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Sample records for early sweetened carbonated

  1. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic men and women.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sohyun; Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Cho, Juhee; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Ahn, Jiin; Suh, Byung-Seong; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo; Ryu, Seungho

    2016-07-01

    Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and clinically manifest coronary heart disease, but its association with subclinical coronary heart disease remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large study of asymptomatic men and women. This was a cross-sectional study of 22,210 adult men and women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination between 2011 and 2013 (median age 40 years). Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and CAC was measured by cardiac computed tomography. Multivariable-adjusted CAC score ratios and 95% CIs were estimated from robust Tobit regression models for the natural logarithm (CAC score +1). The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 11.7% (n = 2,604). After adjustment for age; sex; center; year of screening examination; education level; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake; family history of cardiovascular disease; history of hypertension; history of hypercholesterolemia; and intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats, only the highest category of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with an increased CAC score compared with the lowest consumption category. The multivariable-adjusted CAC ratio comparing participants who consumed ≥5 sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages per week with nondrinkers was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.03-2.81). This association did not differ by clinical subgroup, including participants at low cardiovascular risk. Our findings suggest that high levels of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption are associated with a higher prevalence and degree of CAC in asymptomatic adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

    2015-01-01

    The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R(2)>0.99), accuracy (94-104% recovery) and precision (RSD < 2%). Fructose comprised 55.58% of total sugars (95% confidence interval 55.51-55.65%), based on 160 total measurements by 2 independent laboratories of 80 randomly selected carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval = 0.01-0.54%). Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and bottled products and met the US Federal

  3. Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages

    PubMed Central

    White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. Design: A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), accuracy (94–104% recovery) and precision (RSD<2%). Result: Fructose comprised 55.58% of total sugars (95% confidence interval 55.51–55.65%), based on 160 total measurements by 2 independent laboratories of 80 randomly selected carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval=0.01–0.54%). Conclusions: Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and

  4. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9-10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche. Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks was

  5. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche12

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. Design: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9–10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche. Results: Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Conclusion: Consumption of

  6. Frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets starts at early age.

    PubMed

    Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Virtanen, Jorma I

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and sweets in relation to mothers' behaviours and practices with their infants. We targeted mothers with children 1-24 months (N = 200) visiting Public Child Health clinics in Finland. During routine visits mothers (N = 179) volunteered to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire about their child's health-related behaviours (consumption of sweets and SSBs, tooth brushing frequency). The questionnaires also included questions about the mothers' background (age, education) and health-related behaviours (consumption of sweets, tooth brushing frequency and smoking habits). The children were categorised by age, and Chi-squared tests, Fischer's exact test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient served for the statistical analyses. Of those under 6 months, almost half (44%) received SSBs, and 45% of them more than once a week. Their use gradually increased by age such that by 19-24 months, all received SSBs at least sometimes, and 56%, frequently. Fewer than half of the mothers (33-43%) gave sweets to their children between the ages of 10-15 months, but 92% by the age of 2 years. Children's twice-a-day tooth brushing increased from 14% to 33%. The child's age and tooth brushing frequency correlated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened products (r = 0.458). Infants frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened products begins early in childhood. Thus, tackling these common risk factors in the first years of life is essential and calls for health-promoting actions in multiple areas that target primarily the parents of infants.

  7. [Consumption of carbonated beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners in Latin American university students].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Record Cornwall, Jiniva; Encina Vega, Claudia; Salazar de Ariza, Julieta; Cordón Arrivillaga, Karla; Cereceda Bujaico, María del Pilar; Antezana Alzamora, Sonia; Espinoza Bernardo, Sissy

    2014-09-12

    Consumption of carbonated beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) is increasingly common in order to maintain a healthy weight, but the effect of NNS on body weight is controversial. University students (n=1,229) of both sexes aged 18 to 26, of which 472 were from Chile, 300 of Panama, 253 from Guatemala and 204 of Peru. Each student was applied a frequency survey of weekly food consumption supported by photographs of beverages with NNS from each country to determine the intake of them. Also they underwent anthropometric measurements. 80% of these students consumed carbonated beverages with NNS, none of them exceeded the acceptable daily intake for sucralose, potassium acesulfame and aspartame. Increased consumption in both men and women was observed in chilean students (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Sweetened beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... 16-ounce (480 ml) glass of sweetened ice tea has 144 calories. A 16-ounce (480 ml) ... as lemon, lime, and berry Plain coffee or tea Alternative Names Obesity - sweetened beverages; Overweight - sweetened beverages; ...

  9. Impact of substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks by intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands: example of a benefit-risk approach.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Marieke A; Tijhuis, Mariken J; Fransen, Heidi P; Verhagen, Hans; Hoekstra, Jeljer

    2011-02-01

    Substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks with intense sweeteners may have potential beneficial, but also adverse health effects. This study assessed the benefits and risks associated with substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks with intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands. A tiered approach was used analogous to the risk assessment paradigm, consisting of benefit and hazard identification, exposure assessment and finally benefit and risk characterization and comparison. Two extreme scenarios were compared in which all carbonated soft drinks were sweetened with either intense sweeteners or added sugar. National food consumption survey data were used, and intake of added sugar and intense sweeteners was calculated using the food composition table or analytical data for sweetener content. Reduction in dental caries and body weight were identified as benefits of substituting sugar. The mean difference in total energy intake between the scenarios was 542 kJ per day in men and 357 kJ per day in women, under the assumption that no compensation takes place. In the 100% sweetener scenario, the average BMI decreased 1.7 kg/m(2) in men and 1.3 kg/m(2) in women when compared to the 100% sugar scenario. Risks are negligible, as the intake of intense sweeteners remains below the ADI in the substitution scenario. Substitution of added sugar by intense sweeteners in carbonated soft drinks has beneficial effects on BMI and the reduction in dental caries, and does not seem to have adverse health effects in young adults, given the available knowledge and assumptions made.

  10. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children.

    PubMed

    Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Subhani, Shazia N; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Shoukri, Mohammed; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2010-05-09

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P < 0.0001). SSCB intake was positively associated with poor dietary choices in both males and females. Fast food meal intake, savory snacks, iced desserts and total sugar consumption correlated with SSCB intake in both boys (r = 0.39, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.52 respectively, P < 0.001) and girls (r = 0.45, 0.23, 0.16 and 0.55 respectively, P < 0.001). Older children reported eating significantly less fruit and vegetables than younger children; and less eggs, fish and cereals. Conversely, consumption of SSCB and sugar-sweetened hot beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P < 0.001). BMI and W_C were negatively correlated with hours of night-time sleep and exercise in boys

  11. Sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk: meta-analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Autier, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    There is speculation on an association between sweetened, carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk. This study aimed to examine this issue. Over 50 independent estimates of risk were available, 11 for colas specifically. A random-effects meta-analysis was carried out with tests for publication bias performed as well as Higgins and Thompson's I measure of the percentage of heterogeneity between studies that could not be explained by chance. Over all the different sites of cancer, the summary relative risk (SRR), when all 55 independent estimates were considered together, was SRR=1.03 [95% confidence interval (0.96; 1.11)]. When individual cancer sites were considered, there was no significant increase or decrease in the meta-analysis estimate of risk of cancer of the pancreas, bladder, kidney, squamous cell or adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, colon, gastric cardia, gastric noncardia, prostate, breast, larynx and ovary or of the oral cavity, pharynx or glioma. There was no evidence in a sensitivity analysis from those studies that reported results separately for colas of an associated risk of pancreas cancer [SRR=1.00, 95% confidence interval (0.61; 1.65)]. The results for all other forms of cancers were considerably hampered by poor methodology and small numbers of studies (mainly one report on each cancer site studied). Overall, the findings are reassuring in terms of the association between soft drinks, including colas, and cancer risk, although the quality of many of the studies is quite poor by acceptable, modern standards and no study has been carried out with use of carbonated beverages as a primary hypothesis.

  12. Intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study in 59,334 Danish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Strøm, Marin; Petersen, Sesilje B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2010-09-01

    Sugar-sweetened soft drinks have been linked to a number of adverse health outcomes such as high weight gain. Therefore, artificially sweetened soft drinks are often promoted as an alternative. However, the safety of artificial sweeteners has been disputed, and consequences of high intakes of artificial sweeteners for pregnant women have been minimally addressed. We examined the association between intakes of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and preterm delivery. We conducted prospective cohort analyses of 59,334 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Soft drink intake was assessed in midpregnancy by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Preterm delivery ( lt 37 wk) was the primary outcome measure. Covariate information was assessed by telephone interviews. There was an association between intake of artificially sweetened carbonated and noncarbonated soft drinks and an increased risk of preterm delivery (P for trend: le 0.001, both variables). In comparison with women with no intake of artificially sweetened carbonated soft drinks, the adjusted odds ratio for women who consumed ge 1 serving of artificially sweetened carbonated soft drinks/d was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.65). The corresponding odds ratio for women who consumed ge 4 servings of artificially sweetened carbonated soft drinks/d was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.66). The association was observed for normal-weight and overweight women. A stronger increase in risk was observed for early preterm and moderately preterm delivery than with late-preterm delivery. No association was observed for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (P for trend: 0.29) or for sugar-sweetened noncarbonated soft drinks (P for trend: 0.93). Daily intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks may increase the risk of preterm delivery. Further studies are needed to reject or confirm these findings.

  13. Gender Differences in the relationship between carbonated sugar-sweetened beverage intake and the likelihood of hypertension according to obesity.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong Ji; Paek, Yu Jin; Choi, Min Kyu; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between hypertension and carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) intake according to gender and obesity. The study used data from 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A total of 9869 subjects (men = 3845 and women = 6024) were included. SSB intakes were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for hypertension were assessed using survey logistic regression and multivariable adjusted models. A total of 14.5 % of individuals were classified as having hypertension. The likelihood of hypertension in the third, fourth and fifth quintiles for SSB intake increased to OR 1.00, 1.20 and 1.42 respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Compared to the participants in the lowest tertile for SSB intake, participants in the third tertile showed an increased likelihood of hypertension with ORs (CI) of 2.00 (1.21-3.31) and 1.75 (1.23-2.49) for obese women and non-obese men, respectively. The present study showed gender differences in the relationship between carbonated SSB intake and the hypertension according to obesity.

  14. Serum Carbon Isotope Values Change in Adults in Response to Changes in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake12

    PubMed Central

    Fakhouri, Tala H. I.; Jahren, A. Hope; Appel, Lawrence J.; Chen, Liwei; Alavi, Reza; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Serum carbon isotope values [13C-to-12C serum carbon isotope ratio (δ13C)], which reflect consumption of corn- and cane-based foods, differ between persons consuming high and low amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). In this study, we determined whether serum δ13C changes in response to change in SSB intake during an 18-mo behavioral intervention trial. Data were from a subset of 144 participants from the PREMIER trial, a completed behavioral intervention (Maryland, 1998–2004). SSB intake was assessed using 2 24-h dietary recall interviews. Blinded serum samples were assayed for δ13C by natural abundance stable isotope mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation were used. At baseline, mean SSB intake was 13.8 ± 14.2 fl oz/d, and mean δ13C serum value was −19.3 ± 0.6 units per mil (designated ‰). A reduction of 12 oz (355 mL)/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day) was associated with 0.17‰ (95% CI: 0.08‰, 0.25‰ P < 0.0001) reduction in serum δ13C values over 18 mo (equivalent to a 1% reduction in δ13C from baseline). After adjusting for potential confounders, a reduction of 12 oz/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day), over an 18-mo period, was associated with 0.12‰ (95% CI: 0.01‰, 0.22‰ P = 0.025) reduction in serum δ13C. These findings suggest that serum δ13C can be used as a measure of dietary changes in SSB intake. PMID:24717368

  15. Serum carbon isotope values change in adults in response to changes in sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    PubMed

    Fakhouri, Tala H I; Jahren, A Hope; Appel, Lawrence J; Chen, Liwei; Alavi, Reza; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2014-06-01

    Serum carbon isotope values [13C-to-12C serum carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C)], which reflect consumption of corn- and cane-based foods, differ between persons consuming high and low amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). In this study, we determined whether serum δ(13)C changes in response to change in SSB intake during an 18-mo behavioral intervention trial. Data were from a subset of 144 participants from the PREMIER trial, a completed behavioral intervention (Maryland, 1998-2004). SSB intake was assessed using 2 24-h dietary recall interviews. Blinded serum samples were assayed for δ(13)C by natural abundance stable isotope mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation were used. At baseline, mean SSB intake was 13.8 ± 14.2 fl oz/d, and mean δ(13)C serum value was -19.3 ± 0.6 units per mil (designated ‰). A reduction of 12 oz (355 mL)/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day) was associated with 0.17‰ (95% CI: 0.08‰, 0.25‰ P < 0.0001) reduction in serum δ(13)C values over 18 mo (equivalent to a 1% reduction in δ(13)C from baseline). After adjusting for potential confounders, a reduction of 12 oz/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day), over an 18-mo period, was associated with 0.12‰ (95% CI: 0.01‰, 0.22‰ P = 0.025) reduction in serum δ(13)C. These findings suggest that serum δ(13)C can be used as a measure of dietary changes in SSB intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Does instruction to eliminate coffee, tea, alcohol, carbonated, and artificially sweetened beverages improve lower urinary tract symptoms: A Prospective Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Janis M.; Garcia, Caroline E.; Hortsch, Sarah Becker; Guo, Ying; Schimpf, Megan O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Common advice for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of frequency, urgency and related bother includes elimination of potentially irritating beverages (coffee, tea, alcohol, and carbonated and/or artificially sweetened beverages). The purpose of this study was to determine compliance with standardized instruction to eliminate these potentially irritating beverages, whether LUTS improved after instruction, and if symptoms worsened with partial reintroduction. Design The three-phase fixed sequence design was: 1) baseline, 2) eliminate potentially irritating beverages listed above, and 3) reintroduce at 50% of baseline volume, with a washout period between each 3-day phase. We asked participants to maintain total intake volume by swapping in equal amounts of non-potentially irritating beverages (primarily water). Subjects and Setting The study sample comprised 30 community-dwelling women recruited through newspaper advertisement. Methods Quantification measures included 3-day voiding diaries and detailed beverage intake, and LUTS questionnaires completed during each phase. Results During Phase 2, we found significant reduction in potentially irritating beverages but complete elimination was rare. Despite the protocol demands, total beverage intake was not stable; mean (± standard deviation) daily total intake volume dropped by 6.2±14.9oz (p=0.03) during Phase 2. In Phase 3, the volume of total beverage intake returned to baseline, but intake of potentially irritating beverages also returned to near baseline rather than 50% as requested by protocol. Despite this incomplete adherence to study protocols, women reported reduction in symptoms of urge, inability to delay voiding, and bother during both phases (p≤0.01). The number of voids per day decreased on average by 1.3 and 0.9 voids during phases 2 and 3 respectively (p=0.002 and p=0.035). Conclusions Education to reduce potentially irritating beverages resulted in improvement in LUTS. However, eliminating

  17. Does Instruction to Eliminate Coffee, Tea, Alcohol, Carbonated, and Artificially Sweetened Beverages Improve Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms?: A Prospective Trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Janis M; Garcia, Caroline E; Hortsch, Sarah Becker; Guo, Ying; Schimpf, Megan O

    2016-01-01

    Common advice for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as frequency, urgency, and related bother includes elimination of potentially irritating beverages (coffee, tea, alcohol, and carbonated and/or artificially sweetened beverages). The purpose of this study was to determine compliance with standardized instruction to eliminate these potentially irritating beverages, whether LUTS improved after instruction, and whether symptoms worsened with partial reintroduction. The 3-phase fixed sequence design was (1) baseline, (2) eliminate potentially irritating beverages listed above, and (3) reintroduce at 50% of baseline volume, with a washout period between each 3-day phase. We asked participants to maintain total intake volume by swapping in equal amounts of nonpotentially irritating beverages (primarily water). The study sample comprised 30 community-dwelling women recruited through newspaper advertisement. Quantification measures included 3-day voiding diaries and detailed beverage intake, and LUTS questionnaires completed during each phase. During Phase 2, we found significant reduction in potentially irritating beverages but complete elimination was rare. Despite protocol demands, total beverage intake was not stable; mean (± standard deviation) daily total intake volume dropped by 6.2 ± 14.9 oz (P = .03) during Phase 2. In Phase 3, the volume of total beverage intake returned to baseline, but the intake of potentially irritating beverages also returned to near baseline rather than 50% as requested by protocol. Despite this incomplete adherence to study protocols, women reported reduction in symptoms of urge, inability to delay voiding, and bother during both phases (P ≤ .01). The number of voids per day decreased on average by 1.3 and 0.9 voids during Phases 2 and 3, respectively (P = .002 and P = .035). Education to reduce potentially irritating beverages resulted in improvement in LUTS. However, eliminating potentially irritating beverages was difficult

  18. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sun Crystals) Non-nutritive sweetener. Made from the plant Stevia rebaudiana , which is grown for its sweet ... Monk Fruit (Luo Han Guo) Non-nutritive sweetener Plant-based extract of monk fruit, a round green ...

  19. Early-Life Exposure to Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and the Developmental Origins of Childhood Obesity: Global Evidence from Human and Rodent Studies.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Alyssa J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Azad, Meghan B

    2018-02-10

    Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are increasingly consumed by children and pregnant women around the world, yet their long-term health impact is unclear. Here, we review an emerging body of evidence suggesting that early-life exposure to NNS may adversely affect body composition and cardio-metabolic health. Some observational studies suggest that children consuming NNS are at increased risk for obesity-related outcomes; however, others find no association or provide evidence of confounding. Fewer studies have examined prenatal NNS exposure, with mixed results from different analytical approaches. There is a paucity of RCTs evaluating NNS in children, yielding inconsistent results that can be difficult to interpret due to study design limitations (e.g., choice of comparator, multifaceted interventions). The majority of this research has been conducted in high-income countries. Some rodent studies demonstrate adverse metabolic effects from NNS, but most have used extreme doses that are not relevant to humans, and few have distinguished prenatal from postnatal exposure. Most studies focus on synthetic NNS in beverages, with few examining plant-derived NNS or NNS in foods. Overall, there is limited and inconsistent evidence regarding the impact of early-life NNS exposure on the developmental programming of obesity and cardio-metabolic health. Further research and mechanistic studies are needed to elucidate these effects and inform dietary recommendations for expectant mothers and children worldwide.

  20. Early introduction and cumulative consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during the pre-school period and risk of obesity at 8-14 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cantoral, A; Téllez-Rojo, M M; Ettinger, A S; Hu, H; Hernández-Ávila, M; Peterson, K

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with risk of obesity, but little evidence exists to evaluate if age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption increases risk in children. The objective of the study was to estimate the relationship between age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption with risk of obesity in 227 Mexican children. SSB intake was measured every 6 months; age of introduction and cumulative consumption during the pre-school period were calculated. Height, weight, waist circumference, SSB intake and other relevant variables were measured at age 8-14 years and obesity defined using standard criteria. All participants were introduced to SSB before age 24 months and most (73%) before 12 months. Early SSB introduction (≤12 months) was not significantly associated with increased odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 4.59). However, children in the highest tertile of cumulative SSB consumption, compared with the lowest, had almost three times the odds of general (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.27, 7.00) and abdominal (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.03) obesity at age 8-14 years. High SSB consumption increased the likelihood of obesity in 8-14-year-old children. Our results suggest that SSB intake should be delayed and excessive SSB consumption in pre-school period should be avoided. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. Sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened beverages in relation to obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this review was to critically evaluate the scientific evidence in humans on the potential effect of sweetened beverages on weight gain and risk of obesity in youth and adults. Two categories of these beverages were reviewed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) include soft drinks, colas, other sweetened carbonated beverages, and fruit drinks with added sugar. Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), also referred to as non-nutritive sweetened beverages, are marketed and used as a replacement for SSBs for those who want to reduce sugar and caloric intake. The totality of evidence to date demonstrates a pattern across observational and experimental studies of an increased risk of weight gain and obesity with higher intake of SSBs. However, it remains difficult to establish the strength of the association and the independence from other potentially confounding factors. The primary reason for unclear conclusions regarding the robustness of any effect of SSBs is due to the heterogeneity and methodologic limitations of both observational and experimental studies on this topic. Although some observational studies have suggested that ASBs may cause increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, there is no clear mechanism for this pathway, and the epidemiologic studies are highly inconsistent. An important issue with the observational studies on ASBs and obesity or disease risk is reverse causality bias, with higher-quality studies demonstrating this possibility. The field needs higher-quality experimental studies in humans, with relevant direct comparisons between sweetened beverages and their sweetened solid-food alternatives. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Consumption of fast food, sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially-sweetened beverages and allostatic load among young adults.

    PubMed

    van Draanen, Jenna; Prelip, Michael; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the associations between recent consumption of fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, and artificially-sweetened beverages on level of allostatic load, a measure of cumulative biological risk, in young adults in the US. Data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the associations between consumption of fast foods, sugar-sweetened, and artificially-sweetened beverages and allostatic load. Poisson and logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between these diet parameters and combined biomarkers of physiological subsystems that comprise our measure of allostatic load. All analyses were weighted and findings are representative of young adults in the US, ages 24-34 in 2008 (n = 11,562). Consumption of fast foods, sugar-sweetened, and artificially-sweetened beverages were associated with higher allostatic load at a bivariate level. Accounting for demographics and medication use, only artificially-sweetened beverages remained significantly associated with allostatic load. When all three dietary components were simultaneously included in a model, both sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverage consumption were associated with higher allostatic load. Differences in allostatic load emerge early in the life course and young adults consuming sugar- or artificially-sweetened beverages have higher allostatic load, net of demographics and medication use. Public health messages to young adults may need to include cautions about both sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverages.

  3. Consumption of Artificially-Sweetened Soft Drinks in Pregnancy and Risk of Child Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. Objective To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. Methods We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. Results At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33) times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66) and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74) during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks

  4. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the use of aspartame and cancer risk ( 4 ). Sucralose Sucralose, marketed under the trade name Splenda ® , was approved ... approval as a general-purpose sweetener in 1999. Sucralose has been studied extensively, and the FDA reviewed ...

  5. Noncariogenic intense natural sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, A D; Kaneda, N; Baek, N I; Kennelly, E J; Soejarto, D D

    1998-09-01

    There is a definite relationship between the dietary consumption of sucrose and the incidence of dental caries. Noncaloric sucrose substitutes for use in the sweetening of foods, beverages, and medicines may be either synthetic compounds or natural products. In the United States, four potently sweet artificial sweeteners are approved, namely, saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose. Highly sweet plant constituents are used in Japan and some other countries, including the diterpene glycoside stevioside and the protein thaumatin. Recent progress in a research project oriented towards the discovery and evaluation of novel potentially noncariogenic sweeteners from plants has focused on substances in the sesquiterpenoid, diterpenoid, triterpenoid, steroidal saponin, and proanthocyanidin structural classes. The feasibility of using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and behavioral assays to monitor the sweetness of plant extracts, chromatographic fractions, and pure isolates has been investigated. An in vivo cariogenicity study on the commercially available natural sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A has been carried out.

  6. The role of trade and investment liberalization in the sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages market: a natural experiment contrasting Vietnam and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ronald; Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-10-12

    Trade and investment liberalization may facilitate the spread of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (SSCBs), products associated with increased risk factors for obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases (Circulation 121:1356-1364, 2010). Apart from a limited set of comparative cross-national studies, the majority of analyses linking liberalization and the food environment have drawn on case studies and descriptive accounts. The current failure of many countries to reverse the obesity epidemic calls for investigation into both individual and systemic factors, including trade and investment policies. Using a natural experimental design we tested whether Vietnam's removal of restrictions on foreign direct investment (FDI) subsequent to its accession to the World Trade Organization in 2007 increased sales of SSCBs compared with a matched country, the Philippines, which acceded in 1995. Difference-in-difference (DID) models were used to test pre/post differences in total SSCB sales and foreign company penetration covering the years 1999-2013. Following Vietnam's removal of restrictions on FDI, the growth rate of SSCB sales increased to 12.1 % per capita per year from a prior growth rate of 3.3 %. SSCB sales per capita rose significantly faster pre- and post-intervention in Vietnam compared with the control country the Philippines (DID: 4.6 L per annum, 95 % CI: 3.8 to 5.4 L, p < 0.008). Vietnam's increase in SSCBs was primarily attributable to products manufactured by foreign companies, whose annual sales growth rates rose from 6.7 to 23.1 %, again unmatched within the Philippines over this period (DID: 12.3 %, 95 % CI: 8.6 to 16.0 %, p < 0.049). Growth of SSCB sales in Vietnam, led by foreign-owned companies, significantly accelerated after trade and investment liberalization.

  7. COFFEE, TEA AND SUGAR-SWEETENED CARBONATED SOFT DRINK INTAKE AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 14 COHORT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Li, Ruifeng; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Bergkvist, Leif; Bernstein, Leslie; Black, Amanda; van den Brandt, Piet A.; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Koushik, Anita; Männistö, Satu; Marshall, James R.; Miller, Anthony B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Robien, Kim; z, Thomas E.; Schairer, Catherine; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anti-carcinogenic properties, while tea may contain anti-carcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, while findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (abbreviated as SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. METHODS In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR=1.10, 95% CI=0.81-1.48 comparing ≥900 to <0g/day; 237g≈8oz), tea (MVRR=0.96, 95% CI=0.78-1.16 comparing ≥400 to 0g/day; 237g≈8oz) or SSB (MVRR=1.19, 95% CI=0.98-1.46 comparing ≥250 to 0g/day; 355g≈12oz) (p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity >0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.12). CONCLUSION AND IMPACT Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB. PMID:22194529

  8. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1997-01-01

    Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

  9. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Arrhenius, G

    1997-02-01

    Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

  10. Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) have implications for health and up to 30 % of emissions globally are thought to arise from agriculture. Synergies exist between diets low in GHGEs and health however some foods have the opposite relationship, such as sugar production being a relatively low source of GHGEs. In order to address this and to further characterise a healthy sustainable diet, we model the effect on UK non-communicable disease mortality and GHGEs of internalising the social cost of carbon into the price of food alongside a 20 % tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). Developing previously published work, we simulate four tax scenarios: (A) a GHGEs tax of £2.86/tonne of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product on all products with emissions greater than the mean across all food groups (0.36 kgCO2e/100 g); (B) scenario A but with subsidies on foods with emissions lower than 0.36 kgCO2e/100 g such that the effect is revenue neutral; (C) scenario A but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs; (D) scenario B but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs. An almost ideal demand system is used to estimate price elasticities and a comparative risk assessment model is used to estimate changes to non-communicable disease mortality. We estimate that scenario A would lead to 300 deaths delayed or averted, 18,900 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.0 billion tax revenue; scenario B, 90 deaths delayed or averted and 17,100 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs; scenario C, 1,200 deaths delayed or averted, 18,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.4 billion revenue; and scenario D, 2,000 deaths delayed or averted and 16,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs. Deaths averted are mainly due to increased fibre and reduced fat consumption; a SSB tax reduces SSB and sugar consumption. Incorporating the social cost of carbon into the price of food has the potential to improve health, reduce GHGEs, and raise revenue. The simple addition of a tax on SSBs can mitigate negative health consequences arising from sugar being low in GHGEs. Further

  11. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers.

    PubMed

    Belloir, Christine; Neiers, Fabrice; Briand, Loïc

    2017-07-01

    The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people. Sweeteners are highly chemically diverse including natural sugars, sugar alcohols, natural and synthetic sweeteners, and sweet-tasting proteins. This single receptor is also the target for developing novel sweet enhancers. Importantly, the expression of a functional T1R2/T1R3 receptor is described in numerous extraoral tissues. In this review, the physiological impact of sweeteners is discussed. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers are perceived through the T1R2/T1R3 taste receptor present both in mouth and numerous extraoral tissues. The accumulated knowledge on sugar substitutes raises the issue of potential health effects.

  12. Cross-sectional survey of the amount of free sugars and calories in carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages on sale in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the free sugars and calorie content of carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (CSSB) available in the main UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2014 of 169 CSSB. Methods The free sugars (sugars g/100 mL) and calorie (kcal/100 mL) were collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of CSSB available in 9 main UK supermarkets. Results The average free sugars content in CSSB was 30.1±10.7 g/330 mL, and 91% of CSSB would receive a ‘red’ (high) label for sugars per serving. There was a large variation in sugars content between different flavours of CSSB and within the same type of flavour ranging from 3.3 to 52.8 g/330 mL. On average, ginger beer (38.5±9.9 g/330 mL) contained the highest amounts of sugars and ginger ale (22.9±7.7 g/330 mL) contained the lowest. Cola flavour is the most popular flavour in the UK with an average free sugars content of 35.0±1.1 g/330 mL. On average, the supermarket own brand contained lower levels of sugars than branded products (27.9±10.6 vs 31.6±10.6 g/330 mL, p=0.02). The average calorie content in CSSB was 126.1±43.5 kcal/330 mL. Cola flavour had a calorie content of 143.5±5.2 kcal/330 mL. Among the 169 products surveyed, 55% exceeded the maximum daily recommendation for free sugars intake (30 g) per 330 mL. Conclusions Free sugars content of CSSB in the UK is high and is a major contributor to free sugars intake. There is a wide variation in the sugars content of CSSB and even within the same flavour of CSSB. These findings demonstrate that the amount of free sugars added to CSSB can be reduced without technical issues, and there is an urgent need to set incremental free sugars reduction targets. A reduction in sugars content and overall CSSB consumption will be very beneficial in reducing obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries. PMID:28186923

  13. Cross-sectional survey of the amount of free sugars and calories in carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages on sale in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the free sugars and calorie content of carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (CSSB) available in the main UK supermarkets. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2014 of 169 CSSB. The free sugars (sugars g/100 mL) and calorie (kcal/100 mL) were collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of CSSB available in 9 main UK supermarkets. The average free sugars content in CSSB was 30.1±10.7 g/330 mL, and 91% of CSSB would receive a 'red' (high) label for sugars per serving. There was a large variation in sugars content between different flavours of CSSB and within the same type of flavour ranging from 3.3 to 52.8 g/330 mL. On average, ginger beer (38.5±9.9 g/330 mL) contained the highest amounts of sugars and ginger ale (22.9±7.7 g/330 mL) contained the lowest. Cola flavour is the most popular flavour in the UK with an average free sugars content of 35.0±1.1 g/330 mL. On average, the supermarket own brand contained lower levels of sugars than branded products (27.9±10.6 vs 31.6±10.6 g/330 mL, p=0.02). The average calorie content in CSSB was 126.1±43.5 kcal/330 mL. Cola flavour had a calorie content of 143.5±5.2 kcal/330 mL. Among the 169 products surveyed, 55% exceeded the maximum daily recommendation for free sugars intake (30 g) per 330 mL. Free sugars content of CSSB in the UK is high and is a major contributor to free sugars intake. There is a wide variation in the sugars content of CSSB and even within the same flavour of CSSB. These findings demonstrate that the amount of free sugars added to CSSB can be reduced without technical issues, and there is an urgent need to set incremental free sugars reduction targets. A reduction in sugars content and overall CSSB consumption will be very beneficial in reducing obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. 3D climate-carbon modelling of the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, B.; Le Hir, G.; Fluteau, F.; Forget, F.; Catling, D.

    2017-09-01

    We revisit the climate and carbon cycle of the early Earth at 3.8 Ga using a 3D climate-carbon model. Our resultsfavor cold or temperate climates with global mean temperatures between around 8°C (281 K) and 30°C (303 K) and with 0.1-0.36 bar of CO2 for the late Hadean and early Archean.

  15. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications.

  16. NONNUTRITIVE SWEETENERS IN BREAST MILK

    PubMed Central

    Sylvetsky, Allison C.; Gardner, Alexandra L.; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Walter, Peter J.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants’ milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  17. Overview of Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Jerry W.

    1995-08-01

    The techniques for assessing the relative sweetness of different compounds are discussed. The search for new, sweet compounds continues to be of interest to the food industry. In addition to sugars, sweet compounds with a variety of structures are surveyed and range from small inorganic molecules to large proteins. Emphasis is placed on artificial sweeteners and their current status in the marketplace. The recent theories of sweetness are briefly covered.

  18. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    PubMed

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives.

  19. [Carbohydrate sweeteners and obesity].

    PubMed

    Wystrychowski, Grzegorz; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Obuchowicz, Ewa; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Wystrychowski, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. prevalence of obesity increases since the mid-70s of the 20th century. Around that time high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)--mixture of fructose and glucose was introduced as a sweetener replacing sucrose in the food production. HFCS containing 55% fructose and 42-45% glucose (HFCS55) has dominated the American soft drink industry and HFCS has recently become commonly used in Poland. The coincidence of HFCS introduction and obesity epidemic raised widely publicized suspicions of a causal relationship between the two. As a possible mechanism, a higher content of fructose in the HFCS55, as compared with sucrose was suggested -fructose is known to increase serum uric acid level, induce hepatic lipogenesis and not stimulate postprandial hyperinsulinemia, a main activator of leptin release. Few comparative studies of HFCS and sucrose have largely failed to reveal any different impacts on the metabolic parameters, yet they were mainly short-term. It has been recently shown that obesity is linked with changes in the intenstinal flora. Among the causes of allegedly different effects of sucrose and HFCS on metabolism, their influence on the gut microbiome has not been examined. Some bacterial types do not hydrolyze sucrose which may determine different compositions of gut flora with the use of both sweeteners. Studies involving quantitative analysis of bacterial DNA in the stool, both in animals and in humans, shall shed light on the issue that has recently so much absorbed the U.S. public opinion.

  20. Alternative sweeteners influence the biomass of oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Baharuddin, Baizatul Amirah; Akbar, Elisya Farha Mohd; Norizan, Amira Hanim; Ibrahim, Nur Fazilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2017-08-01

    Compact-structured oral biofilm accumulates acids that upon prolonged exposure to tooth surface, causes demineralisation of enamel. This study aimed to assess the effect of alternative sweeteners Equal Stevia ® , Tropicana Slim ® , Pal Sweet ® and xylitol on the matrix-forming activity of plaque biofilm at both the early and established stages of formation. Saliva-coated glass beads (sGB) were used as substratum for the adhesion of a mixed-bacterial suspension of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mitis. Biofilms formed on sGB at 3h and 24h represented the early and established-plaque models. The biofilms were exposed to three doses of the sweeteners (10%), introduced at three intervals to simulate the exposure of dental plaque to sugar during three consecutive food intakes. The treated sGB were (i) examined under the SEM and (ii) collected for turbidity reading. The absorbance indicated the amount of plaque mass produced. Analysis was performed comparative to sucrose as control. Higher rate of bacterial adherence was determined during the early compared to established phases of formation. Comparative to the sweeteners, sucrose showed a 40% increase in bacterial adherence and produced 70% more plaque-mass. Bacterial counts and SEM micrographs exhibited absence of matrix in all the sweetener-treated biofilms at the early phase of formation. At the established phase, presence of matrix was detected but at significantly lower degree compared to sucrose (p<0.05). Alternatives sweeteners promoted the formation of oral biofilm with lighter mass and lower bacterial adherence. Hence, suggesting alternative sweeteners as potential antiplaque agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The early cretaceous evolution of carbonate platforms from northern Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, J.P.; Borgomano, J.; Maskiry, S.Al.

    1993-09-01

    In northern Oman (Jebel Akhdar and foothills) Hauterivian to early Aptian shallow carbonate platforms are widely extending and pass laterally to slope and basin environments in the Nakhl zone. Progradational geometries are identified in that zone where significant correlation between thickness and sediment types supports a prominent tectonic control. The platform records four main sedimentary breaks (drowning events). Early Barremian (lower Lekhwair Formation), Late Barremian (basal Kharaib Formation), lowermost early Aptian (upper Kharaib Formation) and middle Aptian (Shuaiba-Al Hassanat formations boundary). The late Aptian-early Albian hiatus (pre-Nahr Umr unconformity) is regarded as an early Albian tectonically driven erosion. In themore » Nakhl zone, coral-rudist limestones of late Aptian-early Albian (lower Al Hassanat Formation) document an east-west ribbon platform, the southward extension of which was obscured by the middle Albian erosions and rudist limestones of middle to late Albian (upper Al Hassanat Formation), a lateral equivalent of the Nahr Umr circa littoral shaly sediments, document an east-west-trending linear platform. The foregoing points out a northward progradation coeval with a southward transgressive major trend for the Hauterivian-early Aptian interval, a faulted margin corresponding with the Nakhl zone active during the Aptian-Albian, a late Aptian ribbon platform coeval with the Bab basin initiation southward, a regional uplifting and truncation during the early-Albian (Austrian phase), whereas shallow-water carbonates are still forming at the edge of the former platform, and an active linear platform at the northern edge of the Nahr Umr basin, the corresponding drowning contemporaneous with the onset of the Cenomanian platform eastward.« less

  2. Follow the Carbon: Isotopic Labeling Studies of Early Earth Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Raea K; Day, Douglas A; Jimenez, Jose L; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the faint young Sun, early Earth might have been kept warm by an atmosphere containing the greenhouse gases CH 4 and CO 2 in mixing ratios higher than those found on Earth today. Laboratory and modeling studies suggest that an atmosphere containing these trace gases could lead to the formation of organic aerosol haze due to UV photochemistry. Chemical mechanisms proposed to explain haze formation rely on CH 4 as the source of carbon and treat CO 2 as a source of oxygen only, but this has not previously been verified experimentally. In the present work, we use isotopically labeled precursor gases and unit-mass resolution (UMR) and high-resolution (HR) aerosol mass spectrometry to examine the sources of carbon and oxygen to photochemical aerosol formed in a CH 4 /CO 2 /N 2 atmosphere. UMR results suggest that CH 4 contributes 70-100% of carbon in the aerosol, while HR results constrain the value from 94% to 100%. We also confirm that CO 2 contributes approximately 10% of the total mass to the aerosol as oxygen. These results have implications for the geochemical interpretations of inclusions found in Archean rocks on Earth and for the astrobiological potential of other planetary atmospheres. Key Words: Atmosphere-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres-Carbon dioxide-Methane. Astrobiology 16, 822-830.

  3. Early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide from carbon capture and storage sites.

    PubMed

    Pak, Nasrin Mostafavi; Rempillo, Ofelia; Norman, Ann-Lise; Layzell, David B

    2016-08-01

    The early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon capture and storage (CCS) sites is important both to inform remediation efforts and to build and maintain public support for CCS in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. A gas analysis system was developed to assess the origin of plumes of air enriched in CO2, as to whether CO2 is from a CCS site or from the oxidation of carbon compounds. The system measured CO2 and O2 concentrations for different plume samples relative to background air and calculated the gas differential concentration ratio (GDCR = -ΔO2/ΔCO2). The experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations that placed GDCR values for a CO2 leak at 0.21, compared with GDCR values of 1-1.8 for the combustion of carbon compounds. Although some combustion plume samples deviated in GDCR from theoretical, the very low GDCR values associated with plumes from CO2 leaks provided confidence that this technology holds promise in providing a tool for the early detection of CO2 leaks from CCS sites. This work contributes to the development of a cost-effective technology for the early detection of leaks from sites where CO2 has been injected into the subsurface to enhance oil recovery or to permanently store the gas as a strategy for mitigating climate change. Such technology will be important in building public confidence regarding the safety and security of carbon capture and storage sites.

  4. The emergence and early evolution of biological carbon-fixation.

    PubMed

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The fixation of CO₂ into living matter sustains all life on Earth, and embeds the biosphere within geochemistry. The six known chemical pathways used by extant organisms for this function are recognized to have overlaps, but their evolution is incompletely understood. Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form. We find that innovations in carbon-fixation were the foundation for most major early divergences in the tree of life. These findings are based on a novel method that fully integrates metabolic and phylogenetic constraints. Comparing gene-profiles across the metabolic cores of deep-branching organisms and requiring that they are capable of synthesizing all their biomass components leads to the surprising conclusion that the most common form for deep-branching autotrophic carbon-fixation combines two disconnected sub-networks, each supplying carbon to distinct biomass components. One of these is a linear folate-based pathway of CO₂ reduction previously only recognized as a fixation route in the complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but which more generally may exclude the final step of synthesizing acetyl-CoA. Using metabolic constraints we then reconstruct a "phylometabolic" tree with a high degree of parsimony that traces the evolution of complete carbon-fixation pathways, and has a clear structure down to the root. This tree requires few instances of lateral gene transfer or convergence, and instead suggests a simple evolutionary dynamic in which all divergences have primary environmental causes. Energy optimization and oxygen toxicity are the two strongest forces of selection. The root of this tree combines the reductive citric acid cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway into a single connected network. This linked network lacks the selective optimization of modern fixation pathways but its redundancy leads to a more robust topology, making it more

  5. Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

    2012-01-01

    For a new sweetness technology to realize strong commercial success, it must be safe, exhibit good taste quality, be sufficiently soluble and stable in food and beverage systems, and be cost effective and patentable. Assessments of the commercial promise of eight synthetic and eight natural non-caloric sweeteners are made relevant to these metrics. High-potency (HP) non-caloric sweeteners, both synthetic and natural, are generally limited in taste quality by (a) low maximal sweetness response, (b) "off" tastes, (c) slow-onset sweet tastes that linger, and (d) sweet tastes that adapt or desensitize the gustatory system. Formulation approaches to address these limitations are discussed. Enhancement of the normal sucrose sensory response by action of a sweetener receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) has been achieved with very significant calorie reduction and with retention of the taste quality of sucrose. Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized.

  6. 7 CFR 58.628 - Sweetening agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.628 Sweetening agents. Sweetening agents shall be clean and wholesome and consist of one or...

  7. 7 CFR 58.628 - Sweetening agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.628 Sweetening agents. Sweetening agents shall be clean and wholesome and consist of one or...

  8. Carbon isotope fractionation of sapropelic organic matter during early diagenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Study of an algal, sapropelic sediment from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda shows that the mass balance of carbon and stable carbon isotopes in the major organic constituents is accounted for by a relatively straightforward model of selective preservation during diagenesis. The loss of 13C-enriched carbohydrates is the principal factor controlling the intermolecular mass balance of 13C in the sapropel. Results indicate that labile components are decomposed leaving as a residual concentrate in the sediment an insoluble humic substance that may be an original biochemical component of algae and associated bacteria. An overall decrease of up to about 4??? in the ?? 13C values of the organic matter is observed as a result of early diagenesis. ?? 1984.

  9. Constraints on Early Triassic carbon cycle dynamics from paired organic and inorganic carbon isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Payne, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Large δ13C excursions, anomalous carbonate precipitates, low diversity assemblages of small fossils, and evidence for marine euxinia in uppermost Permian and Lower Triassic strata bear more similarity to Neoproterozoic carbonates than to the remainders of the Permian and Triassic systems. Middle Triassic diversification of marine ecosystems coincided with the waning of anoxia and stabilization of the global carbon cycle, suggesting that environment-ecosystem linkages were important to biological recovery. However, the Earth system behavior responsible for these large δ13C excursions remains poorly constrained. Here we present a continuous Early Triassic δ13Corg record from south China and use it to test the extent to which Early Triassic excursions in δ13Ccarb record changes in the δ13C of marine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Regression analysis demonstrates a significant positive correlation between δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb across multiple sections that span a paleoenvironmental gradient. Such a correlation is incompatible with diagenetic alteration because no likely mechanism will alter both δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb records in parallel and therefore strongly indicates a primary depositional origin. A simple explanation for this correlation is that a substantial portion of the preserved Corg was derived from the contemporaneous DIC pool, implying that the observed excursions reflect variation in the δ13C of the exogenic carbon reservoir (ocean, atmosphere, biomass). These findings support existing evidence that large δ13C excursions are primary and therefore strengthen the case that large-scale changes to the carbon cycle were mechanistically linked to the low diversity and small size of Early Triassic fossils. Associated sedimentary and biogeochemical phenomena further suggest that similar associations in Neoproterozoic and Cambrian strata may reflect the same underlying controls.

  10. Early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide from carbon capture and storage sites

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Nasrin Mostafavi; Rempillo, Ofelia; Norman, Ann-Lise; Layzell, David B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon capture and storage (CCS) sites is important both to inform remediation efforts and to build and maintain public support for CCS in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. A gas analysis system was developed to assess the origin of plumes of air enriched in CO2, as to whether CO2 is from a CCS site or from the oxidation of carbon compounds. The system measured CO2 and O2 concentrations for different plume samples relative to background air and calculated the gas differential concentration ratio (GDCR = −ΔO2/ΔCO2). The experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations that placed GDCR values for a CO2 leak at 0.21, compared with GDCR values of 1–1.8 for the combustion of carbon compounds. Although some combustion plume samples deviated in GDCR from theoretical, the very low GDCR values associated with plumes from CO2 leaks provided confidence that this technology holds promise in providing a tool for the early detection of CO2 leaks from CCS sites.  Implications: This work contributes to the development of a cost-effective technology for the early detection of leaks from sites where CO2 has been injected into the subsurface to enhance oil recovery or to permanently store the gas as a strategy for mitigating climate change. Such technology will be important in building public confidence regarding the safety and security of carbon capture and storage sites. PMID:27111469

  11. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    PubMed Central

    Keijser, Bart J. F.; van den Broek, Tim J.; Slot, Dagmar E.; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A.; Montijn, Roy C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  13. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition.

    PubMed

    Keijser, Bart J F; van den Broek, Tim J; Slot, Dagmar E; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A; Montijn, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  14. Carbon isotopic evidence for photosynthesis in Early Cambrian oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surge, Donna M.; Savarese, Michael; Dodd, J. Robert; Lohmann, Kyger C.

    1997-06-01

    Were the first metazoan reefs ecologically similar to modern tropical reefs, enabling them to persist under oligotrophic conditions? We tested the hypothesis of ecological similarity by employing a geochemical approach. Petrography, cathodoluminescence, trace elements, and stable isotope analyses of primary precipitates of the Lower Cambrian Ajax Limestone, South Australia, indicate preservation of original C isotopic composition. All primary carbonate components exhibit C isotopic values similar to the composition of inorganically precipitated fibrous marine cements, suggesting that archaeocyaths and the calcimicrobe Epiphyton precipitated skeletal carbonate in equilibrium with ambient seawater in the absence of vital effects. Such data do not support the contention that archaeocyaths possessed photosymbionts. However, a +0.55‰ shift in δ13C occurs in reefs developed under shallower-water conditions relative to deeper reefs. This shift suggests the stratification of primary production in Early Cambrian oceans. The pattern is similar to that seen in the modern ocean, whereby significant photosynthesis modulates the C isotopic composition of the photic zone.

  15. Influence of carbon dioxide clouds on early martian climate.

    PubMed

    Mischna, M A; Kasting, J F; Pavlov, A; Freedman, R

    2000-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that clouds made of carbon dioxide ice may have warmed the surface of early Mars by reflecting not only incoming solar radiation but upwelling IR radiation as well. However, these studies have not treated scattering self-consistently in the thermal IR. Our own calculations, which treat IR scattering properly, confirm these earlier calculations but show that CO2 clouds can also cool the surface, especially if they are low and optically thick. Estimating the actual effect of CO2 clouds on early martian climate will require three-dimensional models in which cloud location, height, and optical depth, as well as surface temperature and pressure, are determined self-consistently. Our calculations further confirm that CO2 clouds should extend the outer boundary of the habitable zone around a star but that there is still a finite limit beyond which above-freezing surface temperatures cannot be maintained by a CO2-H2O atmosphere. For our own Solar System, the absolute outer edge of the habitable zone is at approximately 2.4 AU.

  16. Investigating adolescents' sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits in China, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yen-Han; Chiang, Timothy C; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chang, Yen-Chang

    2018-05-25

    Background China has undergone rapid Westernization and established dramatic social reforms since the early 21st century. However, health issues led to challenges in the lives of the Chinese residents. Western fast food and sweetened beverages, two food options associated with chronic diseases and obesity, have played key roles to alter adolescents' dietary patterns. This study aims to examine the association between adolescents' visits to Western fast food restaurants and sweetened beverage consumption. Methods Applying three waves of the China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS) between 2006 and 2011 (n = 1063), we used generalized Poisson regression (GPR) to investigate the association between adolescents' Western fast food restaurant visits and sweetened beverage consumption, as the popularity of fast food and sweetened beverages has skyrocketed among adolescents in contemporary China. A linear-by-linear association test was used as a trend test to study general patterns between sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits. We adjusted all models with sweetened beverage consumption frequency, four food preferences (fast food, salty snacks, fruits and vegetables), school status, gross household income, provinces, rural/urban regions, age and gender. Results From the results of the trend test, frequent sweetened beverage consumption was highly associated with more Western fast food restaurant visits among Chinese adolescents in the three waves (p < 0.001). Furthermore, we observed that adolescents, who had less than monthly sweetened beverage consumption or did not drink them at all, had much less likelihood of visiting Western fast food restaurants (p < 0.05), compared with those daily consumers. Conclusion Adolescents' sweetened beverage consumption was highly associated with Western fast food restaurant visits in contemporary China. Further actions are needed from the Chinese central government to create a healthier dietary

  17. Proteins used as sweeteners: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojian; Alexander, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    For the prevention of obesity, diabetes, dental caries, and some metabolic disorders, ingestion of sugar should be restricted. Although they have high-potency sweetness, artificial low-calorie sweeteners can have severe adverse effects. Public demand for natural and healthy flavors, as well as perceived problems with the toxicity and taste quality of existing synthetic sweeteners, have led to efforts to find natural proteins with high sweetness and tast-modifying properties. Some important properties of natural protein sweeteners and taste-modifying protein sweeteners are discussed in this review.

  18. Does the Sale of Sweetened Beverages at School Affect Children’s Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Solveig A.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    In response to the increase in children’s weight in recent decades, many states, school districts, and schools in the United States have limited or eliminated the sale of sweetened beverages at school. These policies are promoted for their potential to reduce childhood overweight and obesity, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated. Using a large nationally representative longitudinal dataset, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K), this study explores the relationship between children’s access to sweetened beverages at school in 5th and 8th grade, their purchases and total consumption of these beverages, and their weight. We find almost no evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to heavier weight or greater risk of overweight or obesity among children. We also find limited evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to higher total consumption of these beverages. PMID:21907477

  19. Does the sale of sweetened beverages at school affect children's weight?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Zavodny, Madeline

    2011-11-01

    In response to the increase in children's weight in recent decades, many states, school districts, and schools in the United States have limited or eliminated the sale of sweetened beverages at school. These policies are promoted for their potential to reduce childhood overweight and obesity, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated. Using a large nationally representative longitudinal dataset, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K), this study explores the relationship between children's access to sweetened beverages at school in 5th and 8th grade, their purchases and total consumption of these beverages, and their weight. We find almost no evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to heavier weight or greater risk of overweight or obesity among children. We also find limited evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to higher total consumption of these beverages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insights into the Processing of Carbon by Early Microbial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, D.; Bebout, B.; Carpenter, S.; Discipulo, S.; Londry, K.; Habicht, K.; Turk, K.

    2003-01-01

    Interactions between Earth and the biosphere that were crucial for early biological evolution also influenced substantially the processes that circulate C between its reservoirs in the atmosphere, ocean, crust and mantle. The C-13 C-12 values of crustal carbonates and organics have recorded changes both in biological discrimination and in the relative rates of burial of organics and carbonates. A full interpretation of these patterns needs further isotopic studies of microbial ecosystems and individual anaerobes. Thus we measured carbon isotope discrimination during autotrophic and heterotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea (SRB and SRA). Discrimination during CO2 assimilation is significantly larger than during heterotrophic growth on lactate or acetate. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of available CO2 and exhibited substantial discrimination, as follows: Desulfobacterium autotrophicum (alpha 1.0100 to 1.0123), Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus (alpha = 0.0138), and Desulfotomuculum acetoxidans (alpha = 1.0310). Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO2 resulted in biomass with delta C-13 composition intermediate to that of the substrates. We have recently extended these experiments to include the thermophilic SRA Archeoglobus spp. Ecological forces also influence isotopic discrimination. Accordingly, we quantified the flow of C and other constituents in modern marine cyanobacterial mats, whose ancestry extends back billions of years. Such ecosystem processes shaped the biosignatures that entered sediments and atmospheres. At Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, we examined mats dominated by Microcoleus (subtidal) and Lyngbya (intertidal to supratidal) cyanobacteria. During 24 hour cycles, we observed the exchange of O2 and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) between mats and the overlying water. Microcoleus mats assimilated near-equal amounts of DIC during the day as they released at night, but

  1. Investigating the Early Carbon Cycle Using Carbonaceous Inclusions and Dissolved Carbon in Detrital Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Harrison, M.; Mao, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Because the terrestrial rock record extends only to ~4 Ga and older materials thus far identified are limited to detrital zircons, information about volatile abundances and cycles on early Earth is limited. Carbon, for instance, plays an important role not only in the modern biosphere but also in deep recycling of materials between the crust and mantle. We are investigating the record of carbon abundance and origin in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills (W. Australia) using two main approaches. First, carbon may partition into the zircon structure at trace levels during crystallization from a magma, and better understanding of this partitioning behavior will allow for zircon's use as a monitor of magmatic carbon contents. We have measured carbon abundances in zircon from a variety of igneous rocks (gabbro; I-, A-, and S-type granitoids) via SIMS and found that although abundances are typically low (average raw 12C/30Si ~ 1x10-6), S-type granite zircons can reach a factor of 1000 over this background. Around 10% of Hadean zircons investigated show similar enrichments, consistent with other evidence for the derivation of many Jack Hills zircons from S-type granitoids and with the establishment of modern-level carbon abundances in the crust by ca. 4.2 Ga. Diamond and graphite inclusions reported in the Jack Hills zircons by previous studies proved to be contamination by polishing debris, leaving the true abundance of these materials in the population uncertain. On a second front, we have identified and investigated primary carbonaceous inclusions in these zircons. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one concordant 4.10±0.01 Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions (so interpreted due to their enclosure in a crack-free zircon host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit). Their δ13CPDB of -24±5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and, in the absence of a likely inorganic mechanism to produce such a

  2. The Association Between Artificial Sweeteners and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Michelle; Obert, Jon; Casey, Lisa

    2017-11-21

    The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the evolution of artificial sweeteners; to examine the latest research on the effects of artificial sweeteners on the host microbiome, the gut-brain axis, glucose homeostasis, and energy consumption; and to discuss how all of these changes ultimately contribute to obesity. Although artificial sweeteners were developed as a sugar substitute to help reduce insulin resistance and obesity, data in both animal models and humans suggest that the effects of artificial sweeteners may contribute to metabolic syndrome and the obesity epidemic. Artificial sweeteners appear to change the host microbiome, lead to decreased satiety, and alter glucose homeostasis, and are associated with increased caloric consumption and weight gain. Artificial sweeteners are marketed as a healthy alternative to sugar and as a tool for weight loss. Data however suggests that the intended effects do not correlate with what is seen in clinical practice. Future research should focus on the newer plant-based sweeteners, incorporate extended study durations to determine the long-term effects of artificial sweetener consumption, and focus on changes in the microbiome, as that seems to be one of the main driving forces behind nutrient absorption and glucose metabolism.

  3. Accretion and differentiation of carbon in the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Tingle, T N

    1998-05-15

    The abundance of C in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites decreases exponentially with increasing shock pressure as inferred from the petrologic shock classification of Scott et al. [Scott, E.R.D., Keil, K., Stoffler, D., 1992. Shock metamorphism of carbonaceous chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 4281-4293] and Stoffler et al. [Stoffler, D., Keil, K., Scott, E.R.D., 1991. Shock metamorphism of ordinary chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3845-3867]. This confirms the experimental results of Tyburczy et al. [Tyburczy, J.A., Frisch, B., Ahrens, T.J., 1986. Shock-induced volatile loss from a carbonaceous chondrite: implications for planetary accretion. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 80, 201-207] on shock-induced devolatization of the Murchison meteorite showing that carbonaceous chondrites appear to be completely devolatilized at impact velocities greater than 2 km s-1. Both of these results suggest that C incorporation would have been most efficient in the early stages of accretion, and that the primordial C content of the Earth was between 10(24) and 10(25) g C (1-10% efficiency of incorporation). This estimate agrees well with the value of 3-7 x 10(24) g C based on the atmospheric abundance of 36Ar and the chondritic C/36Ar (Marty and Jambon, 1987). Several observations suggest that C likely was incorporated into the Earth's core during accretion. (1) Graphite and carbides are commonly present in iron meteorites, and those iron meteorites with Widmanstatten patterns reflecting the slowest cooling rates (mostly Group I and IIIb) contain the highest C abundances. The C abundance-cooling rate correlation is consistent with dissolution of C into Fe-Ni liquids that segregated to form the cores of the iron meteorite parent bodies. (2) The carbon isotopic composition of graphite in iron meteorites exhibits a uniform value of -5% [Deines, P., Wickman, F.E. 1973. The isotopic composition of 'graphitic' carbon from iron meteorites and some remarks on the troilitic

  4. The potential toxicity of artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Christina R; Boullata, Joseph; McCauley, Linda A

    2008-06-01

    Since their discovery, the safety of artificial sweeteners has been controversial. Artificial sweeteners provide the sweetness of sugar without the calories. As public health attention has turned to reversing the obesity epidemic in the United States, more individuals of all ages are choosing to use these products. These choices may be beneficial for those who cannot tolerate sugar in their diets (e.g., diabetics). However, scientists disagree about the relationships between sweeteners and lymphomas, leukemias, cancers of the bladder and brain, chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism, and systemic lupus. Recently these substances have received increased attention due to their effects on glucose regulation. Occupational health nurses need accurate and timely information to counsel individuals regarding the use of these substances. This article provides an overview of types of artificial sweeteners, sweetener history, chemical structure, biological fate, physiological effects, published animal and human studies, and current standards and regulations.

  5. Association between intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery: a large prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Englund-Ögge, Linda; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Sengpiel, Verena; Khatibi, Ali; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kacerovsky, Marian; Nilsen, Roy M; Jacobsson, Bo

    2012-09-01

    Artificially sweetened (AS) and sugar-sweetened (SS) beverages are commonly consumed during pregnancy. A recent Danish study reported that the daily intake of an AS beverage was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. We examined the intake of AS and SS beverages in pregnant women to replicate the Danish study and observe whether AS intake is indeed associated with preterm delivery. This was a prospective study of 60,761 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Intakes of carbonated and noncarbonated AS and SS beverages and use of artificial sweeteners in hot drinks were assessed by a self-reported food-frequency questionnaire in midpregnancy. Preterm delivery was the primary outcome, and data were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Intakes of both AS and SS beverages increased with increasing BMI and energy intake and were higher in women with less education, in daily smokers, and in single women. A high intake of AS beverages was associated with preterm delivery; the adjusted OR for those drinking >1 serving/d was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24). Drinking >1 serving of SS beverages per day was also associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.45). The trend tests were positive for both beverage types. This study suggests that a high intake of both AS and SS beverages is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery.

  6. The carbon cycle on early Earth--and on Mars?

    PubMed

    Grady, Monica M; Wright, Ian

    2006-10-29

    One of the goals of the present Martian exploration is to search for evidence of extinct (or even extant) life. This could be redefined as a search for carbon. The carbon cycle (or, more properly, cycles) on Earth is a complex interaction among three reservoirs: the atmosphere; the hydrosphere; and the lithosphere. Superimposed on this is the biosphere, and its presence influences the fixing and release of carbon in these reservoirs over different time-scales. The overall carbon balance is kept at equilibrium on the surface by a combination of tectonic processes (which bury carbon), volcanism (which releases it) and biology (which mediates it). In contrast to Earth, Mars presently has no active tectonic system; neither does it possess a significant biosphere. However, these observations might not necessarily have held in the past. By looking at how Earth's carbon cycles have changed with time, as both the Earth's tectonic structure and a more sophisticated biology have evolved, and also by constructing a carbon cycle for Mars based on the carbon chemistry of Martian meteorites, we investigate whether or not there is evidence for a Martian biosphere.

  7. The carbon cycle on early Earth—and on Mars?

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Monica M; Wright, Ian

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of the present Martian exploration is to search for evidence of extinct (or even extant) life. This could be redefined as a search for carbon. The carbon cycle (or, more properly, cycles) on Earth is a complex interaction among three reservoirs: the atmosphere; the hydrosphere; and the lithosphere. Superimposed on this is the biosphere, and its presence influences the fixing and release of carbon in these reservoirs over different time-scales. The overall carbon balance is kept at equilibrium on the surface by a combination of tectonic processes (which bury carbon), volcanism (which releases it) and biology (which mediates it). In contrast to Earth, Mars presently has no active tectonic system; neither does it possess a significant biosphere. However, these observations might not necessarily have held in the past. By looking at how Earth's carbon cycles have changed with time, as both the Earth's tectonic structure and a more sophisticated biology have evolved, and also by constructing a carbon cycle for Mars based on the carbon chemistry of Martian meteorites, we investigate whether or not there is evidence for a Martian biosphere. PMID:17008211

  8. An early-branching microbialite cyanobacterium forms intracellular carbonates.

    PubMed

    Couradeau, Estelle; Benzerara, Karim; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Moreira, David; Bernard, Sylvain; Brown, Gordon E; López-García, Purificación

    2012-04-27

    Cyanobacteria have affected major geochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) on Earth for billions of years. In particular, they have played a major role in the formation of calcium carbonates (i.e., calcification), which has been considered to be an extracellular process. We identified a cyanobacterium in modern microbialites in Lake Alchichica (Mexico) that forms intracellular amorphous calcium-magnesium-strontium-barium carbonate inclusions about 270 nanometers in average diameter, revealing an unexplored pathway for calcification. Phylogenetic analyses place this cyanobacterium within the deeply divergent order Gloeobacterales. The chemical composition and structure of the intracellular precipitates suggest some level of cellular control on the biomineralization process. This discovery expands the diversity of organisms capable of forming amorphous calcium carbonates.

  9. Early Triassic fluctuations of the global carbon cycle: New evidence from paired carbon isotopes in the western USA basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caravaca, Gwénaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Cocquerez, Théophile; Escarguel, Gilles; Fara, Emmanuel; Jenks, James F.; Bylund, Kevin G.; Stephen, Daniel A.; Brayard, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of the catastrophic end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic records recurrent perturbations in the carbon isotope signal, most notably during the Smithian and through the Smithian/Spathian Boundary (SSB; 1.5 myr after the Permian/Triassic boundary), which show some of the largest excursions of the Phanerozoic. The late Smithian also corresponds to major biotic turnovers and environmental changes, such as temperature fluctuations, that deeply impacted the recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction. Here we document the paired carbon isotope signal along with an analysis of the trace and major elements at the long-known Hot Springs section (southeastern Idaho, USA). This section records Early Triassic sediments from the Griesbachian-Dienerian up to the lower Spathian. We show that the organic and carbonate δ13C variations mirror the signals identified at a global scale. Particularly, the middle Smithian-SSB event represented by a negative-positive isotopic couplet is well identified and is not of diagenetic origin. We also document a positive excursion potentially corresponding to the Dienerian/Smithian Boundary. Observed Smithian-Spathian excursions are recorded similarly in both the organic and carbonate reservoirs, but the organic matter signal systematically shows unexpectedly dampened variations compared to its carbonate counterpart. Additionally, we show that variations in the net isotopic effect (i.e., Δ13C) probably resulted from a complex set of forcing parameters including either a mixing between terrestrial and marine organic matter depending on the evolution of the depositional setting, or variations in the biological fractionation. We establish that the Δ13C signal cannot be directly related to CO2-driven temperature variations at Hot Springs. Even though the carbon isotope signal mirrors the Early Triassic variations known at the global scale, the Hot Springs signal probably also reflects local influences on the carbon

  10. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lactitol Honey Sucralose (Splenda) Maltitol Maple syrup Mannitol Molasses Sorbitol Xylitol Advantame The topic of sugar substitutes ... for consumption are fruit juices and nectars, honey, molasses, and maple syrup. Natural sweeteners have a variety ...

  11. Divergent response of the neritic carbonate factory to environmental changes during the Early Bajocian Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Stephane; Hönig, Martin; Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Danisch, Jan; Kabiri, Lahcen

    2017-04-01

    The Early Bajocian witnessed a global environmental perturbation, characterized by faunal and floral turnovers and a positive carbon isotope excursion. In Italy, this environmental perturbation coincided with an eutrophication event and a carbonate crisis, but this has so far not been adequately reported from other settings, leaving doubt about the extent and nature of these phenomena. Here, we are reporting on an extensive neritic carbonate factory demise that occurs in the upper Lower Bajocian of the Central High Atlas of Morocco, more precisely in the upper Propinquans - lower Humphriesianum Zones. This demise coincided with the acme of the global carbon isotope perturbation, recorded by a 3‰ positive carbon isotope excursion in the bulk organic matter of Morocco. Recovery of the neritic carbonate system occurs during the Early to Late Bajocian transition. The duration of the neritic carbonate factory demise was therefore in the order of 1 Myr. Furthermore, we observe that the Lower Bajocian of Morocco is relatively enriched in arenitic siliciclastic deposits, suggesting increased weathering and nutrient levels along the northwestern margin of Africa during the Early Bajocian. However, comparison with neighboring European basins highlights the non-uniqueness and different timing of the response of shallow-water carbonates to the Early Bajocian environmental perturbations, as some regions present no sign of carbonate factory crisis. Hence, we postulate that local factors were important in mediating the response of neritic carbonate factories to this global environmental perturbation. We notably highlight the role of large Early Bajocian sea-level fluctuation as a trigger for carbonate factory change and demise in Morocco. Indeed, in the Central High Atlas Basin, transgressive intervals are seeing the development of a mud-dominated carbonate factory whereas regressive intervals are associated with grain-dominated carbonate factory. We speculate that the

  12. Stable carbon isotopes: possible clues to early life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Schidlowski, M

    1992-01-01

    Organic and inorganic carbon in terrestrial near-surface environments are characterized by a marked difference in their 13C/12C ratios which can be traced back in the Earth's sedimentary record over almost 4 billion years. There is no doubt that the bias in favour of 12C displayed by biogenic matter derives, for the most part, from the isotope-selecting properties of the carbon-fixing enzyme (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) that is operative in the principal photosynthetic pathway and promotes most of the carbon transfer from the non-living to the living realm. Postulating a universality of biological principles in analogy to the proven universality of the laws of physics and chemistry, we may expect enzymatic reactions in exobiological systems to be beset with B similar kinetic fractionation effects. Hence, the retrieval from the oldest Martian sediments of isotopic fractionations between reduced and oxidized (carbonate) carbon may substantially constrain current conjectures on the possible existence of former life on Mars.

  13. High-Intensity Sweeteners and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance. PMID:20060008

  14. Can Children Discriminate Sugar-Sweetened from Non-Nutritively Sweetened Beverages and How Do They Like Them?

    PubMed Central

    de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kas, Rosa; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a difference between non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, and which of the two types of beverage they liked best. Methods 89 children aged 5 to 12 tasted seven non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, for a total of 14 beverages. We used Triangle tests to check their ability to discriminate between the matched versions, and a 5-point scale to measure how much the children liked each individual beverage. Results Overall, 24% of children appeared to be genuinely capable of distinguishing between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages. The mean ± SD score for how much the children liked the non-nutritively sweetened beverages was 3.39±0.7 and that for the sugar-sweetened beverages 3.39±0.6 (P = 0.9) on a scale running from 1 (disgusting) to 5 (delicious). The children preferred some beverages to others irrespective of whether they were sugar-sweetened or non-nutritively sweetened (P = 0.000). Children who correctly identified which of three drinks contained the same sweetener and which one was different also showed no preference for either type. Conclusion We found that about one in four children were able to discriminate between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages but children liked both varieties equally. Non-nutritively sweetened beverages may therefore be an acceptable alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages although water remains the healthiest beverage for children. PMID:25551758

  15. Can children discriminate sugar-sweetened from non-nutritively sweetened beverages and how do they like them?

    PubMed

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Katan, Martijn B; Kas, Rosa; Olthof, Margreet R

    2014-01-01

    Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a difference between non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, and which of the two types of beverage they liked best. 89 children aged 5 to 12 tasted seven non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, for a total of 14 beverages. We used Triangle tests to check their ability to discriminate between the matched versions, and a 5-point scale to measure how much the children liked each individual beverage. Overall, 24% of children appeared to be genuinely capable of distinguishing between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages. The mean ± SD score for how much the children liked the non-nutritively sweetened beverages was 3.39 ± 0.7 and that for the sugar-sweetened beverages 3.39 ± 0.6 (P = 0.9) on a scale running from 1 (disgusting) to 5 (delicious). The children preferred some beverages to others irrespective of whether they were sugar-sweetened or non-nutritively sweetened (P = 0.000). Children who correctly identified which of three drinks contained the same sweetener and which one was different also showed no preference for either type. We found that about one in four children were able to discriminate between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages but children liked both varieties equally. Non-nutritively sweetened beverages may therefore be an acceptable alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages although water remains the healthiest beverage for children.

  16. Persistence of carbon release events through the peak of early Eocene global warmth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Sexton, Philip F.; Charles, Christopher D.; Norris, Richard D.

    2014-10-01

    The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (53-50 million years ago) was preceded by approximately six million years of progressive global warming. This warming was punctuated by a series of rapid hyperthermal warming events triggered by the release of greenhouse gases. Over these six million years, the carbon isotope record suggests that the events became more frequent but smaller in magnitude. This pattern has been suggested to reflect a thermodynamic threshold for carbon release that was more easily crossed as global temperature rose, combined with a decrease in the size of carbon reservoirs during extremely warm conditions. Here we present a continuous, 4.25-million-year-long record of the stable isotope composition of carbonate sediments from the equatorial Atlantic, spanning the peak of early Eocene global warmth. A composite of this and pre-existing records shows that the carbon isotope excursions that identify the hyperthermals exhibit continuity in magnitude and frequency throughout the approximately 10-million-year period covering the onset, peak and termination of the Early Eocene Climate Optimum. We suggest that the carbon cycle processes behind these events, excluding the largest event, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (about 56 million years ago), were not exceptional. Instead, we argue that the hyperthermals may reflect orbital forcing of the carbon cycle analogous to the mechanisms proposed to operate in the cooler Oligocene and Miocene.

  17. Early Age Carbonation Heat and Products of Tricalcium Silicate Paste Subject to Carbon Dioxide Curing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; He, Zhen; Shao, Yixin

    2018-05-04

    This paper presents a study on the carbonation reaction heat and products of tricalcium silicate (C₃S) paste exposed to carbon dioxide (CO₂) for rapid curing. Reaction heat was measured using a retrofitted micro-calorimeter. The highest heat flow of a C₃S paste subject to carbonation curing was 200 times higher than that by hydration, and the cumulative heat released by carbonation was three times higher. The compressive strength of a C₃S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 27.5 MPa and 62.9 MPa, respectively. The 24-h carbonation strength had exceeded the hydration strength at 28 days. The CO₂ uptake of a C₃S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 17% and 26%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer (TEM-EDS), and 29 Si magic angle spinning⁻nuclear magnetic resonance ( 29 Si MAS-NMR) results showed that the products of a carbonated C₃S paste were amorphous silica (SiO₂) and calcite crystal. There was no trace of calcium silicate hydrate (C⁻S⁻H) or other polymorphs of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) detected.

  18. Early Age Carbonation Heat and Products of Tricalcium Silicate Paste Subject to Carbon Dioxide Curing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; He, Zhen; Shao, Yixin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the carbonation reaction heat and products of tricalcium silicate (C3S) paste exposed to carbon dioxide (CO2) for rapid curing. Reaction heat was measured using a retrofitted micro-calorimeter. The highest heat flow of a C3S paste subject to carbonation curing was 200 times higher than that by hydration, and the cumulative heat released by carbonation was three times higher. The compressive strength of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 27.5 MPa and 62.9 MPa, respectively. The 24-h carbonation strength had exceeded the hydration strength at 28 days. The CO2 uptake of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 17% and 26%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer (TEM-EDS), and 29Si magic angle spinning–nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si MAS-NMR) results showed that the products of a carbonated C3S paste were amorphous silica (SiO2) and calcite crystal. There was no trace of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) or other polymorphs of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) detected. PMID:29734681

  19. Nitrogen alters carbon dynamics during early succession in boreal forest

    Treesearch

    Steven D. Allison; Tracy B. Gartner; Michelle C. Mack; Krista McGuire; Kathleen Treseder

    2010-01-01

    Boreal forests are an important source of wood products, and fertilizers could be used to improve forest yields, especially in nutrient poor regions of the boreal zone. With climate change, fire frequencies may increase, resulting in a larger fraction of the boreal landscape present in early successional stages. Since most fertilization studies have focused on mature...

  20. A carbon dioxide/methane greenhouse atmosphere on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. L.; Kasting, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    One explanation for the formation of fluvial surface features on early Mars is that the global average surface temperature was maintained at or above the freezing point of water by the greenhouse warming of a dense CO2 atmosphere; however, Kasting has shown that CO2 alone is insufficient because the formation of CO2 clouds reduces the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. It is possible that other gases, such as NH3 and CH4, were present in the early atmosphere of Mars and contributed to the greenhouse effect. Kasting et al. investigated the effect of NH3 in a CO2 atmosphere and calculated that an NH3 mixing ratio of approximately 5 x 10 (exp -4) by volume, combined with a CO2 partial pressure of 4-5 bar, could generate a global average surface temperature of 273 K near 3.8 b.y. ago when the fluvial features are believed to have formed. Atmospheric NH3 is photochemically converted to N2 by ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths shortward of 230 nm; maintenance of sufficient NH3 concentrations would therefore require a source of NH3 to balance the photolytic destruction. We have used a one-dimensional photochemical model to estimate the magnitude of the NH3 source required to maintain a given NH3 concentration in a dense CO2 atmosphere. We calculate that an NH3 mixing ratio of 10(exp -4) requires a flux of NH3 on the order of 10(exp 12) molecules /cm-s. This figure is several orders of magnitude greater than estimates of the NH3 flux on early Mars; thus it appears that NH3 with CO2 is not enough to keep early Mars warm.

  1. Early snowmelt significantly enhances boreal springtime carbon uptake

    PubMed Central

    Pulliainen, Jouni; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Aalto, Tuula; Takala, Matias; Salminen, Miia; Kulmala, Markku; Barr, Alan; Heimann, Martin; Lindroth, Anders; Laaksonen, Ari; Derksen, Chris; Mäkelä, Annikki; Markkanen, Tiina; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Susiluoto, Jouni; Dengel, Sigrid; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Vesala, Timo

    2017-01-01

    We determine the annual timing of spring recovery from space-borne microwave radiometer observations across northern hemisphere boreal evergreen forests for 1979–2014. We find a trend of advanced spring recovery of carbon uptake for this period, with a total average shift of 8.1 d (2.3 d/decade). We use this trend to estimate the corresponding changes in gross primary production (GPP) by applying in situ carbon flux observations. Micrometeorological CO2 measurements at four sites in northern Europe and North America indicate that such an advance in spring recovery would have increased the January–June GPP sum by 29 g⋅C⋅m−2 [8.4 g⋅C⋅m−2 (3.7%)/decade]. We find this sensitivity of the measured springtime GPP to the spring recovery to be in accordance with the corresponding sensitivity derived from simulations with a land ecosystem model coupled to a global circulation model. The model-predicted increase in springtime cumulative GPP was 0.035 Pg/decade [15.5 g⋅C⋅m−2 (6.8%)/decade] for Eurasian forests and 0.017 Pg/decade for forests in North America [9.8 g⋅C⋅m−2 (4.4%)/decade]. This change in the springtime sum of GPP related to the timing of spring snowmelt is quantified here for boreal evergreen forests. PMID:28973918

  2. Carbon Cycle Dynamics through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum: Orbital Couplings to Lacustrine Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengard, S. Z.; Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.; van Keuren, M.; Musher, D.

    2010-12-01

    The early Eocene represents the most recent hothouse climate state of Earth history, a period during which Earth’s surface temperatures warmed and reached a steady peak at the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), 53.5-50 Ma. Interspersed through the primary warming interval were several hyperthermals, or rapid peaks in surface temperature and pulses of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, followed by rapid declines, lasting 10^4 to 10^5 years. Various hypotheses have been offered to explain the climatic triggers during the hothouse interval, including changes in ocean circulation, methane release from hydrates, volcanism, and turnover of terrestrial organic matter, implicating various couplings and feedbacks in the global carbon cycle. The present study investigates the prevailing changes in carbon cycle dynamics that occurred during a specific subinterval of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. We sampled a carbon-rich 300-ft ( 1100 kyr) section of lacustrine Green River Formation sediments from the TOSCO core in the Uinta Basin at a one-foot resolution for organic carbon content and δ^{13}C. The compiled data comprise a high-resolution profile of total organic carbon and isotopic organic carbon composition through the section, showing cyclic patterns that we hypothesize reflect orbital signals. Bulk isotopic carbon and shale oil measurements from an earlier Fischer Assay across TOSCO’s entire 1030-ft core were then filtered using the expected frequency of a 23-kyr precession cycle. The overlaid cycles reveal δ^{13}C and oil content to be anti-phase through the 300-ft section, except for an interval of 50 feet (180 kyr) from the Mahogany Zone to the B-groove of the core, where the two measurements are in-phase. Given that shale oil, a proxy for lake primary productivity and carbon burial, and δ^{13}C typically correlate inversely, this short, 180-kyr interval of in-phase variation suggests a significant alteration in the local carbon cycle. These preliminary

  3. Association between intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery: a large prospective cohort study123

    PubMed Central

    Englund-Ögge, Linda; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Sengpiel, Verena; Khatibi, Ali; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kacerovsky, Marian; Nilsen, Roy M; Jacobsson, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Artificially sweetened (AS) and sugar-sweetened (SS) beverages are commonly consumed during pregnancy. A recent Danish study reported that the daily intake of an AS beverage was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. Objective: We examined the intake of AS and SS beverages in pregnant women to replicate the Danish study and observe whether AS intake is indeed associated with preterm delivery. Design: This was a prospective study of 60,761 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Intakes of carbonated and noncarbonated AS and SS beverages and use of artificial sweeteners in hot drinks were assessed by a self-reported food-frequency questionnaire in midpregnancy. Preterm delivery was the primary outcome, and data were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Results: Intakes of both AS and SS beverages increased with increasing BMI and energy intake and were higher in women with less education, in daily smokers, and in single women. A high intake of AS beverages was associated with preterm delivery; the adjusted OR for those drinking >1 serving/d was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24). Drinking >1 serving of SS beverages per day was also associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.45). The trend tests were positive for both beverage types. Conclusion: This study suggests that a high intake of both AS and SS beverages is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. PMID:22854404

  4. What do we really know about early diagenesis of non-marine carbonates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boever, Eva; Brasier, Alexander T.; Foubert, Anneleen; Kele, Sándor

    2017-11-01

    Non-marine carbonate rocks including cave, spring, stream, calcrete and lacustrine-palustrine sediments, are susceptible to early diagenetic processes. These can profoundly alter the carbonate fabric and affect paleoclimatic proxies. This review integrates recent insights into diagenesis of non-marine carbonates and in particular the variety of early diagenetic processes, and presents a conceptual framework to address them. With ability to study at smaller and smaller scales, down to nanometers, one can now observe diagenesis taking place the moment initial precipitates have formed, and continuing thereafter. Diagenesis may affect whole rocks, but it typically starts in nano- and micro-environments. The potential for diagenetic alteration depends on the reactivity of the initial precipitate, commonly being metastable phases like vaterite, Ca-oxalates, hydrous Mg-carbonates and aragonite with regard to the ambient fluid. Furthermore, organic compounds commonly play a crucial role in hosting these early transformations. Processes like neomorphism (inversion and recrystallization), cementation and replacement generally result in an overall coarsening of the fabric and homogenization of the wide range of complex, primary microtextures. If early diagenetic modifications are completed in a short time span compared to the (annual to millennial) time scale of interest, then recorded paleoenvironmental signals and trends could still acceptably reflect original, depositional conditions. However, even compact, non-marine carbonate deposits may behave locally and temporarily as open systems to crystal-fluid exchange and overprinting of one or more geochemical proxies is not unexpected. Looking to the future, relatively few studies have examined the behaviour of promising geochemical records, such as clumped isotope thermometry and (non-conventional) stable isotopes, in well-constrained diagenetic settings. Ongoing and future in-vitro and in-situ experimental approaches will

  5. Environmental change during the Late Berriasian - Early Valanginian: a prelude to the late Early Valanginian carbon-isotope event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Chloé; Schnyder, Johann; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Westermann, Stephane; Föllmi, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The Valanginian period is well known for a positive excursion in marine and terrestrial δ13C records, which has been interpreted as the consequence of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle (Lini et al., 1992; Erba et al., 2004). In contrast to the positive δ13C excursions of the Early Aptian and latest Cenomanian, marine organic-rich sediments have only been recognized from a few localities (van de Schootbrugge et al., 2003; Reboulet et al., 2003; Gröcke et al., 2005; Westermann et al., in press). The δ13C excursion began in the late Early Valanginian (campylotoxus ammonite zone) and gradually ended during the Late Valanginian. It is associated with a phase of widespread carbonate-platform drowning on the shelf (Föllmi et al., 1994) and a decline in calcareous nannofossils in the pelagic realm (Erba et al., 2004). As a triggering mechanism, numerous authors invoke the formation of the Parañà-Etendeka flood basalt. The correlation of this episode with the Valanginian δ13C event depends, however, on the absolute ages attributed to the Valanginian stage. The recent geological timescale by Ogg et al. (2008) shows that the major eruptional phase occurred during the Late Valanginian. This may imply that the late Early Valanginian δ13C event resulted from a combination of different factors. Important paleoenvironmental change occurred already in the latest Berriasian and earliest Valanginian, prior to the positive δ13C excursion. An increase in nutrient input near the onset of the δ13C excursion (campylotoxus ammonite zone), which may be considered as a trigger of the carbon cycle perturbation, has been identified in different studies, (Hennig, 2003; Duchamp-Alphonse et al., 2007; Bornemann & Mutterlose, 2008). Heterozoan faunal associations became dominant since the Early Valanginian on the northern Tethyan Helvetic platform and may indicate the beginning of sea-water eutrophication (Föllmi et al., 2007). Clay assemblages in the Tethys and Western

  6. The Role of Sweeteners in the Diet of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Had children sample beverage and plain cottage cheese sweetened with either sugar or Sweet One as part of a sensory difference test, as well as rank four vanilla puddings sweetened with sugar and three FDA approved sweeteners. Found that participants could tell the difference in beverage but not cottage cheese, and that there was no consensus on…

  7. Spatial distribution of carbon dust in the early solar nebula and the carbon content of planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gail, Hans-Peter; Trieloff, Mario

    2017-09-01

    Context. A high fraction of carbon bound in solid carbonaceous material is observed to exist in bodies formed in the cold outskirts of the solar nebula, while bodies in the region of terrestrial planets contain only very small mass fractions of carbon. Most of the solid carbon component is lost and converted into CO during the spiral-in of matter as the Sun accretes matter from the solar nebula. Aims: We study the fate of the carbonaceous material that entered the proto-solar disc by comparing the initial carbon abundance in primitive solar system material and the abundance of residual carbon in planetesimals and planets in the asteroid belt and the terrestrial planet region. Methods: We constructed a model for the composition of the pristine carbonaceous material from observational data on the composition of the dust component in comets and of interplanetary dust particles and from published data on pyrolysis experiments. This material entered the inner parts of the solar nebula during the course of the build-up of the proto-sun by accreting matter from the proto-stellar disc. Based on a one-zone evolution model of the solar nebula, we studied the pyrolysis of the refractory and volatile organic component and the concomitant release of hydrocarbons of high molecular weight under quiescent conditions of disc evolution, while matter migrates into the central parts of the solar nebula. We also studied the decomposition and oxidation of the carbonaceous material during violent flash heating events, which are thought to be responsible for the formation of chondrules. To do this, we calculated pyrolysis and oxidation of the carbonaceous material in temperature spikes that were modeled according to cosmochemical models for the temperature history of chondrules. Results: We find that the complex hydrocarbon components of the carbonaceous material are removed from the disc matter in the temperature range between 250 and 400 K, but the amorphous carbon component survives to

  8. Mineralogy, early marine diagenesis, and the chemistry of shallow-water carbonate sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. A.; Blättler, C. L.; Lundstrom, E. A.; Santiago-Ramos, D. P.; Akhtar, A. A.; Crüger Ahm, A.-S.; Bialik, O.; Holmden, C.; Bradbury, H.; Murray, S. T.; Swart, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    Shallow-water carbonate sediments constitute the bulk of sedimentary carbonates in the geologic record and are widely used archives of Earth's chemical and climatic history. One of the main limitations in interpreting the geochemistry of ancient carbonate sediments is the potential for post-depositional diagenetic alteration. In this study, we use paired measurements of calcium (44Ca/40Ca or δ44Ca) and magnesium (26Mg/24Mg or δ26Mg) isotope ratios in sedimentary carbonates and associated pore-fluids as a tool to understand the mineralogical and diagenetic history of Neogene shallow-water carbonate sediments from the Bahamas and southwest Australia. We find that the Ca and Mg isotopic composition of bulk carbonate sediments at these sites exhibits systematic stratigraphic variability that is related to both mineralogy and early marine diagenesis. The observed variability in bulk sediment Ca isotopes is best explained by changes in the extent and style of early marine diagenesis from one where the composition of the diagenetic carbonate mineral is determined by the chemistry of the fluid (fluid-buffered) to one where the composition of the diagenetic carbonate mineral is determined by the chemistry of the precursor sediment (sediment-buffered). Our results indicate that this process, together with variations in carbonate mineralogy (aragonite, calcite, and dolomite), plays a fundamental and underappreciated role in determining the regional and global stratigraphic expressions of geochemical tracers (δ13C, δ18O, major, minor, and trace elements) in shallow-water carbonate sediments in the geologic record. Our results also provide evidence that a large shallow-water carbonate sink that is enriched in 44Ca can explain the mismatch between the δ44/40Ca value of rivers and deep-sea carbonate sediments and call into question the hypothesis that the δ44/40Ca value of seawater depends on the mineralogy of primary carbonate precipitations (e.g. 'aragonite seas' and

  9. Demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption.

    PubMed

    Mullie, P; Aerenhouts, D; Clarys, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants on daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption. Cross-sectional design in 1852 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption was recorded. Principal component analysis was used for dietary pattern analysis. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages were consumed daily by 36.3% and 33.2% of the participants, respectively. Age, body mass index (BMI), non-smoking and income were negatively related to sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. High BMI and trying to lose weight were related to artificially sweetened beverages consumption. Three major patterns were obtained from principal component analysis: first, the 'meat pattern', was loaded for red meats and processed meats; second, the 'healthy pattern', was loaded for tomatoes, fruit, whole grain, vegetables, fruit, fish, tea and nuts; finally, the 'sweet pattern' was loaded for sweets, desserts, snacks, high-energy drinks, high-fat dairy products and refined grains. The sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with both the meat and sweet dietary patterns and inversely related to the healthy dietary pattern. The artificially sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with the sweet and healthy dietary pattern. Daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was inversely associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was clearly associated with weight-loss intention.

  10. Early carbon mobilization and radicle protrusion in maize germination.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Linares, Luis; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina; Díaz-Pontones, David; Guzmán-Chávez, Fernando; Calzada-Alejo, Viridiana; Zurita-Villegas, Viridiana; Luna-Loaiza, Viridiana; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Bernal-Lugo, Irma; Sánchez-Nieto, Sobeida

    2012-07-01

    Considerable amounts of information is available on the complex carbohydrates that are mobilized and utilized by the seed to support early seedling development. These events occur after radicle has protruded from the seed. However, scarce information is available on the role of the endogenous soluble carbohydrates from the embryo in the first hours of germination. The present work analysed how the soluble carbohydrate reserves in isolated maize embryos are mobilized during 6-24 h of water imbibition, an interval that exclusively embraces the first two phases of the germination process. It was found that sucrose constitutes a very significant reserve in the scutellum and that it is efficiently consumed during the time in which the adjacent embryo axis is engaged in an active metabolism. Sucrose transporter was immunolocalized in the scutellum and in vascular elements. In parallel, a cell-wall invertase activity, which hydrolyses sucrose, developed in the embryo axis, which favoured higher glucose uptake. Sucrose and hexose transporters were active in the embryo tissues, together with the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, which was localized in all embryo regions involved in both nutrient transport and active cell elongation to support radicle extension. It is proposed that, during the initial maize germination phases, a net flow of sucrose takes place from the scutellum towards the embryo axis and regions that undergo elongation. During radicle extension, sucrose and hexose transporters, as well as H(+)-ATPase, become the fundamental proteins that orchestrate the transport of nutrients required for successful germination.

  11. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Costenbader, Karen H; Gao, Xiang; Al-Daabil, May; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Solomon, Daniel H; Hu, Frank B; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Lu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Sugar-sweetened soda consumption is consistently associated with an increased risk of several chronic inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Whether it plays a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a common autoimmune inflammatory disease, remains unclear. The aim was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of RA in US women. We prospectively followed 79,570 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1980-2008) and 107,330 women from the NHS II (1991-2009). Information on sugar-sweetened soda consumption (including regular cola, caffeine-free cola, and other sugar-sweetened carbonated soda) was obtained from a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and approximately every 4 y during follow-up. Incident RA cases were validated by medical record review. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs after adjustment for confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance-weighted, fixed-effects model. During 3,381,268 person-years of follow-up, 857 incident cases of RA were documented in the 2 cohorts. In the multivariable pooled analyses, we found that women who consumed ≥1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d had a 63% (HR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.004) increased risk of developing seropositive RA compared with those who consumed no sugar-sweetened soda or who consumed <1 serving/mo. When we restricted analyses to those with later RA onset (after age 55 y) in the NHS, the association appeared to be stronger (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.46; P-trend < 0.0001). No significant association was found for sugar-sweetened soda and seronegative RA. Diet soda consumption was not significantly associated with risk of RA in the 2 cohorts. Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soda, but not diet soda, is associated with increased risk of seropositive RA in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle

  12. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women1234

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Costenbader, Karen H; Gao, Xiang; Al-Daabil, May; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Solomon, Daniel H; Hu, Frank B; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Lu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened soda consumption is consistently associated with an increased risk of several chronic inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Whether it plays a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a common autoimmune inflammatory disease, remains unclear. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of RA in US women. Design: We prospectively followed 79,570 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1980–2008) and 107,330 women from the NHS II (1991–2009). Information on sugar-sweetened soda consumption (including regular cola, caffeine-free cola, and other sugar-sweetened carbonated soda) was obtained from a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and approximately every 4 y during follow-up. Incident RA cases were validated by medical record review. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs after adjustment for confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance–weighted, fixed-effects model. Results: During 3,381,268 person-years of follow-up, 857 incident cases of RA were documented in the 2 cohorts. In the multivariable pooled analyses, we found that women who consumed ≥1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d had a 63% (HR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.004) increased risk of developing seropositive RA compared with those who consumed no sugar-sweetened soda or who consumed <1 serving/mo. When we restricted analyses to those with later RA onset (after age 55 y) in the NHS, the association appeared to be stronger (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.46; P-trend < 0.0001). No significant association was found for sugar-sweetened soda and seronegative RA. Diet soda consumption was not significantly associated with risk of RA in the 2 cohorts. Conclusion: Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soda, but not diet soda, is associated with increased risk of seropositive

  13. Earth's Early Biosphere and the Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David

    2004-01-01

    Our biosphere has altered the global environment principally by influencing the chemistry of those elements most important for life, e g., C, N, S, O, P and transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn). The coupling of oxygenic photosynthesis with the burial in sediments of photosynthetic organic matter, and with the escape of H2 to space, has increased the state of oxidation of the Oceans and atmosphere. It has also created highly reduced conditions within sedimentary rocks that have also extensively affected the geochemistry of several elements. The decline of volcanism during Earth's history reduced the flow of reduced chemical species that reacted with photosynthetically produced O2. The long-term net accumulation of photosynthetic O2 via biogeochemical processes has profoundly influenced our atmosphere and biosphere, as evidenced by the O2 levels required for algae, multicellular life and certain modem aerobic bacteria to exist. When our biosphere developed photosynthesis, it tapped into an energy resource that was much larger than the energy available from oxidation-reduction reactions associated with weathering and hydrothermal activity. Today, hydrothermal sources deliver globally (0.13-1.1)x10(exp l2) mol yr(sup -1) of reduced S, Fe(2+), Mn(2+), H2 and CH4; this is estimated to sustain at most about (0.2-2)xl0(exp 12)mol C yr(sup -1) of organic carbon production by chemautotrophic microorganisms. In contrast, global photosynthetic productivity is estimated to be 9000x10(exp 12) mol C yr(sup -1). Thus, even though global thermal fluxes were greater in the distant geologic past than today, the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis probably increased global organic productivity by some two or more orders of magnitude. This enormous productivity materialized principally because oxygenic photosynthesizers unleashed a virtually unlimited supply of reduced H that forever freed life from its sole dependence upon abiotic sources of reducing power such as hydrothermal emanations

  14. An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.D.

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems,more » even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.« less

  15. Sucralose, a synthetic organochlorine sweetener: overview of biological issues.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S; Rother, Kristina I

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound.

  16. Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  17. 27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice or concentrated fruit juice is added, the solids content of the... amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does not exceed 17 percent total solids by weight if... winemaker's own production may have sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished...

  18. Artificial sweeteners are not the answer to childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E

    2015-10-01

    While no single factor is responsible for the recent, dramatic increases in overweight and obesity, a scientific consensus has emerged suggesting that consumption of sugar-sweetened products, especially beverages, is casually linked to increases in risk of chronic, debilitating diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke. One approach that might be beneficial would be to replace sugar-sweetened items with products manufactured with artificial sweeteners that provide sweet tastes but with fewer calories. Unfortunately, evidence now indicates that artificial sweeteners are also associated with increased risk of the same chronic diseases linked to sugar consumption. Several biologically plausible mechanisms may explain these counterintuitive negative associations. For example, artificial sweeteners can interfere with basic learning processes that serve to anticipate the normal consequences of consuming sugars, leading to overeating, diminished release of hormones such as GLP-1, and impaired blood glucose regulation. In addition, artificial sweeteners can alter gut microbiota in rodent models and humans, which can also contribute to impaired glucose regulation. Use of artificial sweeteners may also be particularly problematic in children since exposure to hyper-sweetened foods and beverages at young ages may have effects on sweet preferences that persist into adulthood. Taken as a whole, current evidence suggests that a focus on reducing sweetener intake, whether the sweeteners are caloric or non-caloric, remains a better strategy for combating overweight and obesity than use of artificial sweeteners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca J.; De Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes. PMID:20078374

  20. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca J; de Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes.

  1. Early Stage Anodic Instability of Glassy Carbon Electrodes in Propylene Carbonate Solvent Containing Lithium Hexafluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Carino, Emily V; Newman, Daniel J; Connell, Justin G; Kim, Chaerin; Brushett, Fikile R

    2017-10-31

    Irreversible changes to the morphology of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes at potentials between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs Li/Li + in propylene carbonate (PC) solvent containing lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ) are reported. Analysis of cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments in the range of 3.0 to 6.0 V shows that the capacitance of the electrochemical double-layer increased irreversibly beginning at potentials as low as 3.5 V. These changes resulted from nonfaradaic interactions, and were not due to oxidative electrochemical decomposition of the electrode and electrolyte, anion intercalation, nor caused by the presence of water, a common impurity in organic electrolyte solutions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed that increasing the potential of a bare GC surface from 3.0 to 4.5 V resulted in a 6× increase in roughness, in good agreement with the changes in double-layer capacitance. Treating the GC surface via exposure to trichloromethylsilane vapors resulted in a stable double-layer capacitance between 3.0 and 4.5 V, and this treatment also correlated with less roughening. These results inform future efforts aimed at controlling surface composition and morphology of carbon electrodes.

  2. Early Stage Anodic Instability of Glassy Carbon Electrodes in Propylene Carbonate Solvent Containing Lithium Hexafluorophosphate

    DOE PAGES

    Carino, Emily V.; Newman, Daniel J.; Connell, Justin G.; ...

    2017-09-19

    In this paper, irreversible changes to the morphology of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes at potentials between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs Li/Li + in propylene carbonate (PC) solvent containing lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6) are reported. Analysis of cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments in the range of 3.0 to 6.0 V shows that the capacitance of the electrochemical double -layer increased irreversibly beginning at potentials as low as 3.5 V. These changes resulted from nonfaradaic interactions, and were not due to oxidative electrochemical decomposition of the electrode and electrolyte, anion intercalation, nor caused by the presence of water, a common impurity inmore » organic electrolyte solutions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed that increasing the potential of a bare GC surface from 3.0 to 4.5 V resulted in a 6X increase in roughness, in good agreement with the changes in double -layer capacitance. Treating the GC surface via exposure to trichloromethylsilane vapors resulted in a stable double -layer capacitance between 3.0 and 4.5 V, and this treatment also correlated with less roughening. Lastly, these results inform future efforts aimed at controlling surface composition and morphology of carbon electrodes.« less

  3. Natural sweeteners in a human diet.

    PubMed

    Grembecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Sweeteners, both natural and artificial, play an important role in a human diet as well as are of great importance to the food industry and dieticians. Many people associate sweet taste with sucrose, which is commonly known as table sugar. However, there are many sweet substances that food manufacturers add to food products because none of them is ideal for all applications. Besides sucrose there are also other sugars such as glucose and fructose that originate both from natural sources such as fruits and honey or from added sugars. Among sweeteners there are also compounds which have a sweet taste and contain no calories or those which sweetness is so intense so can be used at very low concentrations, thus, their impact on the total caloric value of the product is negligible. They can be classified due to their origin (natural or synthetic agents), the technological function (sweeteners and fillers), texture (powders and syrups), and nutritional value (caloric and non-caloric). Natural sweetening substances include carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, thaumatin and stevia. Besides providing well tasting foods, they might have an impact on products' texture, color, preservation and caloric value. Sugar alcohols, which belong to carbohydrates, are both natural sugar substitutes and food additives. They are becoming more and more popular among consumers mainly due to their lower caloric values and glycemic indexes as well as anticariogenic effects. Sugar alcohols are often combined with other sweeteners to enhance food products' sweetness. Stevia, which is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, is a non caloric substance whereas thaumatin, a sweet protein, provides 4 kcal/g but characterizes with sweetness about 2000 times higher than sucrose (on a weight basis).

  4. Astronomical Constraints on the Duration of Early Jurassic Stages and Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hinnov, L.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Storm, M.; Xu, W.; Riding, J. B.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic (201.3 to 174.1 Ma) is bracketed by the end-Triassic mass extinction and global warming event, and the Toarcian-Aalenian shift to (global) icehouse conditions (McElwain et al., 1999; Hesselbo et al., 2002; Ruhl et al., 2011; Korte et al., in review). It is further marked by the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), with possibly the largest exogenic carbon cycle perturbation of the Mesozoic and related perturbations in global geochemical cycles, climate and the environment, which are linked to large igneous province emplacement in the Karoo-Ferrar region (Jenkyns, 2010; Burgess et al., 2015). Furthermore, Early Jurassic continental rifting and the break-up of Pangaea and subsequent Early Jurassic opening of the Hispanic Corridor and Viking Strait respectively linked the equatorial Tethys Ocean to Eastern Panthalassa and the high-latitude Arctic Boreal realm. This initiated changes in (global) ocean currents and Earth's heat distribution and ultimately was followed by the opening of the proto-North Atlantic (Porter et al., 2013; Korte et al., in review). Here, we present high-resolution (sub-precession scale) elemental concentration data from the Mochras borehole (UK), which represents ~1300m of possibly the most complete and expanded lower Jurassic hemi-pelagic marine sedimentary archive known. We construct a floating ~9 Myr astronomical time-scale for the complete Early Jurassic Pliensbachian stage and biozones. Combined with radiometric and astrochronological constraints on early Jurassic stage boundaries, we construct a new Early Jurassic Time-Scale. With this we assess the duration and rate of change of early Jurassic global carbon cycle and climatic perturbations and we asses fundamental changes in the nature and expression of Early Jurassic long (100 - 1000 kyr) eccentricity cycles.

  5. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Carbon Nanoparticles in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianping; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Xia; Yan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carbon nanoparticles have a strong affinity for the lymphatic system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy using carbon nanoparticles in early breast cancer and to optimize the application procedure. Methods Firstly, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the optimized condition using carbon nanoparticles for sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) detection by investigating 36 clinically node negative breast cancer patients. In subsequent prospective study, 83 patients with clinically node negative breast cancer were included to evaluate SLNs using carbon nanoparticles. Another 83 SLNs were detected by using blue dye. SLNs detection parameters were compared between the methods. All patients irrespective of the SLNs status underwent axillary lymph node dissection for verification of axillary node status after the SLN biopsy. Results In pilot study, a 1 ml carbon nanoparticles suspension used 10–15min before surgery was associated with the best detection rate. In subsequent prospective study, with carbon nanoparticles, the identification rate, accuracy, false negative rate was 100%, 96.4%, 11.1%, respectively. The identification rate and accuracy were 88% and 95.5% with 15.8% of false negative rate using blue dye technique. The use of carbon nanoparticles suspension showed significantly superior results in identification rate (p = 0.001) and reduced false-negative results compared with blue dye technique. Conclusion Our study demonstrated feasibility and accuracy of using carbon nanoparticles for SLNs mapping in breast cancer patients. Carbon nanoparticles are useful in SLNs detection in institutions without access to radioisotope. PMID:26296136

  6. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and age at menarche in a prospective study of US girls.

    PubMed

    Carwile, J L; Willett, W C; Spiegelman, D; Hertzmark, E; Rich-Edwards, J; Frazier, A L; Michels, K B

    2015-03-01

    Is sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption associated with age at menarche? More frequent SSB consumption was associated with earlier menarche in a population of US girls. SSB consumption is associated with metabolic changes that could potentially impact menarcheal timing, but direct associations with age at menarche have yet to be investigated. The Growing up Today Study, a prospective cohort study of 16 875 children of Nurses' Health Study II participants residing in all 50 US states. This analysis followed 5583 girls, aged 9-14 years and premenarcheal at baseline, between 1996 and 2001. During 10 555 person-years of follow-up, 94% (n = 5227) of girls reported their age at menarche, and 3% (n = 159) remained premenarcheal in 2001; 4% (n = 197) of eligible girls were censored, primarily for missing age at menarche. Cumulative updated SSB consumption (composed of non-carbonated fruit drinks, sugar-sweetened soda and iced tea) was calculated using annual Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaires from 1996 to 1998. Age at menarche was self-reported annually. The association between SSB consumption and age at menarche was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. More frequent SSB consumption predicted earlier menarche. At any given age between 9 and 18.5 years, premenarcheal girls who reported consuming >1.5 servings of SSBs per day were, on average, 24% more likely [95% confidence interval (CI): 13, 36%; P-trend: <0.001] to attain menarche in the next month relative to girls consuming ≤2 servings of SSBs weekly, adjusting for potential confounders including height, but not BMI (considered an intermediate). Correspondingly, girls consuming >1.5 SSBs daily had an estimated 2.7-month earlier menarche (95% CI: -4.1, -1.3 months) relative to those consuming ≤2 SSBs weekly. The frequency of non-carbonated fruit drink (P-trend: 0.03) and sugar-sweetened soda (P-trend: 0.001), but not iced tea (P-trend: 0.49), consumption also predicted earlier

  7. Warming early Mars with carbon dioxide clouds that scatter infrared radiation.

    PubMed

    Forget, F; Pierrehumbert, R T

    1997-11-14

    Geomorphic evidence that Mars was warm enough to support flowing water about 3.8 billion years ago presents a continuing enigma that cannot be explained by conventional greenhouse warming mechanisms. Model calculations show that the surface of early Mars could have been warmed through a scattering variant of the greenhouse effect, resulting from the ability of the carbon dioxide ice clouds to reflect the outgoing thermal radiation back to the surface. This process could also explain how Earth avoided an early irreversible glaciation and could extend the size of the habitable zone on extrasolar planets around stars.

  8. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.

    1989-01-01

    The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

  9. Effects of early sea-floor processes on the taphonomy of temperate shelf skeletal carbonate deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Nelson, Campbell S.

    2003-10-01

    Cool-water shelf carbonates differ from tropical carbonates in their sources, modes, and rates of deposition, geochemistry, and diagenesis. Inorganic precipitation, marine cementation, and sediment accumulation rates are absent or slow in cool waters, so that temperate carbonates remain longer at or near the sea bed. Early sea-floor processes, occurring between biogenic calcification and ultimate deposition, thus take on an important role, and there is the potential for considerable taphonomic loss of skeletal information into the fossilised record of cool-water carbonate deposits. The physical breakdown processes of dissociation, breakage, and abrasion are mediated mainly by hydraulic regime, and are always destructive. Impact damage reduces the size of grains, removes structure and therefore information, and ultimately may transform skeletal material into anonymous particles. Abrasion is highly selective amongst and within taxa, their skeletal form and structure strongly influencing resistance to mechanical breakdown. Dissolution and precipitation are the end-members of a two-way chemical equilibrium operating in sea water. In cool waters, inorganic precipitation is rare. There is conflicting opinion about the importance of diagenetic dissolution of carbonate skeletons on the temperate sea floor, but test maceration and early loss of aragonite in particular are reported. Dissolution may relate to undersaturated acidic pore waters generated locally by a combination of microbial metabolisation of organic matter, strong bioturbation, and oxidation of solid phase sulphides immediately beneath the sea floor in otherwise very slowly accumulating skeletal deposits. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that surface-to-volume ratio and skeletal mineralogy are both important in determining skeletal resistance to dissolution. Biological processes on the sea floor include encrustation and bioerosion. Encrustation, a constructive process, may be periodic or seasonal, and can be

  10. Early Results from the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, David; Eldering, Annmarie

    2015-04-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is NASA's first satellite designed to collect the measurements needed to estimate the column-averaged carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction, XCO2, with the sensitivity, accuracy, and resolution needed to characterize the CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales over the globe. OCO-2 was successfully launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on July 2, 2014 and joined the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train) on August 3, 2014. The three-channel imaging grating spectrometer was then cooled to its operating temperatures and a comprehensive series of characterization and calibration activities were initiated. Since early October 2014, the observatory has been routinely collecting almost 1 million soundings over the sunlit hemisphere each day. Early cloud screening results indicate that 15-30% of these measurements may be sufficiently cloud free to yield precise estimates of XCO2. Initial deliveries of calibrated, geo-located OCO-2 spectra to the NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) began on December 30, 2014. Preliminary estimates of XCO2 retrieved from these data are currently being validated against observations from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and other standards. Routine deliveries XCO2 and other products, including surface pressure and chlorophyll fluorescence, to the GES DISC are expected to begin before the end of March, 2015. This presentation will summarize the status of the OCO-2 mission and the coverage, resolution, and accuracy of its early results.

  11. Carbon dioxide sources from Alaska driven by increasing early winter respiration from Arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Benmergui, Joshua; Luus, Kristina A; Chang, Rachel Y-W; Daube, Bruce C; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Henderson, John M; Karion, Anna; Miller, John B; Miller, Scot M; Parazoo, Nicholas C; Randerson, James T; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter; Thoning, Kirk; Veraverbeke, Sander; Miller, Charles E; Wofsy, Steven C

    2017-05-23

    High-latitude ecosystems have the capacity to release large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to the atmosphere in response to increasing temperatures, representing a potentially significant positive feedback within the climate system. Here, we combine aircraft and tower observations of atmospheric CO 2 with remote sensing data and meteorological products to derive temporally and spatially resolved year-round CO 2 fluxes across Alaska during 2012-2014. We find that tundra ecosystems were a net source of CO 2 to the atmosphere annually, with especially high rates of respiration during early winter (October through December). Long-term records at Barrow, AK, suggest that CO 2 emission rates from North Slope tundra have increased during the October through December period by 73% ± 11% since 1975, and are correlated with rising summer temperatures. Together, these results imply increasing early winter respiration and net annual emission of CO 2 in Alaska, in response to climate warming. Our results provide evidence that the decadal-scale increase in the amplitude of the CO 2 seasonal cycle may be linked with increasing biogenic emissions in the Arctic, following the growing season. Early winter respiration was not well simulated by the Earth System Models used to forecast future carbon fluxes in recent climate assessments. Therefore, these assessments may underestimate the carbon release from Arctic soils in response to a warming climate.

  12. Carbon dioxide sources from Alaska driven by increasing early winter respiration from Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Benmergui, Joshua; Luus, Kristina A.; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Daube, Bruce C.; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Henderson, John M.; Karion, Anna; Miller, John B.; Miller, Scot M.; Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Randerson, James T.; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter; Thoning, Kirk; Veraverbeke, Sander; Miller, Charles E.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2017-05-01

    High-latitude ecosystems have the capacity to release large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere in response to increasing temperatures, representing a potentially significant positive feedback within the climate system. Here, we combine aircraft and tower observations of atmospheric CO2 with remote sensing data and meteorological products to derive temporally and spatially resolved year-round CO2 fluxes across Alaska during 2012-2014. We find that tundra ecosystems were a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere annually, with especially high rates of respiration during early winter (October through December). Long-term records at Barrow, AK, suggest that CO2 emission rates from North Slope tundra have increased during the October through December period by 73% ± 11% since 1975, and are correlated with rising summer temperatures. Together, these results imply increasing early winter respiration and net annual emission of CO2 in Alaska, in response to climate warming. Our results provide evidence that the decadal-scale increase in the amplitude of the CO2 seasonal cycle may be linked with increasing biogenic emissions in the Arctic, following the growing season. Early winter respiration was not well simulated by the Earth System Models used to forecast future carbon fluxes in recent climate assessments. Therefore, these assessments may underestimate the carbon release from Arctic soils in response to a warming climate.

  13. Carbon dioxide sources from Alaska driven by increasing early winter respiration from Arctic tundra

    PubMed Central

    Lindaas, Jakob; Benmergui, Joshua; Luus, Kristina A.; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Daube, Bruce C.; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Karion, Anna; Miller, John B.; Miller, Scot M.; Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Randerson, James T.; Sweeney, Colm; Thoning, Kirk; Veraverbeke, Sander; Miller, Charles E.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems have the capacity to release large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere in response to increasing temperatures, representing a potentially significant positive feedback within the climate system. Here, we combine aircraft and tower observations of atmospheric CO2 with remote sensing data and meteorological products to derive temporally and spatially resolved year-round CO2 fluxes across Alaska during 2012–2014. We find that tundra ecosystems were a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere annually, with especially high rates of respiration during early winter (October through December). Long-term records at Barrow, AK, suggest that CO2 emission rates from North Slope tundra have increased during the October through December period by 73% ± 11% since 1975, and are correlated with rising summer temperatures. Together, these results imply increasing early winter respiration and net annual emission of CO2 in Alaska, in response to climate warming. Our results provide evidence that the decadal-scale increase in the amplitude of the CO2 seasonal cycle may be linked with increasing biogenic emissions in the Arctic, following the growing season. Early winter respiration was not well simulated by the Earth System Models used to forecast future carbon fluxes in recent climate assessments. Therefore, these assessments may underestimate the carbon release from Arctic soils in response to a warming climate. PMID:28484001

  14. Footwall progradation in syn-rift carbonate platform-slope systems (Early Jurassic, Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbi, Simone; Santantonio, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    The so-called Umbria-Marche Domain of Northern Apennines represents a vast depositional system, also stretching across the Adriatic Sea subsurface, that was characterized by dominantly pelagic sedimentation through most of its Jurassic to Oligocene/Early Miocene history. The pelagic succession is underlain by Hettangian shallow-water carbonates (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), constituting a regional carbonate platform that was subjected to tectonic extension due to rifting of the Adria/African Plate in the earliest Jurassic. While tectonic subsidence of the hangingwalls drove the drowning of the platform around the Hettangian/Sinemurian boundary, the production of benthic carbonate on footwall blocks continued parallel to faulting, through a sequence of facies that was abruptly terminated by drowning and development of condensed pelagites in the early Pliensbachian. By then rifting had ceased, so that the Pliensbachian to Early Cretaceous hangingwall deposits represent a post-rift basin-fill succession onlapping the tectonically-generated escarpment margins of the highs. During the early phases of syndepositional faulting, the carbonate factories of footwall blocks were still temporarily able to fill part of the accommodation space produced by the normal faults by prograding into the incipient basins. In this paper we describe for the first time a relatively low-angle (< 10°) clinoform bed package documenting such an ephemeral phase of lateral growth of a carbonate factory. The clinoforms are sigmoidal, and form low-relief (maximum 5-7 m) bodies representing a shallow-water slope that was productive due to development of a Lithocodium-dominated factory. Continued faulting and hangingwall subsidence then decoupled the slope from the platform top, halting the growth of clinoforms and causing the platform margin to switch from accretionary to bypass mode as the pre-rift substrate became exposed along a submarine fault escarpment. The downfaulted clinoform slope was then

  15. Diet and mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: a study of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Hakenbeck, Susanne; McManus, Ellen; Geisler, Hans; Grupe, Gisela; O'Connell, Tamsin

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates patterns of mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria through a combined study of diet and associated burial practice. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were analyzed in human bone samples from the Late Roman cemetery of Klettham and from the Early Medieval cemeteries of Altenerding and Straubing-Bajuwarenstrasse. For dietary comparison, samples of faunal bone from one Late Roman and three Early Medieval settlement sites were also analyzed. The results indicate that the average diet was in keeping with a landlocked environment and fairly limited availability of freshwater or marine resources. The diet appears not to have changed significantly from the Late Roman to the Early Medieval period. However, in the population of Altenerding, there were significant differences in the diet of men and women, supporting a hypothesis of greater mobility among women. Furthermore, the isotopic evidence from dietary outliers is supported by "foreign" grave goods and practices, such as artificial skull modification. These results reveal the potential of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis for questions regarding migration and mobility. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Noncaloric Sweeteners in Children: A Controversial Theme

    PubMed Central

    Escobar Contreras, Ma. Cristina; Rojas Gómez, Diana; de Assis Costa, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Noncaloric sweeteners (NCS) are food additives used to provide sweetness without adding calories. Their consumption has become more widespread around the world in all age groups, including children. The aim of this study is to show the state of the art about the intake of noncaloric sweeteners in children, as well as their benefits and consumption risk. Scientific searchers were used (PUBMED, Scopus, and Scielo) to analyze articles that included keywords (noncaloric sweeteners/saccharin/cyclamate/acesulfame potassium/aspartame/sucralose/stevia/children) in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Authors conclude that it is imperative that health professionals judiciously and individually evaluate the overall benefits and risks of NCS use in consumers before recommending their use. Different subgroups of the population incorporate products containing NCS in their diet with different objectives, which should be considered when recommending a diet plan for the consumer. In childhood, in earlier age groups, this type of additives should be used as a dietary alternative when other forms of prevention in obesity are not sufficient. PMID:29511682

  17. Non-nutritive sweeteners: review and update.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Padmini; Ahuja, Suman; Sriram, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic, not just in the United States, but also across the globe. Obesity is a result of many factors including poor dietary habits, inadequate physical activity, hormonal issues, and sedentary lifestyle, as well as many psychological issues. Direct and indirect costs associated with obesity-related morbidity and mortality have been estimated to be in the billions of dollars. Of the many avenues for treatment, dietary interventions are the most common. Numerous diets have been popularized in the media, with most being fads having little to no scientific evidence to validate their effectiveness. Amidst this rise of weight loss diets, there has been a surge of individual products advertised as assuring quick weight loss; one such product group is non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). Sugar, a common component of our diet, is also a major contributing factor to a number of health problems, including obesity and increased dental diseases both in adults and children. Most foods marketed towards children are sugar-laden. Obesity-related health issues, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension, once only commonly seen in older adults, are increasing in youth. Manufacturers of NNS are using this as an opportunity to promote their products, and are marketing them as safe for all ages. A systematic review of several databases and reliable websites on the internet was conducted to identify literature related to NNS. Keywords that were used individually or in combination included, but were not limited to, artificial sweeteners, non-nutritive sweeteners, non-caloric sweeteners, obesity, sugar substitutes, diabetes, and cardiometabolic indicators. The clinical and epidemiologic data available at present are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the benefits of NNS in displacing caloric sweeteners as related to energy balance, maintenance or decrease in body weight, and other cardiometabolic risk factors

  18. Building the Next Generation of Earth Scientists: the Deep Carbon Observatory Early Career Scientist Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, K.; Fellowes, J.; Giovannelli, D.; Stagno, V.

    2016-12-01

    Building a network of collaborators and colleagues is a key professional development activity for early career scientists (ECS) dealing with a challenging job market. At large conferences, young scientists often focus on interacting with senior researchers, competing for a small number of positions in leading laboratories. However, building a strong, international network amongst their peers in related disciplines is often as valuable in the long run. The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) began funding a series of workshops in 2014 designed to connect early career researchers within its extensive network of multidisciplinary scientists. The workshops, by design, are by and for early career scientists, thus removing any element of competition and focusing on peer-to-peer networking, collaboration, and creativity. The successful workshops, organized by committees of early career deep carbon scientists, have nucleated a lively community of like-minded individuals from around the world. Indeed, the organizers themselves often benefit greatly from the leadership experience of pulling together an international workshop on budget and on deadline. We have found that a combination of presentations from all participants in classroom sessions, professional development training such as communication and data management, and field-based relationship building and networking is a recipe for success. Small groups within the DCO ECS network have formed; publishing papers together, forging new research directions, and planning novel and ambitious field campaigns. Many DCO ECS also have come together to convene sessions at major international conferences, including the AGU Fall Meeting. Most of all, there is a broad sense of camaraderie and accessibility within the DCO ECS Community, providing the foundation for a career in the new, international, and interdisciplinary field of deep carbon science.

  19. Effectiveness of potassium carbonate sesquihydrate to increase dietary cation-anion difference in early lactation cows.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J; White, R; Kincaid, R; Block, E; Jenkins, T; St-Pierre, N

    2012-07-01

    The effect of additional dietary potassium in early lactation dairy cows was evaluated with the addition of potassium carbonate sesquihydrate, which increased dietary K from 1.3 to 2.1% of dry matter (DM) from wk 3 to 12 of lactation. Cows fed potassium carbonate sesquihydrate in the form of DCAD Plus (Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) had increased DM intake, milk fat percentage and yield, energy-corrected milk, and efficiency of milk production per unit of DM intake. Milk fat of cows fed higher dietary K had a lower concentration of trans fatty acids, suggesting a role for potassium carbonate sesquihydrate in the rumen in the biohydrogenation processes converting linoleic to stearic acid. Cows fed the diet with 2.1% K had greater apparent balance of K, and no effects were noted on the concentration of blood Mg or amount of fecal Mg. The data support the feeding of greater amounts of K in the early lactation cow. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New insights into the early stages of silica-controlled barium carbonate crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiblmeier, Josef; Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Gebauer, Denis; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism.Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures

  1. Differences in carbon source usage by dental plaque in children with and without early childhood caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Wen-Jie; Xun, Zhe; Zhang, Qian; Song, Ye-Qing; Liu, Yun-Song; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a considerable pediatric and public health problem worldwide. Preceding studies have focused primarily on bacterial diversity at the taxonomic level. Although these studies have provided significant information regarding the connection between dental caries and oral microbiomes, further comprehension of this microbial community’s ecological relevance is limited. This study identified the carbon source metabolic differences in dental plaque between children with and without ECC. We compared the microbial community functional diversity in 18 caries-free subjects with 18 severe ECC patients based on sole carbon source usage using a Biolog assay. The anaerobic microbial community in the ECC patients displayed greater metabolic activity than that of the control group. Specific carbon source metabolism differed significantly between the two groups. Subjects from the two groups were well distinguished by cluster and principal component analyses based on discriminative carbon sources. Our results implied that the microbial functional diversity between the ECC patients and healthy subjects differed significantly. In addition, the Biolog assay furthered our understanding of oral microbiomes as a composite of functional abilities, thus enabling us to identify the ecologically relevant functional differences among oral microbial communities.

  2. Sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose and other sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Fujimaru, Tomomi; Park, Jin-Hee; Lim, Juyun

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated the sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose, an emerging natural low-calorie sweetener with various functional properties, compared to other sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, rebaudioside A), over a wide range of sweetness commonly found in foods and beverages (3% to 20% sucrose [w/v]). A total of 34 subjects evaluated aqueous solutions of the 5 sweeteners for the perceived intensities of sweetness, bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations, and sweet aftertaste, using the general version of the Labeled Magnitude Scale. The relationship between the physical concentrations of the sweeteners and their perceived sweetness (that is, psychophysical functions) was derived to quantify the relative sweetness and potency of the sweeteners. The results suggest that tagatose elicits a sweet taste without undesirable qualities (bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations). Out of the 5 sweeteners tested, rebaudioside A was the only sweetener with notable bitterness and chemical-like sensations, which became progressively intense with increasing concentration (P < 0.001). In terms of perceived sweetness intensity, the bulk sweeteners (tagatose, erythritol, sucrose) had similar sweetness growth rates (slopes > 1), whereas the high-potency sweeteners (sucralose, rebaudioside A) yielded much flatter sweetness functions (slopes < 1). Because the sweetness of tagatose and sucrose grew at near-identical rates (slope = 1.41 and 1.40, respectively), tagatose produced about the same relative sweetness to sucrose across the concentrations tested. However, the relative sweetness of other sweeteners to sucrose was highly concentration dependent. Consequently, sweetness potencies of other sweeteners varied across the concentrations tested, ranging from 0.50 to 0.78 for erythritol, 220 to 1900 for sucralose, and 300 to 440 for rebaudioside A, while tagatose was estimated to be approximately 0.90 times as potent as

  3. Geochemical characteristics and early diagenesis of recent carbonate mound sediments in the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaekers, Helen; Foubert, Anneleen; Wienberg, Claudia; Hebbeln, Dierk; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds occur in patches along the continental margin of the North Atlantic Ocean, from northern Norway down to Mauretania. Recent research has been focused on carbonate mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz, especially along the Moroccan margin. The Pen Duick, the Renard and the Vernadsky carbonate mound provinces in the Gulf of Cádiz are only some of the mound provinces which have been the subject of several recent research projects (Foubert et al., 2008; Wienberg et al., 2009). No living scleractinians could be found on top of those carbonate mounds. During cruise 64PE284 of RV Pelagia, gravity cores have been taken through carbonate mounds in the Carbonate Mound Provinces (CMP) SE of Yuma mud volcano and N of Meknes mud volcano. These cores have been analysed by several methods such as Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the geochemical characteristics of carbonate mounds, which can be used to quantify the effects of early diagenetic processes which may have altered the palaeo-environmental characteristics of the carbonate mounds. Dating has been done with 14C and U/Th methods pointing to mound growth phases being restricted to glacial periods. XRF and ICP-OES measurements give both qualitative and quantitative data of the chemical composition of the core. The main elements that have been analysed are Ca, Si, Fe, Sr, Al, K, Mg, Ti. According to the trend they follow, they can be devided in two groups, representative for the two encountered fraction types. These two fraction types (biogenic carbonate-rich fraction and terrigenous silicate-rich fraction) can be coupled to interglacial/glacial palaeo-environmental conditions. XRD measurements give an overview of the mineralogical composition of the cores. Thin sections, analysed by cathodeluminescence and classical optical petrography, and micro-CT scans are used to

  4. [Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among 18 years old and over adults in 2010-2012 in China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Haijun; Zhao, Liyun; Xu, Xiaoli; Yu, Wentao; Ju, Lahong; Yu, Dongmei

    2018-01-01

    To investigate consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among Chinese adults in 2010-2012. Data was collected from Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance: 2010-2012. Multi-stage stratified random cluster and probability proportionate sampling method was used, and 45 203 respondents aged 18 and over from 150 sites of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities were involved in the analysis. The consumption rate of sugar-sweetened beverages, distribution of the classification of the consumption frequency and percentage of variety beverages consumption frequency were calculated. There were 50. 1% of Chinese adults in2010-2012 consuming sugar-sweetened beverages, men and women were 49. 2% and 50. 8%, for age groups of 18-44, 45-59 and 60 and over, the consumption rates were65. 4% %, 47. 0% % 36. 3%, respectively. The prevalence in cities was 49. 0% and in counties was 51. 3%. The rate of consuming 1 time/week and over was 15. 3% and consuming 1 time/day was 1. 3%. As the economical level decreased, the two rates decreased. Carbonated beverages had the highest consumption frequency( 39. 8%), and the lactic acid beverages had the lowest( 10. 8%). Consumption of carbonated beverages in men( 44. 8%) was higher than that in women( 35. 3%), while for the fruit and vegetable juice, lactic acid beverages, disposable milk beverages and coffee, the consumption in women were higher than that in men. As the economical level decreased, consumption of carbonated and disposable milk beverages were increasing, and lactic acid beverages and coffee were decreasing significantly. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among adults in 2010-2012 was relatively high. The targeted nutrition health education and intervention was needed and implemented to decrease the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  5. The effects of early diagenesis on the chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of wood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of modern and ancient buried wood show that there is a linear correlation between carbohydrate content and the stable carbon isotope composition as carbohydrates are preferentially degraded during early diagenesis. As the carbohydrate content decreases, the ??13C value of the degraded wood decreases 1 to 2 per mil, approaching the value of the residual lignin. These results indicate that carbohydrate degradation products are lost and not incorporated into the aromatic structure as lignin is selectively preserved during early diagenesis of wood. These results also indicate that attempts to quantify terrestrial inputs to modern sedimentary organic matter based on ??13C values should consider the possibility of a 1 to 2 per mil decrease in the ??13C value of degraded wood. ?? 1987.

  6. Antiglycating potential of acesulfame potassium: an artificial sweetener.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad; More, Tejashree Anil; Hoonjan, Amaritpal Kaur; Sivakami, Subramanian

    2017-10-01

    Sweeteners have replaced the natural sugars in the food and beverage industry because of many reasons, such as hyperglycemia and cost. Saccharin, sucralose, aspartame and acesulfame-K are the most commonly used sweeteners. In the present study, the abovementioned artificial sweeteners were used to assess their glycating properties by established methods such as browning, fructosamine assay, determination of carbonyl content, protein aggregation, and measurement of fluorescence. Amadori and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed as a result of the interaction between carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins and other macromolecules during glycation. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of artificial sweeteners on the formation of AGEs and protein oxidation in an in vitro model of glucose-mediated protein glycation. The results indicated that the abovementioned artificial sweeteners do not enhance the process of glycation. On the other hand, acesulfame-K was found to have antiglycating potential as it caused decreased formation of Amadori products and AGEs. Further studies are essential in the characterization of Amadori products and AGEs produced as a result of interaction between sweeteners and proteins, which are interfered with by sweeteners. This study is significant in understanding the probable role of artificial sweeteners in the process of glycation and the subsequent effect on macromolecular alteration.

  7. Degradation of artificial sweeteners via direct and indirect photochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Perkola, Noora; Vaalgamaa, Sanna; Jernberg, Joonas; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2016-07-01

    We studied the direct and indirect photochemical reactivity of artificial sweeteners acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose in environm entally relevant dilute aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions of sweeteners were irradiated with simulated solar radiation (>290 nm; 96 and 168 h) or ultraviolet radiation (UVR; up to 24 h) for assessing photochemical reactions in surface waters or in water treatment, respectively. The sweeteners were dissolved in deionised water for examination of direct photochemical reactions. Direct photochemical reactions degraded all sweeteners under UVR but only acesulfame under simulated solar radiation. Acesulfame was degraded over three orders of magnitude faster than the other sweeteners. For examining indirect photochemical reactions, the sweeteners were dissolved in surface waters with indigenous dissolved organic matter or irradiated with aqueous solutions of nitrate (1 mg N/L) and ferric iron (2.8 mg Fe/L) introduced as sensitizers. Iron enhanced the photodegradation rates but nitrate and dissolved organic matter did not. UVR transformed acesulfame into at least three products: iso-acesulfame, hydroxylated acesulfame and hydroxypropanyl sulfate. Photolytic half-life was one year for acesulfame and more than several years for the other sweeteners in surface waters under solar radiation. Our study shows that the photochemical reactivity of commonly used artificial sweeteners is variable: acesulfame may be sensitive to photodegradation in surface waters, while saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose degrade very slowly even under the energetic UVR commonly used in water treatment.

  8. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, K; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F

    2007-06-08

    We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The sample included 3265 men and women, and their 12-year old children, originating from Swedish national databases. Associations to younger age and lower education in adults were in particular apparent for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was further associated to less restrained and more external eating in adults. In contrast, light soft drinks were associated with higher BMI, more restrained eating and also more emotional eating in adults. For the children these associations were generally weaker. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are consumed by persons with a lower education, who furthermore are less prone to attempt to restrict their calorie intake, and by some of those who are sensitive to external stimuli of foods. Light soft drinks are rather chosen by the more heavy persons who try to restrict their energy intake perhaps in order to control the body weight, and more unexpectedly, by adults who eat for comfort. Being more sensitive to an external stimulus of food such as taste seems to imply proneness to consume sugar-sweetened soft drinks instead of the light versions. Light soft drinks may be perceived as an adequate substitute in the use of foods for comfort, meaning the sweet taste may be sufficient for this purpose.

  9. [Artificial sweeteners and diabetes: friends or foes?].

    PubMed

    Tran, Christel; Jornayvaz, François R

    2015-06-03

    Sugary drinks consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thereby, artificial sweeteners (AS) consumption became increasingly popular and were introduced largely in our diet in order to reduce calorie intake and normalise blood glucose levels without altering our taste for "sweetness". However, the results of published studies on health outcomes secondary to AS intake, including type 2 diabetes risk, are inconsistent. The aim of this article is to focus on the role of AS in glucose homeostasis and diabetes onset.

  10. Early Implementation of Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Removal Projects through the Cement Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    The development of large-scale carbon dioxide reduction projects requires high purity CO2and a reactive cation source. A project seeking to provide both of these requirements will likely face cost barriers with current carbon prices. The cement industry is a suitable early implementation site for such projects by virtue of the properties of its exhaust gases and those of waste concrete. Cement plants are the second largest source of industrial CO2 emissions, globally. It is also the second largest commodity after water, has no ready substitute and is literally the foundation of society. Finally, half of the CO2 emissions originate from process reactions rather than fossil fuel combustion resulting in higher flue gas CO2concentrations. These properties, with the co-benefits of oxygen combustion, create a favorable environment for spatially suitable projects. Oxygen combustion involves substituting produced oxygen for air in a combustion reaction. The absence of gaseous N2 necessitates the recirculation of exhaust gases to maintain kiln temperatures, which increase the CO2 concentrations from 28% to 80% or more. Gas exit temperatures are also elevated (>300oC) and can reach higher temperatures if the multi stage pre-heater towers, that recover heat, are re-designed in light of FGR. A ready source of cations can be found in waste concrete, a by-product of construction and demolition activities. These wastes can be processed to remove cations and then reacted with atmospheric CO2 to produce carbonate minerals. While not carbon negative, they represent a demonstration opportunity for binding atmospheric CO2while producing a saleable product (precipitated calcium carbonate). This paper will present experimental results on PCC production from waste concrete along with modeling results for oxygen combustion at cement facilities. The results will be presented with a view to mineral sequestration process design and implementation.

  11. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of obesity-related cancers.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Allison M; Bassett, Julie K; Milne, Roger L; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G

    2018-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks would be associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. Associations for artificially sweetened soft drinks were assessed for comparison. Prospective cohort study with cancers identified by linkage to cancer registries. At baseline, participants completed a 121-item FFQ including separate questions about the number of times in the past year they had consumed sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened soft drinks. Anthropometric measurements, including waist circumference, were taken and questions about smoking, leisure-time physical activity and intake of alcoholic beverages were completed. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) is a prospective cohort study which recruited 41 514 men and women aged 40-69 years between 1990 and 1994. A second wave of data collection occurred in 2003-2007. Data for 35 593 participants who developed 3283 incident obesity-related cancers were included in the main analysis. Increasing frequency of consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks was associated with greater waist circumference at baseline. For sugar-sweetened soft drinks, the hazard ratio (HR) for obesity-related cancers increased as frequency of consumption increased (HR for consumption >1/d v. 1/d v. <1/month=1·00; 95 % CI 0·79, 1·27; P-trend=0·61). Our results add to the justification to minimise intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks.

  12. Modeling carbon-nutrient interactions during the early recovery of tundra after fire.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yueyang; Rastetter, Edward B; Rocha, Adrian V; Pearce, Andrea R; Kwiatkowski, Bonnie L; Shaver, Gaius R

    2015-09-01

    Fire frequency has dramatically increased in the tundra of northern Alaska, USA, which has major implications for the carbon budget of the region and the functioning of these ecosystems, which support important wildlife species. We investigated the postfire succession of plant and soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) fluxes and stocks along a burn severity gradient in the 2007 Anaktuvuk River fire scar in northern Alaska. Modeling results indicated that the early regrowth of postfire tundra vegetation was limited primarily by its canopy photosynthetic potential, rather than nutrient availability, because of the initially low leaf area and relatively high inorganic N and P concentrations in soil. Our simulations indicated that the postfire recovery of tundra vegetation was sustained predominantly by the uptake of residual inorganic N (i.e., in the remaining ash), and the redistribution of N and P from soil organic matter to vegetation. Although residual nutrients in ash were higher in the severe burn than the moderate burn, the moderate burn recovered faster because of the higher remaining biomass and consequent photosynthetic potential. Residual nutrients in ash allowed both burn sites to recover and exceed the unburned site in both aboveground biomass and production five years after the fire. The investigation of interactions among postfire C, N, and P cycles has contributed to a mechanistic understanding of the response of tundra ecosystems to fire disturbance. Our study provided insight on how the trajectory of recovery of tundra from wildfire is regulated during early succession.

  13. In search of early life: Carbonate veins in Archean metamorphic rocks as potential hosts of biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Carl A.; Piazolo, Sandra; Webb, Gregory E.; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; George, Simon C.

    2016-11-01

    The detection of early life signatures using hydrocarbon biomarkers in Precambrian rocks struggles with contamination issues, unspecific biomarkers and the lack of suitable sedimentary rocks due to extensive thermal overprints. Importantly, host rocks must not have been exposed to temperatures above 250 °C as at these temperatures biomarkers are destroyed. Here we show that Archean sedimentary rocks from the Jeerinah Formation (2.63 billion yrs) and Carawine Dolomite (2.55 billion yrs) of the Pilbara Craton (Western Australia) drilled by the Agouron Institute in 2012, which previously were suggested to be suitable for biomarker studies, were metamorphosed to the greenschist facies. This is higher than previously reported. Both the mineral assemblages (carbonate, quartz, Fe-chlorite, muscovite, microcline, rutile, and pyrite with absence of illite) and chlorite geothermometry suggest that the rocks were exposed to temperatures higher than 300 °C and probably ∼400 °C, consistent with greenschist-facies metamorphism. This facies leads to the destruction of any biomarkers and explains why the extraction of hydrocarbon biomarkers from pristine drill cores has not been successful. However, we show that the rocks are cut by younger formation-specific carbonate veins containing primary oil-bearing fluid inclusions and solid bitumens. Type 1 veins in the Carawine Dolomite consist of dolomite, quartz and solid bitumen, whereas type 2 veins in the Jeerinah Formation consist of calcite. Within the veins fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures and calcite twinning geothermometry indicate maximum temperatures of ∼200 °C for type 1 veins and ∼180 °C for type 2 veins. Type 1 veins have typical isotopic values for reprecipitated Archean sea-water carbonates, with δ13CVPDB ranging from - 3 ‰ to 0‰ and δ18OVPDB ranging from - 13 ‰ to - 7 ‰, while type 2 veins have isotopic values that are similar to hydrothermal carbonates, with δ13CVPDB ranging from - 18

  14. Facies interfingering and synsedimentary tectonics on late Ladinian-early Carnian carbonate platforms (Dolomites, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keim, Lorenz; Brandner, Rainer

    2001-11-01

    A stratigraphic model for carbonate platform evolution in the Dolomites during the late Ladinian-early Carnian is presented. New light on pre-Raibl growth of individual carbonate platforms of the western Dolomites was shed by biostratigraphic data combined with a revised lithostratigraphy. At the Schlern, Langkofel and Sella, the carbonate factory (Upper Schlern Dolomite) remained productive into the lowermost Carnian (Cordevolian = Aon Zone), and caused a levelling-out of the former steep platform-to-basin relief. In the eastern Dolomites, platforms were producing till basal Julian 2 (Austriacum Zone). At the Sella and Langkofel, the sedimentation pattern after deposition of the Upper Schlern Dolomite was strongly influenced by synsedimentary tectonics. A first phase of extensional tectonics led to local fissures, block-tilting, graben structures and breccia deposits. Composition and fabric of the reworked clasts argue for local-source sediments and short transport distances. The extensional structures are sealed by sediments of Lower Carnian age. Two facies belts (Schlernplateau beds and Dürrenstein Dolomite), which interfinger at the western side of the Sella, reflect the shallow marine environment with terrigenous-volcanoclastic input in the western Dolomites. A second generation of breccias at the Sella documents local fracturing of the Dürrenstein and Upper Schlern Dolomite. Depositional environments across the western and eastern Dolomites were largely dependent on differential subsidence. The sediments of early Carnian age on top of the Schlern platform are a few metres thick only, whereas, in the eastern Dolomite, up to 400-m-thick carbonate sediments ('Richthofen reef' and Settsass platform) were deposited. The most incomplete stratigraphic record is present at the Mendel platform in the west, where Ladinian volcanics are unconformably overlain by late Carnian 'Raibl beds'. The increase in sediment thickness towards the eastern Dolomites becomes partly

  15. Ecotoxicity of artificial sweeteners and stevioside.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Schebb, Nils Helge; Willenberg, Ina; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Produced, consumed and globally released into the environment in considerable quantities, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging pollutants. Studies of environmental concentrations have confirmed the widespread distribution of acesulfame (ACE), cyclamate (CYC), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SUC) in the water cycle at levels that are among the highest known for anthropogenic trace pollutants. Their ecotoxicity, however, has yet to be investigated at a larger scale. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by systematically assessing the influence of ACE, CYC and SAC and complementing the data on SUC. Therefore we examined their toxicity towards an activated sewage sludge community (30min) and applying tests with green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus (24h), water fleas Daphnia magna (48h) and duckweed Lemna minor (7d). We also examined the effects caused by the natural sweetener stevioside. The high No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) yielded by this initial evaluation indicated a low hazard and risk potential towards these aquatic organisms. For a complete risk assessment, however, several kinds of data are still lacking. In this context, obligatory ecotoxicity testing and stricter environmental regulations regarding food additives appear to be necessary. © 2013.

  16. Biological fate of low-calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Bernadene A; Carakostas, Michael C; Moore, Nadia H; Poulos, Sylvia P; Renwick, Andrew G

    2016-11-01

    With continued efforts to find solutions to rising rates of obesity and diabetes, there is increased interest in the potential health benefits of the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs). Concerns about safety often deter the use of LNCSs as a tool in helping control caloric intake, even though the safety of LNCS use has been affirmed by regulatory agencies worldwide. In many cases, an understanding of the biological fate of the different LNSCs can help health professionals to address safety concerns. The objectives of this review are to compare the similarities and differences in the chemistry, regulatory status, and biological fate (including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) of the commonly used LNCSs: acesulfame potassium, aspartame, saccharin, stevia leaf extract (steviol glycoside), and sucralose. Understanding the biological fate of the different LNCSs is helpful in evaluating whether reports of biological effects in animal studies or in humans are indicative of possible safety concerns. Illustrations of the usefulness of this information to address questions about LNCSs include discussion of systemic exposure to LNCSs, the use of sweetener combinations, and the potential for effects of LNCSs on the gut microflora. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) marine survival rates reflect early marine carbon source dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Thomas C., Jr.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Helle, John H.

    2008-05-01

    Marine survival rate (the number of adult salmon returning divided by the number of salmon fry released) of pink salmon runs propagated by Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) salmon hatcheries is highly variable resulting in large year-to-year run size variation, which ranged from ∼20 to ∼50 million during 1998-2004. Marine survival rate was hypothesized to be determined during their early marine life stage, a time period corresponding to the first growing season after entering the marine environment while they are still in coastal waters. Based on the predictable relationships of 13C/ 12C ratios in food webs and the existence of regional 13C/ 12C gradients in organic carbon, 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon were measured to test whether marine survival rate was related to food web processes. Year-to-year variation in marine survival rate was inversely correlated to 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon, but with differences among hatcheries. The weakest relationship was for pink salmon from the hatchery without historic co-variation of marine survival rate with other PWS hatcheries or wild stocks. Year-to-year variation in 13C/ 12C ratio of early marine stage pink salmon in combination with regional spatial gradients of 13C/ 12C ratio measured in zooplankton suggested that marine survival was driven by carbon subsidies of oceanic origin (i.e., oceanic zooplankton). The 2001 pink salmon cohort had 13C/ 12C ratios that were very similar to those found for PWS carbon, i.e., when oceanic subsidies were inferred to be nil, and had the lowest marine survival rate (2.6%). Conversely, the 2002 cohort had the highest marine survival (9.7%) and the lowest mean 13C/ 12C ratio. These isotope patterns are consistent with hypotheses that oceanic zooplankton subsidies benefit salmon as food subsidies, or as alternate prey for salmon predators. Oceanic subsidies are manifestations of significant exchange of material between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska. Given

  18. Dolomitization in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Platform Carbonates (Berdiga Formation), Ayralaksa Yayla (Trabzon), NE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Merve; Ziya Kırmacı, Mehmet; Kandemir, Raif

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Pontides constitute an E-W trending orogenic mountain belt that extends about 1100 km along the northern side of Turkey from the immediate east of Istanbul to the Georgian border at the east. Tectono-stratigraphically, the Pontides are divided into three different parts: Eastern, Central, and Western Pontides. The Eastern Pontides, including the studied area, comprise an area of 500 km in length and 100 km in width, extending along the southeast coast of the Black Sea from the Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak Rivers in the vicinity of Samsun to the Little Caucasus. This area is bordered by the Eastern Black Sea basin to the north and the Ankara-Erzincan Neotethyan suture zone to the south. The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platform carbonates are widely exposed in E-W direction in the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey). The Platform carbonates shows varying lithofacies changing from supratidal to platform margin reef laterally and vertically, and was buried until the end of Late Cretaceous. The studied Ayralaksa Yayla (Trabzon, NE Turkey) area comprises one of the best typical exposures of formation in northern zone of Eastern Pontides. In this area, the lower parts of the formation are pervasively dolomitized by fabric-destructive and fabric-preserving replacement dolomite which are Ca-rich and nonstoichiometric (Ca56-66Mg34-44). Replacement dolomites (Rd) are represented by D18O values of -19.0 to -4.2 (VPDB), D13C values of 4.4 to 2.1 \\permil (VPDB) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70889 to 0.70636. Petrographic and geochemical data indicate that Rd dolomites are formed prior to compaction at shallow-moderate burial depths from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous seawater and/or partly modified seawater as a result of water/rock interaction and they were recrystallized at elevated temperatures during subsequent burial. In the subsequent diagenetic process during the Late Cretaceous when the region became a magmatic arc, as a result of interaction with Early Jurassic volcanic

  19. The Effect of Early Diagenesis on the 238U/235U Ratio of Platform Carbonates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, F.; Chen, C.; Go, B. M.; Naziemiec, M.; Healy, G.; Swart, P. K.; Dauphas, N.

    2017-12-01

    In the past 15 years, the so-called non-traditional stable isotopes systems (e.g., Mg, Fe, Mo, U) have emerged as powerful tracers of both high-T and low-T geochemical processes (e.g., [1]). Of particular interest for paleoredox studies is the ratio of "stable" isotopes of U (238U/235U), which has the potential to track the global extent of oceanic anoxia (e.g., [2, 3]). Indeed, in the modern ocean, U exists in two main oxidation states, soluble U6+ and insoluble U4+, and has a mean residence time of 400 kyr ([4]), much longer than the global ocean mixing time (1-2 kyr). As such the salinity-normalized ocean is homogeneous with regards to both U concentrations and isotopes (δ238USW = -0.392±0.005 ‰, [2]). The value of δ238USW at any given time is therefore the balance between U input to the ocean, mainly from rivers, and U removal, mostly into biogenic carbonates, anoxic/euxinic sediments and suboxic/hypoxic sediments (e.g., [2, 5]). Because the 238U/235U ratio of the past ocean cannot be measured directly, it has to be estimated from the measurement of the 238U/235U ratio of a sedimentary rock and assuming a constant fractionation factor. Carbonates appear as a promising record since they span most of Earth's history, and the δ238U values of modern primary carbonate precipitates and well-preserved fossil aragonitic coral up to 600 ka are indistinguishable from that of seawater (e.g., [2, 6, 7]). Yet, the effect of secondary processes on the δ238U values of non-coral carbonates, which represent the bulk of the rock record, has only been studied in a handful of shallow samples (down to 40cm, [6]) and remains poorly understood. To investigate the effect of early diagenesis on the 238U/235U ratio of carbonates on the 30kyr to 1Myr timescale, we measured δ13C, δ18O, and δ238U in samples from a 220m long drill core from the Bahamas carbonate platform. In order to separate lattice bound U from secondary U we developed a leaching protocol applicable to carbonate

  20. The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis

  1. Climate Cycling on Early Mars Caused by the Carbonate-Silicate Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Batalha, N. E.; Haqq-Misra, J. D.; Kopparapu, R.

    2016-12-01

    For decades, scientists have tried to explain the evidence for fluvial activity on early Mars, but a consensus has yet to emerge regarding the mechanism for producing it. One hypothesis suggests early Mars was warmed by a thick greenhouse atmosphere [1]. Another suggests early Mars was generally cold but was warmed occasionally by impacts or by episodes of enhanced volcanism [2,3], with warming possibly extended by cirrus clouds [4]. These latter hypotheses struggle to produce the amounts of rainfall needed to form the martian valleys, but are consistent with inferred low rates of weathering compared to Earth. We suggest that both schools of thought are partly correct. Mars experienced dramatic climate cycles with extended periods of glaciation punctuated by warm periods lasting up to 10 Myr [5]. Cycles of repeated glaciation and deglaciation occurred because stellar insolation was low, and because CO2 outgassing could not keep pace with CO2 consumption by silicate weathering followed by deposition of carbonates. In order to deglaciate early Mars, substantial outgassing of molecular hydrogen from Mars' reduced crust and mantle was also required, as our own climate model is unable to do this without adding some greenhouse warming from H2 [6,7]. Our hypothesis can be tested by future Mars exploration that better establishes the time scale for valley formation. References: [1] Pollack JB, Kasting JF, Richardson SM, Poliakoff K. 1987. Icarus 71: 203-24 [2] Halevy I, Head JW. 2014. Nature Geoscience 7: 865-8 [3] Segura TL, Toon OB, Colaprete A, Zahnle K. 2002. Science 298: 1977-80 [4] Urata RA, Toon OB. 2013. Icarus 226: 229-50 [5] Batalha NE, Kopparapu RK, Haqq-Misra JD, Kasting JF. submitted. Climate cycling on early Mars caused by the carbonate-silicate cycle. EPSL [6] Ramirez RM, Kopparapu R, Zugger ME, Robinson TD, Freedman R, Kasting JF. 2014. Nature Geosci 7: 59-63 [7] Batalha N, Domagal-Goldman SD, Ramirez R, Kasting JF. 2015. Icarus 258: 337-49

  2. Characterization of the Types of Sweeteners Consumed in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Di Iorio, Adriana Beatriz; Lansdale, Jeffrey; Salazar, María Belén

    2018-01-01

    Sweeteners are found in all types of foods, and their high consumption is associated with chronic degenerative diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, among others. A characterization was carried out of food products with sweeteners from the three biggest supermarkets at a national level; they were identified by the list of ingredients and classified according to caloric or non-caloric intake, and pursuant to their country of origin. A statistical interpretation of results was made using descriptive measures such as the number of times the sweeteners were found in the formulation of the products and how many of them were found in a product at the same time. In total, 341 products were evaluated and classified according to the processed food categories of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) nutrient profile. The category of beverages had the highest quantity of products with sweeteners, and their consumption by the inhabitants represents a high exposure. Overall, 60.1% of the products evaluated were of US origin; these US exports have a significant impact on the Honduran market. A high-fructose corn syrup caloric sweetener was the one most frequently found in these products; at least 51% are combined with additional sweeteners to increase the sweetening effect. PMID:29534480

  3. Composition and origin of Early Cambrian Tiantaishan phosphorite-Mn carbonate ores, Shaanxi Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Fan, D.; Ye, J.; Liu, T.; Yeh, H.-W.

    1999-01-01

    The Tiantaishan phosphorite-Mn carbonate ores occur in the Early Cambrian Tananpo Formation in complexly folded and faulted rocks located in southern Shaanxi Province. About 65 x 106 tonnes of 17% P2O5 ore reserves exist and Mn-ore reserves are about 8.3 x 106 tonnes of +18% Mn. The stratigraphic sequence in ascending order consists of black phyllite, black to gray phosphorite ore, black phyllite, rhodochrostone ore, Mn mixed-carbonates, and dolostone. Data are presented from microprobe mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry, stable isotopes of carbonates, X-ray mineralogy, petrographic and SEM observations, and statistical analysis of chemical data. The dominant ore-forming minerals are hydroxy- and carbonate fluorapatite and Ca rhodochrosite, with Mg kutnahorite and dolomite comprising the Mn mixed-carbonate section. Pyrite occurs in all rock types and alabandite (MnS) occurs throughout the rhodochrostone section. The mean P2O5 content of phosphorite is 31% and argillaceous phosphorite is 16%, while the mean MnO content of rhodochrostone ore is 37%. Phosphorite ores are massive, spheroidal, laminated, and banded, while rhodochrostone ores have oolitic, spheroidal, and granular fabrics. The most distinguishing characteristics of the ores are high total organic carbon (TOC) contents (mean 8.4%) in the phosphorite and high P2O5 contents (mean 2.7%) in the rhodochrostone ore. The atypically high TOC contents in the Tiantaishan phosphorite probably result from very strong productivity leading to high sedimentation rates accompanied by weak reworking of sediments; poor utilization of the organic matter by bacteria; and/or partial replacement of bacterial or algal mats by the apatite. The depositional setting of the ores was the margin of an epicontinental seaway created as a direct consequence of global processes that included break-up of a supercontinent, formation of narrow seaways, creation of extensive continental shelves, overturn of stagnant, metal-rich deep

  4. Evolution of Cupido and Coahuila carbonate platforms, early Cretaceous, northeastern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, Christoph; Osleger, David A.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Sliter, William V.; Arnaud Vanneau, Annie; Banner, Jay L.

    1999-01-01

    The Cupido and Coahuila platforms of northeastern Mexico are part of the extensive carbonate platform system that rimmed the ancestral Gulf of Mexico during Barremian to Albian time. Exposures of Cupido and Coahuila lithofacies in several mountain ranges spanning an ∼80000 km2 area reveal information about platform morphology and composition, paleoenvironmental relations, and the chronology of platform evolution. New biostratigraphic data, integrated with carbon and strontium isotope stratigraphy, significantly improve chronostratigraphic relations across the region. These data substantially change previous age assignments of several formations and force a revision of the longstanding stratigraphy in the region. The revised stratigraphy and enhanced time control, combined with regional facies associations, allow the construction of cross sections, isopach maps, and time-slice paleogeographic maps that collectively document platform morphology and evolution.The orientation of the Cupido (Barremian-Aptian) shelf margin was controlled by the emergent Coahuila basement block to the northwest. The south-facing margin is a high-energy grainstone shoal, whereas the margin facing the ancestral Gulf of Mexico to the east is a discontinuous rudist-coral reef. A broad shelf lagoon developed in the lee of the Cupido margin, where as much as 660 m of cyclic peritidal deposits accumulated. During middle to late Aptian time, a major phase of flooding forced a retrograde backstep of the Cupido platform, shifting the locus of shallow-marine sedimentation northwestward toward the Coahuila block. This diachronous flooding event records both the demise of the Cupido shelf and the consequent initiation of the Coahuila ramp.The backstepped Coahuila ramp (Aptian-Albian) consisted of a shallow shoal margin separating an interior evaporitic lagoon from a low-energy, muddy deep ramp. More than 500 m of cyclic carbonates and evaporites accumulated in the evaporitic lagoon during early to

  5. The origin of decoupled carbonate and organic carbon isotope signatures in the early Cambrian (ca. 542-520 Ma) Yangtze platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ganqing; Wang, Xinqiang; Shi, Xiaoying; Xiao, Shuhai; Zhang, Shihong; Dong, Jin

    2012-02-01

    The early Cambrian (ca. 542-520 Ma) strata in South China record two prominent negative carbonate carbon isotope (δ13Ccarb) excursions of early Nemakit-Daldynian (N-D) and early Tommotian ages. Across each of these excursions, carbonate and organic carbon isotopes (δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg) are strongly decoupled. Regional correlation across a shelf-to-basin transect shows lateral heterogeneity of δ13Corg during the early-middle N-D but more homogenized δ13Corg values across the basin during the late N-D and Tommotian. The temporal and lateral variations in δ13Corg suggest that decoupled δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg across the N-D δ13Ccarb excursion were possibly caused by diagenetic alteration of organic matter and/or amplification of detrital organic carbon isotope signature in low-TOC carbonates. In contrast, decoupled δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg of the upper N-D and Tommotian were likely resulted from chemoautotrophic-methanotrophic biomass contribution to TOC in organic-rich black shale and carbonates. The decoupled δ13Ccarb-δ13Corg pattern from the lower N-D strata (ca. 542 Ma) shows striking similarities with those from the basal (ca. 635 Ma) and upper (ca. 551 Ma) Doushantuo Formation. In all three cases, decoupled δ13Ccarb-δ13Corg are seen in organic-poor carbonates (TOC ≤ 0.1‰) and coupled δ13Ccarb-δ13Corg occur in organic-rich black shale and carbonates at the end of the negative δ13Ccarb excursion. These similarities suggest that the shift from decoupled to coupled δ13Ccarb-δ13Corg has no causal link with the terminal oxidation of a large oceanic DOC reservoir. Given the pervasive anoxia/euxinia in Ediacaran-early Cambrian oceans, local DOC-rich environments may have been common, but a large oceanic DOC reservoir capable of buffering the δ13C of marine organic matter requires independent evidence.

  6. Bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human taste receptor for the discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Ahn, Sae Ryun; Kim, Daesan; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Simons, Christopher T; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2014-10-28

    The sense of taste helps humans to obtain information and form a picture of the world by recognizing chemicals in their environments. Over the past decade, large advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of taste detection and mimicking its capability using artificial sensor devices. However, the detection capability of previous artificial taste sensors has been far inferior to that of animal tongues, in terms of its sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we developed a bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human sweet taste receptors for the detection and discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance, where single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors were functionalized with nanovesicles containing human sweet taste receptors and used to detect the binding of sweeteners to the taste receptors. The receptors are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed of human taste receptor type 1 member 2 (hTAS1R2) and human taste receptor type 1 member 3 (hTAS1R3), which have multiple binding sites and allow a human tongue-like broad selectivity for the detection of sweeteners. This nanovesicle-based bioelectronic tongue can be a powerful tool for the detection of sweeteners as an alternative to labor-intensive and time-consuming cell-based assays and the sensory evaluation panels used in the food and beverage industry. Furthermore, this study also allows the artificial sensor to exam the functional activity of dimeric GPCRs.

  7. Psychophysical Evaluation of Sweetness Functions Across Multiple Sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Low, Julia Y.Q.; McBride, Robert L.; Lacy, Kathleen E.

    2017-01-01

    Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18–52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A). Sweetness intensity for all sweeteners was measured using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale. There were strong correlations between DT and RT of all 4 caloric sweeteners across people (r = 0.62–0.90, P < 0.001), and moderate correlations between DT and RT for both of the NNS (r = 0.39–0.48, P < 0.05); however, weaker correlations were observed between the DT or RT of the caloric sweeteners and NNS (r = 0.26–0.48, P < 0.05). The DT and RT of glucose and fructose were not correlated with DT or RT of sucralose (P > 0.05). In contrast, there were strong correlations between the sweetness intensity ratings of all sweeteners (r = 0.70–0.96, P < 0.001). This suggests those caloric sweeteners and NNS access at least partially independent mechanisms with respect to DT and RT measures. At suprathreshold level, however, the strong correlation between caloric sweeteners and NNS through weak, moderate, and strong intensity indicates a commonality in sweet taste mechanism for the perceived intensity range. PMID:27765786

  8. Prospective association of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage intake with risk of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2016-04-01

    Several observational studies have suggested that high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is associated with increased blood pressure, but this relationship has not been investigated comprehensively. To quantitatively examine the association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage intake and risk of hypertension. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of eligible prospective cohort studies, identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases up to May 2015. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, and generalized least-squares trend estimation was used to assess dose-response relationships. Six studies (246,822 subjects and 80,628 incident cases of hypertension) were identified for the meta-analysis of SSBs and hypertension. The pooled RR of hypertension in the highest category of SSB consumption (≥1 serving/day, mean) compared with the lowest category of SSB (<0.6 serving/month, mean) was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.17). In a dose-response analysis, a 1 serving/day increase in SSB intake was associated with an 8% increased risk of hypertension (RR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.11). Four studies (227,254 subjects and 78,177 incident cases of hypertension) were included in the meta-analysis of ASBs and hypertension. The pooled RRs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.18) for highest versus lowest analysis and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.11) for every additional 1 serving/day increase in ASB consumption. The positive association did not vary significantly by sex, duration of follow-up or adjustment for body mass index. Our findings indicate that high SSB and ASB consumption is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Rethinking Controls on the Long-Term Cenozoic Carbonate Compensation Depth: Case Studies across Late Paleocene - Early Eocene Warming and Late Eocene - Early Oligocene Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S. E.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Schmidt, D. N.; Kirtland Turner, S.; Paelike, H.; Thomas, E.

    2014-12-01

    The carbonate compensation depth (CCD) is the depth below which negligible calcium carbonate is preserved in marine sediments. The long-term position of the CCD is often considered to be a powerful constraint on palaeoclimate and atmospheric CO2 concentration due to the requirement that carbonate burial balance riverine weathering over long timescales. The requirement that weathering and burial be in balance is clear, but it is less certain that burial compensates for changes in weathering via shoaling or deepening of the CCD. Because most carbonate burial occurs well above the CCD , changes in weathering fluxes may be primarily accommodated by increasing or decreasing carbonate burial at shallower depths, i.e., at or near the lysocline, the depth range over which carbonate dissolution markedly increases. Indeed, recent earth system modelling studies have suggested that the position of the CCD is relatively insensitive to changes in atmospheric pCO2. Additionally, studies have questioned the nature and strength of the relationship between the CCD, carbonate saturation state in the water column, and lysocline. To test the relationship between palaeoclimate and the location of the CCD, we reconstructed the global, long-term CCD behaviour across major Cenozoic climate transitions: the late Paleocene - early Eocene long-term warming trend (study interval ~58 to 49 Ma) and the late Eocene - early Oligocene cooling and glaciation (study interval ~38 to 27 Ma). We use Earth system modelling (GENIE) to explore the links between atmospheric pCO2 and the CCD, isolating and teasing apart the roles of total dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, circulation, and productivity in determining the CCD.

  10. The truth about artificial sweeteners - Are they good for diabetics?

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vikas; Mishra, Sundeep

    Artificial sweeteners are thought to be beneficial for diabetics or obese where refined sugar can be a problem. These low-calorie sweeteners are seemingly safe to use, provide sweetness without calories, and provide a choice of sweet foods to those who otherwise cannot partake them (refined sugars). However, while artificial sweeteners may indeed restrict calories most of them have no beneficial effects on control of diabetes mellitus; rather possibly increase its risk. Additionally, there could be some other safety concerns possibly risk of cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Methods: Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Results: All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Discussion: Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Implications: Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco

  12. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S; Sommer, Toby J; Zimmerman, Julie B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco toxicants. This study is the first to quantify high

  13. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    PubMed

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days.

  14. A Corrosion Sensor for Monitoring the Early-Stage Environmental Corrosion of A36 Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Yen, Max; Lin, Paul; Groff, Steve; Lampo, Richard; McInerney, Michael; Ryan, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An innovative prototype sensor containing A36 carbon steel as a capacitor was explored to monitor early-stage corrosion. The sensor detected the changes of the surface- rather than the bulk- property and morphology of A36 during corrosion. Thus it was more sensitive than the conventional electrical resistance corrosion sensors. After being soaked in an aerated 0.2 M NaCl solution, the sensor’s normalized electrical resistance (R/R0) decreased continuously from 1.0 to 0.74 with the extent of corrosion. Meanwhile, the sensor’s normalized capacitance (C/C0) increased continuously from 1.0 to 1.46. X-ray diffraction result indicates that the iron rust on A36 had crystals of lepidocrocite and magnetite. PMID:28788158

  15. Geochemistry of Precambrian carbonates. IV - Early Paleoproterozoic (2.25 +/- 0.25 Ga) seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veizer, Jan; Clayton, R. N.; Hinton, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    The mineralogy, chemistry, and isotopic composition of the Malmani Dolomite, Duck Creek Dolomite, and Bruce 'Limestone' Member of the Espanola Formation are studied in an effort to restrict the first- and second-order variations in isotopic composition of Early Paleoproterozoic seawater. The diagenetic rank is found to increase in the order Duck Creek less than Bruce less than Malmani. The interpolation of alteration trends to 'best' value yields an estimate of 0.70550 for Sr-87/Sr-86. For delta C-13, the measured range of 0 +/- 1.5 percent PDB is similar to that observed for Phanerozoic marine carbonates, while the 'best' delta O-18 value for dolostones is -5 percent PDB, depleted in O-18 relative to Phanerozoic counterparts but comparable to estimates obtained for Archean facies. The isotope geochemistry and mineralogy of Bruce 'Limestone' Member is consistent with the proposition that the sequence was deposited in a lacustrine environment.

  16. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Rebecca J; DeBoer, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in the epidemic of childhood obesity have been paralleled by increases in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) during childhood. Consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades in all age ranges, with some moderation over the past 10 years. Evidence from cross-sectional, longitudinal, and interventional studies supports links between SSB consumption in childhood and unhealthy weight gain, as well as other untoward health outcomes. These data have stimulated public health efforts to curtail consumption as a means of improving childhood weight status and related health outcomes. Reducing ready access to SSBs, changing the message environment to which children are exposed, and replacing SSBs with healthier beverages have had moderate success in decreasing SSB consumption and curbing unhealthy weight gain.

  17. Exploring the geochemical distribution of organic carbon in early land plants: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Geoffrey D; Fletcher, Ian W; Tardio, Sabrina; Hack, Ethan

    2018-02-05

    Terrestrialization depended on the evolution of biosynthetic pathways for biopolymers including lignin, cutin and suberin, which were concentrated in specific tissues, layers or organs such as the xylem, cuticle and roots on the submillimetre scale. However, it is often difficult, or even impossible especially for individual cells, to resolve the biomolecular composition of the different components of fossil plants on such a scale using the well-established coupled techniques of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Here, we report the application of techniques for surface analysis to investigate the composition of Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of two different spots (both 300 µm × 600 µm) confirmed the presence of carbon. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) revealed 'chemical maps' (imaging mode with 300 nm resolution) of aliphatic and aromatic carbon in the intact fossil that correlate with the vascular structures observed in high-resolution optical images. This study shows that imaging ToF-SIMS has value for determining the location of the molecular components of fossil embryophytes while retaining structural information that will help elucidate how terrestrialization shaped the early evolution of land plant cell wall biochemistry.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Earth's early atmosphere as seen from carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of Archean sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Carr, L. P.; Gilmour, I.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the Earth's early atmosphere has long been a topic of great interest but determination of actual compositions over geologic time is a difficult problem. However, recent systematic studies of stromatolite deposits (Precambrian Paleobiology Research Group) has extended our knowledge of Archean ecosystems. It has been shown that many stromatolite deposits have undergone negligible alteration since their time of formation. The discovery of primary fluid inclusions within unaltered 3.5 b.y. old Archiean sediments and the observation that the 3.3 b.y. old Barberton cherts have remained closed to argon loss and have not been subjected to thermal metamorphism suggests that an opportunity exists for the direct measurement of the volatile constituents present at their time of formation. Of primary interest to this study was the possibility that the stromatolites and other Archean sediments might retain a vestige of the atmosphere and thus afford an indication of the variations in carbon dioxide and nitrogen isotopic compositions with time. A suite of essentially unaltered Archean stromatolites and the cherts of different ages and geologic sites have been analyzed for their trapped carbon dioxide and nitrogen compositions by the stepped combustion extraction tech nique utilizing static mass spectrometers for the isotope measurements.

  19. Sedimentary evidence for enhanced hydrological cycling in response to rapid carbon release during the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Kentaro; Kemp, David B.; Itamiya, Shoma; Inui, Mutsuko

    2018-01-01

    A pronounced excursion in the carbon-isotope composition of biospheric carbon and coeval seawater warming during the early Toarcian (∼183 Ma) has been linked to the large-scale transfer of 12C-enriched carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. A European bias in the distribution of available data means that the precise pattern, tempo and global expression of this carbon cycle perturbation, and the associated environmental responses, remain uncertain. Here, we present a new cm-scale terrestrial-dominated carbon-isotope record through an expanded lower Toarcian section from Japan that displays a negative excursion pattern similar to marine and terrestrial carbon-isotope records documented from Europe. These new data suggest that 12C-enriched carbon was added to the biosphere in at least one rapid, millennial-scale pulse. Sedimentological analysis indicates a close association between the carbon-isotope excursion and high-energy sediment transport and enhanced fluvial discharge. Together, these data support the hypothesis that a sudden strengthening of the global hydrological cycle occurred in direct and immediate response to rapid carbon release and atmospheric warming.

  20. Diagenetic history of late Oligocene-early Miocene carbonates in East Sabah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal Abidin, N. S.; Raymond, R. R.; Bashah, N. S. I.

    2017-10-01

    Limestones are particularly susceptible to drastic early diagenesis modifications, mainly cementation and dissolution. During the early Miocene, a major tectonic deformation has caused a widespread of uplift in Sabah. This has resulted change in depositional environment from deep to shallow marine, which favours the deposition of Gomantong Limestone. This study aims to investigate the diagenetic history of Gomantong Limestone in East Sabah. Thorough understanding of the diagenetic processes may provide data to unravel the tectonic activities which affected the reservoir quality of the carbonates. Combining the data from comprehensive petrographic analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of 30 samples, two main cements type were identified. These are microcrystalline cement and Mg-calcite cement of granular and blocky mosaics which are dominantly seen in all samples. The sequence of diagenesis events are determined as (1) micritization; (2) grain scale compaction; (3) cementation (pore-filling); (4) mechanical compaction and cementation infilling fractures and (5) chemical compaction. These diagenetic events are interpreted as reflection of changes in diagenetic environment from shallow marine to deep burial. The massive cementation in the Gomantong Limestone has resulted into a poor reservoir quality.

  1. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

  2. Are Artificial Sweeteners OK to Consume during Pregnancy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to my baby? – Joanie There has been some controversy and debate about the safety of artificial sweeteners, ... Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit ...

  3. Artificial sweeteners and absence of bladder cancer risk in Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Møller-Jensen, O; Knudsen, J B; Sørensen, B L; Clemmesen, J

    1983-11-15

    During the years 1979 to 1981 a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer including papillomas was performed in Greater Copenhagen. After exclusions some 388 patients (290 males; 98 females) and an age- and sex-matched group of 787 controls (592 males; 195 females) remained for analysis. Controls were selected at random from the general population of the study area. All persons were interviewed concerning use of artificial sweeteners in addition to their exposure to a number of other known or suspected risk factors for bladder cancer. Fifty-five male bladder cancer patients (19.4%) and 150 controls (25.7%) had at some time used artificial sweeteners regularly. Among females 27.1% of cases and 25.9% of controls regularly used sweeteners. In neither sex was the relative risk significantly increased in users compared with non-users of artificial sweeteners. The relative risk of 0.78 in the two sexes combined was not significantly different from 1.0 (95% C.I.: 0.58-1.05). There was no indication of a regular increase in risk with increasing daily consumption of table-top sweeteners nor was there any indication of an increase in risk with a duration of regular use of artificial sweeteners. Taking into account a possible latency period between first regular use and bladder cancer development did not change the finding of an absence of association between use of artificial sweeteners and the risk of bladder cancer. Neither saccharine nor cyclamate users had an increased risk of bladder cancer. This population-based case-control investigation provides further evidence that it is highly unlikely that the consumption of artificial sweeteners has contributed to current bladder cancer rates in man.

  4. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers in groundwater in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Roy, James W.; Brown, Susan J.; Bickerton, Greg

    2011-04-01

    SummaryThere is little information available on the prevalence of artificial sweeteners in groundwater, though these compounds may prove to be useful tracers of human wastewater, especially in urban settings with complex hydrology. In this study, the artificial sweetener acesulfame was detected in groundwater at all eight urban sites investigated (from five different urban areas in Canada), often at high concentrations (i.e., μg/L-scale). In a municipal wastewater plume at Jasper, Alberta, acesulfame was strongly correlated with chloride and was positively correlated with other wastewater-related contaminants indicating that this sweetener has potential to be a good tracer of young wastewater (<20 years residence time) in Canada. Three other artificial sweeteners were detected in urban groundwater: saccharin at six of the sites, sucralose at three sites, and cyclamate at five of seven sites where it was analyzed. The occurrence of sucralose may have been affected by its detection limit, which was much higher than for the other sweeteners. These results, and those of a parallel study, are the first reported detections of saccharin and cyclamate in groundwater, and suggest that these sweeteners may be more common than previously anticipated. In general, fewer samples from each site contained these other three sweeteners compared to acesulfame. At Barrie, Ontario, adjacent to an old landfill, the concentration of saccharin was higher than acesulfame in many samples. These results suggest that analyses of multiple sweeteners, rather than just acesulfame, may provide useful information on contaminant sources and groundwater conditions in urban settings. Further work is needed to address this potential use.

  5. Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) a bio-sweetener: a review.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Samsher; Goyal, R K

    2010-02-01

    Studies revealed that Stevia has been used throughout the world since ancient times for various purposes; for example, as a sweetener and a medicine. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize and quantify the past and current evidence for Stevia. We searched relevant papers up to 2007 in various databases. As we know that the leaves of Stevia plants have functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners, Stevia is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food market in the future. Although Stevia can be helpful to anyone, there are certain groups who are more likely to benefit from its remarkable sweetening potential. These include diabetic patients, those interested in decreasing caloric intake, and children. Stevia is a small perennial shrub that has been used for centuries as a bio-sweetener and for other medicinal uses such as to lower blood sugar. Its white crystalline compound (stevioside) is the natural herbal sweetener with no calories and is over 100-300 times sweeter than table sugar.

  6. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-11-15

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed 'artificial sweeteners'. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake.

  8. Regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals increases risk of overweight among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly

    2007-06-01

    To examine the relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (eg, nondiet carbonated drinks and fruit drinks) and the prevalence of overweight among preschool-aged children living in Canada. Data come from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998-2002). A representative sample (n=2,103) of children born in 1998 in Québec, Canada. A total of 1,944 children (still representative of the same-age children in this population) remaining at 4 to 5 years in 2002 participated in the nutrition study. Data were collected via 24-hour dietary recall interview. Frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals at age 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years was recorded and children's height and weight were measured. Multivariate regression analysis was done with Statistical Analysis System software. Weighted data were adjusted for within-child variability and significance level was set at 5%. Overall, 6.9% of children who were nonconsumers of sugar-sweetened beverages between meals between the ages of 2.5 to 4.5 years were overweight at 4.5 years, compared to 15.4% of regular consumers (four to six times or more per week) at ages 2.5 years, 3.5 years, and 4.5 years. According to multivariate analysis, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals more than doubles the odds of being overweight when other important factors are considered in multivariate analysis. Children from families with insufficient income who consume sugar-sweetened beverages regularly between the ages of 2.5 and 4.5 years are more than three times more likely to be overweight at age 4.5 years compared to nonconsuming children from sufficient income households. Regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals may put some young children at a greater risk for overweight. Parents should limit the quantity of sweetened beverages consumed during preschool years because it may increase propensity to gain weight.

  9. Effect of Harvest Residue Management on Tree Productivity and Carbon Pools during Early Stand Development in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Treesearch

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Phillip Dougherty; Daniel McInnis; Pete Anderson; Steve Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Soil incorporation of postharvest forest floor or logging residues during site preparation increased mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration and had a differential effect on early stand growth in a clonal loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Incorporating 25 Mg ha

  10. Early land use and centennial scale changes in lake-water organic carbon prior to contemporary monitoring.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Tolu, Julie; Bigler, Christian; Yang, Handong; Bindler, Richard

    2015-05-26

    Organic carbon concentrations have increased in surface waters across parts of Europe and North America during the past decades, but the main drivers causing this phenomenon are still debated. A lack of observations beyond the last few decades inhibits a better mechanistic understanding of this process and thus a reliable prediction of future changes. Here we present past lake-water organic carbon trends inferred from sediment records across central Sweden that allow us to assess the observed increase on a centennial to millennial time scale. Our data show the recent increase in lake-water carbon but also that this increase was preceded by a landscape-wide, long-term decrease beginning already A.D. 1450-1600. Geochemical and biological proxies reveal that these dynamics coincided with an intensification of human catchment disturbance that decreased over the past century. Catchment disturbance was driven by the expansion and later cessation of widespread summer forest grazing and farming across central Scandinavia. Our findings demonstrate that early land use strongly affected past organic carbon dynamics and suggest that the influence of historical landscape utilization on contemporary changes in lake-water carbon levels has thus far been underestimated. We propose that past changes in land use are also a strong contributing factor in ongoing organic carbon trends in other regions that underwent similar comprehensive changes due to early cultivation and grazing over centuries to millennia.

  11. The use of a sweetener substitution method to predict dietary exposures for the intense sweetener rebaudioside A.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    2008-07-01

    There are more published dietary exposure data for intense sweeteners than for any other group of food additives. Data are available for countries with different patterns of sweetener approvals and also for population groups with high potential intakes, such as children and diabetic subjects. These data provide a secure basis for predicting the potential intakes of a novel intense sweetener by adjustment of the reported intakes of different sweeteners in mg/kg body weight by their relative sweetness intensities. This approach allows the possibility that a novel sweetener attains the same pattern and extent of use as the existing sweeteners. The intakes by high consumers of other sweeteners allows for possible brand loyalty to the novel sweetener. Using this method, the estimated dietary exposures for rebaudioside A in average and high consumers are predicted to be 1.3 and 3.4mg/kg body weight per day for the general population, 2.1 and 5.0mg/kg body weight per day for children and 3.4 and 4.5mg/kg body weight per day for children with diabetes. The temporary ADI defined by the JECFA for steviol glycosides [JECFA, 2005. Steviol glycosides. In: 63rd Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, WHO Technical Report Series 928, pp. 34-39] was set at 0-2mg/kg body weight (expressed as steviol equivalents); after correction for the difference in molecular weights, these estimated intakes of rebaudioside A are equivalent to daily steviol intakes of less than 2mg/kg. In consequence, this analysis shows that the intakes of rebaudioside A would not exceed the JECFA temporary ADI set for steviol glycosides.

  12. Carbonate petrography, kerogen distribution, and carbon and oxygen isotope variations in an early Proterozoic transition from limestone to iron-formation deposition, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beukes, N. J.; Klein, C.; Kaufman, A. J.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The transition zone comprises Campbellrand microbialaminated (replacing "cryptalgalaminate") limestone and shale, with minor dolomite, conformably overlain by the Kuruman Iron Formation of which the basal part is characterized by siderite-rich microbanded iron-formation with minor magnetite and some hematite-containing units. The iron-formation contains subordinate intraclastic and microbialaminated siderite mesobands and was deposited in deeper water than the limestones. The sequence is virtually unaltered with diagenetic mineral assemblages reflecting a temperature interval of about 110 degrees to 170 degrees C and pressures of 2 kbars. Carbonate minerals in the different rock types are represented by primary micritic precipitates (now recrystallized to microsparite), early precompactional sparry cements and concretions, deep burial limpid euhedral sparites, and spar cements precipitated from metamorphic fluids in close contact with diabase sills. Paragenetic pathways of the carbonate minerals are broadly similar in all lithofacies with kerogen intimately associated with them. Kerogen occurs as pigmentation in carbonate crystals, as reworked organic detritus in clastic-textured carbonate units, and as segregations of kerogen pigment around late diagenetic carbonate crystals. Locally kerogen may also be replaced by carbonate spar. Carbon isotope compositions of the carbonate minerals and kerogen are dependent on their mode of occurrence and on the composition of the dominant carbonate species in a specific lithofacies. Integration of sedimentary, petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic results makes it possible to distinguish between depositional, early diagenetic, deep burial, and metamorphic effects on the isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals and the kerogen in the sequence. Major conclusions are that deep burial thermal decarboxylation led to 13C depletion in euhedral ferroan sparites and 13C enrichment in kerogen (organic carbon). Metamorphic

  13. Architecture and evolution of an Early Permian carbonate complex on a tectonically active island in east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Magginetti, Robert T.; Stone, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The newly named Upland Valley Limestone represents a carbonate complex that developed on and adjacent to a tectonically active island in east-central California during a brief interval of Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. This lithologically unique, relatively thin limestone unit lies within a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic rocks and is characterized by its high concentration of crinoidal debris, pronounced lateral changes in thickness and lithofacies, and a largely endemic fusulinid fauna. Most outcrops represent a carbonate platform and debris derived from it and shed downslope, but another group of outcrops represents one or possibly more isolated carbonate buildups that developed offshore from the platform. Tectonic activity in the area occurred before, probably during, and after deposition of this short-lived carbonate complex.

  14. Altered carbon cycling and coupled changes in Early Cretaceous weathering patterns: Evidence from integrated carbon isotope and sandstone records of the western Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortmann, Ulrich Georg; Herrle, Jens Olaf; Weissert, Helmut

    2004-03-01

    In this study we investigate if a major perturbation of the Early Cretaceous carbon cycle was accompanied by altered weathering and erosion rates. The large Aptian carbon isotope anomaly records the response of the biosphere to widespread volcanic activity and probably resulting changes in atmospheric pCO2 levels. Elevated pCO2 levels should also result in an accelerated hydrological cycle and increased silicate weathering, creating a negative feedback loop removing CO2 from the atmosphere. We propose to interpret the widespread occurrence of quartz sandstones in the Tethys-Atlantic seaway as a result of altered weathering and erosion rates in the wake of the Aptian carbon cycle excursion. We challenge the traditional notion that these are 'flysch' deposits associated with Early Cretaceous orogenic movements in the western Tethys. We propose that these sandstones were most likely part of a large conveyor belt system, acting along the Iberian and European margin of the Tethys seaway. Using chemostratigraphic correlations, we show that the activity of this system was only short-lived and coeval with changes in coastal ecology and the Aptian carbon cycle perturbations. We tentatively relate the existence of this system to a transient climate regime, characterized by fluctuating pCO2 levels.

  15. A terrestrial Eocene stack: tying terrestrial lake ecology to marine carbon cycling through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.; Musher, D.; Rosengard, S. Z.; Vankeuren, M. A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    The lacustrine Green River Formation is known to span ≥15 million years through the early-middle Eocene, and recent work on radioisotopic dating has provided a framework on which to build ties to the orbitally-tuned marine Eocene record. Here we present a spliced stack of Fischer assay data from drilled cores of the Green River Formation that span both an East-West and a North-South transect of the Uinta Basin of Utah. Detailed work on two cores demonstrate that Fischer assay measurements covary with total organic carbon and bulk carbon isotopes, allowing us to use Fisher assay results as a representative carbon cycling proxy throughout the stack. We provide an age model for this core record by combining radioisotopic dates of tuff layers with frequency analysis of Fischer assay measurements. Identification of orbital frequencies tied directly to magnetochrons through radioisotopic dates allows for a direct comparison of the terrestrial to the marine Eocene record. Our analysis indicates that the marker beds used to correlate the stack cores represent periods of enhanced lake productivity and extreme carbon burial; however, unlike the hyperthermal events that are clearly marked in the marine Eocene record, the hydrocarbon-rich "Mahogany Bed" period of burial does not correspond to a clear carbon isotope excursion. This suggests that the terrestrial realm may have experienced extreme ecological responses to relatively small perturbations in the carbon cycle during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. To investigate the ecological responses to carbon cycle perturbations through the hydrocarbon rich beds, we analyzed a suite of microbial biomarkers, finding evidence for cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and potentially green sulfur bacteria. These taxa indicate fluctuating oxic/anoxic conditions in the lake during abrupt intervals of carbon burial, suggesting a lake biogeochemical regime with no modern analogues.

  16. Metabolic effects of non-nutritive sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Pepino, M Yanina

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, the general belief was that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) were healthy sugar substitutes because they provide sweet taste without calories or glycemic effects. However, data from several epidemiological studies have found that consumption of NNSs, mainly in diet sodas, is associated with increased risk to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this article is to review recent scientific evidence supporting potential mechanisms that explain how "metabolically inactive" NNSs, which have few, if any, calories, might promote metabolic dysregulation. Three potential mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, are presented: 1) NNSs interfere with learned responses that contribute to control glucose and energy homeostasis, 2) NNSs interfere with gut microbiota and induce glucose intolerance, and 3) NNSs interact with sweet-taste receptors expressed throughout the digestive system that play a role in glucose absorption and trigger insulin secretion. In addition, recent findings from our laboratory showing an association between individual taste sensitivity to detect sucralose and sucralose's acute effects on metabolic response to an oral glucose load are reported. Taken as a whole, data support the notion that NNSs have metabolic effects. More research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which NNSs may drive metabolic dysregulation and better understand potential effects of these commonly used food additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume a lot of sugar, primarily from sweeteners that are added to processed foods and beverages. Data from the US Department of Agriculture reveals that in 2013, Americans consumed 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day, which is significantly more than the American Heart Association’s recommendation. Artificial and alternative sweeteners have also been added to a plethora of foods. These sweeteners range from about 180 times sweeter to as much as 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. Consumption of both sugar and artificial sweeteners may be changing our palates or taste preferences over time, increasing our desire for sweet foods. Unfortunately, the data on this are lacking. In the summer of 2014, a group of 20 people from Kaiser Permanente facilities throughout California agreed to cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks and then complete a survey to determine whether their taste preferences had changed. After the 2-week challenge, 95% of participants (18 out of 19 respondents) found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% (15 out of 20 respondents) found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% (19 out of 20 respondents) said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants (13 out of 15 respondents) stopped craving sugar after 6 days. Although this was a small survey, the results suggest that using a 2-week sugar challenge can help to reset taste preferences and make consuming less or no sugar easier. Physicians should consider recommending a sugar and artificial sweetener challenge to all their patients, especially those with obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26176574

  18. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    PubMed

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (<1% of ADI) was negligible. A comparison of observed intake for the total population with intake for diabetics (acesulfame-K: 3.55 versus 3.75; aspartame: 6.77 versus 6.53; cyclamate: 1.97 versus 2.06; saccharine: 1.14 versus 0.97; sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners.

  19. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men123

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for type 2 diabetes; however, the role of artificially sweetened beverages is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages with incident type 2 diabetes. Design: An analysis of healthy men (n = 40,389) from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study, was performed. Cumulatively averaged intakes of sugar-sweetened (sodas, fruit punches, lemonades, fruit drinks) and artificially sweetened (diet sodas, diet drinks) beverages from food-frequency questionnaires were tested for associations with type 2 diabetes by using Cox regression. Results: There were 2680 cases over 20 y of follow-up. After age adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for the comparison of the top with the bottom quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39; P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, including multivitamins, family history, high triglycerides at baseline, high blood pressure, diuretics, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, total energy, and body mass index, the HR was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.40; P for trend < 0.01). Intake of artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the age-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.72, 2.11; P for trend < 0.01) but not in the multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.21; P for trend = 0.13). The replacement of one serving of sugar-sweetened beverage with 1 cup (≈237 mL) of coffee was associated with a risk reduction of 17%. Conclusion: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index. PMID:21430119

  20. Carbon nanotube-embedded advanced aerospace composites for early-stage damage sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataraj, Latha; Coatney, Michael; Cain, Jason; Hall, Asha

    2018-03-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites featuring outstanding fatigue performance, high specific stiffness and strength, and low density have evolved as critical structural materials in aerospace applications. Microscale damage such as fiber breakage, matrix cracking, and delamination could occur in layered composites compromising structural integrity, emphasizing the critical need to monitor structural health. Early damage detection would lead to enhanced reliability, lifetime, and performance while minimizing maintenance time, leading to enormous scientific and technical interest in realizing physically stable, quick responding, and cost effective strain sensing materials, devices, and techniques with high sensitivity over a broad range of the practical strain spectrum. Today's most commonly used strain sensing techniques are metal foil strain gauges and optical fiber sensors. Metal foil gauges offer high stability and cost-effectiveness but can only be surface-mounted and have a low gauge factor. Optical fibers require expensive instrumentation, are mostly insensitive to cracks parallel to the fiber orientation and may lead to crack initiation as the diameter is larger than that of the reinforcement fibers. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention due to high aspect ratio and superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. CNTs embedded in layered composites have improved performance. A variety of CNT architectures and configurations have shown improved piezoresistive behavior and stability for sensing applications. However, scaling up and commercialization remain serious challenges. The current study investigates a simple, cost effective and repeatable technique for highly sensitive, stable, linear and repeatable strain sensing for damage detection by integrating CNT laminates into composites.

  1. Plasma-Enabled Carbon Nanostructures for Early Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Shafique; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanostructures (CNs) are amongst the most promising biorecognition nanomaterials due to their unprecedented optical, electrical and structural properties. As such, CNs may be harnessed to tackle the detrimental public health and socio-economic adversities associated with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). In particular, CNs may be tailored for a specific determination of biomarkers indicative of NDs. However, the realization of such a biosensor represents a significant technological challenge in the uniform fabrication of CNs with outstanding qualities in order to facilitate a highly-sensitive detection of biomarkers suspended in complex biological environments. Notably, the versatility of plasma-based techniques for the synthesis and surface modification of CNs may be embraced to optimize the biorecognition performance and capabilities. This review surveys the recent advances in CN-based biosensors, and highlights the benefits of plasma-processing techniques to enable, enhance, and tailor the performance and optimize the fabrication of CNs, towards the construction of biosensors with unparalleled performance for the early diagnosis of NDs, via a plethora of energy-efficient, environmentally-benign, and inexpensive approaches. PMID:28788112

  2. A warm or a cold early Earth? New insights from a 3-D climate-carbon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, Benjamin; Le Hir, Guillaume; Fluteau, Frédéric; Forget, François; Catling, David C.

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen isotopes in marine cherts have been used to infer hot oceans during the Archean with temperatures between 60 °C (333 K) and 80 °C (353 K). Such climates are challenging for the early Earth warmed by the faint young Sun. The interpretation of the data has therefore been controversial. 1D climate modeling inferred that such hot climates would require very high levels of CO2 (2-6 bars). Previous carbon cycle modeling concluded that such stable hot climates were impossible and that the carbon cycle should lead to cold climates during the Hadean and the Archean. Here, we revisit the climate and carbon cycle of the early Earth at 3.8 Ga using a 3D climate-carbon model. We find that CO2 partial pressures of around 1 bar could have produced hot climates given a low land fraction and cloud feedback effects. However, such high CO2 partial pressures should not have been stable because of the weathering of terrestrial and oceanic basalts, producing an efficient stabilizing feedback. Moreover, the weathering of impact ejecta during the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) would have strongly reduced the CO2 partial pressure leading to cold climates and potentially snowball Earth events after large impacts. Our results therefore favor cold or temperate climates with global mean temperatures between around 8 °C (281 K) and 30 °C (303 K) and with 0.1-0.36 bar of CO2 for the late Hadean and early Archean. Finally, our model suggests that the carbon cycle was efficient for preserving clement conditions on the early Earth without necessarily requiring any other greenhouse gas or warming process.

  3. Dioctahedral Phyllosilicates Versus Zeolites and Carbonates Versus Zeolites Competitions as Constraints to Understanding Early Mars Alteration Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viennet, Jean-Christophe; Bultel, Benjamin; Riu, Lucie; Werner, Stephanie C.

    2017-11-01

    Widespread occurrence of Fe,Mg-phyllosilicates has been observed on Noachian Martian terrains. Therefore, the study of Fe,Mg-phyllosilicate formation, in order to characterize early Martian environmental conditions, is of particular interest to the Martian community. Previous studies have shown that the investigation of Fe,Mg-smectite formation alone helps to describe early Mars environmental conditions, but there are still large uncertainties in terms of pH range, oxic/anoxic conditions, etc. Interestingly, carbonates and/or zeolites have also been observed on Noachian surfaces in association with the Fe,Mg-phyllosilicates. Consequently, the present study focuses on the dioctahedral/trioctahedral phyllosilicate/carbonate/zeolite formation as a function of various CO2 contents (100% N2, 10% CO2/90% N2, and 100% CO2), from a combined approach including closed system laboratory experiments for 3 weeks at 120°C and geochemical simulations. The experimental results show that as the CO2 content decreases, the amount of dioctahedral clay minerals decreases in favor of trioctahedral minerals. Carbonates and dioctahedral clay minerals are formed during the experiments with CO2. When Ca-zeolites are formed, no carbonates and dioctahedral minerals are observed. Geochemical simulation aided in establishing pH as a key parameter in determining mineral formation patterns. Indeed, under acidic conditions dioctahedral clay minerals and carbonate minerals are formed, while trioctahedral clay minerals are formed in basic conditions with a neutral pH value of 5.98 at 120°C. Zeolites are favored from pH ≳ 7.2. The results obtained shed new light on the importance of dioctahedral clay minerals versus zeolites and carbonates versus zeolites competitions to better define the aqueous alteration processes throughout early Mars history.

  4. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Duchaine, Caroline S.; Diorio, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation. PMID:25072269

  5. Association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Diorio, Caroline

    2014-07-28

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1-3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = -0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = -0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  6. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi‐events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM‐events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high‐resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long‐term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi‐events can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton‐rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section. PMID:27546980

  7. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi-events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM-events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high-resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long-term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi-events can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton-rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section.

  8. Non-nutritive sweeteners are not super-normal stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Antenucci, Rachel G.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is often claimed that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ‘sweeter than sugar’, with the implicit implication high potency sweeteners are super-normal stimuli that encourage exaggerated responses. This study aimed to investigate the perceived sweetness intensity of a variety of nutritive (Sucrose, Maple Syrup, and Agave Nectar) and NNS (Acesulfame-K (AceK), Rebaudioside A (RebA), Aspartame, and Sucralose) in a large cohort of untrained participants using contemporary psychophysical methods. Methods Participants (n=401 total) rated the intensity of sweet, bitter, and metallic sensations for nutritive and NNS in water using the general labeled magnitude scale (gLMS). Results Sigmoidal Dose-Response functions were observed for all stimuli except AceK. That is, sucrose follows a sigmoidal function if the data are not artifactually linearized via prior training. More critically, there is no evidence that NNS have a maximal sweetness (intensity) greater than sucrose; indeed, the maximal sweetness for AceK, RebA and Sucralose were significantly lower than for concentrated sucrose. For these sweeteners, mixture suppression due to endogenous dose-dependent bitter or metallic sensations appears to limit maximal perceived sweetness. Conclusions In terms of perceived sweetness, non-nutritive sweeteners cannot be considered super-normal stimuli. These data do not support the view that non-nutritive sweeteners hijack or over-stimulate sweet receptors to product elevated sweet sensations. PMID:24942868

  9. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed ‘artificial sweeteners’. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  10. An 'end-game' for sugar sweetened beverages?

    PubMed

    Sundborn, G; Merriman, T R; Thornley, S; Metcalf, P; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The epidemic of unhealthy weight is now in its third decade. The multitude of initiatives designed to address this issue (globally) have predominantly been ineffective as the prevalence of unhealthy weight has continued to rise. Public health professionals have proposed an 'endgame' for tobacco smoking in New Zealand by 2025, which has received widespread support. Similarly, here, to control the prevalence of unhealthy weight, we consider whether a similar approach to tobacco is justified to restrict the intake of sweetened beverages. This paper reviews the evidence relating sugar sweetened beverages to unhealthy weight and adverse health effects. Current initiatives aimed at reducing sugar sweetened beverage consumption both internationally and in New Zealand are reviewed. Epidemiological evidence consistently links sugar-sweetened drink intake with unhealthy weight and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes, gout, and raised blood pressure. Food disappearance data suggests that sugar intake continues to increase in New Zealand, and that a subtle addiction to sugar may underlie this trend. A number of successful initiatives to reduce sugary drink intake are described. IMPLICATION/CONCLUSION: We argue that an 'endgame' to the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages be supported as a means to address the issue of unhealthy weight at a population level. Finally, a preliminary draft endgame plan is presented for consideration, dialogue and debate.

  11. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous (Urgonian) shoal-water deposits: Diachronous changes in carbonate-platform production in the north-western Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, S.; Heimhofer, U.; Immenhauser, A.; Weissert, H.

    2013-05-01

    Carbonate platforms are highly sensitive ecological systems that typically show rapid and characteristic response modes to environmental and climatic changes acting both on a regional scale and global scale. A widely accepted hypothesis proposes that the Late Barremian stepwise establishment of the Urgonian carbonate platform on the Northern Tethyan shelf was related to a gradual change from predominantly humid towards more arid greenhouse conditions. This climate change resulted in the reorganisation of the carbonate platform ecosystem from heterozoan towards photozoan-dominated assemblages and a decrease of organic-matter burial in Tethyan and Boreal basins. In order to decipher the palaeoenvironmental and climatic boundary conditions of these major changes in neritic and pelagic settings, a precise chronostratigraphy of Urgonian carbonate platform evolution is needed. Here, we provide an integrated stratigraphic framework of Lower Barremian to Lower Aptian Urgonian carbonate platform sections (Cluses, Forclaz) located at the northern rim of the Tethys (Subalpine Chains, ESE France), with special focus on sedimentological analyses and high-resolution carbon-isotope stratigraphy. A characteristic Barremian-Aptian carbon-isotope pattern permits precise platform-to-basin correlation with cyclostratigraphic and ammonite-dated pelagic and hemipelagic Tethyan sections in the Vocontian Trough (Angles/Combe-Lambert/Glaise) and Umbria Marche Basin (Gorgo a Cerbara). Similar to Helvetic shoal-water settings, the carbonate platform in the Subalpine Chains experienced a gradual transition from heterozoan- to photozoan-dominated ecosystems. This biogenic pattern points to a gradual change of the carbonate platform after the so-called "Early Barremian crisis" towards an oligotrophic rimmed platform system (Urgonian Limestone Formation). According to the chronostratigraphy of Urgonian carbonate platform evolution in the Subalpine Chains established here, the installation of a

  12. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Taksler, Glen B.; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Methods Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013–2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Results Respondents aged 18–29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (p<0.001). Among respondents who purchased a beverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, p<0.001) or stated that they chose beverage based on price (AOR=2.02, p<0.001). Conclusions Young adults and customers of restaurants with a larger cup size were more likely to purchase SSBs, and their beverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. PMID:27662697

  14. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  15. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-09-01

    This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts.

  17. Detection of early stage prostate cancer by using a simple carbon nanotube@paper biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sungkyung; Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don

    2018-04-15

    This study is an investigation for an inexpensive, simple and sensitive biosensor to detect prostate cancer using bioactivated-multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, diameter of 20nm, length of 5µm) and a micro-pore filter paper (pore size of 0.45µm). For the immunoassay of prostate specific antigen (PSA), which is a biomarker of prostate cancer, MWCNTs were activated with PSA antibody (monoclonal antibody of the prostate specific antigen) by using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide sodium salt (NHSS). The activated MWCNTs were deposited on the micro-pore filter paper to use as a biosensor. The prepared biosensor can assay from 0 to 500ng/mL of PSA level within 2h with the detection limit of 1.18ng/mL by the measurement of resistance change. The resistance change was caused by site selective interaction between PSA and PSA-antigen with an inexpensive bench top digital multimeter (5 1/2 digits). The detection range and sensitivity of the prepared sensor are good enough to diagnose the early stage of prostate cancer (> 4ng/mL of PSA). This paper-based biosensor is about 20 times cheaper (fabricated biosensor price: 2.4 $) and over 10 times faster than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which is a general method for the detection of a specific protein in the modernized hospitals. Furthermore, the maximum detection limit is about 50 times higher than ELISA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Comparative Outcomes of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Plate in the Fixation of Distal Femur Fractures.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Phillip M; Lee, Adam K; Collinge, Cory A; Ziran, Bruce H; Hartley, Kate G; Jahangir, A Alex

    2018-05-16

    To evaluate the early clinical results of distal femur fractures treated with carbon fiber reinforced - polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates compared to stainless steel (SS) lateral locking plates. Retrospective comparative cohort study SETTING:: ACS Level I trauma center. Twenty-two patients (11 SS, 11 CFR-PEEK) with closed distal femur fractures treated by a single surgeon over a 6-year period. Nonunion, hardware failure, reoperation, time to full weight bearing, and time ` union were assessed. The CFR-PEEK cohort was on average older (71 vs. 57 years, p=0.03) and more likely to have diabetes (p=0.02). Nonunion was diagnosed in 4/11 (36%) patients in the SS group and 1/11 (9%) patients in the CFR-PEEK group (p=0.12). Hardware failure occurred in two SS patients (18%) compared to none in the CFR-PEEK group (p=0.14). Time to full weight bearing was similar between groups occurring at 9.9 weeks and 12.4 weeks in the CFR-PEEK and SS groups, respectively (p=0.23). Time to radiographic union averaged 12.4 weeks in the SS group and 18.7 weeks in the CFR-PEEK group (p=0.26). There were 4 reoperations in the SS group and one in the CFR-PEEK group (p=0.12). CFR-PEEK plates show encouraging short-term results in the treatment of distal femur fractures with a comparable nonunion, reoperation, and hardware failure rates to those treated with SS plates. This data suggests CFR-PEEK plates may be a viable alternative to SS plates in fixation of these fractures. Level III.

  19. Influence of artificial sweetener on human blood glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Skokan, Ilse; Endler, P Christian; Wulkersdorfer, Beatrix; Magometschnigg, Dieter; Spranger, Heinz

    2007-10-05

    Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water) that contained either 6 g of table sugar ("Kandisin") with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F(4;60) = 1.645; p = .175) nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F(2.068;31.023) = 1.551; p > .05) caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F(2.457;36.849) = 4.005; p = .020) as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  20. The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Warnings

    PubMed Central

    VanEpps, Eric M.; Roberto, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction California, New York, and the cities of San Francisco and Baltimore have introduced bills requiring health-related warning labels for sugar-sweetened beverages. This study measures the extent to which these warning labels influence adolescents’ beliefs and hypothetical choices. Design Participants completed an online survey in which they chose a beverage in a hypothetical vending machine task, rated perceptions of different beverages, and indicated interest in coupons for beverages. Data were collected and analyzed in 2015. Setting/participants A total of 2,202 demographically diverse adolescents aged 12–18 years completed the online survey. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions: (1) no warning label; (2) calorie label; (3–6) one of four text versions of a warning label (e.g., SAFETY WARNING: Drinking beverages with added sugar(s) contributes to obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay). Main outcome measures Hypothetical choices, perceptions of beverages, interest in coupons, and endorsement of warning label policies were assessed. Results Controlling for frequency of beverage purchases, significantly fewer adolescents chose a sugar-sweetened beverage in three of the four warning label conditions (65%, 63%, and 61%) than in the no label (77%) condition. Adolescents in the four warning label conditions chose fewer sugar-sweetened beverage coupons and believed that sugar-sweetened beverages were less likely to help them lead a healthy life and had more added sugar compared with the no label condition. Conclusions Health-related warning labels on sugar-sweetened beverages improved adolescents’ recognition of the sugar content of such beverages and reduced hypothetical choices to buy sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:27617366

  1. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Shilpa. S.; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener. PMID:27848976

  2. 75 FR 8920 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose, Galactose and Mannose); Thomson, IL...., Sweeteners Division, located in Thomson, Illinois, (FTZ Docket 4-2009, filed 2/4/2009); Whereas, notice... xylitol, xylose, galactose and mannose at the facility of Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division, located...

  3. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor.

    PubMed

    Samant, Shilpa S; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-11-16

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener.

  4. Colorimetric Detection and Identification of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Musto, Christopher J.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive nanoporous pigments made from indicators immobilized in an organically modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at millimolar concentrations as well as commonly used individual serving sweetener packets. The array has shown excellent reproducibility and long shelf-life and has been optimized to work in the biological pH regime. PMID:20337402

  5. Stevia, Nature’s Zero-Calorie Sustainable Sweetener

    PubMed Central

    Ashwell, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a plant native to South America that has been used as a sweetener for hundreds of years. Today, zero-calorie stevia, as high-purity stevia leaf extract, is being used globally to reduce energy and added sugar content in foods and beverages. This article introduces stevia, explaining its sustainable production, metabolism in the body, safety assessment, and use in foods and drinks to assist with energy reduction. The article also summarizes current thinking of the evidence for the role of nonnutritive sweeteners in energy reduction. Overall, stevia shows promise as a new tool to help achieve weight management goals. PMID:27471327

  6. Colorimetric detection and identification of natural and artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Musto, Christopher J; Lim, Sung H; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2009-08-01

    A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive nanoporous pigments that are comprised of indicators immobilized in an organically modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at millimolar concentrations, as well as commonly used individual-serving sweetener packets. The array has shown excellent reproducibility and long shelf life and has been optimized to work in the biological pH regime.

  7. Investigating Interactions between the Silica and Carbon Cycles during Precipitation and Early Diagenesis of Authigenic Clay/Carbonate-Mineral Associations in the Carbonate Rock Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Francisca Martinez Ruiz, F.; Sanchez-Roman, M.; Anjos, S.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Nascimento, G. S.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2017-12-01

    The study of authigenic clay/carbonate-mineral associations within carbonate sequences has important implications for the interpretation of scientific problems related with rock reservoir properties, such as alteration of potential porosity and permeability. More specifically, when clay minerals are randomly distributed within the carbonate matrix, it becomes difficult to predict reservoir characteristics. In order to understand this mineral association in the geological record, we have undertaken a comparative study of specially designed laboratory experiments with modern environments, where clay minerals have been shown to precipitate together with a range of carbonate minerals, including calcite, Mg-calcite and dolomite. Two modern dolomite-forming environments, the Coorong lakes, South Australia and Brejo do Espinho Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were selected for this investigation. For comparative evaluation, enrichment microbial culture experiments, using natural pore water from Brejo do Espinho as the growth medium to promote mineral precipitation, were performed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To establish the environmental parameters and biological processes facilitating the dual mineral association, the experimental samples have been compared with the natural minerals using HRTEM measurements. The results demonstrate that the clay and carbonate minerals apparently do not co-precipitate, but the precipitation of the different minerals in the same sample has probably occurred under different environmental conditions with variable chemistries, e.g., hypersalinity versus normal salinity resulting from the changing ratio of evaporation versus precipitation. Thus, the investigated mineral association is not a product of diagenetic processes but of sequential in situ precipitation processes related to changes in the silica and carbon availability. Implications for ancient carbonate formations will be presented and discussed in the context of a specific

  8. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    PubMed

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity.

  9. Importance of early season conditions and grazing on carbon dioxide fluxes in Colorado shortgrass steppe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the influence of environmental and management drivers on fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) is essential for optimizing carbon (C) uptake and storage in livestock production systems. Herein, using 15 treatment-years (two three-year experiments, one with three grazing treatments, the other ...

  10. Rationale for further medical and health research on high-potency sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for "sweetener-drug interactions" and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners.

  11. Diabetes and Kidney Disease in American Indians: Potential Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    PubMed

    Yracheta, Joseph M; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Le, MyPhuong T; Abdelmalak, Manal F; Alfonso, Javier; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Johnson, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Since the early 20th century, a marked increase in obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease has occurred in the American Indian population, especially the Pima Indians of the Southwest. Here, we review the current epidemic and attempt to identify remediable causes. A search was performed using PubMed and the search terms American Indian and obesity, American Indian and diabetes, American Indian and chronic kidney disease, and American Indian and sugar or fructose, Native American, Alaska Native, First Nations, Aboriginal, Amerind, and Amerindian for American Indian for articles linking American Indians with diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney disease, and sugar; additional references were identified in these publications traced to 1900 and articles were reviewed if they were directly discussing these topics. Multiple factors are involved in the increased risk for diabetes and kidney disease in the American Indian population, including poverty, overnutrition, poor health care, high intake of sugar, and genetic mechanisms. Genetic factors may be especially important in the Pima, as historical records suggest that this group was predisposed to obesity before exposure to Western culture and diet. Exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages may also be involved in the increased risk for chronic kidney disease. In these small populations in severe health crisis, we recommend further studies to investigate the role of excess added sugar, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, as a potentially remediable risk factor. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Senescence sweetening of chip and fry processing potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato storage makes the crop available over an extended time period, but increases financial risk to growers and end users. Senescence sweetening limits storage duration for chip and fry processing potatoes because it results in an unacceptable accumulation of reducing sugars that result in dark-co...

  13. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 145.181 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such...

  14. The Sweetener-Sensing Mechanisms of the Ghrelin Cell

    PubMed Central

    Steensels, Sandra; Vancleef, Laurien; Depoortere, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate administration decreases plasma levels of the ‘hunger hormone’ ghrelin. The ghrelin cell is co-localized with the sweet taste receptor subunit, TAS1R3, and the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, both involved in the sensing of sweeteners by entero-endocrine cells. This study investigated the role of gustducin-mediated sweet taste receptor signaling on ghrelin secretion in a gastric ghrelinoma cell line, tissue segments and mice. The monosaccharide d-glucose and low-intensity sweetener oligofructose (OFS) decreased (p < 0.001) ghrelin secretion while the high-intensity sweetener sucralose increased (p < 0.001) ghrelin secretion in vitro. These effects were not mediated via the sweet taste receptor or glucose transporters (the sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter SGLT-1 and GLUT2). The effect of these compounds was mimicked ex vivo in gastric and jejunal segments from both wild type (WT) and α-gustducin knockout (α-gust−/−) mice. In vivo, the sensing of d-glucose was polarized since intragastric but not intravenous administration of d-glucose decreased (p < 0.05) ghrelin levels in an α-gustducin independent manner which involved inhibition of duodenal ghrelin release. In contrast, neither OFS nor sucralose affected ghrelin secretion in vivo. In conclusion, α-gustducin-mediated sweet taste receptor signaling does not play a functional role in the sensing of carbohydrates, or low- or high-intensity sweeteners by the ghrelin cell. PMID:27941594

  15. A history of sweeteners--natural and synthetic.

    PubMed

    Inglett, G E

    1976-09-01

    Sweetness for the prehistoric man was the taste sensation obtained from sweet berries and honey. Man's quest for other sweet things led to sucose, starch-derived sugars, and synthetic sweeteners. An unusual source of sweet taste is a West African berry known as miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum). This fruit possesses a taste-modifying substance that causes sour foods--e.g., lemons, limes, or grapefruit--to taste sweet. The active principle was found to be a glycoprotein. Until this time, only small molecules were considered sweet-evoking substances, but now macromolecules are considered capable of participating in taste perception. The intense sweetener of the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called the serendipity berry, was revealed to be a protein. The intensely sweet principle of Thaumatococcus daniellii, called katemfe, was reported in 1972 to contain two proteins having intense sweetness. Since intensely sweet protein sweeteners act directly on taste buds as a probe, a peptide linkage analogous to the aspartic acid sweeteners may be partly responsible for their sweetness.

  16. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and artificial food flavoring. (c) Methods of analysis. The milkfat content is determined by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  17. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and artificial food flavoring. (c) Methods of analysis. The milkfat content is determined by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  18. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and artificial food flavoring. (c) Methods of analysis. The milkfat content is determined by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  19. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and artificial food flavoring. (c) Methods of analysis. The milkfat content is determined by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  20. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and artificial food flavoring. (c) Methods of analysis. The milkfat content is determined by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  1. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: the fight against obesity.

    PubMed

    Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie

    2013-05-10

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable.

  2. Readiness to change sugar sweetened beverage intake among college students.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Laura; West, Delia Smith

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a topic of concern in the United States, especially among children and young adults, and there is also a growing concern that sugared beverage consumption may contribute to increasing obesity rates. However, few studies to date have examined sugar sweetened beverage consumption trends in college students. This study investigated self-reported sugared beverage consumption, nutritional knowledge, and readiness to change sugar sweetened beverage intake in college students (N=201; 33% minority). On average, non-overweight students reported significantly greater intake of sugared beverages than overweight students, and minority students reported greater consumption than Caucasians. A substantial majority of the sample (69%) reported that they had recently reduced their intake or were maintaining a reduction in intake. However, even those students indicating reduction in consumption reported intake of at least one sugar sweetened beverage daily. This suggests that high calorie beverage intake is a significant concern among young adult college-aged populations and that interventions targeting excess sugar sweetened beverage intake may have a role in obesity prevention efforts for this population.

  3. Robust scientific evidence demonstrates benefits of artificial sweeteners

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artificial sweeteners (AS) have not been found to have a negative impact on health in humans. They have been recommended as a safe alternative for individuals who are seeking to lose or maintain weight. However, unnecessary alarm has been raised regarding the potential health risks of AS. This is of...

  4. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  5. Tagatose, the new GRAS sweetener and health product.

    PubMed

    Levin, Gilbert V

    2002-01-01

    Tagatose, a low-calorie, full-bulk natural sugar, has just attained GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status under U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, thereby permitting its use as a sweetener in foods and beverages. This paper presents all current aspects of tagatose with respect to demonstrated food and beverage applications and the potential health and medical benefits of this unique substance. Summarized studies are referenced to detailed peer-reviewed papers. The safety studies followed the recommendations in the FDA "Red Book." Results were submitted to an Expert Panel for determination of GRAS status under FDA regulation. Small phase 2 clinical trials showed tagatose to be effective in treating type 2 diabetes. The results, buttressed by the references cited, support the efficacy of the various applications disclosed for tagatose. Tagatose has been found to be safe and efficacious for use as a low-calorie, full-bulk sweetener in a wide variety of foods, beverages, health foods, and dietary supplements. It fills broad, heretofore unmet needs for a low-calorie sweetener in products in which the bulk of sugar is important, such as chocolates, chewing gum, cakes, ice cream, and frosted cereals. Its synergism with high-intensity sweeteners also makes it useful in sodas. Various health and medical benefits are indicated, including the treatment of type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, anemia, and hemophilia and the improvement of fetal development.

  6. Cocrystal structures of NC6.8 Fab identify key interactions for high potency sweetener recognition: implications for the design of synthetic sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Ronning, Donald R; Linthicum, Scott D; Sacchettini, James C; Rupp, Bernhard

    2005-07-26

    The crystal structures of the murine monoclonal IgG2b(kappa) antibody NC6.8 Fab fragment complexed with high-potency sweetener compound SC45647 and nontasting high-affinity antagonist TES have been determined. The crystal structures show how sweetener potency is fine-tuned by multiple interactions between specific receptor residues and the functionally different groups of the sweeteners. Comparative analysis with the structure of NC6.8 complexed with the super-potency sweetener NC174 reveals that although the same residues in the antigen binding pocket of NC6.8 interact with the zwitterionic, trisubstituted guanidinium sweeteners as well as TES, specific differences exist and provide guidance for the design of new artificial sweeteners. In case of the nonsweetener TES, the interactions with the receptor are indirectly mediated through a hydrogen bonded water network, while the sweeteners bind with high affinity directly to the receptor. The presence of a hydrophobic group interacting with multiple receptor residues as a major determinant for sweet taste has been confirmed. The nature of the hydrophobic group is likely a discriminator for super- versus high-potency sweeteners, which can be exploited in the design of new, highly potent sweetener compounds. Overall similarities and partial conservation of interactions indicate that the NC6.8 Fab surrogate is representing crucial features of the T1R2 taste receptor VFTM binding site.

  7. Early Carboniferous (Tournasian-early Visean) global paleogeography, Paleostorm tracts, and the distribution of Waulsortian and Waulsortian-like carbonate mud mounds

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.T. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    Tournasian-early Visean mud mounds (i.e., Waulsortian and Waulsortian-like mounds) are unlike other carbonate buildups in the stratigraphic record because they lack an identifiable frame-building organism. Waulsortian mounds are comprised mainly of carbonate mud; Waulsortian-like mounds are mud-rich and contain a significant percent of skeletal grains, especially crinoids and bryozoa. This study has revealed that all of the reported Waulsortian and Waulsortian-like mounds developed in low paleolatitudes either on the southern shelf margin of the Laurussian paleocontinent or in the Laurussian interior seaway. Waulsortian and Waulsortian-like mounds are specifically not present in low-latitude regions of other paleocontinents. As Tournasian-early Visean carbonatemore » deposition was widespread in the range of 30{degree}N to 10{degree}S, the very restricted paleogeographic distribution of Waulsortian and Waulsortian-like mound locations suggests a mechanism or set of conditions that effectively limited the distribution of mud mounds. Considering the Tournasian-early Visean distribution of paleocontinents and the principles that govern the movement of modern hurricanes, tropical storms, and winter storms, the tracts of hurricanes, tropical storms, and winter storms probably crossed all main submerged paleocontinental areas except the southern Laurussian shelf margin and the Laurussian interior seaway, the two areas where mud mounds developed. The lack of storm energy in these two large areas of Laurussia provided long-term stability and thus enhanced the growth prospects of the frame-deficient Waulsortian and Waulsortian-like mud mounds. Lack of extensive periodic wave reworking and other storm-induced devastation helps to account for enigmatic features such as general mound symmetry, great size, high depositional relief (as much as 220 m), and side steepness (as steep as 50{degree}).« less

  8. Cool episode and platform demise in the Early Aptian: New insights on the links between climate and carbonate production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Aurélie; Pucéat, Emmanuelle; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Mattioli, Emanuela; Aurell, Marcos; Joachimski, Michael; Barbarin, Nicolas; Laffont, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The Early Aptian encountered several crises in neritic and pelagic carbonate production, major perturbations in the carbon cycle, and an oceanic anoxic event (OAE1a). Yet the causal links between these perturbations and climate changes remain poorly understood, partly because temperature records spanning the Early Aptian interval are still scant. We present new δ18O data from well-preserved bivalves from a carbonate platform of the Galve subbasin (Spain) that document a major cooling event postdating most of OAE1a. Our data show that cooling postdates the global platform demise and cannot have triggered this event that occurred during the warmest interval. The warmest temperatures coincide with the time equivalent of OAE1a and with platform biotic assemblages dominated by microbialites at Aliaga as well as on other Tethyan platforms. Coral-dominated assemblages then replace microbialites during the subsequent cooling. Nannoconids are absent during most of the time equivalent of the OAE1a, probably related to the well-known crisis affecting this group. Yet they present a transient recovery in the upper part of this interval with an increase in both size and abundance during the cool interval portion that postdates OAE1a. An evolution toward cooler and drier climatic conditions may have induced the regional change from microbial to coral assemblages as well as nannoconids size and abundance increase by limiting continent-derived input of nutrients.

  9. Basanite-nephelinite suite from early Kilauea: Carbonated melts of phlogopite-garnet peridotite at Hawaii's leading magmatic edge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Coombs, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    A basanite-nephelinite glass suite from early submarine Kilauea defines a continuous compositional array marked by increasing concentrations of incompatible components with decreasing SiO2, MgO, and Al2O3. Like peripheral and post-shield strongly alkalic Hawaiian localities (Clague et al. in J Volcanol Geotherm Res 151:279-307, 2006; Dixon et al. in J Pet 38:911-939, 1997), the early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite glasses are interpreted as olivine fractionation products from primary magnesian alkalic liquids. For early Kilauea, these were saturated with a garnet-phlogopite-sulfide peridotite assemblage, with elevated dissolved CO2 contents responsible for the liquids' distinctly low-SiO2 concentrations. Reconstructed primitive liquids for early Kilauea and other Hawaiian strongly alkalic localities are similar to experimental 3 GPa low-degree melts of moderately carbonated garnet lherzolite, and estimated parent magma temperatures of 1,350-1,400??C (olivine-liquid geothermometry) match the ambient upper mantle geotherm shortly beneath the base of the lithosphere. The ???3 GPa source regions were too hot for stable crystalline carbonate and may have consisted of ambient upper mantle peridotite containing interstitial carbonate-silicate or carbonatitic liquid, possibly (Dixon et al. in Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9(9):Q09005, 2008), although not necessarily, from the Hawaiian mantle plume. Carbonate-enriched domains were particularly susceptible to further melting upon modest decompression during upward lithospheric flexure beneath the advancing Hawaiian Arch, or by conductive heating or upward drag by the Hawaiian mantle plume. The early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite suite has a HIMU-influenced isotopic character unlike other Hawaiian magmas (Shimizu et al. in EOS Tran Amer Geophys Union 82(47): abstr V12B-0962, 2001; Shimizu et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(15A):710, 2002) but consistent with oceanic carbonatite involvement (Hoernle et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol

  10. Basanite-nephelinite suite from early Kilauea: carbonated melts of phlogopite-garnet peridotite at Hawaii's leading magmatic edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Kimura, J.-I.; Coombs, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    A basanite-nephelinite glass suite from early submarine Kilauea defines a continuous compositional array marked by increasing concentrations of incompatible components with decreasing SiO2, MgO, and Al2O3. Like peripheral and post-shield strongly alkalic Hawaiian localities (Clague et al. in J Volcanol Geotherm Res 151:279-307, 2006; Dixon et al. in J Pet 38:911-939, 1997), the early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite glasses are interpreted as olivine fractionation products from primary magnesian alkalic liquids. For early Kilauea, these were saturated with a garnet-phlogopite-sulfide peridotite assemblage, with elevated dissolved CO2 contents responsible for the liquids’ distinctly low-SiO2 concentrations. Reconstructed primitive liquids for early Kilauea and other Hawaiian strongly alkalic localities are similar to experimental 3 GPa low-degree melts of moderately carbonated garnet lherzolite, and estimated parent magma temperatures of 1,350-1,400°C (olivine-liquid geothermometry) match the ambient upper mantle geotherm shortly beneath the base of the lithosphere. The ~3 GPa source regions were too hot for stable crystalline carbonate and may have consisted of ambient upper mantle peridotite containing interstitial carbonate-silicate or carbonatitic liquid, possibly (Dixon et al. in Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9(9):Q09005, 2008), although not necessarily, from the Hawaiian mantle plume. Carbonate-enriched domains were particularly susceptible to further melting upon modest decompression during upward lithospheric flexure beneath the advancing Hawaiian Arch, or by conductive heating or upward drag by the Hawaiian mantle plume. The early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite suite has a HIMU-influenced isotopic character unlike other Hawaiian magmas (Shimizu et al. in EOS Tran Amer Geophys Union 82(47): abstr V12B-0962, 2001; Shimizu et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(15A):710, 2002) but consistent with oceanic carbonatite involvement (Hoernle et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol

  11. Analysis and Characterization of Organic Carbon in Early Holocene Wetland Paleosols using Ramped Pyrolysis 14C and Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, L.; Schreiner, K. M.; Fernandez, A.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Tornqvist, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon analyses are a key tool for quantifying the dynamics of carbon cycling and storage in both modern soils and Quaternary paleosols. Frequently, bulk 14C dates of paleosol organic carbon provide ages older than the time of soil burial, and 14C dates of geochemical fractions such as alkali and acid extracts (operationally defined as humic acids) can provide anomalously old ages when compared to coeval plant macrofossil dates. Ramped pyrolysis radiocarbon analysis of sedimentary organic material has been employed as a tool for investigating 14C age spectra in sediments with multiple organic carbon sources. Here we combine ramped pyrolysis 14C analysis and biomarker analysis (lignin-phenols and other cupric oxide products) to provide information on the source and diagenetic state of the paleosol organic carbon. We apply these techniques to immature early Holocene brackish wetland entisols from three sediment cores in southeastern Louisiana, along with overlying basal peats. Surprisingly, we find narrow 14C age spectra across all thermal aliquots from both paleosols and peats. The weighted bulk 14C ages from paleosols and overlying peats are within analytical error, and are comparable to independently analyzed 14C AMS dates from charcoal fragments and other plant macrofossils from each peat bed. Our results suggest high turnover rates of carbon in soils relative to input of exogenous carbon sources. These data raise broader questions about processes within the active soil and during pedogenesis and burial of paleosols that can effectively homogenize radiocarbon content in soils across the thermochemical spectrum. The concurrence of paleosol and peat 14C ages also suggests that, in the absence of peats with identifiable plant macrofossils, ramped pyrolysis 14C analyses of paleosols may be used to provide ages for sea-level indicators.

  12. The impact of deep-tier burrow systems in sediment mixing and ecosystem engineering in early Cambrian carbonate settings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Jun; Qi, Yong-An; Buatois, Luis A.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Meng, Yao; Li, Da

    2017-01-01

    Bioturbation plays a substantial role in sediment oxygen concentration, chemical cycling, regeneration of nutrients, microbial activity, and the rate of organic matter decomposition in modern oceans. In addition, bioturbators are ecosystem engineers which promote the presence of some organisms, while precluding others. However, the impact of bioturbation in deep time remains controversial and limited sediment mixing has been indicated for early Paleozoic seas. Our understanding of the actual impact of bioturbation early in the Phanerozoic has been hampered by the lack of detailed analysis of the functional significance of specific burrow architectures. Integration of ichnologic and sedimentologic evidence from North China shows that deep-tier Thalassinoides mazes occur in lower Cambrian nearshore carbonate sediments, leading to intense disruption of the primary fabric. Comparison with modern studies suggest that some of the effects of this style of Cambrian bioturbation may have included promotion of nitrogen and ammonium fluxes across the sediment-water interface, average deepening of the redox discontinuity surface, expansion of aerobic bacteria, and increase in the rate of organic matter decomposition and the regeneration of nutrients. Our study suggests that early Cambrian sediment mixing in carbonate settings may have been more significant than assumed in previous models. PMID:28374857

  13. A Possible Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Ocean Acidification Event Recoded in the Adriatic Carbonate Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, A.; Martindale, R. C.; Kosir, A.; Oefinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event ( 56.3 Ma) was a period of massive carbon release into the Earth system, resulting in significant shifts in ocean chemistry. It has been proposed that ocean acidification - a decrease in the pH and carbonate saturation state of the water as a result of dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water - occurred in both the shallow and deep marine realms. Ocean acidification would have had a devastating impact on the benthic ecosystem, and has been proposed as the cause of decreased carbonate deposition in marine sections and coral reef collapse during the late Paleocene. To date, however, the only physical evidence of Paleocene-Eocene ocean acidification has been shown for offshore sites (i.e., a shallow carbonate compensation depth), but isotope analysis (i.e. B, I/Ca) suggests that acidification occurred in the shallow shelves as well. Several sites in the Kras region of Slovenia, has been found to contain apparent erosion surfaces coeval with the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary. We have investigated these potentially acidified horizons using petrography, stable carbon isotopes, cathodoluminescence, and elemental mapping. These datasets will inform whether the horizons formed by seafloor dissolution in an acidified ocean, or are due to subaerial exposure, or burial diagenesis (i.e. stylotization). Physical erosion and diagenesis can easily be ruled out based on field relationships and petrography, but the other potential causes must be analyzed more critically.

  14. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: Implications for public health strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required. PMID:22192774

  15. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: implications for public health strategy.

    PubMed

    Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2011-12-22

    High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  16. Constraining the climate and ocean pH of the early Earth with a geological carbon cycle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Arney, Giada N.; Catling, David C.

    2018-04-01

    The early Earth’s environment is controversial. Climatic estimates range from hot to glacial, and inferred marine pH spans strongly alkaline to acidic. Better understanding of early climate and ocean chemistry would improve our knowledge of the origin of life and its coevolution with the environment. Here, we use a geological carbon cycle model with ocean chemistry to calculate self-consistent histories of climate and ocean pH. Our carbon cycle model includes an empirically justified temperature and pH dependence of seafloor weathering, allowing the relative importance of continental and seafloor weathering to be evaluated. We find that the Archean climate was likely temperate (0–50 °C) due to the combined negative feedbacks of continental and seafloor weathering. Ocean pH evolves monotonically from 6.6‑0.4+0.6 (2σ) at 4.0 Ga to 7.0‑0.5+0.7 (2σ) at the Archean–Proterozoic boundary, and to 7.9‑0.2+0.1 (2σ) at the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary. This evolution is driven by the secular decline of pCO2, which in turn is a consequence of increasing solar luminosity, but is moderated by carbonate alkalinity delivered from continental and seafloor weathering. Archean seafloor weathering may have been a comparable carbon sink to continental weathering, but is less dominant than previously assumed, and would not have induced global glaciation. We show how these conclusions are robust to a wide range of scenarios for continental growth, internal heat flow evolution and outgassing history, greenhouse gas abundances, and changes in the biotic enhancement of weathering.

  17. Constraining the climate and ocean pH of the early Earth with a geological carbon cycle model.

    PubMed

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Arney, Giada N; Catling, David C

    2018-04-17

    The early Earth's environment is controversial. Climatic estimates range from hot to glacial, and inferred marine pH spans strongly alkaline to acidic. Better understanding of early climate and ocean chemistry would improve our knowledge of the origin of life and its coevolution with the environment. Here, we use a geological carbon cycle model with ocean chemistry to calculate self-consistent histories of climate and ocean pH. Our carbon cycle model includes an empirically justified temperature and pH dependence of seafloor weathering, allowing the relative importance of continental and seafloor weathering to be evaluated. We find that the Archean climate was likely temperate (0-50 °C) due to the combined negative feedbacks of continental and seafloor weathering. Ocean pH evolves monotonically from [Formula: see text] (2σ) at 4.0 Ga to [Formula: see text] (2σ) at the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, and to [Formula: see text] (2σ) at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary. This evolution is driven by the secular decline of pCO 2 , which in turn is a consequence of increasing solar luminosity, but is moderated by carbonate alkalinity delivered from continental and seafloor weathering. Archean seafloor weathering may have been a comparable carbon sink to continental weathering, but is less dominant than previously assumed, and would not have induced global glaciation. We show how these conclusions are robust to a wide range of scenarios for continental growth, internal heat flow evolution and outgassing history, greenhouse gas abundances, and changes in the biotic enhancement of weathering. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Constraining the climate and ocean pH of the early Earth with a geological carbon cycle model

    PubMed Central

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Arney, Giada N.

    2018-01-01

    The early Earth’s environment is controversial. Climatic estimates range from hot to glacial, and inferred marine pH spans strongly alkaline to acidic. Better understanding of early climate and ocean chemistry would improve our knowledge of the origin of life and its coevolution with the environment. Here, we use a geological carbon cycle model with ocean chemistry to calculate self-consistent histories of climate and ocean pH. Our carbon cycle model includes an empirically justified temperature and pH dependence of seafloor weathering, allowing the relative importance of continental and seafloor weathering to be evaluated. We find that the Archean climate was likely temperate (0–50 °C) due to the combined negative feedbacks of continental and seafloor weathering. Ocean pH evolves monotonically from 6.6−0.4+0.6 (2σ) at 4.0 Ga to 7.0−0.5+0.7 (2σ) at the Archean–Proterozoic boundary, and to 7.9−0.2+0.1 (2σ) at the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary. This evolution is driven by the secular decline of pCO2, which in turn is a consequence of increasing solar luminosity, but is moderated by carbonate alkalinity delivered from continental and seafloor weathering. Archean seafloor weathering may have been a comparable carbon sink to continental weathering, but is less dominant than previously assumed, and would not have induced global glaciation. We show how these conclusions are robust to a wide range of scenarios for continental growth, internal heat flow evolution and outgassing history, greenhouse gas abundances, and changes in the biotic enhancement of weathering. PMID:29610313

  19. Application of carbon nanoparticles in laparoscopic sentinel lymph node detection in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Wei, Jin-Ying; Yao, De-Sheng; Pan, Zhong-Mian; Yao, Yao

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the value of carbon nanoparticles in identifying sentinel lymph nodes in early-stage cervical cancer. From January 2014 to January 2016, 40 patients with cervical cancer stage IA2-IIA, based on the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 criteria, were included in this study. The normal cervix around the tumor was injected with a total of 1 mL of carbon nanoparticles (CNP)at 3 and 9 o'clock. All patients then underwent laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection and radical hysterectomy. The black-dyed sentinel lymph nodes were removed for routine pathological examination and immunohistochemical staining. Among the 40 patients, 38 patients had at least one sentinel lymph node (SLN). The detection rate was 95% (38/40). One hundred seventy-three SLNs were detected with an average of 3.9 SLNs per side. 25 positive lymph nodes, which included 21 positive SLNs, were detected in 8 (20%) patients. Sentinel lymph nodes were localized in the obturator (47.97%), internal lilac (13.87%), external lilac (26.59%), parametrial (1.16%), and common iliac (8.67%) regions. The sensitivity of the SLN detection was 100% (5/5), the accuracy was 97.37% (37/38), and the negative predictive value was 100. 0% and the false negative rate was 0%. Sentinel lymph nodes can be used to accurately predict the pathological state of pelvic lymph nodes in early cervical cancer. The detection rates and accuracy of sentinel lymph node were high. Carbon nanoparticles can be used to trace the sentinel lymph node in early cervical cancer.

  20. Association of δ¹³C in fingerstick blood with added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    PubMed

    Davy, Brenda M; Jahren, A Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L

    2011-06-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added-sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related comorbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of ¹³C, a naturally occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary dietary source, might be reflected in the δ¹³C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay because of its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the δ¹³C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Individuals aged 21 years and older (n = 60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire, sequence two: 4-day food intake record). Sequence one participants completed a food intake record at visit two, and nonfasting blood samples were obtained via routine fingersticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a beverage intake questionnaire at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for δ¹³C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. δ¹³C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added-sugar intake. Reported mean added-sugar consumption was 66 ± 5 g/day, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was 330 ± 53 g/day and 134 ± 25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick δ¹³C value was -19.94‰ ± 0.10‰, which differed by body mass index status. δ¹³C value was associated (all P < 0

  1. Tempo and scale of late Paleocene and early Eocene carbon isotope cycles: Implications for the origin of hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachos, James C.; McCarren, Heather; Murphy, Brandon; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The upper Paleocene and lower Eocene are marked by several prominent (> 1‰) carbon isotope (δ 13C) excursions (CIE) that coincide with transient global warmings, or thermal maxima, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The CIE, which are recorded mainly in marine sedimentary sequences, have also been identified in continental sequences, occurred episodically, and yet appear to be paced or triggered by orbital forcing. To constrain the timing and scale of the CIE relative to long-term baseline variability, we have constructed a 4.52 million year (myr) long, high-resolution (~ 3 kyr) bulk sediment carbon isotope record spanning the lower Eocene to upper Paleocene (C25r-C24n) from a pelagic sediment section recovered at ODP Site 1262 in the southeast Atlantic. This section, which was orbitally-tuned utilizing high-resolution core log physical property and geochemical records, is the most stratigraphically complete upper Paleocene to lower Eocene sequence recovered to date. Time-series analysis of the carbon isotope record along with a high-resolution Fe intensity record obtained by XRF core scanner reveal cyclicity with variance concentrated primarily in the precession (21 kyr) and eccentricity bands (100 and 400-kyr) throughout the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene. In general, minima in δ 13C correspond with peaks in Fe (i.e., carbonate dissolution), both of which appear to be in phase with maxima in eccentricity. This covariance is consistent with excess oceanic uptake of isotopically depleted carbon resulting in lower carbonate saturation during periods of high eccentricity. This relationship includes all late Paleocene and early Eocene CIE confirming pacing by orbital forcing. The lone exception is the PETM, which appears to be out of phase with the 400-kyr cycle, though possibly in phase with the 100-kyr cycle, reinforcing the notion that a mechanism other than orbital forcing and/or an additional source of carbon is required to account for the

  2. Early Precambrian Carbonate and Evapolite Sediments: Constraints on Environmental and Biological Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grotzinger, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The work accomplished under NASA Grant NAG5-6722 was very successful. Our lab was able to document the occurrence and distribution of evaporite-to-carbonate transitions in several basins during Precambrian time, to help constrain the long-term chemical evolution of seawater.

  3. Litho- and biofacies of Early Cretaceous rudist-bearing carbonate sediments in northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Shin-ichi

    1995-11-01

    Carbonate blocks of late Aptian (Lower Cretaceous) age occur in the Lower Yezo Group of central Hokkaido in northeast Japan. The shallow-water carbonates were emplaced by gravity sliding and rock fall into a deep-water flysch basin. Various lithofacies can be distinguished within the blocks including massive wackestone, bedded packstone and micro-oncoid grainstone, containing corals, rudists, an oyster, gastropods, calcareous algae and an orbitolinid foraminifer. Facies and palaeoecological analyses suggest deposition of low-energy biostromes and sand banks in open lagoonal and restricted environments with local higher-energy shoals and beaches. The presence of calcareous sandstones and abundant insoluble residues in limestones suggest deposition in an attached carbonate platform close to a supply of terrigenous material, rather than deposition upon seamounts within an oceanic setting. A narrow rimmed shelf in tropical-subtropical conditions would have been the depositional environment for these carbonates, which were subsequently deformed into blocks and transported into deep water as a result of the tectonic collapse of the platform.

  4. Impacts of intensive forestry on early rotation trends in site carbon pools in the southeastern US

    Treesearch

    Raija Laiho; Felipe Sanchez; Allan Tiarks; Phillip M. Dougherty; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different silvicultural practices on site, especially soil, carbon (C) pools are still poorly known. We studied changes in site C pools during the first 5 years following harvesting and conversion of two extensively managed pine-hardwood stands to intensively managed loblolly pine plantations. One study site was located on the lower Atlantic Coastal...

  5. Planetary biology and microbial ecology. Biochemistry of carbon and early life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L. (Editor); Nealson, K. H. (Editor); Taylor, I. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Experiments made with cyanobacteria, phototrophic bacteria, and methanogenic bacteria are detailed. Significant carbon isotope fractionation data is included. Taken from well documented extant microbial communities, this data provides a basis of comparison for isotope fractionation values measured in Archean and Proterozoic (preCambrian) rocks. Media, methods, and techniques used to acquire data are also described.

  6. Early stages of carbonate mineralization revealed from molecular simulations: Implications for biomineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, A. F.; DeYoreo, J.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The carbonate mineral constituents of many biomineralized products, formed both in and ex vivo, grow by a multi-stage crystallization process that involves the nucleation and structural reorganization of transient amorphous phases. The existence of transient phases and cluster species has significant implications for carbonate nucleation and growth in natural and engineered environments, both modern and ancient. The structure of these intermediate phases remains elusive, as does the nature of the disorder to order transition, however, these process details may strongly influence the interpretation of elemental and isotopic climate proxy data obtained from authigenic and biogenic carbonates. While molecular simulations have been applied to certain aspects of crystal growth, studies of metal carbonate nucleation are strongly inhibited by the presence of kinetic traps that prevent adequate sampling of the potential landscape upon which the growing clusters reside within timescales accessible by simulation. This research addresses this challenge by marrying the recent Kawska-Zahn (KZ) approach to simulation of crystal nucleation and growth from solution with replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) techniques. REMD has been used previously to enhance sampling of protein conformations that occupy energy wells that are separated by sizable thermodynamic and kinetic barriers, and is used here to probe the initial formation and onset of order within hydrated calcium and iron carbonate cluster species during nucleation. Results to date suggest that growing clusters initiate as short linear ion chains that evolve into two- and three-dimensional structures with continued growth. The planar structures exhibit an obvious 2d lattice, while establishment of a 3d lattice is hindered by incomplete ion desolvation. The formation of a dehydrated core consisting of a single carbonate ion is observed when the clusters are ~0.75 nm. At the same size a distorted, but discernible

  7. Depositional environments and cyclicity of the Early Ordovician carbonate ramp in the western Tarim Basin (NW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuan; Chen, Daizhao; Song, Yafang; Zhou, Xiqiang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Gongjing

    2018-06-01

    During the Early Ordovician, the Tarim Basin (NW China) was mainly occupied by an extensive shallow-water carbonate platform, on which a carbonate ramp system was developed in the Bachu-Keping area of the western part of the basin. Three well-exposed typical outcrop sections of the Lower Ordovician Penglaiba Formation were investigated in order to identify the depositional facies and to clarify origins of meter-scale cycles and depositional sequences, thereby the platform evolution. Thirteen lithofacies are identified and further grouped into three depositional facies (associations): peritidal, restricted and open-marine subtidal facies. These lithofacies are vertically stacked into meter-scale, shallowing-upward peritidal and subtidal cycles. The peritidal cycles are mainly distributed in the lower and uppermost parts of the Penglaiba Formation deposited in the inner-middle ramp, and commonly start with shallow subtidal to intertidal facies followed by inter- to supratidal facies. In contrast, the subtidal cycles occur throughout the formation mostly in the middle-outer ramp and are dominated by shallow to relatively deep (i.e., intermediate) subtidal facies. The dominance of asymmetrical and incomplete cycles suggests a dominant control of Earth's orbital forcing on the cyclic deposition on the platform. On the basis of vertical facies and cycle stacking patterns, and accommodation changes illustrated by the Fischer plots from all studied sections, five third-order depositional sequences are recognized in the Penglaiba Formation. Individual sequences comprise a lower transgressive part and an upper regressive one. In shallow-water depositional environments, the transgressive packages are dominated by thicker-than-average subtidal cycles, indicating an increase in accommodation space, whereas regressive parts are mainly represented by thinner-than-average peritidal and subtidal cycles, denoting a decrease in accommodation space. In contrast, in intermediate to

  8. Response of carbon isotopic compositions of Early-Middle Permian coals in North China to palaeo-climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dianshi; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Xiaohui; Sun, Ruoyu

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude to which the carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) varies in coals in response to their contemporary terrestrial environment, the Early-Middle Permian Huainan coals (including coals from the Shanxi Formation, Lower Shihezi Formation and Upper Shihezi Formation) in North China were systematically sampled. A 2.5‰ variation range of δ13C values (-25.15‰ to -22.65‰) was observed in Huainan coals, with an average value of -24.06‰. As coal diagenesis exerts little influence on carbon isotope fractionation, δ13C values in coals were mainly imparted by those of coal-forming flora assemblages which were linked to the contemporary climate. The δ13C values in coals from the Shanxi and Lower Shihezi Formations are variable, reflecting unstable climatic oscillations. Heavy carbon isotope is enriched in coals of the Capitanian Upper Shihezi Formation, implying a shift to high positive δ13C values of coeval atmospheric CO2. Notably, our study provides evidence of the Kamura event in the terrestrial environment for the first time.

  9. Trends in the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Rother, Kristina I

    2016-10-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) offer a palatable alternative to caloric sugars such as sucrose (table sugar) and high fructose corn syrup and are commonly found in soft drinks, sweetener packets, grains, snack foods, dairy products, hygiene products, and medications. Consumption of LCS has increased significantly in recent years and while this trend is expected to continue, controversy exists surrounding their use. The purpose of this article is to review trends in the consumption of LCS, to summarize differences in LCS consumption across socio-demographic subgroups and subtypes of LCS-containing products, and to highlight important challenges in the accurate assessment of LCS consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Next Generation Stevia Sweetener: Rebaudioside M.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Markosyan, Avetik; Bunders, Cynthia

    2014-02-27

    This work aims to review and showcase the unique properties of rebaudioside M as a natural non-caloric potential sweetener in food and beverage products. To determine the potential of rebaudioside M, isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, as a high potency sweetener, we examined it with the Beidler Model. This model estimated that rebaudioside M is 200-350 times more potent than sucrose. Numerous sensory evaluations of rebaudioside M's taste attributes illustrated that this steviol glycoside possesses a clean, sweet taste with a slightly bitter or licorice aftertaste. The major reaction pathways in aqueous solutions (pH 2-8) for rebaudioside M are similar to rebaudioside A. Herein we demonstrate that rebaudioside M could be of great interest to the global food industry because it is well-suited for blending and is functional in a wide variety of food and beverage products.

  11. Development of Next Generation Stevia Sweetener: Rebaudioside M

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Indra; Markosyan, Avetik; Bunders, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to review and showcase the unique properties of rebaudioside M as a natural non-caloric potential sweetener in food and beverage products. To determine the potential of rebaudioside M, isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, as a high potency sweetener, we examined it with the Beidler Model. This model estimated that rebaudioside M is 200–350 times more potent than sucrose. Numerous sensory evaluations of rebaudioside M’s taste attributes illustrated that this steviol glycoside possesses a clean, sweet taste with a slightly bitter or licorice aftertaste. The major reaction pathways in aqueous solutions (pH 2–8) for rebaudioside M are similar to rebaudioside A. Herein we demonstrate that rebaudioside M could be of great interest to the global food industry because it is well-suited for blending and is functional in a wide variety of food and beverage products. PMID:28234311

  12. Quantifying early 17th century changes in Chesapeake Bay estuarine carbon dynamics from James River, VA oyster geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, B. L.; Spero, H. J.; Harding, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The first successful European colonization of North America occurred in 1607 following the arrival of English settlers at Jamestown, Virginia. Within a few decades, land use changes and clear-cutting farming practices dramatically altered the terrestrial landscape and removed the overlying canopy and stabilizing root network of the previously-dominant hardwood forests. The Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, has inhabited the Chesapeake Bay since the end of the last deglaciation. During the start of the Jamestown Colony, an extensive drought (1606-1612) shifted James River salinity zones upriver, expanding the available oyster habitat to the vicinity of Jamestown. This allowed the colonists to collect and eat oysters from areas near the colony down to the river's entry into the bay, and later discard the shells in wells and trash pits that have recently been excavated. The oysters' calcium carbonate shells discovered in these deposits act as multi-year stationary recorders preserving the local environmental chemistry throughout their life until collection. Here we present δ13C, δ18O, and radiocarbon data from historical oyster shell hinge transects that encompass the time period between ~1609 and the early 1700s. Samples include shells from the 1609 Jamestown freshwater well and five additional sites, as well as modern shells collected in 2006. Because shell δ13C and radiocarbon (14C) reflect James River δ13CDIC, it is possible to document carbon source changes during this period of land use change. Our preliminary data suggest a decrease in ambient δ13CDIC of approximately 2‰ between just prior to 1609 conditions and the modern estuary. This is most likely due to an increase in isotopically light organic carbon loading into the river as water moves more rapidly through the terrestrial system. Radiocarbon reservoir ages will also be presented to better constrain carbon flow through the system during this period of disturbance. δ18O measurements from the

  13. Major early Eocene carbon cycle perturbations and changes in planktic foraminiferal assemblages from the southeast Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1263)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald Roy; Wade, Bridget

    2017-04-01

    On a paleoclimatic perspective the early Paleogene represents one of the most interesting and dynamic intervals of the Earth's history. Present record indicates that the Earth climate system reached its Cenozoic maximum peak of global warming and probably of pCO2 during the early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO, 49-53 Ma). Superimposed to the general trend, our planet experienced short-term ( 40-200 kyr) repeated peaks in global temperatures and major changes in the carbon cycle, known as hyperthermals. Great scientific interest has been focused on the early Paleogene hyperthermal events, given the assumed similarity with the current climatic scenario. Less attention has been dedicated to the EECO long lasting perturbation of extraordinary warming thus many characters of this interval still remain largely unconstrained, especially as for the biotic response. We present here results on early Eocene planktic foraminiferal analysis from the southeast Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, Leg 208) to explore possible relationship between changes in assemblages and carbon cycle perturbation. The time interval is of particular interest for an abrupt switch occurred at low-latitude of the northern hemisphere between two important calcifiers of the tropical-subtropical early Paleogene oceans, the genera Morozovella and Acarinina at the carbon isotopic excursion known as J event, at the EECO onset. Precisely, the relative abundance of Morozovella permanently decreased by at least half, along with a progressive decrease in the number of species. Concomitantly, Acarinina almost doubled its abundance and diversified. Site 1263 was located during the early Eocene at a latitude of 40° south therefore representing a temperate setting of southern hemisphere not yet explored for planktic foraminiferal changes. We document a permanent decrease in Morozovella abundance at the beginning of the EECO, although this decline is delayed by 165 kyr with respect to

  14. Planktic foraminiferal response to early Eocene carbon cycle perturbations in the southeast Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1263)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald R.; Wade, Bridget S.

    2017-11-01

    At low latitude locations in the northern hemisphere, striking changes in the relative abundances and diversity of the two dominant planktic foraminifera genera, Morozovella and Acarinina, are known to have occurred close to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO; 49-53 Ma). Lower Eocene carbonate-rich sediments at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 were deposited on a bathymetric high (Walvis Ridge) at 40° S, and afford an opportunity to examine such planktic foraminiferal assemblage changes in a temperate southern hemisphere setting. We present here quantified counts of early Eocene planktic foraminiferal assemblages from Hole 1263B, along with bulk sediment stable isotope analyses and proxy measurements for carbonate dissolution. The bulk sediment δ13C record at Site 1263 resembles similar records generated elsewhere, such that known and inferred hyperthermal events can be readily identified. Although some carbonate dissolution has occurred, the well-preserved planktic foraminiferal assemblages mostly represent primary changes in environmental conditions. Our results document the permanent decrease in Morozovella abundance and increase in Acarinina abundance at the beginning of the EECO, although this switch occurred 165 kyr after that at low-latitude northern hemisphere locations. This suggests that unfavourable environmental conditions for morozovellids at the start of the EECO, such as sustained passage of a temperature threshold or other changes in surface waters, occurred at lower latitudes first. The remarkable turnover from Morozovella to Acarinina was widely geographically widespread, although the causal mechanism remains elusive. In addition, at Site 1263, we document the virtual disappearance within the EECO of the biserial chiloguembelinids, commonly considered as inhabiting intermediate water depths, and a reduction in abundance of the thermocline-dwelling subbotinids. We interpret these changes as signals of subsurface water properties

  15. Artificial Sweeteners Reveal Septic System Effluent in Rural Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, John; Senger, Natalie D; Schiff, Sherry L

    2017-11-01

    It has been widely documented that municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents are a major source of artificial sweeteners to surface waters. However, in rural areas, the extent to which septic systems contribute these same compounds to groundwater aquifers is largely unknown. We examined the occurrence of four commonly used artificial sweeteners in an unconfined sand aquifer that serves as a water supply for rural residents, as a receptor of domestic wastewater from septic systems, and as a source of baseflow to the Nottawasaga River, ON, Canada. Groundwater from the Lake Algonquin Sand Aquifer in the southern Nottawasaga River Watershed was collected from private domestic wells and as groundwater seeps discharging along the banks of the Nottawasaga River. Approximately 30% of samples had detectable levels of one or more artificial sweeteners, indicating the presence of water derived from septic system effluent. Using acesulfame concentrations to estimate the fraction of septic effluent in groundwater samples, ∼3.4 to 13.6% of the domestic wells had 1% or more of their well water being derived from septic system effluent. Similarly, 2.0 to 4.7% of the groundwater seeps had a septic effluent contribution of 1% or more. No relationship was found between the concentration of acesulfame and the concentration of nitrate, ammonium, or soluble reactive phosphorus in the groundwater, indicating that septic effluent is not the dominant source of nutrients in the aquifer. It is expected that the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in shallow groundwater is widespread throughout rural areas in Canada. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol.

    PubMed

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2012-04-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize in the main producing countries. The WFs of sweeteners and bio-ethanol are mainly determined by the crop type that is used as a source and by agricultural practise and agro-climatic conditions; process water footprints are relatively small. The weighted global average WF of sugar cane is 209 m(3)/tonne; for sugar beet this is 133 m(3)/tonne and for maize 1222 m(3)/tonne. Large regional differences in WFs indicate that WFs of crops for sweeteners and bio-ethanol can be improved. It is more favourable to use maize as a feedstock for sweeteners or bio-ethanol than sugar beet or sugar cane. The WF of sugar cane contributes to water stress in the Indus and Ganges basins. In the Ukraine, the large grey WF of sugar beet contributes to water pollution. In some western European countries, blue WFs of sugar beet and maize need a large amount of available blue water for agriculture. The allocation of the limited global water resources to bio-energy on a large scale will be at the cost of water allocation to food and nature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Discrimination of sweeteners based on the refractometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodurov, I.; Vlaeva, I.; Viraneva, A.; Yovcheva, T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, the refractive characteristics of aqueous solutions of several sweeteners are investigated. These data in combination with ones from other sensors should find application for brief determination of sweeteners content in food and dynamic monitoring of food quality. The refractive indices of pure (distilled) water and aqueous solutions of several commonly used natural and artificial sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, sorbitol [E420], isomalt [E953], saccharin sodium [E950], cyclamate sodium and glycerol [E422]) with 10 wt.% concentration are accurately measured at 405 nm, 532 nm and 632.8 nm wavelengths. The measurements are carried out using three wavelength laser microrefractometer based on the total internal reflection method. The critical angle is determined by the disappearance of the diffraction orders from a metal grating. The experimental uncertainty is less than ±0.0001. The dispersion dependences of the refractive indices are obtained using the one-term Sellmeier model. Based on the obtained experimental data additional refractive and dispersion characteristics are calculated.

  18. Early Cretaceous Shallow-Water Platform Carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains, Central Taurides - South Turkey: Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solak, Cemile; Taslı, Kemal; Koç, Hayati

    2016-10-01

    The study area comprises southern non-metamorphic part of the Bolkar Mountains which are situated in southern Turkey, eastern part of the Central Taurides. The studied five outcrops form geologically parts of the tectonostratigraphic units called as allochthonous Aladag Unit and autochthonous Geyikdagi Unit. The aim of this study is to describe microfacies and depositional environments of the Bolkar Mountains Early Cretaceous shallow- water platform carbonates. The Lower Cretaceous is represented by continuous thick- bedded to massive dolomite sequence ranging from 100 to 150 meters thick, which only contains locally laminated limestone intercalations in the Yüğlük section and thick to very thick-bedded uniform limestones ranging from approximately 50 to 120 meters, consist of mainly laminated- fenestral mudstone, peloidal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, bioclastic packstone- wackestone, benthic foraminiferal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, ostracod-fenestral wackestone-mudstone, dasycladacean algal packstone-wackestone and ooidal grainstone microfacies. Based on a combination sedimantological data, facies/microfacies and micropaleontological (predominantly dasycladacean algae and diverse benthic foraminifera) analysis, it is concluded that Early Cretaceous platform carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains reflect a tidally affected tidal-flat and restricted lagoon settings. During the Berriasian- Valanginian unfavourable facies for benthic foraminifera and dolomitization were predominate. In the Hauterivian-early Aptian, the effect of dolomitization largely disappeared and inner platform conditions still prevailed showing alternations of peritidal and lagoon facies, going from peritidal plains (representing various sub-environments including supratidal, intertidal area, tidal-intertidal ponds and ooid bars) dominated by ostracod and miliolids, to dasycladacean algae-rich restricted lagoons-subtidal. These environments show a transition in the vertical and

  19. The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Henry G., Jr.; Connors, Vickie S.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Holland, J. Alvin; Sherrill, Robert T.; Casas, Joseph C.; Gormsen, Barbara B.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide measure by the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument carried aboard the space shuttle is reported. The data represent average mixing ratios in the middle troposphere and are presented in the form of maps that show the carbon monoxide mixing ratios averaged for 6 days of the mission. Comparisons with concurrent, direct measurements taken aboard aircraft show that the inferred concentrations are systematically low by from 20 to 40 percent depending upon which direct measurement calibration standard is used. The data show that there are very large CO sources resulting from biomass burning over South America and southern Africa. Measured mixing ratios were high over northeast Asia and were highly variable over Europe.

  20. Carbon cycling and net ecosystem production at an early stage of secondary succession in an abandoned coppice forest.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Shizu, Yoko; Nishiwaki, Ai; Yashiro, Yuichiro; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Secondary mixed forests are one of the dominant forest cover types in human-dominated temperate regions. However, our understanding of how secondary succession affects carbon cycling and carbon sequestration in these ecosystems is limited. We studied carbon cycling and net ecosystem production (NEP) over 4 years (2004-2008) in a cool-temperate deciduous forest at an early stage of secondary succession (18 years after clear-cutting). Net primary production of the 18-year-old forest in this study was 5.2 tC ha(-1 )year(-1), including below-ground coarse roots; this was partitioned into 2.5 tC ha(-1 )year(-1) biomass increment, 1.6 tC ha(-1 )year(-1) foliage litter, and 1.0 tC ha(-1 )year(-1) other woody detritus. The total amount of annual soil surface CO(2) efflux was 6.8 tC ha(-1 )year(-1), which included root respiration (1.9 tC ha(-1 )year(-1)) and heterotrophic respiration (RH) from soils (4.9 tC ha(-1 )year(-1)). The 18-year forest at this study site exhibited a great increase in biomass pool as a result of considerable total tree growth and low mortality of tree stems. In contrast, the soil organic matter (SOM) pool decreased markedly (-1.6 tC ha(-1 )year(-1)), although further study of below-ground detritus production and RH of SOM decomposition is needed. This young 18-year forest was a weak carbon sink (0.9 tC ha(-1 )year(-1)) at this stage of secondary succession. The NEP of this 18-year forest is likely to increase gradually because biomass increases with tree growth and with the improvement of the SOM pool through increasing litter and dead wood production with stand development.

  1. Stable carbon and sulfur isotopes as records of the early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, David J.

    1989-01-01

    The abundance ratios of the stable isotopes of light elements such as carbon and sulfur can differ between various naturally-occurring chemical compounds. If coexisting compounds have achieved mutual chemical and isotopic equilibrium, then the relative isotopic composition can record the conditions at which equilibrium was last maintained. If coexisting chemical compounds indeed formed simultaneously but had not achieved mutual equilibrium, then their relative isotopic compositions often reflect the conditions and mechanisms associated with the kinetically controlled reactions responsible for their production. In the context of Mars, the stable isotopic compositions of various minerals might record not only the earlier environmental conditions of the planet, but also whether or not the chemistry of life ever occurred there. Two major geochemical reservoirs occur in Earth's crust, both for carbon and sulfur. In rocks formed in low temperature sedimentary environments, the oxidized forms of these elements tend to be enriched in the isotope having the larger mass, relative to the reduced forms. In sediments where the organics and sulfides were formed by biological processes, these isotopic contrasts were caused by the processes of biological CO2 fixation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Such isotopic contrasts between oxidized and reduced forms of carbon and sulfur are permitted by thermodynamics at ambient temperatures. However, nonbiological chemical reactions associated with the production of organic matter and the reduction of organics and sulfides are extremely slow at ambient temperatures. Thus the synthesis of organics and sulfides under ambient conditions illustrates life's profound role as a chemical catalyst that has altered the chemistry of Earth's crust. Because the stable isotopes of carbon and sulfur can reflect their chemistry, they are useful probes of the Martian surface.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Clouds at High Altitude in the Tropics and in an Early Dense Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, Anthony; Toon, Owen B.

    2001-01-01

    We use a time dependent, microphysical cloud model to study the formation of carbon dioxide clouds in the Martian atmosphere. Laboratory studies by Glandor et al. show that high critical supersaturations are required for cloud particle nucleation and that surface kinetic growth is not limited. These conditions, which are similar to those for cirrus clouds on Earth, lead to the formation of carbon dioxide ice particles with radii greater than 500 micrometers and concentrations of less than 0.1 cm(exp -3) for typical atmospheric conditions. Within the current Martian atmosphere, CO2 cloud formation is possible at the poles during winter and at high altitudes in the tropics during periods of increased atmospheric dust loading. In both cases, temperature perturbations of several degrees below the CO2 saturation temperature are required to nucleate new cloud particles suggesting that dynamical processes are the most common initiators of carbon dioxide clouds rather than diabatic cooling. The microphysical cloud model, coupled to a two-stream radiative transfer model, is used to reexamine the impact of CO2 clouds on the surface temperature within a dense CO2 atmosphere. The formation of carbon dioxide clouds leads to a warmer surface than what would be expected for clear sky conditions. The amount of warming is sensitive to the presence of dust and water vapor in the atmosphere, both of which act to dampen cloud effects. The radiative warming associated with cloud formation, as well as latent heating, work to dissipate the clouds when present. Thus, clouds never last for periods much longer than several days, limiting their overall effectiveness for warming the surface. The time average cloud optical depth is approximately unity leading to a 5-10 K warming, depending on the surface pressure. However, the surface temperature does not rise about the freezing point of liquid water even for pressures as high as 5 bars, at a solar luminosity of 75% the current value.

  3. Early Combination of Material Characteristics and Toxicology Is Useful in the Design of Low Toxicity Carbon Nanofiber

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ellen K.; Larsen, Sten Y.; Nygaard, Unni C.; Marioara, Calin D.; Syversen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the early combination of material characterization and toxicology testing in order to design carbon nanofiber (CNF) with low toxicity. The aim was to investigate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification procedures can result in a CNF product with low toxicity. Different CNF batches from a pilot plant were characterized with respect to physical properties (chemical composition, specific surface area, morphology, surface chemistry) as well as toxicity by in vitro and in vivo tests. A description of a test battery for both material characterization and toxicity is given. The results illustrate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification, thermal treatment in particular, influence the material characterization as well as the outcome of the toxic tests. The combination of the tests early during product development is a useful and efficient approach when aiming at designing CNF with low toxicity. Early quality and safety characterization, preferably in an iterative process, is expected to be efficient and promising for this purpose. The toxicity tests applied are preliminary tests of low cost and rapid execution. For further studies, effects such as lung inflammation, fibrosis and respiratory cancer are recommended for the more in-depth studies of the mature CNF product.

  4. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: Epidemiologic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Frank B.; Malik, Vasanti S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, temporal patterns in SSB intake have shown a close parallel between the upsurge in obesity and rising levels of SSB consumption. SSBs are beverages that contain added caloric sweeteners such as sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup or fruit-juice concentrates, all of which result in similar metabolic effects. They include the full spectrum of soft drinks, carbonated soft drinks, fruitades, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, sweetened iced tea, cordial, squashes, and lemonade, which collectively are the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US. It has long been suspected that SSBs have an etiologic role in the obesity epidemic, however only recently have large epidemiological studies been able to quantify the relationship between SSB consumption and long-term weight-gain, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Experimental studies have provided important insight into potential underlying biological mechanisms. It is thought that SSBs contribute to weight gain in part by incomplete compensation for energy at subsequent meals following intake of liquid calories. They may also increase risk of T2DM and CVD as a contributor to a high dietary glycemic load leading to inflammation, insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function. Additional metabolic effects from the fructose fraction of these beverages may also promote accumulation of visceral adiposity, and increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and hypertension due to hyperuricemia. Consumption of SSBs should therefore be replaced by healthy alternatives such as water, to reduce risk of obesity and chronic diseases. PMID:20138901

  5. Rationale for Further Medical and Health Research on High-Potency Sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for “sweetener–drug interactions” and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners. PMID:22539626

  6. Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and their Role in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Non-nutritive sweeteners can bind to sweet-taste receptors present not only in the oral cavity, but also on enteroendocrine and pancreatic islet cells. Thus, these sweeteners may have biological activity by eliciting or inhibiting hormone secretion. Because consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is common in the United States, understanding the physiological effects of these substances is of interest and importance. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed (1960–2012) search was performed to identify articles examining the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gastrointestinal physiology and hormone secretion. Evidence Synthesis: The majority of in vitro studies showed that non-nutritive sweeteners can elicit secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in enteroendocrine or islet cells. In rodents, non-nutritive sweeteners increased the rate of intestinal glucose absorption, but did not alter gut hormone secretion in the absence of glucose. Most studies in humans have not detected effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gut hormones or glucose absorption. Of eight human studies, one showed increased glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion after diet soda consumption, and one showed decreased glucagon secretion after stevia ingestion. Conclusions: In humans, few studies have examined the hormonal effects of non-nutritive sweeteners, and inconsistent results have been reported, with the majority not recapitulating in vitro data. Further research is needed to determine whether non-nutritive sweeteners have physiologically significant biological activity in humans. PMID:22679063

  7. Biosensor analysis of natural and artificial sweeteners in intact taste epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenni; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2014-04-15

    Sweeteners are commonly used as food additives in our daily life, which, however, have been causing a number of undesirable diseases since the last century. Therefore, the detection and quantification of sweeteners are of great value for food safety. In this study, we used a taste biosensor to measure and analyze different sweeteners, both natural and artificial sweeteners included. Electrophysiological activities from taste epithelium were detected by the multi-channel biosensors and analyzed with spatiotemporal methods. The longtime signal result showed different temporal-frequency properties with stimulations of individual sweeteners such as glucose, sucrose, saccharin, and cyclamate, while the multi-channel results in our study revealed the spatial expression of taste epithelium to sweet stimuli. Furthermore, in the analysis of sweetener with different concentrations, the result showed obvious dose-dependent increases in signal responses of the taste epithelium, which indicated promising applications in sweetness evaluation. Besides, the mixture experiment of two natural sweeteners with a similar functional unit (glucose and sucrose) presented two signal patterns, which turned out to be similar with responses of each individual stimulus involved. The biosensor analysis of common sweeteners provided new approaches for both natural and artificial sweeteners evaluation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sugar-sweetened beverages and genetic risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qibin; Chu, Audrey Y; Kang, Jae H; Jensen, Majken K; Curhan, Gary C; Pasquale, Louis R; Ridker, Paul M; Hunter, David J; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Chasman, Daniel I; Hu, Frank B; Qi, Lu

    2012-10-11

    Temporal increases in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have paralleled the rise in obesity prevalence, but whether the intake of such beverages interacts with the genetic predisposition to adiposity is unknown. We analyzed the interaction between genetic predisposition and the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in relation to body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) and obesity risk in 6934 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and in 4423 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and also in a replication cohort of 21,740 women from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS). The genetic-predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 32 BMI-associated loci. The intake of sugar-sweetened beverages was examined prospectively in relation to BMI. In the NHS and HPFS cohorts, the genetic association with BMI was stronger among participants with higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages than among those with lower intake. In the combined cohorts, the increases in BMI per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.00 for an intake of less than one serving per month, 1.12 for one to four servings per month, 1.38 for two to six servings per week, and 1.78 for one or more servings per day (P<0.001 for interaction). For the same categories of intake, the relative risks of incident obesity per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.59), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.28 to 2.16), 1.58 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.47), and 5.06 (95% CI, 1.66 to 15.5) (P=0.02 for interaction). In the WGHS cohort, the increases in BMI per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.39, 1.64, 1.90, and 2.53 across the four categories of intake (P=0.001 for interaction); the relative risks for incident obesity were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.64), 1.50 (95% CI, 1.16 to 1.93), 1.54 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.94), and 3.16 (95% CI, 2.03 to 4.92), respectively (P=0.007 for interaction). The genetic association with adiposity

  9. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Genetic Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Chu, Audrey Y.; Kang, Jae H.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Hunter, David J.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Temporal increases in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have paralleled the rise in obesity prevalence, but whether the intake of such beverages interacts with the genetic predisposition to adiposity is unknown. METHODS We analyzed the interaction between genetic predisposition and the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in relation to body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) and obesity risk in 6934 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and in 4423 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and also in a replication cohort of 21,740 women from the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS). The genetic-predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 32 BMI-associated loci. The intake of sugar-sweetened beverages was examined prospectively in relation to BMI. RESULTS In the NHS and HPFS cohorts, the genetic association with BMI was stronger among participants with higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages than among those with lower intake. In the combined cohorts, the increases in BMI per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.00 for an intake of less than one serving per month, 1.12 for one to four servings per month, 1.38 for two to six servings per week, and 1.78 for one or more servings per day (P<0.001 for interaction). For the same categories of intake, the relative risks of incident obesity per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.59), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.28 to 2.16), 1.58 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.47), and 5.06 (95% CI, 1.66 to 15.5) (P = 0.02 for interaction). In the WGHS cohort, the increases in BMI per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.39, 1.64, 1.90, and 2.53 across the four categories of intake (P = 0.001 for interaction); the relative risks for incident obesity were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.64), 1.50 (95% CI, 1.16 to 1.93), 1.54 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.94), and 3.16 (95% CI, 2.03 to 4.92), respectively (P = 0.007 for interaction

  10. Consumer acceptability of low-sugar watermelon sweetened with non-calorie sweetener by a Native American community.

    PubMed

    Collins, Julie K; Davis, Angela R; Adams, Arin; Manness, Niels; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope M

    2006-01-01

    Watermelons are a good source of lycopene, a carotenoid that exhibits antioxidant activity and may protect against some cancers. However, intake of watermelon may be restricted for individuals who have diabetes or those who limit carbohydrate intake. A low-sugar watermelon was developed at Lane, Oklahoma using traditional plant breeding techniques. The objective of this study was to determine whether the artificially sweetened low-sugar watermelon was acceptable with Native Americans, a group with a high incidence of diabetes. The red flesh from a low-sugar watermelon and a commercial variety of watermelon was removed and cut into cubes. Low and high levels of artificial sweetener were added to the low-sugar watermelon. Students at a Native American school (Grades 1-12) and adults at a Native American Feeding Center were asked to rate how much they liked or disliked the watermelon using a seven-point hedonic scale. Sugar composition, pH, lycopene and other carotenoids were analyzed from samples using established methods. The pH, lycopene, beta-carotene and total carotenoid levels were similar among fruit. Artificially sweetened fruit were rated slightly more acceptable in taste than the commercial control watermelons by both age groups. The low-sugar watermelons were lower in sugar composition but were comparable with conventional melons in all other quality factors and were found acceptable in taste by a broad age group of Native American consumers.

  11. Massive impact-induced release of carbon and sulfur gases in the early Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, S.; Black, B. A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Bottke, W. F.

    2016-09-01

    Recent revisions to our understanding of the collisional history of the Hadean and early-Archean Earth indicate that large collisions may have been an important geophysical process. In this work we show that the early bombardment flux of large impactors (>100 km) facilitated the atmospheric release of greenhouse gases (particularly CO2) from Earth's mantle. Depending on the timescale for the drawdown of atmospheric CO2, the Earth's surface could have been subject to prolonged clement surface conditions or multiple freeze-thaw cycles. The bombardment also delivered and redistributed to the surface large quantities of sulfur, one of the most important elements for life. The stochastic occurrence of large collisions could provide insights on why the Earth and Venus, considered Earth's twin planet, exhibit radically different atmospheres.

  12. Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, D C; Threapleton, D E; Evans, C E L; Cleghorn, C L; Nykjaer, C; Woodhead, C; Burley, V J

    2014-09-14

    The intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether this is because of the sugar content or related lifestyle factors, whether similar associations hold for artificially sweetened soft drinks, and how these associations are related to BMI. We aimed to conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of evidence from prospective cohorts to explore these issues. We searched multiple sources for prospective studies on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were extracted from eleven publications on nine cohorts. Consumption values were converted to ml/d, permitting the exploration of linear and non-linear dose-response trends. Summary relative risks (RR) were estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis. The summary RR for sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks were 1·20/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·12, 1·29, P< 0·001) and 1·13/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·02, 1·25, P= 0·02), respectively. The association with sugar-sweetened soft drinks was slightly lower in studies adjusting for BMI, consistent with BMI being involved in the causal pathway. There was no evidence of effect modification, though both these comparisons lacked power. Overall between-study heterogeneity was high. The included studies were observational, so their results should be interpreted cautiously, but findings indicate a positive association between sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and type 2 diabetes risk, attenuated by adjustment for BMI. The trend was less consistent for artificially sweetened soft drinks. This may indicate an alternative explanation, such as lifestyle factors or reverse causality. Future research should focus on the temporal nature of the association and whether BMI modifies or mediates the association.

  13. Early diagenesis driven by widespread meteoric infiltration of a Central European carbonate ramp: A reinterpretation of the Upper Muschelkalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Arthur; Diamond, Larryn W.

    2017-12-01

    Meteoric diagenesis of carbonate ramps is often difficult to interpret and can commonly be confused with other coinciding diagenetic processes. The Middle Triassic Upper Muschelkalk of Switzerland provides an insightful case in which the effects of several overprinting diagenetic environments, including matrix dolomitization, can be clearly unravelled. Previous studies suggested that diagenesis took place in connate marine waters, with later meteoric waters being invoked to explain recrystallization of dolomite. In this study, diagenetic analyses (C-O stable isotope ratios, thin-section point counting, cathodoluminescence and UV-fluorescence microscopy) of calcitic bioclastic samples have revealed that early diagenesis (pre-stylolitization) and the accompanying porosity evolution did not occur exclusively in the presence of marine fluids. Five sequential stages of diagenesis have been identified: marine, shallow burial, mixing-zone, meteoric and dolomitization. Marine diagenesis induced precipitation of bladed and inclusion-rich syntaxial cements that fluoresce strongly under UV-light. Both cements account for a mean 7.5 vol% reduction in the porosity of bioclastic beds. Shallow burial diagenesis likely induced mouldic porosity and associated fluorescent dog-tooth cementation. Based on light oxygen isotope and elevated strontium isotope ratios, matrix aragonite-calcite neomorphism is interpreted to have occurred in a mixture of marine and meteoric fluids. The combination of shallow burial and mixing-zone processes reduced porosity on average by 4.8 vol%. Evidence for subsequent meteoric diagenesis is found in abundant dog-tooth and blocky calcite cements that have mean δ18OVPDB of - 9.36‰ and no signs of recrystallization. These meteoric cements reduced porosity by a further 13.4 vol%. Percolation of meteoric water through the ramp was driven by hydraulic gradients on an adjacent basement high, which was exposed by a cycle of early Ladinian regressions

  14. New Insights into Early Cenozoic Carbon Cycling: Continental Ecosystem Response to Orbital Forcing in the Lacustrine Green River Formation (Western US) at the Conclusion of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musher, D.; Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    A series of extreme warming events, known as hyperthermals, interrupted the equable climate conditions predominant during the early Cenozoic hothouse. In marine sediments, these hyperthermals are marked by prominent negative carbon isotope excursions, indicative of dramatic and abrupt changes in the global exogenic carbon pool, as well as carbonate dissolution horizons and benthic foraminiferal extinctions. Hyperthermals are well documented in the marine record, but it is less clear how patterns of global carbon cycling manifested in early Cenozoic terrestrial environments, although some studies have documented amplified excursions relative to that of the marine record. The lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation of Utah is an excellent system for studying the continental environmental context of global carbon cycle dynamics during this time. These sediments span a ~15 Myr time interval, including the entire Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) and the transition to the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend. To investigate the relationship between the continental carbon record and global carbon cycling, climate, and orbital forcing, we studied a detailed section from the P-4 core drilled in the Uinta Basin bracketing the famous “Mahogany Bed”, a petroliferous layer of oil shale recording a period of enhanced productivity and carbon burial near the end of the EECO. Our carbon isotope measurements of high molecular weight n-alkanes across this boundary suggest a stable global carbon cycle and climate regime persisting ~400 kyr at the terminal EECO. Frequency spectra of published oil yield and gamma ray data from this section reveal concentrated power at Milankovitch frequencies, permitting the assembly of a robust age model. In concert with radioisotopic age control, our orbital chronology allows for comparison of our carbon cycle record to early Eocene astronomical solutions. We show that the Mahogany Bed corresponds to strong minima in short and long eccentricity

  15. The conservative behavior of dissolved organic carbon in surface waters of the southern Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean, during early summer

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuki; Takesue, Nobuyuki; Nishioka, Jun; Kondo, Yoshiko; Ooki, Atsushi; Kuma, Kenshi; Hirawake, Toru; Yamashita, Youhei

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by ultraviolet-visible absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy were measured in surface waters of the southern Chukchi Sea, western Arctic Ocean, during the early summer of 2013. Neither the DOC concentration nor the optical parameters of the DOM correlated with salinity. Principal component analysis using the DOM optical parameters clearly separated the DOM sources. A significant linear relationship was evident between the DOC and the principal component score for specific water masses, indicating that a high DOC level was related to a terrigenous source, whereas a low DOC level was related to a marine source. Relationships between the DOC and the principal component scores of the surface waters of the southern Chukchi Sea implied that the major factor controlling the distribution of DOC concentrations was the mixing of plural water masses rather than local production and degradation. PMID:27658444

  16. Excitation of luminescence of the nanoporous bioactive nanocrystalline carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite for early tooth disease detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloshchapov, D. L.; Minakov, D. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Seredin, P. V.

    This paper deals with the luminescence characteristics of an analogue of the mineral component of dental enamel of the nanocrystalline B-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHAP) with 3D defects (i.e. nanopores of ∼2-5 nm) on the nanocrystalline surface. The laser-induced luminescence (LIL) of the synthesized CHAP samples was in the range of ∼515 nm (∼2.4 eV) and is due to CO3 groups replacing the PO4 group. It was found that the intensity of the luminescence of the CHAP is caused by structurally incorporated CO3 groups in the HAP structure. Furthermore, the intensity of the luminescence also decreases as the number of the above intracentre defects (CO3) in the apatite structure declines. These results are potentially promising for developing the foundations for precise methods for the early detection of caries in human solid dental tissue.

  17. Early and late seasonal carbon sequestration and allocation in larch trees growing on permafrost in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masyagina, Oxana; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Artyukhov, Aleksey; Udalova, Tatiana; Senchenkov, Sergey; Rublev, Aleksey

    2014-05-01

    Despite large geographic extent of deciduous conifer species Larix gmelinii, its seasonal photosynthetic activity and translocation of photoassimilated carbon within a tree remain poorly studied. To get better insight into productivity of larch trees growing on permafrost soils in Siberian larch biome we aimed to analyze dynamics of foliage parameters (i.e. leaf area, biomass, %N, %P etc.), seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity and apply whole tree labeling by 13CO2, which is powerful and effective tool for tracing newly developed assimilates translocation to tissues and organs of a tree (Kagawa et al., 2006; Keel et al., 2012). Experimental plot has been established in mature 105 year-old larch stand located within the continuous permafrost area near Tura settlement (Central Siberia, 64o17'13" N, 100o11'55" E, 148 m a.s.l.). Trees selected for experiments represented mean tree of the stand. Measurements of seasonal photosynthetic activity and foliar biomass sampling were arranged from early growing season (June 8, 2013) until yellowing and senescence of needles on September 17, 2013. Labeling by 13C in whole tree chamber was conducted by three pulses ([CO2]max ≤ 2,500 ppmv, 13CO2 (30% v/v)) at the early (June) and late (August) phase of growing season for different trees in 3 replicates each time. Both early season and late season labeling experiments demonstrated high rate of 13CO2 assimilation and respective enrichment of needle tissues by 13C: δ13C increased from -28.7 up to +670‰ just after labeling. However, there was distinct post-labeling dynamics of needle δ13C among two seasonal experiments. At the early season 13C depletion in labeled needles was slower, and δ13C approached after 40 days ca. +110 ‰ and remained constant till senescence. In the late season (August) needles were losing labeled C with much faster rate and approached only +1.5 ‰ upon senescence (28 days exposition). These findings suggest that in early season ca. 20% of

  18. Dietary intake of four artificial sweeteners by Irish pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; Nugent, Anne P; McNulty, Breige A; O'Reilly, Emer; Tlustos, Christina; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In spite of rigorous pre- and post-market reviews of safety, there remains a high level of debate regarding the use of artificial sweeteners in foods. Young children are of particular interest when assessing food chemical exposure as a result of their unique food consumption patterns and comparatively higher exposure to food chemicals on a body weight basis when compared with the general population. The present study examined the intakes of four intense sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) in the diets of children aged 1-4 years using food consumption and sweetener presence data from the Irish National Pre-school Nutrition Survey (2010-11) and analytical data for sweetener concentration in foods obtained from a national testing programme. Four exposure assessment scenarios were conducted using the available data on sweetener occurrence and concentration. The results demonstrated that the mean daily intakes for all four sweeteners were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (17-31%), even considering the most conservative assumptions regarding sweetener presence and concentration. High consumer intakes (P95) were also below the ADI for the four sweeteners when more realistic estimates of exposure were considered. Both sweetener occurrence and concentration data had a considerable effect on reducing the estimated intake values, with a combined reduction in intakes of 95% when expressed as a proportion of the ADI. Flavoured drinks were deemed to be a key contributor to artificial sweetener intakes in this population cohort. It was concluded that there is no health risk to Irish pre-school children at current dietary intake levels of the sweeteners studied.

  19. How fresh is maple syrup? Sugar maple trees mobilize carbon stored several years previously during early springtime sap-ascent.

    PubMed

    Muhr, Jan; Messier, Christian; Delagrange, Sylvain; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-03-01

    While trees store substantial amounts of nonstructural carbon (NSC) for later use, storage regulation and mobilization of stored NSC in long-lived organisms like trees are still not well understood. At two different sites with sugar maple (Acer saccharum), we investigated ascending sap (sugar concentration, δ(13) C, Δ(14) C) as the mobilized component of stored stem NSC during early springtime. Using the bomb-spike radiocarbon approach we were able to estimate the average time elapsed since the mobilized carbon (C) was originally fixed from the atmosphere and to infer the turnover time of stem storage. Sites differed in concentration dynamics and overall δ(13) C, indicating different growing conditions. The absence of temporal trends for δ(13) C and Δ(14) C indicated sugar mobilization from a well-mixed pool with average Δ(14) C consistent with a mean turnover time (TT) of three to five years for this pool, with only minor differences between the sites. Sugar maple trees hence appear well buffered against single or even several years of negative plant C balance from environmental stress such as drought or repeated defoliation by insects. Manipulative investigations (e.g. starvation via girdling) combined with Δ(14) C measurements of this mobilized storage pool will provide further new insights into tree storage regulation and functioning. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Biogeochemical Cycles of Carbon and Sulfur on Early Earth (and on Mars?)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The physical and chemical interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere can be examined for elements such as carbon (C) and sulfur (S) that have played central roles for both life and the environment. The compounds of C are highly important, not only as organic matter, but also as atmospheric greenhouse gases, pH buffers in seawater, oxidation-reduction buffers virtually everywhere, and key magmatic constituents affecting plutonism and volcanism. S assumes important roles as an oxidation-reduction partner with C and Fe in biological systems, as a key constituent in magmas and volcanic gases, and as a major influence upon pH in certain environments. These multiple roles of C and S interact across a network of elemental reservoirs interconnected by physical, chemical and biological processes. These networks are termed biogeochemical C and S cycles.

  1. Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the Earth's early atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical model was used to examine the effect of bolide impacts on the oxidation state of Earth's primitive atmosphere. The impact rate should have been high prior to 3.8 Ga before present, based on evidence derived from the Moon. Impacts of comets or carbonaceous asteroids should have enhanced the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by bringing in CO ice and/or organic carbon that can be oxidized to CO in the impact plume. Ordinary chondritic impactors would contain elemental iron that could have reacted with ambient CO2 to give CO. Nitric oxide (NO) should also have been produced by reaction between ambient CO2 and N2 in the hot impact plumes. High NO concentrations increase the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by increasing the rainout rate of oxidized gases. According to the model, atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios of unity or greater are possible during the first several hundred million years of Earth's history, provided that dissolved CO was not rapidly oxidized to bicarbonate in the ocean. Specifically, high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios are possible if either: (1) the climate was cool (like today's climate), so that hydration of dissolved CO to formate was slow, or (2) the formate formed from CO was efficiently converted into volatile, reduced carbon compounds, such as methane. A high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio may have helped to facilitate prebiotic synthesis by enhancing the production rates of hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde may have been produced even more efficiently by photochemical reduction of bicarbonate and formate in Fe(++)-rich surface waters.

  2. Early spring, severe frost events, and drought induce rapid carbon loss in high elevation meadows.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Chelsea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw

    2014-01-01

    By the end of the 20th century, the onset of spring in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California has been occurring on average three weeks earlier than historic records. Superimposed on this trend is an increase in the presence of highly anomalous "extreme" years, where spring arrives either significantly late or early. The timing of the onset of continuous snowpack coupled to the date at which the snowmelt season is initiated play an important role in the development and sustainability of mountain ecosystems. In this study, we assess the impact of extreme winter precipitation variation on aboveground net primary productivity and soil respiration over three years (2011 to 2013). We found that the duration of snow cover, particularly the timing of the onset of a continuous snowpack and presence of early spring frost events contributed to a dramatic change in ecosystem processes. We found an average 100% increase in soil respiration in 2012 and 2103, compared to 2011, and an average 39% decline in aboveground net primary productivity observed over the same time period. The overall growing season length increased by 57 days in 2012 and 61 days in 2013. These results demonstrate the dependency of these keystone ecosystems on a stable climate and indicate that even small changes in climate can potentially alter their resiliency.

  3. Self-healing of early age cracks in cement-based materials by mineralization of carbonic anhydrase microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chunxiang; Chen, Huaicheng; Ren, Lifu; Luo, Mian

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the self-healing potential of early age cracks in cement-based materials incorporating the bacteria which can produce carbonic anhydrase. Cement-based materials specimens were pre-cracked at the age of 7, 14, 28, 60 days to study the repair ability influenced by cracking time, the width of cracks were between 0.1 and 1.0 mm to study the healing rate influenced by width of cracks. The experimental results indicated that the bacteria showed excellent repairing ability to small cracks formed at early age of 7 days, cracks below 0.4 mm was almost completely closed. The repair effect reduced with the increasing of cracking age. Cracks width influenced self-healing effectiveness significantly. The transportation of CO2and Ca2+ controlled the self-healing process. The computer simulation analyses revealed the self-healing process and mechanism of microbiologically precipitation induced by bacteria and the depth of precipitated CaCO3 could be predicted base on valid Ca2+. PMID:26583014

  4. Carbon nanotubes as VEGF carriers to improve the early vascularization of porcine small intestinal submucosa in abdominal wall defect repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengni; Feng, Xueyi; Wang, Huichun; Ma, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cui, Daxiang; Gu, Yan; Tang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient early vascularization in biological meshes, resulting in limited host tissue incorporation, is thought to be the primary cause for the failure of abdominal wall defect repair after implantation. The sustained release of exogenous angiogenic factors from a biocompatible nanomaterial might be a way to overcome this limitation. In the study reported here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalized by plasma polymerization to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165). The novel VEGF165-controlled released system was incorporated into porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) to construct a composite scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating varying amounts of VEGF165-loaded functionalized MWNT were characterized in vitro. At 5 weight percent MWNT, the scaffolds exhibited optimal properties and were implanted in rats to repair abdominal wall defects. PSIS scaffolds incorporating VEGF165-loaded MWNT (VEGF–MWNT–PSIS) contributed to early vascularization from 2–12 weeks postimplantation and obtained more effective collagen deposition and exhibited improved tensile strength at 24 weeks postimplantation compared to PSIS or PSIS scaffolds, incorporating MWNT without VEGF165 loading (MWNT–PSIS). PMID:24648727

  5. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adults -- 18 states, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gayathri S; Pan, Liping; Park, Sohyun; Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M

    2014-08-15

    Reducing consumption of calories from added sugars is a recommendation of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and an objective of Healthy People 2020. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are major sources of added sugars in the diets of U.S. residents. Daily SSB consumption is associated with obesity and other chronic health conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. U.S. adults consumed an estimated average of 151 kcal/day of SSB during 2009-2010, with regular (i.e., nondiet) soda and fruit drinks representing the leading sources of SSB energy intake. However, there is limited information on state-specific prevalence of SSB consumption. To assess regular soda and fruit drink consumption among adults in 18 states, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among the 18 states surveyed, 26.3% of adults consumed regular soda or fruit drinks or both ≥1 times daily. By state, the prevalence ranged from 20.4% to 41.4%. Overall, consumption of regular soda or fruit drinks was most common among persons aged 18‒34 years (24.5% for regular soda and 16.6% for fruit drinks), men (21.0% and 12.3%), non-Hispanic blacks (20.9% and 21.9%), and Hispanics (22.6% and 18.5%). Persons who want to reduce added sugars in their diets can decrease their consumption of foods high in added sugars such as candy, certain dairy and grain desserts, sweetened cereals, regular soda, fruit drinks, sweetened tea and coffee drinks, and other SSBs. States and health departments can collaborate with worksites and other community venues to increase access to water and other healthful beverages.

  6. Running Performance With Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweetened Mouth Rinses.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Keely R; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ringos, Lara; Garcia, Vanessa; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-09-01

    Using mouth rinse (MR) with carbohydrate during exercise has been shown to act as an ergogenic aid. To investigate if nutritive or nonnutritive sweetened MR affects exercise performance and to assess the influence of sweetness intensity on endurance performance during a time trial (TT). This randomized, single-blinded study had 4 treatment conditions. Sixteen subjects (9 men, 7 women) completed a 12.8-km TT 4 different times. During each TT, subjects mouth-rinsed and expectorated a different solution at time 0 and every 12.5% of the TT. The 4 MR solutions were sucrose (S) (sweet taste and provides energy of 4 kcal/g), a lower-intensity sucralose (S1:1) (artificial sweetener that provides no energy but tastes sweet), a higher-intensity sucralose (S100:1), and water as control (C). Completion times for each TT, heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded. Completion time for S was faster than for C (1:03:47 ± 00:02:17 vs 1:06:56 ± 00:02:18, respectively; P < .001) and showed a trend to be faster vs S100:1 (1:03:47 ± 00:02:17 vs 1:05:38 ± 00:02:12, respectively; P = .07). No other TT differences were found. Average HR showed a trend to be higher for S vs C (P = .08). The only difference in average or maximum RPE was for higher maximum RPE in C vs S1:1 (P = .02). A sweet-tasting MR did improve endurance performance compared with water in a significant manner (mean 4.5% improvement; 3+ min.); however, the presence of energy in the sweet MR appeared necessary since the artificial sweeteners did not improve performance more than water alone.

  7. Synchronization of the astronomical time scales in the Early Toarcian: A link between anoxia, carbon-cycle perturbation, mass extinction and volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Itto, Fatima-Zahra; Martinez, Mathieu; Price, Gregory D.; Ait Addi, Abdellah

    2018-07-01

    The Late Pliensbachian-Early Toarcian is a pivotal time in the Mesozoic era, marked by pronounced carbon-isotope excursions, biotic crises and major climatic and oceanographic changes. Here we present new high-resolution carbon-isotope and magnetic-susceptibility measurements from an expanded hemipelagic Late Pliensbachian-Early Toarcian section from the Middle Atlas Basin (Morocco). Our new astronomical calibration allows the construction of an orbital time scale based on the 100-kyr eccentricity cycle. The Early Toarcian Polymorphum Zone contains 10 to 10.5 repetitions of the 100-kyr eccentricity both in the carbon-isotope and the magnetic-susceptibility data, leading to an average duration of 1.00 ± 0.08 myr. We also show that the Late Pliensbachian-Early Toarcian global carbon-cycle perturbation has an average duration of 0.24 ± 0.02 myr. These durations are comparable to previous astrochronological time scales provided for this time interval in the most complete sections of the Tethyan area, and longer than what has been provided in condensed sections. Anchoring this framework on published radiometric ages and astrochronological time scales, we estimate that the carbon-cycle perturbation of the Late Pliensbachian-Early Toarcian corresponds with the early phase of the Karoo and Chonke Aike large igneous provinces. Likewise, our new age constraints confirm that the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event is synchronous to the main phase of the Ferrar volcanic activity. Thus, these successive and short phases of the volcanic activity may have been at the origin of the successive phases of the mass extinctions observed in marine biotas in the Pliensbachian and Toarcian times.

  8. Estimating the potential of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce consumption and generate revenue.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-06-01

    Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. Our paper offers a method for estimating revenues from an excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages that governments of various levels could direct towards obesity prevention. We construct a model projecting beverage consumption and tax revenues based on best available data on regional beverage consumption, historic trends and recent estimates of the price elasticity of sugar-sweetened beverage demand. The public health impact of beverage taxes could be substantial. An estimated 24% reduction in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption from a penny-per-ounce sugar-sweetened beverage tax could reduce daily per capita caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages from the current 190-200 cal to 145-150 cal, if there is no substitution to other caloric beverages or food. A national penny-per-ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could generate new tax revenue of $79 billion over 2010-2015. A modest tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could both raise significant revenues and improve public health by reducing obesity. To the extent that at least some of the tax revenues get invested in obesity prevention programs, the public health benefits could be even more pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Shrapnel, William

    2015-01-01

    Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the “small change” in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high. PMID:26404369

  10. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth...

  11. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth...

  12. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth...

  13. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth...

  14. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth...

  15. Artificial sweeteners and metabolic dysregulation: Lessons learned from agriculture and the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jane; Swithers, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    Escalating rates of obesity and public health messages to reduce excessive sugar intake have fuelled the consumption of artificial sweeteners in a wide range of products from breakfast cereals to snack foods and beverages. Artificial sweeteners impart a sweet taste without the associated energy and have been widely recommended by medical professionals since they are considered safe. However, associations observed in long-term prospective studies raise the concern that regular consumption of artificial sweeteners might actually contribute to development of metabolic derangements that lead to obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obtaining mechanistic data on artificial sweetener use in humans in relation to metabolic dysfunction is difficult due to the long time frames over which dietary factors might exert their effects on health and the large number of confounding variables that need to be considered. Thus, mechanistic data from animal models can be highly useful because they permit greater experimental control. Results from animal studies in both the agricultural sector and the laboratory indicate that artificial sweeteners may not only promote food intake and weight gain but can also induce metabolic alterations in a wide range of animal species. As a result, simple substitution of artificial sweeteners for sugars in humans may not produce the intended consequences. Instead consumption of artificial sweeteners might contribute to increases in risks for obesity or its attendant negative health outcomes. As a result, it is critical that the impacts of artificial sweeteners on health and disease continue to be more thoroughly evaluated in humans.

  16. [What is has the artificial sweeteners in indication the food of our diabetics?].

    PubMed

    Demnati, Cyrine; Ben Mami, Faika; Fendi, Olfa; Gaigi, Imene; Trimèche, Abdelmajid; Trabelsi, Nabil; Dakhli, Saber; Achour, Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Artificial Sweeteners are food additives increasingly developed by the food industry. Study of the consumption of sweeteners in diabetic patients. This prospective cross study performed using a questionnaire to 100 patients recruited at random outpatients of the National Institute of Nutrition. Data on the BMI,the blood sugar were found in clinical records. 94% of diabetics have at least heard of sweeteners and 50% use it regularly. Sweetener table are the most consumed sweeteners, in order of frequency Saccharin, Sucralose and Aspartame, used to sweeten coffee and tea. The trade products "light" are consumed by 29% of patients. Yet consumers have no real information on these products. There was no statistically significant correlation between the consumption of sweeteners and BMI, balance and diabetes evolution. A statistically significant correlation was found between consumption and socio-economic and cultural development of patients. The education of diabetic patients should include information of patients on these sweeteners, their interest, their against-indications and adverse reactions.

  17. Simulated reductions in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages improves dietary in Lower Mississippi Delta adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While the effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with water on energy intake and body weight have been reported, little is known about how these replacements affect diet quality. We simulated the effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with tap water on the diet quality of Lower Miss...

  18. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    PubMed

    Shrapnel, William

    2015-09-23

    Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the "small change" in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high.

  19. Glycemic effect of nutritive sweeteners: Honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controversy currently exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Using a randomized, crossover design we evaluated the effects of chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) on glucose tolerance in overweigh...

  20. Microbial production of next-generation stevia sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Kim; Carlsen, Simon; Semmler, Angelika; Simón, Ernesto; Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2016-12-07

    The glucosyltransferase UGT76G1 from Stevia rebaudiana is a chameleon enzyme in the targeted biosynthesis of the next-generation premium stevia sweeteners, rebaudioside D (Reb D) and rebaudioside M (Reb M). These steviol glucosides carry five and six glucose units, respectively, and have low sweetness thresholds, high maximum sweet intensities and exhibit a greatly reduced lingering bitter taste compared to stevioside and rebaudioside A, the most abundant steviol glucosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. In the metabolic glycosylation grid leading to production of Reb D and Reb M, UGT76G1 was found to catalyze eight different reactions all involving 1,3-glucosylation of steviol C 13 - and C 19 -bound glucoses. Four of these reactions lead to Reb D and Reb M while the other four result in formation of side-products unwanted for production. In this work, side-product formation was reduced by targeted optimization of UGT76G1 towards 1,3 glucosylation of steviol glucosides that are already 1,2-diglucosylated. The optimization of UGT76G1 was based on homology modelling, which enabled identification of key target amino acids present in the substrate-binding pocket. These residues were then subjected to site-saturation mutagenesis and a mutant library containing a total of 1748 UGT76G1 variants was screened for increased accumulation of Reb D or M, as well as for decreased accumulation of side-products. This screen was performed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing all enzymes in the rebaudioside biosynthesis pathway except for UGT76G1. Screening of the mutant library identified mutations with positive impact on the accumulation of Reb D and Reb M. The effect of the introduced mutations on other reactions in the metabolic grid was characterized. This screen made it possible to identify variants, such as UGT76G1 Thr146Gly and UGT76G1 His155Leu , which diminished accumulation of unwanted side-products and gave increased specific accumulation of the desired

  1. Artificial sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons.

    PubMed

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L

    2011-10-01

    Previous laboratory research on alcohol absorption has found that substitution of artificially sweetened alcohol mixers for sucrose-based mixers has a marked effect on the rate of gastric emptying, resulting in elevated blood alcohol concentrations. Studies conducted in natural drinking settings, such as bars, have indicated that caffeine ingestion while drinking is associated with higher levels of intoxication. To our knowledge, research has not examined the effects of alcohol mixers that contain both an artificial sweetener and caffeine, that is, diet cola. Therefore, we assessed the event-specific association between diet cola consumption and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons. We sought to determine whether putative increases in blood alcohol, produced by accelerated gastric emptying following diet cola consumption, as identified in the laboratory, also appear in a natural setting associated with impaired driving. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 2 nighttime field studies that collected anonymous information from 413 randomly selected bar patrons in 2008 and 2010. Data sets were merged and recoded to distinguish between energy drink, regular cola, diet cola, and noncaffeinated alcohol mixers. Caffeinated alcohol mixers were consumed by 33.9% of the patrons. Cola-caffeinated mixed drinks were much more popular than those mixed with energy drinks. A large majority of regular cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were men (75%), whereas diet cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were more likely to be women (57%). After adjusting for the number of drinks consumed and other potential confounders, number of diet cola mixed drinks had a significant association with patron intoxication (β = 0.233, p < 0.0001). Number of drinks mixed with regular (sucrose-sweetened) cola and energy drinks did not have significant associations with intoxication (p > 0.05). Caffeine's effect on intoxication may be most pronounced when mixers are artificially sweetened

  2. Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the earth's early atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical model was used to examine the effect of bolide impacts on the oxidation state of earth's primitive atmosphere. The impact rate should have been high prior to 3.8 Ga before present, based on evidence derived from the moon. Impacts of comets or carbonaceous asteroids should have enhanced the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by bringing in CO ice and/or organic carbon that can be oxidized to CO in the impact plume. Ordinary chondritic impactors would contain elemental iron that could have reacted with ambient CO2 to give CO. Nitric oxide (NO) should also have been produced by reaction between ambient CO2 and N2 in the hot impact plumes. High NO concentrations increase the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by increasing the rainout rate of oxidized gases. According to the model, atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios of unity or greater are possible during the first several hundred million years of earth's history, provided that dissolved CO was not rapidly oxidized to bicarbonate in the ocean.

  3. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods in response to consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive-sweetened beverages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of sugar and non-nutritive sweetener on regulation of appetite and energy intake remain controversial. Using a behavioral economic choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a sugar-sweetened (S) or a non-nutritive sweetened (NNS) beverage on appetite and the relati...

  4. The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah E; Prokosch, Marjorie L; Morin, Amanda; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that - over time - may increase calorie intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  6. A chemiluminescence sensor array for discriminating natural sugars and artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Niu, Weifen; Kong, Hao; Wang, He; Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report a chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array based on catalytic nanomaterials for the discrimination of ten sweeteners, including five natural sugars and five artificial sweeteners. The CL response patterns ("fingerprints") can be obtained for a given compound on the nanomaterial array and then identified through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Moreover, each pure sweetener was quantified based on the emission intensities of selected sensor elements. The linear ranges for these sweeteners lie within 0.05-100 mM, but vary with the type of sweetener. The applicability of this array to real-life samples was demonstrated by applying it to various beverages, and the results showed that the sensor array possesses excellent discrimination power and reversibility.

  7. Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S.; Kellogg, Mark D.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes. Few studies have tested for a relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD), or intermediate biomarkers. The role of artificially sweetened beverages is also unclear. Methods and Results We performed an analysis of the Health Professionals Follow-up study, a prospective cohort study including 42 883 men. Associations of cumulatively averaged sugar-sweetened (e.g. sodas) and artificially sweetened (e.g. diet sodas) beverage intake with incident fatal and non-fatal CHD (myocardial infarction) were examined using proportional hazard models. There were 3683 CHD cases over 22 years of follow-up. Participants in the top quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake had a 20% higher relative risk of CHD than those in the bottom quartile (RR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.33, p for trend < 0.01) after adjusting for age, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, multivitamins, family history, diet quality, energy intake, BMI, pre-enrollment weight change and dieting. Artificially sweetened beverage consumption was not significantly associated with CHD (multivariate RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.12, p for trend = 0.28). Adjustment for self-reported high cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure and diagnosed type 2 diabetes slightly attenuated these associations. Intake of sugar-sweetened but not artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with increased triglycerides, CRP, IL6, TNFr1, TNFr2, decreased HDL, Lp(a), and leptin (p values < 0.02). Conclusions Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of CHD and some adverse changes in lipids, inflammatory factors, and leptin. Artificially sweetened beverage intake was not associated with CHD risk or biomarkers. PMID:22412070

  8. Carbon isotopic variation in ureilites: Evidence for an early, volatile-rich Inner Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Jean-Alix; Sansjofre, Pierre; Yamaguchi, Akira; Greenwood, Richard C.; Gillet, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    We analyzed the C isotopic compositions of 32 unbrecciated ureilites, which represent mantle debris from a now disrupted, C-rich, differentiated body. The δ13C values of their C fractions range from -8.48 to +0.11‰. The correlations obtained between δ13C, δ18O and Δ17O values and the compositions of the olivine cores, indicate that the ureilite parent body (UPB) accreted from two reservoirs displaying distinct O and C isotopic compositions. The range of Fe/Mg ratios shown by its mantle was not the result of melting processes involving reduction with C ("smelting"), but was chiefly inherited from the mixing of these two components. Because smelting reactions are pressure-dependent, this result has strong implications for the size of the UPB, and points to a large parent body, at least 690 km in diameter. It demonstrates that C-rich primitive matter distinct from that represented by carbonaceous chondrites was present in some areas of the early inner Solar System, and could have contributed to the growth of the terrestrial planets. We speculate that differentiated, C-rich bodies, or debris produced by their disruption, were an additional source of volatiles during the later accretion stages of the rocky planets, including Earth.

  9. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009-10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008-12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million

  10. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009–10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008–12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million

  11. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2015-07-21

    To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009-10 (n = 4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008-12 (n = 1932 representing 44.7 million). Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38,253 cases/10,126,754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I(2) for heterogeneity = 89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I(2) = 79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I(2) = 70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I(2) = 64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (-1% to 11%, I(2) = 58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I(2) = 51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity = 0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million would be attributable to consumption of sugar sweetened

  12. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-04-01

    To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009-10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008-12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38,253 cases/10,126,754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I(2) for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I(2)=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I(2)=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I(2)=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (-1% to 11%, I(2)=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I(2)=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million would be attributable to consumption of sugar sweetened beverages

  13. Non-nutritive sweeteners: evidence for benefit vs. risk.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    Intake of added sugars in the American diet is high and has been linked to weight gain and adverse effects on glycemic control and diabetes. Several national health organizations recommend decreasing added sugars intake. Among the many strategies to consider to achieve this reduction is substitution with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS - artificial sweeteners and stevia). The purpose of this review is to critically examine existing evidence for this strategy. Short-term intervention studies suggest that NNS, when substituted for added sugars, may be useful in supporting energy intake reduction, and promoting glycemic control and weight management. However, the magnitude of effect in these studies has ranged from modest to null. Compensatory eating behaviors likely diminish, and in some cases negate, potential effects. Findings from longer-term observational studies that examine associations between NNS use and obesity or type 2 diabetes are potentially confounded by reverse causality. Existing data are insufficient to clearly support or refute the effectiveness of substitution with NNS as a means of reducing added sugar intake. It is important to not lose sight of the impact of incorporating NNS-containing beverages and foods on overall diet quality when assessing potential health benefits vs. risks.

  14. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption, hyperuricemia, and kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Bomback, Andrew S.; Derebail, Vimal K.; Shoham, David A.; Anderson, Cheryl A.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of high-fructose corn syrup used to sweeten soda drinks may lead to elevations in uric acid levels. Here we determined whether soda drinking is associated with hyperuricemia and, as a potential consequence, reduced kidney function. At baseline, 15,745 patients in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study completed a dietary questionnaire and had measurements of their serum creatinine and uric acid. After 3 and 9 years of follow-up, multivariate odds ratios from logistic regressions for binary outcome of hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease (eGFR less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) were evaluated. Compared to participants who drank less, consumption of over one soda per day was associated with increased odds of prevalent hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. The odds ratio for chronic kidney disease significantly increased to 2.59 among participants who drank more than one soda per day and had a serum uric acid level over 9.0 mg/dl. In longitudinal analyses, however, drinking more than one soda per day was not associated with hyperuricemia or chronic kidney disease. Neither preexistent hyperuricemia nor development of hyperuricemia modified the lack of association between soda drinking and incident chronic kidney disease. Thus our study shows that high consumption of sugar-sweetened soda was associated with prevalent but not incident hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. PMID:20032963

  15. In vitro DNA binding studies of Aspartame, an artificial sweetener.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2013-03-05

    A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. In this work the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Aspartame (APM), an artificial sweeteners was studied at physiological pH. DNA binding study of APM is useful to understand APM-DNA interaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and safer artificial sweeteners. The interaction was investigated using spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD). Hypochromism and red shift are shown in UV absorption band of APM. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to APM was observed and the binding constants (Kf) of DNA with APM and corresponding number of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (ΔH) and entropy changes (ΔS) were calculated to be +181kJmol(-1) and +681Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Moreover, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD) results are indicative of non-intercalative DNA binding nature of APM. We suggest that APM interacts with calf thymus DNA via groove binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 5×10(+4)M(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tagatose: from a sweetener to a new diabetic medication?

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Ikna; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2010-02-01

    Tagatose is a naturally occurring simple sugar that is a more palatable bulk low-calorie (1.5 kcal/g) sweetener. It was approved as a food additive by the FDA in 2003. Tagatose has been studied as a potential antidiabetic and antiobesity medication. In preliminary studies in humans, tagatose has shown a low postprandial blood glucose and insulin response. Its proposed mechanism of action may involve interference in the absorption of carbohydrates by inhibiting intestinal disaccharidases and glucose transport. It may also act through hepatic inhibition of glycogenolysis. This article summarizes tagatose Phase I and II diabetes trials. It describes the pharmacodynamics and possible mechanism of action of this agent. Literature from 1974 to 2009 is reviewed. Better understanding of the implications of postprandial hyperglycemia. An appreciation of the liver as a target of glucose control. Increased awareness of tagatose, a sweetener, as a potential new medication that operates through improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia. Tagatose is currently being studied as a postprandial antihyperglycemic agent that may be safer with regard to hypoglycemia. Ongoing Phase III clinical trials will provide more definitive answers.

  17. Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, S.G.; Mar-Gerrison, S.; Gannoun, A.; LaRowe, D.; Klemm, V.; Halliday, A.N.; Burton, K.W.; Hein, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The first high resolution thallium (Tl) isotope records in two ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts), CD29 and D11 from the Pacific Ocean are presented. The crusts record pronounced but systematic changes in 205Tl/203Tl that are unlikely to reflect diagenetic overprinting or changes in isotope fractionation between seawater and Fe-Mn crusts. It appears more likely that the Fe-Mn crusts track the Tl isotope composition of seawater over time. The present-day oceanic residence time of Tl is estimated to be about 20,000??yr, such that the isotopic composition should reflect ocean-wide events. New and published Os isotope data are used to construct age models for these crusts that are consistent with each other and significantly different from previous age models. Application of these age models reveals that the Tl isotope composition of seawater changed systematically between ~ 55??Ma and ~ 45??Ma. Using a simple box model it is shown that the present day Tl isotope composition of seawater depends almost exclusively on the ratio between the two principal output fluxes of marine Tl. These fluxes are the rate of removal of Tl from seawater via scavenging by authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide precipitation and the uptake rate of Tl during low temperature alteration of oceanic crust. It is highly unlikely that the latter has changed greatly. Therefore, assuming that the marine Tl budget has also not changed significantly during the Cenozoic, the low 205Tl/203Tl during the Paleocene is best explained by a more than four-fold higher sequestration of Tl by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides compared with at the present day. The calculated Cenozoic Tl isotopic seawater curve displays a striking similarity to that of S, providing evidence that both systems may have responded to the same change in the marine environment. A plausible explanation is a marked and permanent increase in organic carbon export from ~ 55??Ma to ~ 45??Ma, which led to higher pyrite burial rates and a significantly reduced

  18. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices.

  19. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices. PMID:26858681

  20. Carbon nanotube and nanofiber exposure and sputum and blood biomarkers of early effect among U.S. workers.

    PubMed

    Beard, John D; Erdely, Aaron; Dahm, Matthew M; de Perio, Marie A; Birch, M Eileen; Evans, Douglas E; Fernback, Joseph E; Eye, Tracy; Kodali, Vamsi; Mercer, Robert R; Bertke, Stephen J; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K

    2018-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/F) are increasingly used for diverse applications. Although animal studies suggest CNT/F exposure may cause deleterious health effects, human epidemiological studies have typically been small, confined to single workplaces, and limited in exposure assessment. We conducted an industrywide cross-sectional epidemiological study of 108 workers from 12 U.S. sites to evaluate associations between occupational CNT/F exposure and sputum and blood biomarkers of early effect. We assessed CNT/F exposure via personal breathing zone, filter-based air sampling to measure background-corrected elemental carbon (EC) (a CNT/F marker) mass and microscopy-based CNT/F structure count concentrations. We measured 36 sputum and 37 blood biomarkers. We used factor analyses with varimax rotation to derive factors among sputum and blood biomarkers separately. We used linear, Tobit, and unconditional logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounders and evaluate associations between CNT/F exposure and individual biomarkers and derived factors. We derived three sputum and nine blood biomarker factors that explained 78% and 67%, respectively, of the variation. After adjusting for potential confounders, inhalable EC and total inhalable CNT/F structures were associated with the most sputum and blood biomarkers, respectively. Biomarkers associated with at least three CNT/F metrics were 72 kDa type IV collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), interleukin-18, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), myeloperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in sputum and MMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, GPx, SOD, endothelin-1, fibrinogen, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1, and von Willebrand factor in blood, although directions of associations were not always as expected. Inhalable rather than respirable CNT/F was more

  1. The contribution of leaching to the rapid release of nutrients and carbon in the early decay of wetland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, S. E.; Childers, D.L.; Noe, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Our goal was to quantify the coupled process of litter turnover and leaching as a source of nutrients and fixed carbon in oligotrophic, nutrient-limited wetlands. We conducted poisoned and non-poisoned incubations of leaf material from four different perennial wetland plants (Eleocharis spp., Cladium jamaicense, Rhizophora mangle and Spartina alterniflora) collected from different oligotrophic freshwater and estuarine wetland settings. Total phosphorus (TP) release from the P-limited Everglades plant species (Eleocharis spp., C. jamaicense and R. mangle) was much lower than TP release by the salt marsh plant S. alterniflora from N-limited North Inlet (SC). For most species and sampling times, total organic carbon (TOC) and TP leaching losses were much greater in poisoned than non-poisoned treatments, likely as a result of epiphytic microbial activity. Therefore, a substantial portion of the C and P leached from these wetland plant species was bio-available to microbial communities. Even the microbes associated with S. alterniflora from N-limited North Inlet showed indications of P-limitation early in the leaching process, as P was removed from the water column. Leaves of R. mangle released much more TOC per gram of litter than the other species, likely contributing to the greater waterborne [DOC] observed by others in the mangrove ecotone of Everglades National Park. Between the two freshwater Everglades plants, C. jamaicense leached nearly twice as much P than Eleocharis spp. In scaling this to the landscape level, our observed leaching losses combined with higher litter production of C. jamaicense compared to Eleocharis spp. resulted in a substantially greater P leaching from plant litter to the water column and epiphytic microbes. In conclusion, leaching of fresh plant litter can be an important autochthonous source of nutrients in freshwater and estuarine wetland ecosystems. ?? Springer 2006.

  2. [Value of early-stage cerebral oxygen utilization coefficient in predicting delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Li, W; Li, N; Xiao, Q M; He, J Q; Wang, W Z; Qi, H N; Wang, P

    2017-05-20

    Objective: To investigate the dynamic change in cerebral oxygen utilization coefficient (O(2)UCc) in the early stage of acute severe carbon monoxide poisoning (ASCMP) and its value in predicting delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) . Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for patients with ASCMP who were admitted to our hospital from November 2013 to March 2016, and their baseline features and physiological parameters were recorded. Observation ended at two months after acute poisoning; according to the presence or absence of DEACMP, the patients were divided into DEACMP group with 21 patients and non-DEACMP group with 64 patients. The change in O(2)UCc was monitored on admission and at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Spearman correlation was used to investigate the correlation between O(2)UCc and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the accuracy of O(2)UCc in predicting DEACMP. Results: Both groups had a significant increase in O(2)UCc on admission, and the DEACMP group had a significantly greater increase than the non-DEACMP group (52.57%±9.30% vs 41.46±%6.37%, P <0.05) . Then both groups tended to have a reduction in O(2)UCc, and the DEACMP group had a significantly higher O(2)UCc than the non-DEACMP group at 6, 24, and 48 hours (47.40%±7.92%, 39.38%±8.01%, and 32.29%±6.31% vs 34.51%±7.89%, 28.79%±5.4%, and 27.72%±5.46%, P <0.05) . On admission and at 6, 24, and 48 hours, O2UCc was positively correlated with APACHE II score ( r =0.304, 0.398, 0.426, and 0.300, P =0.005, 0.000, 0.000, and 0.005) . The ROC curve showed that O(2)UCc had a value in predicting DEACMP on admission and at 6, 24, and 48 hours, and 6-hour O2UCc had the highest predictive value with an area under the ROC curve of 0.870 (95% confidence interval 0.794-0.947, P <0.05) . Conclusion: The dynamic change in O(2)UCc has a reference value in

  3. Using Triple Oxygen Isotope Analyses of Biogenic Carbonate to Reconstruct Early Triassic Ocean Oxygen Isotopic Values and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, J. A.; Sharp, Z. D.; Atudorei, V.

    2017-12-01

    The calcite-water triple oxygen isotope fractionation is used to determine isotopic equilibrium and ancient ocean oxygen isotopic values and temperatures. Unlike conventional δ18O analysis where the formation water's isotopic value is assumed, paired δ17O-δ18O measurements allow for the water's isotopic composition to be calculated because there is only one unique solution for equilibrium fractionation using Δ17O-δ18O values (where Δ17O=δ17O-0.528δ18O). To a first approximation, the calcite-water equilibrium fractionation factor, θ (where θ=ln17α/ln18α), varies with temperature by 0.00001/°. The calcite-water equilibrium fractionation line was determined at two temperatures, 30° and 0°, by using modern carbonate samples that formed in ocean water with a δ18O value of 0‰. The θ values for the 30° and 0° samples are 0.52515 and 0.52486, respectively. Oxygen values were measured using complete fluorination in nickel tubes with BrF5 as the reaction reagent. We calibrated all oxygen values to the SMOW-SLAP scale by measuring SMOW, SLAP, San Carlos olivine, NBS-18, NBS-19, and PDB. The triple oxygen isotope calcite-water equilibrium fractionation line was applied to well preserved Early Triassic ammonite shells from the Western United States. Based on paired δ17O-δ18O measurements, the samples did not form in equilibrium with an ice-free ocean with an oxygen isotopic value of -1‰ or the modern ocean value of 0‰. Assuming the calcite is still primary and formed in equilibrium with the ocean water, our data indicate that the δ18O value of the ocean in the early Triassic was 3-5‰ lower than modern. Samples from the Smithian thermal maximum formed in water 10° warmer than samples from after the thermal maximum. Paired δ17O-δ18O measurements of pristine ancient carbonates may provide a better understanding of past ocean conditions during climate change events.

  4. Serum neuron-specific enolase as an early predictor of delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cha, Y S; Kim, H; Do, H H; Kim, H I; Kim, O H; Cha, K-C; Lee, K H; Hwang, S O

    2018-03-01

    Delayed onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms after apparent recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been described as delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS). To date, there have been no studies on the utility of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker of neuronal cell damage, as a predictive marker of DNS in acute CO poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on adult patients with acute CO poisoning consecutively treated over a 9-month period. Serum NSE was measured after emergency department arrival, and patients were divided into two groups. The DNS group comprised patients with delayed sequelae, while the non-DNS group included patients with none of these sequelae. A total of 98 patients with acute CO poisoning were enrolled in this study. DNS developed in eight patients. The median NSE value was significantly higher in the DNS group than in the non-DNS group. There was a statistical difference between the non-DNS group and the DNS group in terms of CO exposure time, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), loss of consciousness, creatinine kinase, and troponin I. GCS and NSE were the early predictors of development of DNS. The area under the curve according to the receiver operating characteristic curves of GCS, serum NSE, and GCS combined with serum NSE were 0.922, 0.836, and 0.969, respectively. In conclusion, initial GCS and NSE served as early predictors of development of DNS. Also, NSE might be a useful additional parameter that could improve the prediction accuracy of initial GCS.

  5. Nannofossil carbonate fluxes during the Early Cretaceous: Phytoplankton response to nutrification episodes, atmospheric CO2, and anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erba, Elisabetta; Tremolada, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Greenhouse episodes during the Valanginian and Aptian correlate with major perturbations in the C cycle and in marine ecosystems, carbonate crises, and widespread deposition of Corg-rich black shales. Quantitative analyses of nannofossil micrite were conducted on continuous pelagic sections from the Southern Alps (northern Italy), where high-resolution integrated stratigraphy allows precise dating of Early Cretaceous geological events. Rock-forming calcareous nannofloras were quantified in smear slides and thin sections to obtain relative and absolute abundances and paleofluxes that are interpreted as the response of calcareous phytoplankton to global changes in the ocean-atmosphere system. Increased rates of volcanism during the formation of Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus and the Paranà-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) are proposed to have caused the geological responses associated with early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a and the Valanginian event, respectively. Calcareous nannofloras reacted to the new conditions of higher pCO2 and fertility by drastically reducing calcification. The Valanginian event is marked by a 65% reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes that would correspond to a 2-3 times increase in pCO2 during formation of the Paranà-Endenteka LIP. A 90% reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes, which occurred in a 1.5 myr-long interval leading into OAE1a, is interpreted as the result of a 3-6 times increase in pCO2 produced by emplacement of the giant Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. High pCO2 was balanced back by an accelerated biological pump during the Valanginian episode, but not during OAE1a, suggesting persisting high levels of pCO2 in the late Aptian and/or the inability of calcareous phytoplankton to absorb excess pCO2 above threshold values.

  6. Structural elucidation of main ozonation products of the artificial sweeteners cyclamate and acesulfame.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Marco; Godejohann, Markus; Wick, Arne; Happel, Oliver; Ternes, Thomas A; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Ruck, Wolfgang K L; Lange, Frank Thomas

    2012-05-01

    The two artificial sweeteners cyclamate (CYC) and acesulfame (ACE) have been detected in wastewater and drinking water treatment plants. As in both facilities ozonation might be applied, it is important to find out if undesired oxidation products (OPs) are formed. For the separation and detection of the OPs, several analytical techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, were applied. In order to distinguish between direct ozone reaction and a radical mechanism, experiments were carried out at different pH values with and without scavenging OH radicals. Kinetic experiments were used for confirmation that the OPs are formed during short ozone contact time applied in waterworks. Samples from a waterworks using bank filtrate as raw water were analyzed in order to prove that the identified OPs are formed in real and full-scale ozone applications. In the case of CYC, oxidation mainly occurs at the carbon atom, where the sulfonamide moiety is bound to the cyclohexyl ring. Consequently, amidosulfonic acid and cyclohexanone are formed as main OPs of CYC. When ozone reacts at another carbon atom of the ring a keto moiety is introduced into the CYC molecule. Acetic acid and the product ACE OP170, an anionic compound with m/z=170 and an aldehyde hydrate moiety, were identified as the main OPs for ACE. The observed reaction products suggest an ozone reaction according to the Criegee mechanism due to the presence of a C=C double bond. ACE OP170 was also detected after the ozonation unit of a full-scale drinking water treatment plant which uses surface water-influenced bank filtrate as raw water. Acesulfame can be expected to be found in anthropogenic-influenced raw water used for drinking water production. However, when ACE OP170 is formed during ozonation, it is not expected to cause any problem for drinking water suppliers, because the primary findings suggest its removal in subsequent treatment steps, such as activated carbon filters.

  7. Effects of non-nutritive (artificial vs natural) sweeteners on 24-h glucose profiles.

    PubMed

    Tey, S L; Salleh, N B; Henry, C J; Forde, C G

    2017-09-01

    Replacing nutritive sweetener with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) has the potential to improve glycaemic control. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of consuming artificial NNS (that is, aspartame), natural NNS (that is, monk fruit and stevia), and sucrose-sweetened beverages on 24-h glucose profiles. Ten healthy males took part in this randomised, crossover study with the following four treatments: aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia-, and sucrose- (65 g) sweetened beverages. Participants were asked to consume the test beverage as a preload mid-morning. Medtronic iPro2 continuous glucose monitoring system was used to measure mean 24-h glucose, incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and total area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and 24-h glycaemic variability. Overall no significant differences were found in mean 24-h glucose, iAUC and total AUC for glucose, and 24-h glycaemic variability between the four test beverages. Twenty-four-hour glucose profiles did not differ between beverages sweetened with non-nutritive (artificial vs natural) and nutritive sweeteners. The simple exchange of a single serving of sucrose-sweetened beverage with NNS over a day appears to have minimal effect on 24-h glucose profiles in healthy males.

  8. Sweetener blend optimization by using mixture design methodology and the electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Megan E; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing more than one sweetener has been shown to be an effective way to substitute sucrose in food products. The objective of this study was to apply the augmented simplex-centroid mixture design for the optimization of acceptable sweetener blends using coconut sugar, agave, and stevia. Sweetener blends were evaluated in aqueous solutions and gluten-free granola bars by a trained panel and consumers (n = 60). Significant differences were found between sweetener mixtures in solutions by both panelists and consumers (P < 0.05). Taste profiles for the sweetener solutions were also generated using the electronic tongue. Most consumer and trained intensity ratings were highly correlated (R(2) ≥ 0.79) with the electronic tongue taste profile analysis. Granola bars were also found to be significantly different (P < 0.05), with consumers preferring coconut sugar mixtures. Using contour plots and desirability function analysis, an optimal sweetener combination was found for a granola bar formulation of 89.9% coconut sugar, 6.1% agave, and 4% stevia. These results indicate that a mixture design can be a reliable way to develop new sweetener blends for product development. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. The relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and risk of heart failure in men.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Iffat; Wolk, Alicja; Larsson, Susanna C

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether sweetened beverage consumption is associated with risk of heart failure (HF) in a large prospective population-based study of men. A population-based cohort comprising 42,400 men, 45-79 years of age, was followed from 1998 through 2010. Sweetened beverage consumption was assessed by utilising a food frequency questionnaire. Incident events of HF were identified through linkage to the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Cox regression analyses were implemented to investigate the association between sweetened beverage consumption and HF. During a mean follow-up time of 11.7 years, a total of 4113 HF events were identified. We observed a positive association between sweetened beverage consumption and risk of HF after adjustment for other risk factors (p for trend <0.001). Men who consumed two or more servings of sweetened beverages per day had a statistically significant higher risk of developing HF (23%, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.35) compared to men who were non-consumers. Our finding that sweetened beverage consumption is associated with higher risk of HF could have implications for HF prevention strategies. Additional prospective studies investigating the link between sweetened beverage consumption and HF are therefore needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. A Giant Arctic Freshwater Pond at the end of the Early Eocene; Implications for Ocean Heat Transport and Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkhuis, H.; Schouten, S.; Collinson, M. E.; Sluijs, A.; Sinninghe-Damste, J. S.; Dickens, G. R.; Huber, M.; Cronin, T. M.; Bujak, J. P.; Stein, R.; Eldrett, J. S.; Harding, I. C.; Sangiorgi, F.

    2005-12-01

    In the last decades remains of the free-floating, fresh water fern Azolla have been found in unusually high abundances in basal middle Eocene (~48.5 Ma) marine sediments deposited in all Nordic seas. While generally taken to signal some `freshwater input', their source and significance were not determined. Through palynological and organic geochemical analyses of unique cores obtained from unprecedented Arctic Ocean drilling (IODP 302 - ACEX) we show that the brackish surface conditions that prevailed in the Arctic Ocean through the late Paleocene and early Eocene culminated in the deposition of laminated organic rich deposits yielding huge amounts of remains of Azolla. This, plus e.g., low diversity dinoflagellate assemblages, and concomitant low BIT values, indicates in-situ Azolla growth, and that the surface of the Arctic Ocean episodically resembled a giant fresh water pond over an interval altogether lasting ~800,000 years. The Arctic Basin thus constituted the main source of the freshwater pulses found elsewhere, reaching as far south as the southern North Sea.TEX86-derived surface temperatures were 13-14°C before and after the Azolla interval and only 10°C during the event, which may be related to obstruction of pole ward ocean heat transport and/or increased carbon burial.

  11. Salinity of the Early and Middle Eocene Arctic Ocean From Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Fish Bone Carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, L. M.; Moore, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the Arctic was largely isolated from the world ocean during the early and middle Eocene, with exchange limited to shallow, and possibly intermittent, connections to the North Atlantic and Tethys (via the Turgay Strait). Relative isolation, combined with an intensification of the hydrologic cycle under an Eocene greenhouse climate, is suspected to have led to the development of a low- salinity surface water layer in the Arctic that could have affected deep and intermediate convection in the North Atlantic. Sediment cores recently recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge by the IODP 302 Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) allow for the first assessment of the salinity of the Arctic Ocean during the early and middle Eocene. Stable isotope analysis performed on the structural carbonate of fish bone apatite from ~30 samples between the ages of ~55 and ~44 myr yielded δ18O values between -6.84‰ and -2.96‰ VPDB, with a mean value of -4.89‰. From the δ18O values we calculate that the Arctic Ocean was probably brackish during most of the early and middle Eocene, with an average salinity of 19 to 24‰. Negative excursions in the δ18O record (<-6‰) indicate three events during which the salinity of the Arctic surface waters was severely lowered: the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Azolla event at ~49 Ma, and a third previously unidentified event at ~46 Ma. During the PETM, low salinities developed under conditions of increased regional precipitation and runoff associated with extreme high latitude warmth and possible tectonic uplift in the North Atlantic. During the other two low-salinity events, sea level was lowered by ~20-30 m, implying a possible severing of Arctic connections to the world ocean. The most positive δ18O value (-2.96‰) occurs at ~45 Ma, the age of the youngest dropstone discovered in the ACEX sediments, and may therefore correspond to a climatic cooling rather than a high salinity event.

  12. Comparison of Efficacy of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser with Cutting Diathermy in Surgical Excision of Early Carcinoma Tongue.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Maqbool, Shahzad; Dastigir, Majid

    2015-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser with cutting diathermy as a cutting device in surgical excision of early carcinoma tongue. Experimental study. Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Rawalpindi and CMH, Lahore, from July 2008 to July 2011. Twenty two biopsy proven cases of T(1) and early T(2) squamous cell carcinoma of tongue were divided in two equal groups of 11 each labeled as A and B. Tumor was excised by CO(2) laser in group A while cutting diathermy was done in group B. For both groups tumor excision time, per-operative blood loss, postoperative oral swelling and pain was recorded. Excision time of tumor was assessed in minutes and amount of blood loss in milliliters till complete hemostasis after removal of primary tumor. Postoperatively patients were assessed on 12 hourly basis for 48 hours for pain. Pain was analyzed on visual analogue score 1 - 10. Oral swelling was assessed once after 24 hours and labeled as mild, moderate and severe. Independent sample t-test was applied for analysis of excision time, postoperative pain and per-operative blood loss for both groups. Postoperative swelling was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. The mean age at diagnosis in group A was 49.36 ± 5.27 years, while in group B patients had mean age of 50.73 ± 8.13 years. In group A, 4/11 (36.3%) patients were having tumor stage T(1) while 7/11 (63.6%) had T(2) stage tumor. In group B, 5/11 (45.4%) were having T1 and 6/11 (54.5%) were having stage T(2) tumor. Excision time was significantly shorter for group B (p=0.003), but group A had less postoperative pain (p=0.001), less per-operative blood loss (p=0.001) and less postoperative oral swelling (p=0.021). Early carcinoma tongue is better removed by laser than electrocautery in terms of postoperative morbidity, per-operative blood loss, postoperative pain and oral swelling.

  13. Parents' and children's acceptance of skim chocolate milks sweetened by monk fruit and stevia leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Chocolate milk increases milk consumption of children, but high sugar content raises health concerns. Interest in sugar reduction and parents' preference for natural sweeteners necessitates further research on natural nonnutritive sweeteners. However, it is important to maintain consumer acceptability, especially for children, while reducing sugar in chocolate milk. The objectives of this study were to identify the sweetness intensity perception of stevia leaf (STV) and monk fruit (MK) extracts in skim chocolate milk (SCM), to evaluate STV and MK as the sole or partial sweetener source for SCM for young adults (19 to 35 y) and children (5 to 13 y), and to determine if information on natural nonnutritive sweeteners impacted parents' acceptability of SCM. Power function and 2-alternative forced choice studies were used to determine the iso-sweetness of nonnutritive sweeteners to a sucrose control in SCM (51.4 g/L, SUC control). Young adults (n = 131) evaluated 9 different SCM (SUC control, STV, MK, STV:sucrose blends, or MK:sucrose blends) in a completely randomized 2-d test. Children (n = 167) evaluated SUC control SCM and SCM with 39.7 g/L sucrose and 46 mg/L MK (MK25) or 30 mg/L STV (STV25). Parents evaluated SUC control, MK25, and STV25 in a balanced crossover design with a 40-d wait time between primed or unprimed ballots. Chocolate milks solely sweetened by nonnutritive sweeteners were less acceptable compared with SUC control by young adults. MK25 and STV25 were acceptable by young adults and children. The presentation of chocolate milk label information had different effects on parental acceptance. Traditional parents preferred sucrose sweetened SCM, and label conscious parents preferred SCM with natural nonnutritive sweeteners. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Intake of Sugar-sweetened Beverages and Fecundability in a North American Preconception Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Elizabeth E; Wesselink, Amelia K; Hahn, Kristen A; Michiel, James J; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J; Wise, Lauren A

    2018-05-01

    Dietary factors, including sugar-sweetened beverages, may have adverse effects on fertility. Sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with poor semen quality in cross-sectional studies, and female soda intake has been associated with lower fecundability in some studies. We evaluated the association of female and male sugar-sweetened beverage intake with fecundability among 3,828 women planning pregnancy and 1,045 of their male partners in a North American prospective cohort study. We followed participants until pregnancy or for up to 12 menstrual cycles. Eligible women were aged 21-45 (male partners ≥21), attempting conception for ≤6 cycles, and not using fertility treatments. Participants completed a comprehensive baseline questionnaire, including questions on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption during the previous 4 weeks. We estimated time-to-pregnancy from follow-up questionnaires completed every 2 months by the female partner. We calculated adjusted fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to intake of sugar- sweetened beverages using proportional probabilities regression. Both female and male intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with reduced fecundability (FR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.70, 0.94 and 0.78; 95% CI = 0.63, 0.95 for ≥7 sugar-sweetened beverages per week compared with none, for females and males, respectively). Fecundability was further reduced among those who drank ≥7 servings per week of sugar-sweetened sodas (FR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.95 for females and 0.67, 95% CI = 0.51, 0.89 for males). Sugar-sweetened beverages, particularly sodas and energy drinks, were associated with lower fecundability, but diet soda and fruit juice had little association.

  15. Consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Receveur, Olivier; Cargo, Margaret; Daniel, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community and examines its associations with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and BMI. A two-stage cross-sectional design was used. In Stage 1 (n 42), 24 h recalls enabled the identification of sweetened products. In Stage 2 (n 192), an FFQ was administered to measure the daily consumption of these products and to collect sociodemographic and behavioural data. Sweetened products were defined as processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed products for which total sugar content exceeded 20% of total energy. Three Catholic Middle Eastern churches located in Montreal, Canada. Normoglycaemic men and women (18-60 years old). Twenty-six sweetened products represented an average consumption of 75·4 g total sugars/d or 15·1% of daily energy intake (n 190, 56% women). Soft drinks, juices, sweetened coffee, chocolate, cookies, cakes and muffins were the main sources of consumption and mostly consumed between meals. Age (exp (β) = 0·99; P < 0·01), physical activity (exp (β) = 1·08; P < 0·01) and recreational computer use (exp (β) = 1·17; P < 0·01) were independently associated with sweetened product consumption. The association between sweetened product consumption and physical activity was U-shaped. BMI was not significantly associated with sweetened product consumption but all participants regardless of BMI were above the WHO recommendation for free sugars. Being physically active and spending less time using a computer may favour a reduced consumption of sweetened products. Very active individuals may, however, overconsume such products.

  16. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoli; Ren, Yuhang; Fu, Yingying; Gao, Xingsheng; Jiang, Cong; Wu, Gang; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O) were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs). All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC)) were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11-50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC) and magnetic resin) and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33-18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic.

  17. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaoli; Ren, Yuhang; Fu, Yingying; Gao, Xingsheng; Jiang, Cong; Wu, Gang; Ren, Hongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O) were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs). All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC)) were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11–50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC) and magnetic resin) and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33–18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic. PMID:29293534

  18. Community replacement instead of drowning: Evolution of proto-North Atlantic carbonate-platform production in the run-up to of the Early Aptian OAE1a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Stefan; Stein, Melody; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.; Immenhauser, Adrian; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    In the proto-North Atlantic realm (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal), carbonate platform production witnessed a major biotic turnover during the Early Aptian. Here, Urgonian-type rudist-nerinid dominated limestones were replaced by an orbitolinid-rich, oyster and serpulid-bearing marly facies. Integrated biostratigraphic-chemostratigraphic studies (Burla et al., 2008; Huck et al., 2012) provided evidence that this change coincides with the Early Aptian carbonate platform drowning episode in the run-up of oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a (transition D. forbesi to D. deshayesi ammonite zones), which has been recorded, from many localities in the Tethyan Ocean (Godet, 2013). Unlike Helvetic and Arabian carbonate platforms, which are characterised by a punctuated mass occurrence of orbitolinids marking the onset of the Aptian (Rawil and Hawar members, respectively), orbitolinids are an abundant constituent of the proto-North Atlantic carbonate platform community from the Late Barremian onwards. Orbitolinid-rich packstones and marls showing mass-occurrences of orbitolinids indicate repeated short-term installation of specific environmental conditions (eutrophication and/or deepening). In order to critically assess the influence of regional palaeoenvironmental against global palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanographic changes on the Proto-North Atlantic carbonate platform evolution, several outcrop successions in the Lusitanian Basin covering the critical interval have been investigated in detail with regard to facies and petrographic characteristics and geochemical (C-/O-isotopes, P content, bulk-rock and clay mineralogy,) inventory. The aims of the present study are three-fold: (1) to characterise proto-North Atlantic Lower Aptian shallow-water carbonates with respect to diagenetic history, microfacies, and distribution of fossils useful for the analysis of palaeoenvironments (corals, rudists and orbitolinids); (2) to evaluate the influence of sea-level and humidity changes

  19. [Differences in taste assessment of sweeteners by normal and overweight persons].

    PubMed

    Mathieu, A; Liebermeister, H; Orlik, P; Wagner, M W

    1976-04-30

    Taste assessment was tested in 20 obese and 20 normal-weight in-patients using watery solutions of saccharose and three synthetic sweeteners. Each patient was asked to assess ten different taste qualities of each solution on a point scale. There were highly significant differences between the two groups of subjects. The difference was especially marked for the categories "synthetic - natural", "unpleasant - very tasty", and "changeable - stable in times". These findings suggest changes in physical or central taste sensation in obese persons. This view is supported by their decreased ability to differentiate between saccharose and any sweetener. The results further support substituting sweetening agents for sugar in reducing diets.

  20. Temperature and composition of carbonate cements record early structural control on cementation in a nascent deformation band fault zone: Moab Fault, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Keith R.; Crider, Juliet G.; Huntington, Katharine W.

    2016-10-01

    Fluid-driven cementation and diagenesis within fault zones can influence host rock permeability and rheology, affecting subsequent fluid migration and rock strength. However, there are few constraints on the feedbacks between diagenetic conditions and structural deformation. We investigate the cementation history of a fault-intersection zone on the Moab Fault, a well-studied fault system within the exhumed reservoir rocks of the Paradox Basin, Utah, USA. The fault zone hosts brittle structures recording different stages of deformation, including joints and two types of deformation bands. Using stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen, clumped isotope thermometry, and cathodoluminescence, we identify distinct source fluid compositions for the carbonate cements within the fault damage zone. Each source fluid is associated with different carbonate precipitation temperatures, luminescence characteristics, and styles of structural deformation. Luminescent carbonates appear to be derived from meteoric waters mixing with an organic-rich or magmatic carbon source. These cements have warm precipitation temperatures and are closely associated with jointing, capitalizing on increases in permeability associated with fracturing during faulting and subsequent exhumation. Earlier-formed non-luminescent carbonates have source fluid compositions similar to marine waters, low precipitation temperatures, and are closely associated with deformation bands. The deformation bands formed at shallow depths very early in the burial history, preconditioning the rock for fracturing and associated increases in permeability. Carbonate clumped isotope temperatures allow us to associate structural and diagenetic features with burial history, revealing that structural controls on fluid distribution are established early in the evolution of the host rock and fault zone, before the onset of major displacement.

  1. Association of δ13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    PubMed Central

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the δ13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the δ13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ≥21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for δ13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. δ13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick δ13C value was −19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. δ13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total

  2. How Non-nutritive Sweeteners Influence Hormones and Health.

    PubMed

    Rother, Kristina I; Conway, Ellen M; Sylvetsky, Allison C

    2018-07-01

    Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) elicit a multitude of endocrine effects in vitro, in animal models, and in humans. The best-characterized consequences of NNS exposure are metabolic changes, which may be mediated by activation of sweet taste receptors in oral and extraoral tissues (e.g., intestine, pancreatic β cells, and brain), and alterations of the gut microbiome. These mechanisms are likely synergistic and may differ across species and chemically distinct NNSs. However, the extent to which these hormonal effects are clinically relevant in the context of human consumption is unclear. Further investigation following prolonged exposure is required to better understand the role of NNSs in human health, with careful consideration of genetic, dietary, anthropometric, and other interindividual differences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeine, Artificial Sweetener, and Fluid Intake in Anorexia Nerovsa

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Joanna M.; Ertelt, Troy E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Lancaster, Kathy; Mitchell, James E.; Fischer, Sarah; Doyle, Peter; le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective The current paper provides an analysis of the use of artificial sweeteners, caffeine, and excess fluids in patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Method Seventy subjects with anorexia nervosa (AN) were recruited to participate in an ecologic momentary assessment study which included nutritional analysis using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R), a computer based dietary recall system. Results When subtypes were compared, AN-restricting subtype (AN-R) subjects and AN-Binge-Purge (AN-B/P) subjects did not differ in quantity of aspartame, caffeine, or water consumed. Daily water consumption was related to daily vomiting frequency in AN-B/P but not to daily exercise frequency in either AN-R or AN-B/P subjects. Conclusion Caffeine, water, and aspartame consumption can be variable in AN patients and the consumption of these substances appears to be only modestly related to purging behavior. PMID:19189405

  4. Converting to DEA/MDEA mix ups sweetening capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, M.L.; Hagan, K.M.; Bullin, J.A.

    1996-08-12

    Mixing amines can be the best method for increasing capacity or improving efficiency in an amine sweetening unit. In many cases, it may be possible simply to add a second amine to the existing solution on the fly, or as the unit is running. Union Pacific Resources` Bryan, Tex., gas plant provides one example. The plant was converted from diethanolamine (DEA) to a DEA/MDEA (methyl DEA) mixture after analysis by TSWEET, a process-simulation program. After conversion, CO{sub 2} levels in the sales gas fell to less than pipeline specifications. Data were taken for the absorber at a constant amine circulationmore » of 120 gpm. A comparison of the performance data to the values calculated by the program proved the accuracy of TSWEET. The conversion and performance of the plant are described.« less

  5. Employment Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Persky, Joseph J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes on net employment. Methods. We used a macroeconomic simulation model to assess the employment impact of a 20% SSB tax accounting for changes in SSB demand, substitution to non-SSBs, income effects, and government expenditures of tax revenues for Illinois and California in 2012. Results. We found increased employment of 4406 jobs in Illinois and 6654 jobs in California, representing a respective 0.06% and 0.03% change in employment. Declines in employment within the beverage industry occurred but were offset by new employment in nonbeverage industry and government sectors. Conclusions. SSB taxes do not have a negative impact on state-level employment, and industry claims of regional job losses are overstated and may mislead lawmakers and constituents. PMID:24524492

  6. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-09

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage.

  7. Early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization of Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous platform carbonates: A case study from the Jura Mountains (NW Switzerland, E France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameil, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Early diagenetic dolomitization is a common feature in cyclic shallow-water carbonates throughout the geologic record. After their generation, dolomites may be subject to dedolomitization (re-calcification of dolomites), e.g. by contact with meteoric water during emersion. These patterns of dolomitization and subsequent dedolomitization frequently play a key role in unravelling the development and history of a carbonate platform. On the basis of excellent outcrops, detailed logging and sampling and integrating sedimentological work, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic interpretations, and isotope analyses (O, C), conceptual models on early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization and their underlying mechanisms were developed for the Upper Jurassic / Lower Cretaceous Jura platform in north-western Switzerland and eastern France. Three different types of early diagenetic dolomites and two types of dedolomites were observed. Each is defined by a distinct petrographic/isotopic signature and a distinct spatial distribution pattern. Different types of dolomites are interpreted to have been formed by different mechanisms, such as shallow seepage reflux, evaporation on tidal flats, and microbially mediated selective dolomitization of burrows. Depending on the type of dolomite, sea water with normal marine to slightly enhanced salinities is proposed as dolomitizing fluid. Based on the data obtained, the main volume of dolomite was precipitated by a reflux mechanism that was switched on and off by high-frequency sea-level changes. It appears, however, that more than one dolomitization mechanism was active (pene)contemporaneously or several processes alternated in time. During early diagenesis, percolating meteoric waters obviously played an important role in the dedolomitization of carbonate rocks that underlie exposure surfaces. Cyclostratigraphic interpretation of the sedimentary succession allows for estimates on the timing of early diagenetic (de

  8. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    PubMed

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations.

  9. Prognostic Value of Venous to Arterial Carbon Dioxide Difference during Early Resuscitation in Critically Ill Patients with Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Tamer Abdallah; El-Reweny, Ehab Mahmoud; Ghazy, Farahat Gomaa

    2017-09-01

    The partial pressure of venous to arterial carbon dioxide gradient (PCO 2 gap) is considered as an alternative marker of tissue hypoperfusion and has been used to guide treatment for shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference during early resuscitation of patients with septic shock and compared it with that of lactate clearance and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score. Forty patients admitted to one Intensive Care Unit were enrolled. APACHE-II score was calculated on admission. An arterial blood gas, central venous, and lactate samples were obtained on admission and after 6 h, and lactate clearance was calculated. Patients were classified retrospectively into Group I (survivors) and Group II (nonsurvivors). Pv-aCO 2 difference in the two groups was evaluated. Data were fed to the computer and analyzed using IBM SPSS software package version 20.0. At T0, Group II showed high PCO 2 gap (8.37 ± 1.36 mmHg) than Group I (7.55 ± 0.95 mmHg) with statistically significant difference ( P = 0.030). While at T6, Group II showed higher PCO 2 gap (9.48 ± 1.47 mmHg) with statistically significant difference ( P < 0.001) and higher mean lactate values (62.71 ± 23.66 mg/dl) with statistically significant difference ( P < 0.001) than Group I where PCO 2 gap and mean lactate values became much lower, 5.91 ± 1.12 mmHg and 33.61 ± 5.80 mg mg/dl, respectively. Group I showed higher lactate clearance (25.42 ± 6.79%) with statistically significant difference ( P < 0.001) than Group II (-69.40-15.46%). High PCO 2 gap >7.8 mmHg after 6 h from resuscitation of septic shock patients is associated with high mortality.

  10. An Early-Middle Guadalupian (Permian) isotopic record from a mid-oceanic carbonate buildup: Akiyoshi Limestone, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musashi, Masaaki; Isozaki, Yukio; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2010-08-01

    In order to understand the oceanographic changes before the Guadalupian-Lopingian (Permian) boundary mass extinction event, we investigated the isotopic compositions of the inorganic carbon and the oxygen ( δ13C carb and δ18O carb) of the Guadalupian (Middle Permian) shallow marine carbonates deposited on a seamount-top in the superocean Panthalassa. The drilled samples were obtained at Kaerimizu in the Akiyoshi area, SW Japan. We focused on the Roadian-Wordian (Middle Guadalupian) interval that spans over 7 fusuline zones; i.e. the Parafusulina kaerimizuensis Zone ( Pk Z.), Afghanella ozawai Zone ( Ao Z.), Neoschwagerina craticulifera robusta Zone ( Ncr Z.), Verbeekina verbeeki-Afghanella schenki Zone ( Vv-As Z.), Neoschwageina fusiformis Zone ( Nf Z.), Verbeekina verbeeki Zone ( Vv Z.), and Colania douvillei Zone ( Cd Z.), in ascending order. Analytical results showed that the δ13C carb values stayed almost constant around + 3.0‰ PDB in the Pk Z., Ao Z. and the lower half of the Ncr Z., and those in the upper-section gradually decreased down to -2.0‰, of which the lowest was found in the Cd Z. We statistically extracted the samples with presumably better preserved δ13C carb values in the Kaerimizu section ranged between + 0.5 and + 4.0‰ with average values of δ13C carb of + 2.7 ± 1.0‰, on the basis of δ13C carb- δ18O carb characterization. This interval shows a monotonous decrease in δ13C carb values from ca + 4.0‰ to + 2.0‰. This indicates that the primary productivity might be generally high in the Wordian mid-oceanic domain but slightly declined in the Late Wordian. The studied Early-Middle Guadalupian interval is chemostratigraphically correlated with the other mid-Pansalassan paleo-atoll limestone e.g. Iwato Formation in Japan, suggesting that the relatively high δ13C carb (over + 3.0‰) of seawater predominated in shallow mid-superocean during the middle Middle Permian.

  11. Reproducing early Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure by modeling the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Wolfgang; Fu, Yunjiao; Ilger, Jan-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The well defined composition of the Comanche rock's carbonate (Magnesite0.62Siderite0.25Calcite0.11Rhodochrosite0.02) and its host rock's composition, dominated by Mg-rich olivine, enable us to reproduce the atmospheric CO2partial pressure that may have triggered the formation of these carbonates. Hydrogeochemical one-dimensional transport modeling reveals that similar aqueous rock alteration conditions (including CO2partial pressure) may have led to the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops (Gusev Crater) and also in the ultramafic rocks exposed in the Nili Fossae region. Hydrogeochemical conditions enabling the formation of Mg-rich solid solution carbonate result from equilibrium species distributions involving (1) ultramafic rocks (ca. 32 wt% olivine; Fo0.72Fa0.28), (2) pure water, and (3) CO2partial pressures of ca. 0.5 to 2.0 bar at water-to-rock ratios of ca. 500 molH2O mol-1rock and ca. 5°C (278 K). Our modeled carbonate composition (Magnesite0.64Siderite0.28Calcite0.08) matches the measured composition of carbonates preserved in the Comanche rocks. Considerably different carbonate compositions are achieved at (1) higher temperature (85°C), (2) water-to-rock ratios considerably higher and lower than 500 mol mol-1 and (3) CO2partial pressures differing from 1.0 bar in the model set up. The Comanche rocks, hosting the carbonate, may have been subjected to long-lasting (>104 to 105 years) aqueous alteration processes triggered by atmospheric CO2partial pressures of ca. 1.0 bar at low temperature. Their outcrop may represent a fragment of the upper layers of an altered olivine-rich rock column, which is characterized by newly formed Mg-Fe-Ca solid solution carbonate, and phyllosilicate-rich alteration assemblages within deeper (unexposed) units.

  12. High-resolution carbonate isotopic study of the Mural Formation (Cerro Pimas section), Sonora, México: Implications for early Albian oceanic anoxic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavaraju, J.; Lee, Yong Il; Scott, R. W.; González-León, C. M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Saucedo-Samaniego, J. C.; Ramasamy, S.

    2018-03-01

    The 420-m thick stratigraphic section of the Mural Formation that is exposed in the Cerro Pimas area of northern Sonora, Mexico, is composed of limestone lithofacies ranging from bioclastic wackestone to boundstone, whose biota is characterized by low diversity. Prominent age-diagnostic fossils are benthic foraminifera and long-ranging calcareous algae that indicate the Aptian/Albian boundary is close to the base of the Los Coyotes Member. The carbonates of this formation have negative to positive δ13C values (-4.63 to +2.6‰) and highly depleted δ18O values that range from -12.74 to -8.34‰. The absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O values supports a primary marine origin for the δ13C values of these limestones. The carbon-isotopic curve of the Cerro Pimas stratigraphic section has well-defined δ13C segments (C8 - C15) that compare with published curves of similar age. In the lower part of the early Albian Los Coyotes Member, the presence of OAE 1b is indicated by an increase followed by a decrease in δ13C values, suggesting correlation with the Kilian Event. The middle part of the Los Coyotes Member has a significant negative carbon-isotope excursion correlated with the globally recognizable early Albian Paquier event. Moreover, another significant negative carbon-isotope shift is observed in the upper part of the Los Coyotes Member, which can be correlated with the Leenhardt Event. The occurrence of the Kilian, Paquier and Leenhardt Events (OAE 1b cluster) in the Cerro Pimas stratigraphy confirms the global nature of these early Albian disturbances of the carbon cycle.

  13. Examining early-diagenetic processes as a chief sink for carbonate in the aftermath of the Triassic-Jurassic crisis: Hettangian concretions of Muller Canyon, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritterbush, K. A.; Loyd, S. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bottjer, D. J.; Berelson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic, climate, and biotic changes across the Triassic-Jurassic transition appear to have resulted in a "carbonate gap" in the rock record of many shallow marine environments. Ecological state changes documented in near-shore settings in both Tethys and Panthassa show an earliest Jurassic switch to sponge-dominated biosiliceous sedimentation regimes. The Sunrise Formation exposed in the Gabbs Valley Range of Nevada (USA) records a peculiar juxtaposition of Hettangian carbonate-rich strata that contain demosponge spicules as the primary bioclast. It is unclear 1) why biocalcifiers were not recorded in higher abundance in this near-shore back-arc basin setting; 2) why carbonates formed following a biosiliceous regime; and 3) what the lithology indicates about post-extinction marine geochemical dynamics. Detailed sedimentological, paleontological, and geochemical analyses were applied to a 20-m thick sequence of limestone and chert in the Muller Canyon area, which is the Auxiliary Stratotype for the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Concretion anatomy, bioclast microfacies, and oxygen and carbon isotopic signatures all indicate the Hettangian limestones are chiefly diagenetic concretions that all formed very shallowly, some essentially at the sediment-water interface. We infer that local bottom waters and/or pore waters were supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate and that this contributed to widespread concretion sedimentation independent of biomineralization. Ecological incumbency of the demosponge meadows may have been supported by concurrent augmentation of marine silica concentration and this apparently proved inhospitable to re-colonization of benthic biocalcifying macrofauna. Together the biotic and lithologic consequences of the extinction represent million-year scale ecological restructuring and highlight early diagenetic precipitation as a major sink in long-term regional carbonate cycling. Perhaps the widespread 'carbonate gap' is actually a gap in

  14. Isotopically zoned carbonate cements in Early Paleozoic sandstones of the Illinois Basin: δ18O and δ13C records of burial and fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Adam C.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Kitajima, Kouki; Valley, John W.

    2017-11-01

    SEM/SIMS imaging and analysis of δ18O and δ13C in sandstones from a transect through the Illinois Basin (USA) show systematic μm-scale isotopic zonation of up to 10‰ in both carbonate and quartz cements of the middle-Ordovician St. Peter and Cambrian Mt. Simon formations. Quartz δ18O values are broadly consistent with the model of Hyodo et al. (2014), wherein burial and heating in the Illinois Basin is recorded in systematically zoned quartz overgrowths. Observations of zoned dolomite/ankerite cements indicate that they preserve a more extended record of temperature and fluid compositions than quartz, including early diagenesis before or during shallow burial, and late carbonates formed after quartz overgrowths. Many carbonate cements show innermost dolomite with δ18O values (21-25‰ VSMOW) that are too low to have formed by deposition at low temperatures from ancient seawater (δ18O > - 3‰) and most likely reflect mixing with meteoric water. A sharp increase in Fe content is commonly observed in zoned carbonate cements to be associated with a drop in δ18O and an abrupt shift in δ13C to higher or lower values. These changes are interpreted to record the passage of hot metal-rich brines through sandstone aquifers, that was associated with Mississippi-Valley Type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits (ca. 270 Ma) of the Upper Mississippi Valley. Local variability and individual trends in δ13C are likely controlled by the sources of carbon and the degree to which carbon is sourced from adjacent carbonate units or thermal maturation of organic matter. Quartz overgrowths in sandstones provide an excellent record of conditions during burial, heating, and pressure-solution, whereas carbonate cements in sandstones preserve a more-extended record including initial pre-burial conditions and punctuated fluid flow events.

  15. Seep carbonates and chemosynthetic coral communities in the Early Paleocene alpine accretionary wedge: evidences from the Bocco Shale (Internal Liguride ophiolitic sequence, Northern Apennine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, Luca; Boschi, Chiara; Luvisi, Edoardo; Alessandro, Ellero; Marroni, Michele; Meneghini, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    In Northern Apennines, the Internal Liguride units are characterized by an ophiolite sequence that represents the stratigraphic base of a Late Jurassic-Early Paleocene sedimentary cover. The Bocco Shale represents the youngest deposit recognized in the sedimentary cover of the ophiolite sequence, sedimented just before the inception of subduction-related deformation history. The Bocco Shale has been interpreted as a fossil example of deposits related to the frontal tectonic erosion of the alpine accretionary wedge slope. The frontal tectonic erosion resulted in a large removal of material from the accretionary wedge front reworked as debris flows and slide deposits sedimented on the lower plate above the trench deposits. These trench-slope deposits may have been successively deformed and metamorphosed during the following accretion processes. The frontal tectonic erosion can be envisaged as a common process during the convergence-related evolution of the Ligure-Piemontese oceanic basin in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time span. In the uppermost Internal Liguride tectonic unit (Portello Unit of Pandolfi and Marroni. 1997), that crops-out in Trebbia Valley, several isolated blocks of authigenic carbonates, unidentificated corals and intrabasinal carbonatic arenites have been recognized inside the fine-grained sediments that dominate the Early Paleocene Lavagnola Fm. (cfr. Bocco Shale Auctt.). The preliminary data on stable isotopes from blocks of authigenic carbonates (up to 1 m thick and 3 m across) and associated corals archive a methane signatures in their depleted carbon isotope pattern (up to δ13C -30‰ PDB) and suggest the presence of chemosynthetic paleocommunities. The seep-carbonates recognized at the top of Internal Liguride succession (cfr. Bocco Shale Auctt.) occur predominantly as blocks in very thick mudstone-dominated deposits and probably developed in an environment dominated by the expulsion of large volume of cold methane-bearing fluids

  16. Determinants of sugar‐sweetened beverage consumption in young children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mazarello Paes, V.; Hesketh, K.; O'Malley, C.; Moore, H.; Summerbell, C.; Griffin, S.; van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Ong, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sugar‐sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with adverse health outcomes. Improved understanding of the determinants will inform effective interventions to reduce SSB consumption. A total of 46,876 papers were identified through searching eight electronic databases. Evidence from intervention (n = 13), prospective (n = 6) and cross‐sectional (n = 25) studies on correlates/determinants of SSB consumption was quality assessed and synthesized. Twelve correlates/determinants were associated with higher SSB consumption (child's preference for SSBs, TV viewing/screen time and snack consumption; parents' lower socioeconomic status, lower age, SSB consumption, formula milk feeding, early introduction of solids, using food as rewards, parental‐perceived barriers, attending out‐of‐home care and living near a fast food/convenience store). Five correlates/determinants were associated with lower SSB consumption (parental positive modelling, parents' married/co‐habiting, school nutrition policy, staff skills and supermarket nearby). There was equivocal evidence for child's age and knowledge, parental knowledge, skills, rules/restrictions and home SSB availability. Eight intervention studies targeted multi‐level (child, parents, childcare/preschool setting) determinants; four were effective. Four intervention studies targeted parental determinants; two were effective. One (effective) intervention targeted the preschool environment. There is consistent evidence to support potentially modifiable correlates/determinants of SSB consumption in young children acting at parental (modelling), child (TV viewing) and environmental (school policy) levels. PMID:26252417

  17. The oceanic carbon cycle implicated in the d13Ccarb and the d13Corg variations from the terminal Ediacaran to the Early Cambrian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Ueno, Y.; Komiya, T.; Shu, D.; Li, Y.; Yoshida, N.; Maruyama, S.

    2009-04-01

    The terminal Neoproterozoic and its transition into the Cambrian witnessed major evolutionary and geochemical changes (e.g. Knoll, 1994). Evolutionary features include extinction and subsequent radiation events (e.g. Brasier, 1994; Knoll, 1994; Knoll and Carroll, 1999; Shu 2008). Geochemical changes comprise secular variations of the global carbon cycle expressed as variations of the d13C isotope records. A representative d13C curve for inorganic carbon (d13Ccarb) across the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary (Pc/C boundary) shows the existence of large fluctuations (e.g. Kirschvink et al., 1991; Narbonne et al., 1994; Kaufman et al., 1995; Amthor et al., 2003; Maloof et al., 2005, Ishikawa et al., 2008). This indicates a significant change of the oceanic carbon cycle at that time. On the other hand, the d13C values for total organic carbon (d13Corg) have rarely been reported together with the d13Ccarb across the boundary. Therefore, the precise relation between the d13Ccarb and the d13Corg and the global carbon cycle at the Pc/C boundary are still ambiguous. This work presents a first high-resolution d13Corg chemostratigraphy of drill core samples across the Pc/C boundary in the Three Gorges area, South China. Based on the results, this work additionally proposes variations of the sizes of the oceanic carbon reservoirs by a calculation of the carbon cycle model at the Pc/C boundary. The Three Gorges section extends from the uppermost Ediacaran dolostone (Dengying Formation), through the lowermost Early Cambrian muddy limestone (Yanjiahe Formation) to the middle Early Cambrian calcareous black shale (Shuijingtuo Formation). The ^13Corg values exhibit relatively invariant values averaging at -31 permil. By comparison between the d13Ccarb and d13Corg, we recognize two different terms in this period. The first term from the Pc/C boundary to the early Nemakit-Daldynian (ND) is characterized by the decoupling of d13Corg and d13Ccarb, stable d13Corg and the significant

  18. Artificial sweetener use among children: epidemiology, recommendations, metabolic outcomes, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Sylvetsky, Allison; Rother, Kristina I.; Brown, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This review summarizes the existing literature pertaining to the epidemiology and current recommendations for pediatric artificial sweetener use and presents the results of studies investigating metabolic responses to artificial sweeteners among children. Observational and interventional studies testing the effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, short-term satiety, glycemia, and glucoregulatory hormones are described. In addition, this review touches on the growing body of literature about taste, craving, and addiction to sweet taste. Gaining an understanding of the research previously conducted and the gaps that remain will inform future clinical and translational research, in order to develop evidence-based recommendations for artificial sweetener use in the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. PMID:22093863

  19. Impact and ethics of excluding sweetened beverages from the SNAP program.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Anne

    2011-11-01

    The state of New York recently petitioned the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for permission to conduct a demonstration project in which sweetened beverages would be excluded from the foods eligible to be purchased with Supplemental Assistance Nutrition Program (SNAP) benefits (i.e., food stamps) in New York City. The USDA and advocacy groups have raised objections to new SNAP restrictions such as the proposed exclusion of sweetened beverages. Some objections rest on empirical issues best resolved by demonstration projects or pilot studies of new exclusions. Other objections question the equity of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP; these objections are important but not ethically decisive. The USDA should approve the proposed demonstration project and should encourage other pilot studies to assess the effects of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP.

  20. Impact and Ethics of Excluding Sweetened Beverages From the SNAP Program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The state of New York recently petitioned the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for permission to conduct a demonstration project in which sweetened beverages would be excluded from the foods eligible to be purchased with Supplemental Assistance Nutrition Program (SNAP) benefits (i.e., food stamps) in New York City. The USDA and advocacy groups have raised objections to new SNAP restrictions such as the proposed exclusion of sweetened beverages. Some objections rest on empirical issues best resolved by demonstration projects or pilot studies of new exclusions. Other objections question the equity of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP; these objections are important but not ethically decisive. The USDA should approve the proposed demonstration project and should encourage other pilot studies to assess the effects of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP. PMID:21566025

  1. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in chipping potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Potato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifes...

  2. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... appear on the label, the acidity of the artificially sweetened lemonade, calculated as anhydrous citric acid, shall be not less than 0.70 gram per 100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and...

  3. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... appear on the label, the acidity of the artificially sweetened lemonade, calculated as anhydrous citric acid, shall be not less than 0.70 gram per 100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and...

  4. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... appear on the label, the acidity of the artificially sweetened lemonade, calculated as anhydrous citric acid, shall be not less than 0.70 gram per 100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and...

  5. Hydrochemical variations in selected geothermal groundwater and carbonated springs in Korea: a baseline study for early detection of CO2 leakage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hanna; Piao, Jize; Woo, Nam C; Cho, Heuynam

    2017-02-01

    A baseline hydrochemistry of the above zone aquifer was examined for the potential of CO 2 early detection monitoring. Among the major ionic components and stable isotope ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon, components with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of <10 % for the seasonal variation were selected as relatively stable. These components were tested for sensitivity to the introduction of 0.1 mol/L CO 2 (g) using the PHREEQC simulation results. If the relatively stable components were sensitive to the introduction of CO 2 , then they could be used as indicators of CO 2 leakage into the above zone. As an analog to the zone above CO 2 storage formation, we sampled deep groundwater, including geothermal groundwater from well depths of 400-700 m below the ground surface (bgs) and carbonated springs with a high CO 2 content in Korea. Under the natural conditions of inland geothermal groundwater, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), bicarbonate (HCO 3 ), δ 18 O, δ 2 H, and δ 13 C were relatively stable as well as sensitive to the introduction of CO 2 (g), thus showing good potential as monitoring parameters for early detection of CO 2 leakage. In carbonated springs, the parameters identified were pH, δ 18 O, and δ 2 H. Baseline hydrochemistry monitoring could provide information on parameters useful for detecting anomalies caused by CO 2 leakage as measures for early warning.

  6. Trace elements and REE geochemistry of Middle Devonian carbonate mounds (Maïder Basin, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Implications for early diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, Fulvio; Turetta, Clara; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Corami, Fabiana; Barbieri, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Trace and rare earth elements (REEs) have proven their utility as tools for assessing the genesis and early diagenesis of widespread geological bodies such as carbonate mounds, whose genetic processes are not yet fully understood. Carbonates from the Middle Devonian conical mud mounds of the Maïder Basin (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco) have been analysed for their REE and trace element distribution. Collectively, the carbonates from the Maïder Basin mud mounds appear to display coherent REE patterns. Three different geochemical patterns, possibly related with three different diagenetic events, include: i) dyke fills with a normal marine REE pattern probably precipitated in equilibrium with seawater, ii) mound micrite with a particular enrichment of overall REE contents and variable Ce anomaly probably related to variation of pH, increase of alkalinity or dissolution/remineralization of organic matter during early diagenesis, and iii) haematite-rich vein fills precipitated from venting fluids of probable hydrothermal origin. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that these mounds were probably affected by an early diagenesis induced by microbial activity and triggered by abundance of dispersed organic matter, whilst venting may have affected the mounds during a later diagenetic phase.

  7. Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M; Hawkes, Corinna

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that excessive intake of added sugars has adverse effects on cardiometabolic health, which is consistent with many reviews and consensus reports from WHO and other unbiased sources. 74% of products in the US food supply contain caloric or low-calorie sweeteners, or both. Of all packaged foods and beverages purchased by a nationally representative sample of US households in 2013, 68% (by proportion of calories) contain caloric sweeteners and 2% contain low-calorie sweeteners. We believe that in the absence of intervention, the rest of the world will move towards this pervasiveness of added sugars in the food supply. Our analysis of trends in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages around the world, in terms of calories sold per person per day and volume sold per person per day, shows that the four regions with the highest consumption are North America, Latin America, Australasia, and western Europe. The fastest absolute growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages by country in 2009-14 was seen in Chile. We believe that action is needed to tackle the high levels and continuing growth in sales of such beverages worldwide. Many governments have initiated actions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the past few years, including taxation (eg, in Mexico); reduction of their availability in schools; restrictions on marketing of sugary foods to children; public awareness campaigns; and positive and negative front-of-pack labelling. In our opinion, evidence of the effectiveness of these actions shows that they are moving in the right direction, but governments should view them as a learning process and improve their design over time. A key challenge for policy makers and researchers is the absence of a consensus on the relation of beverages containing low-calorie sweeteners and fruit juices with cardiometabolic outcomes, since decisions about whether these are healthy substitutes for sugar-sweetened beverages are an integral part of policy

  8. Sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Löfvenborg, Josefin E; Andersson, Tomas; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Dorkhan, Mozhgan; Groop, Leif; Martinell, Mats; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Wolk, Alicja; Carlsson, Sofia

    2016-12-01

    Sweetened beverage intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but its association with autoimmune diabetes is unclear. We aimed to investigate sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); autoimmune diabetes with features of type 2 diabetes. Data from a Swedish population-based study was used, including incident cases of LADA (n = 357) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1136) and randomly selected controls (n = 1371). Diabetes classification was based on onset age (≥35), glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) and C-peptide. Sweetened beverage intake information was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. ORs adjusted for age, sex, family history of diabetes, education, lifestyle, diet, energy intake and BMI were estimated using logistic regression. Daily intake of >2 servings of sweetened beverages (consumed by 6% of participants) was associated with increased risk of LADA (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.11-3.56), and for each 200 mL daily serving, OR was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02-1.29). Findings were similar for sugar-sweetened (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00-1.39) and artificially sweetened beverages (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.95-1.32). Similarly, each daily serving increment in total sweetened beverage conferred 20% higher type 2 diabetes risk (95% CI: 1.07-1.34). In type 2 diabetes patients, high consumers displayed higher HOMA-IR levels (4.5 vs 3.5, P = 0.0002), but lower HOMA-B levels (55 vs 70, P = 0.0378) than non-consumers. Similar tendencies were seen in LADA. High intake of sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of LADA. The observed relationship resembled that with type 2 diabetes, suggesting common pathways possibly involving insulin resistance. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Almost two-thirds of boys and girls consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Boys consumed an average 164 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.3% of total daily caloric intake. Girls consumed an average 121 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.2% of total daily caloric intake. •Among both boys and girls, older youth had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to younger children. •Non-Hispanic Asian boys and girls consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic boys and girls. Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute calories and added sugars to the diets of U.S. children (1). Studies have suggested a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children (2-6). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. youth aged 2-19 years for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Adults, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Approximately one-half of U.S. adults consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Men consumed an average 179 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.9% of total daily caloric intake. Women consumed an average 113 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.1% of total caloric intake. •Young adults had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to older adults. •Non-Hispanic Asian men and women consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic men and women. Sugar-sweetened beverages are a major contributor of calories and added sugars to diets of U.S. adults (1). Studies have found that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to weight gain, metabolic syndrome, dental caries, and type 2 diabetes in adults (2-4). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of total calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. adults aged 20 and over for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  11. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990–2016

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C.; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. Methods We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit’s World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. Results In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world. PMID:28472607

  12. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990-2016.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-05-04

    The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit's World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world.

  13. Influence of Package Visual Cues of Sweeteners on the Sensory-Emotional Profiles of Their Products.

    PubMed

    Wardy, Wisdom; Chonpracha, Pitchayapat; Chokumnoyporn, Napapan; Sriwattana, Sujinda; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Jirangrat, Wannita

    2017-02-01

    Substantial evidence suggests influence of color, physical state, and other extrinsic features on consumer perception and acceptability of food products. In this study, 560 subjects evaluated liking and emotional responses associated with 5 sweeteners (sucralose, stevia, saccharin, aspartame, and sucrose) under 2 eliciting conditions: control (brand name only) and informed (brand name/packet image), to assess impact of the packet color. For a given condition, 5 identical tea samples each labeled with a sweetener type were rated for sweetness and overall liking (9-point) and emotions (5-point). Nonsignificant interactions between eliciting condition and sweetener type were found for liking attributes and emotions (except peaceful), indicating their independent effects. However, overall differences existed among sweetener types and eliciting conditions based on both hedonic and emotional responses (MANOVA, P < 0.05), suggesting modulating effects of packet color on sweetener type in the sensory-emotion space. The sensory-emotion profile for sucrose was separate from that of nonnutritive sweeteners, with statistically significant Mahalanobis distances among sample centroids. Increases in positive emotion intensities contrasted with a decrease in negative emotion intensities were observed for some sweeteners moving from the control to informed condition. Sweetness liking was strongly correlated with the emotion satisfied (sucralose, saccharin) only in the control condition, whereas it was strongly correlated with the emotions pleased and satisfied (stevia), disgusted (aspartame), and satisfied (sucrose) only in the informed condition. Overall, results suggested that sensory liking and emotions during the consumption experience are related not entirely to the type of sweetener, but also the color of the packet. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. SuperSweet—a resource on natural and artificial sweetening agents

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Jessica; Preissner, Saskia; Dunkel, Mathias; Worth, Catherine L.; Eckert, Andreas; Preissner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A vast number of sweet tasting molecules are known, encompassing small compounds, carbohydrates, d-amino acids and large proteins. Carbohydrates play a particularly big role in human diet. The replacement of sugars in food with artificial sweeteners is common and is a general approach to prevent cavities, obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Knowledge about the molecular basis of taste may reveal new strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. In this context, the design of safe, low-calorie sweeteners is particularly important. Here, we provide a comprehensive collection of carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners and other sweet tasting agents like proteins and peptides. Additionally, structural information and properties such as number of calories, therapeutic annotations and a sweetness-index are stored in SuperSweet. Currently, the database consists of more than 8000 sweet molecules. Moreover, the database provides a modeled 3D structure of the sweet taste receptor and binding poses of the small sweet molecules. These binding poses provide hints for the design of new sweeteners. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of docked sweeteners into the receptor etc. A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/. PMID:20952410

  15. Not so Sweet Revenge: Unanticipated Consequences of High-Intensity Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E

    2015-05-01

    While no single factor accounts for the significant increases in overweight and obesity that have emerged during the past several decades, evidence now suggests that sugars, in general, and sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular, may be especially problematic. One response to this concern has been an explosion in the availability and use of noncaloric sweeteners as replacements for sugar. While consumers have been led to believe that such substitutes are healthy, long-term epidemiological data in a number of cohorts have documented increased risk for negative outcomes like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke among users of artificial sweeteners. Experimental data from animals has provided several plausible mechanisms that could explain this counterintuitive relationship. In particular, my research has demonstrated that artificial sweeteners appear to interfere with basic learned, predictive relations between sweet tastes and post-ingestive consequences such as the delivery of energy. By interfering with these relations, artificial sweeteners inhibit anticipatory responses that normally serve to maintain physiological homeostasis, and over the long term, this interference could result in negative health effects like those seen in the human cohort studies. These data suggest that reducing the consumption of all sweeteners is advisable to promote better health.

  16. SuperSweet--a resource on natural and artificial sweetening agents.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jessica; Preissner, Saskia; Dunkel, Mathias; Worth, Catherine L; Eckert, Andreas; Preissner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A vast number of sweet tasting molecules are known, encompassing small compounds, carbohydrates, d-amino acids and large proteins. Carbohydrates play a particularly big role in human diet. The replacement of sugars in food with artificial sweeteners is common and is a general approach to prevent cavities, obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Knowledge about the molecular basis of taste may reveal new strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. In this context, the design of safe, low-calorie sweeteners is particularly important. Here, we provide a comprehensive collection of carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners and other sweet tasting agents like proteins and peptides. Additionally, structural information and properties such as number of calories, therapeutic annotations and a sweetness-index are stored in SuperSweet. Currently, the database consists of more than 8000 sweet molecules. Moreover, the database provides a modeled 3D structure of the sweet taste receptor and binding poses of the small sweet molecules. These binding poses provide hints for the design of new sweeteners. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of docked sweeteners into the receptor etc. A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/.

  17. Production and physicochemical assessment of new stevia amino acid sweeteners from the natural stevioside.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sherine N; Massoud, Mona I; Jad, Yahya El-Sayed; Bekhit, Adnan A; El-Faham, Ayman

    2015-04-15

    New stevia amino acid sweeteners, stevia glycine ethyl ester (ST-GL) and stevia l-alanine methyl ester (ST-GL), were synthesised and characterised by IR, NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and elemental analysis. The purity of the new sweeteners was determined by HPLC and their sensory properties were evaluated relative to sucrose in an aqueous system. Furthermore, the stevia derivatives (ST-GL and ST-AL) were evaluated for their acute toxicity, melting point, solubility and heat stability. The novel sweeteners were stable in acidic, neutral or basic aqueous solutions maintained at 100 °C for 2 h. The sweetness intensity rate of the novel sweeteners was higher than sucrose. Stevia amino acid (ST-GL and ST-AL) solutions had a clean sweetness taste without bitterness when compared to stevioside. The novel sweeteners can be utilised as non-caloric sweeteners in the production of low-calorie food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005–9

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005–2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with CS only, 1% with NCS only, 6% with both CS and NCS). CS are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. NCS are in >33% of yogurts and sports/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most diet sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup and FJC. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the US in 2005–2009 contained CS and 3% contained NCS, while 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained CS and 15% contained NCS. Trends during this period suggest a shift towards the purchase of NCS-containing products.Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the US by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of CS and NCS, and additional requirements on NFPs on CPG foods. PMID:23102182

  19. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the progression of chronic kidney disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)123

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ronit; He, Ka; Shoham, David A; Burke, Gregory L; Klemmer, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have examined sugar-sweetened soda consumption in relation to early markers of kidney disease, but to date there have been no investigations of whether sugar-sweetened beverage consumption affects preexistent chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: This prospective cohort study of 447 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with preexistent CKD examined the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (<1 drink/wk, 1–6 drinks/wk, and ≥1 drink/d) and progression of CKD. Design: β-Coefficients for continuous outcomes of changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) were calculated by using linear regression. Odds ratios for binary outcomes of accelerated decline in eGFR, defined as >2 mL · min−1 · 1.73 m−2 per year, and clinically significant progression of albuminuria (defined as attainment of UACR ≥30 mg/g for participants without microalbuminuria at visit 1 or a ≥25% increase in UACR for participants with baseline microalbuminuria) were evaluated by using logistic regression. Results: The mean (±SD) baseline eGFR was 52 ± 6 mL · min−1 · 1.73 m−2 per year, and median baseline UACR was 6.3 mg/g (interquartile range: 3.5–17.6). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed no association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and rate of eGFR decline or changes in urinary albumin to creatinine ratio. The multivariate odds ratios comparing participants who drank ≥1 sugary beverage daily with those who drank ≤1 beverage weekly were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.41) for accelerated eGFR decline and 1.51 (95% CI: 0.49, 4.62) for clinically significant progression of albuminuria. Conclusion: A higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was not associated with disease progression, on the basis of either eGFR or the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, in MESA participants with preexistent CKD. PMID:19740973

  20. Thermodynamics of the interaction of sweeteners and lactisole with fullerenols as an artificial sweet taste receptor model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Xiu; Wu, Wen; Zhang, Wei-Bin; Deng, Shao-Ping

    2011-09-01

    The thermodynamics of the mimetic interaction of lactisole and sweeteners with fullerenols as a synthetic sweet receptor model was elucidated by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) technique. The presence of lactisole resulted in great differences in thermodynamics of the sweeteners binding with fullerenols in which lactisole led to much more entropy contribution to the free energy compared with the interaction of sweeteners with fullerenols. Two interaction equilibrium states were found in ITC titration profiles and competitive binding of lactisole and sweeteners with fullerenols was disclosed. Our results indicated that the larger value of the ratio of two equilibrium constant K1/K2, the more effectively lactisole inhibited the sweetness of the sweetener. The combined results of sensory evaluation and ITC thermodynamics revealed that introducing a synthetic receptor model to interact with the sweeteners and inhibitors helps to understand the inhibition mechanism and the thermodynamic basis for the initiation of sweetness inhibition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index: A national sample of Chilean school children].

    PubMed

    Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Patricia; Cerecera, Francisco; Amigo, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the association between the intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index (BMI) in Chilean school children. Food consumption frequency data were analyzed for school children aged 6 to 18. The association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI was estimated by multivariate lineal regression models. Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed on a daily basis by 92% (95%CI:90-94) of subjects with daily intake medians of 424 mL (p25-p75:212-707). Every extra daily portion of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed by school children aged 6 to 13 is associated with 0.13 BMI z-scores (95%CI:0.04-0.2;p=0.01). School children consume sugar-sweetened beverages daily with intake medians close to 0.5L. There is an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and higher BMI in Chilean school children.

  2. Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Barclay, Alan W

    2017-04-01

    Background: Reduced intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been the main focus of efforts to stall obesity. Although obesity has risen steeply in Australia, some evidence suggests that added-sugars and SSB intakes have declined over the same time frame. Objective: We investigated recent trends in the availability of sugars and sweeteners and changes in intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and SSBs in Australia by using multiple, independent data sources. Design: The study was designed to compare relevant data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO Statistics Division Database (FAOSTAT)], the Australian government, academia, and the food industry. Results: With the use of the FAOSTAT food balance sheets for Australia, the per capita availability of added or refined sugars and sweeteners was shown to have fallen 16% from 152 g/d in 1980 to 127 g/d in 2011 ( P -trend = 0.001). In national dietary surveys in 1995 and 2011-2012, added-sugars intake declined markedly in adult men (from 72 to 59 g/d; -18%) but not in women (44-42 g/d; NS). As a proportion of total energy, added-sugars intake fell 10% in adult men but nonsignificantly in adult women. Between 1995 and 2011-2012, the proportion of energy from SSBs (including 100% juice) declined 10% in adult men and 20% in women. More marked changes were observed in children aged 2-18 y. Data from national grocery sales indicated that per capita added-sugars intakes derived from carbonated soft drinks fell 26% between 1997 and 2011 (from 23 to 17 g/d) with similar trends for noncarbonated beverages. Conclusions: In Australia, 4 independent data sets confirmed shorter- and longer-term declines in the availability and intake of added sugars, including those contributed by SSBs. The findings challenge the widespread belief that energy from added sugars or sugars in solution are uniquely linked to the prevalence of obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Association Between Artificially Sweetened Beverage Consumption During Pregnancy and Infant Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Azad, Meghan B; Sharma, Atul K; de Souza, Russell J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Subbarao, Padmaja; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of artificial sweeteners has increased substantially in recent decades, including among pregnant women. Animal studies suggest that exposure to artificial sweeteners in utero may predispose offspring to develop obesity; however, to our knowledge, this has never been studied in humans. To determine whether maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy is associated with infant body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]). This cohort study included 3033 mother-infant dyads from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study, a population-based birth cohort that recruited healthy pregnant women from 2009 to 2012. Women completed dietary assessments during pregnancy, and their infants' BMI was measured at 1 year of age (n = 2686; 89% follow-up). Statistical analysis for this study used data collected after the first year of follow-up, which was completed in October 2013. The data analysis was conducted in August 2015. Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages and sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy, determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Infant BMI z score and risk of overweight at 1 year of age, determined from objective anthropometric measurements and defined according to World Health Organization reference standards. The mean (SD) age of the 3033 pregnant women was 32.4 (4.7) years, and their mean (SD) BMI was 24.8 (5.4). The mean (SD) infant BMI z score at 1 year of age was 0.19 (1.05), and 5.1% of infants were overweight. More than a quarter of women (29.5%) consumed artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, including 5.1% who reported daily consumption. Compared with no consumption, daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was associated with a 0.20-unit increase in infant BMI z score (adjusted 95% CI, 0.02-0.38) and a 2-fold higher risk of infant overweight at 1 year of age (adjusted odds ratio

  4. Sedimentologic and paleoclimatic reconstructions of carbonate factory evolution in the Alborz Basin (northern Iran) indicate a global response to Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) glaciations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar Abadi, Mehrdad; Kulagina, Elena I.; Voeten, Dennis F. A. E.; Boulvain, Frédéric; Da Silva, Anne-Christine

    2017-03-01

    The Lower Carboniferous Mobarak Formation records the development of a storm-sensitive pervasive carbonate factory on the southern Paleo-Tethyan passive margin following the opening of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean into the Alborz Basin along the northern margin of Gondwana. Its depositional facies encompass inner ramp peritidal environments, peloidal to crinoidal shoals, storm to fair-weather influenced mid-ramps, proximal to distal shell beds and low energy outer ramps. Sedimentological analyses and foraminiferal biostratigraphy reveal four events affecting carbonate platform evolution in the Alborz Basin during the Lower Carboniferous: (1) A transgression following global temperature rise in the Early Tournaisian (middle Hastarian) caused the formation of thick-bedded argillaceous limestones. This interval correlates with Early Tournaisian nodular to argillaceous limestones in the Moravia Basin (Lisen Formation, Czech Republic), the Dinant Basin (Pont d'Arcole Formation, Belgium), and at the Rhenish Slate Mountains (Lower Alum shale, Germany). (2) Late Hastarian-early Ivorian glaciations previously identified in Southern Gondwana but had not yet recognized in Northern Gondwana were recorded through a sequence boundary. (3) During the Late Tournaisian-Early Visean?, a differential block faulting regime along the basin's margin caused uplift of the westernmost parts of the Alborz Basin and resulted in subsidence in the eastern part of the central basin. This tectonically controlled shift in depositional regime caused vast sub-aerial exposure and brecciation preserved in the top of the Mobarak Formation in the western portion of the Central Alborz Basin. (4) Tectonic activity coinciding with a progressive, multiphase sea level drop caused indirectly by the Viséan and Serpukhovian glaciations phases ultimately led to the stagnation of the carbonate factory. Paleothermometry proxies, the presence of foraminiferal taxa with a northern Paleo-Tethyan affinity and evidence for

  5. Carbon-carbon piston development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    A new piston concept, made of carbon-carbon refractory-composite material, has been developed that overcomes a number of the shortcomings of aluminum pistons. Carbon-carbon material, developed in the early 1960's, is lighter in weight than aluminum, has higher strength and stiffness than aluminum and maintains these properties at temperatures over 2500 F. In addition, carbon-carbon material has a low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent resistance to thermal shock. An effort, called the Advanced Carbon-Carbon Piston Program was started in 1986 to develop and test carbon-carbon pistons for use in spark ignition engines. The carbon-carbon pistons were designed to be replacements for existing aluminum pistons, using standard piston pin assemblies and using standard rings. Carbon-carbon pistons can potentially enable engines to be more reliable, more efficient and have greater power output. By utilizing the unique characteristics of carbon-carbon material a piston can: (1) have greater resistance to structural damage caused by overheating, lean air-fuel mixture conditions and detonation; (2) be designed to be lighter than an aluminum piston thus, reducing the reciprocating mass of an engine, and (3) be operated in a higher combustion temperature environment without failure.

  6. The impact of a local sugar sweetened beverage health promotion and price increase on sales in public leisure centre facilities

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Robert; Pryce, Robert; Brennan, Alan; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the impact of a local sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) health promotion and 20p price increase in leisure centre venues and estimate the impact on consumption. Method Monthly cold drinks sales data and attendance at leisure centres across the city of Sheffield were analysed over the period January 2015-July 2017. Interrupted time-series methods were employed to estimate changes in consumption per attendance of SSB and non-SSB cold drinks following the introduction of the SSB policy from August 2016 adjusting for seasonal variation and autocorrelation. SSB price elasticities were estimated with fixed effects log-log models by SSB product type (soda can, soda bottle, soda post mix, energy drinks, juice from concentrate). Findings We estimated a 31% (95% CI 4%, 59%) reduction in units of SSB sold per attendance in the year since the policy was introduced. We did not observe substitution effects to fruit juice or water but found sales of other artificially sweetened non-SSB products increased by 27% (95% CI 6%, 47%) after the introduction of the tax. Price elasticity analysis identified that a 1% increase in price alongside health promotion leads to a 3.8% (95% CI 3.1% 4.4%) decrease in demand for SSB’s. Price elasticity of demand was highest for child friendly and high caffeine energy drinks. Interpretation Demand for SSB drinks at leisure centre venues is highly responsive to the policy, particularly for child-friendly and high caffeine energy drinks, compared with other SSB tax policy evaluations. The policy also increased purchases of carbonated non-SSB. PMID:29847553

  7. The impact of a local sugar sweetened beverage health promotion and price increase on sales in public leisure centre facilities.

    PubMed

    Breeze, Penny; Womack, Robert; Pryce, Robert; Brennan, Alan; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of a local sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) health promotion and 20p price increase in leisure centre venues and estimate the impact on consumption. Monthly cold drinks sales data and attendance at leisure centres across the city of Sheffield were analysed over the period January 2015-July 2017. Interrupted time-series methods were employed to estimate changes in consumption per attendance of SSB and non-SSB cold drinks following the introduction of the SSB policy from August 2016 adjusting for seasonal variation and autocorrelation. SSB price elasticities were estimated with fixed effects log-log models by SSB product type (soda can, soda bottle, soda post mix, energy drinks, juice from concentrate). We estimated a 31% (95% CI 4%, 59%) reduction in units of SSB sold per attendance in the year since the policy was introduced. We did not observe substitution effects to fruit juice or water but found sales of other artificially sweetened non-SSB products increased by 27% (95% CI 6%, 47%) after the introduction of the tax. Price elasticity analysis identified that a 1% increase in price alongside health promotion leads to a 3.8% (95% CI 3.1% 4.4%) decrease in demand for SSB's. Price elasticity of demand was highest for child friendly and high caffeine energy drinks. Demand for SSB drinks at leisure centre venues is highly responsive to the policy, particularly for child-friendly and high caffeine energy drinks, compared with other SSB tax policy evaluations. The policy also increased purchases of carbonated non-SSB.

  8. Early post-mortem formation of carbonate concretions around tusk-shells over week-month timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu; Ujihara, Atsushi; Minami, Masayo; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Katsuta, Nagayoshi; Yamamoto, Koshi; Sirono, Sin-Iti; Maruyama, Ippei; Nishimoto, Shoji; Metcalfe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Carbonate concretions occur in sedimentary rocks of widely varying geological ages throughout the world. Many of these concretions are isolated spheres, centered on fossils. The formation of such concretions has been variously explained by diffusion of inorganic carbon and organic matter in buried marine sediments. However, details of the syn-depositional chemical processes by which the isolated spherical shape developed and the associated carbon sources are little known. Here we present evidence that spherical carbonate concretions (diameters φ : 14 ~ 37 mm) around tusk-shells (Fissidentalium spp.) were formed within weeks or months following death of the organism by the seepage of fatty acid from decaying soft body tissues. Characteristic concentrations of carbonate around the mouth of a tusk-shell reveal very rapid formation during the decay of organic matter from the tusk-shell. Available observations and geochemical evidence have enabled us to construct a ‘Diffusion-growth rate cross-plot’ that can be used to estimate the growth rate of all kinds of isolated spherical carbonate concretions identified in marine formations. Results shown here suggest that isolated spherical concretions that are not associated with fossils might also be formed from carbon sourced in the decaying soft body tissues of non-skeletal organisms with otherwise low preservation potential.

  9. Cold sweetening diversity in Andean potato germplasm from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Colman, Silvana L; Massa, Gabriela A; Carboni, Martín F; Feingold, Sergio E

    2017-11-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of sucrose and reducing sugars in potato tubers at low temperatures. This process is central for the potato processing industry. During potato chip and French fry production, reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction to produce dark pigmented products not acceptable to consumers. Andean potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Group Andigena) constitute an enormous wealth of potato germplasm that can contribute to increase genetic diversity in breeding programs of many traits, including CIS. We analyzed reducing sugar content and chip quality in freshly harvested and cold-stored tubers from 48 native accessions. Andean accessions showed high variation in reducing sugar content and were classified in three types of CIS responses: type I, reducing sugar content before and after 4°C storage was lower than the value required by industry; type II, reducing sugar content before storage was acceptable, but after 4°C storage incremented up to non-acceptable levels; and type III, reducing sugar content was unacceptable before and after storage. Five Andean accessions presented acceptable reducing sugar content and good chip quality before and after 4°C storage in a consistent manner throughout several experiments. These features make them a useful source for improving the potato industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arun; Amarnath, S; Thulasimani, M; Ramaswamy, S

    2016-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame) have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines.

  11. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arun; Amarnath, S.; Thulasimani, M.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame) have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines. PMID:27298490

  12. Worksite nutrition supports and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption.

    PubMed

    Hipp, J A; Becker, H V; Marx, C M; Tabak, R G; Brownson, R C; Yang, L

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the link between worksite environmental supports for nutrition behaviours and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and offers insight into potential intervention points for reducing SSB consumption and combatting overweight and obesity. Perceived worksite supports for healthy nutrition and self-reported SSB consumption were analysed for 2,015 working adults in the state of Missouri using a subset of questions from the Supports at Home and Work for Maintaining Energy Balance (SHOW-ME) study. Employees' use of vending facilities and the availability of water coolers/water bottles was significantly associated with increased SSB consumption, while use of cafeterias was significantly associated with decreased SSB consumption. Symbols or signs to identify healthy alternatives were significantly associated with sports drink consumption. This study supports previous work indicating the worksite as a necessary environment for nutrition interventions. When choices (vending and cafeteria) are provided, employees report making healthier decisions. For worksites without cafeterias, alternatives should be explored including mobile food trucks and farmer's markets.

  13. Worksite nutrition supports and sugar‐sweetened beverage consumption

    PubMed Central

    Becker, H. V.; Marx, C. M.; Tabak, R. G.; Brownson, R. C.; Yang, L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective This study examined the link between worksite environmental supports for nutrition behaviours and sugar‐sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and offers insight into potential intervention points for reducing SSB consumption and combatting overweight and obesity. Methods Perceived worksite supports for healthy nutrition and self‐reported SSB consumption were analysed for 2,015 working adults in the state of Missouri using a subset of questions from the Supports at Home and Work for Maintaining Energy Balance (SHOW‐ME) study. Results Employees' use of vending facilities and the availability of water coolers/water bottles was significantly associated with increased SSB consumption, while use of cafeterias was significantly associated with decreased SSB consumption. Symbols or signs to identify healthy alternatives were significantly associated with sports drink consumption. Conclusions This study supports previous work indicating the worksite as a necessary environment for nutrition interventions. When choices (vending and cafeteria) are provided, employees report making healthier decisions. For worksites without cafeterias, alternatives should be explored including mobile food trucks and farmer's markets. PMID:29071097

  14. Evaluating Suspension Formulations of Theophylline Cocrystals With Artificial Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Wong, Annie B H; Kanaujia, Parijat

    2018-02-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals have garnered significant interest as potential solids to address issues associated with formulation development of drug substances. However, studies concerning the understanding of formulation behavior of cocrystals are still at the nascent stage. We present results of our attempts to evaluate suspension formulations of cocrystals of an antiasthmatic drug, theophylline, with 2 artificial sweeteners. Stability, solubility, drug release, and taste of the suspension formulations were evaluated. Suspension that contained cocrystal with acesulfame showed higher drug release rate, while a cocrystal with saccharin showed a significant reduction in drug release rate. The cocrystal with saccharin was found stable in suspension for over 9 weeks at accelerated test condition; in contrast, the cocrystal with acesulfame was found unstable. Taste analysis using an electronic taste-sensing system revealed improved sweetness of the suspension formulations with cocrystals. Theophylline has a narrow therapeutic index with a short half-life which necessitates frequent dosing. This adversely impacts patient compliance and enhances risk of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects. The greater thermodynamic stability, sweetness, and sustained drug release of the suspension formulation of theophylline-saccharin could offer an alternative solution to the short half-life of theophylline and make it a promising formulation for treating asthmatic pediatric and geriatric patients. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sweetening ruthenium and osmium: organometallic arene complexes containing aspartame.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer C; Habtemariam, Abraha; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Sadler, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    The novel organometallic sandwich complexes [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Ru(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (1) (OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate) and [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Os(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (2) incorporating the artificial sweetener aspartame have been synthesised and characterised. A number of properties of aspartame were found to be altered on binding to either metal. The pK(a) values of both the carboxyl and the amino groups of aspartame are lowered by between 0.35 and 0.57 pH units, causing partial deprotonation of the amino group at pH 7.4 (physiological pH). The rate of degradation of aspartame to 3,6-dioxo-5-phenylmethylpiperazine acetic acid (diketopiperazine) increased over threefold from 0.12 to 0.36 h(-1) for 1, and to 0.43 h(-1) for 2. Furthermore, the reduction potential of the ligand shifted from -1.133 to -0.619 V for 2. For the ruthenium complex 1 the process occurred in two steps, the first (at -0.38 V) within a biologically accessible range. This facilitates reactions with biological reductants such as ascorbate. Binding to and activation of the sweet taste receptor was not observed for these metal complexes up to concentrations of 1 mM. The factors which affect the ability of metal-bound aspartame to interact with the receptor site are discussed.

  16. Sorption and biodegradation of artificial sweeteners in activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gan, Jie; Nguyen, Viet Tung; Chen, Huiting; You, Luhua; Duarah, Ankur; Zhang, Lifeng; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2015-12-01

    There is limited information on the occurrence and removal of artificial sweeteners (ASs) in biological wastewater treatment plants, and in particular, the contribution of sorption and biodegradation to their removal. This study investigated the fate of ASs in both the aqueous and solid phases in a water reclamation plant (WRP). All the four targeted ASs, i.e. acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharine (SAC), were detected in both the aqueous and solid phases of raw influent and primary effluent samples. The concentrations of CYC and SAC in secondary effluent or MBR permeate were below their method detection limits. ACE and SUC were persistent throughout the WRP, whereas CYC and SAC were completely removed in biological treatment (>99%). Experimental results showed that sorption played a minor role in the elimination of the ASs due to the relatively low sorption coefficients (Kd), where Kd<500L/kg. In particular, the poor removal of ACE and SUC in the WRP may be attributed to their physiochemical properties (i.e. logKow<0 or logD<3.2) and chemical structures containing strong withdrawing electron functional groups in heterocyclic rings (i.e. chloride and sulfonate). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S; Jacques, Paul F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ∼30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to <1 serving/week, 1 serving/week to <1 serving/day, and ⩾1 serving/day) of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend=0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend=0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  19. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S.; Jacques, Paul F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E.; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ~30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Methods Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to <1 serving/week, 1 serving/week to <1 serving/-day, and ⩾1 serving/day) of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. Results After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend = 0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend = 0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. Conclusion In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. PMID:26055949

  20. Sweetened beverage consumption and increased risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Talavera, Juan O; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and components of the metabolic syndrome in a Mexican population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns and physical activity were collected via self-administered questionnaires. Sweetened beverage consumption was evaluated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Anthropometric and clinical measures were assessed with standardized procedures. The definition of metabolic syndrome was determined using criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The associations of interest were evaluated by means of linear and logistic regression models. The Mexican states of Morelos and Mexico. A total of 5240 individuals aged 20 to 70 years (mean 39.4 (sd 11.5) years) were evaluated. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 56.6 %. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 26.6 %. We found that for each additional daily sweetened beverage serving consumed, participants experienced an average increase of 0.49 mmol/l in TAG and a decrease in HDL cholesterol of 0.31 mmol/l. Subjects consuming more than two servings of sweetened beverages daily were at 2.0 times greater risk of metabolic syndrome than those who did not consume sweetened beverages. We also observed that higher sweetened beverage consumption increased the risk of all components of the metabolic syndrome. Our data support the hypothesis that sweetened beverage consumption increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults, possibly by providing excess energy and large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars.

  1. Rheological and sensory performance of a protein-based sweetener (MNEI), sucrose, and aspartame in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Miele, Nicoletta A; Cabisidan, Erliza K; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Leone, Serena; Masi, Paolo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Cavella, Silvana

    2017-12-01

    Sweeteners and flavors are generally added to yogurt to make them more palatable. However, the addition of these ingredients may affect the fermentation process of yogurt as well as its physical and sensory characteristics. Consumers prioritize yogurt products that are "natural." A modified single-chain form of the natural sweet protein monellin extracted from the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called MNEI, could be a useful alternative to artificial sweeteners. The aim of the present work was to evaluate new rapid sensory methods in combination with rheology to assess the viability of using MNEI to develop sweetened yogurts without the calories of sugar. We studied the gelation and cooling kinetics of 4 yogurt samples (unsweetened or sweetened with MNEI, aspartame, or sucrose) by using a rheometer. Furthermore, the 4 yogurts, with and without addition of a flavoring agent, were characterized from a sensory perspective using a combination of 2 rapid sensory methods, ultra flash profile and flash profile. Rheological results showed that, when added at typical usage levels, aspartame, sucrose, and MNEI did not generally affect the yogurt fermentation process or its rheological properties. Sensory results demonstrated that texture attributes of yogurts with aspartame and sucrose were strongly linked to sweetness and flavor perception, but this was not true for MNEI-sweetened yogurts. In contrast to results obtained from samples sweetened with sucrose and aspartame, MNEI protein did not sweeten the yogurt when added before fermentation. This study highlights the enhancing effect of flavor on sweetness perception, supporting previous reports that noted synergistic effects between sucrose or aspartame and flavors. Hence, future studies should be conducted to determine how sweet proteins behave in yogurt when added after fermentation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of the carbon cycle and seawater temperature from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary to the Early Toarcian based on brachiopod geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Tamás; Tomašových, Adam

    2017-04-01

    The ecological crisis and extinction at the end of the Triassic coincides with several environmental perturbations such as global temperature rise, ocean acidification and carbon isotope anomalies, with a large observed negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in the Late Rhaetian as well. Followed by the ETE, the Early Jurassic was characterized by marked fluctuations of the global seawater temperature and carbon cycle. Carbon isotope records are showing positive and remarkable negative excursions. A particular example of these phenomena is connected to the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (TOAE). The δ13C record of the TOAE is showing a negative excursion of a high magnitude, suggesting the injection of large amount of light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, coinciding with rapid global warming and widespread anoxia. Beside the TOAE there are many other, smaller scale carbon isotope anomalies and environmental perturbations at the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian transition or at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary. In our study, we provide new brachiopod δ13C, δ18O, and Mg/Ca data from the time interval starting in the Rhaetian till the end of the Early Toarcian. Considering the strong resistance of brachiopod shells against diagenesis, our aim is to reconstruct seawater temperature, seawater Mg/Ca, and carbon cycle evolution based on a reliable geochemical proxy database of the studied time interval. The samples have been collected from various localities across Europe achieving a good, at least ammonite subzone scale resolution for the Rhaetian stage and for the Lower Jurassic. The geochemical preservation of the shell material have been tested by several approaches. Thin-sections were made from the shells and analyzed by electron microprobe and ICP-OES to evaluate their preservation by assessing concentrations of Fe, Mn, Sr, and their ratios (Mn/Ca, Sr/Ca). Considering the various elemental composition data of fossil and recent brachiopods published by several

  3. High resolution stable isotope and carbonate variability during the early Oligocene climate transition: Walvis Ridge (ODP Site 1263)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2007-01-01

    resolution reconstruction of the Eocene/Oligocene from the Atlantic basin to date, and provide us with a unique opportunity to investigate the fine-scale interplay of glaciation and the global carbon cycle.

  4. An Inexpensive, Single Use Carbon-Based Sensor for the Rapid and Early Detection of Hydrocarbon Leaks.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, H Bri; Mayall, Robert M; Pilonieta, Roberto J; Bryant, Steven L

    2017-06-23

    A novel fabrication process for a single use, low-cost organic solvent sensor has been developed. The process is simple, and the materials are readily available. Carbon nanomaterials are self-assembled at a water/hexane interface, where the hexane phase contains dissolved paraffin wax. Upon the controlled evaporation of hexane, the paraffin wax precipitates, trapping the carbon nanoparticles at the surface in a paraffin wax backbone, realizing a carbon-nanoparticle-decorated film. The film is hydrophobic and highly electrically conductive. When exposed to hydrocarbons or a mixture of hydrocarbons, the conductive carbon network deteriorates and an increase in film resistivity is monitored. The rate of change in resistivity is proportional to the concentration and composition of organic molecules in contact with the film.

  5. Is consumption of sugar‐sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy associated with birth weight?

    PubMed Central

    Grundt, Jacob H.; Eide, Geir Egil; Brantsæter, Anne‐Lise; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Norway, there were parallel increases and subsequent decreases in birth weight (BW) and consumption of sugar‐sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSC) during the period 1990–2010, and by an ecological approach, we have suggested that the relationship was causal. The objective of this study was to examine if such a relationship was present in a prospectively followed cohort of pregnant women. The study population included 62,494 term singleton mother–infant dyads in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The association between SSC consumption and BW was assessed using multiple regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. Each 100 ml intake of SSC was associated with a 7.8 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: −10.3 to −5.3) decrease in BW, a decreased risk of BW > 4,500 g (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.97) and a near significantly increased risk of BW < 2,500 g (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.10). The negative association with SSC consumption was aggravated by smoking, lack of exercise, and obesity. For mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus, we observed an increased risk of BW > 4,500 g (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39) and a trend towards significant increase in mean BW (25.1 g, 95% CI: −2.0 to 52.2) per 100 ml SSC. Our findings suggest that increasing consumption of rapidly absorbed sugar from SSC had opposite associations with BW in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27928892

  6. Is consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy associated with birth weight?

    PubMed

    Grundt, Jacob H; Eide, Geir Egil; Brantsaeter, Anne-Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Markestad, Trond

    2017-10-01

    In Norway, there were parallel increases and subsequent decreases in birth weight (BW) and consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSC) during the period 1990-2010, and by an ecological approach, we have suggested that the relationship was causal. The objective of this study was to examine if such a relationship was present in a prospectively followed cohort of pregnant women. The study population included 62,494 term singleton mother-infant dyads in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The association between SSC consumption and BW was assessed using multiple regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. Each 100 ml intake of SSC was associated with a 7.8 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.3 to -5.3) decrease in BW, a decreased risk of BW > 4,500 g (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.97) and a near significantly increased risk of BW < 2,500 g (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.10). The negative association with SSC consumption was aggravated by smoking, lack of exercise, and obesity. For mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus, we observed an increased risk of BW > 4,500 g (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39) and a trend towards significant increase in mean BW (25.1 g, 95% CI: -2.0 to 52.2) per 100 ml SSC. Our findings suggest that increasing consumption of rapidly absorbed sugar from SSC had opposite associations with BW in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors Maternal & Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. Methods We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Results Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34) compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ≤10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806). One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively). No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Conclusions Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are needed to determine the role

  8. Misperceptions of peer norms as a risk factor for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Perkins, H Wesley; Craig, David W

    2010-12-01

    Research has shown that excess calories from sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with weight gain among youth. There is limited knowledge, however, regarding perception of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norms. This study examined the extent of misperception about peer sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norms and the association of perceived peer norms with personal self-reported consumption. Among 3,831 6th- to 12th-grade students in eight schools who completed anonymous cross-sectional surveys between November 2008 and May 2009, students' personal perception of the daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norm in their school within their grade (School Grade group) was compared with aggregate self-reports of daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for each School Grade group. The median daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption from personal reports was one beverage in 24 of 29 School Grade groups, two beverages in four School Grade groups, and three beverages in one School Grade group. Seventy-six percent of students overestimated the daily norm in their School Grade group, with 24% perceiving the norm to be at least three beverages or more per day. Fixed-effects multiple regression analysis showed that the perceived peer sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norm was much more positively associated with personal consumption than was the estimated actual sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norm per School Grade group. Misperceptions of peer sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norms were pervasive and associated with unhealthy sugar-sweetened beverage consumption behavior. These misperceptions may contribute to intake of excess calories, potentially contributing to adolescent obesity. Future research should assess the pervasiveness of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption misperceptions in other school populations as well as causes and consequences of these misperceptions. Health professionals may wish to consider how normative feedback

  9. A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns.

    PubMed

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A Dynamic Panel Model of the Associations of Sweetened Beverage Purchases With Dietary Quality and Food-Purchasing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. PMID:25834139

  11. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: a survey of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Cheryl; Smith, Danielle; McCann, Susan E; Hyland, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess current beverage consumption patterns and anticipated reaction to an added 20% tax on these products. Design A random-digit dialled telephone interview lasting 20min was administered to assess demographics, beverage consumption behaviours and intentions regarding consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the event of an additional tax on these beverages. Setting Respondents were recruited throughout the USA. Subjects The study included 592 adults. Results Sixty-nine per cent of respondents reported consuming at least one prepackaged sugar-sweetened beverage in the past week; those who consumed sugar-sweetened beverages averaged seven pre-packaged beverages per week. Ninety-one per cent knew that frequent consumption of soft drinks increases risk of obesity. Thirty-six per cent supported a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages with greatest support among those aged 18–24 years, those with BMI<30kg/m2 and those with higher levels of education (P<0.05). Over one-third of respondents said that they would cut back on their sweetened beverage consumption in the event of an added 20% tax on these beverages. Conclusions Our findings suggest that an added tax on these beverages could influence some to cut down on their consumption, reducing their risk of obesity and related illnesses. PMID:22269063

  12. Taxation and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Position of Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Dietitians of Canada recommends that an excise tax of at least 10-20% be applied to sugar-sweetened beverages sold in Canada given the negative impact of these products on the health of the population and the viability of taxation as a means to reduce consumption. For the greatest impact, taxation measures should be combined with other policy interventions such as increasing access to healthy foods while decreasing access to unhealthy foods in schools, daycares, and recreation facilities; restrictions on the marketing of foods and beverages to children; and effective, long-term educational initiatives. This position is based on a comprehensive review of the literature. The Canadian population is experiencing high rates of obesity and excess weight. There is moderate quality evidence linking consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to excess weight, obesity, and chronic disease onset in children and adults. Taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages holds substantiated potential for decreasing its consumption. Based on economic models and results from recent taxation efforts, an excise tax can lead to a decline in sugar-sweetened beverage purchase and consumption. Taxation of up to 20% can lead to a consumption decrease by approximately 10% in the first year of its implementation, with a postulated 2.6% decrease in weight per person on average. Revenue generated from taxation can be used to fund other obesity reduction initiatives. A number of influential national organizations support a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

  13. Molecular Mechanism of Species-dependent Sweet Taste toward Artificial Sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

    2011-01-01

    The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species towards the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than that of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds. PMID:21795555

  14. Review of the nutritional benefits and risks related to intense sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Bruyère; Serge, Ahmed H; Catherine, Atlan; Jacques, Belegaud; Murielle, Bortolotti; Marie-Chantal, Canivenc-Lavier; Sybil, Charrière; Jean-Philippe, Girardet; Sabine, Houdart; Esther, Kalonji; Perrine, Nadaud; Fabienne, Rajas; Gérard, Slama; Irène, Margaritis

    2015-01-01

    The intense sweeteners currently authorised in Europe comprise ten compounds of various chemical natures. Their overall use has sharply risen in the last 20 years. These compounds are mainly used to formulate reduced-calorie products while maintaining sweetness. This extensive analysis of the literature reviews the data currently available on the potential nutritional benefits and risks related to the consumption of products containing intense sweeteners. Regarding nutritional benefits, the available studies, while numerous, do not provide proof that the consumption of artificial sweeteners as sugar substitutes is beneficial in terms of weight management, blood glucose regulation in diabetic subjects or the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Regarding nutritional risks (incidence of type 2 diabetes, habituation to sweetness in adults, cancers, etc.), it is not possible based on the available data to establish a link between the occurrence of these risks and the consumption of artificial sweeteners. However, some studies underline the need to improve knowledge of the links between intense sweeteners consumption and certain risks.

  15. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  16. Differential modulation of the lactisole ‘Sweet Water Taste’ by sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Cynthia; Nachtigal, Danielle; Slack, Jay P.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-exposure to taste stimuli and certain chemicals can cause water to have a taste. Here we studied further the ‘sweet water taste’ (SWT) perceived after exposure to the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. Experiment 1 investigated an incidental observation that presenting lactisole in mixture with sucrose reduced the intensity of the SWT. The results confirmed this observation and also showed that rinsing with sucrose after lactisole could completely eliminate the SWT. The generalizability of these findings was investigated in experiment 2 by presenting 5 additional sweeteners before, during, or after exposure to lactisole. The results found with sucrose were replicated with fructose and cyclamate, but the 3 other sweeteners were less effective suppressors of the SWT, and the 2 sweeteners having the highest potency initially enhanced it. A third experiment investigated these interactions on the tongue tip and found that the lactisole SWT was perceived only when water was actively flowed across the tongue. The same experiment yielded evidence against the possibility that suppression of the SWT following exposure to sweeteners is an aftereffect of receptor activation while providing additional support for a role of sweetener potency. Collectively these results provide new evidence that complex inhibitory and excitatory interactions occur between lactisole and agonists of the sweet taste receptor TAS1R2-TAS1R3. Receptor mechanisms that may be responsible for these interactions are discussed in the context of the current model of the SWT and the possible contribution of allosteric modulation. PMID:28700634

  17. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in chipping potatoes.

    PubMed

    Wiberley-Bradford, Amy E; Bethke, Paul C

    2018-01-01

    Potato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose, and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifests as a blush of color near the center of the fried chip, becomes more severe with time, and limits the storage period. Vacuolar invertase (VInv) converts sucrose to glucose and fructose and is hypothesized to play a role in senescent sweetening. To test this hypothesis, senescent sweetening was quantified in multiple lines of potato with reduced VInv expression. Chip darkening from senescent sweetening was delayed by about 4 weeks for tubers with reduced VInv expression. A strong positive correlation between frequency of dark chips and tuber hexose content was observed. Tubers with reduced VInv expression had lower hexose to sucrose ratios than controls. VInv activity contributes to reducing sugar accumulation during senescent sweetening. Sucrose breakdown during frying may contribute to chip darkening. Suppressing VInv expression increases the storage period of the chipping potato crop, which is an important consideration, as potatoes with reduced VInv expression are entering commercial production in the USA. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Stevia rebaudiana Leaves: Effect of Drying Process Temperature on Bioactive Components, Antioxidant Capacity and Natural Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Ah-Hen, Kong; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Honores, Carolina; Moraga, Nelson O

    2016-03-01

    Stevia leaves are usually used in dried state and undergo the inevitable effect of drying process that changes the quality characteristics of the final product. The aim of this study was to assess temperature effect on Stevia leaves through analysis of relevant bioactive components, antioxidant capacity and content of natural sweeteners and minerals. The drying process was performed in a convective dryer at constant temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Vitamin C was determined in the leaves and as expected showed a decrease during drying proportional to temperature. Phenolics and flavonoids were also determined and were found to increase during drying below 50 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, and the latter showed the highest value at 40 °C, with a better correlation with the phenolics and flavonoids content. The content of eight natural sweeteners found in Stevia leaves was also determined and an increase in the content of seven of the sweeteners, excluding steviol bioside, was found at drying temperature up to 50 °C. At temperatures between 60 and 80 °C the increase in sweeteners content was not significant. Stevia leaves proved to be an excellent source of antioxidants and natural sweeteners.

  19. Molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

    2011-07-27

    The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species-selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes, and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species-dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds.

  20. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Michael A.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Ogino, Shuji; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown. Methods We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who completed food frequency questionnaires as part of a U.S. National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox proportional hazard models. Results Patients consuming ≥2 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day experienced an adjusted HR for disease recurrence or mortality of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.04–2.68), compared with those consuming <2 servings per month (P trend = 0.02). The association of sugar-sweetened beverages on cancer recurrence or mortality appeared greater among patients who were both overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and less physically active (metabolic equivalent task-hours per week <18) (HR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.29–3.81, P trend = 0.0025). Conclusion Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:24937507

  1. Correlates of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Purchased for Children at Fast-Food Restaurants.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Jonathan; Breck, Andrew; Elbel, Brian

    2016-11-01

    To determine consumer and fast-food purchase characteristics associated with the purchase of a sugar-sweetened beverage, as well as calories and grams of sugar, for children at a fast-food restaurant. We completed cross-sectional analyses of fast-food restaurant receipts and point-of-purchase surveys (n = 483) collected during 2013 and 2014 in New York City and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey. Caregivers purchased beverages for half of all children in our sample. Approximately 60% of these beverages were sugar-sweetened beverages. Fast-food meals with sugar-sweetened beverages had, on average, 179 more calories than meals with non-sugar-sweetened beverages. Being an adolescent or male, having a caregiver with a high school degree or less, having a caregiver who saw the posted calorie information, ordering a combination meal, and eating the meal in the restaurant were associated with ordering a sugar-sweetened beverage. Purchases that included a combination meal or were consumed in the restaurant included more beverage grams of sugar and calories. Characteristics of fast-food purchases appear to have the largest and most important association to beverage calories for children at fast-food restaurants. Targeting fast-food restaurants, particularly combination meals, may improve childhood obesity rates.

  2. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: a survey of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Cheryl; Smith, Danielle; McCann, Susan E; Hyland, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    To assess current beverage consumption patterns and anticipated reaction to an added 20 % tax on these products. A random-digit dialled telephone interview lasting 20 min was administered to assess demographics, beverage consumption behaviours and intentions regarding consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the event of an additional tax on these beverages. Respondents were recruited throughout the USA. The study included 592 adults. Sixty-nine per cent of respondents reported consuming at least one pre-packaged sugar-sweetened beverage in the past week; those who consumed sugar-sweetened beverages averaged seven pre-packaged beverages per week. Ninety-one per cent knew that frequent consumption of soft drinks increases risk of obesity. Thirty-six per cent supported a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages with greatest support among those aged 18-24 years, those with BMI < 30 kg/m2 and those with higher levels of education (P < 0·05). Over one-third of respondents said that they would cut back on their sweetened beverage consumption in the event of an added 20 % tax on these beverages. Our findings suggest that an added tax on these beverages could influence some to cut down on their consumption, reducing their risk of obesity and related illnesses.

  3. Correlates of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Purchased for Children at Fast-Food Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Jonathan; Breck, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine consumer and fast-food purchase characteristics associated with the purchase of a sugar-sweetened beverage, as well as calories and grams of sugar, for children at a fast-food restaurant. Methods. We completed cross-sectional analyses of fast-food restaurant receipts and point-of-purchase surveys (n = 483) collected during 2013 and 2014 in New York City and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey. Results. Caregivers purchased beverages for half of all children in our sample. Approximately 60% of these beverages were sugar-sweetened beverages. Fast-food meals with sugar-sweetened beverages had, on average, 179 more calories than meals with non–sugar-sweetened beverages. Being an adolescent or male, having a caregiver with a high school degree or less, having a caregiver who saw the posted calorie information, ordering a combination meal, and eating the meal in the restaurant were associated with ordering a sugar-sweetened beverage. Purchases that included a combination meal or were consumed in the restaurant included more beverage grams of sugar and calories. Conclusions. Characteristics of fast-food purchases appear to have the largest and most important association to beverage calories for children at fast-food restaurants. Targeting fast-food restaurants, particularly combination meals, may improve childhood obesity rates. PMID:27715306

  4. Consumption of sweetened-beverages and poverty in Colombia: when access is not an advantage.

    PubMed

    Herran, Oscar F; Patiño, Gonzalo A; Gamboa, Edna M

    2018-01-15

    This study characterizes the intake of sweetened beverages and establishes whether economic inequalities in their consumption exists. Ecological study. Mixed methods using food frequency questionnaire and inequality indices. Based on the National Nutrition Survey, Colombia, 2010. The sweetened beverage intake of 17,514 subjects in 33 geodemographic units was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire and summarized. The calculation of inequality was based on the monetary poverty. The prevalence (yes/no) and frequency (times/day) of sweetened beverage consumption were estimated. Indices of economic inequality were calculated for both prevalence and frequency. The prevalence of sweetened beverage consumption was between 79.2% (95% CI, 75.7 to 82.8) in adults and 88.5% (95% CI, 85.8 to 91.3) in minors. The frequency of consumption in terms of times/day, was between 0.20 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.24) in adults and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.46) in minors. The Gini coefficient for the prevalence was close to zero, between 0.04 and 0.08; for the frequency, it was slightly higher, between 0.12 and 0.25. It was established that there is no economic inequality in the consumption of sweetened beverages. Consumption taxes could be regressive.

  5. [Association between non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity risk among university students in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Durán Agúero, Samuel; Blanco Batten, Estela; Rodríguez Noel, María del Pilar; Cordón Arrivillaga, Karla; Salazar de Ariza, Julieta; Record Cornwall, Jiniva; Cereceda Bujaico, María Del Pilar; Antezana Almorza, Sonia; Espinoza Bernardo, Sissy; Encina Vega, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    The association between non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity is controversial. To determine whether the consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is related to higher risk for overweight or obesity among university students in Chile, Panama, Guatemala and Peru. A total of 1,224 (472 from Chile, 300 from Panama, 248 from Guatemala and 204 from Peru) male and female university students aged between 18 and 26 years participated in the study. Each student reported their food intake (frequency of weekly consumption) in a survey that contained photos of foods containing non-nutritive sweeteners adapted for each country. Anthropometry was also measured. More than 80% of students consumed at least one product containing non-nutritive sweeteners. Females who ate acesulfame potassium and sucralose had a lower risk of overweight or obesity with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.5 (confidence intervals (CI) = 0.3-0.9; p = 0.003) and OR = 0.4 (IC = 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01), respectively. In this sample of Latinamerican university students, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with lower risk of overweight only in females.

  6. Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, habit strength, food-related parenting practices and the general parenting style dimensions of 'strictness' and 'involvement'. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. More restrictive parenting practices were associated with lower consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (beta = -38.0 ml; 95% CI = -48.1, -28.0). This association was highly mediated ( approximately 55%) by attitude, self-efficacy and modeling from parents. Nevertheless, a significant direct effect remained (beta = -17.1 ml; 95% CI = -27.2, -6.90). Interactions between perceived parenting style and parenting practices showed that the association between parenting practices and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was stronger among adolescents who perceived their parents as being moderately strict and highly involved. Parents influence their children's sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and should therefore be involved in interventions aimed at changing dietary behaviors. Interventions aimed at the promotion of healthy parenting practices will improve when they are tailored to the general parenting style of the participants.

  7. Evaluating equity critiques in food policy: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Anne; King, Katherine F

    2013-01-01

    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy - modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet - and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program (SNAP) assistance (i.e., food stamps). We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were made to the sweetened beverage exclusion, and analyze these objections in terms of the theoretical notions of distributive equality and social equality. First, the sweetened beverage exclusion is unfair or violates distributive equality because it restricts the consumer choice of SNAP participants relative to non-participants. Second, it is disrespectful or violates social equality to prohibit SNAP participants from purchasing sweetened beverages with food stamps. We conclude that neither equity-based ethical objection is decisive, and that the proposed exclusion of sugar-sweetened beverages is not a violation of either distributive or social equality. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Behavior of carbonate and magnesium ions in the initial crystallites at the early developmental stages of the rat calvaria.

    PubMed

    Kakei, M; Nakahara, H; Tamura, N; Itoh, H; Kumegawa, M

    1997-08-01

    Analysis of the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphate, and carbonate ions in the mineral phase of rat calvaria specimens obtained at different developmental stages indicated that the mineral at the newborn stage contained a negligible amount of carbonate, but a high content of Mg. There was no significant difference in Ca and phosphate (as PO4) contents between the newborn material and that from later stages. A relatively large amount of carbonate was detected in the calvaria from 6-day-old rats, in which only immature crystals were observed, thus indicating the beginning of apatite formation. Furthermore, using laser Raman microprobe analysis we confirmed that the Raman peak at 1120 cm-1 band, indicative of a Mg-CO3 compound, appeared at the 6-day stage. We also observed that the Raman peak at 988 cm-1 found in the samples from the newborn seemed to have shifted to 963-962 cm-1 in the case of those obtained from 6-day-old rats, a shift which suggests the conversion from the non-apatitic to the apatitic form. These results indicate that carbonate ions might facilitate the initiation of crystal development by converting the inhibitory Mg ion into its inactive form (Mg-carbonate compound).

  9. Is fructose the optimal low glycemic index sweetener?

    PubMed

    Bantle, John P

    2006-01-01

    Fructose is a monosaccharide which is abundant in nature. It is the sweetest naturally occurring carbohydrate. The availability of fructose increased substantially when it became possible in the 1960s to economically produce high fructose syrups from corn starch and other starches. Such high fructose syrups are now used to sweeten soft drinks, fruit drinks, baked goods, jams, syrups and candies. The most recent data available suggest that fructose consumption is increasing worldwide. Fructose presently accounts for about 10% of average total energy intake in the United States. Studies in both healthy and diabetic subjects demonstrated that fructose produced a smaller postprandial rise in plasma glucose and serum insulin than other common carbohydrates. Substitution of dietary fructose for other carbohydrates produced a 13% reduction in mean plasma glucose in a study of type-1 and type-2 diabetic subjects. However, there is concern that fructose may aggravate lipemia, particularly in men. In one study, daylong plasma triglycerides (estimated by determining the area under response curves) in healthy men was 32% greater during a high fructose diet than during a high glucose diet. There is also concern that fructose may be a factor contributing to the growing worldwide prevalence of obesity. Increasing fructose consumption is temporally associated with the increase in obesity. Moreover, on theoretical grounds, dietary fructose might increase energy intake. Fructose stimulates insulin secretion less than does glucose and glucose-containing carbohydrates. Since insulin increases leptin release, lower circulating insulin and leptin after fructose ingestion might inhibit appetite less than consumption of other carbohydrates and lead to increased energy intake. However, there is not yet any convincing experimental evidence that dietary fructose does increase energy intake. Although evidence that fructose has adverse effects is limited, adding fructose in large amounts to

  10. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S.

  11. Application of agonist-receptor modeling to the sweetness synergy between high fructose corn syrup and sucralose, and between high-potency sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P A; Bridges, J R; Wicklund, R

    2010-03-01

    The agonist-receptor-transducer model of D. Ennis is applied to beverage formulations sweetened with high fructose corn syrup, sucralose, and other high-potency sweeteners, confirming the utility of the model, and supports the growing volume of evidence for multiple binding sites on the sweetness receptor. The model is further simplified to require less parameters for other sweetener blend systems whenever potency information is available for the single sweeteners.

  12. Early thawing after snow removal and no straw mulching accelerates organic carbon cycling in a paddy soil in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Tang, Jie; Liang, Shuang; Li, Zhaoyang; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Sining

    2018-03-01

    Variations in soil organic carbon (SOC) have implications for atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and the greenhouse effect. However, the effects of snow cover and straw mulching on the variations in SOC fractions across winter remain largely unknown. In this study, soil samples were collected during different stages of winter from an in situ experiment comprising three treatments: 1) snow removal with no straw mulching (Sn-SM-); 2) snow cover with no straw mulching (SC), and; 3) snow cover with straw mulching (SC + SM+). Results showed that labile organic carbon, semi-labile organic carbon, recalcitrant organic carbon (ROC), the light fraction of organic carbon (LFOC), and easily oxidized organic carbon (EOC) contents did not vary significantly (P > .05) during the unfrozen to hard frost stages. Compared to the unfrozen stage, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) contents decreased by 519.03 mg kg -1 , 325.21 mg kg -1 , and 244.09 mg kg -1 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents increased by 473.36 mg kg -1 , 348.10 mg kg -1 , and 258.89 mg kg -1  at the hard frost stage in Sn-SM-, SC, and SC + SM + treatments, respectively. Throughout all thawing stages, > 61% and 59% of SOC and ROC accumulation, respectively in the three treatments were observed in thawing stage II, indicating that higher temperatures and microbial activities in thawing stage II accelerated the inputs of SOC and ROC. ROC accumulation accounted for >65% of the SOC accumulation and the proportions of ROC in SOC increased in the three treatments during the thawing stages. SC + SM + treatment maintained lower EOC contents during thawing stages than other treatments. The observation of lowest SOC and LFOC accumulation and contents in the SC + SM + treatment during thawing stages showed that SC + SM + experienced the least inputs of SOC in the soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief. Number 271

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute calories and added sugars to the diets of U.S. children. Studies have suggested a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend…

  14. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

  15. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools.

    PubMed

    Adachi-Mejia, A M; Longacre, M R; Skatrud-Mickelson, M; Li, Z; Purvis, L A; Titus, L J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A

    2013-05-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location - urban, town or rural - and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Cross-sectional observational study. Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P = 0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive-sweetened beverages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforc...

  17. 40 CFR 60.5407 - What are the requirements for monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentration in the acid gas from the sweetening unit for each 24-hour period. At least one sample per 24-hour... sampling schedule. (3) The average acid gas flow rate from the sweetening unit. You must install and operate a monitoring device to continuously measure the flow rate of acid gas. The monitoring device...

  18. 40 CFR 60.5407 - What are the requirements for monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentration in the acid gas from the sweetening unit for each 24-hour period. At least one sample per 24-hour... sampling schedule. (3) The average acid gas flow rate from the sweetening unit. You must install and operate a monitoring device to continuously measure the flow rate of acid gas. The monitoring device...

  19. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

  20. Plant-derived isoprenoid sweeteners: recent progress in biosynthetic gene discovery and perspectives on microbial production.

    PubMed

    Seki, Hikaru; Tamura, Keita; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2018-06-01

    Increased public awareness of negative health effects associated with excess sugar consumption has triggered increasing interest in plant-derived natural sweeteners. Steviol glycosides are a group of highly sweet diterpene glycosides contained in the leaves of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana). Mogrosides, extracted from monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii), are a group of cucurbitane-type triterpenoid glycosides. Glycyrrhizin is an oleanane-type triterpenoid glycoside derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza plants (licorice). This review focuses on the natural isoprenoid sweetening agents steviol glycosides, mogrosides, and glycyrrhizin, and describes recent progress in gene discovery and elucidation of the catalytic functions of their biosynthetic enzymes. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in engineering the production of various plant-specialized metabolites in microbial hosts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae via the introduction of biosynthetic enzyme genes. Perspectives on the microbial production of plant-derived natural sweeteners are also discussed.

  1. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  2. Comparison of hydrophilic interaction and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common steviol glycosides in popular beverages.

    PubMed

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2016-08-05

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to separate artificial and natural sweeteners approved for use in European Union (EU). Among three tested HILIC columns (BlueOrchid PAL-HILIC, Ascentis Express Si and Acclaim™ Trinity™ P2) the last one was selected for the development of HILIC method due to the best results obtained with it. Early eluting and coeluting compounds in HILIC (acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, sucralose and aspartame) were successfully separated by the HILIC-based approach for the first time. The developed HILIC method allows for determination of all high potency sweeteners in one analytical run. The calibration curves for all analytes had good linearity within the tested ranges. The limits of detection and quantitation were in the range 0.81-3.30ng/mL and 2.32-9.89ng/mL, respectively. The obtained recoveries used for trueness and precision estimation were from 98.6% to 106.2% with standard deviation less than 4.1%. Sample preparation was reduced to a necessary minimum and contained only proper dilution and centrifugation. More than twenty samples of beverages were analyzed with the developed HILIC method. Finally, the chromatographic parameters of peaks (reduced retention time, width at baseline, width at 50% of peak height, tailing factor and efficiency) obtained in HILIC mode and in RPLC mode were compared. Developed HILIC method along with RPLC method can be applied for rapid evaluation of sweeteners' content, quality and safety control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A randomized trial to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage and juice intake in preschool-aged children: description of the Smart Moms intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Nezami, Brooke T; Lytle, Leslie A; Tate, Deborah F

    2016-08-19

    Obesity in young children remains a public health concern, and maternal weight is one of the strongest predictors of obesity in early childhood. However, parental adherence in interventions for young children is often low and existing programs have had mixed success. An innovative approach to treatment is needed that increases adherence among mothers and improves weight-related behaviors simultaneously in mothers and children. The objective of the Smart Moms randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to test the efficacy of a 6-month primarily smartphone-delivered program to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage and juice consumption among children ages 3-5 whose mothers are overweight or obese. This paper describes the study design and intervention. Mother-child dyads were eligible if the mother was overweight or obese, owned a smartphone, and if the child was between the ages of 3-5 and consumed 12 oz or more per day of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and 100 % fruit juice. Participants were randomly assigned to the Smart Moms intervention or a waitlist control group. The intervention consisted of theoretically grounded and evidence-based behavioral strategies delivered through one group session, lessons on a mobile-optimized website, and text messages. Mothers submitted self-monitoring information via text message and received regular tailored feedback emails from interventionists. The primary outcome is change in child SSB and juice consumption and a secondary outcome is change in maternal weight. This Smart Moms study was designed to determine if a low-burden intervention delivered using mobile methods and targeted towards mothers could be effective at changing child sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Results will indicate if mobile-based methods can be a feasible way to engage mothers in family-based studies and will inform successful strategies to prevent childhood obesity through parent-targeted approaches. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02098902 (Registered March 25, 2014).

  4. Biodegradation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame in biological wastewater treatment and sandfilters.

    PubMed

    Castronovo, Sandro; Wick, Arne; Scheurer, Marco; Nödler, Karsten; Schulz, Manoj; Ternes, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    A considerable removal of the artificial sweetener acesulfame (ACE) was observed during activated sludge processes at 13 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in a full-scale sand filter of a water works. A long-term sampling campaign over a period of almost two years revealed that ACE removal in WWTPs can be highly variable over time. Nitrifying/denitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBR) as well as aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge and filter sand from a water works confirmed that both activated sludge as well as filter sand can efficiently remove ACE and that the removal can be attributed to biologically mediated degradation processes. The lab results strongly indicated that varying ACE removal in WWTPs is not associated with nitrification processes. Neither an enhancement of the nitrification rate nor the availability of ammonium or the inhibition of ammonium monooxygenase by N-allylthiourea (ATU) affected the degradation. Moreover, ACE was found to be also degradable by activated sludge under denitrifying conditions, while being persistent in the absence of both dissolved oxygen and nitrate. Using ion chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry, sulfamic acid (SA) was identified as the predominant transformation product (TP). Quantitative analysis of ACE and SA revealed a closed mass balance during the entire test period and confirmed that ACE was quantitatively transformed to SA. Measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) revealed an almost complete removal of the carbon originating from ACE, thereby further confirming that SA is the only relevant final TP in the assumed degradation pathway of ACE. A first analysis of SA in three municipal WWTP revealed similar concentrations in influents and effluents with maximum concentrations of up to 2.3 mg/L. The high concentrations of SA in wastewater are in accordance with the extensive use of SA in acid cleaners, while the degradation of ACE in WWTPs adds only a very