, none of the scenarios that could have changed the conclusion appeared clinically likely. For a selected group of incidental PTMC, adopting NSA was not only cost saving in the initial 16 years but also remained cost effective thereafter. This was irrespective of patient age, complication rate or rate of PTMC progression. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
de Dios, Begoña; Borges, Marcio; Smith, Timothy D; Del Castillo, Alberto; Socias, Antonia; Gutiérrez, Leticia; Nicolás, Jordi; Lladó, Bartolomé; Roche, Jose A; Díaz, Maria P; Lladó, Yolanda
New strategies need to be developed for the early recognition and rapid response for the management of sepsis. To achieve this purpose, the Multidisciplinary Sepsis Team (MST) developed the Computerised Sepsis Protocol Management (PIMIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the convenience of using PIMIS, as well as the activity of the MST. An analysis was performed on the data collected from solicited MST consultations (direct activation of PIMIS by attending physician or telephone request) and unsolicited ones (by referral from the microbiology laboratory or an automatic referral via the hospital vital signs recording software [SIDCV]), as well as the hospital department, source of infection, treatment recommendation, and acceptance of this. Of the 1,581 first consultations, 65.1% were solicited consultations (84.1% activation of PIMIS and 15.9% by telephone). The majority of unsolicited consultations were generated by the microbiology laboratory (95.2%), and 4.8% from the SIDCV. Referral from solicited consultations were generated sooner (5.63days vs 8.47days; P<.001) and came from clinical specialties rather than from the surgical ward (73.0% vs 39.1%; P<.001). A recommendation was made for antimicrobial prescription change in 32% of first consultations. The treating physician accepted 78.1% of recommendations. The high rate of solicited consultations and acceptance of recommended prescription changes suggest that a MST is seen as a helpful resource, and that PIMIS software is perceived to be useful and convenient to use, as it is the main source of referral. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Wong, Stephanie M; Freedman, Rachel A; Stamell, Emily; Sagara, Yasuaki; Brock, Jane E; Desantis, Stephen D; Golshan, Mehra
We examined the incidence and modern national trends in the management of Paget's disease (PD), including the use of breast-conserving surgery (BCS), mastectomy, axillary surgery, and receipt of radiotherapy. Using surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) data, we identified 2631 patients diagnosed with PD during 2000-2011. Of these patients, 185 (7%) had PD of the nipple only, 953 (36.2%) had PD with ductal carcinoma in situ (PD-DCIS), and 1493 (56.7%) had PD with invasive ductal carcinoma (PD-IDC). Trends in age-adjusted incidence, primary surgery, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), and axillary lymph node dissection were examined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with receipt of BCS and radiotherapy. A decrease in the age-adjusted incidence of PD occurred from 2000 to 2011 (-4.3% per year, p < 0.05). The overall rates of mastectomy in the PD only, PD-DCIS, and PD-IDC groups were 47, 69, and 88.9%, respectively. Only in the PD-IDC group did the proportion of patients undergoing BCS increase significantly, from 8.5% in 2000 to 15.7% in 2011 (p = 0.01). Of those who underwent axillary surgery, the proportion of patients undergoing SLNB increased from 2000 to 2011. In adjusted analyses, Paget's subgroup, older age, central tumor location, low/intermediate grade, tumor size <2.0 cm, SEER region, and year of diagnosis after 2006 were significantly associated with receipt of BCS. The incidence of Paget's disease has decreased over time while modern trends in local therapy suggest that BCS, SLNB, and adjuvant radiotherapy remain underutilized.
Monroe, Heidi; Plylar, Peggy; Krugman, Mary
Higher patient acuities and more novice nurses on medical-surgical units have Educators focused on achieving positive outcomes with changes in patient condition. An educational program was developed to enhance nurses' knowledge, skill, and confidence in assessing hemodynamics, recognizing early signs of instability, and administering vasoactive medications. The program was successful with significant knowledge improvement as well as an increased use of the Medical Emergency Team while maintaining a low number of code calls.
de Lesquen, Henri; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Gust, Lucile; Ford, Robert Michael; Beranger, Fabien; Natale, Claudia; Bonnet, Pierre-Mathieu; D'Journo, Xavier-Benoît
This review aims to answer the most common questions in routine surgical practice during the first 48 h of blunt chest trauma (BCT) management. Two authors identified relevant manuscripts published since January 1994 to January 2014. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement, they focused on the surgical management of BCT, excluded both child and vascular injuries and selected 80 studies. Tension pneumothorax should be promptly diagnosed and treated by needle decompression closely followed with chest tube insertion (Grade D). All traumatic pneumothoraces are considered for chest tube insertion. However, observation is possible for selected patients with small unilateral pneumothoraces without respiratory disease or need for positive pressure ventilation (Grade C). Symptomatic traumatic haemothoraces or haemothoraces >500 ml should be treated by chest tube insertion (Grade D). Occult pneumothoraces and occult haemothoraces are managed by observation with daily chest X-rays (Grades B and C). Periprocedural antibiotics are used to prevent chest-tube-related infectious complications (Grade B). No sign of life at the initial assessment and cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration >10 min are considered as contraindications of Emergency Department Thoracotomy (Grade C). Damage Control Thoracotomy is performed for either massive air leakage or refractive shock or ongoing bleeding enhanced by chest tube output >1500 ml initially or >200 ml/h for 3 h (Grade D). In the case of haemodynamically stable patients, early video-assisted thoracic surgery is performed for retained haemothoraces (Grade B). Fixation of flail chest can be considered if mechanical ventilation for 48 h is probably required (Grade B). Fixation of sternal fractures is performed for displaced fractures with overlap or comminution, intractable pain or respiratory insufficiency (Grade D). Lung herniation, traumatic diaphragmatic rupture and pericardial rupture are life
Uden, Hayley; Kumar, Saravana
An intoed gait pattern is one of the most common referrals for children to an orthopedic consultation. Parental concern as to the aesthetics of the child's gait pattern and/or its symptomatic nature will primarily drive these referrals during a child's early developmental years. Whilst some of these referrals prove to be the result of a normal growth variant, some children will present with a symptomatic intoed gait pattern. Various treatments, both conservative and surgical, have been proposed including: braces, wedges, stretches and exercises, shoe modifications, and surgical procedures. However, which treatments are effective and justified in the management of this condition is not clear within the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to therefore identify and critique the best available evidence for the non-surgical management of an intoed gait pattern in a pediatric population. A systematic review was conducted of which only experimental studies investigating a management option for an intoeing gait pattern were included. Studies needed to be written in English, pertaining to a human pediatric population, and published within a peer reviewed journal. Electronic databases were searched: Ovid (Medline), EMBASE, AMED, PubMed, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. The National Health and Medical Research Council's designation of levels of hierarchy and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme cohort studies critical appraisal tool were used. Five level IV studies were found. The studies were of varied quality and with mixed results. Gait plates, physiologic/standardized shoes, and orthotic devices (with gate plate extension) were shown to produce a statistically significant improvement to an intoed gait pattern. Shoe wedges, torqheels, and a leather counter splint were not able to reduce an intoed gait pattern. There is limited evidence to inform the non-surgical management of a pediatric intoed gait pattern. The body of evidence that does exist
Huh, Jeannie; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A
disease, while engaged in athletic activity. Suture anchor fixation, combined with addressing concomitant insertional pathology, was a reliable and safe technique for the operative management of Achilles tendon sleeve avulsions. The majority of patients returned to their preinjury levels of work and recreational activity. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2016.
Berhouma, M; Bahri, K; Houissa, S; Zemmel, I; Khouja, N; Aouidj, L; Jemel, H; Khaldi, M
Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are relatively rare neoplasms, accounting for less than 5% of all central nervous system tumors. The optimum management of these tumors still remains controversial. Many decades ago, partial surgical resection followed by radiotherapy was the conventional management for IMSCT. Nowadays, maximal surgical resection of IMSCT without adjuvant therapy is the rule. We discuss the management of our cohort of 45 patients and review retrospectively the surgical outcome and survival. We reviewed the charts of 45 patients who underwent surgery for IMSCT in our institution since 1990. The study included 23 female and 22 male with a mean age of 28.7 years (range: 18 months-64 years). In 40 patients, the final diagnosis was based on the results of MR imaging. The cervical location of the tumor was the most common (20 cases). Surgical procedures included a gross-total resection in 31 cases, subtotal resection in six cases, partial resection in five cases and a biopsy in three cases. The large majority of patients had histologically-proven low-grade tumors composed essentially of astrocytomas (44,4%) and ependymomas (28,8%). There was no mortality related to surgery. Concerning the functional outcome at six months, we noted that 22.2% of our patients deteriorated, 47.3% stayed the same and 30.5% improved. We found that patients with mild or no preoperative deficits were exceptionally damaged by the surgical procedure. The gold-standard treatment of IMSCT remains maximal microsurgical resection without adjuvant therapy. For malignant or rapidly recurrent IMSCT, the optimum management is still controversial. Determinant predictors for a good outcome after surgery of IMSCT are histological type of lesion, total removal of the tumor and a satisfactory neurological status before surgery.
Sharkey, Melinda S; Grunseich, Karl; Carpenter, Thomas O
X-linked hypophosphatemia is an inheritable disorder of renal phosphate wasting that clinically manifests with rachitic bone pathology. X-linked hypophosphatemia is frequently misdiagnosed and mismanaged. Optimized medical therapy is the cornerstone of treatment. Even with ideal medical management, progressive bony deformity may develop in some children and adults. Medical treatment is paramount to the success of orthopaedic surgical procedures in both children and adults with X-linked hypophosphatemia. Successful correction of complex, multiapical bone deformities found in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia is possible with careful surgical planning and exacting surgical technique. Multiple methods of deformity correction are used, including acute and gradual correction. Treatment of some pediatric bony deformity with guided growth techniques may be possible. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Leroy, A; Garabedian, C; Fourquet, T; Azaïs, H; Merlot, B; Collinet, P; Rubod, C
Endometriosis is a frequent benign pathology that is found in 10-15% of women and in 20% of infertile women. It has an impact on fertility, but also in everyday life. If medical treatment fails, surgical treatment can be offered to the patient. To provide adequate treatment and give clearer information to patients, it seems essential to achieve an optimal preoperative imaging assessment. Thus, the aim of this work is to define the information expected by the surgeon and the indications of each imaging test for each compartment of the pelvis, allowing an ideal surgical management of pelvic endometriosis. We will not discuss imaging techniques' principles and we will not develop the indications and surgical techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
France, Daniel J; Leming-Lee, Susie; Jackson, Tom; Feistritzer, Nancye R; Higgins, Michael S
Acknowledging the need to improve team communication and coordination among health care providers, health care administrators and improvement officers have been quick to endorse and invest in aviation crew resource management (CRM). Despite the increased interest in CRM there exists limited data on the effectiveness of CRM to change team behavior and performance in clinical settings. Direct observational analyses were performed on 30 surgical teams (15 neurosurgery cases and 15 cardiac cases) to evaluate surgical team compliance with integrated safety and CRM practices after extensive CRM training. Observed surgical teams were compliant with only 60% of the CRM and perioperative safety practices emphasized in the training program. The results highlight many of the challenges the health care industry faces in its efforts to adapt CRM from aviation to medicine. Additional research is needed to develop and test new team training methods and performance feedback mechanisms for clinical teams.
Petrini, Allison C.; Lekovich, Jovana P.; Elias, Rony T.; Spandorfer, Steven D.
Endometrial polyps are benign localized lesions of the endometrium, which are commonly seen in women of reproductive age. Observational studies have suggested a detrimental effect of endometrial polyps on fertility. The natural course of endometrial polyps remains unclear. Expectant management of small and asymptomatic polyps is reasonable in many cases. However, surgical resection of endometrial polyps is recommended in infertile patients prior to treatment in order to increase natural conception or assisted reproductive pregnancy rates. There is mixed evidence regarding the resection of newly diagnosed endometrial polyps during ovarian stimulation to improve the outcomes of fresh in vitro fertilization cycles. Hysteroscopy polypectomy remains the gold standard for surgical treatment. Evidence regarding the cost and efficacy of different methods for hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps in the office and outpatient surgical settings has begun to emerge. PMID:26301260
Buckley, Erin M.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Goff, Donna A.; Schwab, Peter J.; Baker, Wesley B.; Durduran, Turgut; Busch, David R.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Xiao, Rui; Spray, Thomas L.; Yodh, A. G.; Gaynor, J. William; Licht, Daniel J.
Objective The early postoperative period following neonatal cardiac surgery is a time of increased risk for brain injury, yet the mechanisms underlying this risk are unknown. To understand these risks more completely, we quantified changes in postoperative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) compared with preoperative levels by using noninvasive optical modalities. Methods Diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy were used concurrently to derive cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization postoperatively for 12 hours. Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were quantified with reference to preoperative data. A mixed-effect model was used to investigate the influence of total support time and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration on relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF. Results Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were assessed in 36 patients, 21 with single-ventricle defects and 15 with 2-ventricle defects. Among patients with single-ventricle lesions, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration did not affect relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, or OEF (P > .05). Among 2-ventricle patients, total support time was not a significant predictor of relative changes in CMRO2 or CBF (P > .05), although longer total support time was associated significantly with greater increases in relative change of postoperative OEF (P = .008). Conclusions Noninvasive diffuse optical techniques were used to quantify postoperative relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, and OEF for the first time in this observational pilot study. Pilot data suggest that surgical duration does not account for observed variability in the relative change in CMRO2, and that more comprehensive clinical studies using the new technology are feasible and warranted to elucidate these issues further. PMID:23111021
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Mauro; Rizzello, Giacomo; Mannering, Nicholas; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
The management of Type III acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations is still controversial. We wished to compare the rate of recurrence and outcome scores of operative versus non-operative treatment of patients with Type III AC dislocations. A systematic review of the literature was performed by applying the PRISMA guidelines according to the PRISMA checklist and algorithm. A search in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL was performed using combinations of the following keywords: 'dislocation', 'Rockwood', 'type three', 'treatment', 'acromioclavicular' and 'joint'. Fourteen studies were included, evaluating 646 shoulders. The rate of recurrence in the surgical group was 14%. No statistical significant differences were found between conservative and surgical approaches in terms of postoperative osteoarthritis and persistence of pain, although persistence of pain seemed to occur less frequently in patients undergoing a surgical treatment. Persistence of pain seemed to occur less frequently in patients undergoing surgery. Persistence of pain seems to occur less frequently in patients treated surgically for a Type III AC dislocation. There is insufficient evidence to establish the effects of surgical versus conservative treatment on functional outcome of patients with AC dislocation. High-quality randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to establish whether there is a difference in functional outcome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Mounts, Nina S.
Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…
Agnoletti, Vanni; Buccioli, Matteo; Padovani, Emanuele; Corso, Ruggero M; Perger, Peter; Piraccini, Emanuele; Orelli, Rebecca Levy; Maitan, Stefano; Dell'amore, Davide; Garcea, Domenico; Vicini, Claudio; Montella, Teresa Maria; Gambale, Giorgio
European Healthcare Systems are facing a difficult period characterized by increasing costs and spending cuts due to economic problems. There is the urgent need for new tools which sustain Hospitals decision makers work. This project aimed to develop a data recording system of the surgical process of every patient within the operating theatre. The primary goal was to create a practical and easy data processing tool to give hospital managers, anesthesiologists and surgeons the information basis to increase operating theaters efficiency and patient safety. The developed data analysis tool is embedded in an Oracle Business Intelligence Environment, which processes data to simple and understandable performance tachometers and tables. The underlying data analysis is based on scientific literature and the projects teams experience with tracked data. The system login is layered and different users have access to different data outputs depending on their professional needs. The system is divided in the tree profile types Manager, Anesthesiologist and Surgeon. Every profile includes subcategories where operators can access more detailed data analyses. The first data output screen shows general information and guides the user towards more detailed data analysis. The data recording system enabled the registration of 14.675 surgical operations performed from 2009 to 2011. Raw utilization increased from 44% in 2009 to 52% in 2011. The number of high complexity surgical procedures (≥120 minutes) has increased in certain units while decreased in others. The number of unscheduled procedures performed has been reduced (from 25% in 2009 to 14% in 2011) while maintaining the same percentage of surgical procedures. The number of overtime events decreased in 2010 (23%) and in 2011 (21%) compared to 2009 (28%) and the delays expressed in minutes are almost the same (mean 78 min). The direct link found between the complexity of surgical procedures, the number of unscheduled procedures
Background European Healthcare Systems are facing a difficult period characterized by increasing costs and spending cuts due to economic problems. There is the urgent need for new tools which sustain Hospitals decision makers work. This project aimed to develop a data recording system of the surgical process of every patient within the operating theatre. The primary goal was to create a practical and easy data processing tool to give hospital managers, anesthesiologists and surgeons the information basis to increase operating theaters efficiency and patient safety. Methods The developed data analysis tool is embedded in an Oracle Business Intelligence Environment, which processes data to simple and understandable performance tachometers and tables. The underlying data analysis is based on scientific literature and the projects teams experience with tracked data. The system login is layered and different users have access to different data outputs depending on their professional needs. The system is divided in the tree profile types Manager, Anesthesiologist and Surgeon. Every profile includes subcategories where operators can access more detailed data analyses. The first data output screen shows general information and guides the user towards more detailed data analysis. The data recording system enabled the registration of 14.675 surgical operations performed from 2009 to 2011. Results Raw utilization increased from 44% in 2009 to 52% in 2011. The number of high complexity surgical procedures (≥120 minutes) has increased in certain units while decreased in others. The number of unscheduled procedures performed has been reduced (from 25% in 2009 to 14% in 2011) while maintaining the same percentage of surgical procedures. The number of overtime events decreased in 2010 (23%) and in 2011 (21%) compared to 2009 (28%) and the delays expressed in minutes are almost the same (mean 78 min). The direct link found between the complexity of surgical procedures, the number
Singh, Rameet H; Montoya, Maria; Espey, Eve; Leeman, Lawrence
The objective of the study was to compare nitrous oxide with oxygen (N 2 O/O 2 ) to oral hydrocodone/acetaminophen and lorazepam for analgesia during first-trimester surgical abortion. This double-blind randomized trial assigned women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at<11 weeks' gestation to inhaled N 2 O/O 2 vs. oral sedation for pain management. The N 2 O/O 2 group received up to 70:30 ratio during the procedure and placebo pills preprocedure; the oral group received inhaled oxygen during the procedure and oral hydrocodone/acetaminophen 5 mg/325 mg and lorazepam 1 mg preprocedure. The primary outcome was maximum procedural pain, assessed on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS; anchors 0=no pain and 100=worst pain) at 2 min postprocedure. A difference of 13 mm on the VAS was considered clinically significant. Satisfaction with pain management was measured on a 100-mm VAS (anchors 0=very unsatisfied, 100=very satisfied). We randomized 140 women, 70 per study arm. Mean age of participants was 26±6.6 years; mean gestational age was 7.3±1.5 weeks. Mean maximum procedure pain scores were 52.5±26.7 and 60.8±24.4 for N 2 O/O 2 and oral groups, respectively (p=.09). Satisfaction with pain management was 69.3±28.4 and 61.5±30.4 for N 2 O/O 2 and oral groups. respectively (p=.15). We found no difference in mean procedural pain scores between women assigned to N 2 O/O 2 vs. those assigned to oral sedation for first-trimester surgical abortion. Satisfaction with both options was high. Women undergoing early surgical abortion experienced no differences in pain and satisfaction between those who used inhaled nitrous oxide and oral sedation. Nitrous oxide, with side effects limited to the duration of inhalation and no need for a ride home, is a viable alternative to oral sedation for first-trimester abortion pain management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barr, James G.; Sepehripour, Amir H.; Jarral, Omar A.; Tsipas, Pantelis; Kokotsakis, John; Kourliouros, Antonios; Athanasiou, Thanos
Aneurysms and dissections of the right-sided aortic arch are rare and published data are limited to a few case reports and small series. The optimal treatment strategy of this entity and the challenges associated with their management are not yet fully investigated and conclusive. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify all patients who underwent surgical or endovascular intervention for right aortic arch aneurysms or dissections. The search was limited to the articles published only in English. We focused on presentation and critically assessed different management strategies and outcomes. We identified 74 studies that reported 99 patients undergoing surgical or endovascular intervention for a right aortic arch aneurysm or dissection. The median age was 61 years. The commonest presenting symptoms were chest or back pain and dysphagia. Eighty-eight patients had an aberrant left subclavian artery with only 11 patients having the mirror image variant of a right aortic arch. The commonest pathology was aneurysm arising from a Kommerell's diverticulum occurring in over 50% of the patients. Twenty-eight patients had dissections, 19 of these were Type B and 9 were Type A. Eighty-one patients had elective operations while 18 had emergency procedures. Sixty-seven patients underwent surgical treatment, 20 patients had hybrid surgical and endovascular procedures and 12 had totally endovascular procedure. There were 5 deaths, 4 of which were in patients undergoing emergency surgery and none in the endovascular repair group. Aneurysms and dissections of a right-sided aortic arch are rare. Advances in endovascular treatment and hybrid surgical and endovascular management are making this rare pathology amenable to these approaches and may confer improved outcomes compared with conventional extensive repair techniques. PMID:27001673
Steelman, Victoria M; Williams, Tamara L; Szekendi, Marilyn K; Halverson, Amy L; Dintzis, Suzanne M; Pavkovic, Stephen
- Surgical specimen adverse events can lead to delays in treatment or diagnosis, misdiagnosis, reoperation, inappropriate treatment, and anxiety or serious patient harm. - To describe the types and frequency of event reports associated with the management of surgical specimens, the contributing factors, and the level of harm associated with these events. - A retrospective review was undertaken of surgical specimen adverse events and near misses voluntarily reported in the University HealthSystem Consortium Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database by more than 50 health care facilities during a 3-year period (2011-2013). Event reports that involved surgical specimen management were reviewed for patients undergoing surgery during which tissue or fluid was sent to the pathology department. - Six hundred forty-eight surgical specimen events were reported in all stages of the specimen management process, with the most common events reported during the prelaboratory phase and, specifically, with specimen labeling, collection/preservation, and transport. The most common contributing factors were failures in handoff communication, staff inattention, knowledge deficit, and environmental issues. Eight percent of the events (52 of 648) resulted in either the need for additional treatment or temporary or permanent harm to the patient. - All phases of specimen handling and processing are vulnerable to errors. These results provide a starting point for health care organizations to conduct proactive risk analyses of specimen handling procedures and to design safer processes. Particular attention should be paid to effective communication and handoffs, consistent processes across care areas, and staff training. In addition, organizations should consider the use of technology-based identification and tracking systems.
Rogo-Gupta, Lisa; Litwin, Mark S; Saigal, Christopher S; Anger, Jennifer T
To describe trends in the surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in the United States from 2002 to 2007. As part of the Urologic Diseases of America Project, we analyzed data from a 5% national random sample of female Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older. Data were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services carrier and outpatient files from 2002 to 2007. Women who were diagnosed with urinary incontinence identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) diagnosis codes and who underwent surgical management identified by Current Procedural Terminology, Fourth Edition (CPT-4) procedure codes were included in the analysis. Trends were analyzed over the 6-year period. Unweighted procedure counts were multiplied by 20 to estimate the rate among all female Medicare beneficiaries. The total number of surgical procedures remained stable during the study period, from 49,340 in 2002 to 49,900 in 2007. Slings were the most common procedure across all years, which increased from 25,840 procedures in 2002 to 33,880 procedures in 2007. Injectable bulking agents were the second most common procedure, which accounted for 14,100 procedures in 2002 but decreased to 11,320 in 2007. Procedures performed in ambulatory surgery centers and physician offices increased, although those performed in inpatient settings declined. Hospital outpatient procedures remained stable. The surgical management of women with SUI shifted toward a dominance of procedures performed in ambulatory surgery centers from 2002 to 2007, although the overall number of procedures remained stable. Slings remained the dominant surgical procedure, followed by injectable bulking agents, both of which are easily performed in outpatient settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weisz, Dany E; Giesinger, Regan E
The evolution of neonatal intensive care over the past decade has seen the role of surgical patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation in preterm infants both decrease in scope and become laden with uncertainty. Associations of ligation with adverse neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes have rendered the ligation decision more challenging for clinicians and have been associated with a decline in surgical treatment, but these findings may be due to bias from confounding by indication in observational studies rather than a causal detrimental effect of ligation. Accordingly, ligation may still be indicated for infants with large ductal shunts and moderate-severe respiratory insufficiency in whom the prospect of timely spontaneous closure appears low. Ultimately a randomized trial of surgical ligation versus conservative management is necessary to assess the efficacy of this invasive intervention in a population of extremely preterm infants with large ductal shunts. Simultaneously, the transcatheter approach to ductal closure in the very immature infant represents an exciting therapeutic alternative but which is still in its infancy. Insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cardiorespiratory deterioration, including the importance of left ventricular afterload, may help clinicians avoid instability and mitigate a potentially injurious aspect of surgical treatment. This review examines the evidence regarding the benefits and risks of PDA surgery in preterm neonates and provides a pathophysiology-based management paradigm to guide perioperative care in high-risk infants. © 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Barajas-Fregoso, Elpidio Manuel; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio Rogelio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv
Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The most common symptoms are: dysphagia, chest pain, reflux and weight loss. The esophageal manometry is the standard for diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of the surgical management in patients with achalasia in a tertiary care hospital. A case series consisting of achalasia patients, treated surgically between January and December of 2011. Clinical charts were reviewed to obtain data and registries of the type of surgical procedure, morbidity and mortality. Fourteen patients were identified, with an average age of 49.1 years. The most common symptoms were: dysphagia, vomiting, weight loss and pyrosis. Eight open approaches were performed and six by laparoscopy, with an average length of cardiomyotomy of 9.4 cm. Eleven patients received an antireflux procedure. The effectiveness of procedures performed was 85.7 %. Surgical management offered at this tertiary care hospital does not differ from that reported in other case series, giving effectiveness and safety for patients with achalasia.
Gavriel, Haim; Yeheskeli, Eyal; Aviram, Eliad; Yehoshua, Lior; Eviatar, Ephraim
Eyelid edema in children is one of the signs of orbital complications secondary to acute rhinosinusitis, and identifying abscess formation is crucial for management decision. The objective of this study is to determine whether there are different computed tomography scan abscess dimensions and volumes in children requiring medical versus surgical management for subperiosteal orbital abscess (SPOA). Case series with chart review. The study was conducted at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center. Clinical and radiological parameters of 95 children admitted with eyelid edema between January 2005 and December 2007 were studied. Of 95 cases of orbital cellulitis, a total of 48 children with sinogenic orbital complications with a mean (SD) age of 4.03 (3.46) years were included. No significant difference was found between the surgically and medically treated SPOA groups regarding the use of preadmission antibiotic and clinical presentation. Statistically significant larger abscesses in the surgically treated group were noted (mean volume 1.389 vs 0.486 mL in the conservatively treated group; P = .013) and a longer mean anterior-posterior and medial-lateral dimension (P = .001 and .017, respectively). Children presenting with significant or progressing ocular findings or failure to improve after 48 hours of medical therapy, together with an abscess volume of more than 0.5 mL, a length greater than 17 mm, and a width greater than 4.5 mm, should be strongly considered to have surgical drainage.
Petrosyan, Mikael; Khalafallah, Adham M; Guzzetta, Phillip C; Sandler, Anthony D; Darbari, Anil; Kane, Timothy D
Surgical management of esophageal achalasia (EA) in children has transitioned over the past 2 decades to predominantly involve laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) or minimally invasive surgery (MIS). More recently, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been utilized to treat achalasia in children. Since the overall experience with surgical management of EA is contingent upon disease incidence and surgeon experience, the aim of this study is to report a single institutional contemporary experience for outcomes of surgical treatment of EA by LHM and POEM, with regards to other comparable series in children. An IRB approved retrospective review of all patients with EA who underwent treatment by a surgical approach at a tertiary US children's hospital from 2006 to 2015. Data including demographics, operative approach, Eckardt scores pre- and postoperatively, complications, outcomes, and follow-up were analyzed. A total of 33 patients underwent 35 operative procedures to treat achalasia. Of these operations; 25 patients underwent laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) with Dor fundoplication; 4 patients underwent LHM alone; 2 patients underwent LHM with Thal fundoplication; 2 patients underwent primary POEM; 2 patients who had had LHM with Dor fundoplication underwent redo LHM with takedown of Dor fundoplication. Intraoperative complications included 2 mucosal perforations (6%), 1 aspiration, 1 pneumothorax (1 POEM patient). Follow ranged from 8months to 7years (8-84months). There were no deaths and no conversions to open operations. Five patients required intervention after surgical treatment of achalasia for recurrent dysphagia including 3 who underwent between 1 and 3 pneumatic dilations; and 2 who had redo LHM with takedown of Dor fundoplication with all patients achieving complete resolution of symptoms. Esophageal achalasia in children occurs at a much lower incidence than in adults as documented by published series describing the surgical treatment in children. We
Stock, Heather; Kadry, Zakiyah; Smith, Jill P
Bleeding esophageal varices are a common complication of portal hypertension in patients with underlying liver disease. Often patients with hepatic cirrhosis have hypersplenism with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Felty's syndrome is a disorder where patients with rheumatoid arthritis develop splenomegaly, neutropenia, and on rare occasions, portal hypertension without underlying cirrhosis. We present a case of a patient with portal hypertension secondary to Felty's syndrome and discuss the importance of recognizing this condition since the treatment of choice is surgical management with splenectomy. A review of the literature and underlying liver histologic features are discussed. Medical and surgical management of patients with Felty's syndrome is different from those with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Splenectomy is the treatment of choice for complications of portal hypertension in patients with Felty's Syndrome.
Al-Hilli, Ali Bakir; Salih, Dheyaa Saeed
Background Compound limb fractures due to high-velocity missiles are complex and usually associated with multiple other injuries. These can occur in both military and civilian settings. Highvelocity missiles are presently used by terrorists worldwide. Early surgical debridement and skeletal fixation are the gold standards in managing these injuries, but data supporting these recommendations are lacking. Aim of the study Our aim was to determine the relationship between time (the time of injury to the time of surgical treatment) and the rate of deep infection in patients treated in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq due to terrorist activity from 2004-2008. Design This is a retrospective review of a series of open limb fractures. Patients and method A total of 102 civilian patients with 114 limb fractures due to high-velocity missile injuries were selected for this study from Medical City records. Patients were followed in the outpatient department in Medical City Teaching Complex both clinically and radiologically. Results Surgical treatment was accomplished in less than six hours from time of injury in group A (55 fractures, 48.4%) and more than six hours in group B (59 fractures, 51.7%). The infection rate for group A was 30.9% and group B was 23.7%. Conclusion A very high infection rate was noted for these injuries, and there was no increase in the rate of deep infection in patients treated more than six hours after the injury. PMID:21045979
Al-Hilli, Ali Bakir; Salih, Dheyaa Saeed
Compound limb fractures due to high-velocity missiles are complex and usually associated with multiple other injuries. These can occur in both military and civilian settings. High-velocity missiles are presently used by terrorists worldwide. Early surgical debridement and skeletal fixation are the gold standards in managing these injuries, but data supporting these recommendations are lacking. Our aim was to determine the relationship between time (the time of injury to the time of surgical treatment) and the rate of deep infection in patients treated in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq due to terrorist activity from 2004-2008. This is a retrospective review of a series of open limb fractures. A total of 102 civilian patients with 114 limb fractures due to high-velocity missile injuries were selected for this study from Medical City records. Patients were followed in the outpatient department in Medical City Teaching Complex both clinically and radiologically. Surgical treatment was accomplished in less than six hours from time of injury in group A (55 fractures, 48.4%) and more than six hours in group B (59 fractures, 51.7%). The infection rate for group A was 30.9% and group B was 23.7%. A very high infection rate was noted for these injuries, and there was no increase in the rate of deep infection in patients treated more than six hours after the injury.
Kempthorne, Joshua T; Armour, Paul C; Rietveld, John A; Hooper, Gary J
Surgical dislocation of the hip has been developed to deal with the problems causing femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). This is a relatively recent procedure that was historically reserved for larger areas specializing in hip surgery. We hypothesized that surgical dislocation can be used for symptomatic FAI in a typical Australasian tertiary orthopaedic centre with acceptable results. This prospective study reviews the results of 53 surgical dislocations in this setting, looking particularly at functional outcomes and early complications. There were significant improvements in the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index score at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years post-operatively. Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores increased by 23, 28, 34 and 35 points, respectively (P 0.0039). There was no significant improvement in hip range of motion. There were two (4%) early failures with conversion to total hip arthroplasty, and no cases of post-operative avascular necrosis of the femoral head. We believe that as the diagnosis of FAI and conservative nonarthroplasty surgery of the hip gains wider acceptance, it will become a procedure that should be offered to all appropriate patients in an attempt to delay or limit total hip arthroplasty in this young age group.
Dobyns, B M; Hyrmer, B A
On March 1, 1954, a serious fallout accident occurred during the United States atomic testing program at Bikini in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Following the detonation of a large thermonuclear device (known as Bravo) an unexpected shift in winds resulted in deposition of radioactive debris on several inhabited atolls in the Marshall Islands. During the early post-detonation period military, sea, and air surveys traced the hottest portion of the parabolic cloud as it drifted in an ever widening pattern of diminishing concentration eastward and southeast of Bikini. The center of the cloud passed North of the Rongelap Atoll, which was the nearest inhabited atoll. This report concerns the development of thyroid lesions, the special circumstances encountered during thyroid surgery, and the results of the surgical management of benign and malignant lesions that were subsequently encountered in this population.
Koops, Lisa Huisman
Classroom management is a common concern for preservice teachers and can be a key to success for in-service teachers. In this article, I discuss six strategies for classroom management: design and lead engaging music activities, employ music-rich transitions, balance familiarity and novelty, plan for success, communicate clear expectations, and…
Sheppard, John D; Mansur, Arnulfo; Comstock, Timothy L; Hovanesian, John A
Pterygium, a sun-related eye disease, presents as wing-shaped ocular surface lesions that extend from the bulbar conjunctiva onto the cornea, most commonly on the nasal side. Pterygia show characteristic histological features that suggest that inflammation plays a prominent role in their initial pathogenesis and recurrence. Appropriate surgery is the key to successful treatment of pterygia, but there is also a rationale for the use of anti-inflammatory agents to reduce the rate of recurrence following surgery. Multiple surgical techniques have been developed over the last two millennia, but these initially had little success, due to high rates of recurrence. Current management strategies, associated with lower recurrence rates, include bare sclera excision and various types of grafts using tissue glues. Adjunctive therapies include mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil, as well as the topical ocular steroid loteprednol etabonate, which has been shown to have a lower risk of elevated intraocular pressure than have the other topical ocular steroids. Here, the surgical management of pterygium is presented from a historical perspective, and current management techniques, including the appropriate use of various adjunctive therapies, are reviewed, along with an illustrative case presentation and a discussion of the conjunctival forceps designed to facilitate surgical management. Despite thousands of years of experience with this condition, there remains a need for a more thorough understanding of pterygium and interventions to reduce both its incidence and postsurgical recurrence. Until that time, the immediate goal is to optimize surgical practices to ensure the best possible outcomes. Loteprednol etabonate, especially the ointment formulation, appears to be a safe and effective component of the perioperative regimen for this complex ocular condition, although confirmatory prospective studies are needed. PMID:24966664
Gunenc, Uzeyir; Kocak, Nilufer; Ozturk, A Taylan; Arikan, Gul
We describe a technique to manage late spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL) and capsular tension ring (CTR) dislocation within the intact capsular bag. The subluxated IOL and CTR complex can be positioned in a closed chamber and fixed to the pars plana at both 3 and 9 o'clock quadrants with the presented ab externo direct scleral suturation technique which provides an easy, safe and effective surgical option for such cases.
Musiienko, Anton M; Shakerian, Rose; Gorelik, Alexandra; Thomson, Benjamin N J; Skandarajah, Anita R
The acute surgical unit (ASU) is a recently established model of care in Australasia and worldwide. Limited data are available regarding its effect on the management of small bowel obstruction. We compared the management of small bowel obstruction before and after introduction of ASU at a major tertiary referral centre. We hypothesized that introduction of ASU would correlate with improved patient outcomes. A retrospective review of prospectively maintained databases was performed over two separate 2-year periods, before and after the introduction of ASU. Data collected included demographics, co-morbidity status, use of water-soluble contrast agent and computed tomography. Outcome measures included surgical intervention, time to surgery, hospital length of stay, complications, 30-day readmissions, use of total parenteral nutrition, intensive care unit admissions and overall mortality. Total emergency admissions to the ASU increased from 2640 to 4575 between the two time periods. A total of 481 cases were identified (225 prior and 256 after introduction of ASU). Mortality decreased from 5.8% to 2.0% (P = 0.03), which remained significant after controlling for confounders with multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.08-0.73, P = 0.012). The proportion of surgically managed patients increased (20.9% versus 32.0%, P = 0.003) and more operations were performed within 5 days from presentation (76.6% versus 91.5%, P = 0.02). Fewer patients received water-soluble contrast agent (27.1% versus 18.4%, P = 0.02), but more patients were investigated with a computed tomography (70.7% versus 79.7%, P = 0.02). The ASU model of care resulted in decreased mortality, shorter time to intervention and increased surgical management. Overall complications rate and length of stay did not change. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
AD-Al17 b86 LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT CENTER MAXWELL--ETC F/G 5/9 MANAGEMENT CHALLENGE FOR THE EARLY l980S.(U) UNCtASSIFIED 1980 J T...being replaced as fast as management might desire. This situation can be over- come through complementary training policies. First, continue to pursue...classroom instruction, on-the- job training, and further implement the Resource Management Team concept wthin the Comptroller Community. This training
Tsai, Jerry; Shaul, Donald B; Sydorak, Roman M; Lau, Stanley T; Akmal, Yasir; Rodriguez, Karen
Increasing popularity of strong magnets as toys has led to their ingestion by children, putting them at risk of potentially harmful gastrointestinal tract injuries. To heighten physician awareness of the potential complications of magnetic foreign body ingestion, and to provide an updated algorithm for management of a patient who is suspected to have ingested magnets. A retrospective review of magnet ingestions treated over a two-year period at our institutions in the Southern California Permanente Medical Group. Data including patient demographics, clinical information, radiologic images, and surgical records were used to propose a management strategy. Five patients, aged 15 months to 18 years, presented with abdominal symptoms after magnet ingestion. Four of the 5 patients suffered serious complications, including bowel necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, and obstruction. All patients were successfully treated with laparoscopic-assisted exploration with or without endoscopy. Total days in the hospital averaged 5.2 days (range = 3 to 9 days). Average time to discharge following surgery was 4 days (range = 2 to 7 days). Ex vivo experimentation with toy magnetic beads were performed to reveal characteristics of the magnetic toys. Physicians should have a heightened sense of caution when treating a patient in whom magnetic foreign body ingestion is suspected, because of the potential gastrointestinal complications. An updated management strategy is proposed that both prevents delays in surgical care and avoids unnecessary surgical exploration.
Tsai, Jerry; Shaul, Donald B; Sydorak, Roman M; Lau, Stanley T; Akmal, Yasir; Rodriguez, Karen
Context: Increasing popularity of strong magnets as toys has led to their ingestion by children, putting them at risk of potentially harmful gastrointestinal tract injuries. Objectives: To heighten physician awareness of the potential complications of magnetic foreign body ingestion, and to provide an updated algorithm for management of a patient who is suspected to have ingested magnets. Design: A retrospective review of magnet ingestions treated over a two-year period at our institutions in the Southern California Permanente Medical Group. Data including patient demographics, clinical information, radiologic images, and surgical records were used to propose a management strategy. Results: Five patients, aged 15 months to 18 years, presented with abdominal symptoms after magnet ingestion. Four of the 5 patients suffered serious complications, including bowel necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, and obstruction. All patients were successfully treated with laparoscopic-assisted exploration with or without endoscopy. Total days in the hospital averaged 5.2 days (range = 3 to 9 days). Average time to discharge following surgery was 4 days (range = 2 to 7 days). Ex vivo experimentation with toy magnetic beads were performed to reveal characteristics of the magnetic toys. Conclusions: Physicians should have a heightened sense of caution when treating a patient in whom magnetic foreign body ingestion is suspected, because of the potential gastrointestinal complications. An updated management strategy is proposed that both prevents delays in surgical care and avoids unnecessary surgical exploration. PMID:23596362
Magardino, T M; Tom, L W
To evaluate the surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea in children with cerebral palsy. Retrospective review of 27 children with cerebral palsy who underwent surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Charts were reviewed. Data gathered included primary complaint, coexisting illnesses, initial procedure performed, age at initial surgery, number of days the child was monitored postoperatively in the intensive care unit, notation of postoperative respiratory distress and management, and outcome. Nineteen children underwent adenotonsillectomy for initial treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Three of these children also had a uvulectomy. Six children had an adenoidectomy alone as their initial procedure. Neither uvulopalatopharyngoplasty nor tracheostomy was performed as an initial procedure. Mean follow-up was 34 months. Seventy-six percent of these children have not required any further surgery. Of the six children who have undergone further surgery, one has required a revision adenoidectomy, and another underwent a tonsillectomy and uvulectomy 2 months after the initial adenoidectomy. Four children ultimately required a tracheotomy. Eighty-four percent of these children were successfully managed without a tracheotomy. We recommend tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy for initial surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children with cerebral palsy.
Caracò, Corrado; Marone, Ugo; Di Monta, Gianluca; Aloj, Luigi; Caracò, Corradina; Anniciello, Annamaria; Lastoria, Secondo; Botti, Gerardo; Mozzillo, Nicola
To assess the incidence of nonmajor lymphatic basin sentinel nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma in order to propose a correct nomenclature and inform appropriate surgical management. This was a retrospective review of 1,045 consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy to identify sentinel node site. Nonmajor drainage sites were classified as uncommon (located in a minor lymphatic basin along the lymphatic drainage to a major classical nodal basin) or interval (located anywhere along the lymphatics between the primary tumor site and the nearest lymphatic basin) sentinel nodes. Nonclassical sentinel nodes were identified in 32 patients (3.0 %). Uncommon sentinel nodes were identified in 3.2 % (n = 17) of trunk melanoma primary disease and in 1.5 % (n = 7) of upper and lower extremity sites. Interval sentinel nodes were identified in 1.3 % (n = 7) of trunk primary lesions, with none from upper and lower extremities melanomas. The incidence of tumor-positive sentinel nodes was 24.1 % (245 of 1,013) in classical sites and 12.5 % (4 of 32) in uncommon/interval sites. The definition of uncommon and interval sentinel nodes allows the identification of different lymphatic pathways and inform appropriate surgical treatment. Wider experience with uncommon/interval sentinel nodes will better clarify the clinical implications and surgical management to be adopted in the management of uncommon and interval sentinel node sites.
Athanasiou, A E
The aim of this review is to present the various morphologic and functional implications of the surgical-orthodontic management of mandibular prognathism, thus providing a more complete determination of the efficacy of this modality of treatment. Major conclusions that can be drawn from the bibliography indicate that: (1) After treatment considerable improvement takes place on the soft tissue and dentoskeletal profile, occlusal tooth contacts, and temporomandibular joint function and and pain; (2) Surgical management of mandibular prognathism can be associated with decreased maximum interincisal opening; (3) Although immediately after surgery there is a tendency for the condyles to be distracted downward and anteriorly from their preoperative position, in long-term postsurgery the condyles, on the average, regain their initial position; (4) Compensatory alterations in the pharyngeal, suprahyoid, and infrahyoid muscular regions take place postoperatively; (5) Skeletal changes after mandibular setback to correct mandibular prognathism occur frequently, but their magnitude and patterns exhibit variation and are not necessarily detrimental; and (6) Fulfillment of expectations toward surgical-orthodontic management of mandibular prognathism was reported to be frequent.
Dar, Faisal Saud; Zia, Haseeb; Rafique, Muhammad Salman; Khan, Nusrat Yar; Salih, Mohammad; Hassan Shah, Najmul
Background. Concomitant vascular injury might adversely impact outcomes after iatrogenic bile duct injury (IBDI). Whether a new HPB center should embark upon repair of complex biliary injuries with associated vascular injuries during learning curve is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine outcome of surgical management of IBDI with and without vascular injuries in a new HPB center during its learning curve. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent surgical management of IBDI at our center. A total of 39 patients were included. Patients without (Group 1) and with vascular injuries (Group 2) were compared. Outcome was defined as 90-day morbidity and mortality. Results. Median age was 39 (20–80) years. There were 10 (25.6%) vascular injuries. E2 injuries were associated significantly with high frequency of vascular injuries (66% versus 15.1%) (P = 0.01). Right hepatectomy was performed in three patients. Out of these, two had a right hepatic duct stricture and one patient had combined right arterial and portal venous injury. The number of patients who developed postoperative complications was not significantly different between the two groups (11.1% versus 23.4%) (P = 0.6). Conclusion. Learning curve is not a negative prognostic variable in the surgical management of iatrogenic vasculobiliary injuries after cholecystectomy. PMID:27525124
Osborn, Emily J; Davids, Jon R; Leffler, Lauren C; Gibson, Thomas W; Pugh, Linda I
Central polydactyly is the least common form of foot polydactyly, and the intercalary location of the duplicated ray makes the surgical exposure, excision, and closure more complex. For these reasons there is little consensus concerning the optimal technique for surgical management. A retrospective case series of 22 patients with 27 feet with central polydactyly, treated surgically by the dorsal and plantar advancement flap technique, was performed. Change in width of the forefoot was measured from radiographs by the metatarsal gap ratio. Functional outcomes were assessed by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Signficant narrowing of the forefoot, as measured radiographically by the metatarsal gap ratio, was achieved after surgery (P<0.0001). This radiographic narrowing was maintained with growth after a mean follow-up of 8 years (P=0.0001). In 7 of the unilateral cases, the mean forefoot radiographic width of the affected side, after surgical resection and reconstruction of the central polydactyly, was 2% greater than the contralateral, uninvolved side. Persistent clinical widening of the forefoot after surgery was reported in the majority (82%) of cases. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure results showed near-normal functional outcomes in itemized activities of daily living, itemized sports, and overall function categories. The few reports of less than normal foot function were related to shoe wear issues and incisional scarring that was painful or cosmetically unappealing. The radiographic and functional outcomes after surgical management of central polydactyly with the dorsal and plantar advancement flap technique are excellent. The technique successfully narrows the forefoot on radiographs, and this narrowing is maintained with growth over time. However, families should be advised that persistent perceived widening of the forefoot relative to normal is common, despite successful radiographic narrowing after surgery. IV.
Vanderveen, Kimberly A; Paterniti, Debora A; Kravitz, Richard L; Bold, Richard J
Understanding how physicians acquire and adopt new technologies for cancer diagnosis and treatment is poorly understood, yet is critical to the dissemination of evidence-based practices. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has recently become a standard technique for axillary staging in early breast cancer and is an ideal platform for studying medical technology diffusion. We sought to describe the timing of SLNB adoption and patterns of surgeon interactions with the following educational sources: local university training program, surgical literature, national meetings/courses, national specialty centers, and other local surgeons. A cross-sectional survey that used semistructured interviews was used to assess timing of adoption, practice patterns, and learning sources for SLNB among surgical oncologists and general surgeons in a single metropolitan area. A total of 44 eligible surgeons were identified; 38 (86%) participated. All surgical oncologists (11 of 11) and most general surgeons (26 of 27) had implemented SLNB. Surgical oncologists were older (mean 51 vs. 48 years, P = .02) and had used SLNB longer (6.1 vs. 3.3 years, P = .01) than general surgeons. By use of social network diagrams, surgical oncologists and the university training program were shown to be key intermediaries between general surgeons and national specialty centers. Surgeons in group practice tended to use more learning sources than solo practitioners. Surgical oncologists and university-based surgeons play key educational roles in disseminating new cancer treatments and therefore have a professional responsibility to educate other community physicians to increase the use of the most current, evidence-based practices.
Heller, Axel R; Mees, Sören T; Lauterwald, Benjamin; Reeps, Christian; Koch, Thea; Weitz, Jürgen
The establishment of early warning systems in hospitals was strongly recommended in recent guidelines to detect deteriorating patients early and direct them to adequate care. Upon reaching predefined trigger criteria, Medical Emergency Teams (MET) should be notified and directed to these patients. The present study analyses the effect of introducing an automated multiparameter early warning score (MEWS)-based early warning system with paging functionality on 2 wards hosting patients recovering from highly complex surgical interventions. The deployment of the system was accompanied by retrospective data acquisition during 12 months (intervention) using 4 routine databases: Hospital patient data management, anesthesia database, local data of the German Resuscitation Registry, and measurement logs of the deployed system (intervention period only). A retrospective 12-month data review using the same aforementioned databases before the deployment of the system served as control. Control and intervention phases were separated by a 6-month washout period for the installation of the system and for training. Data from 3827 patients could be acquired from 2 surgical wards during the two 12-month periods, 1896 patients in the control and 1931 in the intervention cohorts. Patient characteristics differed between the 2 observation phases. American Society of Anesthesiologists risk classification and duration of surgery as well as German DRG case-weight were significantly higher in the intervention period. However, the rate of cardiac arrests significantly dropped from 5.3 to 2.1 per 1000 admissions in the intervention period (P < 0.001). This observation was paralleled by a reduction of unplanned ICU admissions from 3.6% to 3.0% (P < 0.001), and an increase of notifications of critical conditions to the ward surgeon. The primary triggers for MET activation were abnormal ECG alerts, specifically asystole (n = 5), and pulseless electric activity (n = 8). In concert with a well
Nickel, Katelin B; Fox, Ida K; Margenthaler, Julie A; Wallace, Anna E; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A
Background Non-infectious wound complications (NIWCs) following mastectomy are not routinely tracked and data are generally limited to single-center studies. Our objective was to determine the rates of NIWCs among women undergoing mastectomy and assess the impact of immediate reconstruction (IR). Study Design We established a retrospective cohort using commercial claims data of women aged 18–64 years with procedure codes for mastectomy from 1/2004–12/2011. NIWCs within 180 days after operation were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and rates were compared among mastectomy with and without autologous flap and/or implant IR. Results 18,696 procedures (10,836 [58%] with IR) among 18,085 women were identified. The overall NIWC rate was 9.2% (1,714/18,696); 56% required surgical treatment. The NIWC rates were 5.8% (455/7,860) after mastectomy-only, 10.3% (843/8,217) after mastectomy + implant, 17.4% (337/1,942) after mastectomy + flap, and 11.7% (79/677) after mastectomy + flap and implant (p<0.001). The rates of individual NIWCs varied by specific complication and procedure type, ranging from 0.5% for fat necrosis after mastectomy-only to 7.2% for dehiscence after mastectomy + flap. The percentage of NIWCs resulting in surgical wound care varied from 50% (210/416) for mastectomy + flap to 60% (507/843) for mastectomy + implant. Early implant removal within 60 days occurred after 6.2% of mastectomy + implant; 66% of the early implant removals were due to NIWCs and/or surgical site infection. Conclusions The rate of NIWC was approximately two-fold higher after mastectomy with IR than after mastectomy-only. NIWCs were associated with additional surgical treatment, particularly in women with implant reconstruction, and with early implant loss. PMID:27010582
Panteliadis, Pavlos; Nagra, Navraj S.; Edwards, Kimberley L.; Behrbalk, Eyal; Boszczyk, Bronek
Study Design Narrative review. Objective The study aims to critically review the outcomes associated with the surgical repair or conservative management of spondylolysis in athletes. Methods The English literature listed in MEDLINE/PubMed was reviewed to identify related articles using the term “spondylolysis AND athlete.” The criteria for studies to be included were management of spondylolysis in athletes, English text, and no year, follow-up, or study design restrictions. The references of the retrieved articles were also evaluated. The primary outcome was time to return to sport. This search yielded 180 citations, and 25 publications were included in the review. Results Treatment methods were dichotomized as operative and nonoperative. In the nonoperative group, 390 athletes were included. A combination of bracing with physical therapy and restriction of activities was used. Conservative measures allowed athletes to return to sport in 3.7 months (weighted mean). One hundred seventy-four patients were treated surgically. The most common technique was Buck's, using a compression screw (91/174). All authors reported satisfactory outcomes. Time to return to play was 7.9 months (weighted mean). There were insufficient studies with suitably homogenous subgroups to conduct a meta-analysis. Conclusion There is no gold standard approach for the management of spondylolysis in the athletic population. The existing literature suggests initial therapy should be a course of conservative management with thoracolumbosacral orthosis brace, physiotherapy, and activity modification. If conservative management fails, surgical intervention should be considered. Two-sided clinical studies are needed to determine an optimal pathway for the management of athletes with spondylolysis. PMID:27556003
Since one of the main challenges in treating acute burn injuries is preventing infection, early excising of the eschar and covering of the wound becomes critical. Non-viable tissue is removed by initial aggressive surgical debridement. Many surgical options for covering the wound bed have been described, although split-thickness skin grafts remain the standard for the rapid and permanent closure of full-thickness burns. Significant advances made in the past decades have greatly improved burns patient care, as such that major future improvements in survival rates seem to be more difficult. Research into stem cells, grafting, biomarkers, inflammation control, and rehabilitation will continue to improve individualized care and create new treatment options for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…
Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.
Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)
Worley, Guy H T; Segal, Jonathan P; Warusavitarne, Janindra; Clark, Susan K; Faiz, Omar D
It is well established that ileoanal pouch-related septic complications (PRSC) increase the risk of pouch failure. There are a number of publications that describe the management of early PRSC in ulcerative colitis (UC) in small series. This article aims to systematically review and summarise the relevant contemporary data on this subject and provide an algorithm for the management of early PRSC. A systematic review was undertaken in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies published between 2000 and 2017 describing the clinical management of PRSC in patients with UC within 30 days of primary ileoanal pouch surgery were included. A qualitative analysis was undertaken due to the heterogeneity and quality of studies included. 1157 abstracts and 266 full text articles were screened. Twelve studies were included for analysis involving a total of 207 patients. The studies described a range of techniques including image-guided, endoscopic, surgical and endocavitational vacuum methods. Based on the evidence from these studies, an algorithm was created to guide the management of early PRSC. The results of this review suggest that although successful salvage of early pouch related septic complications is improving there is little information available relating to methods of salvage and outcomes.. Novel techniques may offer increased chance of salvage but comparative studies with longer follow-up are required. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Oxford, Lance E; McClay, John
To evaluate the presentations and outcomes of pediatric subperiosteal orbital abscesses (SPOA) secondary to acute sinusitis. Case series Tertiary children's hospital. Forty-three admissions diagnosed with SPOA by clinical presentation and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical presentations, CECT dimensions, treatment, outcomes, and microbiology. Eighteen/43 (42%) patients resolved their infection with medical management only, including five children older than nine. Twenty-five/43 (58%) children underwent surgical drainage. Purulence was identified in 22 of 25 surgical patients, and the most common organism was Streptococcus milleri (7 patients). Compared to 22 patients with drained purulence, the 18 patients with abscesses managed medically had significant differences for: chemosis in 2/18 (11.1%) versus 14/22 (63.6%, p=0.001), proptosis in 10/18 (55.6%) versus 20/22 (90.9%, p=0.025), elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in 0/18 (0%) versus 11/22 (50%, p<0.001), severe restriction of extraocular movements in 1/18 (5.6%) versus 12/22 (54.5%, p=0.002), and length of stay (4.3 versus 5.8 days, p=0.038). The dimensions of medial SPOA managed medically were significantly smaller on CECT compared to surgically drained purulent SPOA: width (0.25 versus 1.46cm, p<0.001), height (0.73 versus 1.35cm, p=0.002), and length (1.1 versus 1.86cm, p=0.004). Persistent morbidities occurred in no patients managed medically and in 2/25 (8%) managed surgically. Children with small medial SPOA without significant ocular signs may be managed medically with favorable outcomes. Proposed criteria for medical management of medial SPOA include: (1) normal vision, pupil, and retina; (2) no ophthalmoplegia; (3) IOP<20mmHg; (4) proptosis of 5mm or less; and (5) abscess width of 4mm or less. In contrast to prior series, older children with SPOA were managed successfully with medical therapy.
Segatore, M; Dutkiewicz, M; Adams, D
Delirium, an etiologically nonspecific disorder of consciousness characterized by prominent deficits in attention, cognition, and perception, affects more than one-third of adult cardiac surgical patients. Despite the frequency of occurrence and the increased morbidity and mortality associated with it, the diagnosis is commonly late or missed, and management is less than optimal. This article addresses the recognition and management of delirium. Nurses who develop an index of suspicion for the diagnosis and acquire the diagnostic and interventional skills required to address this cerebral complication of cardiac surgery may well decrease its incidence and severity.
Hagen, Monika E; Jung, Minoa K; Ris, Frederic; Fakhro, Jassim; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo; Morel, Philippe
The da Vinci Xi Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been released in 2014 to facilitate minimally invasive surgery. Novel features are targeted towards facilitating complex multi-quadrant procedures, but data is scarce so far. Perioperative data of patients who underwent robotic general surgery with the da Vinci Xi system within the first 6 month after installation were collected and analyzed. The gastric bypass procedures performed with the da Vinci Xi Surgical System were compared to an equal amount of the last procedures with the da Vinci Si Surgical System. Thirty-one foregut (28 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses), 6 colorectal procedures and 1 revisional biliary procedure were performed. The mean operating room (OR) time was 221.8 (±69.0) minutes for gastric bypasses and 306.5 (±48.8) for colorectal procedures with mean docking time of 9.4 (±3.8) minutes. The gastric bypass procedure was transitioned from a hybrid to a fully robotic approach. In comparison to the last 28 gastric bypass procedures performed with the da Vinci Si Surgical System, the OR time was comparable (226.9 versus 230.6 min, p = 0.8094), but the docking time significantly longer with the da Vinci Xi Surgical System (8.5 versus 6.1 min, p = 0.0415). All colorectal procedures were performed with a single robotic docking. No intraoperative and two postoperative complications occurred. The da Vinci Xi might facilitate single-setups of totally robotic gastric bypass and colorectal surgeries. However, further comparable research is needed to clearly determine the significance of this latest version of the da Vinci Surgical System.
Cour, F; Vidart, A
The never ending debate over the surgical approach of genital prolapse repair (abdominal versus vaginal route) is as passionate as ever. The available literature may support a multidisciplinary analysis of our expert daily practice. Our purpose was to define selection criteria for surgical approach between abdominal and vaginal route in the management of genital prolapse by reviewing the literature. Systematically review of the literature concerning comparative anatomical and functionnal results of surgery of pelvic organ prolaps by vaginal or abdominal route. We were confronted to the lack of data in the literature, with few prospective randomized comparative studies. Many limitations were identified such as small populations in the studies, no description of sub-population, multiplicity of surgical procedures. Moreover, vaginal route was compared to sacral colpopexy by open abdominal approach, whereas laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy is now recommended. Only one prospective randomized comparative trial assessed laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy and vaginal approach, in which was used a mesh withdrawn from the market. The lack of available randomized trials makes it impossible to define HAS compliant guidelines on this topic. However, selection criteria for each surgical approach and technique were drawn from experts' advices. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
Maktabi, M; Neumuth, T
Hospitals' effectiveness and efficiency can be enhanced by automating the resource and time management of the most cost-intensive unit in the hospital: the operating room (OR). The key elements required for the ideal organization of hospital staff and technical resources (such as instruments in the OR) are an exact online forecast of both the surgeon's resource usage and the remaining intervention time. This paper presents a novel online approach relying on time series analysis and the application of a linear time-variant system. We calculated the power spectral density and the spectrogram of surgical perspectives (e.g., used instrument) of interest to compare several surgical workflows. Considering only the use of the surgeon's right hand during an intervention, we were able to predict the remaining intervention time online with an error of 21 min 45 s ±9 min 59 s for lumbar discectomy. Furthermore, the performance of forecasting of technical resource usage in the next 20 min was calculated for a combination of spectral analysis and the application of a linear time-variant system (sensitivity: 74 %; specificity: 75 %) focusing on just the use of surgeon's instrument in question. The outstanding benefit of these methods is that the automated recording of surgical workflows has minimal impact during interventions since the whole set of surgical perspectives need not be recorded. The resulting predictions can help various stakeholders such as OR staff and hospital technicians. Moreover, reducing resource conflicts could well improve patient care.
Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Damante, Carla Andreotti; Martinez, Maria Alejandra Frias; Valdivia, Maria Alejandra Medina; Karam, Paula Stefânia Hage; de Oliveira, Flavia Amadeu; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Gasparoto, Thais Helena; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Zangrando, Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti; de Rezende, Maria Lúcia Rubo; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; Passanezi, Euloir
The granulation tissue (GT) present in surgically-created early healing sockets has been considered as a possible source of osteoprogenitor cells for periodontal regeneration, as demonstrated in animal studies. However, the in vitro osteogenic properties of tissue removed from human surgically-created early healing alveolar defects (SC-EHAD) remains to be established, being that the aim of this study. Surgical defects were created in the edentulous ridge of two systemically healthy adults. The healing tissue present in these defects was removed 21 days later for the establishment of primary culture. The in vitro characteristics of the cultured cells were determined by Armelin method, MTT assay, immunohistochemistry, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization assay and flow cytometry for detection of stem cells/osteoprogenitor cell markers. Cells were able to adhere to the plastic and assumed spindle-shaped morphology at earlier passages, changing to a cuboidal one with increasing passages. Differences in the proliferation rate were observed with increasing passages, suggesting osteogenic differentiation. ALP and mineralization activities were detected in conventional and osteogenic medium. Fresh samples of SC-EHAD tissue exhibited CD34 - and CD45 - phenotypes. Cells at later passages (14 th ) exhibited CD34 - , CD45 - , CD105 - , CD166 - and collagen type I + phenotype. Tissue removed from SC-EHAD is a possible source of progenitor cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.
Morris, Nicholas A; Merkler, Alexander E; Parker, Whitney E; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E Sander; Sheth, Kevin N; Kamel, Hooman
Little is known about the natural history of non-surgically managed subdural hematoma (SDH). The purpose of this study is to determine rates of adverse events after non-surgical management of SDH and whether these outcomes differ depending on traumatic versus nontraumatic etiology. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using administrative claims data on all emergency department visits and acute care hospitalizations at nonfederal facilities in California from 2005 to 2011, Florida from 2005 to 2012, and New York from 2006 to 2011. We included patients who were discharged home after hospitalization with a first-recorded diagnosis of SDH and no record of surgical hematoma evacuation. Patients were followed for readmission with SDH, readmission for surgical SDH evacuation, and fatal readmission with SDH. Survival statistics and the log-rank test were used to compare rates of these adverse events after traumatic versus nontraumatic SDH. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to compare hazards for traumatic versus nontraumatic etiology while adjusting for age, sex, race, insurance status, presence of dementia, alcohol use, acquired abnormalities in coagulation, acquired abnormalities in platelet function, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, and valvular disease. We identified 27,502 conservatively treated patients with SDH, of which 70.9% were traumatic and 29.1% nontraumatic. Compared to patients with traumatic SDH, patients with nontraumatic SDH had significantly higher rates of subsequent hospitalization with SDH (cumulative 90-day rates: 15.3 % [95% CI 14.5-16.1%] vs. 10.3% [95% CI 9.9-10.8%]), surgical SDH evacuation (7.8% [95% CI 7.3-8.5%] vs. 5.5% [95% CI 5.2-5.8%]), and SDH-related in-hospital death (1.0% [95% CI 0.8-1.2%] vs. 0.4% [95 % CI 0.3-0.5%]). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, nontraumatic etiology was associated with a higher hazard of readmission with SDH (HR 1
Wani, Sajad A.; Mufti, Gowher N.; Bhat, Nisar A.; Baba, Ajaz A.
Intralobar sequestration is characterized by aberrant formation of nonfunctional lung tissue that has no communication with the bronchial tree and receives systemic arterial blood supply. Failure of earlier diagnosis can lead to recurrent pneumonia, failure to thrive, multiple hospital admissions, and more morbidity. The aim of this case report is to increase the awareness about the lung sequestration, to diagnose and treat it early, so that it is resected before repeated infection, and prevent the morbidity and mortality. PMID:26273485
Nathan, Hari; Thumma, Jyothi R; Ryan, Andrew M; Dimick, Justin B
To evaluate whether hospital participation in accountable care organizations (ACOs) is associated with reduced Medicare spending for inpatient surgery. ACOs have proliferated rapidly and now cover more than 32 million Americans. Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) ACOs have shown modest success in reducing medical spending. Whether they have reduced surgical spending remains unknown. We used 100% Medicare claims from 2010 to 2014 for patients aged 65 to 99 years undergoing 6 common elective surgical procedures [abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, colectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), hip or knee replacement, or lung resection]. We compared total Medicare payments for 30-day surgical episodes, payments for individual components of care (index hospitalization, readmissions, physician services, and postacute care), and clinical outcomes for patients treated at MSSP ACO hospitals versus matched controls at non-ACO hospitals. We accounted for preexisting trends independent of ACO participation using a difference-in-differences approach. Among 341,675 patients at 427 ACO hospitals and 1,024,090 matched controls at 1531 non-ACO hospitals, patient and hospital characteristics were well-balanced. Average baseline payments were similar at ACO versus non-ACO hospitals. ACO participation was not associated with reductions in total Medicare payments [difference-in-differences estimate=-$72, confidence interval (CI95%): -$228 to +$84] or individual components of payments. ACO participation was also not associated with clinical outcomes. Duration of ACO participation did not affect our estimates. Although Medicare ACOs have had success reducing spending for medical care, they have not had similar success with surgical spending. Given that surgical care accounts for 30% of total health care costs, ACOs and policymakers must pay greater attention to reducing surgical expenditures.
Hashizume, M; Shimada, M; Tomikawa, M; Ikeda, Y; Takahashi, I; Abe, R; Koga, F; Gotoh, N; Konishi, K; Maehara, S; Sugimachi, K
We performed a variety of complete total endoscopic general surgical procedures, including colon resection, distal gastrectomy, and splenectomy, successfully with the assistance of the da Vinci computer-enhanced surgical system. The robotic system allowed us to manipulate the endoscopic instruments as effectively as during open surgery. It enhanced visualization of both the operative field and precision of the necessary techniques, as well as being less stressful for the endoscopic operating team. This technological innovation can therefore help surgeons overcome many of the difficulties associated with the endoscopic approach and thus has the potential to enable more precise, safer, and more minimally invasive surgery in the future.
Villarmé, A; Savoldelli, C; Jean-Baptiste, E; Guevara, N
Facial injuries by penetrating foreign body are unusual and require specific multidisciplinary surgical management. This case report concerns a 20-year-old man who experienced a penetrating injury by a piece of wood to the face and describes the surgical approach to remove the wood and repair the injury. The foreign body had penetrated the infratemporal fossa, with an entry wound situated below the right eye and an exit wound in the neck, in contact with the left internal carotid artery. An adapted surgical strategy was necessary in view of the site of the foreign body. The internal carotid artery was controlled in order to follow the foreign body as far as its entry into the base of the skull. The proximity of the eye and carotid and jugular vessels and the deep penetration of the foreign body required the participation of interventional radiologists, head and neck and vascular surgeons and ophthalmologists. The site of the foreign body, precisely determined preoperatively, justified management by a multidisciplinary team to ensure rapid extraction, while limiting the risk of additional lesions. With a follow-up of 6 months, the patient did not present any sequelae of his facial injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Di Mauro, Michele; Dato, Guglielmo Mario Actis; Barili, Fabio; Gelsomino, Sandro; Santè, Pasquale; Corte, Alessandro Della; Carrozza, Antonio; Ratta, Ester Della; Cugola, Diego; Galletti, Lorenzo; Devotini, Roger; Casabona, Riccardo; Santini, Francesco; Salsano, Antonio; Scrofani, Roberto; Antona, Carlo; Botta, Luca; Russo, Claudio; Mancuso, Samuel; Rinaldi, Mauro; De Vincentiis, Carlo; Biondi, Andrea; Beghi, Cesare; Cappabianca, Giangiuseppe; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Gerosa, Gino; De Bonis, Michele; Pozzoli, Alberto; Nicolini, Francesco; Benassi, Filippo; Rosato, Francesco; Grasso, Elena; Livi, Ugolino; Sponga, Sandro; Pacini, Davide; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; De Martino, Andrea; Bortolotti, Uberto; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Lorusso, Roberto; Vizzardi, Enrico; Di Giammarco, Gabriele; Marinelli, Daniele; Villa, Emmanuel; Troise, Giovanni; Picichè, Marco; Musumeci, Francesco; Paparella, Domenico; Margari, Vito; Tritto, Francesco; Damiani, Girolamo; Scrascia, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Salvatore; Renzulli, Attilio; Serraino, Giuseppe; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Maselli, Daniele; Foschi, Massimiliano; Parolari, Alessandro; Nappi, Giannantonio
The aim of this large retrospective study was to provide a logistic risk model along an additive score to predict early mortality after surgical treatment of patients with heart valve or prosthesis infective endocarditis (IE). From 2000 to 2015, 2715 patients with native valve endocarditis (NVE) or prosthesis valve endocarditis (PVE) were operated on in 26 Italian Cardiac Surgery Centers. The relationship between early mortality and covariates was evaluated with logistic mixed effect models. Fixed effects are parameters associated with the entire population or with certain repeatable levels of experimental factors, while random effects are associated with individual experimental units (centers). Early mortality was 11.0% (298/2715); At mixed effect logistic regression the following variables were found associated with early mortality: age class, female gender, LVEF, preoperative shock, COPD, creatinine value above 2mg/dl, presence of abscess, number of treated valve/prosthesis (with respect to one treated valve/prosthesis) and the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus, Fungus spp., Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and other micro-organisms, while Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and other Staphylococci did not affect early mortality, as well as no micro-organisms isolation. LVEF was found linearly associated with outcomes while non-linear association between mortality and age was tested and the best model was found with a categorization into four classes (AUC=0.851). The following study provides a logistic risk model to predict early mortality in patients with heart valve or prosthesis infective endocarditis undergoing surgical treatment, called "The EndoSCORE". Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hanley, Jessica; Westermann, Robert; Cook, Shane; Glass, Natalie; Amendola, Ned; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew
Postoperative knee stiffness can influence outcomes following operative treatment of multiligament knee injuries (MLKIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and surgical factors that may potentially contribute to stiffness following surgery for MLKIs. All surgically managed MLKIs involving two or more ligaments over a 10-year period at a single level one trauma center were included in this study. A retrospective review was performed to gather objective data related to the development of knee stiffness after surgery. Patients were classified as "stiff" postoperatively if they (1) had a flexion contracture greater than 10 degrees, (2) failed to reach 120 degrees of flexion at final follow-up, or (3) underwent a manipulation under anesthesia with or without arthroscopic lysis of adhesions to improve range of motion. Patient and surgical factors were evaluated systematically to determine factors associated with stiffness. The mean age of the cohort was 27.6 years at the time of surgery and mean follow-up was 50 weeks. Overall, 26/121 (21.5%) knees were diagnosed with postoperative stiffness. In the acute postoperative phase, 17 patients underwent manipulation under anesthesia. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index, associated injuries, mechanism, external fixation use or surgical timing (acute vs. chronic) between stiff and normal knees. Factors associated with the development of postoperative stiffness included knee dislocation ( p = 0.04) and surgical intervention on three or more ligaments ( p = 0.04). Careful attention to postoperative rehabilitation regimens should be given to patients with knee dislocations and/or those undergoing reconstruction or repair of three or more injured ligaments. Surgeons may utilize spanning external fixation if necessary without increasing the rate of long-term stiffness. Further, acute surgery does not appear to influence rates of postoperative stiffness or the need for manipulation
Devine, E C; Bevsek, S A; Brubakken, K; Johnson, B P; Ryan, P; Sliefert, M K; Rodgers, B
Pain management practices and short-term patient outcomes in nine acute care hospitals in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, were studied at two points in time. One-and-a-half years after the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research's (AHCPR) Clinical Practice Guideline on Acute Pain Management was published, data from 330 adult surgical patients were collected (Time I). These data were contrasted with data from 373 adult surgical patients collected 2 years later (Time II). There were significant increases in the percentage of patients who reported being taught how to report pain using a pain rating scale and about setting a pain goal preoperatively; in the percentage of patient hospital records with at least one documented numeric pain rating; and in the percentage of patients who received analgesics by intravenous administration. However, pain management practices continued to differ from recommendations in the AHCPR guideline. No significant improvement was noted in the short-term outcomes of patient-rated pain or patient satisfaction with pain management. Availability of well-published guidelines alone may be insufficient to ensure comprehensive adoption of guidelines that are multidimensional in nature and to obtain improvements in patient outcome.
Jeskey, Mary; Card, Elizabeth; Nelson, Donna; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D; Sanders, Neal; Higgins, Michael S; Shi, Yaping; Michaels, Damon; Miller, Anne
To report an exploratory action-research process used during the implementation of continuous patient monitoring in acute post-surgical nursing units. Substantial US Federal funding has been committed to implementing new health care technology, but failure to manage implementation processes may limit successful adoption and the realisation of proposed benefits. Effective approaches for managing barriers to new technology implementation are needed. Continuous patient monitoring was implemented in three of 13 medical/surgical units. An exploratory action-feedback approach, using time-series nurse surveys, was used to identify barriers and develop and evaluate responses. Post-hoc interviews and document analysis were used to describe the change implementation process. Significant differences were identified in night- and dayshift nurses' perceptions of technology benefits. Research nurses' facilitated the change process by evolving 'clinical nurse implementation specialist' expertise. Health information technology (HIT)-related patient outcomes are mediated through nurses' acting on new information but HIT designed for critical care may not transfer to acute care settings. Exploratory action-feedback approaches can assist nurse managers in assessing and mitigating the real-world effects of HIT implementations. It is strongly recommended that nurse managers identify stakeholders and develop comprehensive plans for monitoring the effects of HIT in their units. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Roque, Dario R; Wysham, Weiya Z; Soper, John T
Surgery has evolved into the standard therapy for nonbulky carcinoma of the cervix. The mainstay of surgical management is radical hysterectomy; however, less radical procedures have a small but important role in the management of cervical tumors. Our objective was to discuss the literature behind the different procedures utilized in the management of cervical cancer, emphasizing the radical hysterectomy. In addition, we aimed to discuss ongoing trials looking at the utility of less radical surgeries as well as emerging technologies in the management of this disease. We performed a PubMed literature search for articles in the English language that pertained to the topic of surgical techniques and their outcomes in the treatment of cervical cancer. The minimally invasive approaches to radical hysterectomy appear to reduce morbidity without affecting oncological outcomes, although further data are needed looking at long-term outcomes with the robotic platform. Trials are currently ongoing looking at the role of less radical surgery for patients with low-risk disease and the feasibility of sentinel lymph node mapping. Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy has evolved into the standard therapy for nonbulky disease, and there is a clear advantage in the use of minimally invasive techniques to perform these procedures. However, pending ongoing trials, less radical surgery in patients with low-risk invasive disease as well as sentinel lymph node mapping may emerge as standards of care in selected patients with cervical carcinoma.
Aljuboori, Zaid; Sharma, Mayur; Simpson, Jessica; Altstadt, Thomas
Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an isolated spinal aneurysm is extremely rare. Patients usually present with symptoms and signs resulting from spinal cord compression. No standard guidelines are available for the treatment of this condition. In this report we present the case of a 78-year-old Caucasian male who presented with sudden-onset back pain and bilateral lower extremity weakness. Spinal angiogram revealed an isolated aneurysm of the artery of Adamkiewicz. The aneurysm was successfully managed by surgical clipping, and the patient recovered well with rehabilitation. At 46 months' follow-up, the patient was able to ambulate and perform activities of daily living independently. Our case is the first description of surgical clipping of a ruptured isolated spinal aneurysm of the artery of Adamkiewicz with a long-term successful outcome and shows that it is a safe and feasible option in carefully selected patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seror, Julien; Bats, Anne-Sophie; Huchon, Cyrille; Bensaïd, Chérazade; Douay-Hauser, Nathalie; Lécuru, Fabrice
To compare the rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications of robotic surgery and laparoscopy in the surgical treatment of endometrial cancer. Unicentric retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Tertiary teaching hospital. The study was performed from January 2002 to December 2011 and included patients with endometrial cancer who underwent laparoscopic or robotically assisted laparoscopic surgical treatment. Data collected included preoperative data, tumor characteristics, intraoperative data (route of surgery, surgical procedures, and complications), and postoperative data (early and late complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, and length of hospital stay). Morbidity was compared between the 2 groups. The study included 146 patients, of whom 106 underwent laparoscopy and 40 underwent robotically assisted surgery. The 2 groups were comparable in terms of demographic and preoperative data. Intraoperative complications occurred in 9.4% of patients who underwent laparoscopy and in none who underwent robotically assisted surgery (p = .06). There was no difference between the 2 groups in terms of postoperative events. Robotically assisted surgery is not associated with a significant difference in intraoperative and postoperative complications, even when there were no intraoperative complications of robotically assisted surgery. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Angell, Trevor E; Vyas, Chirag M; Barletta, Justine A; Cibas, Edmund S; Cho, Nancy L; Doherty, Gerard M; Gawande, Atul A; Howitt, Brooke E; Krane, Jeffrey F; Marqusee, Ellen; Strickland, Kyle C; Alexander, Erik K; Moore, Francis D; Nehs, Matthew A
Diagnostic hemithyroidectomy (HT) is the most widely recommended surgical procedure for a nodule with indeterminate cytology; however, additional details may make initial total thyroidectomy (TT) preferable. We sought to identify patient-specific factors (PSFs) associated with initial TT in patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules. Retrospective analysis of all patients with a thyroid nodule ≥ 1 cm and initial cytology of atypia of undetermined significance or suspicious for follicular neoplasm between 2012 and 2015 who underwent thyroidectomy. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, neck symptoms, nodule size, cytology, molecular test results, final histopathology, and additional PSFs influencing surgical management. Variables were analyzed to determine associations with the use of initial TT. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent associations. Of 325 included patients, 182/325 (56.0%) had HT and 143/325 (44.0%) had TT. While patient age and sex, nodule size, and cytology result were not associated with initial treatment, five PSFs were associated with initial TT (p < 0.0001). These included contralateral nodules, hypothyroidism, fluorodeoxyglucose avidity on positron emission tomography scan, family history of thyroid cancer, and increased surgical risk. At least one PSF was present in 126/143 (88.1%) TT patients versus 47/182 (25.8%) HT patients (p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that these variables were the strongest independent predictor of TT (odds ratio 45.93, 95% confidence interval 18.80-112.23, p < 0.001). When surgical management of an indeterminate cytology thyroid nodule was performed, several PSFs were associated with a preference by surgeons and patients for initial TT, which may be useful to consider in making decisions on initial operative extent.
Maugeri, Rosario; Anderson, David Greg; Graziano, Francesca; Meccio, Flavia; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo
Patient: Male, 30 Final Diagnosis: Acute epidural hematoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Observation Specialty: Neurosurgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Trauma is the leading cause of death in people younger than 45 years and head injury is the main cause of trauma mortality. Although epidural hematomas are relatively uncommon (less than 1% of all patients with head injuries and fewer than 10% of those who are comatose), they should always be considered in evaluation of a serious head injury. Patients with epidural hematomas who meet surgical criteria and receive prompt surgical intervention can have an excellent prognosis, presumably owing to limited underlying primary brain damage from the traumatic event. The decision to perform a surgery in a patient with a traumatic extraaxial hematoma is dependent on several factors (neurological status, size of hematoma, age of patients, CT findings) but also may depend on the judgement of the treating neurosurgeon. Case Report: A 30-year old man arrived at our Emergency Department after a traumatic brain injury. General examination revealed severe headache, no motor or sensory disturbances, and no clinical signs of intracranial hypertension. A CT scan documented a significant left fronto-parietal epidural hematoma, which was considered suitable for surgical evacuation. The patient refused surgery. Following CT scan revealed a minimal increase in the size of the hematoma and of midline shift. The neurologic examination maintained stable and the patient continued to refuse the surgical treatment. Next follow up CT scans demonstrated a progressive resorption of hematoma. Conclusions: We report an unusual case of a remarkable epidural hematoma managed conservatively with a favorable clinical outcome. This case report is intended to rather add to the growing knowledge regarding the best management for this serious and acute pathology. PMID:26567227
Angel, Clay; Brooks, Kristen; Fourie, Julie
Delirium is common among inpatients aged 65 years and older and is associated with multiple adverse consequences, including increased length of stay (LOS). However, delirium is frequently unrecognized and poorly understood. At one hospital, baseline management of delirium on medical-surgical units varied greatly, and psychiatric consultations focused exclusively on crisis management. To implement a multidisciplinary program for rapid identification and proactive management of patients with delirium on medical-surgical units. A pilot from September 2010 to July 2012 included 920 unique patients, of whom 470 were seen by the delirium management team. A delirium management team included a redesigned role for consulting psychiatrists and a new clinical nurse specialist role; the team provided assistance with diagnosis and recommendations for nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic management of delirium. Multidisciplinary education focused on delirium identification and management and nurses' use of appropriate assessment tools. Electronic health record functions supported accurate problem list coding, referrals to the team, and standardized documentation. Length of stay. During the study period, average LOS in the target population decreased from 8.5 days to 6.5 days (p = 0.001); average LOS for the Medical Center remained stable. Compared with patients whose delirium was diagnosed during the baseline period, patients who received a delirium diagnosis during the pilot period had a higher illness burden and were likelier to have a history of delirium and diagnosed dementia. Program implementation was associated with reduced LOS among older inpatients with delirium. The delirium team is an effective model that can be quickly implemented with few additional resources.
Dagan, Amit; Dagan, Ovadia
Early surgical correction of congenital heart malformations in neonates and small infants may be complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, especially in patients who require dialysis. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measurement of renal function which, in neonates and infants, is highly dependent on heart function. To determine whether measurements of creatinine clearance after open heart surgery in neonates and young infants can serve as an early indicator of surgical success or AKI. We conducted a prospective observational study in 19 neonates and small infants (body weight < 5 kg) scheduled for open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Urine collection measurement of creatinine clearance and albumin excretion was performed before and during surgery and four times during 48 hours after surgery. Mean creatinine clearance was lowest during surgery (25.2 ± 4. ml/min/1.73 m2) and increased significantly in the first 16 hours post-surgery (45.7 ± 6.3 ml/min/1.73 m2). A similar pattern was noted for urine albumin which was highest during surgery (203 ± 31 µg/min) and lowest (93 ± 20 µg/min) 48 hours post-surgery. AKI occurred in four patients, and two patients even required dialysis. All six showed a decline in creatinine clearance and an increase in urine albumin between 8 and 16 hours post-surgery. In neonates and small infants undergoing open heart surgery, a significant improvement in creatinine clearance in the first 16 hours postoperatively is indicative of a good surgical outcome. This finding has important implications for the early evaluation and treatment of patients in the intensive care unit on the first day post-surgery.
Kweon, Christopher; Gagnier, Joel J; Robbins, Christopher B; Bedi, Asheesh; Carpenter, James E; Miller, Bruce S
Rotator cuff tears are a common shoulder disorder resulting in significant disability to patients and financial burden on the health care system. While both surgical and nonsurgical management are accepted treatment options, there is a paucity of data to support a treatment algorithm for care providers. Defining variables to guide treatment allocation may be important for patient education and counseling, as well as to deliver the most efficient care plan at the time of presentation. To identify independent variables at the time of initial clinical presentation that are associated with preferred allocation to surgical versus nonsurgical management for patients with known full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 196 consecutive adult patients with known full-thickness rotator cuff tears were enrolled into a prospective cohort study. Robust data were collected for each subject at baseline, including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), shoulder activity score, smoking status, size of cuff tear, duration of symptoms, functional comorbidity index, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index (WORC), and the Veterans Rand 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12). Logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with treatment allocation, and the corresponding odds ratios were calculated. Of the 196 patients enrolled, 112 underwent surgical intervention and 84 nonoperative management. With covariates controlled for, significant baseline patient characteristics predictive of eventual allocation to surgical treatment included younger age, lower BMI, and durations of symptoms less than 1 year. Increasing age, higher BMI, and duration of symptoms longer than 1 year were predictive of nonsurgical treatment. Factors that were not associated with treatment allocation included sex, tear size, functional comorbidity score, or any of the patient-derived outcome scores at presentation
Busquets, Juli; Peláez, Núria; Secanella, Lluís; Darriba, Maria; Bravo, Alejandro; Santafosta, Eva; Valls, Carles; Gornals, Joan; Peña, Carmen; Fabregat, Juan
Surgery is the accepted treatment for infected acute pancreatitis, although mortality remains high. As an alternative, a staged management has been proposed to improve results. Initial percutaneous drainage could allow surgery to be postponed, and improve postoperative results. Few centres in Spain have published their results of surgery for acute pancreatitis. To review the results obtained after surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis during a period of 12 years, focusing on postoperative mortality. We have reviewed the experience in the surgical treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) at Bellvitge University Hospital from 1999 to 2011. To analyse the results, 2 periods were considered, before and after 2005. A descriptive and analytical study of risk factors for postoperative mortality was performed A total of 143 patients were operated on for SAP, and necrosectomy or debridement of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis was performed, or exploratory laparotomy in cases of massive intestinal ischemia. Postoperative mortality was 25%. Risk factors were advanced age (over 65 years), the presence of organ failure, sterility of the intraoperative simple, and early surgery (< 7 days). The only risk factor for mortality in the multivariant analysis was the time from the start of symptoms to surgery of<7 days; furthermore, 50% of these patients presented infection in one of the intraoperative cultures. Pancreatic infection can appear at any moment in the evolution of the disease, even in early stages. Surgery for SAP has a high mortality rate, and its delay is a factor to be considered in order to improve results. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Seeberger, Robin; Gander, Evelyn; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Engel, Michael
The surgical treatment of cross-bites includes surgically-assisted maxillary expansion (SARME) or maxillary-bipartition during bimaxillary surgery. This study evaluates and compares the changes in the teeth and lower nasal passage, as well as the stability of the expansion. The measurements were performed on the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 32 patients with transverse (width) deficiencies of the maxilla. To expand the maxilla, 12 patients underwent the two-piece maxilla method, while 20 patients received SARME. The mean distraction width for SARME was 6.8 mm (SD 3.7), while that for the two-piece maxilla was 4.1 mm (SD 1.6). The expansion with SARME was over the entire length of the maxilla, from anterior to posterior, whereas the expansion of the two-piece patient group was only in the posterior part of the maxilla. The segments of the maxilla opened nearly parallel in SARME, while they were reverse V-shaped in the two-piece maxilla, from anterior to posterior. A key point in the planning of combined orthodontic-orthognathic therapy with surgical correction of a cross-bite is the precise determination of the area where the width needs to be increased, and the amount of correction needed to treat the patient using minimal surgical procedures. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bolze, P-A; Paparel, P; Golfier, F
Urinary tract involvement by endometriosis is reported in 1% of endometriosis patients (NP3). Consequences range from pelvic pain for bladder localizations to silent kidney loss in case of chronic ureteral obstruction (NP3). The feasibility of laparoscopic management was widely proven (NP3) and may reduce hospital stay length (NP4). Radical surgery with partial cystectomy for bladder localizations was shown to significantly and durably reduce pain symptoms with low risk of a severe postoperative complications (NP3). Medical hormonal treatment also shows short-term reduction of pain symptoms (NP4). Transureteral resection of bladder endometriosis nodule is not recommended (grade C) because of a high postoperative recurrence rate (NP4). Given a high risk of silent kidney loss, it is recommended that patients with ureteral involvement by endometriosis are managed by a multidisciplinary team considering urinary and potential extra-urinary localizations of endometriosis (grade C). No recommendation can be made on which technique to prefer between conservative (ureterolysis) or radical surgical techniques or on benefit and length of ureteral stents in case of ureteral involvement. Surgical management of bladder and ureteral localizations of endometriosis do not seem to be associated with altered or improved postoperative fertility (NP4). Since late postoperative ureteral anastomosis stenosis were reported with silent kidney loss, repeated postoperative imaging monitoring is justified (expert opinion). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Di Fabio, Francesco; Teng, Mabel Joey; Godfrey, Dean Anthony; Primrose, John Neil; Pearce, Neil William
The expansion of the laparoscopic approach for the management of benign liver lesions has raised concerns regarding the risk of widening surgical indications and compromising safety. Large single-centre series focusing on laparoscopic management of benign liver lesions are sporadic. We reviewed a prospectively collected database of patients undergoing pure laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) for benign liver lesions. All cases were individually discussed at a multidisciplinary team meeting. Forty-six patients underwent 50 LLRs for benign disease. Indications for surgery were: symptomatic lesions, preoperative diagnosis of adenoma or cystadenoma, and lesions with an indeterminate diagnosis. The preoperative diagnosis was uncertain in 11 cases. Of these, histological diagnosis was hepatocellular carcinoma in one (9%) and benign lesion in 10 patients (91%). Thirteen patients (28%) required major hepatectomy. Three patients (7%) developed postoperative complications. Mortality was nil. The median postoperative hospital stay following major and minor hepatectomy was 4 and 3 days, respectively. The laparoscopic approach represents a safe option for the management of benign and indeterminate liver lesions, even when major hepatectomy is required. LLR should be only performed in specialized centres to ensure safety and strict adherence to orthodox surgical indication. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Chivukula, Venkat Keshav; Lafzi, Ali; Mokadam, Nahush; Beckman, Jennifer; Mahr, Claudius; Aliseda, Alberto
Unfavourable hemodynamics in heart failure patients implanted with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD), due to non-optimal surgical configurations and patient management, strongly influence thrombogenicity. This is consistent with the increase in devastating thromboembolic complications (specifically thrombosis and stroke) in patients, even as the risk of thrombosis inside the device decreases with modern designs. Inflow cannula and outflow graft surgical configurations have been optimized via patient-specific modeling that computes the thrombogenic potential with a combination of Eulerian (endothelial) wall shear stress and Lagrangian (platelet shear history) tracking. Using this view of hemodynamics, the benefits of intermittent aortic valve opening (promoting washout and reducing stagnant flow in the aortic valve region) have been assessed in managing the patient's residual native cardiac output. The use of this methodology to understand the contribution of the hemodynamics in the flow surrounding the LVAD itself to thrombogenesis show promise in developing holistic patient-specific management strategies to minimize stroke risk and enhance efficacy of LVAD therapy. Funded in part by an AHA postdoctoral fellowship 16POST30520004.
Toquart, A; Graillon, T; Mansouri, N; Adetchessi, T; Blondel, B; Fuentes, S
Spinal metastasis are getting more frequent. This raises the question of pain and neurological complications, which worsen the functional and survival prognosis of this oncological population patients. The surgical treatment must be the most complete as possible: to decompress and stabilize without delaying the management of the oncological disease. Minimal invasive surgery techniques are by definition, less harmful on musculocutaneous plan than opened ones, with a comparable efficiency demonstrated in degenerative and traumatic surgery. So they seem to be applicable and appropriate to this patient population. We detailed different minimal invasive techniques proposed in the management of spinal metastasis. For this, we used our experience developed in degenerative and traumatic pathologies, and we also referred to many authors, establishing a literature review thanks to Pubmed, Embase. Thirty eight articles were selected and allowed us to describe different techniques: percutaneous methods such as vertebro-/kyphoplasty and osteosynthesis, as well as mini-opened surgery, through a posterior or anterior way. We propose a surgical approach using these minimal invasive techniques, first according to the predominant symptom (pain or neurologic failure), then characteristics of the lesions (number, topography, type…) and the deformity degree. Whatever the technique, the main goal is to stabilize and decompress, in order to maintain a good quality of life for these fragile patients, without delaying the medical management of the oncological disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lone, Hafeezulla; Ganaie, Farooq Ahmad; Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Dar, Abdul Majeed; Bhat, Mohammad Akbar; Singh, Shyam; Parra, Khursheed Ahmad
To determine the risk factors, clinical characteristics, surgical management and outcome of pseudoaneurysm secondary to iatrogenic or traumatic vascular injury. This was a cross-sectional study being performed in department of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery skims soura during a 4-year period. We included all the patients referring to our center with primary diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed with angiography and color Doppler sonography. The clinical and demographic characteristics were recorded and the risk factors were identified accordingly. Patients with small swelling (less than 5-cm) and without any complication were managed conservatively. They were followed for progression and development of complications in relation to swelling. Others underwent surgical repair and excision. The outcome of the patients was also recorded. Overall we included 20 patients with pseudoaneurysm. The mean age of the patients was 42.1±0.6 years. Among them there were 11 (55%) men and 9 (45%) women. Nine (45%) patients with end stage renal disease developed pseudoaneurysm after inadvertent femoral artery puncture for hemodialysis; two patients after interventional cardiology procedure; one after femoral embolectomy; one developed after fire arm splinter injury and one formed femoral artery related pseudoaneurysm after drainage of right inguinal abscess. The most common site of pseudoaneurysm was femoral artery followed by brachial artery. Overall surgical intervention was performed in 17 (85%) patients and 3 (15%) were managed conservatively. End stage renal disease is a major risk factor for pseudoaneurysm formation. Coagulopathy, either therapeutic or pathological is also an important risk factor. Patients with these risk factors need cannulation of venous structures for hemodialysis under ultrasound guide to prevent inadvertent arterial injury. Patients with end stage renal disease who sustain inadvertent arterial puncture during cannulation for
Fanari, Zaher; Weintraub, William S.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is responsible for 20% of all US hospital admissions. Management of PAD has evolved over time to include many medical and transcatheter interventions in addition to the traditional surgical approach. Non-invasive interventions including supervised exercise programs and antiplatelets use are economically attractive therapies that should be considered in all patients at risk. While surgery offers so far a clinically and economically appropriate option, the improvement of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) technique with the addition of drug-coated balloons offers a reasonably clinically and economically attractive alternative that will continue to evolve in the future. PMID:26238266
Srećković, Sunčica; Janićijević Petrović, Mirjana; Jovanović, Svetlana; Paunović, Svetlana; Sarenac, Tatjana
This paper reports a case of a 57-year old female who had sustained a blunt ocular trauma resulting in anterior dislocation of the crystalline lens and acute painful visual loss in the left eye. The patient was managed with anterior chamber intracapsular phacoemulsification through a small anterior capsulotomy, pars plana vitrectomy, and surgical iridotomy. Aphakia was corrected by a contact lens. Two months after the surgery, the best corrected visual acuity was 0.9 in the left eye. The vision and retina remained stable in her follow-up examination 1 year later. Anterior dislocation of the crystalline lens can cause severe complications so that dislocated lens should be removed immediately.
Berhouma, M; Krichen, W; Chamseddine, A; Jemel, H
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a systemic disease resulting from the oligoclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells, occurring most commonly in children and young adults. The focal form of the disease, also known as eosinophilic granuloma, most frequently involves the calvaria. We present two cases of calvarial eosinophilic granulomas that were surgically removed. These tumors are reputed to have an excellent prognosis, even if local recurrences and systemic dissemination can occur during the follow-up. The authors discuss the pathogenesis and the evolutive profile but also the therapeutic management of solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the calvaria.
Bickell, Michael; Beilan, Jonathan; Wallen, Jared; Wiegand, Lucas; Carrion, Rafael
This article reviews the most up-to-date surgical treatment options for the reconstructive management of patients with penile, urethral, and scrotal cancer. Each organ system is examined individually. Techniques and discussion for penile cancer reconstruction include Mohs surgery, glans resurfacing, partial and total glansectomy, and phalloplasty. Included in the penile cancer reconstruction section is the use of penile prosthesis in phalloplasty patients after penectomy, tissue engineering in phallic regeneration, and penile transplantation. Reconstruction following treatment of primary urethral carcinoma and current techniques for scrotal cancer reconstruction using split-thickness skin grafts and flaps are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patel, Santosh; Lutz, Jan M; Panchagnula, Umakanth; Bansal, Sujesh
Colorectal surgery is commonly performed for colorectal cancer and other pathology such as diverticular and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite significant advances, such as laparoscopic techniques and multidisciplinary recovery programs, morbidity and mortality remain high and vary among surgical centers. The use of scoring systems and assessment of functional capacity may help in identifying high-risk patients and predicting complications. An understanding of perioperative factors affecting colon blood flow and oxygenation, suppression of stress response, optimal fluid therapy, and multimodal pain management are essential. These fundamental principles are more important than any specific choice of anesthetic agents. Anesthesiologists can significantly contribute to enhance recovery and improve the quality of perioperative care.
Orringer, Daniel A; Golby, Alexandra; Jolesz, Ferenc
Neuronavigation has become an ubiquitous tool in the surgical management of brain tumors. This review describes the use and limitations of current neuronavigational systems for brain tumor biopsy and resection. Methods for integrating intraoperative imaging into neuronavigational datasets developed to address the diminishing accuracy of positional information that occurs over the course of brain tumor resection are discussed. In addition, the process of integration of functional MRI and tractography into navigational models is reviewed. Finally, emerging concepts and future challenges relating to the development and implementation of experimental imaging technologies in the navigational environment are explored. PMID:23116076
Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Hegde, Manjunath; Baliga, Sudhindra; Munshi, Autar Krishen
Various anomalies in the size, shape, number, structure and eruption of the teeth are often observed clinical conditions. Supernumerary teeth can be found in almost any region of the dental arch, and most of the times they are asymptomatic, and are routinely found during radiographic evaluation. The most common cause of impacted maxillary incisors is the presence of the supernumerary teeth. This paper describes a case of multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted permanent maxillary central incisor in an 11-year old child along with its surgical and orthodontic management. PMID:22919229
Clarke, Andrew; Wiemers, Paul; Poon, Karl K C; Aroney, Constantine N; Scalia, Gregory; Burstow, Darryl; Walters, Darren L; Tesar, Peter
Trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is now a well recognised procedure for the high risk surgical patient with native or bioprosthetic aortic valve stenosis. Transfemoral and transapical implantation techniques are well described. With increasing referral of more marginal transapical patients, we describe our experience of a transaortic TAVI approach which we believe reduces the postoperative wound pain, respiratory complications, operative risk and hospital stay. Patients referred for