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Sample records for early tau pathology

  1. Characterization of Early Pathological Tau Conformations and Phosphorylation in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Nicholas M.; Cox, Kristine; Alvarez, Victor E.; Stein, Thor D.; Poncil, Sharra; McKee, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy that develops after repetitive head injury. Several lines of evidence in other tauopathies suggest that tau oligomer formation induces neurotoxicity and that tau oligomer-mediated neurotoxicity involves induction of axonal dysfunction through exposure of an N-terminal motif in tau, the phosphatase-activating domain (PAD). Additionally, phosphorylation at serine 422 in tau occurs early and correlates with cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We performed immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on fixed brain sections and biochemical analysis of fresh brain extracts to characterize the presence of PAD-exposed tau (TNT1 antibody), tau oligomers (TOC1 antibody), tau phosphorylated at S422 (pS422 antibody), and tau truncated at D421 (TauC3 antibody) in the brains of 9-11 cases with CTE and cases of nondemented aged controls and AD (Braak VI) (n = 6, each). All 3 early tau markers (ie, TNT1, TOC1, and pS422) were present in CTE and displayed extensive colocalization in perivascular tau lesions that are considered diagnostic for CTE. Notably, the TauC3 epitope, which is abundant in AD, was relatively sparse in CTE. Together, these results provide the first description of PAD exposure, TOC1 reactive oligomers, phosphorylation of S422, and TauC3 truncation in the tau pathology of CTE. PMID:26671985

  2. Anesthesia and Tau Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Robert A.; Bretteville, Alexis; Dickler, Maya F.; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and remains a growing worldwide health problem. As life expectancy continues to increase, the number of AD patients presenting for surgery and anesthesia will steadily rise. The etiology of sporadic AD is thought to be multifactorial, with environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting together to influence AD pathogenesis. Recent reports suggest that general anesthetics may be such a factor and may contribute to the development and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau protein are one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Tau pathology is important in AD as it correlates very well with cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which anesthetic exposure might affect the phosphorylation, aggregation and function of this microtubule-associated protein. Here, we specifically review the literature detailing the impact of anesthetic administration on aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the subsequent development of neurofibrillary pathology and degeneration. PMID:23535147

  3. Reactive microglia drive tau pathology and contribute to the spreading of pathological tau in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N.; Jiang, Shanya; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2015-01-01

    Pathological aggregation of tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and related tauopathies. We have previously shown that the deficiency of the microglial fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) led to the acceleration of tau pathology and memory impairment in an hTau mouse model of tauopathy. Here, we show that microglia drive tau pathology in a cell-autonomous manner. First, tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation occur as early as 2 months of age in hTauCx3cr1−/− mice. Second, CD45+ microglial activation correlates with the spatial memory deficit and spread of tau pathology in the anatomically connected regions of the hippocampus. Third, adoptive transfer of purified microglia derived from hTauCx3cr1−/− mice induces tau hyperphosphorylation within the brains of non-transgenic recipient mice. Finally, inclusion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Kineret®) in the adoptive transfer inoculum significantly reduces microglia-induced tau pathology. Together, our results suggest that reactive microglia are sufficient to drive tau pathology and correlate with the spread of pathological tau in the brain. PMID:25833819

  4. Pathological conformations involving the amino terminus of tau occur early in Alzheimer’s disease and are differentially detected by monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Benjamin; Hamel, Chelsey; Kanaan, Nicholas M.

    2016-01-01

    Conformational changes involving the amino terminus of the tau protein are among the earliest alterations associated with tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies. This region of tau contains a phosphatase-activating domain (PAD) that is aberrantly exposed in pathological forms of the protein, an event that is associated with disruptions in anterograde fast axonal transport. We utilized four antibodies that recognize the amino terminus of tau, TNT1, TNT2 (a novel antibody), Tau12, and Tau13, to further study this important region. Using scanning alanine mutations in recombinant tau proteins, we refined the epitopes of each antibody. We examined the antibodies’ relative abilities to specifically label pathological tau in non-denaturing and denaturing assays to gain insight into some of the mechanistic details of PAD exposure. We then determined the pattern of tau pathology labeled by each antibody in human hippocampal sections at various disease stages in order to characterize PAD exposure in the context of disease progression. The characteristics of reactivity for the antibodies fell into two groups. TNT1 and TNT2 recognized epitopes within amino acids 7–12 and specifically identified recombinant tau aggregates and pathological tau from Alzheimer’s disease brains in a conformation-dependent manner. These antibodies labeled early pre-tangle pathology from neurons in early Braak stages and colocalized with thiazine red, a marker of fibrillar pathology, in classic neurofibrillary tangles. However, late tangles were negative for TNT1 and TNT2 indicating a loss of the epitope in later stages of tangle evolution. In contrast, Tau12 and Tau13 both identified discontinuous epitopes in the amino terminus and were unable to differentiate between normal and pathological tau in biochemical and tissue immunohistological assays. Despite the close proximity of these epitopes, the antibodies demonstrated remarkably different abilities to identify

  5. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Noura B; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  6. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  7. Tau Pathology Induces Excitatory Neuron Loss, Grid Cell Dysfunction and Spatial Memory Deficits Reminiscent of Early Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hongjun; Rodriguez, Gustavo A.; Herman, Mathieu; Emrani, Sheina; Nahmani, Eden; Barrett, Geoffrey; Figueroa, Helen Y.; Goldberg, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    Summary The earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the formation of mature tangles in the entorhinal cortex and disorientation and confusion navigating familiar places. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) contains specialized neurons called grid cells that form part of the spatial navigation system. Here we show in a transgenic mouse model expressing mutant human tau predominantly in the EC that the formation of mature tangles in old mice was associated with excitatory cell loss and deficits in grid cell function, including destabilized grid fields and reduced firing rates, as well as altered network activity. Overt tau pathology in the aged mice was accompanied by spatial memory deficits. Therefore, tau pathology initiated in the entorhinal cortex could lead to deficits in grid cell firing and underlie the deterioration of spatial cognition seen in human AD. PMID:28111080

  8. Entorhinal Tau Pathology, Episodic Memory Decline, and Neurodegeneration in Aging.

    PubMed

    Maass, Anne; Lockhart, Samuel N; Harrison, Theresa M; Bell, Rachel K; Mellinger, Taylor; Swinnerton, Kaitlin; Baker, Suzanne L; Rabinovici, Gil D; Jagust, William J

    2018-01-17

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is an early site of tau accumulation and MTL dysfunction may underlie episodic-memory decline in aging and dementia. Postmortem data indicate that tau pathology in the transentorhinal cortex is common by age 60, whereas spread to neocortical regions and worsening of cognition is associated with β-amyloid (Aβ). We used [ 18 F]AV-1451 and [ 11 C]PiB positron emission tomography, structural MRI, and neuropsychological assessment to investigate how in vivo tau accumulation in temporal lobe regions, Aβ, and MTL atrophy contribute to episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults ( n = 83; age, 77 ± 6 years; 58% female). Stepwise regressions identified tau in MTL regions known to be affected in old age as the best predictor of episodic-memory performance independent of Aβ status. There was no interactive effect of MTL tau with Aβ on memory. Higher MTL tau was related to higher age in the subjects without evidence of Aβ. Among temporal lobe subregions, episodic memory was most strongly related to tau-tracer uptake in the parahippocampal gyrus, particularly the posterior entorhinal cortex, which in our parcellation includes the transentorhinal cortex. In subjects with longitudinal MRI and cognitive data ( n = 57), entorhinal atrophy mirrored patterns of tau pathology and their relationship with memory decline. Our data are consistent with neuropathological studies and further suggest that entorhinal tau pathology underlies memory decline in old age even without Aβ. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tau tangles and β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques are key lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but both pathologies also occur in cognitively normal older people. Neuropathological data indicate that tau tangles in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) underlie episodic-memory impairments in AD dementia. However, it remains unclear whether MTL tau pathology also accounts for memory impairments often seen in elderly people and how Aβ affects this relationship

  9. GFP-Mutant Human Tau Transgenic Mice Develop Tauopathy Following CNS Injections of Alzheimer's Brain-Derived Pathological Tau or Synthetic Mutant Human Tau Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Garrett S; Banks, Rachel A; Kim, Bumjin; Xu, Hong; Changolkar, Lakshmi; Leight, Susan N; Riddle, Dawn M; Li, Chi; Gathagan, Ronald J; Brown, Hannah J; Zhang, Bin; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2017-11-22

    process such as the early seeding events leading to new tau pathology have remained elusive. This study validates the use of GFP-labeled tau expressed by neurons in vivo and in vitro as models for investigating mechanisms underlying the seeded transmission of tau pathology as well as tau-focused drug discovery to identify disease-modifying therapies for AD and related tauopathies. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711485-10$15.00/0.

  10. GFP-Mutant Human Tau Transgenic Mice Develop Tauopathy Following CNS Injections of Alzheimer's Brain-Derived Pathological Tau or Synthetic Mutant Human Tau Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Rachel A.; Kim, Bumjin; Xu, Hong; Changolkar, Lakshmi; Leight, Susan N.; Riddle, Dawn M.; Li, Chi; Brown, Hannah J.; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    process such as the early seeding events leading to new tau pathology have remained elusive. This study validates the use of GFP-labeled tau expressed by neurons in vivo and in vitro as models for investigating mechanisms underlying the seeded transmission of tau pathology as well as tau-focused drug discovery to identify disease-modifying therapies for AD and related tauopathies. PMID:28986461

  11. Quantifying the accretion of hyperphosphorylated tau in the locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus: the pathological building blocks of early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ehrenberg, A J; Nguy, A K; Theofilas, P; Dunlop, S; Suemoto, C K; Di Lorenzo Alho, A T; Leite, R P; Diehl Rodriguez, R; Mejia, M B; Rüb, U; Farfel, J M; de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini, R E; Nascimento, C F; Nitrini, R; Pasquallucci, C A; Jacob-Filho, W; Miller, B; Seeley, W W; Heinsen, H; Grinberg, L T

    2017-08-01

    Hyperphosphorylated tau neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (ht-NCI) are the best protein correlate of clinical decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Qualitative evidence identifies ht-NCI accumulating in the isodendritic core before the entorhinal cortex. Here, we used unbiased stereology to quantify ht-NCI burden in the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), aiming to characterize the impact of AD pathology in these nuclei with a focus on early stages. We utilized unbiased stereology in a sample of 48 well-characterized subjects enriched for controls and early AD stages. ht-NCI counts were estimated in 60-μm-thick sections immunostained for p-tau throughout LC and DRN. Data were integrated with unbiased estimates of LC and DRN neuronal population for a subset of cases. In Braak stage 0, 7.9% and 2.6% of neurons in LC and DRN, respectively, harbour ht-NCIs. Although the number of ht-NCI+ neurons significantly increased by about 1.9× between Braak stages 0 to I in LC (P = 0.02), we failed to detect any significant difference between Braak stage I and II. Also, the number of ht-NCI+ neurons remained stable in DRN between all stages 0 and II. Finally, the differential susceptibility to tau inclusions among nuclear subdivisions was more notable in LC than in DRN. LC and DRN neurons exhibited ht-NCI during AD precortical stages. The ht-NCI increases along AD progression on both nuclei, but quantitative changes in LC precede DRN changes. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  12. Progressive Pathological Changes in Neurochemical Profile of the Hippocampus and Early Changes in the Olfactory Bulbs of Tau Transgenic Mice (rTg4510).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jieun; Choi, In-Young; Duff, Karen E; Lee, Phil

    2017-06-01

    Tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD-tau) dementia, characterized by pathologic aggregation of the microtubule-associated tau protein and formation of neurofibrillary tangles, have been linked to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. The early detection of cerebral abnormalities and the identification of biological contributors to the continuous pathologic processes of neurodegeneration in tauopathies critically hinge on sensitive and reliable measures of biomarkers in the living brain. In this study, we measured alterations in a number of key neurochemicals associated with tauopathy-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs of a transgenic mouse model of FTLD-tauopathy, line rTg4510, using in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 9.4 T. The rTg4510 line develops tauopathy at a young age (4-5 months), reaching a severe stage by 8-12 months of age. Longitudinal measurement of neurochemical concentrations in the hippocampus of mice from 5 to 12 months of age showed significant progressive changes with distinctive disease staging patterns including N-acetylaspartate, myo-inositol, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutathione and glutamine. The accompanying hippocampal volume loss measured using magnetic resonance imaging showed significant correlation (p < 0.01) with neurochemical measurements. Neurochemical alterations in the olfactory bulbs were more pronounced than those in the hippocampus in rTg4510 mice. These results demonstrate progressive neuropathology in the mouse model and provide potential biomarkers of early neuropathological events and effective noninvasive monitoring of the disease progression and treatment efficacy, which can be easily translated to clinical studies.

  13. Alzheimer brain-derived tau oligomers propagate pathology from endogenous tau.

    PubMed

    Lasagna-Reeves, Cristian A; Castillo-Carranza, Diana L; Sengupta, Urmi; Guerrero-Munoz, Marcos J; Kiritoshi, Takaki; Neugebauer, Volker; Jackson, George R; Kayed, Rakez

    2012-01-01

    Intracerebral injection of brain extracts containing amyloid or tau aggregates in transgenic animals can induce cerebral amyloidosis and tau pathology. We extracted pure populations of tau oligomers directly from the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. These oligomers are potent inhibitors of long term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal brain slices and disrupt memory in wild type mice. We observed for the first time that these authentic brain-derived tau oligomers propagate abnormal tau conformation of endogenous murine tau after prolonged incubation. The conformation and hydrophobicity of tau oligomers play a critical role in the initiation and spread of tau pathology in the naïve host in a manner reminiscent of sporadic AD.

  14. Microglial internalization and degradation of pathological tau is enhanced by an anti-tau monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenjie; Liu, Wencheng; Hu, Xiaoyan; Hanna, Mary; Caravaca, April; Paul, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia have been shown to contribute to the clearance of brain amyloid β peptides (Aβ), the major component of amyloid plaques, in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it is not known whether microglia play a similar role in the clearance of tau, the major component of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). We now report that murine microglia rapidly internalize and degrade hyperphosphorylated pathological tau isolated from AD brain tissue in a time-dependent manner in vitro. We further demonstrate that microglia readily degrade human tau species released from AD brain sections and eliminate NFTs from brain sections of P301S tauopathy mice. The anti-tau monoclonal antibody MC1 enhances microglia-mediated tau degradation in an Fc-dependent manner. Our data identify a potential role for microglia in the degradation and clearance of pathological tau species in brain and provide a mechanism explaining the potential therapeutic actions of passively administered anti-tau monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26057852

  15. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation.

    PubMed

    Calafate, Sara; Buist, Arjan; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Vijayan, Vinoy; Daneels, Guy; de Strooper, Bart; de Wit, Joris; Verstreken, Patrik; Moechars, Diederik

    2015-05-26

    Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Loss of Bin1 Promotes the Propagation of Tau Pathology.

    PubMed

    Calafate, Sara; Flavin, William; Verstreken, Patrik; Moechars, Diederik

    2016-10-18

    Tau pathology propagates within synaptically connected neuronal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. BIN1-amphiphysin2 is the second most prevalent genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. In diseased brains, the BIN1-amphiphysin2 neuronal isoform is downregulated. Here, we show that lowering BIN1-amphiphysin2 levels in neurons promotes Tau pathology propagation whereas overexpression of neuronal BIN1-amphiphysin2 inhibits the process in two in vitro models. Increased Tau propagation is caused by increased endocytosis, given our finding that BIN1-amphiphysin2 negatively regulates endocytic flux. Furthermore, blocking endocytosis by inhibiting dynamin also reduces Tau pathology propagation. Using a galectin-3-binding assay, we show that internalized Tau aggregates damage the endosomal membrane, allowing internalized aggregates to leak into the cytoplasm to propagate pathology. Our work indicates that lower BIN1 levels promote the propagation of Tau pathology by efficiently increasing aggregate internalization by endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of Tau Pathology-Related Proteins in Different Brain Regions: A Molecular Basis of Tau Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Yanchong; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated and aggregated in affected neurons in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. The tau pathology starts from the entorhinal cortex (EC), spreads to the hippocampus and frontal and temporal cortices, and finally to all isocortex areas, but the cerebellum is spared from tau lesions. The molecular basis of differential vulnerability of different brain regions to tau pathology is not understood. In the present study, we analyzed brain regional expressions of tau and tau pathology-related proteins. We found that tau was hyperphosphorylated at multiple sites in the frontal cortex (FC), but not in the cerebellum, from AD brain. The level of tau expression in the cerebellum was about 1/4 of that seen in the frontal and temporal cortices in human brain. In the rat brain, the expression level of tau with three microtubule-binding repeats (3R-tau) was comparable in the hippocampus, EC, FC, parietal-temporal cortex (PTC), occipital-temporal cortex (OTC), striatum, thalamus, olfactory bulb (OB) and cerebellum. However, the expression level of 4R-tau was the highest in the EC and the lowest in the cerebellum. Tau phosphatases, kinases, microtubule-related proteins and other tau pathology-related proteins were also expressed in a region-specific manner in the rat brain. These results suggest that higher levels of tau and tau kinases in the EC and low levels of these proteins in the cerebellum may accounts for the vulnerability and resistance of these representative brain regions to the development of tau pathology, respectively. The present study provides the regional expression profiles of tau and tau pathology-related proteins in the brain, which may help understand the brain regional vulnerability to tau pathology in neurodegenerative tauopathies.

  18. Neuronal expression of pathological tau accelerates oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ossola, Bernardino; Zhao, Chao; Compston, Alastair; Pluchino, Stefano; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation is an important therapeutic target to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously reported hyperphosphorylated and aggregated microtubule‐associated protein tau in MS lesions, suggesting its involvement in axonal degeneration. However, the influence of pathological tau‐induced axonal damage on the potential for remyelination is unknown. Therefore, we investigated OPC differentiation in human P301S tau (P301S‐htau) transgenic mice, both in vitro and in vivo following focal demyelination. In 2‐month‐old P301S‐htau mice, which show hyperphosphorylated tau in neurons, we found atrophic axons in the spinal cord in the absence of prominent axonal degeneration. These signs of early axonal damage were associated with microgliosis and an upregulation of IL‐1β and TNFα. Following in vivo focal white matter demyelination we found that OPCs differentiated more efficiently in P301S‐htau mice than wild type (Wt) mice. We also found an increased level of myelin basic protein within the lesions, which however did not translate into increased remyelination due to higher susceptibility of P301S‐htau axons to demyelination‐induced degeneration compared to Wt axons. In vitro experiments confirmed higher differentiation capacity of OPCs from P301S‐htau mice compared with Wt mice‐derived OPCs. Because the OPCs from P301S‐htau mice do not ectopically express the transgene, and when isolated from newborn mice behave like Wt mice‐derived OPCs, we infer that their enhanced differentiation capacity must have been acquired through microenvironmental priming. Our data suggest the intriguing concept that damaged axons may signal to OPCs and promote their differentiation in the attempt at rescue by remyelination. GLIA 2016;64:457–471 PMID:26576485

  19. Analysis of tau post-translational modifications in rTg4510 mice, a model of tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Song, Lixin; Lu, Sherry X; Ouyang, Xuesong; Melchor, Jerry; Lee, Julie; Terracina, Giuseppe; Wang, Xiaohai; Hyde, Lynn; Hess, J Fred; Parker, Eric M; Zhang, Lili

    2015-03-26

    Microtubule associated protein tau is the major component of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and several other neurodegenerative diseases. Tau mutations are associated with frontotemperal dementia with parkinsonism on chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). rTg4510 mice overexpress human tau carrying the P301L FTDP-17 mutation and develop robust NFT-like pathology at 4-5 months of age. The current study is aimed at characterizing the rTg4510 mice to better understand the genesis of tau pathology and to better enable the use of this model in drug discovery efforts targeting tau pathology. Using a panel of immunoassays, we analyzed the age-dependent formation of pathological tau in rTg4510 mice and our data revealed a steady age-dependent accumulation of pathological tau in the insoluble fraction of brain homogenates. The pathological tau was associated with multiple post-translational modifications including aggregation, phosphorylation at a wide variety of sites, acetylation, ubiquitination and nitration. The change of most tau species reached statistical significance at the age of 16 weeks. There was a strong correlation between the different post-translationally modified tau species in this heterogeneous pool of pathological tau. Total tau in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) displayed a multiphasic temporal profile distinct from the steady accumulation of pathological tau in the brain. Female rTg4510 mice displayed significantly more aggressive accumulation of pathological tau in the brain and elevation of total tau in CSF than their male littermates. The immunoassays described here were used to generate the most comprehensive description of the changes in various tau species across the lifespan of the rTg4510 mouse model. The data indicate that development of tauopathy in rTg4510 mice involves the accumulation of a pool of pathological tau that carries multiple post-translational modifications, a process that can be

  20. In Vivo Imaging of Tau Pathology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Textural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Niall; Ganeshan, Balaji; Harrison, Ian F.; Ismail, Ozama; Holmes, Holly E.; Wells, Jack A.; Powell, Nick M.; O'Callaghan, James M.; O'Neill, Michael J.; Murray, Tracey K.; Ahmed, Zeshan; Collins, Emily C.; Johnson, Ross A.; Groves, Ashley; Lythgoe, Mark F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive characterization of the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could enhance patient management and the development of therapeutic strategies. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis (MRTA) has been used previously to extract texture descriptors from structural clinical scans in AD to determine cerebral tissue heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the potential of MRTA to specifically identify tau pathology in an AD mouse model and compared the MRTA metrics to histological measures of tau burden. Methods: MRTA was applied to T2 weighted high-resolution MR images of nine 8.5-month-old rTg4510 tau pathology (TG) mice and 16 litter matched wild-type (WT) mice. MRTA comprised of the filtration-histogram technique, where the filtration step extracted and enhanced features of different sizes (fine, medium, and coarse texture scales), followed by quantification of texture using histogram analysis (mean gray level intensity, mean intensity, entropy, uniformity, skewness, standard-deviation, and kurtosis). MRTA was applied to manually segmented regions of interest (ROI) drawn within the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus regions and the level of tau burden was assessed in equivalent regions using histology. Results: Texture parameters were markedly different between WT and TG in the cortex (E, p < 0.01, K, p < 0.01), the hippocampus (K, p < 0.05) and in the thalamus (K, p < 0.01). In addition, we observed significant correlations between histological measurements of tau burden and kurtosis in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Conclusions: MRTA successfully differentiated WT and TG in brain regions with varying degrees of tau pathology (cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus) based on T2 weighted MR images. Furthermore, the kurtosis measurement correlated with histological measures of tau burden. This initial study indicates that MRTA may have a role in the early diagnosis of AD and the assessment of tau pathology using routinely

  1. Differential induction and spread of tau pathology in young PS19 tau transgenic mice following intracerebral injections of pathological tau from Alzheimer’s disease or corticobasal degeneration brains

    PubMed Central

    Boluda, Susana; Iba, Michiyo; Zhang, Bin; Raible, Kevin M.; Lee, Virginia M-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous tau pathologies are hallmark lesions of several neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) which show cell type-specific and topographically distinct tau inclusions. Growing evidence supports templated transmission of tauopathies through functionally interconnected neuroanatomical pathways suggesting that different self-propagating strains of pathological tau could account for the diverse manifestations of neurodegenerative tauopathies. Here, we describe the rapid and distinct cell type-specific spread of pathological tau following intracerebral injections of CBD or AD brain extracts enriched in pathological tau (designated CBD-Tau and AD-Tau, respectively) in young human mutant P301S tau transgenic (Tg) mice (line PS19) ~6–9 months before they show onset of mutant tau transgene-induced tau pathology. At 1 month post-injection of CBD-Tau, tau inclusions developed predominantly in oligodendrocytes of the fimbria and white matter near the injection sites with infrequent intraneuronal tau aggregates. In contrast, injections of AD-Tau in young PS19 mice induced tau pathology predominantly in neuronal perikarya with little or no oligodendrocyte involvement 1 month post-injection. With longer post-injection survival intervals of up to 6 months, CBD-Tau- and AD-Tau-induced tau pathology spread to different brain regions distant from the injection sites while maintaining the cell type-specific pattern noted above. Finally, CA3 neuron loss was detected 3 months post-injection of AD-Tau but not CBD-Tau. Thus, AD-Tau and CBD-Tau represent specific pathological tau strains that spread differentially and may underlie distinct clinical and pathological features of these two tauopathies. Hence, these strains could become targets to develop disease-modifying therapies for CBD and AD. PMID:25534024

  2. Tau Antibody Targeting Pathological Species Blocks Neuronal Uptake and Interneuron Propagation of Tau in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Nobuhara, Chloe K; DeVos, Sarah L; Commins, Caitlin; Wegmann, Susanne; Moore, Benjamin D; Roe, Allyson D; Costantino, Isabel; Frosch, Matthew P; Pitstick, Rose; Carlson, George A; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Montrasio, Fabio; Grimm, Jan; Cheung, Anne E; Dunah, Anthone W; Wittmann, Marion; Bussiere, Thierry; Weinreb, Paul H; Hyman, Bradley T; Takeda, Shuko

    2017-06-01

    The clinical progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with the accumulation of tau neurofibrillary tangles, which may spread throughout the cortex by interneuronal tau transfer. If so, targeting extracellular tau species may slow the spreading of tau pathology and possibly cognitive decline. To identify suitable target epitopes, we tested the effects of a panel of tau antibodies on neuronal uptake and aggregation in vitro. Immunodepletion was performed on brain extract from tau-transgenic mice and postmortem AD brain and added to a sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based tau uptake assay to assess blocking efficacy. The antibodies reduced tau uptake in an epitope-dependent manner: N-terminal (Tau13) and middomain (6C5 and HT7) antibodies successfully prevented uptake of tau species, whereas the distal C-terminal-specific antibody (Tau46) had little effect. Phosphorylation-dependent (40E8 and p396) and C-terminal half (4E4) tau antibodies also reduced tau uptake despite removing less total tau by immunodepletion, suggesting specific interactions with species involved in uptake. Among the seven antibodies evaluated, 6C5 most efficiently blocked uptake and subsequent aggregation. More important, 6C5 also blocked neuron-to-neuron spreading of tau in a unique three-chamber microfluidic device. Furthermore, 6C5 slowed down the progression of tau aggregation even after uptake had begun. Our results imply that not all antibodies/epitopes are equally robust in terms of blocking tau uptake of human AD-derived tau species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced imaging of tau pathology in Alzheimer Disease: New perspectives from super resolution microscopy and label-free nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Schierle, Gabriele S Kaminski; Michel, Claire H; Gasparini, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly population. Over 30 million people worldwide are living with dementia and AD prevalence is projected to increase dramatically in the next two decades. In terms of neuropathology, AD is characterized by two major cerebral hallmarks: extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular Tau inclusions, which start accumulating in the brain 15-20 years before the onset of symptoms. Within this context, the scientific community worldwide is undertaking a wide research effort to detect AD pathology at its earliest, before symptoms appear. Neuroimaging of Aβ by positron emission tomography (PET) is clinically available and is a promising modality for early detection of Aβ pathology and AD diagnosis. Substantive efforts are ongoing to develop advanced imaging techniques for early detection of Tau pathology. Here, we will briefly describe the key features of Tau pathology and its heterogeneity across various neurodegenerative diseases bearing cerebral Tau inclusions (i.e., tauopathies). We will outline the current status of research on Tau-specific PET tracers and their clinical development. Finally, we will discuss the potential application of novel super-resolution and label-free techniques for investigating Tau pathology at the experimental level and their potential application for AD diagnosis. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:677-683, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparison of extent of tau pathology in patients with frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with Pick bodies and early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shiarli, A-M; Jennings, R; Shi, J; Bailey, K; Davidson, Y; Tian, J; Bigio, E H; Ghetti, B; Murrell, J R; Delisle, M B; Mirra, S; Crain, B; Zolo, P; Arima, K; Iseki, E; Murayama, S; Kretzschmar, H; Neumann, M; Lippa, C; Halliday, G; Mackenzie, J; Khan, N; Ravid, R; Dickson, D; Wszolek, Z; Iwatsubo, T; Pickering-Brown, S M; Mann, D M A

    2006-08-01

    In order to gain insight into the pathogenesis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the mean tau load in frontal cortex was compared in 34 patients with frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) with 12 different mutations in the tau gene (MAPT), 11 patients with sporadic FTLD with Pick bodies and 25 patients with early onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Tau load was determined, as percentage of tissue occupied by stained product, by image analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections using the phospho-dependent antibodies AT8, AT100 and AT180. With AT8 and AT180 antibodies, the amount of tau was significantly (P < 0.001 in each instance) less than that in EOAD for both FTDP-17 (8.5% and 10.0% respectively) and sporadic FTLD with Pick bodies (16.1% and 10.0% respectively). With AT100, the amount of tau detected in FTDP-17 was 54% (P < 0.001) of that detected in EOAD, but no tau was detected in sporadic FTLD with Pick bodies using this particular antibody. The amount of insoluble tau deposited within the brain in FTDP-17 did not depend in any systematic way upon where the MAPT mutation was topographically located within the gene, or on the physiological or structural change generated by the mutation, regardless of which anti-tau antibody was used. Not only does the amount of tau deposited in the brain differ between the three disorders, but the pattern of phosphorylation of tau also varies according to disease. These findings raise important questions relating to the role of aggregated tau in neurodegeneration - whether this represents an adaptive response which promotes the survival of neurones, or whether it is a detrimental change that directly, or indirectly, brings about the demize of the affected cell.

  5. Beneficial effects of exercise in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like Tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Belarbi, Karim; Burnouf, Sylvie; Fernandez-Gomez, Francisco-Jose; Laurent, Cyril; Lestavel, Sophie; Figeac, Martin; Sultan, Audrey; Troquier, Laetitia; Leboucher, Antoine; Caillierez, Raphaëlle; Grosjean, Marie-Eve; Demeyer, Dominique; Obriot, Hélène; Brion, Ingrid; Barbot, Bérangère; Galas, Marie-Christine; Staels, Bart; Humez, Sandrine; Sergeant, Nicolas; Schraen-Maschke, Susanna; Muhr-Tailleux, Anne; Hamdane, Malika; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2011-08-01

    Tau pathology is encountered in many neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity is a lifestyle factor affecting processes crucial for memory and synaptic plasticity. Whether long-term voluntary exercise has an impact on Tau pathology and its pathophysiological consequences is currently unknown. To address this question, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary exercise in the THY-Tau22 transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease-like Tau pathology, characterized by the progressive development of Tau pathology, cholinergic alterations and subsequent memory impairments. Three-month-old THY-Tau22 mice and wild-type littermates were assigned to standard housing or housing supplemented with a running wheel. After 9 months of exercise, mice were evaluated for memory performance and examined for hippocampal Tau pathology, cholinergic defects, inflammation and genes related to cholesterol metabolism. Exercise prevented memory alterations in THY-Tau22 mice. This was accompanied by a decrease in hippocampal Tau pathology and a prevention of the loss of expression of choline acetyltransferase within the medial septum. Whereas the expression of most cholesterol-related genes remained unchanged in the hippocampus of running THY-Tau22 mice, we observed a significant upregulation in mRNA levels of NPC1 and NPC2, genes involved in cholesterol trafficking from the lysosomes. Our data support the view that long-term voluntary physical exercise is an effective strategy capable of mitigating Tau pathology and its pathophysiological consequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Precortical phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related tau cytoskeletal pathology

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Grinberg, Lea T.; Bohl, Jürgen; Wharton, Stephen B; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Rüb, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents the most frequent progressive neuropsychiatric disorder worldwide leading to dementia and accounts for 60 to 70% of demented individuals. In view of the early appearance of neuronal deposits of the hyperphosphorylated cytoskeletal protein tau in the transentorhinal and entorhinal regions of the allocortex (i.e. in Braak and Braak AD stage I in the evolution of the AD-related cortical tau cytoskeletal pathology) it has been believed for a long time that these allocortical regions represent the first brain targets of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology. However, recent pathoanatomical studies suggested that the subcortical brain nuclei that send efferent projections to the transentorhinal and entorhinal regions may also comprise AD-related cytoskeletal changes already at very early Braak and Braak AD stages. In order to corroborate these initial results we systematically investigated the presence and extent of the AD-related cytoskeletal pathology in serial thick tissue sections through all the subcortical nuclei known to send efferent projections to these vulnerable allocortical regions of three individuals with Braak and Braak AD stage 0 and fourteen individuals with Braak and Braak AD stage I by means of immunostainings with the anti-tau antibody AT8. These investigations revealed consistent AT8 immunoreactive neuronal tau cytoskeletal pathology in a subset of these subcortical nuclei (i.e. medial septal nucleus, nuclei of the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca, basal nucleus of Meynert; claustrum; hypothalamic ventromedial, tuberomamillary and supramamillary nuclei, perifornical region and lateral area; thalamic central medial, laterodorsal, subparafascicular, and central lateral nuclei, medial pulvinar and limitans-suprageniculate complex; peripeduncular nucleus, dopaminergic substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, midbrain and pontine dorsal raphe nuclei, locus

  7. Insulin deprivation induces PP2A inhibition and tau hyperphosphorylation in hTau mice, a model of Alzheimer’s disease-like tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gratuze, Maud; Julien, Jacinthe; Petry, Franck R.; Morin, Françoise; Planel, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau aggregated as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles is one of the two neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The majority of AD cases are sporadic with numerous environmental, biological and genetic risks factors. Interestingly, insulin dysfunction and hyperglycaemia are both risk factors for sporadic AD. However, how hyperglycaemia and insulin dysfunction affect tau pathology, is not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of insulin deficiency on tau pathology in transgenic hTau mice by injecting different doses of streptozotocin (STZ), a toxin that destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. One high dose of STZ resulted in marked diabetes, and five low doses led to a milder diabetes. Both groups exhibited brain tau hyperphosphorylation but no increased aggregation. Tau hyperphosphorylation correlated with inhibition of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A), the main tau phosphatase. Interestingly, insulin injection 30 minutes before sacrifice partially restored tau phosphorylation to control levels in both STZ-injected groups. Our results confirm a link between insulin homeostasis and tau phosphorylation, which could explain, at least in part, a higher incidence of AD in diabetic patients. PMID:28402338

  8. Insulin deprivation induces PP2A inhibition and tau hyperphosphorylation in hTau mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Gratuze, Maud; Julien, Jacinthe; Petry, Franck R; Morin, Françoise; Planel, Emmanuel

    2017-04-12

    Abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau aggregated as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles is one of the two neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The majority of AD cases are sporadic with numerous environmental, biological and genetic risks factors. Interestingly, insulin dysfunction and hyperglycaemia are both risk factors for sporadic AD. However, how hyperglycaemia and insulin dysfunction affect tau pathology, is not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of insulin deficiency on tau pathology in transgenic hTau mice by injecting different doses of streptozotocin (STZ), a toxin that destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. One high dose of STZ resulted in marked diabetes, and five low doses led to a milder diabetes. Both groups exhibited brain tau hyperphosphorylation but no increased aggregation. Tau hyperphosphorylation correlated with inhibition of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A), the main tau phosphatase. Interestingly, insulin injection 30 minutes before sacrifice partially restored tau phosphorylation to control levels in both STZ-injected groups. Our results confirm a link between insulin homeostasis and tau phosphorylation, which could explain, at least in part, a higher incidence of AD in diabetic patients.

  9. Associations between [18F]AV1451 tau PET and CSF measures of tau pathology in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    La Joie, Renaud; Bejanin, Alexandre; Fagan, Anne M; Ayakta, Nagehan; Baker, Suzanne L; Bourakova, Viktoriya; Boxer, Adam L; Cha, Jungho; Karydas, Anna; Jerome, Gina; Maass, Anne; Mensing, Ashley; Miller, Zachary A; O'Neil, James P; Pham, Julie; Rosen, Howard J; Tsai, Richard; Visani, Adrienne V; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2018-01-23

    To assess the relationships between fluid and imaging biomarkers of tau pathology and compare their diagnostic utility in a clinically heterogeneous sample. Fifty-three patients (28 with clinical Alzheimer disease [AD] and 25 with non-AD clinical neurodegenerative diagnoses) underwent β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau ([ 18 F]AV1451) PET and lumbar puncture. CSF biomarkers (Aβ 42 , total tau [t-tau], and phosphorylated tau [p-tau]) were measured by multianalyte immunoassay (AlzBio3). Receiver operator characteristic analyses were performed to compare discrimination of Aβ-positive AD from non-AD conditions across biomarkers. Correlations between CSF biomarkers and PET standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) were assessed using skipped Pearson correlation coefficients. Voxelwise analyses were run to assess regional CSF-PET associations. [ 18 F]AV1451-PET cortical SUVR and p-tau showed excellent discrimination between Aβ-positive AD and non-AD conditions (area under the curve 0.92-0.94; ≤0.83 for other CSF measures), and reached 83% classification agreement. In the full sample, cortical [ 18 F]AV1451 was associated with all CSF biomarkers, most strongly with p-tau ( r = 0.75 vs 0.57 for t-tau and -0.49 for Aβ 42 ). When restricted to Aβ-positive patients with AD, [ 18 F]AV1451 SUVR correlated modestly with p-tau and t-tau (both r = 0.46) but not Aβ 42 ( r = 0.02). On voxelwise analysis, [ 18 F]AV1451 correlated with CSF p-tau in temporoparietal cortices and with t-tau in medial prefrontal regions. Within AD, Mini-Mental State Examination scores were associated with [ 18 F]AV1451-PET, but not CSF biomarkers. [ 18 F]AV1451-PET and CSF p-tau had comparable value for differential diagnosis. Correlations were robust in a heterogeneous clinical group but attenuated (although significant) in AD, suggesting that fluid and imaging biomarkers capture different aspects of tau pathology. This study provides Class III evidence that, in a clinical sample of patients with a variety

  10. Vectored Intracerebral Immunization with the Anti-Tau Monoclonal Antibody PHF1 Markedly Reduces Tau Pathology in Mutant Tau Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wencheng; Zhao, Lingzhi; Blackman, Brittany; Parmar, Mayur; Wong, Man Ying; Woo, Thomas; Yu, Fangmin; Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Sondhi, Dolan; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Crystal, Ronald G; Paul, Steven M

    2016-12-07

    Passive immunization with anti-tau monoclonal antibodies has been shown by several laboratories to reduce age-dependent tau pathology and neurodegeneration in mutant tau transgenic mice. These studies have used repeated high weekly doses of various tau antibodies administered systemically for several months and have reported reduced tau pathology of ∼40-50% in various brain regions. Here we show that direct intrahippocampal administration of the adeno-associated virus (AAV)-vectored anti-phospho-tau antibody PHF1 to P301S tau transgenic mice results in high and durable antibody expression, primarily in neurons. Hippocampal antibody levels achieved after AAV delivery were ∼50-fold more than those reported following repeated systemic administration. In contrast to systemic passive immunization, we observed markedly reduced (≥80-90%) hippocampal insoluble pathological tau species and neurofibrillary tangles following a single dose of AAV-vectored PHF1 compared with mice treated with an AAV-IgG control vector. Moreover, the hippocampal atrophy observed in untreated P301S mice was fully rescued by treatment with the AAV-vectored PHF1 antibody. Vectored passive immunotherapy with an anti-tau monoclonal antibody may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for treating or preventing such tauopathies as frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, or Alzheimer's disease. We have used an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector to deliver the genes encoding an anti-phospho-tau monoclonal antibody, PHF1, directly to the brain of mice that develop neurodegeneration due to a tau mutation that causes frontotemporal dementia (FTD). When administered systemically, PHF1 has been shown to modestly reduce tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Since such antibodies do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, we used an AAV vector to deliver antibody directly to the hippocampus and observed much higher antibody levels and a much greater reduction in tau pathology. Using

  11. Hippocampal tau pathology is related to neuroanatomical connections: an ageing population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lace, G; Savva, G M; Forster, G; de Silva, R; Brayne, C; Matthews, F E; Barclay, J J; Dakin, L; Ince, P G; Wharton, S B

    2009-05-01

    Deposits of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein are found in numerous neurodegenerative disorders; the 'tauopathies', which include Alzheimer's and Pick's diseases, but tau pathology is also found in the ageing brain. Variation in tau pathology in brain ageing and its relationship to development of tauopathies and cognitive impairment remains unclear. We aimed to determine the extent and pattern of spread of tau pathology in the hippocampus, a susceptible region important in dementia and milder states of memory impairment, using hippocampal samples from the elderly population-based Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study neuropathology cohort. Tau deposition was assessed in hippocampal anatomical sub-regions using the AT8 antibody to phosphorylated tau and isoform-specific antibodies to 3 and 4-repeat tau (RD3 and RD4). Abeta pathology was also assessed. In this population sample, which includes the full ageing spectrum from individuals with no cognitive impairment to those with dementia satisfying clinico-pathology criteria for Alzheimer's disease, we have demonstrated a high prevalence at death of tau pathology. AT8, Abeta, RD3 and RD4 showed similar regional distribution and increased RD3 was noted in late-stage ghost tangles. Abeta was shown to be a poor explanatory variable for tau pathology. Tau deposition progressed in a hierarchical manner. Hippocampal input regions and projection zones (such as lateral entorhinal cortex, CA1/subiculum border and outer molecular layer of dentate) were initially affected, with anterograde progression though the hippocampal circuitry. Six hippocampal tau anatomical stages were defined, each linking projectionally to their adjacent stages, suggesting spread of tau malfunction through neuroanatomical pathways in hippocampal ageing. These stages were significantly associated with dementia, and may provide a clinically useful tool in the clinico-pathological assessment of dementia and mild cognitive

  12. Affinity of Tau antibodies for solubilized pathological Tau species but not their immunogen or insoluble Tau aggregates predicts in vivo and ex vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Erin E; Lin, Yan; Rajamohamedsait, Hameetha B; Shamir, Dov B; Krishnaswamy, Senthilkumar; Rajamohamedsait, Wajitha J; Rasool, Suhail; Gonzalez, Veronica; Levenga, Josien; Gu, Jiaping; Hoeffer, Charles; Sigurdsson, Einar M

    2016-08-30

    A few tau immunotherapies are now in clinical trials with several more likely to be initiated in the near future. A priori, it can be anticipated that an antibody which broadly recognizes various pathological tau aggregates with high affinity would have the ideal therapeutic properties. Tau antibodies 4E6 and 6B2, raised against the same epitope region but of varying specificity and affinity, were tested for acutely improving cognition and reducing tau pathology in transgenic tauopathy mice and neuronal cultures. Surprisingly, we here show that one antibody, 4E6, which has low affinity for most forms of tau acutely improved cognition and reduced soluble phospho-tau, whereas another antibody, 6B2, which has high affinity for various tau species was ineffective. Concurrently, we confirmed and clarified these efficacy differences in an ex vivo model of tauopathy. Alzheimer's paired helical filaments (PHF) were toxic to the neurons and increased tau levels in remaining neurons. Both toxicity and tau seeding were prevented by 4E6 but not by 6B2. Furthermore, 4E6 reduced PHF spreading between neurons. Interestingly, 4E6's efficacy relates to its high affinity binding to solubilized PHF, whereas the ineffective 6B2 binds mainly to aggregated PHF. Blocking 4E6's uptake into neurons prevented its protective effects if the antibody was administered after PHF had been internalized. When 4E6 and PHF were administered at the same time, the antibody was protective extracellularly. Overall, these findings indicate that high antibody affinity for solubilized PHF predicts efficacy, and that acute antibody-mediated improvement in cognition relates to clearance of soluble phospho-tau. Importantly, both intra- and extracellular clearance pathways are in play. Together, these results have major implications for understanding the pathogenesis of tauopathies and for development of immunotherapies.

  13. Harnessing the immune system for treatment and detection of tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Erin E; Krishnaswamy, Senthilkumar; Sigurdsson, Einar M

    2014-01-01

    The tau protein is an attractive target for therapy and diagnosis. We started a tau immunotherapy program about 13 years ago and have since demonstrated that active and passive immunotherapies diminish tau pathology and improve function, including cognition, in different mouse models. These findings have been confirmed and extended by several groups. We routinely detect neuronal, and to a lesser extent microglial, antibody uptake correlating with tau pathology. Antibodies bind tau aggregates in the endosomal/lysosomal system, enhancing clearance presumably by promoting their disassembly. Extracellular clearance has recently been shown by others, using antibodies that apparently are not internalized. As most pathological tau is neuronal, intracellular targeting may be more efficacious. However, extracellular tau may be more accessible to antibodies, with tau-antibody complexes a target for microglial phagocytosis. The extent of involvement of each pathway may depend on numerous factors including antibody properties, degree of pathology, and experimental model. On the imaging front, multiple tau ligands derived from β-sheet dyes have been developed by several groups, some with promising results in clinical PET tests. Postmortem analysis should clarify their tau specificity, as in theory and based on histological staining, those are likely to have some affinity for various amyloids. We are developing antibody-derived tau probes that should be more specific, and have in mouse models shown in vivo detection and binding to pathological tau after peripheral injection. These are exciting times for research on tau therapies and diagnostic agents that hopefully can be applied to humans in the near future.

  14. Modulation of Tau Isoforms Imbalance Precludes Tau Pathology and Cognitive Decline in a Mouse Model of Tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Espíndola, Sonia Lorena; Damianich, Ana; Alvarez, Rodrigo Javier; Sartor, Manuela; Belforte, Juan Emilio; Ferrario, Juan Esteban; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Avale, María Elena

    2018-04-17

    The microtubule-associated protein tau regulates myriad neuronal functions, such as microtubule dynamics, axonal transport and neurite outgrowth. Tauopathies are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the abnormal metabolism of tau, which accumulates as insoluble neuronal deposits. The adult human brain contains equal amounts of tau isoforms with three (3R) or four (4R) repeats of microtubule-binding domains, derived from the alternative splicing of exon 10 (E10) in the tau transcript. Several tauopathies are associated with imbalances of tau isoforms, due to splicing deficits. Here, we used a trans-splicing strategy to shift the inclusion of E10 in a mouse model of tauopathy that produces abnormal excess of 3R tau. Modulating the 3R/4R ratio in the prefrontal cortex led to a significant reduction of pathological tau accumulation concomitant with improvement of neuronal firing and reduction of cognitive impairments. Our results suggest promising potential for the use of RNA reprogramming in human neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting Aβ and tau in Alzheimer's disease, an early interim report

    PubMed Central

    Golde, Todd E.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Lewis, Jada

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins, which misfold, aggregate, and accumulate in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, are implicated as central factors in a complex neurodegenerative cascade. Studies of mutations that cause early onset AD and promote Aβ accumulation in the brain strongly support the notion that inhibiting Aβ aggregation will prevent AD. Similarly, genetic studies of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17 MAPT) showing that mutations in the MAPT gene encoding tau lead to abnormal tau accumulation and neurodegeneration. Such genetic studies clearly show that tau dysfunction and aggregation can be central to neurodegeneration, however, most likely in a secondary fashion in relation to AD. Additional pathologic, biochemical and modeling studies further support the concept that Aβ and tau are prime targets for disease modifying therapies in AD. Treatment strategies aimed at preventing the aggregation and accumulation of Aβ, tau, or both proteins should therefore be theoretically possible, assuming that treatment can be initiated before either irreversible damage is present or downstream, self-sustaining, pathological cascades have been initiated. Herein, we will review recent advances and also potential setbacks with respect to the myriad of therapeutic strategies that are designed to slow down, prevent, or clear the accumulation of either “pathological” Aβ or tau. We will also discuss the need for thoughtful prioritization with respect to clinical development of the pre-clinically validated modifiers of Aβ and tau pathology. The current number of candidate therapies targeting Aβ is becoming so large that a triage process is clearly needed to insure that resources are invested in a way such that the best candidates for disease modifying therapy are rapidly moved toward clinical trials. Finally, we will discuss the challenges for an appropriate “triage” after potential disease modifying therapies

  16. High-fat, high-sugar, and high-cholesterol consumption does not impact tau pathogenesis in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Gratuze, Maud; Julien, Jacinthe; Morin, Françoise; Calon, Frédéric; Hébert, Sébastien S; Marette, André; Planel, Emmanuel

    2016-11-01

    Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The origin of AD is multifactorial, and many metabolic disorders originating from overconsumption of fat, cholesterol, and sugar are associated with higher risk of AD later in life. However, the effects of fat, cholesterol, and sugar overconsumption on tau pathology in AD remain controversial. Using the hTau mice, a model of AD-like tau pathology, we assessed the effects of high-fat, high-cholesterol, and/or high-sugar diets on tau pathogenesis. Surprisingly, we found no effects of these compounds, even combined, on tau phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation, splicing, cleavage, and aggregation, suggesting that their overconsumption does not seem to worsen tau pathology in these mice. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impairment of Glymphatic Pathway Function Promotes Tau Pathology after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael J.; Plog, Benjamin A.; Zeppenfeld, Douglas M.; Soltero, Melissa; Yang, Lijun; Singh, Itender; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an established risk factor for the early development of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, and the post-traumatic brain frequently exhibits neurofibrillary tangles comprised of aggregates of the protein tau. We have recently defined a brain-wide network of paravascular channels, termed the “glymphatic” pathway, along which CSF moves into and through the brain parenchyma, facilitating the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid-β, from the brain. Here we demonstrate in mice that extracellular tau is cleared from the brain along these paravascular pathways. After TBI, glymphatic pathway function was reduced by ∼60%, with this impairment persisting for at least 1 month post injury. Genetic knock-out of the gene encoding the astroglial water channel aquaporin-4, which is importantly involved in paravascular interstitial solute clearance, exacerbated glymphatic pathway dysfunction after TBI and promoted the development of neurofibrillary pathology and neurodegeneration in the post-traumatic brain. These findings suggest that chronic impairment of glymphatic pathway function after TBI may be a key factor that renders the post-traumatic brain vulnerable to tau aggregation and the onset of neurodegeneration. PMID:25471560

  18. Distinct chronology of neuronal cell cycle re-entry and tau pathology in the 3xTg-AD mouse model and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hradek, Alex C; Lee, Hyun-Pil; Siedlak, Sandra L; Torres, Sandy L; Jung, Wooyoung; Han, Ashley H; Lee, Hyoung-gon

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle re-entry in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has emerged as an important pathological mechanism in the progression of the disease. This appearance of cell cycle related proteins has been linked to tau pathology in AD, but the causal and temporal relationship between the two is not completely clear. In this study, we found that hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (ppRb), a key regulator for G1/S transition, is correlated with a late marker for hyperphosphorylation of tau but not with other early markers for tau alteration in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. However, in AD brains, ppRb can colocalize with both early and later markers for tau alterations, and can often be found singly in many degenerating neurons, indicating the distinct development of pathology between the 3xTg-AD mouse model and human AD patients. The conclusions of this study are two-fold. First, our findings clearly demonstrate the pathological link between the aberrant cell cycle re-entry and tau pathology. Second, the chronological pattern of cell cycle re-entry with tau pathology in the 3xTg-AD mouse is different compared to AD patients suggesting the distinct pathogenic mechanism between the animal AD model and human AD patients.

  19. Hsp90 activator Aha1 drives production of pathological tau aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Lindsey B.; Baker, Jeremy D.; Zheng, Dali; Sullivan, Leia E.; Solanki, Parth K.; Webster, Jack M.; Sun, Zheying; Sabbagh, Jonathan J.; Nordhues, Bryce A.; Koren, John; Ghosh, Suman; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Dickey, Chad A.

    2017-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT, tau) forms neurotoxic aggregates that promote cognitive deficits in tauopathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) chaperone system affects the accumulation of these toxic tau species, which can be modulated with Hsp90 inhibitors. However, many Hsp90 inhibitors are not blood–brain barrier-permeable, and several present associated toxicities. Here, we find that the cochaperone, activator of Hsp90 ATPase homolog 1 (Aha1), dramatically increased the production of aggregated tau. Treatment with an Aha1 inhibitor, KU-177, dramatically reduced the accumulation of insoluble tau. Aha1 colocalized with tau pathology in human brain tissue, and this association positively correlated with AD progression. Aha1 overexpression in the rTg4510 tau transgenic mouse model promoted insoluble and oligomeric tau accumulation leading to a physiological deficit in cognitive function. Overall, these data demonstrate that Aha1 contributes to tau fibril formation and neurotoxicity through Hsp90. This suggests that therapeutics targeting Aha1 may reduce toxic tau oligomers and slow or prevent neurodegenerative disease progression. PMID:28827321

  20. Isoprenoids and tau pathology in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pelleieux, Sandra; Picard, Cynthia; Lamarre-Théroux, Louise; Dea, Doris; Leduc, Valérie; Tsantrizos, Youla S; Poirier, Judes

    2018-05-01

    The mevalonate pathway has been described to play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) physiopathology. Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) are nonsterol isoprenoids derived from mevalonate, which serve as precursors to numerous human metabolites. They facilitate protein prenylation; hFPP and hGGPP synthases act as gateway enzymes to the prenylation of the small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase proteins such as RhoA and cdc42 that have been shown to facilitate phospho-tau (p-Tau, i.e., protein tau phosphorylated) production in the brain. In this study, a significant positive correlation was observed between the synthases mRNA prevalence and disease status (FPPS, p < 0.001, n = 123; GGPPS, p < 0.001, n = 122). The levels of mRNA for hFPPS and hGGPPS were found to significantly correlate with the amount of p-Tau protein levels (p < 0.05, n = 34) and neurofibrillary tangle density (p < 0.05, n = 39) in the frontal cortex. Interestingly, high levels of hFPPS and hGGPPS mRNA prevalence are associated with earlier age of onset in AD (p < 0.05, n = 58). Together, these results suggest that accumulation of p-Tau in the AD brain is related, at least in part, to increased levels of neuronal isoprenoids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. cis p-tau: early driver of brain injury and tauopathy blocked by antibody

    PubMed Central

    Mannix, Rebekah; Qiu, Jianhua; Moncaster, Juliet; Chen, Chun-Hau; Yao, Yandan; Lin, Yu-Min; Driver, Jane A; Sun, Yan; Wei, Shuo; Luo, Man-Li; Albayram, Onder; Huang, Pengyu; Rotenberg, Alexander; Ryo, Akihide; Goldstein, Lee E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; McKee, Ann C.; Meehan, William; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), characterized by acute neurological dysfunction, is one of the best known environmental risk factors for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose defining pathologic features include tauopathy made of phosphorylated tau (p-tau). However, tauopathy has not been detected in early stages after TBI and how TBI leads to tauopathy is unknown. Here we find robust cis p-tau pathology after sport- and military-related TBI in humans and mice. Acutely after TBI in mice and stress in vitro, neurons prominently produce cis p-tau, which disrupts axonal microtubule network and mitochondrial transport, spreads to other neurons, and leads to apoptosis. This process, termed “cistauosis”, appears long before other tauopathy. Treating TBI mice with cis antibody blocks cistauosis, prevents tauopathy development and spread, and restores many TBI-related structural and functional sequelae. Thus, cis p-tau is a major early driver after TBI and leads to tauopathy in CTE and AD, and cis antibody may be further developed to detect and treat TBI, and prevent progressive neurodegeneration after injury. PMID:26176913

  2. Presence of tau pathology within foetal neural allografts in patients with Huntington's and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cisbani, Giulia; Maxan, Alexander; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Planel, Emmanuel; Freeman, Thomas B; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2017-11-01

    Cell replacement has been explored as a therapeutic strategy to repair the brain in patients with Huntington's and Parkinson's disease. Post-mortem evaluations of healthy grafted tissue in such cases have revealed the development of Huntington- or Parkinson-like pathology including mutant huntingtin aggregates and Lewy bodies. An outstanding question remains if tau pathology can also be seen in patients with Huntington's and Parkinson's disease who had received foetal neural allografts. This was addressed by immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent stainings performed on grafted tissue of two Huntington's disease patients, who came to autopsy 9 and 12 years post-transplantation, and two patients with Parkinson's disease who came to autopsy 18 months and 16 years post-transplantation. We show that grafts also contain tau pathology in both types of transplanted patients. In two patients with Huntington's disease, the grafted tissue showed the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau [both AT8 (phospho-tau Ser202 and Thr205) and CP13 (pSer202) immunohistochemical stainings] pathological inclusions, neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the grafted tissue was characterized by hyperphosphorylated tau (AT8; immunofluorescent staining) pathological inclusions, neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads but only in the patient who came to autopsy 16 years post-transplantation. Abundant tau-related pathology was observed in the cortex and striatum of all cases studied. While the striatum of the grafted Huntington's disease patient revealed an equal amount of 3-repeat and 4-repeat isoforms of tau, the grafted tissue showed elevated 4-repeat isoforms by western blot. This suggests that transplants may have acquired tau pathology from the host brain, although another possibility is that this was due to acceleration of ageing. This finding not only adds to the recent reports that tau pathology is a feature of these neurodegenerative

  3. Transcriptome analysis of a tau overexpression model in rats implicates an early pro-inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David B.; Dayton, Robert D.; Zweig, Richard M.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles comprised of the microtubule-associated protein tau are pathological features of Alzheimer's disease and several other neurodegenerative diseases, such as progressive supranuclear palsy. We previously overexpressed tau in the substantia nigra of rats and mimicked some of the neurodegenerative sequelae that occur in humans such as tangle formation, loss of dopamine neurons, and microgliosis. To study molecular changes involved in the tau-induced disease state, we used DNA microarrays at an early stage of the disease process. A range of adeno-associated virus (AAV9) vector doses for tau were injected in groups of rats with a survival interval of two weeks. Specific decreases in messages for dopamine related genes validated the technique with respect to the dopaminergic cell loss observed. Of the mRNAs upregulated, there was a dose-dependent effect on multiple genes involved in immune response such as chemokines, interferon-inducible genes and leukocyte markers, only in the tau vector groups and not in dose-matched controls of either transgene-less empty vector or control green fluorescent protein vector. Histological staining for dopamine neurons and microglia matched the loss of dopaminergic markers and upregulation of immune response mRNAs in the microarray data, respectively. RT-PCR for selected markers confirmed the microarray results, with similar changes found by either technique. The mRNA data correlate well with previous findings, and underscore microgliosis and immune response in the degenerative process following tau overexpression. PMID:20346943

  4. Development of in Vivo Biomarkers for Progressive Tau Pathology after Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Athletes in contact sports who have sustained multiple concussive traumatic brain injuries are at high risk for...multiple concussive traumatic brain injuries 15-17 may also be at risk for this condition. Currently, there are no methods to identify progressive tau...after traumatic brain injury. Progress to date: To date, none of the attempts to model progressive tau pathology after repetitive concussive TBI in

  5. Propagation of tau pathology: hypotheses, discoveries, and yet unresolved questions from experimental and human brain studies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein and a key regulator of microtubule stabilization as well as the main component of neurofibrillary tangles-a principle neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-as well as pleomorphic neuronal and glial inclusions in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Cross-sectional studies of neurofibrillary pathology in AD reveal a stereotypic spatiotemporal pattern of neuronal vulnerability that correlates with disease severity; however, the relationship of this pattern to disease progression is less certain and exceptions to the typical pattern have been described in a subset of AD patients. The basis for the selective vulnerability of specific populations of neurons to tau pathology and cell death is largely unknown, although there have been a number of hypotheses based upon shared properties of vulnerable neurons (e.g., degree of axonal myelination or synaptic plasticity). A recent hypothesis for selective vulnerability takes into account the emerging science of functional connectivity based upon resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, where subsets of neurons that fire synchronously define patterns of degeneration similar to specific neurodegenerative disorders, including various tauopathies. In the past 6 years, the concept of tau propagation has emerged from numerous studies in cell and animal models suggesting that tau moves from cell-to-cell and that this may trigger aggregation and region-to-region spread of tau pathology within the brain. How the spread of tau pathology relates to functional connectivity is an area of active investigation. Observations of templated folding and propagation of tau have prompted comparisons of tau to prions, the pathogenic proteins in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. In this review, we discuss the most compelling studies in the field, discuss their shortcomings and consider their implications with respect to human tauopathies as well as the controversy that

  6. Progression of tau pathology within cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons in chronic traumatic encephalopathy: A Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Mufson, Elliott J.; Perez, Sylvia E.; Nadeem, Muhammad; Mahady, Laura; Kanaan, Nicholas M.; Abrahamson, Eric E.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Crawford, Fiona; Alvarez, Victor; Stein, Thor; McKee, Ann C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. Method To characterize NFT pathology we used tau- antibodies marking early, intermediate, and late stages of NFT development in cholinergic basal forebrain tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Results We found evidence that cholinergic nbM neurons develop intracellular tau-immunoreactive changes progressively across the pathological stages of CTE. In particular, there was an increase in pretangle (phosphorylated pS422) and oligomeric (TOC1 and TNT1) forms of tau in stage IV compared to stage II CTE cases. The nbM neurons also displayed pathologic TDP-43 inclusions and diffuse extracellular and vascular amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in CTE. A higher percent of pS422/p75NTR, pS422 and TNT1 labeled neurons were significantly correlated with age at symptom onset, interval between symptom onset and death and age at death. Conclusion The development of NFTs within the nbM neurons could contribute to the basal forebrain cortical cholinergic disconnection in CTE. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism driving NFT formation in the nbM neurons and its relation to chronic cognitive dysfunction in CTE. PMID:27834536

  7. Differential effects of voluntary treadmill exercise and caloric restriction on tau pathogenesis in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology fed with Western diet.

    PubMed

    Gratuze, Maud; Julien, Jacinthe; Morin, Françoise; Marette, André; Planel, Emmanuel

    2017-10-03

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that becomes pathological when it undergoes hyperphosphorylation and aggregation as seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is mostly sporadic, with environmental, biological and/or genetic risks factors, interacting together to promote the disease. In the past decade, reports have suggested that obesity in midlife could be one of these risk factors. On the other hand, caloric restriction and physical exercise have been reported to reduce the incidence and outcome of obesity as well as AD. We evaluated the impact of voluntary physical exercise and caloric restriction on tau pathology during 2months in hTau mice under high caloric diet in order to evaluate if these strategies could prevent AD-like pathology in obese conditions. We found no effects of obesity induced by Western diet on both Tau phosphorylation and aggregation compared to controls. However, exercise reduced tau phosphorylation while caloric restriction exacerbated its aggregation in the brains of obese hTau mice. We then examined the mechanisms underlying changes in tau phosphorylation and aggregation by exploring major tau kinases and phosphatases and key proteins involved in autophagy. However, there were no significant effects of voluntary exercise and caloric restriction on these proteins in hTau mice that could explain our results. In this study, we report differential effects of voluntary treadmill exercise and caloric restriction on tau pathogenesis in our obese mice, namely beneficial effect of exercise on tau phosphorylation and deleterious effect of caloric restriction on tau aggregation. Our results suggest that lifestyle strategies used to reduce metabolic disorders and AD must be selected and studied carefully to avoid exacerbation of pathologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Passive immunization targeting the N-terminal projection domain of tau decreases tau pathology and improves cognition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease and tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chun-ling; Chen, Xia; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    Intraneuronal accumulation of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain is a histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and a family of related neurodegenerative disorders collectively called tauopathies. At present there is no effective treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases which are clinically characterized by dementia in mid to old-age. Here we report the treatment of 14-17-months-old 3xTg-AD mice with tau antibodies 43D (tau 6-18) and 77E9 (tau 184-195) to the N-terminal projection domain of tau or mouse IgG as a control by intraperitoneal injection once a week for 4 weeks, and the effects of the passive immunization on reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau, Aβ accumulation and cognitive performance in these animals. We found that treatment with tau antibodies 43D and 77E9 reduced total tau level, decreased tau hyperphosphorylated at Ser199, Ser202/Thr205 (AT8), Thr205, Ser262/356 (12E8), and Ser396/404 (PHF-1) sites, and a trend to reduce Aβ pathology. Most importantly, targeting N-terminal tau especially by 43D (tau 6-18) improved reference memory in the Morris water maze task in 3xTg-AD mice. We did not observe any abnormality in general physical characteristics of the treated animals with either of the two antibodies during the course of this study. Taken together, our studies demonstrate for the first time (1) that passive immunization targeting normal tau can effectively clear the hyperphosphorylated protein and possibly reduce Aβ pathology from the brain and (2) that targeting N-terminal projection domain of tau containing amino acid 6-18 is especially beneficial. Thus, targeting selective epitopes of N-terminal domain of tau may present a novel effective therapeutic opportunity for Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.

  9. Reversal of memory and neuropsychiatric symptoms and reduced tau pathology by selenium in 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Van der Jeugd, Ann; Parra-Damas, Arnaldo; Baeta-Corral, Raquel; Soto-Faguás, Carlos M; Ahmed, Tariq; LaFerla, Frank M; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; D'Hooge, Rudi; Saura, Carlos A

    2018-04-24

    Accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and tau contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is unclear whether targeting tau pathology by antioxidants independently of amyloid-β causes beneficial effects on memory and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Selenium, an essential antioxidant element reduced in the aging brain, prevents development of neuropathology in AD transgenic mice at early disease stages. The therapeutic potential of selenium for ameliorating or reversing neuropsychiatric and cognitive behavioral symptoms at late AD stages is largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic dietary sodium selenate supplementation for 4 months in female 3xTg-AD mice at 12-14 months of age. Chronic sodium selenate treatment efficiently reversed hippocampal-dependent learning and memory impairments, and behavior- and neuropsychiatric-like symptoms in old female 3xTg-AD mice. Selenium significantly decreased the number of aggregated tau-positive neurons and astrogliosis, without globally affecting amyloid plaques, in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. These results indicate that selenium treatment reverses AD-like memory and neuropsychiatric symptoms by a mechanism involving reduction of aggregated tau and/or reactive astrocytes but not amyloid pathology. These results suggest that sodium selenate could be part of a combined therapeutic approach for the treatment of memory and neuropsychiatric symptoms in advanced AD stages.

  10. The hippocampal longitudinal axis-relevance for underlying tau and TDP-43 pathology.

    PubMed

    Lladó, Albert; Tort-Merino, Adrià; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Falgàs, Neus; Balasa, Mircea; Bosch, Beatriz; Castellví, Magda; Olives, Jaume; Antonell, Anna; Hornberger, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that hippocampus has different cortical connectivity and functionality along its longitudinal axis. We sought to elucidate the possible different pattern of atrophy in longitudinal axis of hippocampus between Amyloid/Tau pathology and TDP-43-pathies. Seventy-three presenile subjects were included: Amyloid/Tau group (33 Alzheimer's disease with confirmed cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] biomarkers), probable TDP-43 group (7 semantic variant progressive primary aphasia, 5 GRN and 2 C9orf72 mutation carriers) and 26 healthy controls. We conducted a region-of-interest voxel-based morphometry analysis on the hippocampal longitudinal axis, by contrasting the groups, covarying with CSF biomarkers (Aβ 42 , total tau, p-tau) and covarying with episodic memory scores. Amyloid/Tau pathology affected mainly posterior hippocampus while anterior left hippocampus was more atrophied in probable TDP-43-pathies. We also observed a significant correlation of posterior hippocampal atrophy with Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and visual memory scores. Taken together, these data suggest that there is a potential differentiation along the hippocampal longitudinal axis based on the underlying pathology, which could be used as a potential biomarker to identify the underlying pathology in different neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of tau in the pathological process and clinical expression of Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuono, Romina; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; de Silva, Rohan; Cisbani, Giulia; Drouin-Ouellet, Janelle; Spillantini, Maria G.; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal CAG repeat expansion within exon 1 of the huntingtin gene HTT. While several genetic modifiers, distinct from the Huntington’s disease locus itself, have been identified as being linked to the clinical expression and progression of Huntington’s disease, the exact molecular mechanisms driving its pathogenic cascade and clinical features, especially the dementia, are not fully understood. Recently the microtubule associated protein tau, MAPT, which is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, has been implicated in Huntington’s disease. We explored this association in more detail at the neuropathological, genetic and clinical level. We first investigated tau pathology by looking for the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, co-localization of tau with mutant HTT and its oligomeric intermediates in post-mortem brain samples from patients with Huntington’s disease (n = 16) compared to cases with a known tauopathy and healthy controls. Next, we undertook a genotype–phenotype analysis of a large cohort of patients with Huntington’s disease (n = 960) with a particular focus on cognitive decline. We report not only on the tau pathology in the Huntington’s disease brain but also the association between genetic variation in tau gene and the clinical expression and progression of the disease. We found extensive pathological inclusions containing abnormally phosphorylated tau protein that co-localized in some instances with mutant HTT. We confirmed this related to the disease process rather than age, by showing it is also present in two patients with young-onset Huntington’s disease (26 and 40 years old at death). In addition we demonstrate that tau oligomers (suggested to be the most likely neurotoxic tau entity) are present in the Huntington’s disease brains. Finally we highlight the clinical significance of this pathology by demonstrating that the MAPT

  12. Hierarchical Distribution of the Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology in the Thalamus of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Rüb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2016-01-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neuropathological research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), knowledge regarding the exact pathoanatomical distribution of the tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus of AD patients in the advanced Braak and Braak AD stages V or VI of the cortical cytoskeletal pathology is still fragmentary. Investigation of serial 100 μm-thick brain tissue sections through the thalamus of clinically diagnosed AD patients with Braak and Braak AD stage V or VI cytoskeletal pathologies immunostained with the anti-tau AT8 antibody, along with the affection of the extraterritorial reticular nucleus of the thalamus, reveals a consistent and severe tau immunoreactive cytoskeletal pathology in the limbic nuclei of the thalamus (e.g., paraventricular, anterodorsal and laterodorsal nuclei, limitans-suprageniculate complex). The thalamic nuclei integrated into the associative networks of the human brain (e.g., ventral anterior and mediodorsal nuclei) are only mildly affected, while its motor precerebellar (ventral lateral nucleus) and sensory nuclei (e.g., lateral and medial geniculate bodies, ventral posterior medial and lateral nuclei, parvocellular part of the ventral posterior medial nucleus) are more or less spared. The highly stereotypical and characteristic thalamic distribution pattern of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology represents an anatomical mirror of the hierarchical topographic distribution of the cytoskeletal pathology in the interconnected regions of the cerebral cortex of AD patients. These pathoanatomical parallels support the pathophysiological concept of a transneuronal spread of the disease process of AD along anatomical pathways. The AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus most likely contributes substantially to the neuropsychiatric disease symptoms (e.g., dementia), attention deficits, oculomotor dysfunctions, altered non-discriminative aspects of pain experience of AD patients, and the disruption of their

  13. Tau Pathology is Present In Vivo and Develops In Vitro in Sensory Neurons from Human P301S Tau Transgenic Mice: A System for Screening Drugs against Tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Mellone, Manuela; Kestoras, Dimitra; Andrews, Melissa R.; Dassie, Elisa; Crowther, R. Anthony; Stokin, Gorazd B.; Tinsley, Jon; Horne, Graeme; Goedert, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular tau aggregates are the neuropathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and cases of frontotemporal dementia, but the link between these aggregates and neurodegeneration remains unclear. Neuronal models recapitulating the main features of tau pathology are necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms of tau malfunction, but current models show little and inconsistent spontaneous tau aggregation. We show that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in transgenic mice expressing human P301S tau (P301S-htau) develop tau pathology similar to that found in brain and spinal cord and a significant reduction in mechanosensation occurs before detectable fibrillar tau formation. DRG neuronal cultures established from adult P301S-htau mice at different ages retained the pattern of aberrant tau found in vivo. Moreover, htau became progressively hyperphosphorylated over 2 months in vitro beginning with nonsymptomatic neurons, while hyperphosphorylated P301S-htau-positive neurons from 5-month-old mice cultured for 2 months died preferentially. P301S-htau-positive neurons grew aberrant axons, including spheroids, typically found in human tauopathies. Neurons cultured at advanced stages of tau pathology showed a 60% decrease in the fraction of moving mitochondria. SEG28019, a novel O-GlcNAcase inhibitor, reduced steady-state pSer396/pSer404 phosphorylation over 7 weeks in a significant proportion of DRG neurons showing for the first time the possible beneficial effect of prolonged dosing of O-GlcNAcase inhibitor in vitro. Our system is unique in that fibrillar tau forms without external manipulation and provides an important new tool for understanding the mechanisms of tau dysfunction and for screening of compounds for treatment of tauopathies. PMID:24227726

  14. Two Novel Tau Antibodies Targeting the 396/404 Region Are Primarily Taken Up by Neurons and Reduce Tau Protein Pathology*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jiaping; Congdon, Erin E.; Sigurdsson, Einar M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregated Tau proteins are hallmarks of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies. Recent studies from our group and others have demonstrated that both active and passive immunizations reduce Tau pathology and prevent cognitive decline in transgenic mice. To determine the efficacy and safety of targeting the prominent 396/404 region, we developed two novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with distinct binding profiles for phospho and non-phospho epitopes. The two mAbs significantly reduced hyperphosphorylated soluble Tau in long term brain slice cultures without apparent toxicity, suggesting the therapeutic importance of targeting the 396/404 region. In mechanistic studies, we found that neurons were the primary cell type that internalized the mAbs, whereas a small amount of mAbs was taken up by microglia cells. Within neurons, the two mAbs were highly colocalized with distinct pathological Tau markers, indicating their affinity toward different stages or forms of pathological Tau. Moreover, the mAbs were largely co-localized with endosomal/lysosomal markers, and partially co-localized with autophagy pathway markers. Additionally, the Fab fragments of the mAbs were able to enter neurons, but unlike the whole antibodies, the fragments were not specifically localized in pathological neurons. In summary, our Tau mAbs were safe and efficient to clear pathological Tau in a brain slice model. Fc-receptor-mediated endocytosis and the endosome/autophagosome/lysosome system are likely to have a critical role in antibody-mediated clearance of Tau pathology. PMID:24089520

  15. Phosphorylation of Threonine 175 Tau in the Induction of Tau Pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Frontotemporal Spectrum Disorder (ALS-FTSD). A Review.

    PubMed

    Moszczynski, Alexander J; Hintermayer, Matthew A; Strong, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 50-60% of all patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) will develop a deficit of frontotemporal function, ranging from frontotemporal dementia (FTD) to one or more deficits of neuropsychological, speech or language function which are collectively known as the frontotemporal spectrum disorders of ALS (ALS-FTSD). While the neuropathology underlying these disorders is most consistent with a widespread alteration in the metabolism of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), in both ALS with cognitive impairment (ALSci) and ALS with FTD (ALS-FTD; also known as MND-FTD) there is evidence for alterations in the metabolism of the microtubule associated protein tau. This alteration in tau metabolism is characterized by pathological phosphorylation at residue Thr 175 (pThr 175 tau) which in vitro is associated with activation of GSK3β (pTyr 216 GSK3β), phosphorylation of Thr 231 tau, and the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions with increased rates of cell death. This putative pathway of pThr 175 induction of pThr 231 and the formation of pathogenic tau inclusions has been recently shown to span a broad range of tauopathies, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and CTE in association with ALS (CTE-ALS). This pathway can be experimentally triggered through a moderate traumatic brain injury, suggesting that it is a primary neuropathological event and not secondary to a more widespread neuronal dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the neuropathological underpinnings of the postulate that ALS is associated with a tauopathy which manifests as a FTSD, and examine possible mechanisms by which phosphorylation at Thr 175 tau is induced. We hypothesize that this might lead to an unfolding of the hairpin structure of tau, activation of GSK3β and pathological tau fibril formation through the induction of cis -Thr 231 tau conformers. A potential role of TDP-43 acting synergistically with pathological tau metabolism is proposed.

  16. Regulation of Tau Pathology by the Microglial Fractalkine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Kiran; Konerth, Megan; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N.; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Aggregates of the hyperphosphorylated microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) are an invariant neuropathological feature of tauopathies. Here we show that microglial neuroinflammation promotes MAPT phosphorylation and aggregation. First, lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation promotes hyperphosphorylation of endogenous mouse MAPT in non-transgenic mice that is further enhanced in mice lacking the microglial-specific fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) and is dependent upon functional toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin 1 (IL1) receptors. Second, humanized MAPT transgenic mice lacking CX3CR1 exhibited enhanced MAPT phosphorylation and aggregation as well as behavioral impairments that correlated with increased levels of active p38 MAPK. Third, in vitro experiments demonstrate that microglial activation elevates the level of active p38 MAPK and enhances MAPT hyperphosphorylation within neurons that can be blocked by administration of an interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that CX3CR1 and IL1/p38 MAPK may serve as novel therapeutic targets for human tauopathies. PMID:20920788

  17. Fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging probe for the detection of tau pathology in female rTg4510 mice.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Ibrahim, Nor Faeizah; Taguchi, Hiroyasu; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Kato, Tomoko; Hirao, Koichi; Shirai, Nobuaki; Sogabe, Takayuki; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2018-05-01

    Aggregation of tau into neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is characteristic of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Recent advances in tau imaging have attracted much attention because of its potential contributions to early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progress. Fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging ( 19 F-MRI) may be extremely useful for tau imaging once a high-quality probe has been formulated. In this investigation, a novel fluorine-19-labeling compound has been developed as a probe for tau imaging using 19 F-MRI. This compound is a buta-1,3-diene derivative with a polyethylene glycol side chain bearing a CF 3 group and is known as Shiga-X35. Female rTg4510 mice (a mouse model of tauopathy) and wild-type mice were intravenously injected with Shiga-X35, and magnetic resonance imaging of each mouse's head was conducted in a 7.0-T horizontal-bore magnetic resonance scanner. The 19 F-MRI in rTg4510 mice showed an intense signal in the forebrain region. Analysis of the signal intensity in the forebrain region revealed a significant accumulation of fluorine-19 magnetic resonance signal in the rTg4510 mice compared with the wild-type mice. Histological analysis showed fluorescent signals of Shiga-X35 binding to the NFTs in the brain sections of rTg4510 mice. Data collected as part of this investigation indicate that 19 F-MRI using Shiga-X35 could be a promising tool to evaluate tau pathology in the brain. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Imaging the accumulation and suppression of tau pathology using multiparametric MRI

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Holly E.; Colgan, Niall; Ismail, Ozama; Ma, Da; Powell, Nick M.; O'Callaghan, James M.; Harrison, Ian F.; Johnson, Ross A.; Murray, Tracey K.; Ahmed, Zeshan; Heggenes, Morton; Fisher, Alice; Cardoso, M.J.; Modat, Marc; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Ourselin, Sebastien; O'Neill, Michael J.; Wells, Jack A.; Collins, Emily C.; Lythgoe, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models of Alzheimer's disease have served as valuable tools for investigating pathogenic mechanisms relating to neurodegeneration, including tau-mediated and neurofibrillary tangle pathology—a major hallmark of the disease. In this work, we have used multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a longitudinal study of neurodegeneration in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy, a subset of which were treated with doxycycline at different time points to suppress the tau transgene. Using this paradigm, we investigated the sensitivity of multiparametric MRI to both the accumulation and suppression of pathologic tau. Tau-related atrophy was discernible from 5.5 months within the cortex and hippocampus. We observed markedly less atrophy in the treated rTg4510 mice, which was enhanced after doxycycline intervention from 3.5 months. We also observed differences in amide proton transfer, cerebral blood flow, and diffusion tensor imaging parameters in the rTg4510 mice, which were significantly less altered after doxycycline treatment. We propose that these non-invasive MRI techniques offer insight into pathologic mechanisms underpinning Alzheimer's disease that may be important when evaluating emerging therapeutics targeting one of more of these processes. PMID:26923415

  19. Multimodal PET Imaging of Amyloid and Tau Pathology in Alzheimer Disease and Non-Alzheimer Disease Dementias.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-07-01

    Biomarkers of the molecular pathology underpinning dementia syndromes are increasingly recognized as crucial for diagnosis and development of disease-modifying treatments. Amyloid PET imaging is an integral part of the diagnostic assessment of Alzheimer disease. Its use has also deepened understanding of the role of amyloid pathology in Lewy body disorders and aging. Tau PET imaging is an imaging biomarker that will likely play an important role in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment in dementias. Using tau PET imaging to examine how tau pathology relates to amyloid and other markers of neurodegeneration will serve to better understand the pathophysiologic cascade that leads to dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of in Vivo Biomarkers for Progressive Tau Pathology after Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Athletes in contact sports who have sustained multiple concussive traumatic brain injuries are at high risk for delayed, progressive neurological and...11 or ‘punch drunk’ syndrome 9, 12. US military personnel 13, 14 and others who have sustained multiple concussive traumatic brain injuries 15-17...To date, none of the attempts to model progressive tau pathology after repetitive concussive TBI in mice has been optimal. Ongoing efforts include

  1. Development of in Vivo Biomarkers for Progressive Tau Pathology after Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    14. ABSTRACT Athletes in contact sports who have sustained multiple concussive traumatic brain injuries are at high risk for delayed, progressive...pugilistica 3, 11 or ‘punch drunk’ syndrome 9, 12. US military personnel 13, 14 and others who have sustained multiple concussive traumatic brain...Progress to date: To date, none of the attempts to model progressive tau pathology after repetitive concussive TBI in mice has been optimal. Ongoing

  2. Tau pathology and neurodegeneration contribute to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bejanin, Alexandre; Schonhaut, Daniel R; La Joie, Renaud; Kramer, Joel H; Baker, Suzanne L; Sosa, Natasha; Ayakta, Nagehan; Cantwell, Averill; Janabi, Mustafa; Lauriola, Mariella; O'Neil, James P; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Miller, Zachary A; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2017-12-01

    Neuropathological and in vivo studies have revealed a tight relationship between tau pathology and cognitive impairment across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. However, tau pathology is also intimately associated with neurodegeneration and amyloid pathology. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether grey matter atrophy and amyloid pathology contribute to the relationship between tau pathology, as measured with 18F-AV-1451-PET imaging, and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. We included 40 amyloid-positive patients meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (n = 5) or probable Alzheimer's disease dementia (n = 35). Twelve patients additionally fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for posterior cortical atrophy and eight for logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia. All participants underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging, amyloid (11C-PiB) positron emission tomography and tau (18F-AV-1451) positron emission tomography, and episodic and semantic memory, language, executive and visuospatial functions assessment. Raw cognitive scores were converted to age-adjusted Z-scores (W-scores) and averaged to compute composite scores for each cognitive domain. Independent regressions were performed between 18F-AV-1451 binding and each cognitive domain, and we used the Biological Parametric Mapping toolbox to further control for local grey matter volumes, 11C-PiB uptake, or both. Partial correlations and causal mediation analyses (mediation R package) were then performed in brain regions showing an association between cognition and both 18F-AV-1451 uptake and grey matter volume. Our results showed that decreased cognitive performance in each domain was related to increased 18F-AV-1451 binding in specific brain regions conforming to established brain-behaviour relationships (i.e. episodic memory: medial temporal lobe and angular gyrus; semantic memory: left anterior temporal regions; language: left posterior superior

  3. Axonal disruption in white matter underlying cortical sulcus tau pathology in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Laurena; Kim, Joong Hee; Gangolli, Mihika; Stein, Thor; Alvarez, Victor; McKee, Ann; Brody, David L

    2017-03-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology. To test this hypothesis, formalin-fixed post-mortem tissue blocks from the superior frontal cortex of ten individuals with an established diagnosis of CTE were obtained from the Veterans Affairs-Boston University-Concussion Legacy Foundation brain bank. Advanced diffusion MRI data was acquired using an 11.74 T MRI scanner at Washington University with 250 × 250 × 500 µm 3 spatial resolution. Diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging and generalized q-sampling imaging analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. Following MRI acquisition, tissue sections were tested for phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity in gray matter sulcal depths. Axonal disruption in underlying white matter was assessed using two-dimensional Fourier transform analysis of myelin black gold staining. A robust image co-registration method was applied to accurately quantify the relationship between diffusion MRI parameters and histopathology. We found that white matter underlying sulci with high levels of tau pathology had substantially impaired myelin black gold Fourier transform power coherence, indicating axonal microstructural disruption (r = -0.55, p = 0.0015). Using diffusion tensor MRI, we found that fractional anisotropy (FA) was modestly (r = 0.53) but significantly (p = 0.0012) correlated

  4. A novel DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: effect on Tau and amyloid pathologies in vitro.

    PubMed

    Coutadeur, Séverine; Benyamine, Hélène; Delalonde, Laurence; de Oliveira, Catherine; Leblond, Bertrand; Foucourt, Alicia; Besson, Thierry; Casagrande, Anne-Sophie; Taverne, Thierry; Girard, Angélique; Pando, Matthew P; Désiré, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    The dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) gene is located within the Down Syndrome (DS) critical region on chromosome 21 and is implicated in the generation of Tau and amyloid pathologies that are associated with the early onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD) observed in DS. DYRK1A is also found associated with neurofibrillary tangles in sporadic AD and phosphorylates key AD players (Tau, amyloid precursor, protein, etc). Thus, DYRK1A may be an important therapeutic target to modify the course of Tau and amyloid beta (Aβ) pathologies. Here, we describe EHT 5372 (methyl 9-(2,4-dichlorophenylamino) thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazoline-2-carbimidate), a novel, highly potent (IC50 = 0.22 nM) DYRK1A inhibitor with a high degree of selectivity over 339 kinases. Models in which inhibition of DYRK1A by siRNA reduced and DYRK1A over-expression induced Tau phosphorylation or Aβ production were used. EHT 5372 inhibits DYRK1A-induced Tau phosphorylation at multiple AD-relevant sites in biochemical and cellular assays. EHT 5372 also normalizes both Aβ-induced Tau phosphorylation and DYRK1A-stimulated Aβ production. DYRK1A is thus as a key element of Aβ-mediated Tau hyperphosphorylation, which links Tau and amyloid pathologies. EHT 5372 and other compounds in its class warrant in vivo investigation as a novel, high-potential therapy for AD and other Tau opathies. Inhibition of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is a new high-potential therapeutic approach for Alzheimer disease. Here we describe EHT 5372, a novel potent and selective DYRK1A inhibitor. EHT 5372 inhibits DYRK1A-induced Tau phosphorylation, Aβ production and Aβ effects on phospho-Tau, including Tau aggregation. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. A comparative study on pathological features of transgenic rat lines expressing either three or four repeat misfolded tau.

    PubMed

    Valachova, Bernadeta; Brezovakova, Veronika; Bugos, Ondrej; Jadhav, Santosh; Smolek, Tomas; Novak, Petr; Zilka, Norbert

    2018-08-01

    Human tauopathies represent a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by distinct clinical features, typical histopathological structures, and defined ratio(s) of three-repeat and four-repeat tau isoforms within pathological aggregates. How the optional microtubule-binding repeat of tau influences this differentiation of pathologies is understudied. We have previously generated and characterized transgenic rodent models expressing human truncated tau aa151-391 with either three (SHR24) or four microtubule-binding repeats (SHR72). Here, we compare the behavioral and neuropathological hallmarks of these two transgenic lines using a battery of tests for sensorimotor, cognitive, and neurological functions over the age range of 3.5-15 months. Progression of sensorimotor and neurological deficits was similar in both transgenic lines; however, the lifespan of transgenic line SHR72 expressing truncated four-repeat tau was markedly shorter than SHR24. Moreover, the expression of three or four-repeat tau induced distinct neurofibrillary pathology in these lines. Transgenic lines displayed different distribution of tau pathology and different type of neurofibrillary tangles. Our results suggest that three- and four-repeat isoforms of tau may display different modes of action in the diseased brain. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Overlapping but distinct TDP-43 and tau pathologic patterns in aged hippocampi.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vanessa D; Bachstetter, Adam D; Ighodaro, Eseosa; Roberts, Kelly; Abner, Erin L; Fardo, David W; Nelson, Peter T

    2018-03-01

    Intracellular proteinaceous aggregates (inclusion bodies) are almost always detectable at autopsy in brains of elderly individuals. Inclusion bodies composed of TDP-43 and tau proteins often coexist in the same brain, and each of these pathologic biomarkers is associated independently with cognitive impairment. However, uncertainties remain about how the presence and neuroanatomical distribution of inclusion bodies correlate with underlying diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed data from the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy series (n = 247); none of the brains had frontotemporal lobar degeneration. A specific question for this study was whether neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology outside of the Braak NFT staging scheme is characteristic of brains with TDP-43 pathology but lacking AD, that is those with cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS). We also tested whether TDP-43 pathology is associated with comorbid AD pathology, and whether argyrophilic grains are relatively likely to be present in cases with, vs. without, TDP-43 pathology. Consistent with prior studies, hippocampal TDP-43 pathology was associated with advanced AD - Braak NFT stages V/VI. However, argyrophilic grain pathology was not more common in cases with TDP-43 pathology in this data set. In brains with CARTS (TDP-43[+]/AD[-] cases), there were more NFTs in dentate granule neurons than were seen in TDP-43[-]/AD[-] cases. These dentate granule cell NFTs could provide a proxy indicator of CARTS pathology in cases lacking substantial AD pathology. Immunofluorescent experiments in a subsample of cases found that, in both advanced AD and CARTS, approximately 1% of dentate granule neurons were PHF-1 immunopositive, whereas ∼25% of TDP-43 positive cells showed colocalized PHF-1 immunoreactivity. We conclude that NFTs in hippocampal dentate granule neurons are often present in CARTS, and TDP-43 pathology may be secondary to or

  7. Extracellular truncated tau causes early presynaptic dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Florenzano, Fulvio; Veronica, Corsetti; Ciasca, Gabriele; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pittaluga, Anna; Olivero, Gunedalina; Feligioni, Marco; Iannuzzi, Filomena; Latina, Valentina; Maria Sciacca, Michele Francesco; Sinopoli, Alessandro; Milardi, Danilo; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Marco, De Spirito; Papi, Massimiliano; Atlante, Anna; Bobba, Antonella; Borreca, Antonella; Calissano, Pietro; Amadoro, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    The largest part of tau secreted from AD nerve terminals and released in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is C-terminally truncated, soluble and unaggregated supporting potential extracellular role(s) of NH2 -derived fragments of protein on synaptic dysfunction underlying neurodegenerative tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we show that sub-toxic doses of extracellular-applied human NH2 tau 26-44 (aka NH 2 htau) -which is the minimal active moiety of neurotoxic 20-22kDa peptide accumulating in vivo at AD synapses and secreted into parenchyma- acutely provokes presynaptic deficit in K+ -evoked glutamate release on hippocampal synaptosomes along with alteration in local Ca2+ dynamics. Neuritic dystrophy, microtubules breakdown, deregulation in presynaptic proteins and loss of mitochondria located at nerve endings are detected in hippocampal cultures only after prolonged exposure to NH 2 htau. The specificity of these biological effects is supported by the lack of any significant change, either on neuronal activity or on cellular integrity, shown by administration of its reverse sequence counterpart which behaves as an inactive control, likely due to a poor conformational flexibility which makes it unable to dynamically perturb biomembrane-like environments. Our results demonstrate that one of the AD-relevant, soluble and secreted N-terminally truncated tau forms can early contribute to pathology outside of neurons causing alterations in synaptic activity at presynaptic level, independently of overt neurodegeneration. PMID:29029390

  8. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy-integration of canonical traumatic brain injury secondary injury mechanisms with tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Kulbe, Jacqueline R; Hall, Edward D

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, a new neurodegenerative tauopathy labeled Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), has been identified that is believed to be primarily a sequela of repeated mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), often referred to as concussion, that occurs in athletes participating in contact sports (e.g. boxing, American football, Australian football, rugby, soccer, ice hockey) or in military combatants, especially after blast-induced injuries. Since the identification of CTE, and its neuropathological finding of deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, mechanistic attention has been on lumping the disorder together with various other non-traumatic neurodegenerative tauopathies. Indeed, brains from suspected CTE cases that have come to autopsy have been confirmed to have deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau in locations that make its anatomical distribution distinct for other tauopathies. The fact that these individuals experienced repetitive TBI episodes during their athletic or military careers suggests that the secondary injury mechanisms that have been extensively characterized in acute TBI preclinical models, and in TBI patients, including glutamate excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, free radical-induced oxidative damage and neuroinflammation, may contribute to the brain damage associated with CTE. Thus, the current review begins with an in depth analysis of what is known about the tau protein and its functions and dysfunctions followed by a discussion of the major TBI secondary injury mechanisms, and how the latter have been shown to contribute to tau pathology. The value of this review is that it might lead to improved neuroprotective strategies for either prophylactically attenuating the development of CTE or slowing its progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Review: Tau in biofluids - relation to pathology, imaging and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, H

    2017-04-01

    Tau is a microtubule-binding protein that is important for the stability of neuronal axons. It is normally expressed within neurons and is also secreted into the brain interstitial fluid that communicates freely with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and, in a more restricted manner, blood via the glymphatic clearance system of the brain. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuroaxonal degeneration results in increased release of tau from neurons. Furthermore, tau is truncated and phosphorylated, which leads to aggregation of tau in neurofibrillary tangles of the proximal axoplasm. Neuroaxonal degeneration and tangle formation are reflected by increased concentrations of total tau (T-tau, measured using assays that detect most forms of tau) and phospho-tau (P-tau, measured using assays with antibodies specific to phosphorylated forms of tau). In AD CSF, both T-tau and P-tau concentrations are increased. In stroke and other CNS disorders with neuroaxonal injury but without tangles, T-tau is selectively increased, whereas P-tau concentration often stays normal. In tauopathies (diseases with both neurodegeneration and neurofibrillary tangles) other than AD, CSF T-tau and P-tau concentrations are typically unaltered, which is a puzzling result that warrants further investigation. In the current review, I discuss the association of T-tau and P-tau concentrations in body fluids with neuropathological changes, imaging findings and clinical features in AD and other CNS diseases. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  10. Familial Prion Disease with Alzheimer Disease-Like Tau Pathology and Clinical Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Suman; Nochlin, David; Poorkaj, Parvoneh; Steinbart, Ellen J.; Mastrianni, James A.; Montine, Thomas J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Bird, Thomas D.; Leverenz, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the Alzheimer disease (AD)-like clinical and pathological features, including marked neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, of a familial prion disease due to a rare nonsense mutation of the prion gene (PRNP). Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments were available for the proband and her mother. After death, both underwent neuropathological evaluation. PRNP was sequenced after failure to find immunopositive Aβ deposits in the proband and the documentation of prion protein (PrP) immunopositive pathology. Results The proband presented at age 42 years with a 3-year history of progressive short-term memory impairment and depression. Neuropsychological testing found impaired memory performance, with relatively preserved attention and construction. She was diagnosed with AD and died at age 47 years. Neuropathologic evaluation revealed extensive limbic and neocortical NFT formation and neuritic plaques consistent with a Braak stage of VI. The NFTs were immunopositive, with multiple tau antibodies, and electron microscopy revealed paired helical filaments. However, the neuritic plaques were immunonegative for Aβ, whereas immunostaining for PrP was positive. The mother of the proband had a similar presentation, including depression, and had been diagnosed clinically and pathologically as AD. Reevaluation of her brain tissue confirmed similar tau and PrP immunostaining findings. Genetic analysis revealed that both the proband and her mother had a rare PRNP mutation (Q160X) that resulted in the production of truncated PrP. Interpretation We suggest that PRNP mutations that result in a truncation of PrP lead to a prolonged clinical course consistent with a clinical diagnosis of AD and severe AD-like NFTs. PMID:21416485

  11. Familial early-onset dementia with tau intron 10 + 16 mutation with clinical features similar to those of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Doran, Mark; du Plessis, Daniel G; Ghadiali, Eric J; Mann, David M A; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Larner, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) owing to the tau intron 10 + 16 mutation usually occurs with a prototypical frontotemporal dementia phenotype with prominent disinhibition and affective disturbances. To report a new FTDP-17 pedigree with the tau intron 10 + 16 mutation demonstrating a clinical phenotype suggestive of Alzheimer disease. Case reports. Regional neuroscience centers in northwest England. Patients We examined 4 members of a kindred in which 8 individuals were affected in 3 generations. All 4 patients reported memory difficulty. Marked anomia was also present, but behavioral disturbances were conspicuously absent in the early stages of disease. All patients had an initial clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. No mutations were found in the presenilin or amyloid precursor protein genes. Pathologic examination of the proband showed features typical of FTDP-17, and tau gene analysis showed the intron 10 + 16 mutation. This pedigree illustrates the phenotypic variability of tau intron 10 + 16 mutations. In pedigrees with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease but without presenilin or amyloid precursor protein gene mutations, tau gene mutations may be found.

  12. Axodendritic sorting and pathological missorting of Tau are isoform-specific and determined by axon initial segment architecture.

    PubMed

    Zempel, Hans; Dennissen, Frank J A; Kumar, Yatender; Luedtke, Julia; Biernat, Jacek; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Mandelkow, Eckhard

    2017-07-21

    Subcellular mislocalization of the microtubule-associated protein Tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Six Tau isoforms, differentiated by the presence or absence of a second repeat or of N-terminal inserts, exist in the human CNS, but their physiological and pathological differences have long remained elusive. Here, we investigated the properties and distributions of human and rodent Tau isoforms in primary forebrain rodent neurons. We found that the Tau diffusion barrier (TDB), located within the axon initial segment (AIS), controls retrograde (axon-to-soma) and anterograde (soma-to-axon) traffic of Tau. Tau isoforms without the N-terminal inserts were sorted efficiently into the axon. However, the longest isoform (2N4R-Tau) was partially retained in cell bodies and dendrites, where it accelerated spine and dendrite growth. The TDB (located within the AIS) was impaired when AIS components (ankyrin G, EB1) were knocked down or when glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β; an AD-associated kinase tethered to the AIS) was overexpressed. Using superresolution nanoscopy and live-cell imaging, we observed that microtubules within the AIS appeared highly dynamic, a feature essential for the TDB. Pathomechanistically, amyloid-β insult caused cofilin activation and F-actin remodeling and decreased microtubule dynamics in the AIS. Concomitantly with these amyloid-β-induced disruptions, the AIS/TDB sorting function failed, causing AD-like Tau missorting. In summary, we provide evidence that the human and rodent Tau isoforms differ in axodendritic sorting and amyloid-β-induced missorting and that the axodendritic distribution of Tau depends on AIS integrity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Tau pathology does not affect experience-driven single-neuron and network-wide Arc/Arg3.1 responses.

    PubMed

    Rudinskiy, Nikita; Hawkes, Jonathan M; Wegmann, Susanne; Kuchibhotla, Kishore V; Muzikansky, Alona; Betensky, Rebecca A; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Hyman, Bradley T

    2014-06-10

    Intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) - a characteristic pathological feature of Alzheimer's and several other neurodegenerative diseases - are considered a major target for drug development. Tangle load correlates well with the severity of cognitive symptoms and mouse models of tauopathy are behaviorally impaired. However, there is little evidence that NFTs directly impact physiological properties of host neurons. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy to study how advanced tau pathology in different brain regions affects activity-driven expression of immediate-early gene Arc required for experience-dependent consolidation of long-term memories. We demonstrate in vivo that visual cortex neurons with tangles are as likely to express comparable amounts of Arc in response to structured visual stimulation as their neighbors without tangles. Probability of experience-dependent Arc response was not affected by tau tangles in both visual cortex and hippocampal pyramidal neurons as determined postmortem. Moreover, whole brain analysis showed that network-wide activity-driven Arc expression was not affected by tau pathology in any of the brain regions, including brain areas with the highest tangle load. Our findings suggest that intraneuronal NFTs do not affect signaling cascades leading to experience-dependent gene expression required for long-term synaptic plasticity.

  14. Plasma tau in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Niklas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Janelidze, Shorena; Insel, Philip S; Andreasson, Ulf; Stomrud, Erik; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Baker, David; Tan Hehir, Cristina A; Jeromin, Andreas; Hanlon, David; Song, Linan; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W; Hansson, Oskar; Blennow, Kaj

    2016-10-25

    To test whether plasma tau is altered in Alzheimer disease (AD) and whether it is related to changes in cognition, CSF biomarkers of AD pathology (including β-amyloid [Aβ] and tau), brain atrophy, and brain metabolism. This was a study of plasma tau in prospectively followed patients with AD (n = 179), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 195), and cognitive healthy controls (n = 189) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and cross-sectionally studied patients with AD (n = 61), mild cognitive impairment (n = 212), and subjective cognitive decline (n = 174) and controls (n = 274) from the Biomarkers for Identifying Neurodegenerative Disorders Early and Reliably (BioFINDER) study at Lund University, Sweden. A total of 1284 participants were studied. Associations were tested between plasma tau and diagnosis, CSF biomarkers, MRI measures, 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and cognition. Higher plasma tau was associated with AD dementia, higher CSF tau, and lower CSF Aβ 42 , but the correlations were weak and differed between ADNI and BioFINDER. Longitudinal analysis in ADNI showed significant associations between plasma tau and worse cognition, more atrophy, and more hypometabolism during follow-up. Plasma tau partly reflects AD pathology, but the overlap between normal aging and AD is large, especially in patients without dementia. Despite group-level differences, these results do not support plasma tau as an AD biomarker in individual people. Future studies may test longitudinal plasma tau measurements in AD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Ebselen ameliorates β-amyloid pathology, tau pathology, and cognitive impairment in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yongli; Tan, Yibin; Zheng, Youbiao; Du, Xiubo; Liu, Qiong

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease which is clinically characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline caused by protein misfolding and aggregation. Imbalance between free radicals and the antioxidant system is a prominent and early feature in the neuropathology of AD. Selenium (Se), a vital trace element with excellent antioxidant potential, is preferentially retained in the brain in Se-limited conditions and has been reported to provide neuroprotection through resisting oxidative damage. In this paper, we studied for the first time the potential of Ebselen, a lipid-soluble selenium compound with GPx-like activity, in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and neuropathology of triple-transgenic AD (3 × Tg-AD) mice, AD model cell, and primary culture. We demonstrated that Ebselen inhibited oxidative stress in both AD model cells and mouse brains with increasing GPx and SOD activities and meanwhile reduced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases activities. By decreasing the expression of amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase, Ebselen reduced the levels of Aβ in AD neurons and mouse brains, especially the most toxic oligomeric form. Besides, mislocation of phosphorylated tau in neurons and phosphorylation levels of tau protein at Thr231, Ser396, and Ser404 residues were also inhibited by Ebselen, probably by its regulatory roles in glycogen synthase kinase 3β and protein phosphatase 2A activity. In addition, Ebselen mitigated the decrease of synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 in AD model cells and neurons. Consequently, the spatial learning and memory of 3 × Tg-AD mice were significantly improved upon Ebselen treatment. This study provides a potential novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of AD.

  16. Tunneling nanotube (TNT)-mediated neuron-to neuron transfer of pathological Tau protein assemblies.

    PubMed

    Tardivel, Meryem; Bégard, Séverine; Bousset, Luc; Dujardin, Simon; Coens, Audrey; Melki, Ronald; Buée, Luc; Colin, Morvane

    2016-11-04

    A given cell makes exchanges with its neighbors through a variety of means ranging from diffusible factors to vesicles. Cells use also tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), filamentous-actin-containing membranous structures that bridge and connect cells. First described in immune cells, TNTs facilitate HIV-1 transfer and are found in various cell types, including neurons. We show that the microtubule-associated protein Tau, a key player in Alzheimer's disease, is a bona fide constituent of TNTs. This is important because Tau appears beside filamentous actin and myosin 10 as a specific marker of these fine protrusions of membranes and cytosol that are difficult to visualize. Furthermore, we observed that exogenous Tau species increase the number of TNTs established between primary neurons, thereby facilitating the intercellular transfer of Tau fibrils. In conclusion, Tau may contribute to the formation and function of the highly dynamic TNTs that may be involved in the prion-like propagation of Tau assemblies.

  17. Dystrophic (senescent) rather than activated microglial cells are associated with tau pathology and likely precede neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Braak, Heiko; Xue, Qing-Shan; Bechmann, Ingo

    2009-10-01

    The role of microglial cells in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurodegeneration is unknown. Although several works suggest that chronic neuroinflammation caused by activated microglia contributes to neurofibrillary degeneration, anti-inflammatory drugs do not prevent or reverse neuronal tau pathology. This raises the question if indeed microglial activation occurs in the human brain at sites of neurofibrillary degeneration. In view of the recent work demonstrating presence of dystrophic (senescent) microglia in aged human brain, the purpose of this study was to investigate microglial cells in situ and at high resolution in the immediate vicinity of tau-positive structures in order to determine conclusively whether degenerating neuronal structures are associated with activated or with dystrophic microglia. We used a newly optimized immunohistochemical method for visualizing microglial cells in human archival brain together with Braak staging of neurofibrillary pathology to ascertain the morphology of microglia in the vicinity of tau-positive structures. We now report histopathological findings from 19 humans covering the spectrum from none to severe AD pathology, including patients with Down's syndrome, showing that degenerating neuronal structures positive for tau (neuropil threads, neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques) are invariably colocalized with severely dystrophic (fragmented) rather than with activated microglial cells. Using Braak staging of Alzheimer neuropathology we demonstrate that microglial dystrophy precedes the spread of tau pathology. Deposits of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) devoid of tau-positive structures were found to be colocalized with non-activated, ramified microglia, suggesting that Abeta does not trigger microglial activation. Our findings also indicate that when microglial activation does occur in the absence of an identifiable acute central nervous system insult, it is likely to be the result of systemic infectious

  18. Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Attenuates Amyloid-β and Tau Pathologies in the Brains of TgSwDI Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qosa, Hisham; Mohamed, Loqman A.; Batarseh, Yazan S.; Alqahtani, Saeed; Ibrahim, Baher; LeVine, Harry; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is one of the main elements of Mediterranean diet. Several studies have suggested that EVOO has several health promoting effects that could protect from and decrease the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of consumption of EVOO-enriched diet on amyloid- and tau- related pathological alterations that are associated with the progression of AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in TgSwDI mice. Feeding mice with EVOO-enriched diet for 6 months, beginning at an age before amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation starts, has significantly reduced total Aβ and tau brain levels with a significant improvement in mouse cognitive behavior. This reduction in brain Aβ was explained by the enhanced Aβ clearance pathways and reduced brain production of Aβ via modulation of APP processing. On the other hand, although feeding mice with EVOO-enriched diet for 3 months, beginning at an age after Aβ accumulation starts, showed improved clearance across the BBB and significant reduction in Aβ levels, it did not affect tau levels or improve cognitive functions of TgSwDI mouse. Collectively, results of this study suggest the long-term consumption of EVOO-containing diet starting at early age provides a protective effect against AD and its related disorder CAA. PMID:26344778

  19. Distinct 18F-AV-1451 tau PET retention patterns in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schöll, Michael; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Strandberg, Olof; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Jögi, Jonas; Ohlsson, Tomas; Smith, Ruben; Hansson, Oskar

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease can present with different clinical phenotypes. Individuals with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (>65 years) typically present with medial temporal lobe neurodegeneration and predominantly amnestic symptomatology, while patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (<65 years) exhibit greater neocortical involvement associated with a clinical presentation including dyspraxia, executive dysfunction, or visuospatial impairment. We recruited 20 patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, 21 with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, three with prodromal early-onset Alzheimer's disease and 13 with prodromal late-onset Alzheimer's disease, as well as 30 cognitively healthy elderly controls, that had undergone 18F-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography and structural magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease exhibit differential regional tau pathology and atrophy patterns. Strong associations of lower age at symptom onset with higher 18F-AV-1451 uptake were observed in several neocortical regions, while higher age did not yield positive associations in neither patient group. Comparing patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease with controls resulted in significantly higher 18F-AV-1451 retention throughout the neocortex, while comparing healthy controls with late-onset Alzheimer's disease patients yielded a distinct pattern of higher 18F-AV-1451 retention, predominantly confined to temporal lobe regions. When compared against each other, the early-onset Alzheimer's disease group exhibited greater uptake than the late-onset group in prefrontal and premotor, as well as in inferior parietal cortex. These preliminary findings indicate that age may constitute an important contributor to Alzheimer's disease heterogeneity highlighting the potential of tau positron emission tomography to capture phenotypic variation across patients with Alzheimer's disease. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford

  20. Pathologic features of early inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Sydney D; Sasatomi, Eizaburo; Regueiro, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Often the pathologic changes of IBD are subtle and may not be present in a proportion of biopsy specimens. In cases of early disease, the changes may be missed, and additional specimens should be taken after a period of time. Modifying factors, such as prebiopsy treatment and coexisting disease, should be considered. A forum to review cases and allow for communication between gastroenterologists and pathologists is especially useful for clinicopathologic correlation and assignment of a working diagnosis to each case. Careful attention to the pathologic features of early UC and CD would be most useful when evaluating new therapies for IBD.

  1. The Brainstem Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease: A Brief Historical Overview and Description of its Anatomical Distribution Pattern, Evolutional Features, Pathogenetic and Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Rüb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Turco, Domenico Del; Seidel, Kay; Dunnen, Wilfred den; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2016-01-01

    The human brainstem is involved in the regulation of the sleep/waking cycle and normal sleep architectonics and is crucial for the performance of a variety of somatomotor, vital autonomic, oculomotor, vestibular, auditory, ingestive and somatosensory functions. It harbors the origins of the ascending dopaminergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic systems, as well the home base of the descending serotonergic system. In contrast to the cerebral cortex the affection of the brainstem in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by the neurofibrillary or tau cytoskeletal pathology was recognized only approximately fourty years ago in initial brainstem studies. Detailed pathoanatomical investigations of silver stained or tau immunostained brainstem tissue sections revealed nerve cell loss and prominent ADrelated cytoskeletal changes in the raphe nuclei, locus coeruleus, and in the compact parts of the substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus. An additional conspicuous AD-related cytoskeletal pathology was also detected in the auditory brainstem system of AD patients (i.e. inferior colliculus, superior olive, dorsal cochlear nucleus), in the oculomotor brainstem network (i.e. rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, reticulotegmental nucleus of pons), autonomic system (i.e. central and periaqueductal grays, parabrachial nuclei, gigantocellular reticular nucleus, dorsal motor vagal and solitary nuclei, intermediate reticular zone). The alterations in these brainstem nuclei offered for the first time adequate explanations for a variety of less understood disease symptoms of AD patients: Parkinsonian extrapyramidal motor signs, depression, hallucinations, dysfunctions of the sleep/wake cycle, changes in sleeping patterns, attentional deficits, exaggerated pupil dilatation, autonomic dysfunctions, impairments of horizontal and vertical saccades, dysfunctional smooth pursuits. The very early occurrence of the AD

  2. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  3. Insulin Resistance as a Link between Amyloid-Beta and Tau Pathologies in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Roger J.; Diehl, Thomas C.; Chia, Chee W.; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Current hypotheses and theories regarding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) heavily implicate brain insulin resistance (IR) as a key factor. Despite the many well-validated metrics for systemic IR, the absence of biomarkers for brain-specific IR represents a translational gap that has hindered its study in living humans. In our lab, we have been working to develop biomarkers that reflect the common mechanisms of brain IR and AD that may be used to follow their engagement by experimental treatments. We present two promising biomarkers for brain IR in AD: insulin cascade mediators probed in extracellular vesicles (EVs) enriched for neuronal origin, and two-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of brain glucose. As further evidence for a fundamental link between brain IR and AD, we provide a novel analysis demonstrating the close spatial correlation between brain expression of genes implicated in IR (using Allen Human Brain Atlas data) and tau and beta-amyloid pathologies. We proceed to propose the bold hypotheses that baseline differences in the metabolic reliance on glycolysis, and the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT) and insulin signaling genes determine the vulnerability of different brain regions to Tau and/or Amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology, and that IR is a critical link between these two pathologies that define AD. Lastly, we provide an overview of ongoing clinical trials that target IR as an angle to treat AD, and suggest how biomarkers may be used to evaluate treatment efficacy and target engagement. PMID:28515688

  4. R-flurbiprofen improves tau, but not Aß pathology in a triple transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Isabel; McKee, Ann C; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Aytan, Nurgul; Kowall, Neil W; Jenkins, Bruce G; Dedeoglu, Alpaslan

    2013-12-06

    We have previously reported that chronic ibuprofen treatment improves cognition and decreases intracellular Aß and phosphorylated-tau levels in 3xTg-AD mice. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that independently of its anti-inflammatory effects has anti-amyloidogenic activity as a gamma-secretase modulator (GSM) and both activities have the potential to decrease Aß pathology. To further understand the effects of NSAIDs in 3xTg-AD mice, we treated 3xTg-AD mice with R-flurbiprofen, an enantiomer of the NSAID flurbiprofen that maintains the GSM activity but has greatly reduced anti-inflammatory activity, and analyzed its effect on cognition, Aß, tau, and the neurochemical profile of the hippocampus. Treatment with R-flurbiprofen from 5 to 7 months of age resulted in improved cognition on the radial arm water maze (RAWM) test and decreased the level of hyperphosphorylated tau immunostained with AT8 and PHF-1 antibodies. No significant changes in the level of Aß (using 6E10 and NU-1 antibodies) were detected. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) we found that R-flurbiprofen treatment decreased the elevated level of glutamine in 3xTg-AD mice down to the level detected in non-transgenic mice. Glutamine levels correlated with PHF-1 immunostained hyperphosphorylated tau. We also found an inverse correlation between the concentration of glutamate and learning across all the mice in the study. Glutamine and glutamate, neurochemicals that shuttles between neurons and astrocytes to maintain glutamate homeostasis in the synapses, deserve further attention as MR markers of cognitive function. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. R-flurbiprofen improves tau, but not Aß pathology in a triple transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Carreras, Isabel; McKee, Ann C.; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Aytan, Nurgul; Kowall, Neil W.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that chronic ibuprofen treatment improves cognition and decreases intracellular Aß and phosphorylated-tau levels in 3xTg-AD mice. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that independently of its anti-inflammatory effects has anti-amyloidogenic activity as a gamma-secretase modulator (GSM) and both activities have the potential to decrease Aß pathology. To further understand the effects of NSAIDs in 3xTg-AD mice, we treated 3xTg-AD mice with R-flurbiprofen, an enantiomer of the NSAID flurbiprofen that maintains the GSM activity but has greatly reduced anti-inflammatory activity, and analyzed its effect on cognition, Aß, tau, and the neurochemical profile of the hippocampus. Treatment with R-flurbiprofen from 5 to 7 months of age resulted in improved cognition on the radial arm water maze (RAWM) test and decreased the level of hyperphosphorylated tau immunostained with AT8 and PHF-1 antibodies. No significant changes in the level of Aß (using 6E10 and NU-1 antibodies) were detected. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) we found that R-flurbiprofen treatment decreased the elevated level of glutamine in 3xTg-AD mice down to the level detected in non-transgenic mice. Glutamine levels correlated with PHF-1 immunostained hyperphosphorylated tau. We also found an inverse correlation between the concentration of glutamate and learning across all the mice in the study. Glutamine and glutamate, neurochemicals that shuttles between neurons and astrocytes to maintain glutamate homeostasis in the synapses, deserve further attention as MR markers of cognitive function. PMID:24161403

  6. Glutamate system, amyloid β peptides and tau protein: functional interrelationships and relevance to Alzheimer disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Revett, Timothy J.; Baker, Glen B.; Jhamandas, Jack; Kar, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent form of dementia globally and is characterized premortem by a gradual memory loss and deterioration of higher cognitive functions and postmortem by neuritic plaques containing amyloid β peptide and neurofibrillary tangles containing phospho-tau protein. Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain and is essential to memory formation through processes such as long-term potentiation and so might be pivotal to Alzheimer disease progression. This review discusses how the glutamatergic system is impaired in Alzheimer disease and how interactions of amyloid β and glutamate influence synaptic function, tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, glutamate not only influences amyloid β production, but also amyloid β can alter the levels of glutamate at the synapse, indicating that small changes in the concentrations of both molecules could influence Alzheimer disease progression. Finally, we describe how the glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine, has been used in the treatment of individuals with Alzheimer disease and discuss its effectiveness. PMID:22894822

  7. Development of In Vivo Biomarkers for Progressive Tau Pathology after Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Athletes in contact sports who have sustained multiple concussive traumatic brain...who have sustained multiple concussive traumatic brain injuries 15-17 may also be at risk for this condition. Currently, there are no methods to...repetitive concussive TBI in mice has been optimal. Ongoing efforts include development of more sensitive methods to detect tau, and combinations of

  8. Perineuronal net digestion with chondroitinase restores memory in mice with tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sujeong; Cacquevel, Matthias; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Schneider, Bernard L.; Aebischer, Patrick; Melani, Riccardo; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Fawcett, James W.; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent tauopathy and cause of dementia. We investigate the hypothesis that reactivation of plasticity can restore function in the presence of neuronal damage resulting from tauopathy. We investigated two models with tau hyperphosphorylation, aggregation and neurodegeneration: a transgenic mouse model in which the mutant P301S tau is expressed in neurons (Tg P301S), and a model in which an adeno-associated virus expressing P301S tau (AAV-P301S) was injected in the perirhinal cortex, a region critical for object recognition (OR) memory. Both models show profound loss of OR memory despite only 15% neuronal loss in the Tg P301S and 26% in AAV-P301S-injected mice. Recordings from perirhinal cortex slices of 3 month-old P301S transgenic mice showed a diminution in synaptic transmission following temporal stimulation. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can reactivate plasticity and affect memory through actions on perineuronal nets. ChABC was injected into the perirhinal cortex and animals were tested for OR memory 1 week later, demonstrating restoration of OR memory to normal levels. Synaptic transmission indicated by fEPSP amplitude was restored to control levels following ChABC treatment. ChABC did not affect the progression of neurodegenerative tauopathy. These findings suggest that increasing plasticity by manipulation of perineuronal nets offers a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of memory loss in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25483398

  9. APOE Predicts Aβ but not Tau Alzheimer’s Pathology in Cognitively Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Morris, John C.; Roe, Catherine M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Fagan, Anne M; Goate, Alison M.; Holtzman, David M.; Mintun, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine interactions of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype with age and with in vivo measures of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in cognitively normal aging. Methods Two hundred and 41 cognitively normal individuals, age 45 to 88 years, had cerebral amyloid imaging studies with Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB). Of the 241 individuals, 168 (70%) also had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assays of amyloid-beta42 (Aβ42), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau181). All individuals were genotyped for APOE. Results The frequency of individuals with elevated mean cortical binding potential (MCBP) for PIB rose in an age-dependent manner from 0% at ages 45-49 years to 30.3% at 80-88 years. Reduced levels of CSF Aβ42 appear to begin earlier (18.2% of those age 45-49 years) and increase with age in higher frequencies (50% at age 80-88 years) than elevations of MCBP. There is a gene dose effect for the APOE4 genotype, with greater MCBP increases and greater reductions in CSF Aβ42 with increased numbers of APOE4 alleles. Individuals with an APOE2 have no increase in MCBP with age and have higher CSF Aβ42 levels than individuals without an APOE2 allele. There is no APOE4 or APOE2 effect on CSF tau or ptau181. Interpretation Increasing cerebral Aβ deposition with age is the pathobiological phenotype of APOE4. The biomarker sequence that detects Aβ deposition may first be lowered CSF Aβ42, followed by elevated MCBP for PIB. A substantial proportion of cognitively normal individuals have presumptive preclinical AD. PMID:20186853

  10. GSK-3β-induced Tau pathology drives hippocampal neuronal cell death in Huntington's disease: involvement of astrocyte-neuron interactions.

    PubMed

    L'Episcopo, F; Drouin-Ouellet, J; Tirolo, C; Pulvirenti, A; Giugno, R; Testa, N; Caniglia, S; Serapide, M F; Cisbani, G; Barker, R A; Cicchetti, F; Marchetti, B

    2016-04-28

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has emerged as a critical factor in several pathways involved in hippocampal neuronal maintenance and function. In Huntington's disease (HD), there are early hippocampal deficits both in patients and transgenic mouse models, which prompted us to investigate whether disease-specific changes in GSK-3β expression may underlie these abnormalities. Thirty-three postmortem hippocampal samples from HD patients (neuropathological grades 2-4) and age- and sex-matched normal control cases were analyzed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCRs (qPCRs) and immunohistochemistry. In vitro and in vivo studies looking at hippocampal pathology and GSK-3β were also undertaken in transgenic R6/2 and wild-type mice. We identified a disease and stage-dependent upregulation of GSK-3β mRNA and protein levels in the HD hippocampus, with the active isoform pGSK-3β-Tyr(216) being strongly expressed in dentate gyrus (DG) neurons and astrocytes at a time when phosphorylation of Tau at the AT8 epitope was also present in these same neurons. This upregulation of pGSK-3β-Tyr(216) was also found in the R6/2 hippocampus in vivo and linked to the increased vulnerability of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro. In addition, the increased expression of GSK-3β in the astrocytes of R6/2 mice appeared to be the main driver of Tau phosphorylation and caspase3 activation-induced neuronal death, at least in part via an exacerbated production of major proinflammatory mediators. This stage-dependent overactivation of GSK-3β in HD-affected hippocampal neurons and astrocytes therefore points to GSK-3β as being a critical factor in the pathological development of this condition. As such, therapeutic targeting of this pathway may help ameliorate neuronal dysfunction in HD.

  11. GSK-3β-induced Tau pathology drives hippocampal neuronal cell death in Huntington's disease: involvement of astrocyte–neuron interactions

    PubMed Central

    L'Episcopo, F; Drouin-Ouellet, J; Tirolo, C; Pulvirenti, A; Giugno, R; Testa, N; Caniglia, S; Serapide, M F; Cisbani, G; Barker, R A; Cicchetti, F; Marchetti, B

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has emerged as a critical factor in several pathways involved in hippocampal neuronal maintenance and function. In Huntington's disease (HD), there are early hippocampal deficits both in patients and transgenic mouse models, which prompted us to investigate whether disease-specific changes in GSK-3β expression may underlie these abnormalities. Thirty-three postmortem hippocampal samples from HD patients (neuropathological grades 2–4) and age- and sex-matched normal control cases were analyzed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCRs (qPCRs) and immunohistochemistry. In vitro and in vivo studies looking at hippocampal pathology and GSK-3β were also undertaken in transgenic R6/2 and wild-type mice. We identified a disease and stage-dependent upregulation of GSK-3β mRNA and protein levels in the HD hippocampus, with the active isoform pGSK-3β-Tyr216 being strongly expressed in dentate gyrus (DG) neurons and astrocytes at a time when phosphorylation of Tau at the AT8 epitope was also present in these same neurons. This upregulation of pGSK-3β-Tyr216 was also found in the R6/2 hippocampus in vivo and linked to the increased vulnerability of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro. In addition, the increased expression of GSK-3β in the astrocytes of R6/2 mice appeared to be the main driver of Tau phosphorylation and caspase3 activation-induced neuronal death, at least in part via an exacerbated production of major proinflammatory mediators. This stage-dependent overactivation of GSK-3β in HD-affected hippocampal neurons and astrocytes therefore points to GSK-3β as being a critical factor in the pathological development of this condition. As such, therapeutic targeting of this pathway may help ameliorate neuronal dysfunction in HD. PMID:27124580

  12. Deletion of Type-2 Cannabinoid Receptor Induces Alzheimer's Disease-Like Tau Pathology and Memory Impairment Through AMPK/GSK3β Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Bing-Jin; Cao, Yun; Xu, Wei-Qi; Sun, Dong-Sheng; Li, Meng-Zhu; Shi, Fang-Xiao; Li, Man; Tian, Qing; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhou, Xin-Wen

    2018-06-01

    Although several studies have shown that type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, the effects of CB2R on AD-like tau abnormal phosphorylation and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Herein, we employed the CB2R -/- mice as the animal model to explore roles of CB2R in regulating tau phosphorylation and brain function. We found that CB2R -/- mice display AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation, hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, increase of GSK3β activity, decrease of AMPK and Sirt1 activity and mitochondria dysfunction. Interestingly, AICAR or resveratrol (AMPK agonist) could efficiently rescue most alternations caused by solo deletion of CB2R in CB2R -/- mice. Moreover, JWH133, a selective agonist of CB2R, reduces phosphorylation of tau and GSK3β activity in HEK293 tau cells, but the effects of JWH133 on phosphorylation of tau and GSK3β disappeared while blocking AMPK activity with compound C or Prkaa2-RNAi. Taken together, our study indicated that deletion of CB2R induces behavior damage and AD-like pathological alternation via AMPK/GSK3β pathway. These findings proved that CB2R/AMPK/GSK3β pathway can be a promising new drug target for AD.

  13. Chronic stress exacerbates tau pathology, neurodegeneration, and cognitive performance through a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-dependent mechanism in a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jenna C.; Iba, Michiyo; Bangasser, Debbie A.; Valentino, Rita J.; James, Michael J.; Brunden, Kurt R.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2011-01-01

    Since over-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dysregulation of stress neuromediators may play a mechanistic role in the pathophysiology of AD. However, the effects of stress on tau phosphorylation are poorly understood and the relationship between corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on both Aβ and tau pathology remain unclear. Therefore, we first established a model of chronic stress which exacerbates Aβ accumulation in Tg2576 mice and then extended this stress paradigm to a tau transgenic mouse model with the P301S mutation (PS19) which displays tau hyperphosphorylation, insoluble tau inclusions and neurodegeneration. We show for the first time that both Tg2576 and PS19 mice demonstrate a heightened HPA stress profile in the unstressed state. In Tg2576 mice, one month of restraint/isolation (RI) stress increased Aβ levels, suppressed microglial activation, and worsened spatial and fear memory compared to non-stressed mice. In PS19 mice, RI stress promoted tau hyperphosphorylation, insoluble tau aggregation, neurodegeneration and fear-memory impairments. These effects were not mimicked by chronic corticosterone administration but were prevented by pre-stress administration of a CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) antagonist. The role for a CRF1-dependent mechanism was further supported by the finding that mice over-expressing CRF had increased hyperphosphorylated tau compared to wildtype littermates. Together, these results implicate HPA dysregulation in AD neuropathogenesis and suggest that prolonged stress may increase Aβ and tau hyperphosphorylation. These studies also implicate CRF in AD pathophysiology and suggest that pharmacological manipulation of this neuropeptide may be a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. PMID:21976528

  14. A subcutaneous cellular implant for passive immunization against amyloid-β reduces brain amyloid and tau pathologies.

    PubMed

    Lathuilière, Aurélien; Laversenne, Vanessa; Astolfo, Alberto; Kopetzki, Erhard; Jacobsen, Helmut; Stampanoni, Marco; Bohrmann, Bernd; Schneider, Bernard L; Aebischer, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Passive immunization against misfolded toxic proteins is a promising approach to treat neurodegenerative disorders. For effective immunotherapy against Alzheimer's disease, recent clinical data indicate that monoclonal antibodies directed against the amyloid-β peptide should be administered before the onset of symptoms associated with irreversible brain damage. It is therefore critical to develop technologies for continuous antibody delivery applicable to disease prevention. Here, we addressed this question using a bioactive cellular implant to deliver recombinant anti-amyloid-β antibodies in the subcutaneous tissue. An encapsulating device permeable to macromolecules supports the long-term survival of myogenic cells over more than 10 months in immunocompetent allogeneic recipients. The encapsulated cells are genetically engineered to secrete high levels of anti-amyloid-β antibodies. Peripheral implantation leads to continuous antibody delivery to reach plasma levels that exceed 50 µg/ml. In a proof-of-concept study, we show that the recombinant antibodies produced by this system penetrate the brain and bind amyloid plaques in two mouse models of the Alzheimer's pathology. When encapsulated cells are implanted before the onset of amyloid plaque deposition in TauPS2APP mice, chronic exposure to anti-amyloid-β antibodies dramatically reduces amyloid-β40 and amyloid-β42 levels in the brain, decreases amyloid plaque burden, and most notably, prevents phospho-tau pathology in the hippocampus. These results support the use of encapsulated cell implants for passive immunotherapy against the misfolded proteins, which accumulate in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Phenylbutyrate ameliorates cognitive deficit and reduces tau pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ricobaraza, Ana; Cuadrado-Tejedor, Mar; Pérez-Mediavilla, Alberto; Frechilla, Diana; Del Río, Joaquin; García-Osta, Ana

    2009-06-01

    Chromatin modification through histone acetylation is a molecular pathway involved in the regulation of transcription underlying memory storage. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a well-known histone deacetylase inhibitor, which increases gene transcription of a number of genes, and also exerts neuroprotective effects. In this study, we report that administration of 4-PBA reversed spatial learning and memory deficits in an established mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) without altering beta-amyloid burden. We also observed that the phosphorylated form of tau was decreased in the AD mouse brain after 4-PBA treatment, an effect probably due to an increase in the inactive form of the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta). Interestingly, we found a dramatic decrease in brain histone acetylation in the transgenic mice that may reflect an indirect transcriptional repression underlying memory impairment. The administration of 4-PBA restored brain histone acetylation levels and, as a most likely consequence, activated the transcription of synaptic plasticity markers such as the GluR1 subunit of the AMPA receptor, PSD95, and microtubule-associated protein-2. The results suggest that 4-PBA, a drug already approved for clinical use, may provide a novel approach for the treatment of AD.

  16. Human Radiation Dosimetry of [(18)F]AV-1451(T807) to Detect Tau Pathology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Yong; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Lee, Jae Hoon; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Jin Su; Ryu, Young Hoon

    2016-08-01

    [(18)F]AV-1451 is a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for detecting paired helical filament tau. Our aim was to estimate the radiation dose of [(18)F]AV-1451 in humans. Whole-body PET scans were acquired for six healthy volunteers (three male, three female) for 128 min after injection of [(18)F]AV-1451 (268 ± 31 MBq). Radiation doses were estimated using the OLINDA/EXM software. The estimated organ doses ranged from 7.81 to 81.2 μSv/MBq. The critical organ for radiation burden was the liver. Radiation doses to the reproductive and blood-forming organs were 14.15, 8.43, and 18.35 μSv/MBq for the ovaries, testes, and red marrow, respectively. The mean effective dose was 22.47 ± 3.59 μSv/MBq. A standard single injection of 185 MBq (5 mCi) results in an effective dose of 4.7 mSv in a healthy subject. Therefore, [(18)F]AV-1451 could be used in multiple PET scans of the same subject per year.

  17. PET Imaging of Tau Pathology and Relationship to Amyloid, Longitudinal MRI, and Cognitive Change in Down Syndrome: Results from the Down Syndrome Biomarker Initiative (DSBI).

    PubMed

    Rafii, Michael S; Lukic, Ana S; Andrews, Randolph D; Brewer, James; Rissman, Robert A; Strother, Stephen C; Wernick, Miles N; Pennington, Craig; Mobley, William C; Ness, Seth; Matthews, Dawn C

    2017-01-01

    Adults with Down syndrome (DS) represent an enriched population for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which could aid the study of therapeutic interventions, and in turn, could benefit from discoveries made in other AD populations. 1) Understand the relationship between tau pathology and age, amyloid deposition, neurodegeneration (MRI and FDG PET), and cognitive and functional performance; 2) detect and differentiate AD-specific changes from DS-specific brain changes in longitudinal MRI. Twelve non-demented adults, ages 30 to 60, with DS were enrolled in the Down Syndrome Biomarker Initiative (DSBI), a 3-year, observational, cohort study to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting AD intervention/prevention trials in adults with DS. We collected imaging data with 18F-AV-1451 tau PET, AV-45 amyloid PET, FDG PET, and volumetric MRI, as well as cognitive and functional measures and additional laboratory measures. All amyloid negative subjects imaged were tau-negative. Among the amyloid positive subjects, three had tau in regions associated with Braak stage VI, two at stage V, and one at stage II. Amyloid and tau burden correlated with age. The MRI analysis produced two distinct volumetric patterns. The first differentiated DS from normal (NL) and AD, did not correlate with age or amyloid, and was longitudinally stable. The second pattern reflected AD-like atrophy and differentiated NL from AD. Tau PET and MRI atrophy correlated with several cognitive and functional measures. Tau accumulation is associated with amyloid positivity and age, as well as with progressive neurodegeneration measurable using FDG and MRI. Tau correlates with cognitive decline, as do AD-specific hypometabolism and atrophy.

  18. Tracer Kinetic Analysis of (S)-¹⁸F-THK5117 as a PET Tracer for Assessing Tau Pathology.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, My; Wall, Anders; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Wilking, Helena; Sprycha, Margareta; Borg, Beatrice; Thibblin, Alf; Eriksson, Jonas; Sörensen, Jens; Antoni, Gunnar; Nordberg, Agneta; Lubberink, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Because a correlation between tau pathology and the clinical symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been hypothesized, there is increasing interest in developing PET tracers that bind specifically to tau protein. The aim of this study was to evaluate tracer kinetic models for quantitative analysis and generation of parametric images for the novel tau ligand (S)-(18)F-THK5117. Nine subjects (5 with AD, 4 with mild cognitive impairment) received a 90-min dynamic (S)-(18)F-THK5117 PET scan. Arterial blood was sampled for measurement of blood radioactivity and metabolite analysis. Volume-of-interest (VOI)-based analysis was performed using plasma-input models; single-tissue and 2-tissue (2TCM) compartment models and plasma-input Logan and reference tissue models; and simplified reference tissue model (SRTM), reference Logan, and SUV ratio (SUVr). Cerebellum gray matter was used as the reference region. Voxel-level analysis was performed using basis function implementations of SRTM, reference Logan, and SUVr. Regionally averaged voxel values were compared with VOI-based values from the optimal reference tissue model, and simulations were made to assess accuracy and precision. In addition to 90 min, initial 40- and 60-min data were analyzed. Plasma-input Logan distribution volume ratio (DVR)-1 values agreed well with 2TCM DVR-1 values (R(2)= 0.99, slope = 0.96). SRTM binding potential (BP(ND)) and reference Logan DVR-1 values were highly correlated with plasma-input Logan DVR-1 (R(2)= 1.00, slope ≈ 1.00) whereas SUVr(70-90)-1 values correlated less well and overestimated binding. Agreement between parametric methods and SRTM was best for reference Logan (R(2)= 0.99, slope = 1.03). SUVr(70-90)-1 values were almost 3 times higher than BP(ND) values in white matter and 1.5 times higher in gray matter. Simulations showed poorer accuracy and precision for SUVr(70-90)-1 values than for the other reference methods. SRTM BP(ND) and reference Logan DVR-1 values were not

  19. Depletion of microglia and inhibition of exosome synthesis halt tau propagation

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Hirohide; Ikezu, Seiko; Tsunoda, Satoshi; Medalla, Maria; Luebke, Jennifer; Haydar, Tarik; Wolozin, Benjamin; Butovsky, Oleg; Kügler, Sebastian; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of pathological tau protein is a major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Tau protein spreads from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampal region early in the disease. Microglia, the primary phagocytes in the brain, are positively correlated with tau pathology, but their involvement in tau propagation is unknown. We developed an adeno-associated virus–based model exhibiting rapid tau propagation from the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus in 4 weeks. We found that depleting microglia dramatically suppressed the propagation of tau and reduced excitability in the dentate gyrus in this mouse model. Moreover, we demonstrate that microglia spread tau via exosome secretion, and inhibiting exosome synthesis significantly reduced tau propagation in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that microglia and exosomes contribute to the progression of tauopathy and that the exosome secretion pathway may be a therapeutic target. PMID:26436904

  20. Proteopathic tau seeding predicts tauopathy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Brandon B.; Furman, Jennifer L.; Mahan, Thomas E.; Yamasaki, Tritia R.; Mirbaha, Hilda; Eades, William C.; Belaygorod, Larisa; Cairns, Nigel J.; Holtzman, David M.; Diamond, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, may drive the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. In tauopathies such as Alzheimer’s disease, this model predicts that tau seeds propagate pathology through the brain via cell–cell transfer in neural networks. The critical role of tau seeding activity is untested, however. It is unknown whether seeding anticipates and correlates with subsequent development of pathology as predicted for a causal agent. One major limitation has been the lack of a robust assay to measure proteopathic seeding activity in biological specimens. We engineered an ultrasensitive, specific, and facile FRET-based flow cytometry biosensor assay based on expression of tau or synuclein fusions to CFP and YFP, and confirmed its sensitivity and specificity to tau (∼300 fM) and synuclein (∼300 pM) fibrils. This assay readily discriminates Alzheimer’s disease vs. Huntington's disease and aged control brains. We then carried out a detailed time-course study in P301S tauopathy mice, comparing seeding activity versus histological markers of tau pathology, including MC1, AT8, PG5, and Thioflavin S. We detected robust seeding activity at 1.5 mo, >1 mo before the earliest histopathological stain. Proteopathic tau seeding is thus an early and robust marker of tauopathy, suggesting a proximal role for tau seeds in neurodegeneration. PMID:25261551

  1. Tau PET binding distinguishes patients with early-stage posterior cortical atrophy from amnestic Alzheimer disease dementia

    PubMed Central

    Day, Gregory S.; Gordon, Brian A.; Jackson, Kelley; Christensen, Jon J.; Ponisio, Maria Rosana; Su, Yi; Ances, Beau M; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Morris, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Flortaucipir (tau) PET binding distinguishes individuals with clinically well-established posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) due to Alzheimer disease (AD) from cognitively normal (CN) controls. However, it is not known whether tau PET binding patterns differentiate individuals with PCA from those with amnestic AD, particularly early in the symptomatic stages of disease. Methods Flortaucipir and florbetapir (β-amyloid) PET-imaging were performed in individuals with early-stage PCA (N=5), amnestic AD dementia (N=22), and CN controls (N=47). Average tau and β-amyloid deposition were quantified using standard uptake value ratios and compared at a voxel-wise level, controlling for age. Results PCA patients (median age-at-onset, 59 [51–61] years) were younger at symptom-onset than similarly-staged individuals with amnestic AD (75 [60–85] years) or CN controls (73 [61–90] years; p=0.002). Flortaucipir uptake was higher in individuals with early-stage symptomatic PCA versus those with early-stage amnestic AD or CN controls, and greatest in posterior regions. Regional elevations in florbetapir were observed in areas of greatest tau deposition in PCA patients. Conclusions and Relevance Flortaucipir uptake distinguished individuals with PCA and amnestic AD dementia early in the symptomatic course. The posterior brain regions appear to be uniquely vulnerable to tau deposition in PCA, aligning with clinical deficits that define this disease subtype. PMID:28394771

  2. Tau-PET Binding Distinguishes Patients With Early-stage Posterior Cortical Atrophy From Amnestic Alzheimer Disease Dementia.

    PubMed

    Day, Gregory S; Gordon, Brian A; Jackson, Kelley; Christensen, Jon J; Rosana Ponisio, Maria; Su, Yi; Ances, Beau M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Morris, John C

    2017-01-01

    Flortaucipir (tau) positron emission tomography (PET) binding distinguishes individuals with clinically well-established posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) due to Alzheimer disease (AD) from cognitively normal (CN) controls. However, it is not known whether tau-PET binding patterns differentiate individuals with PCA from those with amnestic AD, particularly early in the symptomatic stages of disease. Flortaucipir and florbetapir (β-amyloid) PET imaging were performed in individuals with early-stage PCA (N=5), amnestic AD dementia (N=22), and CN controls (N=47). Average tau and β-amyloid deposition were quantified using standard uptake value ratios and compared at a voxelwise level, controlling for age. PCA patients [median age-at-onset, 59 (51 to 61) years] were younger at symptom onset than similarly staged individuals with amnestic AD [75 (60 to 85) years] or CN controls [73 (61 to 90) years; P=0.002]. Flortaucipir uptake was higher in individuals with early-stage symptomatic PCA versus those with early-stage amnestic AD or CN controls, and greatest in posterior regions. Regional elevations in florbetapir were observed in areas of greatest tau deposition in PCA patients. Flortaucipir uptake distinguished individuals with PCA and amnestic AD dementia early in the symptomatic course. The posterior brain regions appear to be uniquely vulnerable to tau deposition in PCA, aligning with clinical deficits that define this disease subtype.

  3. Quantification of plasma phosphorylated tau to use as a biomarker for brain Alzheimer pathology: pilot case-control studies including patients with Alzheimer's disease and down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tatebe, Harutsugu; Kasai, Takashi; Ohmichi, Takuma; Kishi, Yusuke; Kakeya, Tomoshi; Waragai, Masaaki; Kondo, Masaki; Allsop, David; Tokuda, Takahiko

    2017-09-04

    There is still a substantial unmet need for less invasive and lower-cost blood-based biomarkers to detect brain Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This study is aimed to determine whether quantification of plasma tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau181) is informative in the diagnosis of AD. We have developed a novel ultrasensitive immunoassay to quantify plasma p-tau181, and measured the levels of plasma p-tau181 in three cohorts. In the first cohort composed of 20 AD patients and 15 age-matched controls, the plasma levels of p-tau181 were significantly higher in the AD patients than those in the controls (0.171 ± 0.166 pg/ml in AD versus 0.0405 ± 0.0756 pg/ml in controls, p = 0.0039). The percentage of the subjects whose levels of plasma p-tau181 exceeded the cut-off value (0.0921 pg/ml) was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the control group (60% in AD versus 16.7% in controls, p = 0.0090). In the second cohort composed of 20 patients with Down syndrome (DS) and 22 age-matched controls, the plasma concentrations of p-tau181 were significantly higher in the DS group (0.767 ± 1.26 pg/ml in DS versus 0.0415 ± 0.0710 pg/ml in controls, p = 0.0313). There was a significant correlation between the plasma levels of p-tau181 and age in the DS group (R 2  = 0.4451, p = 0.0013). All of the DS individuals showing an extremely high concentration of plasma p-tau181 (> 1.0 pg/ml) were older than the age of 40. In the third cohort composed of 8 AD patients and 3 patients with other neurological diseases, the levels of plasma p-tau181 significantly correlated with those of CSF p-tau181 (R 2  = 0.4525, p = 0.023). We report for the first time quantitative data on the plasma levels of p-tau181 in controls and patients with AD and DS, and these data suggest that the plasma p-tau181 is a promising blood biomarker for brain AD pathology. This exploratory pilot study warrants further large-scale and well-controlled studies to

  4. Association of Cerebrospinal Fluid β-Amyloid 1-42, T-tau, P-tau181, and α-Synuclein Levels With Clinical Features of Drug-Naive Patients With Early Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Irwin, David J.; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Siderowf, Andrew; Caspell, Chelsea; Coffey, Christopher S.; Waligórska, Teresa; Taylor, Peggy; Pan, Sarah; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Kieburtz, Karl; Jennings, Danna; Simuni, Tanya; Tanner, Caroline M.; Singleton, Andrew; Toga, Arthur W.; Chowdhury, Sohini; Mollenhauer, Brit; Trojanowski, John Q.; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2014-01-01

    Importance We observed a significant correlation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau proteins and α-synuclein, but not β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42), and lower concentration of CSF biomarkers, as compared with healthy controls, in a cohort of entirely untreated patients with Parkinson disease (PD) at the earliest stage of the disease studied so far. Objective To evaluate the baseline characteristics and relationship to clinical features of CSF biomarkers (Aβ1–42, total tau [T-tau], tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 [P-tau181], and α-synuclein) in drug-naive patients with early PD and demographically matched healthy controls enrolled in the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional study of the initial 102 research volunteers (63 patients with PD and 39 healthy controls) of the PPMI cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The CSF biomarkers were measured by INNO-BIA AlzBio3 immunoassay (Aβ1–42, T-tau, and P-tau181; Innogenetics Inc) or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (α-synuclein). Clinical features including diagnosis, demographic characteristics, motor, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive assessments, and DaTscan were systematically assessed according to the PPMI study protocol. Results Slightly, but significantly, lower levels of Aβ1–42, T-tau, P-tau181, α-synuclein, and T-tau/Aβ1–42 were seen in subjects with PD compared with healthy controls but with a marked overlap between groups. Using multivariate regression analysis, we found that lower Aβ1–42 and P-tau181 levels were associated with PD diagnosis and that decreased CSF T-tau and α-synuclein were associated with increased motor severity. Notably, when we classified patients with PD by their motor phenotypes, lower CSF Aβ1–42 and P-tau181 concentrations were associated with the postural instability–gait disturbance–dominant phenotype but not with the tremor-dominant or intermediate phenotype. Finally, we

  5. The Existence of Primary Age-Related Tauopathy Suggests that not all the Cases with Early Braak Stages of Neurofibrillary Pathology are Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Giaccone, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Primary Age-Related Tauopathy (PART) is a hotly debated issue. As most lines of evidence support the tenet that tau pathology occurs downstream of amyloid-β deposition, it seems reasonable to consider PART as a separate disease process not necessarily related to Aβ and hence AD. Following this view, the early stages of neurofibrillary pathology may not always be the forerunner of diffuse neurofibrillary changes and AD. The ongoing debate further enhances the need for greater caution against any future predictions using tau cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers.

  6. Postsynaptic degeneration as revealed by PSD-95 reduction occurs after advanced Aβ and tau pathology in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shao, Charles Y; Mirra, Suzanne S; Sait, Hameetha B R; Sacktor, Todd C; Sigurdsson, Einar M

    2011-09-01

    Impairment of synaptic plasticity underlies memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecules involved in this plasticity such as PSD-95, a major postsynaptic scaffold protein at excitatory synapses, may play an important role in AD pathogenesis. We examined the distribution of PSD-95 in transgenic mice of amyloidopathy (5XFAD) and tauopathy (JNPL3) as well as in AD brains using double-labeling immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. In wild type control mice, PSD-95 primarily labeled neuropil with distinct distribution in hippocampal apical dendrites. In 3-month-old 5XFAD mice, PSD-95 distribution was similar to that of wild type mice despite significant Aβ deposition. However, in 6-month-old 5XFAD mice, PSD-95 immunoreactivity in apical dendrites markedly decreased and prominent immunoreactivity was noted in neuronal soma in CA1 neurons. Similarly, PSD-95 immunoreactivity disappeared from apical dendrites and accumulated in neuronal soma in 14-month-old, but not in 3-month-old, JNPL3 mice. In AD brains, PSD-95 accumulated in Hirano bodies in hippocampal neurons. Our findings support the notion that either Aβ or tau can induce reduction of PSD-95 in excitatory synapses in hippocampus. Furthermore, this PSD-95 reduction is not an early event but occurs as the pathologies advance. Thus, the time-dependent PSD-95 reduction from synapses and accumulation in neuronal soma in transgenic mice and Hirano bodies in AD may mark postsynaptic degeneration that underlies long-term functional deficits.

  7. A transgenic Alzheimer rat with plaques, tau pathology, behavioral impairment, oligomeric Aβ and frank neuronal loss

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Robert M.; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Weitz, Tara M.; Rentsendorj, Altan; Gate, David; Spivak, Inna; Bholat, Yasmin; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Glabe, Charles G.; Breunig, Joshua J.; Rakic, Pasko; Davtyan, Hayk; Agadjanyan, Michael G.; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge; Bannykh, Serguei; Szekely, Christine A.; Pechnick, Robert N.; Town, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is hallmarked by amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and widespread cortical neuronal loss (Selkoe, 2001). The ‘amyloid cascade hypothesis’ posits that cerebral amyloid sets neurotoxic events into motion that precipitate Alzheimer dementia (Hardy and Allsop, 1991). Yet, faithful recapitulation of all AD features in widely used transgenic (Tg) mice engineered to overproduce Aβ peptides has been elusive. We have developed a Tg rat model (line TgF344-AD) expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APPsw) and presenilin 1 (PS1ΔE9) genes, each independent causes of early-onset familial AD. TgF344-AD rats manifest age-dependent cerebral amyloidosis that precedes tauopathy, gliosis, apoptotic loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and cognitive disturbance. These results demonstrate progressive neurodegeneration of the Alzheimer type in these animals. The TgF344-AD rat fills a critical need for a next-generation animal model to enable basic and translational AD research. PMID:23575824

  8. Closing the tau loop: the missing tau mutation

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Allan; Lonergan, Roisin; Olszewska, Diana A.; O’Dowd, Sean; Cummins, Gemma; Magennis, Brian; Fallon, Emer M.; Pender, Niall; Huey, Edward D.; Cosentino, Stephanie; O’Rourke, Killian; Kelly, Brendan D.; O’Connell, Martin; Delon, Isabelle; Farrell, Michael; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Rowland, Lewis P.; Fahn, Stanley; Craig, Peter; Hutton, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration comprises a group of disorders characterized by behavioural, executive, language impairment and sometimes features of parkinsonism and motor neuron disease. In 1994 we described an Irish-American family with frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 17 associated with extensive tau pathology. We named this disinhibition-dementia-parkinsonism-amyotrophy complex. We subsequently identified mutations in the MAPT gene. Eleven MAPT gene splice site stem loop mutations were identified over time except for 5’ splice site of exon 10. We recently identified another Irish family with autosomal dominant early amnesia and behavioural change or parkinsonism associated with the ‘missing’ +15 mutation at the intronic boundary of exon 10. We performed a clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging study on the proband and four siblings, including two affected siblings. We sequenced MAPT and performed segregation analysis. We looked for a biological effect of the tau variant by performing real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of RNA extracted from human embryonic kidney cells transfected with exon trapping constructs. We found a c.915+15A>C exon 10/intron 10 stem loop mutation in all affected subjects but not in the unaffected. The c.915+15A>C variant caused a shift in tau splicing pattern to a predominantly exon 10+ pattern presumably resulting in predominant 4 repeat tau and little 3 repeat tau. This strongly suggests that the c.915+15A>C variant is a mutation and that it causes frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 17 in this pedigree by shifting tau transcription and translation to +4 repeat tau. Tau (MAPT) screening should be considered in families where amnesia or atypical parkinsonism coexists with behavioural disturbance early in the disease process. We describe the final missing stem loop tau mutation predicted 15 years ago. Mutations have now been identified at all predicted sites within the ‘stem’ when the

  9. Tau-mediated synaptic and neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Tara E; Gan, Li

    2018-05-09

    The accumulation of pathological tau in the brain is associated with neuronal deterioration and cognitive impairments in tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease. Tau, while primarily localized in the axons of healthy neurons, accumulates in the soma and dendrites of neurons under pathogenic conditions. Tau is found in both presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments of neurons in Alzheimer's disease. New research supports that soluble forms of tau trigger pathophysiology in the brain by altering properties of synaptic and neuronal function at the early stages of disease progression, before neurons die. Here we review the current understanding of how tau-mediated synaptic and neuronal dysfunction contributes to cognitive decline. Delineating the mechanisms by which pathogenic tau alters synapses, dendrites and axons will help lay the foundation for new strategies that can restore neuronal function in tauopathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Significance of α-Synuclein, Amyloid-β and Tau Pathologies in Parkinson’s Disease Progression and Related Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Compta, Y.; Parkkinen, L.; Kempster, P.; Selikhova, M.; Lashley, T.; Holton, J.L.; Lees, A.J.; Revesz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia is one of the milestones of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), with its neuropathological substrate still being a matter of debate, particularly regarding its potential mechanistic implications. Objective The aim of this study was to review the relative importance of Lewy-related α-synuclein and Alzheimer’s tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) pathologies in disease progression and dementia in PD. Methods We reviewed studies conducted at the Queen Square Brain Bank, Institute of Neurology, University College London, using large PD cohorts. Results Cortical Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies are associated with milestones of poorer prognosis and with non-tremor predominance, which have been, in turn, linked to dementia. The combination of these pathologies is the most robust neuropathological substrate of PD-related dementia, with cortical Aβ burden determining a faster progression to dementia. Conclusion The shared relevance of these pathologies in PD progression and dementia is in line with experimental data suggesting synergism between α-synuclein, tau and Aβ and with studies testing these proteins as disease biomarkers, hence favouring the eventual testing of therapeutic strategies targeting these proteins in PD. PMID:24028925

  11. Tau-imaging in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Gérard N; Endepols, Heike; van Eimeren, Thilo; Drzezga, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Pathological cerebral aggregations of proteins are suggested to play a crucial role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. For example, aggregation of the protein ß-amyloid in form of extracellular amyloid-plaques as well as intraneuronal depositions of the protein tau in form of neurofibrillary tangles represent hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, novel tracers for in vivo molecular imaging of tau-aggregates in the brain have been introduced, complementing existing tracers for imaging amyloid-plaques. Available data on these novel tracers indicate that the subject of Tau-PET may be of considerable complexity. On the one hand this refers to the various forms of appearance of tau-pathology in different types of neurodegenerative disorders. On the other hand, a number of hurdles regarding validation of these tracers still need to be overcome with regard to comparability and standardization of the different tracers, observed off-target/non-specific binding and quantitative interpretation of the signal. These issues will have to be clarified before systematic clinical application of this exciting new methodological approach may become possible. Potential applications refer to early detection of neurodegeneration, differential diagnosis between tauopathies and non-tauopathies and specific patient selection and follow-up in therapy trials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. AGEs induce Alzheimer-like tau pathology and memory deficit via RAGE-mediated GSK-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Lv, Bing-Ling; Xie, Jia-Zhao; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Xin-Wen; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2012-07-01

    Accumulation of β-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau with synapse damage and memory deterioration are hallmark lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD), but the upstream causative factors are elusive. The advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are elevated in AD brains and the AGEs can stimulate β-amyloid production. Whether and how AGEs may cause AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation and memory-related deficits is not known. Here we report that AGEs induce tau hyperphosphorylation, memory deterioration, decline of synaptic proteins, and impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) in rats. In SK-NS-H cells, upregulation of AGEs receptor (RAGE), inhibition of Akt, and activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), Erk1/2, and p38 were observed after treatment with AGEs. In rats, blockage of RAGE attenuated the AGE-induced GSK-3 activation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and memory deficit with restoration of synaptic functions, and simultaneous inhibition of GSK-3 also antagonized the AGE-induced impairments. Our data reveal that AGEs can induce tau hyperphosphorylation and impair synapse and memory through RAGE-mediated GSK-3 activation and targeting RAGE/GSK-3 pathway can efficiently improve the AD-like histopathological changes and memory deterioration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ApoE4 induces Aβ42, tau, and neuronal pathology in the hippocampus of young targeted replacement apoE4 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent findings suggest that the pathological effects of apoE4, the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), start many years before the onset of the disease and are already detectable at a young age. In the present study we investigated the extent to which such pathological and cognitive impairments also occur in young apoE4 mice. Results This study revealed that the levels of the presynaptic glutamatergic vesicular transporter, VGlut, in the CA3, CA1, and DG hippocampal subfields were lower in hippocampal neurons of young (4-month-old) apoE4-targeted replacement mice than in those of the apoE3 mice. In contrast, the corresponding inhibitory GABAergic nerve terminals and perikarya were not affected by apoE4. This synaptic effect was associated with hyperphosphorylation of tau in these neurons. In addition, apoE4 increased the accumulation of neuronal Aβ42 and induced mitochondrial changes, both of which were specifically pronounced in CA3 neurons. Spatial navigation behavioral studies revealed that these hippocampal pathological effects of apoE4 are associated with corresponding behavioral impairments. Time-course studies revealed that the effects of apoE4 on tau hyperphosphorylation and the mitochondria were already apparent at the age of 1 month and that the apoE4-driven accumulation of neuronal Aβ and reduced VGlut levels evolve later and are apparent at the age of 2–4 months. Furthermore, the levels of tau phosphorylation decrease in apoE3 mice and increase in apoE4 mice between 1 and 4 months, whereas the levels of Aβ42 decrease in apoE3 mice and are not affected in apoE4 mice over the same time period. Conclusions These findings show that apoE4 stimulates the accumulation of Aβ42 and hyperphosphorylated tau and reduces the levels of VGlut in hippocampal neurons of young apoE4-targeted replacement mice and that these neurochemical effects are associated with cognitive impairments. This model is not associated with

  14. ApoE4 induces Aβ42, tau, and neuronal pathology in the hippocampus of young targeted replacement apoE4 mice.

    PubMed

    Liraz, Ori; Boehm-Cagan, Anat; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2013-05-17

    Recent findings suggest that the pathological effects of apoE4, the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), start many years before the onset of the disease and are already detectable at a young age. In the present study we investigated the extent to which such pathological and cognitive impairments also occur in young apoE4 mice. This study revealed that the levels of the presynaptic glutamatergic vesicular transporter, VGlut, in the CA3, CA1, and DG hippocampal subfields were lower in hippocampal neurons of young (4-month-old) apoE4-targeted replacement mice than in those of the apoE3 mice. In contrast, the corresponding inhibitory GABAergic nerve terminals and perikarya were not affected by apoE4.This synaptic effect was associated with hyperphosphorylation of tau in these neurons. In addition, apoE4 increased the accumulation of neuronal Aβ42 and induced mitochondrial changes, both of which were specifically pronounced in CA3 neurons. Spatial navigation behavioral studies revealed that these hippocampal pathological effects of apoE4 are associated with corresponding behavioral impairments. Time-course studies revealed that the effects of apoE4 on tau hyperphosphorylation and the mitochondria were already apparent at the age of 1 month and that the apoE4-driven accumulation of neuronal Aβ and reduced VGlut levels evolve later and are apparent at the age of 2-4 months. Furthermore, the levels of tau phosphorylation decrease in apoE3 mice and increase in apoE4 mice between 1 and 4 months, whereas the levels of Aβ42 decrease in apoE3 mice and are not affected in apoE4 mice over the same time period. These findings show that apoE4 stimulates the accumulation of Aβ42 and hyperphosphorylated tau and reduces the levels of VGlut in hippocampal neurons of young apoE4-targeted replacement mice and that these neurochemical effects are associated with cognitive impairments. This model is not associated with hypothesis-driven mechanistic

  15. Small Molecule p75NTR Ligands Reduce Pathological Phosphorylation and Misfolding of Tau, Inflammatory Changes, Cholinergic Degeneration, and Cognitive Deficits in AβPPL/S Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuy-Vi V.; Shen, Lin; Griend, Lilith Vander; Quach, Lisa N.; Belichenko, Nadia P.; Saw, Nay; Yang, Tao; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Massa, Stephen M.; Longo, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR ) is involved in degenerative mechanisms related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition, p75NTR levels are increased in AD and the receptor is expressed by neurons that are particularly vulnerable in the disease. Therefore, modulating p75NTR function may be a significant disease-modifying treatment approach. Prior studies indicated that the non-peptide, small molecule p75NTR ligands LM11A-31, and chemically unrelated LM11A-24, could block amyloid-β-induced deleterious signaling and neurodegeneration in vitro, and LM11A-31 was found to mitigate neuritic degeneration and behavioral deficits in a mouse model of AD. In this study, we determined whether these in vivo findings represent class effects of p75NTR ligands by examining LM11A-24 effects. In addition, the range of compound effects was further examined by evaluating tau pathology and neuroinflammation. Following oral administration, both ligands reached brain concentrations known to provide neuroprotection in vitro. Compound induction of p75NTR cleavage provided evidence for CNS target engagement. LM11A-31 and LM11A-24 reduced excessive phosphorylation of tau, and LM11A-31 also inhibited its aberrant folding. Both ligands decreased activation of microglia, while LM11A-31 attenuated reactive astrocytes. Along with decreased inflammatory responses, both ligands reduced cholinergic neurite degeneration. In addition to the amelioration of neuropathology in AD model mice, LM11A-31, but not LM11A-24, prevented impairments in water maze performance, while both ligands prevented deficits in fear conditioning. These findings support a role for p75NTR ligands in preventing fundamental tau-related pathologic mechanisms in AD, and further validate the development of these small molecules as a new class of therapeutic compounds. PMID:24898660

  16. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  17. Novel marker for the onset of frontotemporal dementia: early increase in activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) in the face of Tau mutation.

    PubMed

    Schirer, Yulie; Malishkevich, Anna; Ophir, Yotam; Lewis, Jada; Giladi, Eliezer; Gozes, Illana

    2014-01-01

    Tauopathy, a major pathology in Alzheimer's disease, is also found in ~50% of frontotemporal dementias (FTDs). Tau transcript, a product of a single gene, undergoes alternative splicing to yield 6 protein species, each with either 3 or 4 microtubule binding repeat domains (tau 3R or 4R, associated with dynamic and stable microtubules, respectively). While the healthy human brain shows a 1/1 ratio of tau 3R/4R, this ratio may be dramatically changed in the FTD brain. We have previously discovered that activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is essential for brain formation in the mouse, with ADNP+/- mice exhibiting tauopathy, age-driven neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. Here, in transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated tau 4R species, in the cerebral cortex but not in the cerebellum, we showed significantly increased ADNP expression (~3-fold transcripts) in the cerebral cortex of young transgenic mice (~disease onset), but not in the cerebellum, as compared to control littermates. The transgene-age-related increased ADNP expression paralleled augmented dynamic tau 3R transcript level compared to control littermates. Blocking mutated tau 4R transgene expression resulted in normalization of ADNP and tau 3R expression. ADNP was previously shown to be a member of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex. Here, Brahma (Brm), a component of the SWI/SNF complex regulating alternative splicing, showed a similar developmental expression pattern to ADNP. Immunoprecipitations further suggested Brm-ADNP interaction coupled to ADNP - polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)-associated splicing factor (PSF)-binding, with PSF being a direct regulator of tau transcript splicing. It should be noted that although we have shown a correlation between levels of ADNP and tau isoform expression three months of age, we are not presenting evidence of a direct link between the two. Future research into ADNP/tau relations is warranted.

  18. Investigations into Retinal Pathology in the Early Stages of a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chidlow, Glyn; Wood, John P.M.; Manavis, Jim; Finnie, John; Casson, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that visual performance is impaired in early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); however, no consensus exists as to the mechanisms underlying this visual dysfunction, in particular regarding the timing, nature, and extent of retinal versus cortical pathology. If retinal pathology presents sufficiently early, it offers great potential as a source of novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis. The current project utilized an array of immunochemical and molecular tools to perform a characterization of retinal pathology in the early stages of disease progression using a well-validated mouse model of AD (APPSWE/PS1ΔE9). Analytical endpoints included examination of aberrant amyloid and tau in the retina, quantification of any neuronal degeneration, delineation of cellular stress responses of neurons and particularly glial cells, and investigation of oxidative stress. Brain, eyes, and optic nerves were taken from transgenic and wild-type mice of 3 to 12 months of age and processed for immunohistochemistry, qPCR, or western immunoblotting. The results revealed robust expression of the human APP transgene in the retinas of transgenic mice, but a lack of identifiable retinal pathology during the period when amyloid deposits were dramatically escalating in the brain. We were unable to demonstrate the presence of amyloid plaques, dystrophic neurites, neuronal loss, macro- or micro-gliosis, aberrant cell cycle re-entry, oxidative stress, tau hyperphosphorylation, or upregulations of proinflammatory cytokines or stress signaling molecules in the retina. The overall results do not support the hypothesis that detectable retinal pathology occurs concurrently with escalating amyloid deposition in the brains of APPSWE/PS1ΔE9 mice. PMID:28035930

  19. Sources of extracellular tau and its signaling.

    PubMed

    Avila, Jesús; Simón, Diana; Díaz-Hernández, Miguel; Pintor, Jesús; Hernández, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The pathology associated with tau protein, tauopathy, has been recently analyzed in different disorders, leading to the suggestion that intracellular and extracellular tau may itself be the principal agent in the transmission and spreading of tauopathies. Tau pathology is based on an increase in the amount of tau, an increase in phosphorylated tau, and/or an increase in aggregated tau. Indeed, phosphorylated tau protein is the main component of tau aggregates, such as the neurofibrillary tangles present in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been suggested that intracellular tau could be toxic to neurons in its phosphorylated and/or aggregated form. However, extracellular tau could also damage neurons and since neuronal death is widespread in Alzheimer's disease, mainly among cholinergic neurons, these cells may represent a possible source of extracellular tau. However, other sources of extracellular tau have been proposed that are independent of cell death. In addition, several ways have been proposed for cells to interact with, transmit, and spread extracellular tau, and to transduce signals mediated by this tau. In this work, we will discuss the role of extracellular tau in the spreading of the tau pathology.

  20. iPS Cell Cultures from a Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Patient with the Y218N PRNP Mutation Recapitulate tau Pathology.

    PubMed

    Matamoros-Angles, Andreu; Gayosso, Lucía Mayela; Richaud-Patin, Yvonne; di Domenico, Angelique; Vergara, Cristina; Hervera, Arnau; Sousa, Amaya; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Consiglio, Antonella; Gavín, Rosalina; López de Maturana, Rakel; Ferrer, Isidro; López de Munain, Adolfo; Raya, Ángel; Castilla, Joaquín; Sánchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Del Río, José Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative prionopathy clinically characterized by ataxia, spastic paraparesis, extrapyramidal signs and dementia. In some GSS familiar cases carrying point mutations in the PRNP gene, patients also showed comorbid tauopathy leading to mixed pathologies. In this study we developed an induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell model derived from fibroblasts of a GSS patient harboring the Y218N PRNP mutation, as well as an age-matched healthy control. This particular PRNP mutation is unique with very few described cases. One of the cases presented neurofibrillary degeneration with relevant Tau hyperphosphorylation. Y218N iPS-derived cultures showed relevant astrogliosis, increased phospho-Tau, altered microtubule-associated transport and cell death. However, they failed to generate proteinase K-resistant prion. In this study we set out to test, for the first time, whether iPS cell-derived neurons could be used to investigate the appearance of disease-related phenotypes (i.e, tauopathy) identified in the GSS patient.

  1. Tetracyclic Truncated Analogue of the Marine Toxin Gambierol Modifies NMDA, Tau, and Amyloid β Expression in Mice Brains: Implications in AD Pathology.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Eva; Vieira, Andrés C; Rodriguez, Inés; Alvariño, Rebeca; Gegunde, Sandra; Fuwa, Haruhiko; Suga, Yuto; Sasaki, Makoto; Alfonso, Amparo; Cifuentes, José Manuel; Botana, Luis M

    2017-06-21

    Gambierol and its two, tetra- and heptacyclic, analogues have been previously proved as promising molecules for the modulation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks in primary cortical neurons of 3xTg-AD fetuses. In this work, the effect of the tetracyclic analogue of gambierol was tested in vivo in 3xTg-AD mice (10 months old) after 1 month of weekly treatment with 50 μg/kg. Adverse effects were not reported throughout the whole treatment period and no pathological signs were observed for the analyzed organs. The compound was found in brain samples after intraperitoneal injection. The tetracyclic analogue of gambierol elicited a decrease of amyloid β 1-42 levels and a dose-dependent inhibition of β-secretase enzyme-1 activity. Moreover, this compound also reduced the phosphorylation of tau at the 181 and 159/163 residues with an increase of the inactive isoform of the glycogen synthase kinase-3β. In accordance with our in vitro neuronal model, this compound produced a reduction in the N2A subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The combined effect of this compound on amyloid β 1-42 and tau phosphorylation represents a multitarget therapeutic approach for AD which might be more effective for this multifactorial and complex neurodegenerative disease than the current treatments.

  2. Comparison of multiple tau-PET measures as biomarkers in aging and Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Maass, Anne; Landau, Susan; Baker, Suzanne L.

    The recent development of tau-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers enables in vivo quantification of regional tau pathology, one of the key lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau PET imaging may become a useful biomarker for clinical diagnosis and tracking of disease progression but there is no consensus yet on how tau PET signal is best quantified. The goal of the current paper was to evaluate multiple whole-brain and region-specific approaches to detect clinically relevant tau PET signal. Two independent cohorts of cognitively normal adults and amyloid-positive (Aβ +) patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD-dementia underwent [ 18F]AV-1451more » PET. Methods for tau tracer quantification included: (i) in vivo Braak staging, (ii) regional uptake in Braak composite regions, (iii) several whole-brain measures of tracer uptake, (iv) regional uptake in AD-vulnerable voxels, and (v) uptake in a priori defined regions. Receiver operating curves characterized accuracy in distinguishing Aβ - controls from AD/MCI patients and yielded tau positivity cutoffs. Clinical relevance of tau PET measures was assessed by regressions against cognition and MR imaging measures. Key tracer uptake patterns were identified by a factor analysis and voxel-wise contrasts. Braak staging, global and region-specific tau measures yielded similar diagnostic accuracies, which differed between cohorts. While all tau measures were related to amyloid and global cognition, memory and hippocampal/entorhinal volume/thickness were associated with regional tracer retention in the medial temporal lobe. Key regions of tau accumulation included medial temporal and inferior/middle temporal regions, retrosplenial cortex, and banks of the superior temporal sulcus. Finally, our data indicate that whole-brain tau PET measures might be adequate biomarkers to detect AD-related tau pathology. However, regional measures covering AD-vulnerable regions may increase sensitivity to early

  3. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  4. Early pathology in sleep studies of patients with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Givaty, Gili; Maggio, Nicola; Cohen, Oren S; Blatt, Ilan; Chapman, Joab

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess sleep function in patients with recent-onset familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD). The largest cluster of fCJD patients is found in Jews of Libyan origin, linked to the prion protein gene (PRNP) E200K mutation. The high index of suspicion in these patients often leads to early diagnosis, with complaints of insomnia being a very common presenting symptom of the disease. The study included 10 fCJD patients diagnosed by clinical manifestations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain, elevated tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positive PRNP E200K mutation. Standard polysomnography was performed after a brief interview confirming the presence of sleep disturbances. All patients showed a pathological sleep pattern according to all scoring evaluation settings. The sleep stages were characterized by (i) disappearance of sleep spindles; (ii) outbursts of periodic sharp waves and shallowing of sleep consisting in increased Stage 2 and wake periods during the night, as well as decrease of slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Recordings of respiratory functions reported irregular breathing with central and obstructive apnea and hypopnea. The typical hypotonia occurring during the night and atonia during REM sleep were replaced by hyperactive sleep consisting of multiple jerks, movements and parasomnia (mainly talking) throughout the night. In conclusion, we report unique pathological sleep patterns in early fCJD associated with the E200K mutation. Specific respiratory disturbances and lack of atonia could possibly serve as new, early diagnostic tools in the disease. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Proteomic determination of widespread detergent-insolubility including Abeta but not tau early in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Woltjer, Randall L; Cimino, P J; Boutté, Angela M; Schantz, Aimee M; Montine, Kathleen S; Larson, Eric B; Bird, Thomas; Quinn, Joseph F; Zhang, Jing; Montine, Thomas J

    2005-11-01

    Biochemical characterization of the major detergent-insoluble proteins that comprise hallmark histopathologic lesions initiated the molecular era of Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Here, we reinvestigated detergent-insoluble proteins in AD using modern proteomic techniques. Using liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS)-MS-based proteomics, we robustly identified 125 proteins in the detergent-insoluble fraction of late-onset AD (LOAD) temporal cortex that included several proteins critical to Abeta production, components of synaptic scaffolding, and products of genes linked to an increased risk of LOAD; we verified 15 of 15 of these proteins by Western blot. Following multiple analyses, we estimated that these represent ~80% of detergent-insoluble proteins in LOAD detectable by our method. Abeta, tau, and 7 of 8 other newly identified detergent-insoluble proteins were disproportionately increased in temporal cortex from patients with LOAD and AD derived from mutations in PSEN1 and PSEN2; all of these except tau were elevated in individuals with prodromal dementia, while none except Abeta were elevated in aged APPswe mice. These results are consistent with the amyloid hypothesis of AD and extend it to include widespread protein insolubility, not exclusively Abeta insolubility, early in AD pathogenesis even before the onset of clinical dementia.

  6. Videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology: early experience.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, D. A.; Hasan, A.; Forty, J.; Morritt, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    We report our experience using the new technique of videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology. In the last 12 months, 40 patients (24 male; 16 female) have undergone investigation by this method. Lung biopsy has been performed in 17 patients, pleural biopsy in 20 patients and mediastinal biopsy in three patients. The majority had been referred after other investigations had been inconclusive. All biopsies were diagnostic except one mediastinal biopsy. This early experience suggests that videothoracoscopic biopsy is a well-tolerated technique with high diagnostic yield. PMID:8154806

  7. Abeta42-driven cerebral amyloidosis in transgenic mice reveals early and robust pathology.

    PubMed

    Radde, Rebecca; Bolmont, Tristan; Kaeser, Stephan A; Coomaraswamy, Janaky; Lindau, Dennis; Stoltze, Lars; Calhoun, Michael E; Jäggi, Fabienne; Wolburg, Hartwig; Gengler, Simon; Haass, Christian; Ghetti, Bernardino; Czech, Christian; Hölscher, Christian; Mathews, Paul M; Jucker, Mathias

    2006-09-01

    We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model on a C57BL/6J genetic background that coexpresses KM670/671NL mutated amyloid precursor protein and L166P mutated presenilin 1 under the control of a neuron-specific Thy1 promoter element (APPPS1 mice). Cerebral amyloidosis starts at 6-8 weeks and the ratio of human amyloid (A)beta42 to Abeta40 is 1.5 and 5 in pre-depositing and amyloid-depositing mice, respectively. Consistent with this ratio, extensive congophilic parenchymal amyloid but minimal amyloid angiopathy is observed. Amyloid-associated pathologies include dystrophic synaptic boutons, hyperphosphorylated tau-positive neuritic structures and robust gliosis, with neocortical microglia number increasing threefold from 1 to 8 months of age. Global neocortical neuron loss is not apparent up to 8 months of age, but local neuron loss in the dentate gyrus is observed. Because of the early onset of amyloid lesions, the defined genetic background of the model and the facile breeding characteristics, APPPS1 mice are well suited for studying therapeutic strategies and the pathomechanism of amyloidosis by cross-breeding to other genetically engineered mouse models.

  8. Aβ42-driven cerebral amyloidosis in transgenic mice reveals early and robust pathology

    PubMed Central

    Radde, Rebecca; Bolmont, Tristan; Kaeser, Stephan A; Coomaraswamy, Janaky; Lindau, Dennis; Stoltze, Lars; Calhoun, Michael E; Jäggi, Fabienne; Wolburg, Hartwig; Gengler, Simon; Haass, Christian; Ghetti, Bernardino; Czech, Christian; Hölscher, Christian; Mathews, Paul M; Jucker, Mathias

    2006-01-01

    We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model on a C57BL/6J genetic background that coexpresses KM670/671NL mutated amyloid precursor protein and L166P mutated presenilin 1 under the control of a neuron-specific Thy1 promoter element (APPPS1 mice). Cerebral amyloidosis starts at 6–8 weeks and the ratio of human amyloid (A)β42 to Aβ40 is 1.5 and 5 in pre-depositing and amyloid-depositing mice, respectively. Consistent with this ratio, extensive congophilic parenchymal amyloid but minimal amyloid angiopathy is observed. Amyloid-associated pathologies include dystrophic synaptic boutons, hyperphosphorylated tau-positive neuritic structures and robust gliosis, with neocortical microglia number increasing threefold from 1 to 8 months of age. Global neocortical neuron loss is not apparent up to 8 months of age, but local neuron loss in the dentate gyrus is observed. Because of the early onset of amyloid lesions, the defined genetic background of the model and the facile breeding characteristics, APPPS1 mice are well suited for studying therapeutic strategies and the pathomechanism of amyloidosis by cross-breeding to other genetically engineered mouse models. PMID:16906128

  9. Tau and Amyloid-β Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers have Differential Relationships with Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Malpas, Charles B; Saling, Michael M; Velakoulis, Dennis; Desmond, Patricia; O'Brien, Terence J

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by two primary pathologies: tau-related neurofibrillary tangles and the extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ). The development of these pathologies is topologically distinct early in the disease, with Aβ beginning to accumulate as a diffuse, neocortical pathology, while tau-related pathology begins to form in mesial temporal regions. This study investigated the hypothesis that, by virtue of this distinction, there exist preferential associations between the primary pathologies and aspects of the cognitive phenotype. We investigated the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for tau and Aβ pathologies with neurocognitive measures in 191 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants completed cognitive tests of new learning, information processing speed, and working memory. Separate regression models were computed and then followed up with mediation analyses to examine the predictive status of CSF biomarkers. The effect of Aβ on learning was mediated by phospho-tau (p = 0.008). In contrast, Aβ had a direct effect on information processing speed that was not mediated by phospho-tau (p = 0.59). No predictors were significant for working memory. This study provided evidence for a differential relationship of Aβ and phospho-tau pathologies on the neurocognitive phenotype of MCI. This supports the proposition that these primary AD pathologies maximally affect different aspects of cognition, and has potential implications for cognitive assessments and the use of biomarkers in disease-modifyingtherapeutic trials.

  10. Tau truncation is a productive posttranslational modification of neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kovacech, B; Novak, M

    2010-12-01

    Deposits of the misfolded neuronal protein tau are major hallmarks of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. The etiology of the transformation process of the intrinsically disordered soluble protein tau into the insoluble misordered aggregate has attracted much attention. Tau undergoes multiple modifications in AD, most notably hyperphosphorylation and truncation. Hyperphosphorylation is widely regarded as the hottest candidate for the inducer of the neurofibrillary pathology. However, the true nature of the impetus that initiates the whole process in the human brains remains unknown. In AD, several site-specific tau cleavages were identified and became connected to the progression of the disease. In addition, western blot analyses of tau species in AD brains reveal multitudes of various truncated forms. In this review we summarize evidence showing that tau truncation alone is sufficient to induce the complete cascade of neurofibrillary pathology, including hyperphosphorylation and accumulation of misfolded insoluble forms of tau. Therefore, proteolytical abnormalities in the stressed neurons and production of aberrant tau cleavage products deserve closer attention and should be considered as early therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease.

  11. A transgenic Alzheimer rat with plaques, tau pathology, behavioral impairment, oligomeric aβ, and frank neuronal loss.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert M; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Weitz, Tara M; Rentsendorj, Altan; Gate, David; Spivak, Inna; Bholat, Yasmin; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Glabe, Charles G; Breunig, Joshua J; Rakic, Pasko; Davtyan, Hayk; Agadjanyan, Michael G; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R; Bannykh, Serguei; Szekely, Christine A; Pechnick, Robert N; Town, Terrence

    2013-04-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hallmarked by amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and widespread cortical neuronal loss (Selkoe, 2001). The "amyloid cascade hypothesis" posits that cerebral amyloid sets neurotoxic events into motion that precipitate Alzheimer dementia (Hardy and Allsop, 1991). Yet, faithful recapitulation of all AD features in widely used transgenic (Tg) mice engineered to overproduce Aβ peptides has been elusive. We have developed a Tg rat model (line TgF344-AD) expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APPsw) and presenilin 1 (PS1ΔE9) genes, each independent causes of early-onset familial AD. TgF344-AD rats manifest age-dependent cerebral amyloidosis that precedes tauopathy, gliosis, apoptotic loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and cognitive disturbance. These results demonstrate progressive neurodegeneration of the Alzheimer type in these animals. The TgF344-AD rat fills a critical need for a next-generation animal model to enable basic and translational AD research.

  12. Curcumin Inhibits Tau Aggregation and Disintegrates Preformed Tau Filaments in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rane, Jitendra Subhash; Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Panda, Dulal

    2017-01-01

    The pathological aggregation of tau is a common feature of most of the neuronal disorders including frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The inhibition of tau aggregation is considered to be one of the important strategies for treating these neurodegenerative diseases. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic molecule, has been reported to have neuroprotective ability. In this work, curcumin was found to bind to adult tau and fetal tau with a dissociation constant of 3.3±0.4 and 8±1 μM, respectively. Molecular docking studies indicated a putative binding site of curcumin in the microtubule-binding region of tau. Using several complementary techniques, including dynamic light scattering, thioflavin S fluorescence, 90° light scattering, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, curcumin was found to inhibit the aggregation of tau. The dynamic light scattering analysis and atomic force microscopic images revealed that curcumin inhibits the oligomerization of tau. Curcumin also disintegrated preformed tau oligomers. Using Far-UV circular dichroism, curcumin was found to inhibit the β-sheets formation in tau indicating that curcumin inhibits an initial step of tau aggregation. In addition, curcumin inhibited tau fibril formation. Furthermore, the effect of curcumin on the preformed tau filaments was analyzed by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and 90° light scattering. Curcumin treatment disintegrated preformed tau filaments. The results indicated that curcumin inhibited the oligomerization of tau and could disaggregate tau filaments.

  13. Initial CSF total tau correlates with 1-year outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ost, M; Nylén, K; Csajbok, L; Ohrfelt, A Olsson; Tullberg, M; Wikkelsö, C; Nellgård, P; Rosengren, L; Blennow, K; Nellgård, B

    2006-11-14

    We investigated if tau, microtubular binding protein, in serum and ventricular CSF (vCSF) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during the initial posttraumatic days correlated to 1-year outcome. Patients with severe TBI (n = 39, Glasgow Coma Scale score tau on days 0 to 14, using ELISA. vCSF total tau correlated to 1-year Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE), the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) neurologic status, and the Bartel Daily Living Index. Patients (n = 20) with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) served as reference. Higher levels of tau were found in TBI patients vs patients with NPH. A correlation was found between initial vCSF total tau and GOSE levels (R = 0.42, p < 0.001) but not between vCSF total tau and NIHSS or Bartel scores at 1 year. A vCSF total tau level of >2,126 pg/mL on days 2 to 3 discriminated between dead and alive (sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 81%). A vCSF total tau level of >702 pg/mL on days 2 to 3 discriminated between bad (GOSE 1 to 4) and good (GOSE 5 to 8) outcome (sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 69%). Patients with GOSE 1 (dead) had higher vCSF total tau levels on days 2 to 3 (p < 0.001) vs both surviving patients (GOSE 2 to 8) and those with NPH. Total tau was not detected in serum throughout the study. The increase in ventricular CSF (vCSF) total tau probably reflects axonal damage, known to be a central pathologic mechanism in traumatic brain injury (TBI). These results suggest that vCSF total tau may be an important early biochemical neuromarker for predicting long-term outcome in patients with a severe TBI.

  14. Early glycogen synthase kinase-3β and protein phosphatase 2A independent tau dephosphorylation during global brain ischaemia and reperfusion following cardiac arrest and the role of the adenosine monophosphate kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Majd, Shohreh; Power, John H T; Koblar, Simon A; Grantham, Hugh J M

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal tau phosphorylation (p-tau) has been shown after hypoxic damage to the brain associated with traumatic brain injury and stroke. As the level of p-tau is controlled by Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)-3β, Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK), different activity levels of these enzymes could be involved in tau phosphorylation following ischaemia. This study assessed the effects of global brain ischaemia/reperfusion on the immediate status of p-tau in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA) followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We reported an early dephosphorylation of tau at its AMPK sensitive residues, Ser(396) and Ser(262) after 2 min of ischaemia, which did not recover during the first two hours of reperfusion, while the tau phosphorylation at GSK-3β sensitive but AMPK insensitive residues, Ser(202) /Thr(205) (AT8), as well as the total amount of tau remained unchanged. Our data showed no alteration in the activities of GSK-3β and PP2A during similar episodes of ischaemia of up to 8 min and reperfusion of up to 2 h, and 4 weeks recovery. Dephosphorylation of AMPK followed the same pattern as tau dephosphorylation during ischaemia/reperfusion. Catalase, another AMPK downstream substrate also showed a similar pattern of decline to p-AMPK, in ischaemic/reperfusion groups. This suggests the involvement of AMPK in changing the p-tau levels, indicating that tau dephosphorylation following ischaemia is not dependent on GSK-3β or PP2A activity, but is associated with AMPK dephosphorylation. We propose that a reduction in AMPK activity is a possible early mechanism responsible for tau dephosphorylation. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tau Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, D.; Oliva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays and UHE neutrinos may lead to a new deep astronomy. However the most recent results on their correlations and clustering seem to most authors inconclusive. We briefly remind some UHECR models and past and recent results. Our reading and overlapping of IR-gamma-UHECR maps and their correlations seem to answer to several key puzzles, offering a first hope of the UHECR astronomy, mostly ruled by lightest nuclei from nearby Universe. Regarding the UHE neutrino we recently noted that the flavor ratio and the absence of double bang in IceCube within highest energetic ten events may suggest still a dominant noisy prompt component. However a first correlated UHE crossing muon with expected location (through going upward muon neutrino or horizontally) in IceCube is in our view a milestone in neutrino astronomy road map, possibly partially related, to galactic UHECR narrow clustering. The disturbing and persistent atmospheric neutrino noises, both conventional and prompt, call for a better filtered neutrino astronomy: the tau neutrino ones. There are no yet (at present, detectable) TeV-PeVs or more energetic tau neutrino of atmospheric, conventional or prompt nature; only astrophysical ones might soon shine. Double bangs in IceCube and in particular the tau air-showers in large array are the unique definitive expected signatures of astrophysical signals. In particular tau air-shower amplify in a huge way the otherwise single lepton track, once in decay in flight, into a richest three of secondaries (up to a million of billion Cherenkov photons for PeV tau energy) whose wide areas may extend up to nearly kilometer size. Such airshowers are very directional. PeVs energetic tau lepton penetrate hundreds meters inside the rock before its decay. Therefore horizontal tau air-shower in front of deep, wide valleys or mountain cliff [D. Fargion, A. Aiello, R. Conversano; 26th ICRC, He 6.1.09, 6 p. 396-398. (1999). Ed. D. Kieda, et al. arxiv

  16. Hypothermia mediates age-dependent increase of tau phosphorylation in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Noura B; Gratuze, Maud; Petry, Franck; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Julien, Carl; Marcouiller, François; Morin, Françoise; Nicholls, Samantha B; Calon, Frédéric; Hébert, Sébastien S; Marette, André; Planel, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that type 2 diabetes is linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the consequences of type 2 diabetes on AD pathologies, such as tau hyperphosphorylation, are not well understood. Here, we evaluated the impact of type 2 diabetes on tau phosphorylation in db/db diabetic mice aged 4 and 26weeks. We found increased tau phosphorylation at the CP13 epitope correlating with a deregulation of c-Jun. N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in 4-week-old db/db mice. 26-week-old db/db mice displayed tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple epitopes (CP13, AT8, PHF-1), but no obvious change in kinases or phosphatases, no cleavage of tau, and no deregulation of central insulin signaling pathways. In contrast to younger animals, 26-week-old db/db mice were hypothermic and restoration of normothermia rescued phosphorylation at most epitopes. Our results suggest that, at early stages of type 2 diabetes, changes in tau phosphorylation may be due to deregulation of JNK and PP2A, while at later stages hyperphosphorylation is mostly a consequence of hypothermia. These results provide a novel link between diabetes and tau pathology, and underlie the importance of recording body temperature to better understand the relationship between diabetes and AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blast Exposure Causes Early and Persistent Aberrant Phospho- and Cleaved-Tau Expression in a Murine Model of Mild Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Bertrand R.; Meabon, James S.; Martin, Tobin J.; Mourad, Pierre D.; Bennett, Raymond; Kraemer, Brian C.; Cernak, Ibolja; Petrie, Eric C.; Emery, Michael J.; Swenson, Erik R.; Mayer, Cynthia; Mehic, Edin; Peskind, Elaine R.; Cook, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered the ‘signature injury’ of combat veterans that have served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prevalence of mTBI is due in part to the common exposure to high explosive blasts in combat zones. In addition to the threats of blunt impact trauma caused by flying objects and the head itself being propelled against objects, the primary blast overpressure (BOP) generated by high explosives is capable of injuring the brain. Compared to other means of causing TBI, the pathophysiology of mild-to-moderate BOP is less well understood. To study the consequences of BOP exposure in mice, we employed a well-established approach using a compressed gas-driven shock tube that recapitulates battlefield-relevant open-field BOP. We found that 24 hours post-blast a single mild BOP provoked elevation of multiple phosphor- and cleaved-tau species in neurons, as well as elevating manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) levels, a cellular response to oxidative stress. In hippocampus, aberrant tau species persisted for at least 30 days post-exposure, while SOD2 levels returned to sham control levels. These findings suggest that elevated phospho- and cleaved-tau species may be among the initiating pathologic processes induced by mild blast exposure. These findings may have important implications for efforts to prevent blast-induced insults to the brain from progressing into long-term neurodegenerative disease processes. PMID:23948882

  18. Effects of antibodies to phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau on in vitro tau phosphorylation at Serine-199: Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, David A; Smith, Lynnae M; Klaver, Andrea C; Martić, Sanela

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorylation of multiple amino acids on tau protein ("hyperphosphorylation") is required for the development of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Administration of anti-tau antibodies to transgenic "tauopathy mice" has been shown to reduce their tau pathology but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. To examine the effects of anti-tau antibodies on tau phosphorylation, we used western blots to study the effects of three antibodies to phosphorylated tau (pTau), namely anti-pTau S199, T231, and S396, and three antibodies to non-phosphorylated tau on in vitro phosphorylation of recombinant human tau-441 at S199. Inclusion of an anti-pTau T231 antibody in the phosphorylation reaction reduced the intensity of monomeric pTau S199 in western blots of denaturing gels, but the other antibodies had no apparent effects on this process. Surprisingly, including all three anti-phospho-tau antibodies in the reaction did not reduce the intensity of the monomer band, possibly due to steric hindrance between the antibodies. These preliminary findings suggest that anti-tau antibodies may have minimal direct effects on tau phosphorylation. Limitations of using western blots to examine the effects of anti-tau antibodies on this process were found to include between-experiment variability in pTau band densities and poor resolution of high molecular weight pTau oligomers. The presence of bands representing immunoglobulins as well as pTau may also complicate interpretation of the western blots. Further studies are indicated to examine the effects of anti-pTau antibodies on phosphorylation of other tau amino acids in addition to S199. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early classification of pathological heartbeats on wireless body sensor nodes.

    PubMed

    Braojos, Rubén; Beretta, Ivan; Ansaloni, Giovanni; Atienza, David

    2014-11-27

    Smart Wireless Body Sensor Nodes (WBSNs) are a novel class of unobtrusive, battery-powered devices allowing the continuous monitoring and real-time interpretation of a subject's bio-signals, such as the electrocardiogram (ECG). These low-power platforms, while able to perform advanced signal processing to extract information on heart conditions, are usually constrained in terms of computational power and transmission bandwidth. It is therefore essential to identify in the early stages which parts of an ECG are critical for the diagnosis and, only in these cases, activate on demand more detailed and computationally intensive analysis algorithms. In this work, we present a comprehensive framework for real-time automatic classification of normal and abnormal heartbeats, targeting embedded and resource-constrained WBSNs. In particular, we provide a comparative analysis of different strategies to reduce the heartbeat representation dimensionality, and therefore the required computational effort. We then combine these techniques with a neuro-fuzzy classification strategy, which effectively discerns normal and pathological heartbeats with a minimal run time and memory overhead. We prove that, by performing a detailed analysis only on the heartbeats that our classifier identifies as abnormal, a WBSN system can drastically reduce its overall energy consumption. Finally, we assess the choice of neuro-fuzzy classification by comparing its performance and workload with respect to other state-of-the-art strategies. Experimental results using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database show energy savings of as much as 60% in the signal processing stage, and 63% in the subsequent wireless transmission, when a neuro-fuzzy classification structure is employed, coupled with a dimensionality reduction technique based on random projections.

  20. Early Classification of Pathological Heartbeats on Wireless Body Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Braojos, Rubén; Beretta, Ivan; Ansaloni, Giovanni; Atienza, David

    2014-01-01

    Smart Wireless Body Sensor Nodes (WBSNs) are a novel class of unobtrusive, battery-powered devices allowing the continuous monitoring and real-time interpretation of a subject's bio-signals, such as the electrocardiogram (ECG). These low-power platforms, while able to perform advanced signal processing to extract information on heart conditions, are usually constrained in terms of computational power and transmission bandwidth. It is therefore essential to identify in the early stages which parts of an ECG are critical for the diagnosis and, only in these cases, activate on demand more detailed and computationally intensive analysis algorithms. In this work, we present a comprehensive framework for real-time automatic classification of normal and abnormal heartbeats, targeting embedded and resource-constrained WBSNs. In particular, we provide a comparative analysis of different strategies to reduce the heartbeat representation dimensionality, and therefore the required computational effort. We then combine these techniques with a neuro-fuzzy classification strategy, which effectively discerns normal and pathological heartbeats with a minimal run time and memory overhead. We prove that, by performing a detailed analysis only on the heartbeats that our classifier identifies as abnormal, a WBSN system can drastically reduce its overall energy consumption. Finally, we assess the choice of neuro-fuzzy classification by comparing its performance and workload with respect to other state-of-the-art strategies. Experimental results using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database show energy savings of as much as 60% in the signal processing stage, and 63% in the subsequent wireless transmission, when a neuro-fuzzy classification structure is employed, coupled with a dimensionality reduction technique based on random projections. PMID:25436654

  1. Acceleration and persistence of neurofibrillary pathology in a mouse model of tauopathy following anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Planel, Emmanuel; Bretteville, Alexis; Liu, Li; Virag, Laszlo; Du, Angela L.; Yu, Wai Haung; Dickson, Dennis W.; Whittington, Robert A.; Duff, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies are characterized by the presence of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated, insoluble tau. General anesthesia has been shown to be associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease, and we have previously demonstrated that anesthesia induces hypothermia, which leads to overt tau hyperphosphorylation in the brain of mice regardless of the anesthetic used. To investigate whether anesthesia enhances the long-term risk of developing pathological forms of tau, we exposed a mouse model with tauopathy to anesthesia and monitored the outcome at two time points—during anesthesia, or 1 wk after exposure. We found that exposure to isoflurane at clinically relevant doses led to increased levels of phospho-tau, increased insoluble, aggregated forms of tau, and detachment of tau from microtubules. Furthermore, levels of phospho-tau distributed in the neuropil, as well as in cell bodies increased. Interestingly, the level of insoluble tau was increased 1 wk following anesthesia, suggesting that anesthesia precipitates changes in the brain that provoke the later development of tauopathy. Overall, our results suggest that anesthesia-induced hypothermia could lead to an acceleration of tau pathology in vivo that could have significant clinical implications for patients with early stage, or overt neurofibrillary tangle pathology.—Planel, E., Bretteville, A., Liu, L., Virag, L., Du, A. L., Yu, W. Y., Dickson, D. W., Whittington, R. A., Duff, K. E. Acceleration and persistence of neurofibrillary pathology in a mouse model of tauopathy following anesthesia. PMID:19279139

  2. Early Alzheimer's disease-type pathology in the frontal cortex of wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Perez, Sylvia E; Sherwood, Chet C; Cranfield, Michael R; Erwin, Joseph M; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Hof, Patrick R; Mufson, Elliott J

    2016-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau pathology have been described in the brains of captive aged great apes, but the natural progression of these age-related pathologies from wild great apes, including the gorilla, is unknown. In our previous study of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) who were housed in American Zoos and Aquariums-accredited facilities, we found an age-related increase in Aβ-positive plaques and vasculature, tau-positive astrocytes, oligodendrocyte coiled bodies, and neuritic clusters in the neocortex as well as hippocampus in older animals. Here, we demonstrate that aged wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), who spent their entire lives in their natural habitat, also display an age-related increase in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and/or Aβ-immunoreactive blood vessels and plaques, but very limited tau pathology, in the frontal cortex. These results indicate that Aβ and tau lesions are age-related events that occur in the brain of gorillas living in captivity and in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Secretion of full-length Tau or Tau fragments in cell culture models. Propagation of Tau in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Mar; Medina, Miguel; Hernández, Félix; Avila, Jesús

    2018-03-05

    The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a crucial role in stabilizing neuronal microtubules. In Tauopathies, Tau loses its ability to bind microtubules, detach from them and forms intracellular aggregates. Increasing evidence in recent years supports the notion that Tau pathology spreading throughout the brain in AD and other Tauopathies is the consequence of the propagation of specific Tau species along neuroanatomically connected brain regions in a so-called "prion-like" manner. A number of steps are assumed to be involved in this process, including secretion, cellular uptake, transcellular transfer and/or seeding, although the precise mechanisms underlying propagation of Tau pathology are not fully understood yet. This review summarizes recent evidence on the nature of the specific Tau species that are propagated and the different mechanisms of Tau pathology spreading.

  4. The Discovery of the Tau Lepton: Part 1, The Early History Through 1975; Part 2, Confirmation of the Discovery and Measurement of Major Properties, 1976--1982

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Perl, M. L.

    1994-08-01

    Several previous papers have given the history of the discovery of the {tau} lepton at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). These papers emphasized (a) the experiments which led to our 1975 publication of the first evidence for the existence of the {tau}, (b) the subsequent experiments which confirmed the existence of the r, and (c) the experiments which elucidated the major properties of the {tau}. That history will be summarized in Part 2 of this talk. In this Part 1, I describe the earlier thoughts and work of myself and my colleagues at SLAC in the 1960's and early 1970's which led to the discovery. I also describe the theoretical and experimental events in particle physics in the 1960's in which our work was immersed. I will also try to describe for the younger generations of particle physicists, the atmosphere in the 1960's. That was before the elucidation of the quark model of hadrons, before the development of the concept of particle generations The experimental paths to program we hot as clear as they are today and we had to cast a wide experimental net.

  5. Is phosphorylated tau unique to chronic traumatic encephalopathy? Phosphorylated tau in epileptic brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Puvenna, Vikram; Engeler, Madeline; Banjara, Manoj; Brennan, Chanda; Schreiber, Peter; Dadas, Aaron; Bahrami, Ashkon; Solanki, Jesal; Bandyopadhyay, Anasua; Morris, Jacqueline K.; Bernick, Charles; Ghosh, Chaitali; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Janigro, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI) is one of the major risk factors for the abnormal deposition of phosphorylated tau (PT) in the brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affect the limbic system, but no comparative studies on PT distribution in TLE and CTE are available. It is also unclear whether PT pathology results from repeated head hits (rTBI). These gaps prevent a thorough understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical significance of PT, limiting our ability to develop preventative and therapeutic interventions. We quantified PT in TLE and CTE to unveil whether a history of rTBI is a prerequisite for PT accumulation in the brain. Six post mortem CTE (mean 73.3 years) and age matched control samples were compared to 19 surgically resected TLE brain specimens (4 months-58 years; mean 27.6 years). No history of TBI was present in TLE or control; all CTE patients had a history of rTBI. TLE and CTE brain displayed increased levels of PT as revealed by immunohistochemistry. No age-dependent changes were noted, as PT was present as early as 4 months after birth. In TLE and CTE, cortical neurons, perivascular regions around penetrating pial vessels and meninges were immunopositive for PT; white matter tracts also displayed robust expression of extracellular PT organized in bundles parallel to venules. Microscopically, there were extensive tau-immunoreactive neuronal, astrocytic and degenerating neurites throughout the brain. In CTE perivascular tangles were most prominent. Overall, significant differences in staining intensities were found between CTE and control (P<0.01) but not between CTE and TLE (P=0.08). pS199 tau analysis showed that CTE had the most high molecular weight tangle-associated tau, whereas epileptic brain contained low molecular weight tau. Tau deposition may not be specific to rTBI since TLE recapitulated most of the pathological features of CTE. PMID:26556772

  6. Detecting tau in serum of transgenic animal models after tau immunotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    d'Abramo, Cristina; Acker, Christopher M; Schachter, Joel B; Terracina, Giuseppe; Wang, Xiaohai; Forest, Stefanie K; Davies, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the attempt to elucidate if the "peripheral sink hypothesis" could be a potential mechanism of action for tau removal in passive immunotherapy experiments, we have examined tau levels in serum of chronically injected JNPL3 and Tg4510 transgenic animals. Measurement of tau in serum of mice treated with tau antibodies is challenging because of the antibody interference in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To address this issue, we have developed a heat-treatment protocol at acidic pH to remove interfering molecules from serum, with excellent recovery of tau. The present data show that pan-tau and conformational antibodies do increase tau in mouse sera. However, these concentrations in serum do not consistently correlate with reductions of tau pathology in brain, suggesting that large elevations of tau species measured in serum are not predictive of efficacy. Here, we describe a reliable method to detect tau in serum of transgenic animals that have undergone tau immunotherapy. Levels of tau in human serum are less than the sensitivity of current assays, although artifactual signals are common. The method may be useful in similarly treated humans, a situation in which false positive signals are likely. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction of tau protein with model lipid membranes induces tau structural compaction and membrane disruption

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emmalee M.; Dubey, Manish; Camp, Phillip J.; Vernon, Briana C.; Biernat, Jacek; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Chi, Eva Y.

    2012-01-01

    The misfolding and aggregation of the intrinsically disordered, microtubule-associated tau protein into neurofibrillary tangles is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanisms of tau aggregation and toxicity remain unknown. Recent work has shown that lipid membrane can induce tau aggregation and that membrane permeabilization may serve as a pathway by which protein aggregates exert toxicity, suggesting that the plasma membrane may play dual roles in tau pathology. This prompted our investigation to assess tau's propensity to interact with membranes and to elucidate the mutually disruptive structural perturbations the interactions induce in both tau and the membrane. We show that although highly charged and soluble, the full-length tau (hTau40) is also highly surface active, selectively inserts into anionic DMPG lipid monolayers and induces membrane morphological changes. To resolve molecular-scale structural details of hTau40 associated with lipid membranes, X-ray and neutron scattering techniques are utilized. X-ray reflectivity indicates hTau40's presence underneath a DMPG monolayer and penetration into the lipid headgroups and tailgroups, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction shows that hTau40 insertion disrupts lipid packing. Moreover, both air/water and DMPG lipid membrane interfaces induce the disordered hTau40 to partially adopt a more compact conformation with density similar to that of a folded protein. Neutron reflectivity shows that tau completely disrupts supported DMPG bilayers while leaving the neutral DPPC bilayer intact. Our results show that hTau40's strong interaction with anionic lipids induces tau structural compaction and membrane disruption, suggesting possible membrane-based mechanisms of tau aggregation and toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22401494

  8. Preparing Speech Language Pathology Students to Work in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Moore, Heather W.; Squires, Jane K.

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of highly qualified speech language pathologists (SLPs) with specialized training in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) is a pressing issue facing the field and dramatically impacts young children's social and academic success. SLP personnel preparation programs focused on training specialists in…

  9. Intrinsic Tau Acetylation Is Coupled to Auto-Proteolytic Tau Fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Todd J.; Constance, Brian H.; Hwang, Andrew W.; James, Michael; Yuan, Chao-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Tau proteins are abnormally aggregated in a range of neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, tau has emerged as an extensively post-translationally modified protein, among which lysine acetylation is critical for normal tau function and its pathological aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that tau isoforms have different propensities to undergo lysine acetylation, with auto-acetylation occurring more prominently within the lysine-rich microtubule-binding repeats. Unexpectedly, we identified a unique intrinsic property of tau in which auto-acetylation induces proteolytic tau cleavage, thereby generating distinct N- and C-terminal tau fragments. Supporting a catalytic reaction-based mechanism, mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that tau cysteines, which are required for acetyl group transfer, are also essential for auto-proteolytic tau processing. Further mass spectrometry analysis identified the C-terminal 2nd and 4th microtubule binding repeats as potential sites of auto-cleavage. The identification of acetylation-mediated auto-proteolysis provides a new biochemical mechanism for tau self-regulation and warrants further investigation into whether auto-catalytic functions of tau are implicated in AD and other tauopathies. PMID:27383765

  10. Intrinsic Tau Acetylation Is Coupled to Auto-Proteolytic Tau Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Todd J; Constance, Brian H; Hwang, Andrew W; James, Michael; Yuan, Chao-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Tau proteins are abnormally aggregated in a range of neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, tau has emerged as an extensively post-translationally modified protein, among which lysine acetylation is critical for normal tau function and its pathological aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that tau isoforms have different propensities to undergo lysine acetylation, with auto-acetylation occurring more prominently within the lysine-rich microtubule-binding repeats. Unexpectedly, we identified a unique intrinsic property of tau in which auto-acetylation induces proteolytic tau cleavage, thereby generating distinct N- and C-terminal tau fragments. Supporting a catalytic reaction-based mechanism, mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that tau cysteines, which are required for acetyl group transfer, are also essential for auto-proteolytic tau processing. Further mass spectrometry analysis identified the C-terminal 2nd and 4th microtubule binding repeats as potential sites of auto-cleavage. The identification of acetylation-mediated auto-proteolysis provides a new biochemical mechanism for tau self-regulation and warrants further investigation into whether auto-catalytic functions of tau are implicated in AD and other tauopathies.

  11. Ultra-Early Phase pathologies of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    The concept of neurodegenerative diseases and the therapeutics targeting these intractable diseases are changing rapidly. Protein aggregation as the top of pathological cascade is now challenged, and many alternative ideas are proposed. Early molecular pathologies before microscopic detection of diseases protein aggregates, which I propose to call "Ultra-Early Phase pathologies or phase 0 pathologies", are the focus of research that might explain the failures of clinical trials with anti-Aβ antibodies against Alzheimer's disease. In this review article, I summarize the critical issues that should be successfully and consistently answered by a new concept of neurodegeneration. For reevaluating old concepts and reconstructing a new concept of neurodegeneration that will replace the old ones, non-biased comprehensive approaches including proteome combined with systems biology analyses will be a powerful tool. I introduce our recent efforts in this orientation that have reached to the stage of non-clinical proof of concept applicable to clinical trials.

  12. Tau Oligomers Associate with Inflammation in the Brain and Retina of Tauopathy Mice and in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nilson, Ashley N.; English, Kelsey C.; Gerson, Julia E.; Barton Whittle, T.; Nicolas Crain, C.; Xue, Judy; Sengupta, Urmi; Castillo-Carranza, Diana L.; Zhang, Wenbo; Gupta, Praveena; Kayed, Rakez

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that inflammation plays an important role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD). Inflammation and synapse loss occur in disease prior to the formation of larger aggregates, but the contribution of tau to inflammation has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Tau pathologically aggregates to form large fibrillar structures known as tangles. However, evidence suggests that smaller soluble aggregates, called oligomers, are the most toxic species and form prior to tangles. Furthermore, tau oligomers can spread to neighboring cells and between anatomically connected brain regions. In addition, recent evidence suggests that inspecting the retina may be a window to brain pathology. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between tau oligomers and inflammation, which are hallmarks of early disease. We conducted immunofluorescence and biochemical analyses on tauopathy mice, FTLD, and AD subjects. We showed that oligomers co-localize with astrocytes, microglia, and HMGB1, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Additionally, we show that tau oligomers are present in the retina and are associated with inflammatory cells suggesting that the retina may be a valid non-invasive biomarker for brain pathology. These results suggest that there may be a toxic relationship between tau oligomers and inflammation. Therefore, the ability of tau oligomers to spread may initiate a feed-forward cycle in which tau oligomers induce inflammation, leading to neuronal damage, and thus more inflammation. Further mechanistic studies are warranted in order to understand this relationship, which may have critical implications for improving the treatment of tauopathies. PMID:27716675

  13. ERP-based detection of brain pathology in rat models for preclinical Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouriziabari, Seyed Berdia

    Early pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (HP-tau) in the entorhinal cortex and progressive loss of basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons. These pathologies are known to remain asymptomatic for many years before AD is clinically diagnosed; however, they may induce aberrant brain processing which can be captured as an abnormality in event-related potentials (ERPs). Here, we examined cortical ERPs while a differential associative learning paradigm was applied to adult male rats with entorhinal HP-tau, pharmacological blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or both conditions. Despite no impairment in differential associative and reversal learning, each pathological feature induced distinct abnormality in cortical ERPs to an extent that was sufficient for machine classifiers to accurately detect a specific type of pathology based on these ERP features. These results highlight a potential use of ERPs during differential associative learning as a biomarker for asymptomatic AD pathology.

  14. Tetrahydrobenzo[h][1,6]naphthyridine-6-chlorotacrine hybrids as a new family of anti-Alzheimer agents targeting β-amyloid, tau, and cholinesterase pathologies.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Ornella; Pérez-Areales, F Javier; Juárez-Jiménez, Jordi; Espargaró, Alba; Clos, M Victòria; Pérez, Belén; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Sabaté, Raimon; Luque, F Javier; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego

    2014-09-12

    Optimization of an essentially inactive 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano[3,2-c]quinoline carboxylic ester derivative as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) peripheral anionic site (PAS)-binding motif by double O → NH bioisosteric replacement, combined with molecular hybridization with the AChE catalytic anionic site (CAS) inhibitor 6-chlorotacrine and molecular dynamics-driven optimization of the length of the linker has resulted in the development of the trimethylene-linked 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[h][1,6]naphthyridine-6-chlorotacrine hybrid 5a as a picomolar inhibitor of human AChE (hAChE). The tetra-, penta-, and octamethylene-linked homologues 5b-d have been also synthesized for comparison purposes, and found to retain the nanomolar hAChE inhibitory potency of the parent 6-chlorotacrine. Further biological profiling of hybrids 5a-d has shown that they are also potent inhibitors of human butyrylcholinesterase and moderately potent Aβ42 and tau anti-aggregating agents, with IC50 values in the submicromolar and low micromolar range, respectively. Also, in vitro studies using an artificial membrane model have predicted a good brain permeability for hybrids 5a-d, and hence, their ability to reach their targets in the central nervous system. The multitarget profile of the novel hybrids makes them promising leads for developing anti-Alzheimer drug candidates with more balanced biological activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Postmortem 3-D brain hemisphere cortical tau and amyloid-β pathology mapping and quantification as a validation method of neuropathology imaging.

    PubMed

    Smid, Lojze M; Kepe, Vladimir; Vinters, Harry V; Bresjanac, Mara; Toyokuni, Tatsushi; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Silverman, Daniel H S; Miller, Karen; Small, Gary W; Barrio, Jorge R

    2013-01-01

    This work is aimed at correlating pre-mortem [18F]FDDNP positron emission tomography (PET) scan results in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), with cortical neuropathology distribution determined postmortem in three physical dimensions in whole brain coronal sections. Analysis of total amyloid-β (Aβ) distribution in frontal cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus confirmed its statistically significant correlation with cortical [18F]FDDNP PET binding values (distribution volume ratios, DVR) (p < 0.001, R = 0.97, R2 = 0.94). Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) distribution correlated significantly with cortical [18F]FDDNP PET DVR in the temporal lobe (p < 0.001, R = 0.87, R2 = 0.76). Linear combination of Aβ and NFT densities was highly predictive of [18F]FDDNP PET DVR through all analyzed regions of interest (p < 0.0001, R = 0.92, R2 = 0.85), and both densities contributed significantly to the model. Lewy bodies were present at a much lower level than either Aβ or NFTs and did not significantly contribute to the in vivo signal. [18F]FDG PET scan results in this patient were consistent with the distinctive DLB pattern of hypometabolism. This work offers a mapping brain model applicable to all imaging probes for verification of imaging results with Aβ and/or tau neuropathology brain distribution using immunohistochemistry, fluorescence microscopy, and autoradiography.

  16. Oral TNFα Modulation Alters Neutrophil Infiltration, Improves Cognition and Diminishes Tau and Amyloid Pathology in the 3xTgAD Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Gabbita, S. Prasad; Johnson, Ming F.; Kobritz, Naomi; Eslami, Pirooz; Poteshkina, Aleksandra; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Turman, John; Zemlan, Frank; Harris-White, Marni E.

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines such as TNFα can polarize microglia/macrophages into different neuroinflammatory types. Skewing of the phenotype towards a cytotoxic state is thought to impair phagocytosis and has been described in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Neuroinflammation can be perpetuated by a cycle of increasing cytokine production and maintenance of a polarized activation state that contributes to AD progression. In this study, 3xTgAD mice, age 6 months, were treated orally with 3 doses of the TNFα modulating compound isoindolin-1,3 dithione (IDT) for 10 months. We demonstrate that IDT is a TNFα modulating compound both in vitro and in vivo. Following long-term IDT administration, mice were assessed for learning & memory and tissue and serum were collected for analysis. Results demonstrate that IDT is safe for long-term treatment and significantly improves learning and memory in the 3xTgAD mouse model. IDT significantly reduced paired helical filament tau and fibrillar amyloid accumulation. Flow cytometry of brain cell populations revealed that IDT increased the infiltrating neutrophil population while reducing TNFα expression in this population. IDT is a safe and effective TNFα and innate immune system modulator. Thus small molecule, orally bioavailable modulators are promising therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26436670

  17. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutations in RAB39B cause X-linked intellectual disability and early-onset Parkinson disease with α-synuclein pathology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gabrielle R; Sim, Joe C H; McLean, Catriona; Giannandrea, Maila; Galea, Charles A; Riseley, Jessica R; Stephenson, Sarah E M; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Haas, Stefan A; Pope, Kate; Hogan, Kirk J; Gregg, Ronald G; Bromhead, Catherine J; Wargowski, David S; Lawrence, Christopher H; James, Paul A; Churchyard, Andrew; Gao, Yujing; Phelan, Dean G; Gillies, Greta; Salce, Nicholas; Stanford, Lynn; Marsh, Ashley P L; Mignogna, Maria L; Hayflick, Susan J; Leventer, Richard J; Delatycki, Martin B; Mellick, George D; Kalscheuer, Vera M; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Bahlo, Melanie; Amor, David J; Lockhart, Paul J

    2014-12-04

    Advances in understanding the etiology of Parkinson disease have been driven by the identification of causative mutations in families. Genetic analysis of an Australian family with three males displaying clinical features of early-onset parkinsonism and intellectual disability identified a ∼45 kb deletion resulting in the complete loss of RAB39B. We subsequently identified a missense mutation (c.503C>A [p.Thr168Lys]) in RAB39B in an unrelated Wisconsin kindred affected by a similar clinical phenotype. In silico and in vitro studies demonstrated that the mutation destabilized the protein, consistent with loss of function. In vitro small-hairpin-RNA-mediated knockdown of Rab39b resulted in a reduction in the density of α-synuclein immunoreactive puncta in dendritic processes of cultured neurons. In addition, in multiple cell models, we demonstrated that knockdown of Rab39b was associated with reduced steady-state levels of α-synuclein. Post mortem studies demonstrated that loss of RAB39B resulted in pathologically confirmed Parkinson disease. There was extensive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra and widespread classic Lewy body pathology. Additional pathological features included cortical Lewy bodies, brain iron accumulation, tau immunoreactivity, and axonal spheroids. Overall, we have shown that loss-of-function mutations in RAB39B cause intellectual disability and pathologically confirmed early-onset Parkinson disease. The loss of RAB39B results in dysregulation of α-synuclein homeostasis and a spectrum of neuropathological features that implicate RAB39B in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Loss of Axonal Mitochondria Promotes Tau-Mediated Neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's Disease–Related Tau Phosphorylation Via PAR-1

    PubMed Central

    Iijima-Ando, Kanae; Sekiya, Michiko; Suzuki, Emiko; Lu, Bingwei; Iijima, Koichi M.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal phosphorylation and toxicity of a microtubule-associated protein tau are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, what pathological conditions trigger tau abnormality in AD is not fully understood. A reduction in the number of mitochondria in the axon has been implicated in AD. In this study, we investigated whether and how loss of axonal mitochondria promotes tau phosphorylation and toxicity in vivo. Using transgenic Drosophila expressing human tau, we found that RNAi–mediated knockdown of milton or Miro, an adaptor protein essential for axonal transport of mitochondria, enhanced human tau-induced neurodegeneration. Tau phosphorylation at an AD–related site Ser262 increased with knockdown of milton or Miro; and partitioning defective-1 (PAR-1), the Drosophila homolog of mammalian microtubule affinity-regulating kinase, mediated this increase of tau phosphorylation. Tau phosphorylation at Ser262 has been reported to promote tau detachment from microtubules, and we found that the levels of microtubule-unbound free tau increased by milton knockdown. Blocking tau phosphorylation at Ser262 site by PAR-1 knockdown or by mutating the Ser262 site to unphosphorylatable alanine suppressed the enhancement of tau-induced neurodegeneration caused by milton knockdown. Furthermore, knockdown of milton or Miro increased the levels of active PAR-1. These results suggest that an increase in tau phosphorylation at Ser262 through PAR-1 contributes to tau-mediated neurodegeneration under a pathological condition in which axonal mitochondria is depleted. Intriguingly, we found that knockdown of milton or Miro alone caused late-onset neurodegeneration in the fly brain, and this neurodegeneration could be suppressed by knockdown of Drosophila tau or PAR-1. Our results suggest that loss of axonal mitochondria may play an important role in tau phosphorylation and toxicity in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:22952452

  20. An Unbiased Approach to Identifying Tau Kinases That Phosphorylate Tau at Sites Associated with Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, Annalisa; Brewerton, Suzanne; Bell, Amanda; Sargent, Samantha; Glover, Sarah; Hardy, Clare; Moore, Roger; Calley, John; Ramachandran, Devaki; Poidinger, Michael; Karran, Eric; Davies, Peter; Hutton, Michael; Szekeres, Philip; Bose, Suchira

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD), are composed of paired helical filaments of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau. The accumulation of these proteinaceous aggregates in AD correlates with synaptic loss and severity of dementia. Identifying the kinases involved in the pathological phosphorylation of tau may identify novel targets for AD. We used an unbiased approach to study the effect of 352 human kinases on their ability to phosphorylate tau at epitopes associated with AD. The kinases were overexpressed together with the longest form of human tau in human neuroblastoma cells. Levels of total and phosphorylated tau (epitopes Ser(P)-202, Thr(P)-231, Ser(P)-235, and Ser(P)-396/404) were measured in cell lysates using AlphaScreen assays. GSK3α, GSK3β, and MAPK13 were found to be the most active tau kinases, phosphorylating tau at all four epitopes. We further dissected the effects of GSK3α and GSK3β using pharmacological and genetic tools in hTau primary cortical neurons. Pathway analysis of the kinases identified in the screen suggested mechanisms for regulation of total tau levels and tau phosphorylation; for example, kinases that affect total tau levels do so by inhibition or activation of translation. A network fishing approach with the kinase hits identified other key molecules putatively involved in tau phosphorylation pathways, including the G-protein signaling through the Ras family of GTPases (MAPK family) pathway. The findings identify novel tau kinases and novel pathways that may be relevant for AD and other tauopathies. PMID:23798682

  1. Clinical features of pathologic childhood aerophagia: early recognition and essential diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Bok; Choi, Won Joung; Kim, Jun Sik; Lee, Sang Yun; Jung, Chul-Ho; Lee, Young Hwan; Kam, Sin

    2005-11-01

    This study investigated the early recognition and diagnosis of pathologic childhood aerophagia to avoid unnecessary diagnostic approaches and serious complications. Between 1995 and 2003, data from 42 consecutive patients with pathologic childhood aerophagia, aged 2 to 16 years, were reviewed. An esophageal air sign was defined as an abnormal air shadow on the proximal esophagus adjacent to the trachea on a full-inflated chest radiograph. Of the 42 patients, the chief complaints were abdominal distention (52.4%), recurrent abdominal pain syndrome (21.4%), chronic diarrhea (11.9%), acute abdominal pain (7.1%) and others (7.2%). Mean symptom duration before diagnosis was 10.6 months (range, 1 to 60 months), and it exceeded 12 months for 16 (38.1%) patients. The clinical features common to all patients were abdominal distention that increased progressively during the day, increased flatus on sleep, increased bowel sound on auscultation and an air-distended stomach with increased gas in the small and large bowel by radiography. Visible or audible air swallowing (26.2%) and repetitive belching (9.5%) were also noted. Esophageal air sign was observed in 76.2% of the patients and in 9.7% of the controls (P=0.0001). The subgroups of pathologic childhood aerophagia divided by underlying associations were pathologic childhood aerophagia without severe mental retardation (76.2%), which consisted of psychological stresses and uncertain condition, and pathologic childhood aerophagia with severe mental retardation (23.8%). The common manifestations of pathologic childhood aerophagia may be its essential diagnostic criteria, and esophageal air sign may be useful for the early recognition of pathologic childhood aerophagia. Our observations show that the diagnostic clinical profiles suggested by Rome II criteria should be detailed and made clearer if they are to serve as diagnostic criteria for pathologic childhood aerophagia.

  2. Insecure Attachment and Eating Pathology in Early Adolescence: Role of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Durme, Kim; Braet, Caroline; Goossens, Lien

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether associations exist between attachment dimensions toward mother and different forms of eating pathology (EP) in a group of early adolescent boys and girls, and whether these associations were mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Developmentally appropriate self-report questionnaires were…

  3. Vital Signs: How Early Can Resident Evaluation Predict Acquisition of Competency in Surgical Pathology?

    PubMed Central

    Ducatman, Barbara S.; Williams, H. James; Hobbs, Gerald; Gyure, Kymberly A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a longitudinal, case-based evaluation system can predict acquisition of competency in surgical pathology and how trainees at risk can be identified early. Design Data were collected for trainee performance on surgical pathology cases (how well their diagnosis agreed with the faculty diagnosis) and compared with training outcomes. Negative training outcomes included failure to complete the residency, failure to pass the anatomic pathology component of the American Board of Pathology examination, and/or failure to obtain or hold a position immediately following training. Findings Thirty-three trainees recorded diagnoses for 54 326 surgical pathology cases, with outcome data available for 15 residents. Mean case-based performance was significantly higher for those with positive outcomes, and outcome status could be predicted as early as postgraduate year-1 (P  =  .0001). Performance on the first postgraduate year-1 rotation was significantly associated with the outcome (P  =  .02). Although trainees with unsuccessful outcomes improved their performance more rapidly, they started below residents with successful outcomes and did not make up the difference during training. There was no significant difference in Step 1 or 2 United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores when compared with performance or final outcomes (P  =  .43 and P  =  .68, respectively) and the resident in-service examination (RISE) had limited predictive ability. Discussion Differences between successful- and unsuccessful-outcome residents were most evident in early residency, ideal for designing interventions or counseling residents to consider another specialty. Conclusion Our longitudinal case-based system successfully identified trainees at risk for failure to acquire critical competencies for surgical pathology early in the program. PMID:21975705

  4. Neurodegenerative disorder FTDP-17-related tau intron 10 +16C → T mutation increases tau exon 10 splicing and causes tauopathy in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Takenari; Kimura, Tetsuya; Ohnishi, Kiyouhisa; Takuma, Hiroshi; Ozeki, Tomoko; Takashima, Akihiko; Tomiyama, Takami; Mori, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the tau gene. Many mutations identified in FTDP-17 have been shown to affect tau exon 10 splicing in vitro, which presumably causes pathologic imbalances in exon 10(-) [3-repeat (3R)] and exon 10(+) [4-repeat (4R)] tau expression and leads to intracellular inclusions of hyperphosphorylated tau in patient brains. However, no reports have investigated this theory using model mice with a tau intronic mutation. Herein, we generated new transgenic mice harboring the tau intron 10 +16C → T mutation. We prepared a transgene construct containing intronic sequences required for exon 10 splicing in the longest tau isoform cDNA. Although mice bearing the construct without the intronic mutation showed normal developmental changes of the tau isoform from 3R tau to equal amounts of 3R and 4R tau, mice with the mutation showed much higher levels of 4R tau at the adult stage. 4R tau was selectively recovered in insoluble brain fractions in their old age. Furthermore, these mice displayed abnormal tau phosphorylation, synapse loss and dysfunction, memory impairment, glial activation, tangle formation, and neuronal loss in an age-dependent manner. These findings provide the first evidence in a mouse model that a tau intronic mutation-induced imbalance of 3R and 4R tau could be a cause of tauopathy. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rate of local tumor progression following radiofrequency ablation of pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yoshiteru; Numata, Kazushi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakano, Masayuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2017-05-07

    To evaluate whether pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibited local tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) less often than typical HCC. Fifty pathologically early HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.8; range, 10-23; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1213; range, 216-2137] and 187 typical HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.6; range, 6-30; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1116; range, 190-2328] were enrolled in this retrospective study. The presence of stromal invasion (namely, tumor cell invasion into the intratumoral portal tracts) was considered to be the most important pathologic finding for the diagnosis of early HCCs. Typical HCC was defined as the presence of a hyper-vascular lesion accompanied by delayed washout using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3-mo intervals to monitor for signs of local tumor progression. The local tumor progression rates of pathologically early HCCs and typical HCCs were then determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. During the follow-up period for the 50 pathologically early HCCs, 49 (98%) of the nodules did not exhibit local tumor progression. However, 1 nodule (2%) was associated with a local tumor progression found 636 d after RFA. For the 187 typical HCCs, 46 (24.6%) of the nodules exhibited local recurrence after RFA. The follow-up period until the local tumor progression of typical HCC was a median of 605 d, ranging from 181 to 1741 d. Among the cases with typical HCCs, local tumor progression had occurred in 7.0% (7/187), 16.0% (30/187), 21.9% (41/187) and 24.6% (46/187) of the cases at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Pathologically early HCC was statistically associated with a lower rate of local tumor progression, compared with typical HCC, when evaluated using a log-rank test ( P = 0.002). The rate of local tumor progression for pathologically early HCCs after RFA was significantly lower

  6. Rate of local tumor progression following radiofrequency ablation of pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yoshiteru; Numata, Kazushi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakano, Masayuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate whether pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibited local tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) less often than typical HCC. METHODS Fifty pathologically early HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.8; range, 10-23; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1213; range, 216-2137] and 187 typical HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.6; range, 6-30; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1116; range, 190-2328] were enrolled in this retrospective study. The presence of stromal invasion (namely, tumor cell invasion into the intratumoral portal tracts) was considered to be the most important pathologic finding for the diagnosis of early HCCs. Typical HCC was defined as the presence of a hyper-vascular lesion accompanied by delayed washout using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3-mo intervals to monitor for signs of local tumor progression. The local tumor progression rates of pathologically early HCCs and typical HCCs were then determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS During the follow-up period for the 50 pathologically early HCCs, 49 (98%) of the nodules did not exhibit local tumor progression. However, 1 nodule (2%) was associated with a local tumor progression found 636 d after RFA. For the 187 typical HCCs, 46 (24.6%) of the nodules exhibited local recurrence after RFA. The follow-up period until the local tumor progression of typical HCC was a median of 605 d, ranging from 181 to 1741 d. Among the cases with typical HCCs, local tumor progression had occurred in 7.0% (7/187), 16.0% (30/187), 21.9% (41/187) and 24.6% (46/187) of the cases at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Pathologically early HCC was statistically associated with a lower rate of local tumor progression, compared with typical HCC, when evaluated using a log-rank test (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION The rate of local tumor progression for pathologically early HCCs after

  7. The relationship between early biochemical failure and perineural invasion in pathological T2 prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Endrizzi, J; Seay, T

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate, in patients with pathologically localized prostate cancer, the relationship between early biochemical failure, i.e. an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and perineural invasion (PNI) on final pathology. The records were reviewed of 171 patients with prostate cancer who underwent prostatectomy at one institution between January 1992 and December 1995. Data on the histology, therapy and PSA level were collected and evaluated. Of the 171 patients with pathologically localized (pT2) prostate cancer, 131 were evaluable; 17 (13%) had a detectable PSA level in the first 5 years after surgery and 63 had PNI in the pathological specimen. Of those with PSA recurrence, 14 had PNI, one had no PNI and in two there was no comment on PNI. In comparison, only 10 of the 17 patients with recurrence had a Gleason sum of >/= 7. Perineural invasion seems to be an important predictor of early outcome in patients with organ-confined prostate cancer treated by prostatectomy. In this series it was the most sensitive predictor of biochemical failure. A more detailed pathological evaluation of prostate cancer may allow the clinician to provide closer surveillance and better informed clinical decision-making.

  8. Regional tau deposition and subregion atrophy of medial temporal structures in early Alzheimer's disease: A combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sone, Daichi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Maikusa, Norihide; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Furumoto, Shozo; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Ogawa, Masayo; Takano, Harumasa; Yokoi, Yuma; Sakata, Masuhiro; Tsukamoto, Tadashi; Kato, Koichi; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging and selective hippocampal subfield atrophy are a focus of recent Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Here, we investigated correlations between molecular imaging and hippocampal subfields in early AD. We investigated 18 patients with early AD and 18 healthy control subjects using 11 C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) and 18 F-THK5351 PET and automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields with high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The PET images were normalized and underwent voxelwise regression analysis with each subregion volumes using SPM12. As for 18 F-THK5351 PET, the bilateral perirhinal cortex volumes were significantly associated with the ipsilateral or bilateral temporal lobar uptakes, whereas hippocampal subfields showed no correlations. 11 C-PIB PET showed relatively broad negative correlation with the right cornu ammonis 3 volumes. Regional tau deposition was correlated with extrahippocampal subregional atrophy and not with hippocampal subfields, possibly reflecting different underlying mechanisms of atrophy in early AD. Amyloid might be associated with right cornu ammonis 3 atrophy.

  9. Tau Kung | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Tau Kung Photo of Feitau Kung Tau Kung Commercial Buildings Research Engineer Feitau.Kung@nrel.gov evaluating building system energy performance in commercial settings, such as office, healthcare, higher

  10. Tau aggregation influences cognition and hippocampal atrophy in the absence of beta-amyloid: a clinico-imaging-pathological study of primary age-related tauopathy (PART).

    PubMed

    Josephs, Keith A; Murray, Melissa E; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Knopman, David S; Machulda, Mary M; Weigand, Stephen D; Boeve, Bradley F; Kantarci, Kejal; Petrucelli, Leonard; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Parisi, Joseph E; Dickson, Dennis W

    2017-05-01

    We investigate whether there is any association between the Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage and clinical and MRI features in definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). We analysed 52 cases with a Braak NFT tangle stage >0 and ≤IV, and a Thal phase of 0 (no beta-amyloid present). Twenty-nine (56%) were female. Median age at death was 88 years (IQR 82-92 years). Fifteen (29%) were TDP-positive (75% TDP stage I), 16 (31%) had argyrophilic grain disease and three (6%) had alpha-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies. TDP-43 inclusion when present were rare and predominantly perivascular. Of the 15 with TDP-43, three showed a moderate number of inclusions and also had hippocampal sclerosis, neuronal intranuclear inclusions and fine neurites of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Four cases (8%) had an apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE4) allele. There was a significant correlation between age at death and Braak NFT stage (r = 0.32, p = 0.02). After accounting for age at clinical examination, there were significant associations between Braak NFT stage, and WAIS-R Block Design and Trail Making Tests A and B, with higher Braak stage associated with poorer performances. Thirty of the 52 cases had completed an antemortem volumetric head MRI. Two separate MRI analyses revealed an association between higher Braak NFT stage and grey matter atrophy in the head of the left hippocampus. There were no significant clinical or radiologic associations with TDP-43. Findings from this study demonstrate that aggregated tau distribution is associated with poorer cognitive performance, as well as atrophy, in the absence of beta-amyloid. These findings support the parcellation of definite PART as a useful construct. The relatively low frequencies of APOE4, TDP-43, Lewy bodies, and hippocampal sclerosis, and the rarity and morphology of TDP-43 lesions are noted contrasts to what is typically observed in Alzheimer's disease of the old.

  11. Tyrosine Nitration within the Proline-Rich Region of Tau in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Juan F.; Fu, Yifan; Vana, Laurel; Kanaan, Nicholas M.; Binder, Lester I.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence suggests that nitrative injury contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Previously, we showed in vitro that within the tau protein the N-terminal tyrosine residues (Y18 and Y29) are more susceptible to nitrative modifications than other tyrosine sites (Y197 and Y394). Using site-specific antibodies to nitrated tau at Y18 and Y29, we identified tau nitrated in both glial (Y18) and neuronal (Y29) tau pathologies. In this study, we report the characterization of two novel monoclonal antibodies, Tau-nY197 and Tau-nY394, recognizing tau nitrated at Y197 and Y394, respectively. By Western blot analysis, Tau-nY197 labeled soluble tau and insoluble paired helical filament proteins (PHF-tau) nitrated at Y197 from control and AD brain samples. Tau-nY394 failed to label soluble tau isolated from control or severe AD samples, but labeled insoluble PHF-tau to a limited extent. Immunohistochemical analysis using Tau-nY197 revealed the hallmark tau pathology associated with AD; Tau-nY394 did not detect any pathological lesions characteristic of the disorder. These data suggest that a subset of the hallmark pathological inclusions of AD contain tau nitrated at Y197. However, nitration at Y197 was also identified in soluble tau from all control samples, including those at Braak stage 0, suggesting that nitration at this site in the proline-rich region of tau may have normal biological functions in the human brain. PMID:21514440

  12. PET Imaging of Tau Deposition in the Aging Human Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Schöll, Michael; Lockhart, Samuel N.; Schonhaut, Daniel R.

    Tau pathology is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also occurs in normal cognitive aging. In this study, using the tau PET agent 18F-AV-1451, we examined retention patterns in cognitively normal older people in relation to young controls and AD patients. Age and β-amyloid (measured using PiB PET) were differentially associated with tau tracer retention in healthy aging. Older age was related to increased tracer retention in regions of the medial temporal lobe, which predicted worse episodic memory performance. PET detection of tau in other isocortical regions required the presence of cortical β-amyloid and was associated with decline inmore » global cognition. Furthermore, patterns of tracer retention corresponded well with Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau pathology. In conclusion, the present study defined patterns of tau tracer retention in normal aging in relation to age, cognition, and β-amyloid deposition.« less

  13. PET Imaging of Tau Deposition in the Aging Human Brain

    DOE PAGES

    Schöll, Michael; Lockhart, Samuel N.; Schonhaut, Daniel R.; ...

    2016-03-02

    Tau pathology is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also occurs in normal cognitive aging. In this study, using the tau PET agent 18F-AV-1451, we examined retention patterns in cognitively normal older people in relation to young controls and AD patients. Age and β-amyloid (measured using PiB PET) were differentially associated with tau tracer retention in healthy aging. Older age was related to increased tracer retention in regions of the medial temporal lobe, which predicted worse episodic memory performance. PET detection of tau in other isocortical regions required the presence of cortical β-amyloid and was associated with decline inmore » global cognition. Furthermore, patterns of tracer retention corresponded well with Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau pathology. In conclusion, the present study defined patterns of tau tracer retention in normal aging in relation to age, cognition, and β-amyloid deposition.« less

  14. PET Imaging of Tau Deposition in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schonhaut, Daniel R.; O’Neil, James P.; Janabi, Mustafa; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Baker, Suzanne L.; Vogel, Jacob W.; Faria, Jamie; Schwimmer, Henry D.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Jagust, William J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Tau pathology is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also occurs in normal cognitive aging. Using the tau PET agent 18F-AV-1451, we examined retention patterns in cognitively normal older people in relation to young controls and AD patients. Age and β-amyloid (measured using PiB PET) were differentially associated with tau tracer retention in healthy aging. Older age was related to increased tracer retention in regions of the medial temporal lobe, which predicted worse episodic memory performance. PET detection of tau in other isocortical regions required the presence of cortical β-amyloid, and was associated with decline in global cognition. Furthermore, patterns of tracer retention corresponded well with Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau pathology. The present study defined patterns of tau tracer retention in normal aging in relation to age, cognition, and β-amyloid deposition. PMID:26938442

  15. Tau mislocalization to dendritic spines mediates synaptic dysfunction independently of neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Brian R.; Reed, Miranda N.; Su, Jianjun; Penrod, Rachel D.; Kotilinek, Linda A.; Grant, Marianne K.; Pitstick, Rose; Carlson, George A.; Lanier, Lorene M.; Yuan, Li-Lian; Ashe, Karen H.; Liao, Dezhi

    2010-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau accumulates in Alzheimer’s and other fatal dementias, which manifest when forebrain neurons die. Recent advances in understanding these disorders indicate that brain dysfunction precedes neurodegeneration, but the role of tau is unclear. Here, we show that early tau-related deficits develop not from the loss of synapses or neurons, but rather as a result of synaptic abnormalities caused by the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau within intact dendritic spines, where it disrupts synaptic function by impairing glutamate receptor trafficking or synaptic anchoring. Mutagenesis of 14 disease-associated serine and threonine amino acid residues to create pseudohyperphosphorylated tau caused tau mislocalization while creation of phosphorylation-deficient tau blocked the mis-targeting of tau to dendritic spines. Thus, tau phosphorylation plays a critical role in mediating tau mislocalization and subsequent synaptic impairment. These data establish that the locus of early synaptic malfunction caused by tau resides in dendritic spines. PMID:21172610

  16. Passive Immunization with Anti-Tau Antibodies in Two Transgenic Models

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Xiyun; Wu, Su; Murray, Tracey K.; Kinley, Robert; Cella, Claire V.; Sims, Helen; Buckner, Nicola; Hanmer, Jenna; Davies, Peter; O'Neill, Michael J.; Hutton, Michael L.; Citron, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and several related disorders (tauopathies). In the disease Tau aggregates and becomes hyperphosphorylated forming paired helical and straight filaments, which can further condense into higher order neurofibrillary tangles in neurons. The development of this pathology is consistently associated with progressive neuronal loss and cognitive decline. The identification of tractable therapeutic targets in this pathway has been challenging, and consequently very few clinical studies addressing Tau pathology are underway. Recent active immunization studies have raised the possibility of modulating Tau pathology by activating the immune system. Here we report for the first time on passive immunotherapy for Tau in two well established transgenic models of Tau pathogenesis. We show that peripheral administration of two antibodies against pathological Tau forms significantly reduces biochemical Tau pathology in the JNPL3 mouse model. We further demonstrate that peripheral administration of the same antibodies in the more rapidly progressive P301S tauopathy model not only reduces Tau pathology quantitated by biochemical assays and immunohistochemistry, but also significantly delays the onset of motor function decline and weight loss. This is accompanied by a reduction in neurospheroids, providing direct evidence of reduced neurodegeneration. Thus, passive immunotherapy is effective at preventing the buildup of intracellular Tau pathology, neurospheroids, and associated symptoms, although the exact mechanism remains uncertain. Tau immunotherapy should therefore be considered as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies. PMID:21841002

  17. [On "early pathologic anatomy" and "anatomy of medical structure": continuity or point of epistemological rupture?].

    PubMed

    Lellouch, Alain

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the technical, conceptual and institutional changes from which, through macroscopic pathology, a new medical science (microscopic pathology) emerged. The "early" pathology was mainly implemented by the Ecole de Paris, at the beginning of the 19th century. After 1850, histo-pathology emerged, in German university institutes (which were separate buildings from the wards and from the dissecting rooms of the hospitals). The birth of histo-pathology is also linked with technical improvements in mass manufactured microscopes, with better techniques for fixing and staining histological samples and lastly, in (1848) withVirchow's cellular theory. Among French doctors, only one, the very famous physician Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was aware of these dramatic changes. Charcot wrote many texts which are testimonies of an epistemological rupture between two very different types of medicine, the old French "médecine d'hôpital" and the new "lab medicine", developed in German speaking countries and based on the microscope.

  18. Is phosphorylated tau unique to chronic traumatic encephalopathy? Phosphorylated tau in epileptic brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Puvenna, Vikram; Engeler, Madeline; Banjara, Manoj; Brennan, Chanda; Schreiber, Peter; Dadas, Aaron; Bahrami, Ashkon; Solanki, Jesal; Bandyopadhyay, Anasua; Morris, Jacqueline K; Bernick, Charles; Ghosh, Chaitali; Rapp, Edward; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Janigro, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI) is one of the major risk factors for the abnormal deposition of phosphorylated tau (PT) in the brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affect the limbic system, but no comparative studies on PT distribution in TLE and CTE are available. It is also unclear whether PT pathology results from repeated head hits (rTBI). These gaps prevent a thorough understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical significance of PT, limiting our ability to develop preventative and therapeutic interventions. We quantified PT in TLE and CTE to unveil whether a history of rTBI is a prerequisite for PT accumulation in the brain. Six postmortem CTE (mean 73.3 years) and age matched control samples were compared to 19 surgically resected TLE brain specimens (4 months-58 years; mean 27.6 years). No history of TBI was present in TLE or control; all CTE patients had a history of rTBI. TLE and CTE brain displayed increased levels of PT as revealed by immunohistochemistry. No age-dependent changes were noted, as PT was present as early as 4 months after birth. In TLE and CTE, cortical neurons, perivascular regions around penetrating pial vessels and meninges were immunopositive for PT; white matter tracts also displayed robust expression of extracellular PT organized in bundles parallel to venules. Microscopically, there were extensive tau-immunoreactive neuronal, astrocytic and degenerating neurites throughout the brain. In CTE perivascular tangles were most prominent. Overall, significant differences in staining intensities were found between CTE and control (P<0.01) but not between CTE and TLE (P=0.08). pS199 tau analysis showed that CTE had the most high molecular weight tangle-associated tau, whereas epileptic brain contained low molecular weight tau. Tau deposition may not be specific to rTBI since TLE recapitulated most of the pathological features of CTE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Curcumin Suppresses Soluble Tau Dimers and Corrects Molecular Chaperone, Synaptic, and Behavioral Deficits in Aged Human Tau Transgenic Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiu-Lan; Zuo, Xiaohong; Yang, Fusheng; Ubeda, Oliver J.; Gant, Dana J.; Alaverdyan, Mher; Teng, Edmond; Hu, Shuxin; Chen, Ping-Ping; Maiti, Panchanan; Teter, Bruce; Cole, Greg M.; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying Tau-related synaptic and cognitive deficits and the interrelationships between Tau species, their clearance pathways, and synaptic impairments remain poorly understood. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we examined these interrelationships in aged non-mutant genomic human Tau mice, with established Tau pathology and neuron loss. We also examined how these interrelationships changed with an intervention by feeding mice either a control diet or one containing the brain permeable beta-amyloid and Tau aggregate binding molecule curcumin. Transgene-dependent elevations in soluble and insoluble phospho-Tau monomer and soluble Tau dimers accompanied deficits in behavior, hippocampal excitatory synaptic markers, and molecular chaperones (heat shock proteins (HSPs)) involved in Tau degradation and microtubule stability. In human Tau mice but not control mice, HSP70, HSP70/HSP72, and HSP90 were reduced in membrane-enriched fractions but not in cytosolic fractions. The synaptic proteins PSD95 and NR2B were reduced in dendritic fields and redistributed into perikarya, corresponding to changes observed by immunoblot. Curcumin selectively suppressed levels of soluble Tau dimers, but not of insoluble and monomeric phospho-Tau, while correcting behavioral, synaptic, and HSP deficits. Treatment increased PSD95 co-immunoprecipitating with NR2B and, independent of transgene, increased HSPs implicated in Tau clearance. It elevated HSP90 and HSC70 without increasing HSP mRNAs; that is, without induction of the heat shock response. Instead curcumin differentially impacted HSP90 client kinases, reducing Fyn without reducing Akt. In summary, curcumin reduced soluble Tau and elevated HSPs involved in Tau clearance, showing that even after tangles have formed, Tau-dependent behavioral and synaptic deficits can be corrected. PMID:23264626

  20. Multiple cytokines are involved in the early events leading to the Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wilberding, Akiko; Morimoto, Kaori; Satoh, Haruhisa; Harano, Keiko; Harano, Teruo; Arita, Seizaburo; Tooyama, Ikuo; Konishi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    It is likely that neuroinflammation begins well before detectable cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) occurs. Clarifying the alterations occurring prior to the clinical manifestation of overt AD dementia may provide valuable insight into the early diagnosis and management of AD. Herein, to address the issue that neuroinflammation precedes development of AD pathology, we analyzed cytokine expression profiles of the brain, with focus on non-demented control patients with increasing AD pathology, referred to as high pathology control (HPC) cases, who provide an intermediate subset between AD and normal control cases referred to as low pathology control (LPC) cases. With a semi-quantitative analysis of cytokine mRNA, among 15 cytokines and their related molecules tested, we found the involvement of eight: interleukin-1(IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-1 converting enzyme (ICE), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 during the development from LPC to HPC, while decreases in IL-1ra, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNFα, and an increase in TACE were implicated in the later development from HPC to AD. These findings indicate that neuroinflammation precedes the clinical manifestation of overt dementia, rather than being involved at the later stages of AD. PMID:22586434

  1. Changes in pathology test ordering by early career general practitioners: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Magin, Parker J; Tapley, Amanda; Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Davey, Andrew R; Ball, Jean; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Mulquiney, Katie J; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-07-17

    To assess the number of pathology tests ordered by general practice registrars during their first 18-24 months of clinical general practice. Longitudinal analysis of ten rounds of data collection (2010-2014) for the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study, an ongoing, multicentre, cohort study of general practice registrars in Australia. The principal analysis employed negative binomial regression in a generalised estimating equations framework (to account for repeated measures on registrars).Setting, participants: General practice registrars in training posts with five of 17 general practice regional training providers in five Australian states. The registrar participation rate was 96.4%. Number of pathology tests requested per consultation. The time unit for analysis was the registrar training term (the 6-month full-time equivalent component of clinical training); registrars contributed data for up to four training terms. 876 registrars contributed data for 114 584 consultations. The number of pathology tests requested increased by 11% (95% CI, 8-15%; P < 0.001) per training term. Contrary to expectations, pathology test ordering by general practice registrars increased significantly during their first 2 years of clinical practice. This causes concerns about overtesting. As established general practitioners order fewer tests than registrars, test ordering may peak during late vocational training and early career practice. Registrars need support during this difficult period in the development of their clinical practice patterns.

  2. The Role of Tau in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Its Potential as a Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The abnormal deposition of proteins in and around neurons is a common pathological feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. Among these pathological proteins, the microtubule-associated protein tau forms intraneuronal filaments in a spectrum of neurological disorders. The discovery that dominant mutations in the MAPT gene encoding tau are associated with familial frontotemporal dementia strongly supports abnormal tau protein as directly involved in disease pathogenesis. This and other evidence suggest that tau is a worthwhile target for the prevention or treatment of tau-associated neurodegenerative diseases, collectively called tauopathies. However, it is critical to understand the normal biological roles of tau, the specific molecular events that induce tau to become neurotoxic, the biochemical nature of pathogenic tau, the means by which pathogenic tau exerts neurotoxicity, and how tau pathology propagates. Based on known differences between normal and abnormal tau, a number of approaches have been taken toward the discovery of potential therapeutics. Key questions still remain open, such as the nature of the connection between the amyloid-β protein of Alzheimer's disease and tau pathology. Answers to these questions should help better understand the nature of tauopathies and may also reveal new therapeutic targets and strategies. PMID:24278740

  3. Loss of Prohibitin Membrane Scaffolds Impairs Mitochondrial Architecture and Leads to Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Merkwirth, Carsten; Morbin, Michela; Brönneke, Hella S.; Jordan, Sabine D.; Rugarli, Elena I.; Langer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Fusion and fission of mitochondria maintain the functional integrity of mitochondria and protect against neurodegeneration, but how mitochondrial dysfunctions trigger neuronal loss remains ill-defined. Prohibitins form large ring complexes in the inner membrane that are composed of PHB1 and PHB2 subunits and are thought to function as membrane scaffolds. In Caenorhabditis elegans, prohibitin genes affect aging by moderating fat metabolism and energy production. Knockdown experiments in mammalian cells link the function of prohibitins to membrane fusion, as they were found to stabilize the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1 (optic atrophy 1), which mediates mitochondrial inner membrane fusion and cristae morphogenesis. Mutations in OPA1 are associated with dominant optic atrophy characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells, highlighting the importance of OPA1 function in neurons. Here, we show that neuron-specific inactivation of Phb2 in the mouse forebrain causes extensive neurodegeneration associated with behavioral impairments and cognitive deficiencies. We observe early onset tau hyperphosphorylation and filament formation in the hippocampus, demonstrating a direct link between mitochondrial defects and tau pathology. Loss of PHB2 impairs the stability of OPA1, affects mitochondrial ultrastructure, and induces the perinuclear clustering of mitochondria in hippocampal neurons. A destabilization of the mitochondrial genome and respiratory deficiencies manifest in aged neurons only, while the appearance of mitochondrial morphology defects correlates with tau hyperphosphorylation in the absence of PHB2. These results establish an essential role of prohibitin complexes for neuronal survival in vivo and demonstrate that OPA1 stability, mitochondrial fusion, and the maintenance of the mitochondrial genome in neurons depend on these scaffolding proteins. Moreover, our findings establish prohibitin-deficient mice as a novel genetic model for tau pathologies

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints in the early detection of spondyloarthritis: no added value of gadolinium compared with short tau inversion recovery sequence.

    PubMed

    de Hooge, Manouk; van den Berg, Rosaline; Navarro-Compán, Victoria; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom; Reijnierse, Monique

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the additional value of T1 fat-saturated after gadolinium (T1/Gd) compared with T1 and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence in detecting active lesions of the SI joints typical of axial SpA (axSpA) in a prospective cohort study, the SpondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort, and to assess its influence on final MRI diagnosis of the SI joint (MRI-SIJ) based on the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) definition of active sacroiliitis. Patients in the SPACE cohort received baseline and 3-month follow-up MRI-SIJ with coronal oblique T1, STIR and T1/Gd sequences. Bone marrow oedema (BME), capsulitis/enthesitis and synovitis and active sacroiliitis according to the ASAS definition were evaluated by three blinded readers. A total of 127 patients received an MRI-SIJ at baseline and 67 patients also received an MRI-SIJ at 3 months follow-up since the Gd protocol was added some months after the start of the SPACE project. Twenty-five of the 127 patients (19.7%) with a baseline MRI-SIJ and 14 of 67 patients (20.6%) with a follow-up MRI-SIJ presented BME on the STIR sequence sufficient to fulfill the ASAS definition for a positive MRI-SIJ. In eight patients, additional synovitis and/or capsulitis/enthesitis was observed; however, no additional BME was visualized on T1/Gd. One patient, without clinical diagnosis of axSpA, showed synovitis as an isolated finding. Synovitis and capsulitis/enthesitis are detectable with the administration of Gd. However, they are always observed in the presence of BME. Therefore T1 and STIR sequence alone are sufficient in the MRI assessment that, among others, is used for diagnosing patients with early axSpA.

  5. Consequences of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Early Adversity on Behavioral Profile – Pathology or Adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Heiming, Rebecca S.; Sachser, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on how behavioral profile is shaped by early adversity in individuals with varying serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. In a recent study on 5-HTT knockout mice Heiming et al. (2009) simulated a ‘dangerous environment‘ by confronting pregnant and lactating females with odor cues of unfamiliar males, indicating the risk of infant killing. Growing up in a dangerous environment induced increased anxiety-related behavior and decreased exploratory locomotion in the offspring, the effects being most pronounced in mice lacking 5-HTT expression. We argue that these alterations in behavioral profile represent adaptive maternal effects that help the individuals to cope with adversity. In principle, such effects of adversity on behavioral profile should not automatically be regarded as pathological. Rather and in accordance with modern evolutionary theory they may represent adaptations, although individuals with 5-HTT genotype induced susceptibility to adversity may be at risk of developing pathologies. PMID:21151780

  6. The toxicity of tau in Alzheimer disease: turnover, targets and potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Susanne M; Dolan, Philip J; Vitkus, Alisa; Johnson, Gail V W

    2011-08-01

    It has been almost 25 years since the initial discovery that tau was the primary component of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Although AD is defined by both β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology (Aβ plaques) and tau pathology (NFTs), whether or not tau played a critical role in disease pathogenesis was a subject of discussion for many years. However, given the increasing evidence that pathological forms of tau can compromise neuronal function and that tau is likely an important mediator of Aβ toxicity, there is a growing awareness that tau is a central player in AD pathogenesis. In this review we begin with a brief history of tau, then provide an overview of pathological forms of tau, followed by a discussion of the differential degradation of tau by either the proteasome or autophagy and possible mechanisms by which pathological forms of tau may exert their toxicity. We conclude by discussing possible avenues for therapeutic intervention based on these emerging themes of tau's role in AD. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. 18F-AV-1451 tau PET imaging correlates strongly with tau neuropathology in MAPT mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Andreas; Schöll, Michael; Ohlsson, Tomas; van Swieten, John; Honer, Michael; Englund, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tau positron emission tomography ligands provide the novel possibility to image tau pathology in vivo. However, little is known about how in vivo brain uptake of tau positron emission tomography ligands relates to tau aggregates observed post-mortem. We performed tau positron emission tomography imaging with 18F-AV-1451 in three patients harbouring a p.R406W mutation in the MAPT gene, encoding tau. This mutation results in 3- and 4-repeat tau aggregates similar to those in Alzheimer’s disease, and many of the mutation carriers initially suffer from memory impairment and temporal lobe atrophy. Two patients with short disease duration and isolated memory impairment exhibited 18F-AV-1451 uptake mainly in the hippocampus and adjacent temporal lobe regions, correlating with glucose hypometabolism in corresponding regions. One patient died after 26 years of disease duration with dementia and behavioural deficits. Pre-mortem, there was 18F-AV-1451 uptake in the temporal and frontal lobes, as well as in the basal ganglia, which strongly correlated with the regional extent and amount of tau pathology in post-mortem brain sections. Amyloid-β (18F-flutemetamol) positron emission tomography scans were negative in all cases, as were stainings of brain sections for amyloid. This provides strong evidence that 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography can be used to accurately quantify in vivo the regional distribution of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. PMID:27357347

  8. Rapid Neurofibrillary Tangle Formation after Localized Gene Transfer of Mutated Tau

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald L.; Lin, Wen-Lang; Dickson, Dennis W.; Lewis, Jada; Hutton, Michael; Duff, Karen; Meyer, Edwin M.; King, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Neurofibrillary pathology was produced in the brains of adult rats after localized gene transfer of human tau carrying the P301L mutation, which is associated with frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism. Within 1 month of in situ transfection of the basal forebrain region of normal rats, tau-immunoreactive and argyrophilic neuronal lesions formed. The fibrillar lesions had features of neurofibrillary tangles and tau immunoreactivity at light and electron microscopic levels. In addition to neurofibrillary tangles, other tau pathology, including pretangles and neuropil threads, was abundant and widespread. Tau gene transfer to the hippocampal region of amyloid-depositing transgenic mice produced pretangles and threads, as well as intensely tau-immunoreactive neurites in amyloid plaques. The ability to produce neurofibrillary pathology in adult rodents makes this a useful method to study tau-related neurodegeneration. PMID:14695347

  9. Ultrastructural characteristics of tau filaments in tauopathies: immuno-electron microscopic demonstration of tau filaments in tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Arima, Kunimasa

    2006-10-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau aggregates into filaments in the form of neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads and argyrophilic grains in neurons, in the form of variable astrocytic tangles in astrocytes and in the form of coiled bodies and argyrophilic threads in oligodendrocytes. These tau filaments may be classified into two types, straight filaments or tubules with 9-18 nm diameters and "twisted ribbons" composed of two parallel aligned components. In the same disease, the fine structure of tau filaments in glial cells roughly resembles that in neurons. In sporadic tauopathies, individual tau filaments show characteristic sizes, shapes and arrangements, and therefore contribute to neuropathologic differential diagnosis. In frontotemporal dementias caused by tau gene mutations, variable filamentous profiles were observed in association with mutation sites and insoluble tau isoforms, including straight filaments or tubules, paired helical filament-like filaments, and twisted ribbons. Pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopic studies were carried out using anti-3-repeat tau and anti-4-repeat tau specific antibodies, RD3 and RD4. Straight tubules in neuronal and astrocytic Pick bodies were immunolabeled by the anti-3-repeat tau antibody. The anti-4-repeat tau antibody recognized abnormal tubules comprising neurofibrillary tangles, coiled bodies and argyrophilic threads in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration. In the pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopic study using the phosphorylated tau AT8 antibody, tuft-shaped astrocytes of PSP were found to be composed of bundles of abnormal tubules in processes and perikarya of protoplasmic astrocytes. In this study, the 3-repeat tau or 4-repeat tau epitope was detected in situ at the ultrastructural level in abnormal tubules in representative pathological lesions in Pick's disease, PSP and corticobasal degeneration.

  10. Poor sleep is associated with CSF biomarkers of amyloid pathology in cognitively normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Koscik, Rebecca L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Sager, Mark A.; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C.; Benca, Ruth M.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between sleep quality and CSF markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in late midlife. Methods: We investigated the relationship between sleep quality and CSF AD biomarkers in a cohort enriched for parental history of sporadic AD, the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention. A total of 101 participants (mean age 62.9 ± 6.2 years, 65.3% female) completed sleep assessments and CSF collection and were cognitively normal. Sleep quality was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. CSF was assayed for biomarkers of amyloid metabolism and plaques (β-amyloid 42 [Aβ42]), tau pathology (phosphorylated tau [p-tau] 181), neuronal/axonal degeneration (total tau [t-tau], neurofilament light [NFL]), neuroinflammation/astroglial activation (monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 [MCP-1], chitinase-3-like protein 1 [YKL-40]), and synaptic dysfunction/degeneration (neurogranin). To adjust for individual differences in total amyloid production, Aβ42 was expressed relative to Aβ40. To assess cumulative pathology, CSF biomarkers were expressed in ratio to Aβ42. Relationships among sleep scores and CSF biomarkers were assessed with multiple regression, controlling for age, sex, time between sleep and CSF measurements, and CSF assay batch. Results: Worse subjective sleep quality, more sleep problems, and daytime somnolence were associated with greater AD pathology, indicated by lower CSF Aβ42/Aβ40 and higher t-tau/Aβ42, p-tau/Aβ42, MCP-1/Aβ42, and YKL-40/Aβ42. There were no significant associations between sleep and NFL or neurogranin. Conclusions: Self-report of poor sleep was associated with greater AD-related pathology in cognitively healthy adults at risk for AD. Effective strategies exist for improving sleep; therefore sleep health may be a tractable target for early intervention to attenuate AD pathogenesis. PMID:28679595

  11. Sex differences of dental pathology in early modern samurai and commoners at Kokura in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, Joichi; Kitagawa, Yoshikazu; Hara, Masahito; Sakamoto, Junya; Matsushita, Takayuki; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Manabe, Yoshitaka

    2017-07-01

    So-called "Ohaguro", teeth blackening, in the married females was a general custom regardless of class in the early modern period. As a result, Ohaguro was thought to have enhanced the acid resistance of tooth substance and tightened gingiva and prevented tooth morbidity due to periodontal disease. For investigation into the influence of Ohaguro, the skeletal remains of early modern samurai and commoners at Kokura were examined for differences in the dental pathology based on sex. Though females from archeological sites have significantly more carious teeth and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) than males in the previous studies, the prevalence of caries and AMTL in males was higher than in females among the early modern samurai and commoners in Kokura. The efficacies of Ohaguro may influence the good dental health of females. On the other hand, as females were considered inferior to males under the feudal system in Japan, males, including children, might tend to consume more nutritious foods compared to females. However, those foods are certainly not better with regard to dental health, since those foods are more highly cariogenic. These factors may have caused higher caries and AMTL prevalence among males compared to females in early modern Kokura.

  12. Digital ELISA for the quantification of attomolar concentrations of Alzheimer's disease biomarker protein Tau in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, Elena; Decrop, Deborah; Ven, Karen; Tripodi, Lisa; Leirs, Karen; Rosseels, Joelle; van de Wouwer, Marlies; Geukens, Nick; De Vos, Ann; Vanmechelen, Eugeen; Winderickx, Joris; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Spasic, Dragana

    2018-07-26

    The close correlation between Tau pathology and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression makes this protein a suitable biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of the disorder evolution. However, the use of Tau in diagnostics has been hampered, as it currently requires collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is an invasive clinical procedure. Although measuring Tau-levels in blood plasma would be favorable, the concentrations are below the detection limit of a conventional ELISA. In this work, we developed a digital ELISA for the quantification of attomolar protein Tau concentrations in both buffer and biological samples. Individual Tau molecules were first captured on the surface of magnetic particles using in-house developed antibodies and subsequently isolated into the femtoliter-sized wells of a 2 × 2 mm 2 microwell array. Combination of high-affinity antibodies, optimal assay conditions and a digital quantification approach resulted in a 24 ± 7 aM limit of detection (LOD) in buffer samples. Additionally, a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude was achieved by combining the digital readout with an analogue approach, allowing quantification from attomolar to picomolar levels of Tau using the same platform. This proves the compatibility of the presented assay with the wide range of Tau concentrations encountered in different biological samples. Next, the developed digital assay was applied to detect total Tau levels in spiked blood plasma. A similar LOD (55 ± 29 aM) was obtained compared to the buffer samples, which was 5000-fold more sensitive than commercially available ELISAs and even outperformed previously reported digital assays with 10-fold increase in sensitivity. Finally, the performance of the developed digital ELISA was assessed by quantifying protein Tau in three clinical CSF samples. Here, a high correlation (i.e. Pearson coefficient of 0.99) was found between the measured percentage of active particles and the reference protein Tau

  13. PICALM modulates autophagy activity and tau accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kevin; Fleming, Angeleen; Imarisio, Sara; Lopez Ramirez, Ana; Mercer, Jacob L.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Maria; Bento, Carla F.; Puri, Claudia; Zavodszky, Eszter; Siddiqi, Farah; Lavau, Catherine P.; Betton, Maureen; O’Kane, Cahir J.; Wechsler, Daniel S.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including proteins involved in endocytic trafficking such as PICALM/CALM (phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein). It is unclear how these loci may contribute to AD pathology. Here we show that CALM modulates autophagy and alters clearance of tau, a protein which is a known autophagy substrate and which is causatively linked to AD, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, altered CALM expression exacerbates tau-mediated toxicity in zebrafish transgenic models. CALM influences autophagy by regulating the endocytosis of SNAREs, such as VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8, which have diverse effects on different stages of the autophagy pathway, from autophagosome formation to autophagosome degradation. This study suggests that the AD genetic risk factor CALM modulates autophagy, and this may affect disease in a number of ways including modulation of tau turnover. PMID:25241929

  14. Bruised Witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the Performance of Early Twentieth-Century English Forensic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    BURNEY, IAN; PEMBERTON, NEIL

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the ‘people’s pathologist’, Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury’s courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury’s findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, ‘celebrity’ pathologist, his scalpel and

  15. Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Burney, Ian; Pemberton, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the 'people's pathologist', Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury's courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury's findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, 'celebrity' pathologist, his scalpel and the mortuary

  16. In vivo signatures of nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia caused by FTLD pathology

    PubMed Central

    Caso, Francesca; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Henry, Maya; Gesierich, Benno; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Ogar, Jennifer; Filippi, Massimo; Comi, Giancarlo; Magnani, Giuseppe; Sidhu, Manu; Trojanowski, John Q.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Miller, Bruce L.; Dronkers, Nina; Seeley, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify early cognitive and neuroimaging features of sporadic nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) subtypes. Methods: We prospectively collected clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic data in 11 patients with sporadic nfvPPA with FTLD-tau (nfvPPA-tau, n = 9) or FTLD–transactive response DNA binding protein pathology of 43 kD type A (nfvPPA-TDP, n = 2). We analyzed patterns of cognitive and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy at presentation in the whole group and in each pathologic subtype separately. We also considered longitudinal clinical data. Results: At first evaluation, regardless of pathologic FTLD subtype, apraxia of speech (AOS) was the most common cognitive feature and atrophy involved the left posterior frontal lobe. Each pathologic subtype showed few distinctive features. At presentation, patients with nfvPPA-tau presented with mild to moderate AOS, mixed dysarthria with prominent hypokinetic features, clear agrammatism, and atrophy in the GM of the left posterior frontal regions and in left frontal WM. While speech and language deficits were prominent early, within 3 years of symptom onset, all patients with nfvPPA-tau developed significant extrapyramidal motor signs. At presentation, patients with nfvPPA-TDP had severe AOS, dysarthria with spastic features, mild agrammatism, and atrophy in left posterior frontal GM only. Selective mutism occurred early, when general neurologic examination only showed mild decrease in finger dexterity in the right hand. Conclusions: Clinical features in sporadic nfvPPA caused by FTLD subtypes relate to neurodegeneration of GM and WM in frontal motor speech and language networks. We propose that early WM atrophy in nfvPPA is suggestive of FTLD-tau pathology while early selective GM loss might be indicative of FTLD-TDP. PMID:24353332

  17. Tau Ranging Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    Report reviews history of tau ranging and advocates use of advanced electronic circuitry to revive this composite-code-uplink spacecraft-ranging technique. Very-large-scale integration gives new life to abandoned distance-measuring technique.

  18. In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Tobias; Fan, Qiuyun; Treaba, Constantina Andrada; Ouellette, Russell; Herranz, Elena; Mangeat, Gabriel; Louapre, Céline; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Klawiter, Eric C; Sloane, Jacob A; Mainero, Caterina

    2017-11-01

    Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P < 0.001), accompanied by an increased orientation dispersion (P < 0.001 by paired t-test) and lower fractional anisotropy (P < 0.001 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) suggestive of less coherent underlying fibre orientation. Additionally, the normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis

  19. Placental pathology in early intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, J H W; Nikkels, P G J; Torrance, H L; Gravesteijn, J; Post Uiterweer, E D; Derks, J B; Koenen, S V; Visser, G H A; Van Rijn, B B; Franx, A

    2014-09-01

    To identify key pathological characteristics of placentas from pregnancies complicated by early intrauterine growth restriction, and to examine their relations with maternal hypertensive disease and umbilical artery Doppler waveform abnormalities. Single-center retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow patterns resulting in a live birth <34 weeks of a baby with a weight <10th percentile for gestational age. Umbilical artery end diastolic flow was classified as being either present or absent/reversed (AREDF). Data were stratified into intrauterine growth restriction with or without hypertensive disease and pathological characteristics were compared between these various conditions according to predefined scoring criteria. Among 164 placentas studied, we found high rates of characteristic histopathological features that were associated with intrauterine growth restriction, including infarction (>5% in 42%), chronic villitis (21%), chronic chorioamnionitis (36%), membrane necrosis (20%), elevated nucleated red blood cells (89%), increased syncytial knotting (93%), increased villous maturation (98%), fetal thrombosis (32%) and distal villous hypoplasia (35%). Chronic inflammation of fetal membranes and syncytial knotting were more common in women with concomitant hypertensive disease as compared to women with normotensive IUGR (p < 0.05). Placentas from women with umbilical artery AREDF were more likely to show increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells and distal villous hypoplasia (p < 0.05). Placentas of women with early IUGR show high rates of several histological aberrations. Further, concomitant maternal hypertension is associated with characteristic inflammatory changes and umbilical artery AREDF with signs of chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paired Helical Filaments from Alzheimer Disease Brain Induce Intracellular Accumulation of Tau Protein in Aggresomes*

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Maria, Ismael; Varghese, Merina; Ksiȩżak-Reding, Hanna; Dzhun, Anastasiya; Wang, Jun; Pasinetti, Giulio M.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal folding of tau protein leads to the generation of paired helical filaments (PHFs) and neurofibrillary tangles, a key neuropathological feature in Alzheimer disease and tauopathies. A specific anatomical pattern of pathological changes developing in the brain suggests that once tau pathology is initiated it propagates between neighboring neuronal cells, possibly spreading along the axonal network. We studied whether PHFs released from degenerating neurons could be taken up by surrounding cells and promote spreading of tau pathology. Neuronal and non-neuronal cells overexpressing green fluorescent protein-tagged tau (GFP-Tau) were treated with isolated fractions of human Alzheimer disease-derived PHFs for 24 h. We found that cells internalized PHFs through an endocytic mechanism and developed intracellular GFP-Tau aggregates with attributes of aggresomes. This was particularly evident by the perinuclear localization of aggregates and redistribution of the vimentin intermediate filament network and retrograde motor protein dynein. Furthermore, the content of Sarkosyl-insoluble tau, a measure of abnormal tau aggregation, increased 3-fold in PHF-treated cells. An exosome-related mechanism did not appear to be involved in the release of GFP-Tau from untreated cells. The evidence that cells can internalize PHFs, leading to formation of aggresome-like bodies, opens new therapeutic avenues to prevent propagation and spreading of tau pathology. PMID:22496370

  1. ELISA measurement of specific antibodies to phosphorylated tau in intravenous immunoglobulin products.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, David A; Klaver, Andrea C; Coffey, Mary P

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products were recently studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Pilot studies produced encouraging results but phase II and III trials gave disappointing results; a further study is in progress. IVIG products contain antibodies to tau protein, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The tau used to detect IVIG's anti-tau antibodies in previous studies was non-phosphorylated recombinant human tau-441, but NFT-associated tau is extensively phosphorylated. The objective of this study was to determine if various IVIG products contain specific antibodies to phosphorylated tau (anti-pTau antibodies). ELISAs were used to evaluate binding of six IVIG products to a 12 amino acid peptide, tau 196-207, which was phosphorylated ("pTau peptide") or non-phosphorylated ("non-pTau peptide") at Serine-199 and Serine-202. Both amino acid residues are phosphorylated in AD NFTs. Each IVIG's "anti-pTau antibody ratio" was calculated by dividing its binding to the pTau peptide by its binding to the non-pTau peptide. Seven experiments were performed and data were pooled, with each experiment contributing one data point from each IVIG product. Mean anti-pTau antibody ratios greater than 1.0, suggesting specific antibodies to phosphorylated tau, were found for three IVIG products. Because administration of antibodies to phosphorylated tau has been found to reduce tau-associated pathology in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy, increasing the levels of anti-pTau antibodies, together with other selected antibodies such as anti-Aβ, in IVIG might increase its ability to slow AD's progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J; Crary, John F; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M; Ironside, James W; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R; Munoz, David G; Murray, Melissa E; Nelson, Peter T; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G; Bieniek, Kevin F; Bigio, Eileen H; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J; Mann, David M; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C; Vinters, Harry V; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B; White, Charles L; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M; Yamada, Masahito; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  3. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J.; Crary, John F.; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M.; Ironside, James W.; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Munoz, David G.; Murray, Melissa E.; Nelson, Peter T.; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G.; Bieniek, Kevin F.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N.; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M.; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J.; Mann, David M.; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C.; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J.; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B.; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D.; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A.; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B.; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vinters, Harry V.; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B.; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M.; Yamada, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  4. BAG3 facilitates the clearance of endogenous tau in primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhinian; Brizzee, Corey; Johnson, Gail V W

    2015-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule associated protein that is found primarily in neurons, and in pathologic conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) it accumulates and contributes to the disease process. Because tau plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of AD and other tauopathies, and in AD mouse models reducing tau levels improves outcomes, approaches that facilitate tau clearance are being considered as therapeutic strategies. However, fundamental to the development of such interventions is a clearer understanding of the mechanisms that regulate tau clearance. Here, we report a novel mechanism of tau degradation mediated by the co-chaperone BAG3. BAG3 has been shown to be an essential component of a complex that targets substrates to the autophagy pathway for degradation. In rat primary neurons, activation of autophagy by inhibition of proteasome activity or treatment with trehalose resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels. These treatments also induced an upregulation of BAG3. Proteasome inhibition activated JNK, which was responsible for the upregulation of BAG3 and increased tau clearance. Inhibiting JNK or knocking down BAG3 blocked the proteasome inhibition-induced decreases in tau. Further, BAG3 overexpression alone resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels in neurons. These results indicate that BAG3 plays a critical role in regulating the levels of tau in neurons, and interventions that increase BAG3 levels could provide a therapeutic approach in the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pluripotent cell models of fanconi anemia identify the early pathological defect in human hemoangiogenic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naoya M; Niwa, Akira; Yabe, Miharu; Hira, Asuka; Okada, Chihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Heike, Toshio; Takata, Minoru; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Saito, Megumu K

    2015-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a disorder of genomic instability characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), developmental abnormalities, and an increased susceptibility to cancer. Although various consequences in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells have been attributed to FA-BMF, the quest to identify the initial pathological event is still ongoing. To address this issue, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of six patients with FA and FANCA mutations. An improved reprogramming method yielded iPSC-like colonies from all patients, and iPSC clones were propagated from two patients. Quantitative evaluation of the differentiation ability demonstrated that the differentiation propensity toward the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages is already defective in early hemoangiogenic progenitors. The expression levels of critical transcription factors were significantly downregulated in these progenitors. These data indicate that the hematopoietic consequences in FA patients originate from the early hematopoietic stage and highlight the potential usefulness of iPSC technology for elucidating the pathogenesis of FA-BMF. ©AlphaMed Press.

  6. Newcomers in paediatric GI pathology: childhood enteropathies including very early onset monogenic IBD.

    PubMed

    Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.

  7. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Debbie; Solomon, Diane; Lawson, Herschel W.; Killackey, Maureen; Kulasingam, Shalini; Cain, Joanna; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Moriarty, Ann; Waxman, Alan; Wilbur, David; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Downs, Levi; Spitzer, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Saraiya, Mona; Franco, Eduardo L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Myers, Evan R.

    2013-01-01

    An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium co-sponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections. PMID:22418039

  8. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Debbie; Solomon, Diane; Lawson, Herschel W.; Killackey, Maureen; Kulasingam, Shalini; Cain, Joanna; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Moriarty, Ann; Waxman, Alan; Wilbur, David; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Downs, Levi; Spitzer, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Franco, Eduardo L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Myers, Evan R.

    2013-01-01

    An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium cosponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections. PMID:22422631

  9. Ki-67 expression in early prostate cancer and associated pathological lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Feneley, M R; Young, M P; Chinyama, C; Kirby, R S; Parkinson, M C

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To assess cell proliferation in early prostate cancer and associated pathological lesions. METHODS: Using the Ki-67 antibody, the cell proliferation index was measured in early stage prostatic carcinoma in 37 incidental tumours diagnosed at transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) and in 20 low volume cancers treated by radical prostatectomy. Proliferation indexes have also been measured in areas of normal peripheral zone, transition zone hyperplasia, atrophic appearing lobules, and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the radical prostatectomy cases. RESULTS: In the TURP series the proliferation index correlated with grade and stage. Logistic regression analysis, however, showed that Gleason grade was the most reliable predictor of biopsy proven residual disease and clinical progression. In the radical series transition zone carcinoma the proliferation index was half that of peripheral zone carcinoma. The atrophic lobules also showed a high proliferation index of the same order as seen in the peripheral zone carcinoma. Normal peripheral zone showed the lowest proliferation index and in hyperplastic transition zone it was also less than the other areas. CONCLUSIONS: There is only limited support for the correlation of proliferation index with grade in early stage prostatic carcinoma. The findings do not suggest that proliferation index adds to the prognostic information given by grade and stage in pT1 disease. The significant difference in proliferation index in transition zone and peripheral zone carcinomas supports the morphological distinction of these tumour types and is consistent with differences in biological behaviour. The high proliferation index in lobules considered morphologically atrophic is reminiscent of previous observations in which carcinoma was spatially associated with atrophy. Images PMID:9038759

  10. Caspase-2 cleavage of tau reversibly impairs memory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Kotilinek, Linda A; Smith, Benjamin; Hlynialuk, Chris; Zahs, Kathleen; Ramsden, Martin; Cleary, James; Ashe, Karen H

    2016-11-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies, the tau protein forms fibrils, which are believed to be neurotoxic. However, fibrillar tau has been dissociated from neuron death and network dysfunction, suggesting the involvement of nonfibrillar species. Here we describe a novel pathological process in which caspase-2 cleavage of tau at Asp314 impairs cognitive and synaptic function in animal and cellular models of tauopathies by promoting the missorting of tau to dendritic spines. The truncation product, Δtau314, resists fibrillation and is present at higher levels in brains from cognitively impaired mice and humans with AD. The expression of tau mutants that resisted caspase-2 cleavage prevented tau from infiltrating spines, dislocating glutamate receptors and impairing synaptic function in cultured neurons, and it prevented memory deficits and neurodegeneration in mice. Decreasing the levels of caspase-2 restored long-term memory in mice that had existing deficits. Our results suggest an overall treatment strategy for re-establishing synaptic function and restoring memory in patients with AD by preventing tau from accumulating in dendritic spines.

  11. Azaphilones inhibit tau aggregation and dissolve tau aggregates in vitro.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Smita R; Riley, Andrew P; Somoza, Amber D; Oakley, C Elizabeth; Wang, Clay C C; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Oakley, Berl R; Gamblin, T Chris

    2015-05-20

    The aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a seminal event in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The inhibition or reversal of tau aggregation is therefore a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Fungal natural products have proven to be a rich source of useful compounds having wide varieties of biological activities. We have previously screened Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites for their ability to inhibit tau aggregation in vitro using an arachidonic acid polymerization protocol. One aggregation inhibitor identified was asperbenzaldehyde, an intermediate in azaphilone biosynthesis. We therefore tested 11 azaphilone derivatives to determine their tau assembly inhibition properties in vitro. All compounds tested inhibited tau filament assembly to some extent, and four of the 11 compounds had the advantageous property of disassembling preformed tau aggregates in a dose-dependent fashion. The addition of these compounds to the tau aggregates reduced both the total length and number of tau polymers. The most potent compounds were tested in in vitro reactions to determine whether they interfere with tau's normal function of stabilizing microtubules (MTs). We found that they did not completely inhibit MT assembly in the presence of tau. These derivatives are very promising lead compounds for tau aggregation inhibitors and, more excitingly, for compounds that can disassemble pre-existing tau filaments. They also represent a new class of anti-tau aggregation compounds with a novel structural scaffold.

  12. [Per os early nutrition for colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Bustos, A; Creus Costas, G; Pujol Gebelli, J; Virgili Casas, N; Pita Mercé, A M

    2006-01-01

    Current less invasive surgical techniques, the use of new analgesic and anesthetic drugs, and early mobilization ("multimodal surgical strategies") reduce the occurrence of post-surgery paralytic ileus and vomiting, making possible early nutrition by the digestive route. With these premises, a nutrition protocol was designed for its implementation in colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery. to assess the efficacy of this protocol that comprises 3 phases. Phase I: home preparation with 7 days duration; low-residues and insoluble fiber diet, supplemented with 400 mL of hyperproteic polymeric formula with no lactose or fiber, bowel cleansing 2 days prior to surgery and hydration with water, sugared infusions, and vegetable broth. Phase II: immediate post-surgical period with watery diet for 3 days with polymeric diet with no fiber. Phase III: semi-solid diet with no residues, nutritional formula and progressive reintroduction of food intake in four stages of varying duration according to surgery and digestive tolerance. prospective study performed at our hospital with patients from our influence area, from February 2003 to May 2004, including 25 patients, 19 men and 6 women, with mean age of 63.3 years (range = 33-79) and mean body mass index of 26.25 kg/m2 (range = 20.84-31.3), all of them suffering from colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery, and to which the study protocol was applied. Fourteen left hemicolectomies, 5 right hemicolectomies, 4 low anterior resections with protective colostomy, and subtotal colectomies and lateral ileostomy were done. Final diagnoses were: 3 diverticular diseases; 3 adenomas; 7 rectosigmoidal neoplasms; and 12 large bowel neoplasms in other locations. The pathology study confirmed: pT3N0 (n = 7), pT3N1 (n = 3), pT3N2 (n = 1), and pT3N1M1 (n = 1), pT1N0 (n = 4), pT1N1 (n = 2), pTis (n = 1). Twelve patients were started on adjuvant therapy of which 3 had received an initial treatment

  13. Normative development of the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile from early childhood to adolescence: Associations with personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Deutz, Marike H F; Vossen, Helen G M; De Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja; Van Baar, Anneloes L; Prinzie, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The Dysregulation Profile (DP) is a broad indicator of concurrent affective, behavioral, and cognitive dysregulation, often measured with the anxious/depressed, aggressive behavior, and attention problems syndrome scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Despite an expanding body of research on the DP, knowledge of the normative developmental course of the DP from early childhood to adolescence is lacking. Furthermore, although we know that the DP longitudinally predicts personality pathology, no research yet has examined whether next to the DP in early childhood, the rate of change of the DP across development predicts personality pathology. Therefore, using cohort-sequential latent growth modeling in a population-based sample (N = 668), we examined the normative developmental course of mother-reported DP from ages 4 to 17 years and its associations with a wide range of adolescent-reported personality pathology dimensions 3 years later. The results showed that the DP follows a nonlinear developmental course with a peak in early adolescence. The initial level of the DP at age 4 and, to a lesser extent, the rate of change in the DP predicted a range of personality pathology dimensions in late adolescence. The findings suggest that the DP is a broad developmental precursor of personality pathology in late adolescence.

  14. Lysine-Directed Post-translational Modifications of Tau Protein in Alzheimer's Disease and Related Tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Kontaxi, Christiana; Piccardo, Pedro; Gill, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein responsible mainly for stabilizing the neuronal microtubule network in the brain. Under normal conditions, tau is highly soluble and adopts an “unfolded” conformation. However, it undergoes conformational changes resulting in a less soluble form with weakened microtubule stabilizing properties. Altered tau forms characteristic pathogenic inclusions in Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. Although, tau hyperphosphorylation is widely considered to be the major trigger of tau malfunction, tau undergoes several post-translational modifications at lysine residues including acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, and glycation. We are only beginning to define the site-specific impact of each type of lysine modification on tau biology as well as the possible interplay between them, but, like phosphorylation, these modifications are likely to play critical roles in tau's normal and pathobiology. This review summarizes the latest findings focusing on lysine post-translational modifications that occur at both endogenous tau protein and pathological tau forms in AD and other tauopathies. In addition, it highlights the significance of a site-dependent approach of studying tau post-translational modifications under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:28848737

  15. Neuronal uptake and propagation of a rare phosphorylated high-molecular-weight tau derived from Alzheimer's disease brain

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuko; Wegmann, Susanne; Cho, Hansang; DeVos, Sarah L.; Commins, Caitlin; Roe, Allyson D.; Nicholls, Samantha B.; Carlson, George A.; Pitstick, Rose; Nobuhara, Chloe K.; Costantino, Isabel; Frosch, Matthew P.; Müller, Daniel J.; Irimia, Daniel; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    Tau pathology is known to spread in a hierarchical pattern in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain during disease progression, likely by trans-synaptic tau transfer between neurons. However, the tau species involved in inter-neuron propagation remains unclear. To identify tau species responsible for propagation, we examined uptake and propagation properties of different tau species derived from postmortem cortical extracts and brain interstitial fluid of tau-transgenic mice, as well as human AD cortices. Here we show that PBS-soluble phosphorylated high-molecular-weight (HMW) tau, though very low in abundance, is taken up, axonally transported, and passed on to synaptically connected neurons. Our findings suggest that a rare species of soluble phosphorylated HMW tau is the endogenous form of tau involved in propagation and could be a target for therapeutic intervention and biomarker development. PMID:26458742

  16. Gene Expression Profiling of Multiple Sclerosis Pathology Identifies Early Patterns of Demyelination Surrounding Chronic Active Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Debbie A. E.; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; van der Poel, Marlijn; Bossers, Koen; Schuurman, Karianne G.; van Eden, Corbert G.; Hol, Elly M.; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages phagocytose myelin focally in (chronic) active lesions. These demyelinating sites expand in time, but at some point turn inactive into a sclerotic scar. To identify molecular mechanisms underlying lesion activity and halt, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression in rim and peri-lesional regions of chronic active and inactive MS lesions, as well as in control tissue. Gene clustering revealed patterns of gene expression specifically associated with MS and with the presumed, subsequent stages of lesion development. Next to genes involved in immune functions, we found regulation of novel genes in and around the rim of chronic active lesions, such as NPY, KANK4, NCAN, TKTL1, and ANO4. Of note, the presence of many foamy macrophages in active rims was accompanied by a congruent upregulation of genes related to lipid binding, such as MSR1, CD68, CXCL16, and OLR1, and lipid uptake, such as CHIT1, GPNMB, and CCL18. Except CCL18, these genes were already upregulated in regions around active MS lesions, showing that such lesions are indeed expanding. In vitro downregulation of the scavenger receptors MSR1 and CXCL16 reduced myelin uptake. In conclusion, this study provides the gene expression profile of different aspects of MS pathology and indicates that early demyelination, mediated by scavenger receptors, is already present in regions around active MS lesions. Genes involved in early demyelination events in regions surrounding chronic active MS lesions might be promising therapeutic targets to stop lesion expansion. PMID:29312322

  17. Gene Expression Profiling of Multiple Sclerosis Pathology Identifies Early Patterns of Demyelination Surrounding Chronic Active Lesions.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Debbie A E; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; van der Poel, Marlijn; Bossers, Koen; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Eden, Corbert G; Hol, Elly M; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages phagocytose myelin focally in (chronic) active lesions. These demyelinating sites expand in time, but at some point turn inactive into a sclerotic scar. To identify molecular mechanisms underlying lesion activity and halt, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression in rim and peri-lesional regions of chronic active and inactive MS lesions, as well as in control tissue. Gene clustering revealed patterns of gene expression specifically associated with MS and with the presumed, subsequent stages of lesion development. Next to genes involved in immune functions, we found regulation of novel genes in and around the rim of chronic active lesions, such as NPY, KANK4, NCAN, TKTL1 , and ANO4 . Of note, the presence of many foamy macrophages in active rims was accompanied by a congruent upregulation of genes related to lipid binding, such as MSR1, CD68, CXCL16 , and OLR1 , and lipid uptake, such as CHIT1, GPNMB , and CCL18 . Except CCL18 , these genes were already upregulated in regions around active MS lesions, showing that such lesions are indeed expanding. In vitro downregulation of the scavenger receptors MSR1 and CXCL16 reduced myelin uptake. In conclusion, this study provides the gene expression profile of different aspects of MS pathology and indicates that early demyelination, mediated by scavenger receptors, is already present in regions around active MS lesions. Genes involved in early demyelination events in regions surrounding chronic active MS lesions might be promising therapeutic targets to stop lesion expansion.

  18. Guiding principles and clinical applications for speech-language pathology practice in early intervention.

    PubMed

    Paul, Diane; Roth, Froma P

    2011-07-01

    This article describes guiding principles in early intervention (EI) and demonstrates how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can apply these principles to best serve infants and toddlers with communication and related problems and their families. Four principles guide the implementation of speech-language pathology services. EI services are services that are (a) family centered and culturally and linguistically responsive; (b) developmentally supportive, promoting children's participation in their natural environments; (c) comprehensive, coordinated, and team based; and (d) based on the highest quality evidence available. Actual clinical scenarios are presented to illustrate each principle. The four principles provide a framework for the wide range of roles and responsibilities assumed by SLPs in EI: (a) screening/evaluation/assessment, (b) goal setting and intervention, (c) consultation with and education for team members, (d) service coordination, (e) transition planning, and (f) advocacy. It is critical that families of infants and toddlers who are at risk for, or who have been diagnosed with, communication disorders receive all necessary services and supports. EI services should be tailored to the individual and the changing needs, preferences, and priorities of each family. The earlier services are provided, the more likely is the child's chance to develop effective communication.

  19. CNS tau efflux via exosomes is likely increased in Parkinson disease but not in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Kovac, Andrej; Korff, Ane; Cook, Travis J.; Ginghina, Carmen; Bullock, Kristin M.; Yang, Li; Stewart, Tessandra; Zheng, Danfeng; Aro, Patrick; Atik, Anzari; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Hu, Shu-Ching; Quinn, Joseph F.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Montine, Thomas J.; Banks, William A.; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) involve tau pathology. Tau is detectable in blood, but its clearance from neuronal cells and the brain is poorly understood. Methods Tau efflux from the brain to the blood was evaluated by administering radioactively labeled and unlabeled tau intracerebroventricularly in wild-type and tau knock-out mice, respectively. Central nervous system (CNS)-derived tau in L1CAM-containing exosomes was further characterized extensively in human plasma, including by Single Molecule Array technology with 303 subjects. Results The efflux of Tau, including a fraction via CNS-derived L1CAM exosomes, was observed in mice. In human plasma, tau was explicitly identified within L1CAM exosomes. In contrast to AD patients, L1CAM exosomal tau was significantly higher in PD patients than controls, and correlated with cerebrospinal fluid tau. Conclusions Tau is readily transported from the brain to the blood. The mechanisms of CNS tau efflux are likely different between AD and PD. PMID:27234211

  20. The Light-time Effect in the Eclipsing Binaries with Early-type Components U CrB and RW Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    A detailed study of the orbital-period variations of the Algol-type eclipsing binaries with earlyspectral- type primary components U CrB and RW Tau has been performed. The period variations in both systems can be described as a superposition of secular and cyclic variations of the period. A secular period increase at a rate of 2.58d × 10-7/year is observed for U CrB, which can be explained if there is a uniform flow of matter from the lower-mass to the higher-mass component, with the total angular momentum conserved. RW Tau features a secular period decrease at a rate of -8.6d × 10-7/year; this could be due to a loss of angular momentum by the binary due to magnetic braking. The cyclic orbital-period variations of U CrB and RWTau can be explained by the motion of the eclipsing binary systems along their long-period orbits. In U CrB, this implies that the eclipsing binary moves with a period of 91.3 years around a third body with mass M 3 > 1.13 M ⊙; in RW Tau, the period of the motion around the third body is 66.6 years, and the mass of the third body is M 3 > 1.24 M ⊙. It also cannot be ruled out that the variations are due to the magnetic cycles of the late-type secondaries. The residual period variations could be a superposition of variations due to non-stationary ejection of matter and effects due to magnetic cycles.

  1. Alzheimer's disease pathological lesions activate the spleen tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Schweig, Jonas Elias; Yao, Hailan; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Mouzon, Benoit; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2017-09-06

    The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dystrophic neurites (DNs) surrounding extracellular Aβ-plaques, microgliosis, astrogliosis, intraneuronal tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation. We have previously shown that inhibition of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) lowers Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ-overexpressing Tg PS1/APPsw, Tg APPsw mice, and tau overexpressing Tg Tau P301S mice exhibit a pathological activation of Syk compared to wild-type littermates. Syk activation is occurring in a subset of microglia and is age-dependently increased in Aβ-plaque-associated dystrophic neurites of Tg PS1/APPsw and Tg APPsw mice. In Tg Tau P301S mice, a pure model of tauopathy, activated Syk occurs in neurons that show an accumulation of misfolded and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, the tau pathology is exacerbated in neurons that display high levels of Syk activation supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathological species in vivo. Importantly, human AD brain sections show both pathological Syk activation in DNs around Aβ deposits and in neurons immunopositive for pathological tau species recapitulating the data obtained in transgenic mouse models of AD. Additionally, we show that Syk overexpression leads to increased tau accumulation and promotes tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple epitopes in human neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells, further supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathogenic species. Collectively, our data show that Syk activation occurs following Aβ deposition and the formation of tau pathological species. Given that we have previously shown that Syk activation also promotes Aβ formation and tau hyperphosphorylation, our data suggest that AD pathological lesions may be self-propagating via a Syk dependent mechanism highlighting Syk as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

  2. Intracellular and extracellular microtubule associated protein tau as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Avila, Jesús; Pallas, Noemí; Bolós, Marta; Sayas, C Laura; Hernandez, Felix

    2016-06-01

    Microtubule associated protein tau, a protein mainly expressed in neurons, plays an important role in several diseases related to dementia, named tauopathies. Alzheimer disease is the most relevant tauopathy. The role of tau protein in dementia is now a topic under discussion, and is the focus of this review. We have covered two major areas: tau pathology and tau as a therapeutic target. Tau pathology is mainly related to a gain of toxic function due to an abnormal accumulation, aberrant modifications (such as hyperphosphorylation and truncation, among others) and self-aggregation of tau into oligomers or larger structures. Also, tau can be found extracellularly in a toxic form. Tau-based therapy is mainly centered on avoiding the gain of these toxic functions of tau. Tau therapies are focused on lowering tau levels, mainly of modified tau species that could be toxic for neurons (phosphorylated, truncated or aggregated tau), in intracellular or extracellular form. Decreasing the levels of those toxic species is a possible therapeutic strategy.

  3. Tau Positive Neurons Show Marked Mitochondrial Loss and Nuclear Degradation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wee, Melissa; Chegini, Fariba; Power, John H T; Majd, Shohreh

    2018-06-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology consists of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, made of hyperphosphorylated tau and extracellular accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) in Aβ plaques. There is an extensive debate as to which pathology initiates and responsible for cellular loss in AD. Using confocal and light microscopy, post mortem brains from control and AD cases, an antibody to SOD2 as a marker for mitochondria and an antibody to all forms of tau, we analyzed mitochondrial density in tau positive neurons along with nuclear degradation by calculating the raw integrative density. Our findings showed an extensive staining of aggregated tau in cell bodies, dystrophic neurites and neurofilaments in AD with minimal staining in control tissue, along with a marked decrease in mitochondria in tau positive (tau+) neurons. The control or tau negative (tau-) neurons in AD contained an even distribution of mitochondria, which was greatly diminished in tau+ neurons by 40%. There were no significant differences between control and tau- neurons in AD. Tau+ neurons showed marked nuclear degradation which appeared to progress with the extent of tau aggregation. The aggregated tau infiltrated and appeared to break the nuclear envelope with progressively more DNA exiting the nucleus and associating with accumulating of intracellular tau. We report mitochondrial decrease is likely due to a decrease in protein synthesis rather than a redistribution of mitochondria because of decreased axonal transport. We suggest that the decrease in mitochondria and nuclear degradation are key mechanisms for the neuronal loss seen in AD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Inhibition of GSK3 dependent tau phosphorylation by metals.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramos, Alberto; Domínguez, Jorge; Zafra, Delia; Corominola, Helena; Gomis, Ramon; Guinovart, Joan J; Avila, Jesús

    2006-04-01

    One of the main pathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease is the presence in the brain of the patients of an aberrant structure, the paired helical filaments, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. The level of tau phosphorylation has been correlated with the capacity for tau aggregation. Thus, the mechanism for tau phosphorylation could be important to clarify those pathological features in Alzheimer's disease. Tau protein could be modified by different kinases, being GSK3 the one that could modify more sites of that protein. GSK3 activity could be modulate by the presence of metals like magnesium that can be required for the proper function of the kinase, whereas, metals like manganesum or lithium inhibit the activity of the kinase. Many works have been done to study the inhibition of GSK3 by lithium, a specific inhibitor of that kinase. More recently, it has been indicated that sodium tungstate could also inhibit GSK3 through a different mechanism. In this review, we discuss the effect of these two metals, lithium and tungstate, on GSK3 (or tau I kinase) activity.

  5. Proteolytic cleavage of polymeric tau protein by caspase-3: implications for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Jarero-Basulto, Jose J; Luna-Muñoz, Jose; Mena, Raul; Kristofikova, Zdena; Ripova, Daniela; Perry, George; Binder, Lester I; Garcia-Sierra, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    Truncated tau protein at Asp(421) is associated with neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD); however, little is known about its presence in the form of nonfibrillary aggregates. Here, we report immunohistochemical staining of the Tau-C3 antibody, which recognizes Asp(421)-truncated tau, in a group of AD cases with different extents of cognitive impairment. In the hippocampus, we found distinct nonfibrillary aggregates of Asp(421)-truncated tau. Unlike Asp(421)-composed neurofibrillary tangles, however, these nonfibrillary pathologies did not increase significantly with respect to the Braak staging and, therefore, make no significant contribution to cognitive impairment. On the other hand, despite in vitro evidence that caspase-3 cleaves monomeric tau at Asp(421), to date, this truncation has not been demonstrated to be executed by this protease in polymeric tau entities. We determined that Asp(421) truncation can be produced by caspase-3 in oligomeric and multimeric complexes of recombinant full-length tau in isolated native tau filaments in vitro and in situ in neurofibrillary tangles analyzed in fresh brain slices from AD cases. Our data suggest that generation of this pathologic Asp(421) truncation of tau in long-lasting fibrillary structures may produce further permanent toxicity for neurons in the brains of patients with AD.

  6. Atypical PKC, PKCλ/ι, activates β-secretase and increases Aβ1-40/42 and phospho-tau in mouse brain and isolated neuronal cells, and may link hyperinsulinemia and other aPKC activators to development of pathological and memory abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sajan, Mini P; Hansen, Barbara C; Higgs, Margaret G; Kahn, C Ron; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael; Park, Collin R; Diamond, David M; Farese, Robert V

    2018-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia activates brain Akt and PKC-λ/ι and increases Aβ 1-40/42 and phospho-tau in insulin-resistant animals. Here, we examined underlying mechanisms in mice, neuronal cells, and mouse hippocampal slices. Like Aβ 1-40/42 , β-secretase activity was increased in insulin-resistant mice and monkeys. In insulin-resistant mice, inhibition of hepatic PKC-λ/ι sufficient to correct hepatic abnormalities and hyperinsulinemia simultaneously reversed increases in Akt, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), β-secretase, and Aβ 1-40/42 , and restored acute Akt activation. However, 2 aPKC inhibitors additionally blocked insulin's ability to activate brain PKC-λ/ι and thereby increase β-secretase and Aβ 1-40/42 . Furthermore, direct blockade of brain aPKC simultaneously corrected an impairment in novel object recognition in high-fat-fed insulin-resistant mice. In neuronal cells and/or mouse hippocampal slices, PKC-ι/λ activation by insulin, metformin, or expression of constitutive PKC-ι provoked increases in β-secretase, Aβ 1-40/42 , and phospho-thr-231-tau that were blocked by various PKC-λ/ι inhibitors, but not by an Akt inhibitor. PKC-λ/ι provokes increases in brain β-secretase, Aβ 1-40/42 , and phospho-thr-231-tau. Excessive signaling via PKC-λ/ι may link hyperinsulinemia and other PKC-λ/ι activators to pathological and functional abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Nature of Tau-Associated Neurodegeneration and the Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is defined as the progressive loss of structure or function of the neurons. As the nature of degenerative cell loss is currently not clear, there is no specific molecular marker to measure neurodegeneration. Therefore, researchers have been using apoptotic markers to measure neurodegeneration. However, neurodegeneration is completely different from apoptosis by morphology and time course. Lacking specific molecular marker has been the major hindrance in research of neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, and tau accumulation forming neurofibrillary tangles is a hallmark pathology in the AD brains, suggesting that tau must play a critical role in AD neurodegeneration. Here we review part of our published papers on tau-related studies, and share our thoughts on the nature of tau-associated neurodegeneration in AD. PMID:29562535

  8. Self-esteem and peer-perceived social status in early adolescence and prediction of eating pathology in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Deen, Mathijs; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W

    2018-04-27

    Self-esteem is implied as a factor in the development of eating disorders. In adolescence peers have an increasing influence. Support for the role of self-esteem in eating disorders is ambiguous and little is known about the influence of social status as judged by others. The present study investigates whether self-esteem and peer status in early adolescence are associated with eating pathology in young adulthood. This study is part of TRAILS, a longitudinal cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into adulthood. At age 11, participants completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children, assessing global self-esteem and self-perceptions regarding social acceptance, physical appearance, and academic competence. At age 13, peer status among classmates was assessed regarding likeability, physical attractiveness, academic performance, and popularity in a subsample of 1,007 participants. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale was administered at age 22. The present study included peer-nominated participants with completed measures of self-perception at age 11 and eating pathology at age 22 (N = 732; 57.8% female). In a combined model, self-perceived physical attractiveness at age 11 and peer popularity at age 13 were inversely correlated with eating pathology at 22 years, while likeability by peers at age 13 was positively related to eating pathology. Both self-perceptions and peer status in early adolescence are significant predictors of eating pathology in young adults. Specific measures of self-esteem and peer-perceived status may be more relevant to the prediction of eating pathology than a global measure of self-esteem. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anti-tau antibody administration increases plasma tau in transgenic mice and patients with tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yanamandra, Kiran; Patel, Tirth K.; Jiang, Hong; Schindler, Suzanne; Ulrich, Jason D.; Boxer, Adam L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kerwin, Diana R.; Gallardo, Gilbert; Stewart, Floy; Finn, Mary Beth; Cairns, Nigel J.; Verghese, Philip B.; Fogelman, Ilana; West, Tim; Braunstein, Joel; Robinson, Grace; Keyser, Jennifer; Roh, Joseph; Knapik, Stephanie S.; Hu, Yan; Holtzman, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Tauopathies are a group of disorders in which the cytosolic protein tau aggregates and accumulates in cells within the brain, resulting in neurodegeneration. A promising treatment being explored for tauopathies is passive immunization with anti-tau antibodies. We previously found that administration of an anti-tau antibody to human tau transgenic mice increased the concentration of plasma tau. We further explored the effects of administering an anti-tau antibody on plasma tau. After peripheral administration of an anti-tau antibody to human patients with tauopathy and to mice expressing human tau in the central nervous system, there was a dose-dependent increase in plasma tau. In mouse plasma, we found that tau had a short half-life of 8 min that increased to more than 3 hours after administration of anti-tau antibody. As tau transgenic mice accumulated insoluble tau in the brain, brain soluble and interstitial fluid tau decreased. Administration of anti-tau antibody to tau transgenic mice that had decreased brain soluble tau and interstitial fluid tau resulted in an increase in plasma tau, but this increase was less than that observed in tau transgenic mice without these brain changes. Tau transgenic mice subjected to acute neuronal injury using 3-nitropropionic acid showed increased interstitial fluid tau and plasma tau. These data suggest that peripheral administration of an anti-tau antibody results in increased plasma tau, which correlates with the concentration of extracellular and soluble tau in the brain. PMID:28424326

  10. Hypoglycemia induces tau hyperphosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chu-Wan; Shih, Yao-Hsiang; Wu, Shih-Ying; Yang, Tingting; Lin, Chingju; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2013-03-01

    Cerebral hypoglycemia/hypometabolism is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is routinely used to assist clinical diagnosis of AD by brain imaging. However, whether cerebral hypoglycemia/hypometabolism contributes to the development of AD or is a response of reduced neuronal activity remains unclear. To investigate the causal relationship, we cultured the differentiated N2a neuroblastoma cells in glucose/pyruvate-deficient media (GDM). Shortly after the N2a cells cultured in the GDM, the mitochondria membrane potential was reduced and the AMP-activated-proteinkinase (AMPK), an energy sensor, was activated. Treatment of GDM not only increased the levels of tau phosphorylation at Ser(262) and Ser(396), but also increased the levels of active forms of GSK3α and GSK3β, two known kinases for tau phosphorylation, of the N2a cells. The levels of activated Akt, a mediator downstream to AMPK and upstream to GSK3α/β, were reduced by the GDM treatment. The effect of hypoglycemia was further examined in vivo by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to the Wistar rats. STZ selectively injuries glucose transporter type 2-bearing cells which are primarily astrocytes in the rat brain, hence, interrupts glucose transportation from blood vessel to neuron. STZicv injection induced energy crisis in the brain regions surrounding the ventricles, as indicated by higher pAMPK levels in the hippocampus, but not cortex far away from the ventricles. STZ-icv treatment increased the levels of phosphorylated tau and activated GSK3β, but decreased the levels of activated Akt in the hippocampus. The hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory was impaired by the STZ-icv treatment. In conclusion, our works suggest that hypoglycemia enhances the AMPK-Akt-GSK3 pathway and leads to tau hyperphosphorylation.

  11. DOPA Decarboxylase Modulates Tau Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kow, Rebecca L; Sikkema, Carl; Wheeler, Jeanna M; Wilkinson, Charles W; Kraemer, Brian C

    2018-03-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau accumulates into toxic aggregates in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. We found previously that loss of D 2 -family dopamine receptors ameliorated tauopathy in multiple models including a Caenorhabditis elegans model of tauopathy. To better understand how loss of D 2 -family dopamine receptors can ameliorate tau toxicity, we screened a collection of C. elegans mutations in dopamine-related genes (n = 45) for changes in tau transgene-induced behavioral defects. These included many genes responsible for dopamine synthesis, metabolism, and signaling downstream of the D 2 receptors. We identified one dopamine synthesis gene, DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), as a suppressor of tau toxicity in tau transgenic worms. Loss of the C. elegans DDC gene, bas-1, ameliorated the behavioral deficits of tau transgenic worms, reduced phosphorylated and detergent-insoluble tau accumulation, and reduced tau-mediated neuron loss. Loss of function in other genes in the dopamine and serotonin synthesis pathways did not alter tau-induced toxicity; however, their function is required for the suppression of tau toxicity by bas-1. Additional loss of D 2 -family dopamine receptors did not synergize with bas-1 suppression of tauopathy phenotypes. Loss of the DDC bas-1 reduced tau-induced toxicity in a C. elegans model of tauopathy, while loss of no other dopamine or serotonin synthesis genes tested had this effect. Because loss of activity upstream of DDC could reduce suppression of tau by DDC, this suggests the possibility that loss of DDC suppresses tau via the combined accumulation of dopamine precursor levodopa and serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A new TAO kinase inhibitor reduces tau phosphorylation at sites associated with neurodegeneration in human tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Caterina; Koo, Chuay-Yeng; Yankova, Natalia; Tavares, Ignatius A; Wray, Selina; Noble, Wendy; Hanger, Diane P; Morris, Jonathan D H

    2018-05-07

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau is highly phosphorylated and aggregates to form neurofibrillary tangles that are characteristic of these neurodegenerative diseases. Our previous work has demonstrated that the thousand-and-one amino acid kinases (TAOKs) 1 and 2 phosphorylate tau on more than 40 residues in vitro. Here we show that TAOKs are phosphorylated and active in AD brain sections displaying mild (Braak stage II), intermediate (Braak stage IV) and advanced (Braak stage VI) tau pathology and that active TAOKs co-localise with both pre-tangle and tangle structures. TAOK activity is also enriched in pathological tau containing sarkosyl-insoluble extracts prepared from AD brain. Two new phosphorylated tau residues (T123 and T427) were identified in AD brain, which appear to be targeted specifically by TAOKs. A new small molecule TAOK inhibitor (Compound 43) reduced tau phosphorylation on T123 and T427 and also on additional pathological sites (S262/S356 and S202/T205/S208) in vitro and in cell models. The TAOK inhibitor also decreased tau phosphorylation in differentiated primary cortical neurons without affecting markers of synapse and neuron health. Notably, TAOK activity also co-localised with tangles in post-mortem frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) brain tissue. Furthermore, the TAOK inhibitor decreased tau phosphorylation in induced pluripotent stem cell derived neurons from FTLD patients, as well as cortical neurons from a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy (Tau35 mice). Our results demonstrate that abnormal TAOK activity is present at pre-tangles and tangles in tauopathies and that TAOK inhibition effectively decreases tau phosphorylation on pathological sites. Thus, TAOKs may represent a novel target to reduce or prevent tau-associated neurodegeneration in tauopathies.

  13. Microtubules (tau) as an emerging therapeutic target: NAP (davunetide).

    PubMed

    Gozes, Illana

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the discovery of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) and the ensuing discovery of NAP (davunetide) toward clinical development with emphasis on microtubule protection. ADNP immunoreactivity was shown to occasionally decorate microtubules and ADNP silencing inhibited neurite outgrowth as measured by microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) labeling. ADNP knockout is lethal, while 50% reduction in ADNP (ADNP haploinsufficiency) resulted in the microtubule associated protein tau pathology coupled to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration. NAP (davunetide), an eight amino acid peptide derived from ADNP partly ameliorated deficits associated with ADNP deficiency. NAP (davunetide) interacted with microtubules, protected against microtubule toxicity associated with zinc, nocodazole and oxidative stress in vitro and against tau pathology and MAP6 (stable tubuleonly polypeptide - STOP) pathology in vivo. NAP (davunetide) provided neurotrophic functions promoting neurite outgrowth as measured by increases in MAP2 immunoreactivity and synapse formation by increasing synaptophysin expression. NAP (davunetide) protection against neurodegeneration has recently been shown to extend to katanin-related microtubule disruption under conditions of tau deficiencies. In conclusion, NAP (davunetide) provided potent neuroprotection in a broad range of neurodegenerative models, protecting the neuroglial cytoskeleton in vitro and inhibiting tau pathology (tauopathy) in vivo. Based on these extensive preclinical results, davunetide (NAP) is now being evaluated in a Phase II/III study of the tauopathy, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP); (Allon Therapeutics Inc.).

  14. Early axonal damage and progressive myelin pathology define the kinetics of CNS histopathology in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Recks, Mascha S; Stormanns, Eva R; Bader, Jonas; Arnhold, Stefan; Addicks, Klaus; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    Studies of MS histopathology are largely dependent on suitable animal models. While light microscopic analysis gives an overview of tissue pathology, it falls short in evaluating detailed changes in nerve fiber morphology. The ultrastructural data presented here and obtained from studies of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG):35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice delineate that axonal damage and myelin pathology follow different kinetics in the disease course. While myelin pathology accumulated with disease progression, axonal damage coincided with the initial clinical disease symptoms and remained stable over time. This pattern applied both to irreversible axolysis and early axonal pathology. Notably, these histopathological patterns were reflected by the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), suggesting that the NAWM is also in an active neurodegenerative state. The data underline the need for neuroprotection in MS and suggest the MOG model as a highly valuable tool for the assessment of different therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. UX Tau A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is an artist's rendition of the one-million-year-old star system called UX Tau A, located approximately 450 light-years away. Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope showed a gap in the dusty planet-forming disk swirling around the system's central sun-like star.

    Spitzer saw a gap in UX Tau A's disk that extends from 0.2 to 56 astronomical units (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The gap extends from the equivalent of Mercury to Pluto in our solar system, and is sandwiched between thick inner and outer disks on either side. Astronomers suspect that the gap was carved out by one or more forming planets.

    Such dusty disks are where planets are thought to be born. Dust grains clump together like snowballs to form larger rocks, and then the bigger rocks collide to form the cores of planets. When rocks revolve around their central star, they act like cosmic vacuum cleaners, picking up all the gas and dust in their path and creating gaps.

    Although gaps have been detected in disks swirling around young stars before, UX Tau A is special because the gap is sandwiched between two thick disks of dust. An inner thick dusty disk hugs the central star, then, moving outward, there is a gap, followed by another thick doughnut-shaped disk. Other systems with gaps contain very little to no dust near the central star. In other words, those gaps are more like big holes in the centers of disks.

    Some scientists suspect that these holes could have been carved out by a process called photoevaporation. Photoevaporation occurs when radiation from the central star heats up the gas and dust around it to the point where it evaporates away. The fact that there is thick disk swirling extremely close to UX Tau A's central star rules out the photoevaporation scenario. If photoevaporation from the star played a role, then large amounts of dust would not be floating so close to the star.

  16. Tauopathy induced by low level expression of a human brain-derived tau fragment in mice is rescued by phenylbutyrate.

    PubMed

    Bondulich, Marie K; Guo, Tong; Meehan, Christopher; Manion, John; Rodriguez Martin, Teresa; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Yankova, Natalia; Stygelbout, Virginie; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Noble, Wendy; Hanger, Diane P

    2016-08-01

    Human neurodegenerative tauopathies exhibit pathological tau aggregates in the brain along with diverse clinical features including cognitive and motor dysfunction. Post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and truncation, are characteristic features of tau present in the brain in human tauopathy. We have previously reported an N-terminally truncated form of tau in human brain that is associated with the development of tauopathy and is highly phosphorylated. We have generated a new mouse model of tauopathy in which this human brain-derived, 35 kDa tau fragment (Tau35) is expressed in the absence of any mutation and under the control of the human tau promoter. Most existing mouse models of tauopathy overexpress mutant tau at levels that do not occur in human neurodegenerative disease, whereas Tau35 transgene expression is equivalent to less than 10% of that of endogenous mouse tau. Tau35 mice recapitulate key features of human tauopathies, including aggregated and abnormally phosphorylated tau, progressive cognitive and motor deficits, autophagic/lysosomal dysfunction, loss of synaptic protein, and reduced life-span. Importantly, we found that sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (Buphenyl®), a drug used to treat urea cycle disorders and currently in clinical trials for a range of neurodegenerative diseases, reverses the observed abnormalities in tau and autophagy, behavioural deficits, and loss of synapsin 1 in Tau35 mice. Our results show for the first time that, unlike other tau transgenic mouse models, minimal expression of a human disease-associated tau fragment in Tau35 mice causes a profound and progressive tauopathy and cognitive changes, which are rescued by pharmacological intervention using a clinically approved drug. These novel Tau35 mice therefore represent a highly disease-relevant animal model in which to investigate molecular mechanisms and to develop novel treatments for human tauopathies. © The Author (2016). Published by

  17. Tauopathy induced by low level expression of a human brain-derived tau fragment in mice is rescued by phenylbutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Bondulich, Marie K.; Guo, Tong; Meehan, Christopher; Manion, John; Rodriguez Martin, Teresa; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Yankova, Natalia; Stygelbout, Virginie; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Noble, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human neurodegenerative tauopathies exhibit pathological tau aggregates in the brain along with diverse clinical features including cognitive and motor dysfunction. Post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and truncation, are characteristic features of tau present in the brain in human tauopathy. We have previously reported an N-terminally truncated form of tau in human brain that is associated with the development of tauopathy and is highly phosphorylated. We have generated a new mouse model of tauopathy in which this human brain-derived, 35 kDa tau fragment (Tau35) is expressed in the absence of any mutation and under the control of the human tau promoter. Most existing mouse models of tauopathy overexpress mutant tau at levels that do not occur in human neurodegenerative disease, whereas Tau35 transgene expression is equivalent to less than 10% of that of endogenous mouse tau. Tau35 mice recapitulate key features of human tauopathies, including aggregated and abnormally phosphorylated tau, progressive cognitive and motor deficits, autophagic/lysosomal dysfunction, loss of synaptic protein, and reduced life-span. Importantly, we found that sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (Buphenyl®), a drug used to treat urea cycle disorders and currently in clinical trials for a range of neurodegenerative diseases, reverses the observed abnormalities in tau and autophagy, behavioural deficits, and loss of synapsin 1 in Tau35 mice. Our results show for the first time that, unlike other tau transgenic mouse models, minimal expression of a human disease-associated tau fragment in Tau35 mice causes a profound and progressive tauopathy and cognitive changes, which are rescued by pharmacological intervention using a clinically approved drug. These novel Tau35 mice therefore represent a highly disease-relevant animal model in which to investigate molecular mechanisms and to develop novel treatments for human tauopathies. PMID:27297240

  18. Early Experience after Developing a Pathology Laboratory in Malawi, with Emphasis on Cancer Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Marie-Josephe; Shores, Carol G.; Alide, Noor; Kamiza, Steve; Kampani, Coxcilly; Chimzimu, Fred; Fedoriw, Yuri; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Hoffman, Irving F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite increasing cancer burden in Malawi, pathology services are limited. We describe operations during the first 20 months of a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe, with emphasis on cancer diagnoses. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional study of specimens from the Kamuzu Central Hospital pathology laboratory between July 1, 2011 and February 28, 2013. Patient and specimen characteristics, and final diagnoses are summarized. Diagnoses were categorized as malignant, premalignant, infectious, other pathology, normal or benign, or nondiagnostic. Patient characteristics associated with premalignancy and malignancy were assessed using logistic regression. Of 2772 specimens, 2758 (99%) with a recorded final diagnosis were included, drawn from 2639 unique patients. Mean age was 38 years and 63% were female. Of those with documented HIV status, 51% had unknown status, and 36% with known status were infected. Histologic specimens comprised 91% of cases, and cytologic specimens 9%. Malignant diagnoses were most common overall (n = 861, 31%). Among cancers, cervical cancer was most common (n = 117, 14%), followed by lymphoma (n = 91, 11%), esophageal cancer (n = 86, 10%), sarcoma excluding Kaposi sarcoma (n = 75, 9%), and breast cancer (n = 61, 7%). HIV status was known for 95 (11%) of malignancies, with HIV prevalence ranging from 9% for breast cancer to 81% for cervical cancer. Increasing age was consistently associated with malignancy [bivariable odds ratio 1.24 per decade increase (95% CI 1.19–1.29) among 2685 patients with known age; multivariable odds ratio 1.33 per decade increase (95% CI 1.14–1.56) among 317 patients with known age, gender, and HIV status], while HIV infection and gender were not. Conclusions Despite selection and referral bias inherent in these data, a new pathology laboratory in Lilongwe has created a robust platform for cancer care and research. Strategies to effectively capture clinical

  19. Tau hyperphosphorylation and deregulation of calcineurin in mouse models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gratuze, Maud; Noël, Anastasia; Julien, Carl; Cisbani, Giulia; Milot-Rousseau, Philippe; Morin, Françoise; Dickler, Maya; Goupil, Claudia; Bezeau, François; Poitras, Isabelle; Bissonnette, Stéphanie; Whittington, Robert A; Hébert, Sébastien S; Cicchetti, Francesca; Parker, J Alex; Samadi, Pershia; Planel, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine expansions in the amino-terminal region of the huntingtin (Htt) protein. At the cellular level, neuronal death is accompanied by the proteolytic cleavage, misfolding and aggregation of huntingtin. Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is a characteristic feature of a class of neurodegenerative diseases called tauopathies. As a number of studies have reported tau pathology in HD patients, we investigated whether HD pathology may promote tau hyperphosphorylation and if so tackle some of its underlying mechanisms. For that purpose, we used the R6/2 mouse, a well-characterized model of HD, and analyzed tau phosphorylation before and after the onset of HD-like symptoms. We found a significant increase in tau hyperphosphorylation at the PHF-1 epitope in pre-symptomatic R6/2 mice, whereas symptomatic mice displayed tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple tau phosphoepitopes (AT8, CP13, PT205 and PHF-1). There was no activation of major tau kinases that could explain this observation. However, when we examined tau phosphatases, we found that calcineurin/PP2B was downregulated by 30% in pre-symptomatic and 50% in symptomatic R6/2 mice, respectively. We observed similar changes in tau phosphorylation and calcineurin expression in Q175 mice, another HD model. Calcineurin was also reduced in Q111 compared with Q7 cells. Finally, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of endogenous calcineurin was sufficient to promote tau hyperphosphorylation in neuronal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that mutant huntingtin can induce abnormal tau hyperphosphorylation in vivo, via the deregulation of calcineurin. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Bacterial co-expression of human Tau protein with protein kinase A and 14-3-3 for studies of 14-3-3/phospho-Tau interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tugaeva, Kristina V.; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.

    2017-01-01

    Abundant regulatory 14-3-3 proteins have an extremely wide interactome and coordinate multiple cellular events via interaction with specifically phosphorylated partner proteins. Notwithstanding the key role of 14-3-3/phosphotarget interactions in many physiological and pathological processes, they are dramatically underexplored. Here, we focused on the 14-3-3 interaction with human Tau protein associated with the development of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Among many known phosphorylation sites within Tau, protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates several key residues of Tau and induces its tight interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. However, the stoichiometry and mechanism of 14-3-3 interaction with phosphorylated Tau (pTau) are not clearly elucidated. In this work, we describe a simple bacterial co-expression system aimed to facilitate biochemical and structural studies on the 14-3-3/pTau interaction. We show that dual co-expression of human fetal Tau with PKA in Escherichia coli results in multisite Tau phosphorylation including also naturally occurring sites which were not previously considered in the context of 14-3-3 binding. Tau protein co-expressed with PKA displays tight functional interaction with 14-3-3 isoforms of a different type. Upon triple co-expression with 14-3-3 and PKA, Tau protein could be co-purified with 14-3-3 and demonstrates complex which is similar to that formed in vitro between individual 14-3-3 and pTau obtained from dual co-expression. Although used in this study for the specific case of the previously known 14-3-3/pTau interaction, our co-expression system may be useful to study of other selected 14-3-3/phosphotarget interactions and for validations of 14-3-3 complexes identified by other methods. PMID:28575131

  1. Impact of N-tau on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, anxiety, and memory.

    PubMed

    Pristerà, Andrea; Saraulli, Daniele; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Strimpakos, Georgios; Costanzi, Marco; di Certo, Maria Grazia; Cannas, Sara; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Tirone, Felice; Mattei, Elisabetta; Cestari, Vincenzo; Canu, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Different pathological tau species are involved in memory loss in Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia among older people. However, little is known about how tau pathology directly affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a unique form of structural plasticity implicated in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and mood-related behavior. To this aim, we generated a transgenic mouse model conditionally expressing a pathological tau fragment (26-230 aa of the longest human tau isoform, or N-tau) in nestin-positive stem/progenitor cells. We found that N-tau reduced the proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult dentate gyrus, reduced cell survival and increased cell death by a caspase-3-independent mechanism, and recruited microglia. Although the number of terminally differentiated neurons was reduced, these showed an increased dendritic arborization and spine density. This resulted in an increase of anxiety-related behavior and an impairment of episodic-like memory, whereas less complex forms of spatial learning remained unaltered. Understanding how pathological tau species directly affect neurogenesis is important for developing potential therapeutic strategies to direct neurogenic instructive cues for hippocampal function repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alterations of overused supraspinatus tendon: a possible role of glycosaminoglycans and HARP/pleiotrophin in early tendon pathology.

    PubMed

    Attia, Mohamed; Scott, Alexander; Duchesnay, Arlette; Carpentier, Gilles; Soslowsky, Louis J; Huynh, Minh Bao; Van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Gossard, Camille; Courty, José; Tassoni, Marie-Claude; Martelly, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Supraspinatus tendon overuse injuries lead to significant pain and disability in athletes and workers. Despite the prevalence and high social cost of these injuries, the early pathological events are not well known. We analyzed the potential relation between glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composition and phenotypic cellular alteration using a rat model of rotator cuff overuse. Total sulfated GAGs increased after 4 weeks of overuse and remained elevated up to 16 weeks. GAG accumulation was preceded by up-regulation of decorin, versican, and aggrecan proteoglycans (PGs) mRNAs and proteins and biglycan PG mRNA after 2 weeks. At 2 weeks, collagen 1 transcript decreased whereas mRNAs for collagen 2, collagen 3, collagen 6, and the transcription factor Sox9 were increased. Protein levels of heparin affine regulatory peptide (HARP)/pleiotrophin, a cytokine known to regulate developmental chondrocyte formation, were enhanced especially at 4 weeks, without up-regulation of HARP/pleiotrophin mRNA. Further results suggest that the increased GAGs present in early lesions may sequester HARP/pleiotrophin, which could contribute to a loss of tenocyte's phenotype. All these modifications are characteristic of a shift towards the chondrocyte phenotype. Identification of these early changes in the extra-cellular matrix may help to prevent the progression of the pathology to more disabling, degenerative alterations. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  3. An early look at the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network explant pathology form data.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ann M; Edwards, Erick; Washburn, W Kenneth; Heimbach, Julie

    2016-06-01

    In April 2012, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) implemented an online explant pathology form for recipients of liver transplantation who received additional wait-list priority for their diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of the form was to standardize the data being reported to the OPTN, which had been required since 2002 but were submitted to the OPTN in a variety of formats via facsimile. From April 2012 to December 2014, over 4500 explant forms were submitted, allowing for detailed analysis of the characteristics of the explanted livers. Data from the explant pathology forms were used to assess agreement with pretransplant imaging. Explant data were also used to assess the risk of recurrence. Of those with T2 priority, 55.7% were found to be stage T2 on explant. Extrahepatic spread (odds ratio [OR] = 6.8; P < 0.01), poor tumor differentiation (OR = 2.8; P < 0.01), microvascular invasion (OR = 2.6; P < 0.01), macrovascular invasion (OR = 3.2; P < 0.01), and whether the Milan stage based on the number and size of tumors on the explant form was T4 (OR = 2.4; P < 0.01) were the strongest predictors of recurrence. In conclusion, this analysis confirms earlier findings that showed an incomplete agreement between pretransplant imaging and posttransplant pathology in terms of HCC staging, though the number of patients with both no pretransplant treatment and no tumor in the explant was reduced from 20% to <1%. In addition, several factors were identified (eg, tumor burden, age, sex, region, ablative therapy, alpha-fetoprotein, Milan stage, vascular invasion, satellite lesions, etc.) that were predictive of HCC recurrence, allowing for more targeted surveillance of high-risk recipients. Continued evaluation of these data will help shape future guidelines or policy recommendations. Liver Transplantation 22 757-764 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Differential Network Analyses of Alzheimer’s Disease Identify Early Events in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jing; Rocke, David M.; Perry, George

    In late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple brain regions are not affected simultaneously. Comparing the gene expression of the affected regions to identify the differences in the biological processes perturbed can lead to greater insight into AD pathogenesis and early characteristics. We identified differentially expressed (DE) genes from single cell microarray data of four AD affected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HIP), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We organized the DE genes in the four brain regions into region-specific gene coexpression networks. Differential neighborhood analyses in the coexpression networks were performed to identify genes with lowmore » topological overlap (TO) of their direct neighbors. The low TO genes were used to characterize the biological differences between two regions. Our analyses show that increased oxidative stress, along with alterations in lipid metabolism in neurons, may be some of the very early events occurring in AD pathology. Cellular defense mechanisms try to intervene but fail, finally resulting in AD pathology as the disease progresses. Furthermore, disease annotation of the low TO genes in two independent protein interaction networks has resulted in association between cancer, diabetes, renal diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.« less

  5. Differential Network Analyses of Alzheimer’s Disease Identify Early Events in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Jing; Rocke, David M.; Perry, George; ...

    2014-01-01

    In late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple brain regions are not affected simultaneously. Comparing the gene expression of the affected regions to identify the differences in the biological processes perturbed can lead to greater insight into AD pathogenesis and early characteristics. We identified differentially expressed (DE) genes from single cell microarray data of four AD affected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HIP), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We organized the DE genes in the four brain regions into region-specific gene coexpression networks. Differential neighborhood analyses in the coexpression networks were performed to identify genes with lowmore » topological overlap (TO) of their direct neighbors. The low TO genes were used to characterize the biological differences between two regions. Our analyses show that increased oxidative stress, along with alterations in lipid metabolism in neurons, may be some of the very early events occurring in AD pathology. Cellular defense mechanisms try to intervene but fail, finally resulting in AD pathology as the disease progresses. Furthermore, disease annotation of the low TO genes in two independent protein interaction networks has resulted in association between cancer, diabetes, renal diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.« less

  6. Validation of a Molecular and Pathological Model for Five-Year Mortality Risk in Patients with Early Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Raphael; Hughes, Elisha; Wagner, Susanne; Gutin, Alexander S.; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Zheng, Yifan; Archer, Michael A.; Gustafson, Corinne; Jones, Joshua T.; Rushton, Kristen; Saam, Jennifer; Kim, Edward; Barberis, Massimo; Wistuba, Ignacio; Wenstrup, Richard J.; Wallace, William A.; Harrison, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to validate a molecular expression signature [cell cycle progression (CCP) score] that identifies patients with a higher risk of cancer-related death after surgical resection of early stage (I-II) lung adenocarcinoma in a large patient cohort and evaluate the effectiveness of combining CCP score and pathological stage for predicting lung cancer mortality. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical tumor samples from 650 patients diagnosed with stage I and II adenocarcinoma who underwent definitive surgical treatment without adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed for 31 proliferation genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prognostic discrimination of the expression score was assessed by Cox proportional hazards analysis using 5-year lung cancer-specific death as primary outcome. Results: The CCP score was a significant predictor of lung cancer-specific mortality above clinical covariates [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.46 per interquartile range (95% confidence interval = 1.12–1.90; p = 0.0050)]. The prognostic score, a combination of CCP score and pathological stage, was a more significant indicator of lung cancer mortality risk than pathological stage in the full cohort (HR = 2.01; p = 2.8 × 10−11) and in stage I patients (HR = 1.67; p = 0.00027). Using the 85th percentile of the prognostic score as a threshold, there was a significant difference in lung cancer survival between low-risk and high-risk patient groups (p = 3.8 × 10−7). Conclusions: This study validates the CCP score and the prognostic score as independent predictors of lung cancer death in patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma treated with surgery alone. Patients with resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma and a high prognostic score may be candidates for adjuvant therapy to reduce cancer-related mortality. PMID:25396679

  7. Increased Vulnerability of the Hippocampus in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing APP and Triple Repeat Tau.

    PubMed

    Arner, Andrew; Rockenstein, Edward; Mante, Michael; Florio, Jazmin; Masliah, Deborah; Salehi, Bahar; Adame, Anthony; Overk, Cassia; Masliah, Eliezer; Rissman, Robert A

    2018-01-01

     Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common tauopathy, characterized by progressive accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau. While pathology associated with the 4-repeat (4R) tau isoform is more abundant in corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, both 3R and 4R tau isoforms accumulate in AD. Many studies have investigated interactions between Aβ and 4R tau in double transgenic mice, but few, if any, have examined the effects of Aβ with 3R tau. To examine this relationship, we crossed our APP751 mutant line with our recently characterized 3R tau mutant model to create a bigenic line (hAPP-3RTau) to model AD neuropathology. Mice were analyzed at 3 and 6 months of age for pathological and behavioral endpoints. While both the 3RTau and the hAPP-3RTau mice showed neuronal loss, increased tau aggregation, Aβ plaques and exhibited more behavioral deficits compared to the non-tg control, the bigenic mice often displaying relatively worsening levels. We found that even in young animals we found that the presence of APP/Aβ increased the accumulation of 3R tau in the neocortex and hippocampus. This observation was accompanied by activation of GSK3 and neurodegeneration in the neocortex and CA1 region. These results suggest that in addition to 4R tau, APP/Aβ may also enhance accumulation of 3R tau, a process which may be directly relevant to pathogenic pathways in AD. Our results demonstrate that this bigenic model closely parallels the pathological course of AD and may serve as a valuable model for testing new pharmacological interventions.

  8. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Network Disruption and Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-Beta and Phospho-Tau Levels in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Canuet, Leonides; Pusil, Sandra; López, María Eugenia; Bajo, Ricardo; Pineda-Pardo, José Ángel; Cuesta, Pablo; Gálvez, Gerardo; Gaztelu, José María; Lourido, Daniel; García-Ribas, Guillermo; Maestú, Fernando

    2015-07-15

    Synaptic dysfunction is a core deficit in Alzheimer's disease, preceding hallmark pathological abnormalities. Resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to assess whether functional connectivity patterns, as an index of synaptic dysfunction, are associated with CSF biomarkers [i.e., phospho-tau (p-tau) and amyloid beta (Aβ42) levels]. We studied 12 human subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, comparing those with normal and abnormal CSF levels of the biomarkers. We also evaluated the association between aberrant functional connections and structural connectivity abnormalities, measured with diffusion tensor imaging, as well as the convergent impact of cognitive deficits and CSF variables on network disorganization. One-third of the patients converted to Alzheimer's disease during a follow-up period of 2.5 years. Patients with abnomal CSF p-tau and Aβ42 levels exhibited both reduced and increased functional connectivity affecting limbic structures such as the anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial temporal areas in different frequency bands. A reduction in posterior cingulate functional connectivity mediated by p-tau was associated with impaired axonal integrity of the hippocampal cingulum. We noted that several connectivity abnormalities were predicted by CSF biomarkers and cognitive scores. These preliminary results indicate that CSF markers of amyloid deposition and neuronal injury in early Alzheimer's disease associate with a dual pattern of cortical network disruption, affecting key regions of the default mode network and the temporal cortex. MEG is useful to detect early synaptic dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease brain pathology in terms of functional network organization. In this preliminary study, we used magnetoencephalography and an integrative approach to explore the impact of CSF biomarkers, neuropsychological scores, and white matter structural abnormalities

  10. A High-throughput Screening Assay for Determining Cellular Levels of Total Tau Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dehdashti, Seameen J.; Zheng, Wei; Gever, Joel R.; Wilhelm, Robert; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Sittampalam, Gurusingham; McKew, John C.; Austin, Christopher P.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau has been implicated in the pathology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In the past decade, the hyperphosphorylated and aggregated states of tau protein have been important targets in the drug discovery field for the potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Although several compounds have been reported to reduce the hyperphosphorylated state of tau or impact the stabilization of tau, their therapeutic activities are still to be validated. Recently, reduction of total cellular tau protein has emerged as an alternate intervention point for drug development and a potential treatment of tauopathies. We have developed and optimized a homogenous assay, using the AlphaLISA and HTRF assay technologies, for the quantification of total cellular tau protein levels in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. The signal-to-basal ratios were 375 and 5.3, and the Z’ factors were 0.67 and 0.60 for the AlphaLISA and HTRF tau assays, respectively. The clear advantages of this homogeneous tau assay over conventional total tau assays, such as ELISA and Western blot, are the elimination of plate wash steps and miniaturization of the assay into 1536-well plate format for the ultra–high-throughput screening of large compound libraries. PMID:23905996

  11. The novel Tau mutation G335S: clinical, neuropathological and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Spina, Salvatore; Murrell, Jill R; Yoshida, Hirotaka; Ghetti, Bernardino; Bermingham, Niamh; Sweeney, Brian; Dlouhy, Stephen R; Crowther, R Anthony; Goedert, Michel; Keohane, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    Mutations in Tau cause the inherited neurodegenerative disease, frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). Known coding region mutations cluster in the microtubule-binding region, where they alter the ability of tau to promote microtubule assembly. Depending on the tau isoforms, this region consists of three or four imperfect repeats of 31 or 32 amino acids, each of which contains a characteristic and invariant PGGG motif. Here, we report the novel G335S mutation, which changes the PGGG motif of the third tau repeat to PGGS, in an individual who developed social withdrawal, emotional bluntness and stereotypic behavior at age 22, followed by disinhibition, hyperorality and ideomotor apraxia. Abundant tau-positive inclusions were present in neurons and glia in the frontotemporal cortex, hippocampus and brainstem. Sarkosyl-insoluble tau showed paired helical and straight filaments, as well as more irregular rope-like filaments. The pattern of pathological tau bands was like that of Alzheimer disease. Experimentally, the G335S mutation resulted in a greatly reduced ability of tau to promote microtubule assembly, while having no significant effect on heparin-induced assembly of recombinant tau into filaments.

  12. A Novel Tau Mutation in Exon 12, p.Q336H, Causes Hereditary Pick Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tacik, Pawel; DeTure, Michael; Hinkle, Kelly M.; Lin, Wen-Lang; Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Carlomagno, Yari; Pedraza, Otto; Rademakers, Rosa; Ross, Owen A.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2015-01-01

    Pick disease (PiD) is a frontotemporal lobar degeneration with distinctive neuronal inclusions (Pick bodies) that are enriched in 3-repeat (3R) tau. Although mostly sporadic, mutations in the tau gene (MAPT) have been reported. We screened 24 cases of neuropathologically confirmed PiD for MAPT mutations and found a novel mutation (c.1008G>C, p.Q336H) in one patient. Pathogenicity was confirmed on microtubule assembly and tau filament formation assays. The patient was compared to sporadic PiD and PiD associated with MAPT mutations from a review of the literature. The patient had behavioral changes at 55 years of age, followed by reduced verbal fluency, parkinsonism and death at 63 years of age. His mother and maternal uncle had similar symptoms. Recombinant tau with p.Q336H mutation formed filaments faster than wild type tau, especially with 3R tau. It also promoted more microtubule assembly than wild type tau. We conclude that mutations in MAPT, including p.Q336H, can be associated with clinical, pathologic, and biochemical features that are similar to those in sporadic PiD. The pathomechanism of p.Q336H, and another previously reported variant at the same codon (p.Q336R), appears to be unique to MAPT mutations in that they not only predispose to abnormal tau filament formation but also facilitate microtubule assembly in a 3R tau-dependent manner. PMID:26426266

  13. Sequential stages and distribution patterns of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Xie, Sharon X; Robinson, John L; Lee, Edward B; Smith, Douglas H; Schuck, Theresa; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

    2018-06-11

    Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) describes tau pathology in astrocytes in different locations and anatomical regions. In the present study we addressed the question of whether sequential distribution patterns can be recognized for ARTAG or astroglial tau pathologies in both primary FTLD-tauopathies and non-FTLD-tauopathy cases. By evaluating 687 postmortem brains with diverse disorders we identified ARTAG in 455. We evaluated frequencies and hierarchical clustering of anatomical involvement and used conditional probability and logistic regression to model the sequential distribution of ARTAG and astroglial tau pathologies across different brain regions. For subpial and white matter ARTAG we recognize three and two patterns, respectively, each with three stages initiated or ending in the amygdala. Subependymal ARTAG does not show a clear sequential pattern. For grey matter (GM) ARTAG we recognize four stages including a striatal pathway of spreading towards the cortex and/or amygdala, and the brainstem, and an amygdala pathway, which precedes the involvement of the striatum and/or cortex and proceeds towards the brainstem. GM ARTAG and astrocytic plaque pathology in corticobasal degeneration follows a predominantly frontal-parietal cortical to temporal-occipital cortical, to subcortical, to brainstem pathway (four stages). GM ARTAG and tufted astrocyte pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy shows a striatum to frontal-parietal cortical to temporal to occipital, to amygdala, and to brainstem sequence (four stages). In Pick's disease cases with astroglial tau pathology an overlapping pattern with PSP can be appreciated. We conclude that tau-astrogliopathy type-specific sequential patterns cannot be simplified as neuron-based staging systems. The proposed cytopathological and hierarchical stages provide a conceptual approach to identify the initial steps of the pathogenesis of tau pathologies in ARTAG and primary FTLD-tauopathies.

  14. A Novel MAPT Mutation, G55R, in a Frontotemporal Dementia Patient Leads to Altered Tau Function

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Elmer; Barczak, Anna; Chodakowska-Żebrowska, Małgorzata; Barcikowska, Maria; Feinstein, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Over two dozen mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule associated protein tau cause a variety of neurodegenerative dementias known as tauopathies, including frontotemporal dementia (FTD), PSP, CBD and Pick's disease. The vast majority of these mutations map to the C-terminal region of tau possessing microtubule assembly and microtubule dynamics regulatory activities as well as the ability to promote pathological tau aggregation. Here, we describe a novel and non-conservative tau mutation (G55R) mapping to an alternatively spliced exon encoding part of the N-terminal region of the protein in a patient with the behavioral variant of FTD. Although less well understood than the C-terminal region of tau, the N-terminal region can influence both MT mediated effects as well as tau aggregation. The mutation changes an uncharged glycine to a basic arginine in the midst of a highly conserved and very acidic region. In vitro, 4-repeat G55R tau nucleates microtubule assembly more effectively than wild-type 4-repeat tau; surprisingly, this effect is tau isoform specific and is not observed in a 3-repeat G55R tau versus 3-repeat wild-type tau comparison. In contrast, the G55R mutation has no effect upon the abilities of tau to regulate MT growing and shortening dynamics or to aggregate. Additionally, the mutation has no effect upon kinesin translocation in a microtubule gliding assay. Together, (i) we have identified a novel tau mutation mapping to a mutation deficient region of the protein in a bvFTD patient, and (ii) the G55R mutation affects the ability of tau to nucleate microtubule assembly in vitro in a 4-repeat tau isoform specific manner. This altered capability could markedly affect in vivo microtubule function and neuronal cell biology. We consider G55R to be a candidate mutation for bvFTD since additional criteria required to establish causality are not yet available for assessment. PMID:24086739

  15. High Proliferation Predicts Pathological Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lluch, Ana; Ribelles, Nuria; Anton-Torres, Antonio; Sanchez-Rovira, Pedro; Albanell, Joan; Calvo, Lourdes; García-Asenjo, Jose Antonio Lopez; Palacios, Jose; Chacon, Jose Ignacio; Ruiz, Amparo; De la Haba-Rodriguez, Juan; Segui-Palmer, Miguel A.; Cirauqui, Beatriz; Margeli, Mireia; Plazaola, Arrate; Barnadas, Agusti; Casas, Maribel; Caballero, Rosalia; Carrasco, Eva; Rojo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the neoadjuvant setting, changes in the proliferation marker Ki67 are associated with primary endocrine treatment efficacy, but its value as a predictor of response to chemotherapy is still controversial. Patients and Methods. We analyzed 262 patients with centralized basal Ki67 immunohistochemical evaluation derived from 4 GEICAM (Spanish Breast Cancer Group) clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. The objective was to identify the optimal threshold for Ki67 using the receiver-operating characteristic curve method to maximize its predictive value for chemotherapy benefit. We also evaluated the predictive role of the defined Ki67 cutoffs for molecular subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Results. A basal Ki67 cutpoint of 50% predicted pathological complete response (pCR). Patients with Ki67 >50% achieved a pCR rate of 40% (36 of 91) versus a pCR rate of 19% in patients with Ki67 ≤50% (33 of 171) (p = .0004). Ki67 predictive value was especially relevant in ER-HER2− and ER-HER2+ patients (pCR rates of 42% and 64%, respectively, in patients with Ki67 >50% versus 15% and 45%, respectively, in patients with Ki67 ≤50%; p = .0337 and .3238, respectively). Both multivariate analyses confirmed the independent predictive value of the Ki67 cutpoint of 50%. Conclusion. Basal Ki67 proliferation index >50% should be considered an independent predictive factor for pCR reached after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, suggesting that cell proliferation is a phenomenon closely related to chemosensitivity. These findings could help to identify a group of patients with a potentially favorable long-term prognosis. Implications for Practice: The use of basal Ki67 status as a predictive factor of chemotherapy benefit could facilitate the identification of a patient subpopulation with high probability of achieving pathological complete response when treated with primary chemotherapy, and thus

  16. Early detection of pathological gambling: betting on GPs' beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach.

  17. Tau PET in Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hanna; Choi, Jae Yong; Hwang, Mi Song; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, You Jin; Lee, Hye Mi; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sik

    2016-07-26

    To investigate the topographical distribution of tau pathology and its effect on functional and structural changes in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by using (18)F-AV-1451 PET. We included 20 patients with AD, 15 patients with MCI, and 20 healthy controls, and performed neuropsychological function tests, MRI, as well as (18)F-florbetaben (for amyloid) and (18)F-AV-1451 (for tau) PET scans. By using the regional volume-of-interest masks extracted from MRIs, regional binding values of standardized uptake value ratios and volumes were measured. We compared regional binding values among 3 diagnostic groups and identified correlations among the regional binding values, performance in each cognitive function test, and regional atrophy. (18)F-AV-1451 binding was increased only in the entorhinal cortex in patients with MCI, while patients with AD exhibited greater binding in most cortical regions. In the 35 patients with MCI and AD, (18)F-AV-1451 binding in most of the neocortex increased with a worsening of global cognitive function. The visual and verbal memory functions were associated with the extent of (18)F-AV-1451 binding, especially in the medial temporal regions. The (18)F-AV-1451 binding also correlated with the severity of regional atrophy of the cerebral cortex. Tau PET imaging with (18)F-AV-1451 could serve as an in vivo biomarker for the evaluation of AD-related tau pathology and monitoring disease progression. The accumulation of pathologic tau is more closely related to functional and structural deterioration in the AD spectrum than β-amyloid. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Multisite Assessment of Aging-Related Tau Astrogliopathy (ARTAG).

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Xie, Sharon X; Lee, Edward B; Robinson, John L; Caswell, Carrie; Irwin, David J; Toledo, Jon B; Johnson, Victoria E; Smith, Douglas H; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Bencze, Janos; Bieniek, Kevin F; Bigio, Eileen H; Bodi, Istvan; Budka, Herbert; Dickson, Dennis W; Dugger, Brittany N; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ferrer, Isidro; Forrest, Shelley L; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M; Giaccone, Giorgio; Grinberg, Lea T; Halliday, Glenda M; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Hof, Patrick R; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Ironside, James W; King, Andrew; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R; Mao, Qinwen; Matej, Radoslav; McLean, Catriona; Munoz, David G; Murray, Melissa E; Neltner, Janna; Nelson, Peter T; Ritchie, Diane; Rodriguez, Roberta D; Rohan, Zdenek; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Sakai, Kenji; Schultz, Christian; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Vanessa; Tacik, Pawel; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Takao, Masaki; Rudolf Thal, Dietmar; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B; White, Charles L; Woulfe, John M; Yamada, Masahito; Trojanowski, John Q

    2017-07-01

    Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) is a recently introduced terminology. To facilitate the consistent identification of ARTAG and to distinguish it from astroglial tau pathologies observed in the primary frontotemporal lobar degeneration tauopathies we evaluated how consistently neuropathologists recognize (1) different astroglial tau immunoreactivities, including those of ARTAG and those associated with primary tauopathies (Study 1); (2) ARTAG types (Study 2A); and (3) ARTAG severity (Study 2B). Microphotographs and scanned sections immunostained for phosphorylated tau (AT8) were made available for download and preview. Percentage of agreement and kappa values with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each evaluation. The overall agreement for Study 1 was >60% with a kappa value of 0.55 (95% CI 0.433-0.645). Moderate agreement (>90%, kappa 0.48, 95% CI 0.457-0.900) was reached in Study 2A for the identification of ARTAG pathology for each ARTAG subtype (kappa 0.37-0.72), whereas fair agreement (kappa 0.40, 95% CI 0.341-0.445) was reached for the evaluation of ARTAG severity. The overall assessment of ARTAG showed moderate agreement (kappa 0.60, 95% CI 0.534-0.653) among raters. Our study supports the application of the current harmonized evaluation strategy for ARTAG with a slight modification of the evaluation of its severity. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Magnetic resonance imaging and pathological evaluation of vacuum sealing drainage efficacy of early treated limb gunshot].

    PubMed

    Li, Ronggang; Liu, Xingyan; Chen, Keming; Ye, Jianjun; Gao, Mingxuan; Ge, Baofeng; Wang, Yong; Xiong, Faming; Liang, Jianping

    2010-03-01

    Gunshot wound spreads to the surrounding tissues and organs, it is difficult to debride and easy to infect. The conventional treatment is thorough, extensive debridement, fully open drainage, which often causes normal tissue damage and complications. To evaluate the effectiveness of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) treating the penetrating wound in porcine extremity by MRI and pathological methods so as to provide theoretical basis for future clinical use. Eight healthy adult pigs, weighing (45 +/- 5) kg, were selected. Eight pairs of hind limb penetrating wounds (16 wounds) were made by using Chinese-made 95-type rifle at 25 meters distance, which were randomly divided into experimental group (left side, n=8) and the control group (right side, n=8). After debriding and disinfecting the penetrating wounds at 6 hours after injury, wounds were treated with VSD in experimental group. The ballistics exports of the wounds were covered with single-layer gauze and imports were directly sutured and covered with sterile gauze in control group. The trajectory and the general condition of the adjacent skin were observed. MRI and histological observation were taken at 5, 24, 48, and 72 hours after injury, bacterial counting analysis was done at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after injury. The aperture of the trajectory exit and entry were (5.00 +/- 2.50) cm and (0.30 +/- 0.15) cm immediately after injury. The wound surface was clean, rosy without leakage and swelling after 72 hours in experimental group; wound and adjacent tissue were swelling obviously, pus, muscle necrosis and exfoliative tissue was observed, and deep defect cavity at the trajectory exit could be seen in control group. MRI showed that pairs of linear low signal in T1WI and T2WI was seen in trajectory of experimental group at 5 hours after injury, and signal in T1WI gradually increased at disrupted area and tissue deformation area at 24, 48, and 72 hours; in control group, low signal in T1WI was observed at 5 hours

  20. Alzheimer Abeta peptide induces chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy, including trisomy 21: requirement for tau and APP.

    PubMed

    Granic, Antoneta; Padmanabhan, Jaya; Norden, Michelle; Potter, Huntington

    2010-02-15

    Both sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit increased chromosome aneuploidy, particularly trisomy 21, in neurons and other cells. Significantly, trisomy 21/Down syndrome patients develop early onset AD pathology. We investigated the mechanism underlying mosaic chromosome aneuploidy in AD and report that FAD mutations in the Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Protein gene, APP, induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in transgenic mice and in transfected cells. Furthermore, adding synthetic Abeta peptide, the pathogenic product of APP, to cultured cells causes rapid and robust chromosome mis-segregation leading to aneuploid, including trisomy 21, daughters, which is prevented by LiCl addition or Ca(2+) chelation and is replicated in tau KO cells, implicating GSK-3beta, calpain, and Tau-dependent microtubule transport in the aneugenic activity of Abeta. Furthermore, APP KO cells are resistant to the aneugenic activity of Abeta, as they have been shown previously to be resistant to Abeta-induced tau phosphorylation and cell toxicity. These results indicate that Abeta-induced microtubule dysfunction leads to aneuploid neurons and may thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  1. The autonomic higher order processing nuclei of the lower brain stem are among the early targets of the Alzheimer's disease-related cytoskeletal pathology.

    PubMed

    Rüb, U; Del Tredici, K; Schultz, C; Thal, D R; Braak, E; Braak, H

    2001-06-01

    The nuclei of the pontine parabrachial region (medial parabrachial nucleus, MPB; lateral parabrachial nucleus, LPB; subpeduncular nucleus, SPP) together with the intermediate zone of the medullary reticular formation (IRZ) are pivotal relay stations within central autonomic regulatory feedback systems. This study was undertaken to investigate the evolution of the Alzheimer's disease-related cytoskeletal pathology in these four sites of the lower brain stem. We examined the MPB, LPB, SPP and IRZ in 27 autopsy cases and classified the cortical Alzheimer-related cytoskeletal anomalies according to an established staging system (neurofibrillary tangle/neuropil threads [NFT/NT] stages I-VI). The lesions were visualized either with the antibody AT8, which is immunospecific for the abnormally phosphorylated form of the cytoskeletal protein tau, or with a modified Gallyas silver iodide stain. The MPB, SPB, and IRZ display cytoskeletal pathology in stage I and the LPB in stage II, whereby bothstages correspond to the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In stages III-IV (incipient AD), the MPB and SPP are severely affected. In all of the stage III-IV cases, the lesions in the LPB and IRZ are well developed. In stages V and VI (clinical phase of AD), the MPB and SPP are filled with the abnormal intraneuronal material. At stages V-VI, the LPB is moderately involved and the IRZ shows severe damage. The pathogenesis of the AD-related cytoskeletal lesions in the nuclei of the pontine parabrachial region and in the IRZ conforms with the cortical NFT/NT staging sequence I-VI. In the event that the cytoskeletal pathology observed in this study impairs the function of the nerve cells involved, it is conceivable that autonomic mechanisms progressively deteriorate with advancing cortical NFT/NT stages. This relationship remains to be established, but it could provide insights into the illusive correlation between the AD-related cytoskeletal pathology and the function of

  2. Early Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology Detected by Proton MR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Melissa E.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Liesinger, Amanda M.; Spychalla, Anthony; Zhang, Bing; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is sensitive to early neurodegenerative processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although 1H-MRS metabolite ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), NAA/myoinositol (mI), and mI/Cr measured in the posterior cingulate gyrus reveal evidence of disease progression in AD, pathologic underpinnings of the 1H-MRS metabolite changes in AD are unknown. Pathologically diagnosed human cases ranging from no likelihood to high likelihood AD (n = 41, 16 females and 25 males) who underwent antemortem 1H-MRS of the posterior cingulate gyrus at 3 tesla were included in this study. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed on the posterior cingulate gyrus using antibodies to synaptic vesicles, hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau), neurofibrillary tangle conformational-epitope (cNFT), amyloid-β, astrocytes, and microglia. The slides were digitally analyzed using Aperio software, which allows neuropathologic quantification in the posterior cingulate gray matter. MRS and pathology associations were adjusted for time from scan to death. Significant associations across AD and control subjects were found between reduced synaptic immunoreactivity and both NAA/Cr and NAA/mI in the posterior cingulate gyrus. Higher pTau burden was associated with lower NAA/Cr and NAA/mI. Higher amyloid-β burden was associated with elevated mI/Cr and lower NAA/mI ratios, but not with NAA/Cr. 1H-MRS metabolite levels reveal early neurodegenerative changes associated with AD pathology. Our findings support the hypothesis that a decrease in NAA/Cr is associated with loss of synapses and early pTau pathology, but not with amyloid-β or later accumulation of cNFT pathology in the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, elevation of mI/Cr is associated with the occurrence of amyloid-β plaques in AD. PMID:25471565

  3. Family-centered early intervention: an opportunity for creative practice in speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Y

    1992-01-01

    Services for developmentally delayed children from birth to age three consider the family first. Eligibility for services is determined through a multidisciplinary assessment. Once a child qualifies for service, a multidisciplinary team that includes the family develops an IFSP. The SLP may serve as the service coordinator for the plan or as a team member. The plans must contain specific information that includes documentation of current status and major outcomes for the coming year. An SLP may find that contributing effectively to an IFSP requires new competencies. First, the SLP will need to learn to function in the family-centered, multidisciplinary process of early intervention. Second, the SLP may need to develop creative models to deliver effective service. SLPs can contribute valuable information to the IFSP by finding ways to activate daily life routines to promote a child's communication skills. SLPs can explore the child's life-space, including routines and partners, as a source of contexts for treatment. SLPs also can explore partner communication strategies, note their effects on the child's communication experiences, and recommend additional strategies for treatment. The case study illustrated an individual, home-based intervention program (Gillette, 1989; Lombardino and Magnan, 1983). Other service delivery models can include classroom-based approaches (Wilcox, Kouri, and Caswell, 1991); group parent training approaches (Weistuch, Lewis, and Sullivan, 1991; Cheseldine and McConkey, 1979); and video-assisted approaches (McConkey, 1988; Johnson and Harrison, 1990; Gillette, in press). Many SLPs may find that the process of early intervention with the birth-to-three population offers unique opportunities for practice in their profession. To function effectively in this process, the SLP needs communication-based information to promote the child's communication skills within his or her daily life and sensitivity with which to design a plan that considers

  4. Longitudinal tau PET in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Clifford R; Wiste, Heather J; Schwarz, Christopher G; Lowe, Val J; Senjem, Matthew L; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Weigand, Stephen D; Therneau, Terry M; Knopman, Dave S; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Jones, David T; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Kantarci, Kejal; Roberts, Rosebud O; Mielke, Michelle M; Machulda, Mary M; Petersen, Ronald C

    2018-01-01

    within cognitively impaired abnormal amyloid. The ordering of the sample size estimates by outcome measure was MRI < tau PET < cognitive measures. At a group-wise level, observable rates of short-term serial tau accumulation were only seen in the presence of abnormal amyloid. As disease progressed to clinically symptomatic stages (cognitively impaired abnormal amyloid), observable rates of tau accumulation were seen uniformly throughout the brain providing evidence that tau does not accumulate in one area at a time or in start-stop, stepwise sequence. The information captured by rate measures in different meta-regions of interest, even those with little topographic overlap, was similar. The implication is that rate measurements from simple meta-regions of interest, without the need for Braak-like staging, may be sufficient to capture progressive within-person accumulation of pathologic tau. Tau PET SUVR measures should be an efficient outcome measure in disease-modifying clinical trials. PMID:29538647

  5. Tau depletion prevents progressive blood-brain barrier damage in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Blair, Laura J; Frauen, Haley D; Zhang, Bo; Nordhues, Bryce A; Bijan, Sara; Lin, Yen-Chi; Zamudio, Frank; Hernandez, Lidice D; Sabbagh, Jonathan J; Selenica, Maj-Linda B; Dickey, Chad A

    2015-01-31

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is damaged in tauopathies, including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is thought to contribute to pathogenesis later in the disease course. In AD, BBB dysfunction has been associated with amyloid beta (Aß) pathology, but the role of tau in this process is not well characterized. Since increased BBB permeability is found in tauopathies without Aß pathology, like PSP, we suspected that tau accumulation alone could not only be sufficient, but even more important than Aß for BBB damage. Longitudinal evaluation of brain tissue from the tetracycline-regulatable rTg4510 tau transgenic mouse model showed progressive IgG, T cell and red blood cell infiltration. The Evans blue (EB) dye that is excluded from the brain when the BBB is intact also permeated the brains of rTg4510 mice following peripheral administration, indicative of a bonafide BBB defect, but this was only evident later in life. Thus, despite the marked brain atrophy and inflammation that occurs earlier in this model, BBB integrity is maintained. Interestingly, BBB dysfunction emerged at the same time that perivascular tau emerged around major hippocampal blood vessels. However, when tau expression was suppressed using doxycycline, BBB integrity was preserved, suggesting that the BBB can be stabilized in a tauopathic brain by reducing tau levels. For the first time, these data demonstrate that tau alone can initiate breakdown of the BBB, but the BBB is remarkably resilient, maintaining its integrity in the face of marked brain atrophy, neuroinflammation and toxic tau accumulation. Moreover, the BBB can recover integrity when tau levels are reduced. Thus, late stage interventions targeting tau may slow the vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia that occur in tauopathies.

  6. [MODEL ESTABLISHMENT, MRI AND PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF EARLY STEROID-INDUCED AVASCULAR NECROSIS OF FEMORAL HEAD IN RABBIT].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyan; Sun, Xin; Tian, Dan; Xu, Rui; Lei, Hao; Al, Jinhui; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Jiying; Chai, Wei; Ma, Shoucheng; Liu, Weijia; Shen, Siyuan

    2015-10-01

    To establish an rabbit model of early steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH) and evaluate its validity with MRI and pathological examination. Twenty 6-month-old rabbits (weighing, 2-3 kg) were randomly divided into 2 groups (control group and model group), 10 rabbits in each group. Dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution (10 mg/kg) was injected into bilateral gluteus in model group, and the same amount of saline was injected in control group, every 3 days for 14 times. General observation was done after modelling. Osteonecrosis was verified by pathological observation and MRI findings at 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, rabbits did not show obvious changes in control group; increased hair removal, decreased food intake, and slight limp were observed in model group. The MRI results showed normal shape of the bilateral femoral head and no abnormal signals in control group; irregular shape of the bilateral femoral head and a slice of irregular abnormal signals were observed, and necrosis and cystolization of the subchondral bone and sparse changes of trabecular bone were shown in model group. General observation from coronal section of femoral head showed smooth red cartilage surface in control group; on the contrary, the cartilage surface of the femoral head became dull, thin even visible hemorrhage under articular cartilage and necrosis of the femoral head were observed. The histopathological examination indicated that trabecular bone of the femoral head in control group was massive, thick, and close and osteocytes in the bone lacunae had normal shapes. The osseous trabecular became thinner and broken; karyopyknosis of osteocytes and bone empty lacunae could be obviously seen in model. group. The rates of empty lacunae were 8.0% ± 0.5% in control group and 49.0% ± 0.3% in model group, showing significant difference (t = 21.940, P = 0.000). Establishing a model of early SANFH through injecting short-term, shock, and high dose of dexamethasone, and it

  7. CSF tau and β-amyloid predict cerebral synucleinopathy in autopsied Lewy body disorders.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David J; Xie, Sharon X; Coughlin, David; Nevler, Naomi; Akhtar, Rizwan S; McMillan, Corey T; Lee, Edward B; Wolk, David A; Weintraub, Daniel; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E; Spindler, Meredith; Siderowf, Andrew; Hurtig, Howard I; Shaw, Leslie M; Grossman, Murray; Trojanowski, John Q

    2018-03-20

    To test the association of antemortem CSF biomarkers with postmortem pathology in Lewy body disorders (LBD). Patients with autopsy-confirmed LBD (n = 24) and autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 23) and cognitively normal (n = 36) controls were studied. In LBD, neuropathologic criteria defined Lewy body α-synuclein (SYN) stages with medium/high AD copathology (SYN + AD = 10) and low/no AD copathology (SYN - AD = 14). Ordinal pathology scores for tau, β-amyloid (Aβ), and SYN pathology were averaged across 7 cortical regions to obtain a global cerebral score for each pathology. CSF total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 , and Aβ 1-42 levels were compared between LBD and control groups and correlated with global cerebral pathology scores in LBD with linear regression. Diagnostic accuracy for postmortem categorization of LBD into SYN + AD vs SYN - AD or neocortical vs brainstem/limbic SYN stage was tested with receiver operating curves. SYN + AD had higher CSF t-tau (mean difference 27.0 ± 8.6 pg/mL) and lower Aβ 1-42 (mean difference -84.0 ± 22.9 g/mL) compared to SYN - AD ( p < 0.01, both). Increasing global cerebral tau and plaque scores were associated with higher CSF t-tau ( R 2 = 0.15-0.16, p < 0.05, both) and lower Aβ 1-42 ( R 2 = 0.43-0.49, p < 0.001, both), while increasing cerebral SYN scores were associated with lower CSF Aβ 1-42 ( R 2 = 0.31, p < 0.001) and higher CSF t-tau/Aβ 1-42 ratio ( R 2 = 0.27, p = 0.01). CSF t-tau/Aβ 1-42 ratio had 100% specificity and 90% sensitivity for SYN + AD, and CSF Aβ 1-42 had 77% specificity and 82% sensitivity for neocortical SYN stage. Higher antemortem CSF t-tau/Aβ 1-42 and lower Aβ 1-42 levels are predictive of increasing cerebral AD and SYN pathology. These biomarkers may identify patients with LBD vulnerable to cortical SYN pathology who may benefit from both SYN and AD-targeted disease-modifying therapies. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. EARLY ONSET OF CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS IN AN APERT MOUSE MODEL REVEALS CRITICAL FEATURES OF THIS PATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Greg; Rothschild, Gerson; Roy, Upal Basu; Deng, Chu-Xia; Mansukhani, Alka; Basilico, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Activating mutations of FGFRs1–3 cause craniosynostosis (CS), the premature fusion of cranial bones, in man and mouse. The mechanisms by which such mutations lead to CS have been variously ascribed to increased osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, but it is not always clear how these disturbances relate to the process of suture fusion. We have reassessed coronal suture fusion in an Apert Fgfr2 (S252W) mouse model. We find that the critical event of CS is the early loss of basal sutural mesenchyme as the osteogenic fronts, expressing activated Fgfr2, unite to form a contiguous skeletogenic membrane. A mild increase in osteoprogenitor proliferation precedes but does not accompany this event, and apoptosis is insignificant. On the other hand, the more apical coronal suture initially forms appropriately but then undergoes fusion, albeit at a slower rate, accompanied by a significant decrease in osteoprogenitor proliferation, and increased osteoblast maturation. Apoptosis now accompanies fusion, but is restricted to bone fronts in contact with one another. We correlated these in vivo observations with the intrinsic effects of the activated Fgfr2 S252W mutation in primary osteoblasts in culture, which show an increased capacity for both proliferation and differentiation. Our studies suggest that the major determinant of Fgfr2-induced craniosynostosis is the failure to respond to signals that would halt the recruitment or the advancement of osteoprogenitor cells at the sites where sutures should normally form. PMID:19389359

  9. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid tau, neurofilament, and progranulin in definite frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Joery; Bjerke, Maria; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Van den Bossche, Tobi; Goeman, Johan; De Vil, Bart; Sieben, Anne; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Cras, Patrick; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2018-03-20

    We explored the diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in allowing differentiation between frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as between FTLD pathological subtypes. CSF levels of routine AD biomarkers (phosphorylated tau (p-tau 181 ), total tau (t-tau), and amyloid-beta (Aβ) 1-42 ) and neurofilament proteins, as well as progranulin levels in both CSF and serum were quantified in definite FTLD (n = 46), clinical AD (n = 45), and cognitively healthy controls (n = 20). FTLD subgroups were defined by genetic carrier status and/or postmortem neuropathological confirmation (FTLD-TDP: n = 34, including FTLD-C9orf72: n = 19 and FTLD-GRN: n = 9; FTLD-tau: n = 10). GRN mutation carriers had significantly lower progranulin levels compared to other FTLD patients, AD, and controls. Both t-tau and p-tau 181 were normal in FTLD patients, even in FTLD-tau. Aβ 1-42 levels were very variable in FTLD. Neurofilament light chain (Nf-L) was significantly higher in FTLD compared with AD and controls. The reference logistic regression model based on the established AD biomarkers could be improved by the inclusion of CSF Nf-L, which was also important for the differentiation between FTLD and controls. Within the FTLD cohort, no significant differences were found between FTLD-TDP and FTLD-tau, but GRN mutation carriers had higher t-tau and Nf-L levels than C9orf72 mutation carriers and FTLD-tau patients. There is an added value for Nf-L in the differential diagnosis of FTLD. Progranulin levels in CSF depend on mutation status, and GRN mutation carriers seem to be affected by more severe neurodegeneration.

  10. An Ultra-High Field Study of Cerebellar Pathology in Early Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Using MP2RAGE.

    PubMed

    Fartaria, Mário João; OʼBrien, Kieran; Şorega, Alexandra; Bonnier, Guillaume; Roche, Alexis; Falkovskiy, Pavel; Krueger, Gunnar; Kober, Tobias; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Granziera, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to study focal cerebellar pathology in early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) using ultra-high-field magnetization-prepared 2 inversion-contrast rapid gradient-echo (7T MP2RAGE). Twenty early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients underwent an MP2RAGE acquisition at 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (images acquired at 2 different resolutions: 0.58 × 0.58 × 0.58 mm, 7T_0.58, and 0.75 × 0.75 × 0.90 mm, 7T_0.75) and 3 T MRI (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 mm, 3T_1.0). Total cerebellar lesion load and volume and mean cerebellar lesion volume were compared across images using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean T1 relaxation times in lesions and normal-appearing tissue as well as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements were also compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A multivariate analysis was applied to assess the contribution of MRI metrics to clinical performance in MS patients. Both 7T_0.58 and 7T_0.75 MP2RAGE showed significantly higher lesion load compared with 3T_1.0 MP2RAGE (P < 0.001). Plaques that were judged as leukocortical in 7T_0.75 and 3T_1.0 MP2RAGEs were instead identified as WM lesions in 7T_0.58 MP2RAGE. Cortical lesion CNR was significantly higher in MP2RAGEs at 7 T than at 3 T. Total lesion load as well as total and mean lesion volume obtained at both 7 T and 3 T MP2RAGE significantly predicted attention (P < 0.05, adjusted R = 0.5), verbal fluency (P < 0.01, adjusted R = 0.6), and motor performance (P = 0.01, adjusted R = 0.7). This study demonstrates the value of 7 T MP2RAGE to study the cerebellum in early MS patients. 7T_0.58 MP2RAGE provides a more accurate anatomical description of white and gray matter pathology compared with 7T_0.75 and 3T_1.0 MP2RAGE, likely due to the improved spatial resolution, lower partial volume effects, and higher CNR.

  11. In vivo detection of microstructural correlates of brain pathology in preclinical and early Alzheimer Disease with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Raichle, Marcus E; Wen, Jie; Benzinger, Tammie L; Fagan, Anne M; Hassenstab, Jason; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Luo, Jie; Cairns, Nigel J; Christensen, Jon J; Morris, John C; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A

    2017-03-01

    GEPCI brain tissue metrics and beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden defined by positron emission tomography (PET) - the current in vivo gold standard for detection of cortical Aβ, thus supporting GEPCI as a potential surrogate marker for Aβ imaging - a known biomarker of early AD. Remarkably, the data show significant correlations not only in the areas of high Aβ accumulation (e.g. precuneus) but also in some areas of medial temporal lobe (e.g. parahippocampal cortex), where Aβ accumulation is relatively low. We have demonstrated that GEPCI provides a new approach for the in vivo evaluation of AD-related tissue pathology in the preclinical and early symptomatic stages of AD. Since MRI is a widely available technology, the GEPCI surrogate markers of AD pathology have a potential for improving the quality of AD diagnostic, and the evaluation of new disease-modifying therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β 42, Total Tau and Phosphorylated Tau are Low in Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: Analogies and Differences with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Roberto; Cecchetti, Giordano; Bernasconi, Maria Paola; Cardamone, Rosalinda; Barbieri, Alessandra; Pinto, Patrizia; Passerini, Gabriella; Scomazzoni, Francesco; Comi, Giancarlo; Magnani, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Co-existence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a frequent finding, thus a common pathophysiological basis between AD and NPH has been postulated. We measured CSF amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) concentrations in a sample of 294 patients with different types of dementia and 32 subjects without dementia. We then compared scores on neuropsychological tests of NPH patients with pathological and normal CSF Aβ42 values. Aβ42 levels were significantly lower in NPH than in control patients, with no significant differences between AD and NPH. On the contrary, t-tau and p-tau levels were significantly lower in NPH than in AD, with no differences between NPH and controls. NPH patients with pathological Aβ42 levels did not perform worse than NPH patients with normal Aβ42 levels in any cognitive domains. Our data seem to support the hypothesis of amyloid accumulation in brains of NPH patients. Nevertheless, amyloid does not seem to play a pathogenetic role in the development of cognitive deficits in NPH.

  13. Anthraquinones inhibit tau aggregation and dissolve Alzheimer's paired helical filaments in vitro and in cells.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Marcus; Gazova, Zuzana; von Bergen, Martin; Khlistunova, Inna; Wang, Yipeng; Hascher, Antje; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Biernat, Jacek; Mandelkow, Eckhard

    2005-02-04

    The abnormal aggregation of tau protein into paired helical filaments (PHFs) is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Aggregation takes place in the cytoplasm and could therefore be cytotoxic for neurons. To find inhibitors of PHF aggregation we screened a library of 200,000 compounds. The hits found in the PHF inhibition assay were also tested for their ability to dissolve preformed PHFs. The results were obtained using a thioflavin S fluorescence assay for the detection and quantification of tau aggregation in solution, a tryptophan fluorescence assay using tryptophan-containing mutants of tau, and confirmed by a pelleting assay and electron microscopy of the products. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach with several compounds from the family of anthraquinones, including emodin, daunorubicin, adriamycin, and others. They were able to inhibit PHF formation with IC50 values of 1-5 microm and to disassemble preformed PHFs at DC50 values of 2-4 microm. The compounds had a similar activity for PHFs made from different tau isoforms and constructs. The compounds did not interfere with the stabilization of microtubules by tau. Tau-inducible neuroblastoma cells showed the formation of tau aggregates and concomitant cytotoxicity, which could be prevented by inhibitors. Thus, small molecule inhibitors could provide a basis for the development of tools for the treatment of tau pathology in AD and other tauopathies.

  14. Predicted sequence of cortical tau and amyloid-β deposition in Alzheimer disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hanna; Lee, Hye Sun; Choi, Jae Yong; Lee, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sik; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung

    2018-04-17

    We investigated sequential order between tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in Alzheimer disease spectrum using a conditional probability method. Two hundred twenty participants underwent 18 F-flortaucipir and 18 F-florbetaben positron emission tomography scans and neuropsychological tests. The presence of tau and Aβ in each region and impairment in each cognitive domain were determined by Z-score cutoffs. By comparing pairs of conditional probabilities, the sequential order of tau and Aβ deposition were determined. Probability for the presence of tau in the entorhinal cortex was higher than that of Aβ in all cortical regions, and in the medial temporal cortices, probability for the presence of tau was higher than that of Aβ. Conversely, in the remaining neocortex above the inferior temporal cortex, probability for the presence of Aβ was always higher than that of tau. Tau pathology in the entorhinal cortex may appear earlier than neocortical Aβ and may spread in the absence of Aβ within the neighboring medial temporal regions. However, Aβ may be required for massive tau deposition in the distant cortical areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease pathology in urban children: Friend versus Foe responses--it is time to face the evidence.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Kavanaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution is known to cause inflammation leading to respiratory- and cardiovascular-related sickness and death. Mexico City Metropolitan Area children exhibit an early brain imbalance in genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate and adaptive immune responses. Early dysregulated neuroinflammation, brain microvascular damage, production of potent vasoconstrictors, and perturbations in the integrity of the neurovascular unit likely contribute to progressive neurodegenerative processes. The accumulation of misfolded proteins coincides with the anatomical distribution observed in the early stages of both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We contend misfolding of hyperphosphorylated tau (HPπ), alpha-synuclein, and beta-amyloid could represent a compensatory early protective response to the sustained systemic and brain inflammation. However, we favor the view that the chronic systemic and brain dysregulated inflammation and the diffuse vascular damage contribute to the establishment of neurodegenerative processes with childhood clinical manifestations. Friend turns Foe early; therefore, implementation of neuroprotective measures to ameliorate or stop the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes is warranted in exposed children. Epidemiological, cognitive, structural, and functional neuroimaging and mechanistic studies into the association between air pollution exposures and the development of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in children are of pressing importance for public health.

  16. Early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Pathology in Urban Children: Friend versus Foe Responses—It Is Time to Face the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Kavanaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution is known to cause inflammation leading to respiratory- and cardiovascular-related sickness and death. Mexico City Metropolitan Area children exhibit an early brain imbalance in genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate and adaptive immune responses. Early dysregulated neuroinflammation, brain microvascular damage, production of potent vasoconstrictors, and perturbations in the integrity of the neurovascular unit likely contribute to progressive neurodegenerative processes. The accumulation of misfolded proteins coincides with the anatomical distribution observed in the early stages of both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We contend misfolding of hyperphosphorylated tau (HPπ), alpha-synuclein, and beta-amyloid could represent a compensatory early protective response to the sustained systemic and brain inflammation. However, we favor the view that the chronic systemic and brain dysregulated inflammation and the diffuse vascular damage contribute to the establishment of neurodegenerative processes with childhood clinical manifestations. Friend turns Foe early; therefore, implementation of neuroprotective measures to ameliorate or stop the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes is warranted in exposed children. Epidemiological, cognitive, structural, and functional neuroimaging and mechanistic studies into the association between air pollution exposures and the development of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in children are of pressing importance for public health. PMID:23509683

  17. ApoE4 markedly exacerbates tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yang; Yamada, Kaoru; Liddelow, Shane Antony; Smith, Scott T; Zhao, Lingzhi; Luo, Wenjie; Tsai, Richard M; Spina, Salvatore; Grinberg, Lea T; Rojas, Julio C; Gallardo, Gilbert; Wang, Kairuo; Roh, Joseph; Robinson, Grace; Finn, Mary Beth; Jiang, Hong; Sullivan, Patrick M; Baufeld, Caroline; Wood, Michael W; Sutphen, Courtney; McCue, Lena; Xiong, Chengjie; Del-Aguila, Jorge L; Morris, John C; Cruchaga, Carlos; Fagan, Anne M; Miller, Bruce L; Boxer, Adam L; Seeley, William W; Butovsky, Oleg; Barres, Ben A; Paul, Steven M; Holtzman, David M

    2017-09-28

    APOE4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. ApoE4 increases brain amyloid-β pathology relative to other ApoE isoforms. However, whether APOE independently influences tau pathology, the other major proteinopathy of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, or tau-mediated neurodegeneration, is not clear. By generating P301S tau transgenic mice on either a human ApoE knock-in (KI) or ApoE knockout (KO) background, here we show that P301S/E4 mice have significantly higher tau levels in the brain and a greater extent of somatodendritic tau redistribution by three months of age compared with P301S/E2, P301S/E3, and P301S/EKO mice. By nine months of age, P301S mice with different ApoE genotypes display distinct phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) staining patterns. P301S/E4 mice develop markedly more brain atrophy and neuroinflammation than P301S/E2 and P301S/E3 mice, whereas P301S/EKO mice are largely protected from these changes. In vitro, E4-expressing microglia exhibit higher innate immune reactivity after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Co-culturing P301S tau-expressing neurons with E4-expressing mixed glia results in a significantly higher level of tumour-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion and markedly reduced neuronal viability compared with neuron/E2 and neuron/E3 co-cultures. Neurons co-cultured with EKO glia showed the greatest viability with the lowest level of secreted TNF-α. Treatment of P301S neurons with recombinant ApoE (E2, E3, E4) also leads to some neuronal damage and death compared with the absence of ApoE, with ApoE4 exacerbating the effect. In individuals with a sporadic primary tauopathy, the presence of an ε4 allele is associated with more severe regional neurodegeneration. In individuals who are positive for amyloid-β pathology with symptomatic Alzheimer disease who usually have tau pathology, ε4-carriers demonstrate greater rates of disease progression. Our results demonstrate that ApoE affects tau

  18. Comparing Plasma Phospho Tau, Total Tau, and Phospho Tau-Total Tau Ratio as Acute and Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Richard; Chang, Binggong; Yue, John K; Chiu, Allen; Winkler, Ethan A; Puccio, Ava M; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Yuh, Esther L; Mukherjee, Pratik; Valadka, Alex B; Gordon, Wayne A; Okonkwo, David O; Davies, Peter; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Lin, Fan; Sarkis, George; Yadikar, Hamad; Yang, Zhihui; Manley, Geoffrey T; Wang, Kevin K W; Cooper, Shelly R; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Borrasso, Allison J; Inoue, Tomoo; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Schnyer, David M; Vassar, Mary J

    2017-09-01

    Annually in the United States, at least 3.5 million people seek medical attention for traumatic brain injury (TBI). The development of therapies for TBI is limited by the absence of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Microtubule-associated protein tau is an axonal phosphoprotein. To date, the presence of the hypophosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) in plasma from patients with acute TBI and chronic TBI has not been investigated. To examine the associations between plasma P-tau and total-tau (T-tau) levels and injury presence, severity, type of pathoanatomic lesion (neuroimaging), and patient outcomes in acute and chronic TBI. In the TRACK-TBI Pilot study, plasma was collected at a single time point from 196 patients with acute TBI admitted to 3 level I trauma centers (<24 hours after injury) and 21 patients with TBI admitted to inpatient rehabilitation units (mean [SD], 176.4 [44.5] days after injury). Control samples were purchased from a commercial vendor. The TRACK-TBI Pilot study was conducted from April 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012. Data analysis for the current investigation was performed from August 1, 2015, to March 13, 2017. Plasma samples were assayed for P-tau (using an antibody that specifically recognizes phosphothreonine-231) and T-tau using ultra-high sensitivity laser-based immunoassay multi-arrayed fiberoptics conjugated with rolling circle amplification. In the 217 patients with TBI, 161 (74.2%) were men; mean (SD) age was 42.5 (18.1) years. The P-tau and T-tau levels and P-tau-T-tau ratio in patients with acute TBI were higher than those in healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for the 3 tau indices demonstrated accuracy with area under the curve (AUC) of 1.000, 0.916, and 1.000, respectively, for discriminating mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score, 13-15, n = 162) from healthy controls. The P-tau level and P-tau-T-tau ratio were higher in individuals with more severe TBI (GCS, ≤12 vs 13-15). The P-tau level and P-tau-T-tau

  19. Early Corneal Cellular and Nerve Fiber Pathology in Young Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Identified Using Corneal Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Eszter; Deák, Eszter; Módis, László; Németh, Gábor; Berta, András; Nagy, Annamária; Felszeghy, Eniko; Káposzta, Rita; Malik, Rayaz A; Csutak, Adrienne

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cell density, and subbasal nerve morphology in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus with and without diabetic retinopathy. A total of 28 young patients (mean age, 22.86 ± 9.05 years) with type 1 diabetes, with (n = 18) and without (n = 10) retinopathy, and 17 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 26.53 ± 2.43 years) underwent corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). We found significantly lower epithelial (P < 0.0001) and endothelial (P = 0.001) cell densities and higher keratocyte cell density (P = 0.024) in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to controls. Significantly lower corneal nerve fiber density (P = 0.004), nerve branch density (P = 0.004), total nerve branch density (P = 0.04), and nerve fiber length (P = 0.001), and greater nerve fiber width (P = 0.04) were observed in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to control subjects. Significantly lower epithelial (P < 0.001) and endothelial (P = 0.02) cell densities, nerve branch density (P = 0.02), and nerve fiber length (P = 0.04), and significantly higher keratocyte cell density (P = 0.02) were found in patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy compared to control subjects. Corneal confocal microscopy identifies corneal cellular and small nerve fiber pathology in young patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy, which increases in severity in those with retinopathy. Corneal confocal microscopy appears to have considerable use as an imaging biomarker for early subclinical pathology in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Increased Tau Phosphorylation and Tau Truncation, and Decreased Synaptophysin Levels in Mutant BRI2/Tau Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garringer, Holly J.; Murrell, Jill; Sammeta, Neeraja; Gnezda, Anita; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Familial Danish dementia (FDD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a 10-nucleotide duplication-insertion in the BRI2 gene. FDD is clinically characterized by loss of vision, hearing impairment, cerebellar ataxia and dementia. The main neuropathologic findings in FDD are the deposition of Danish amyloid (ADan) and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Here we investigated tau accumulation and truncation in double transgenic (Tg-FDD-Tau) mice generated by crossing transgenic mice expressing human Danish mutant BRI2 (Tg-FDD) with mice expressing human 4-repeat mutant Tau-P301S (Tg-Tau). Compared to Tg-Tau mice, we observed a significant enhancement of tau deposition in Tg-FDD-Tau mice. In addition, a significant increase in tau cleaved at aspartic acid (Asp) 421 was observed in Tg-FDD-Tau mice. Tg-FDD-Tau mice also showed a significant decrease in synaptophysin levels, occurring before widespread deposition of fibrillar ADan and tau can be observed. Thus, the presence of soluble ADan/mutant BRI2 can lead to significant changes in tau metabolism and synaptic dysfunction. Our data provide new in vivo insights into the pathogenesis of FDD and the pathogenic pathway(s) by which amyloidogenic peptides, regardless of their primary amino acid sequence, can cause neurodegeneration. PMID:23418567

  1. Increased tau phosphorylation and tau truncation, and decreased synaptophysin levels in mutant BRI2/tau transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Garringer, Holly J; Murrell, Jill; Sammeta, Neeraja; Gnezda, Anita; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Familial Danish dementia (FDD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a 10-nucleotide duplication-insertion in the BRI(2) gene. FDD is clinically characterized by loss of vision, hearing impairment, cerebellar ataxia and dementia. The main neuropathologic findings in FDD are the deposition of Danish amyloid (ADan) and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Here we investigated tau accumulation and truncation in double transgenic (Tg-FDD-Tau) mice generated by crossing transgenic mice expressing human Danish mutant BRI(2) (Tg-FDD) with mice expressing human 4-repeat mutant Tau-P301S (Tg-Tau). Compared to Tg-Tau mice, we observed a significant enhancement of tau deposition in Tg-FDD-Tau mice. In addition, a significant increase in tau cleaved at aspartic acid (Asp) 421 was observed in Tg-FDD-Tau mice. Tg-FDD-Tau mice also showed a significant decrease in synaptophysin levels, occurring before widespread deposition of fibrillar ADan and tau can be observed. Thus, the presence of soluble ADan/mutant BRI(2) can lead to significant changes in tau metabolism and synaptic dysfunction. Our data provide new in vivo insights into the pathogenesis of FDD and the pathogenic pathway(s) by which amyloidogenic peptides, regardless of their primary amino acid sequence, can cause neurodegeneration.

  2. Combustion-derived nanoparticles, the neuroenteric system, cervical vagus, hyperphosphorylated alpha synuclein and tau in young Mexico City residents.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Mukherjee, Partha S; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica

    2017-11-01

    Mexico City (MC) young residents are exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), have high frontal concentrations of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs), accumulation of hyperphosphorylated aggregated α-synuclein (α-Syn) and early Parkinson's disease (PD). Swallowed CDNPs have easy access to epithelium and submucosa, damaging gastrointestinal (GI) barrier integrity and accessing the enteric nervous system (ENS). This study is focused on the ENS, vagus nerves and GI barrier in young MC v clean air controls. Electron microscopy of epithelial, endothelial and neural cells and immunoreactivity of stomach and vagus to phosphorylated ɑ-synuclein Ser129 and Hyperphosphorylated-Tau (Htau) were evaluated and CDNPs measured in ENS. CDNPs were abundant in erythrocytes, unmyelinated submucosal, perivascular and intramuscular nerve fibers, ganglionic neurons and vagus nerves and associated with organelle pathology. ɑSyn and Htau were present in 25/27 MC gastric,15/26 vagus and 18/27 gastric and 2/26 vagus samples respectively. We strongly suggest CDNPs are penetrating and damaging the GI barrier and reaching preganglionic parasympathetic fibers and the vagus nerve. This work highlights the potential role of CDNPs in the neuroenteric hyperphosphorylated ɑ-Syn and tau pathology as seen in Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases. Highly oxidative, ubiquitous CDNPs constitute a biologically plausible path into Parkinson's and Alzheimer's pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The L266V tau mutation is associated with frontotemporal dementia and Pick-like 3R and 4R tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Marion; Grujic, Zoran M; Baker, Matt; Demirci, Serpil; Guillozet, Angela L; Sweet, Alison P; Herzog, Laura L; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; LaPointe, Nichole E; Gamblin, T C; Berry, Robert W; Binder, Lester I; de Silva, Rohan; Lees, Andrew; Espinoza, Marisol; Davies, Peter; Grover, Andrew; Sahara, Naruhiko; Ishizawa, Takashi; Dickson, Dennis; Yen, Shu-Hui; Hutton, Michael; Bigio, Eileen H

    2003-10-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive frontotemporal dementia presenting at age 33 years. At autopsy there was severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes. Tau-positive Pick bodies, which ultrastructurally were composed of straight filaments, were present, accompanied by severe neuronal loss and gliosis. RD3, a tau antibody specific for the three-repeat (3R) isoforms, labeled the Pick bodies. ET3, a four-repeat (4R) isoform-specific tau antibody, did not label Pick bodies, but highlighted rare astrocytes, and threads in white matter bundles in the corpus striatum. Analysis of the tau gene revealed an L266V mutation in exon 9. Analysis of brain tissue from this case revealed elevated levels of exon 10+ tau RNA and soluble 4R tau. However, both 3R and 4R isoforms were present in sarkosyl-insoluble tau fractions with a predominance of the shortest 3R isoform. The L266V mutation is associated with decreased rate and extent of tau-induced microtubule assembly, and a 3R isoform-specific increase in tau self assembly as measured by an in vitro assay. Combined, these data indicate that L266V is a pathogenic tau mutation that is associated with Pick-like pathology. In addition, the results of the RD3 and ET3 immunostains clearly explain for the first time the presence of both 3R and 4R tau isoforms in preparations of insoluble tau from some Pick's disease cases.

  4. Signature of an aggregation-prone conformation of tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschmann, Neil A.; Georgieva, Elka R.; Ganguly, Pritam; Borbat, Peter P.; Rappaport, Maxime D.; Akdogan, Yasar; Freed, Jack H.; Shea, Joan-Emma; Han, Songi

    2017-03-01

    The self-assembly of the microtubule associated tau protein into fibrillar cell inclusions is linked to a number of devastating neurodegenerative disorders collectively known as tauopathies. The mechanism by which tau self-assembles into pathological entities is a matter of much debate, largely due to the lack of direct experimental insights into the earliest stages of aggregation. We present pulsed double electron-electron resonance measurements of two key fibril-forming regions of tau, PHF6 and PHF6*, in transient as aggregation happens. By monitoring the end-to-end distance distribution of these segments as a function of aggregation time, we show that the PHF6(*) regions dramatically extend to distances commensurate with extended β-strand structures within the earliest stages of aggregation, well before fibril formation. Combined with simulations, our experiments show that the extended β-strand conformational state of PHF6(*) is readily populated under aggregating conditions, constituting a defining signature of aggregation-prone tau, and as such, a possible target for therapeutic interventions.

  5. Adult brain and behavioral pathological markers of prenatal immune challenge during early/middle and late fetal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Urs; Nyffeler, Myriel; Yee, Benjamin K; Knuesel, Irene; Feldon, Joram

    2008-05-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. This association appears to be critically dependent on the precise prenatal timing. However, the extent to which distinct adult psychopathological and neuropathological traits may be sensitive to the precise times of prenatal immune activation remains to be further characterized. Here, we evaluated in a mouse model of prenatal immune challenge by the viral mimic, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyIC), whether prenatal immune activation in early/middle and late gestation may influence the susceptibility to some of the critical cognitive, pharmacological, and neuroanatomical dysfunctions implicated in schizophrenia and autism. We revealed that PolyIC-induced prenatal immune challenge on gestation day (GD) 9 but not GD17 significantly impaired sensorimotor gating and reduced prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in adulthood, whereas prenatal immune activation specifically in late gestation impaired working memory, potentiated the locomotor reaction to the NMDA-receptor antagonist dizocilpine, and reduced hippocampal NMDA-receptor subunit 1 expression. On the other hand, potentiation of the locomotor reaction to the dopamine-receptor agonist amphetamine and reduction in Reelin- and Parvalbumin-expressing prefrontal neurons emerged independently of the precise times of prenatal immune challenge. Our findings thus highlight that prenatal immune challenge during early/middle and late fetal development in mice leads to distinct brain and behavioral pathological symptom clusters in adulthood. Further examination and evaluation of in utero immune challenge at different times of gestation may provide important new insight into the neuroimmunological and neuropathological mechanisms underlying the segregation of different symptom clusters in heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.

  6. Early pathological alterations of lower lumbar cords detected by ultrahigh-field MRI in a mouse multiple sclerosis model.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yuki; Murakami, Masaaki; Arima, Yasunobu; Zhu, Dasong; Terayama, Yasuo; Komai, Yutaka; Nakatsuji, Yuji; Kamimura, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Yoshichika

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely employed for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, sometimes, the lesions found by MRI do not correlate with the neurological impairments observed in MS patients. We recently showed autoreactive T cells accumulate in the fifth lumbar cord (L5) to pass the blood-brain barrier and cause inflammation in the central nervous system of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, an MS model. We here investigated this early event using ultrahigh-field MRI. T2-weighted image signals, which conform to the water content, increased in L4 and L5 during the development of EAE. At the same time, the sizes of L4 and L5 changed. Moreover, angiographic images of MRI showed branch positions of the blood vessels in the lower lumbar cords were significantly altered. Interestingly, EAE mice showed occluded and thickened vessels, particularly during the peak phase, followed by reperfusion in the remission phase. Additionally, demyelination regions of some MS patients had increased lactic acid content, suggesting the presence of ischemic events. These results suggest that inflammation-mediated alterations in the lower lumbar cord change the homeostasis of the spinal cord and demonstrate that ultrahigh-field MRI enables the detection of previously invisible pathological alterations in EAE.

  7. Anti-amyloid beta to tau - based immunization: Developments in immunotherapy for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2013-08-01

    Immunotherapy might provide an effective treatment for Alzheimer disease (AD). A unique feature of AD immunotherapies is that an immune response against a self antigen needs to be elicited without causing adverse autoimmune reactions. Current research is focussed on two possible targets in this regard: One is the inhibition of accumulation and deposition of Amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42), which is one of the major peptides found in senile plaques and the second target is hyperphosphorylated tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles inside the nerve cell and shows association with the progression of dementia. Mouse models have shown that immunotherapy targeting Aβ42 as well as tau with the respective anti-Aβ or anti-tau antibodies can provide significant improvements in these mice. While anti-Aβ immunotherapy (active and passive immunizations) is already in several stages of clinical trials, tau based immunizations have been analyzed only in mouse models. Recently, as a significant correlation of progression of dementia and levels of phoshorylated tau was found, high interest has again focussed on further development of tau based therapies. While Aβ immunotherapy might delay the onset of AD, immunotherapy targeting tau might provide benefits in later stages of this disease. And last but not least, targeting Aβ and tau simultaneously with immunotherapy might provide additional therapeutic effects as these two pathologies are likely synergistic; an approach which has not been tested yet. In this review, we will summarize animal models used to test possible therapies for AD, some of the facts about Aβ42 and tau biology, present on overview on halted, ongoing and upcoming clinical trials together with ongoing preclinical studies targeting tau or Aβ42.

  8. CSF neurofilament light chain and phosphorylated tau 181 predict disease progression in PSP.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Julio C; Bang, Jee; Lobach, Iryna V; Tsai, Richard M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Miller, Bruce L; Boxer, Adam L

    2018-01-23

    To determine the ability of CSF biomarkers to predict disease progression in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We compared the ability of baseline CSF β-amyloid 1-42 , tau, phosphorylated tau 181 (p-tau), and neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations, measured by INNO-BIA AlzBio3 or ELISA, to predict 52-week changes in clinical (PSP Rating Scale [PSPRS] and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living [SEADL]), neuropsychological, and regional brain volumes on MRI using linear mixed effects models controlled for age, sex, and baseline disease severity, and Fisher F density curves to compare effect sizes in 50 patients with PSP. Similar analyses were done using plasma NfL measured by single molecule arrays in 141 patients. Higher CSF NfL concentration predicted more rapid decline (biomarker × time interaction) over 52 weeks in PSPRS ( p = 0.004, false discovery rate-corrected) and SEADL ( p = 0.008), whereas lower baseline CSF p-tau predicted faster decline on PSPRS ( p = 0.004). Higher CSF tau concentrations predicted faster decline by SEADL ( p = 0.004). The CSF NfL/p-tau ratio was superior for predicting change in PSPRS, compared to p-tau ( p = 0.003) or NfL ( p = 0.001) alone. Higher NfL concentrations in CSF or blood were associated with greater superior cerebellar peduncle atrophy (fixed effect, p ≤ 0.029 and 0.008, respectively). Both CSF p-tau and NfL correlate with disease severity and rate of disease progression in PSP. The inverse correlation of p-tau with disease severity suggests a potentially different mechanism of tau pathology in PSP as compared to Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. UX Tau A Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-28

    This artist concept is of the one-million-year-old star system called UX Tau A, approximately 450 light-years away. NASA Spitzer Space Telescope showed a gap in the dusty planet-forming disk swirling around the system central sun-like star.

  10. Patients with pathological stage N2 rectal cancer treated with early adjuvant chemotherapy have a lower treatment failure rate.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan-Ru; Jin, Jing; Ren, Hua; Wang, Xin; Wang, Shu-Lian; Wang, Wei-Hu; Song, Yong-Wen; Liu, Yue-Ping; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning; Liu, Xin-Fan; Fang, Hui; Yu, Zi-Hao; Li, Ye-Xiong

    2017-03-09

    In this era of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant therapy, the optimal sequence in which chemoradiotherapy should be administered for pathological stage N2 rectal cancer is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate this sequence. In the primary adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (A-CRT) group (n = 71), postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was administered before adjuvant chemotherapy. In the primary adjuvant chemotherapy (A-CT) group (n = 43), postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was administered during or after adjuvant chemotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy comprised 45-50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions. Concurrent chemotherapy comprised two cycles of oral capecitabine (1,600 mg/m 2 ) on days 1-14 and 22-35. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with four or more cycles of XELOX (oxaliplatin plus capecitabine) or eight or more cycles of FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) were included. Between June 2005 and December 2013, data for 114 qualified rectal cancer patients were analyzed. The percentages of patients in whom treatment failed in the A-CRT and A-CT groups were 33.8% and 16.3%, respectively (p = 0.042). More patients had distant metastases in the A-CRT group than in the A-CT group (32.4% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.028). Multivariate analysis indicated that the sequence in which chemoradiotherapy was administered (A-CT vs. A-CRT) was an independent prognostic factor for both estimated disease-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0.345, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.137-0.868, p = 0.024] and estimated distant metastasis-free survival (HR 0.366, 95% CI 0.143-0.938, p = 0.036). In pathological stage N2 rectal cancer patients, administering adjuvant chemotherapy before chemoradiotherapy led to a lower rate of treatment failure, especially with respect to distant metastasis. Adjuvant chemotherapy prescribed as early as possible might benefit this cohort of patients in this era of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant therapy.

  11. Correlation of placental pathology and perinatal outcomes with Hemoglobin A1c in early pregnancy in gravidas with pregestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Starikov, Roman S; Inman, Kyle; Has, Phinnara; Iqbal, Sara N; Coviello, Elizabeth; He, Mai

    2017-04-01

    Data on the correlation among Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), placental pathology, and perinatal outcome in the pregestational diabetic population is severely lacking. We believe that this knowledge will enhance the management of pregnancies complicated by pregestational diabetes. We hypothesize that placental pathology correlates with glycemic control at an early gestational age. This is a retrospective cohort study conducted from 2003 to 2011 at a large tertiary care center. Women included had a singleton gestation, preexisting diabetes mellitus, and information about delivery and placental pathology available for review. Placental pathology and perinatal outcomes were compared across three groups of patients with differing HbA1c levels (<6.5%, 6.5-8.4%, and ≥8.5%). 293 placentas were examined. HbA1c was measured at a mean of 9.5week gestation. Median HbA1c was 7.5%, interquartile range 6.5%-8.9%. 23% of the cohort had HbA1c <6.5%, 41.9% between 6.5% and 8.4%, and 34.8% > 8.5%. BMI varied significantly by group (35.4 vs. 34.4 vs. 32.0 respectively, P = 0.04). Individual placental lesions did not vary with HbA1c levels. The incidence of acute chorioamnionitis differed significantly in the type 1 population and "distal villous hypoplasia" varied in the type 2 population. The results show that HbA1c values in early pregnancy are poor predictors of future placental pathologies. As a result, HbA1c values obtained during early gestation (which reflect the level of glycemic control over an extended period of time) do not correlate with any particular placental pathology, despite reflecting the potential for placental insults secondary to pre-gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Tau Phosphorylation Pathway Genes and Cerebrospinal Fluid Tau Levels in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bekris, Lynn M.; Millard, Steve; Lutz, Franziska; Li, Gail; Galasko, Doug R.; Farlow, Martin R.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Leverenz, James B.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Yu, Chang-En; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence in the brain of amyloid plaques, consisting predominately of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ), and neurofibrillary tangles, consisting primarily of tau. Hyper-phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) contributes to neuronal damage, and both p-tau and total-tau (t-tau) levels are elevated in AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to cognitively normal controls. Our hypothesis was that increased ratios of CSF phosphorylated-tau levels relative to total-tau levels correlate with regulatory region genetic variation of kinase or phosphatase genes biologically associated with the phosphorylation status of tau. Eighteen SNPs located within 5′ and 3′ regions of 5 kinase and 4 phosphatase genes, as well as two SNPs within regulatory regions of the MAPT gene were chosen for this analysis. The study sample consisted of 101 AD patients and 169 cognitively normal controls. Rs7768046 in the FYN kinase gene and rs913275 in the PPP2R4 phosphatase gene were both associated with CSF p-tau and t-tau levels in AD. These SNPs were also differentially associated with either CSF t-tau (rs7768046) or CSF p-tau (rs913275) relative to t-tau levels in AD compared to controls. These results suggest that rs7768046 and rs913275 both influence CSF tau levels in an AD-associated manner. PMID:22927204

  13. Effect of Continuous Propofol Infusion in Rat on Tau Phosphorylation with or without Temperature Control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunxia; Ng, Olivia Tsz-Wa; Ho, Yuen-Shan; Irwin, Michael Garnet; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Wong, Gordon Tin-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest a relationship between anesthesia-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This study further characterized the effects of continuous propofol infusion on tau protein phosphorylation in rats, with or without temperature control. Propofol was administered intravenously to 8-10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and infused to the loss of the righting reflex for 2 h continuously. Proteins from cortex and hippocampus were examined by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Rectal temperature was significantly decreased during propofol infusion. Propofol with hypothermia significantly increased phosphorylation of tau at AT8, AT180, Thr205, and Ser199 in cortex and hippocampus except Ser396. With temperature maintenance, propofol still induced significant elevation of AT8, Thr205, and Ser199 in cortex and hippocampus; however, increase of AT180 and Ser396 was only found in hippocampus and cortex, respectively. Differential effects of propofol with or without hypothermia on multiple tau related kinases, such as Akt/GSK3β, MAPK pathways, or phosphatase (PP2A), were demonstrated in region-specific manner. These findings indicated that propofol increased tau phosphorylation under both normothermic and hypothermic conditions, and temperature control could partially attenuate the hyperphosphorylation of tau. Further studies are warranted to determine the long-term impact of propofol on the tau pathology and cognitive functions.

  14. Probing Conformational Dynamics of Tau Protein by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Richard Y.-C.; Iacob, Roxana E.; Sankaranarayanan, Sethu; Yang, Ling; Ahlijanian, Michael; Tao, Li; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Chen, Guodong

    2018-01-01

    Fibrillization of the microtubule-associated protein tau has been recognized as one of the signature pathologies of the nervous system in Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and other tauopathies. The conformational transition of tau in the fibrillization process, tau monomer to soluble aggregates to fibrils in particular, remains unclear. Here we report on the use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) in combination with other biochemical approaches, including Thioflavin S fluorescence measurements, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blotting to understand the heparin-induced tau's fibrillization. HDX-MS studies including anti-tau antibody epitope mapping experiments provided molecular level details of the full-length tau's conformational dynamics and its regional solvent accessibility upon soluble aggregates formation. The results demonstrate that R3 region in the full-length tau's microtubule binding repeat region (MTBR) is stabilized in the aggregation process, leaving both N and C terminal regions to be solvent exposed in the soluble aggregates and fibrils. The findings also illustrate the practical utility of orthogonal analytical methodologies for the characterization of protein higher order structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Anti-tau oligomers passive vaccination for the treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Kayed, Rakez

    2010-11-01

    The aggregation and accumulation of the microtubule-associated protein (Tau) is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and many neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the poor correlation between neurofirillary tangles (NFTs) and disease progression, and evidence showing, that neuronal loss in AD actually precedes NFTs formation research until recently focused on them and other large meta-stable inclusions composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Lately, the significance and toxicity of NFTs has been challenged and new aggregated tau entity has emerged as the true pathogenic species in tauopathies and a possible mediator of Aβ toxicity in AD. Tau intermediate aggregate (tau oligomers; aggregates of an intermediate that is between monomers and NFTs in size) can cause neurodegeneration and memory impairment in the absence of Aβ. This exciting body of evidence includes results from human brain samples, transgenic mouse and cell-based studies. Despite extensive efforts to develop a safe and efficacious vaccine for AD using Aβ peptide as an immunogen in active vaccination approaches or anti Aβ antibodies for passive vaccination, success has been modest. Nonetheless, these studies have produced a wealth of fundamental knowledge that has potential to application to the development of a tau-based immunotherapy. Herein, I discuss the evidence supporting the critical role of tau oligomers in AD, the potential and challenges for targeting them by immunotherapy as a novel approach for AD treatment.

  16. Down but Not Out: The Consequences of Pretangle Tau in the Locus Coeruleus

    PubMed Central

    Chalermpalanupap, Termpanit; Weinshenker, David

    2017-01-01

    Degeneration of locus coeruleus (LC) is an underappreciated hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The LC is the main source of norepinephrine (NE) in the forebrain, and its degeneration is highly correlated with cognitive impairment and amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tangle pathology. Hyperphosphorylated tau in the LC is among the first detectable AD-like neuropathology in the brain, and while the LC/NE system impacts multiple aspects of AD (e.g., cognition, neuropathology, and neuroinflammation), the functional consequences of hyperphosphorylated tau accrual on LC neurons are not known. Recent evidence suggests that LC neurons accumulate aberrant tau species for decades before frank LC cell body degeneration occurs in AD, suggesting that a therapeutic window exists. In this review, we combine the literature on how pathogenic tau affects forebrain neurons with the known properties and degeneration patterns of LC neurons to synthesize hypotheses on hyperphosphorylated tau-induced dysfunction of LC neurons and the prion-like spread of pretangle tau from the LC to the forebrain. We also propose novel experiments using both in vitro and in vivo models to address the many questions surrounding the impact of hyperphosphorylated tau on LC neurons in AD and its role in disease progression. PMID:29038736

  17. Neurodegeneration caused by expression of human truncated tau leads to progressive neurobehavioural impairment in transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Hrnkova, Miroslava; Zilka, Norbert; Minichova, Zuzana; Koson, Peter; Novak, Michal

    2007-01-26

    Human truncated tau protein is an active constituent of the neurofibrillary degeneration in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have shown that modified tau protein, when expressed as a transgene in rats, induced AD characteristic tau cascade consisting of tau hyperphosphorylation, formation of argyrophilic tangles and sarcosyl-insoluble tau complexes. These pathological changes led to the functional impairment characterized by a variety of neurobehavioural symptoms. In the present study we have focused on the behavioural alterations induced by transgenic expression of human truncated tau. Transgenic rats underwent a battery of behavioural tests involving cognitive- and sensorimotor-dependent tasks accompanied with neurological assessment at the age of 4.5, 6 and 9 months. Behavioural examination of these rats showed altered spatial navigation in Morris water maze resulting in less time spent in target quadrant (p<0.05) and fewer crossings over previous platform position (p<0.05) during probe trial. Spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety in open field was not influenced by transgene expression. However beam walking test revealed that transgenic rats developed progressive sensorimotor disturbances related to the age of tested animals. The disturbances were most pronounced at the age of 9 months (p<0.01). Neurological alterations indicating impaired reflex responses were other added features of behavioural phenotype of this novel transgenic rat. These results allow us to suggest that neurodegeneration, caused by the non-mutated human truncated tau derived from sporadic human AD, result in the neuronal dysfunction consequently leading to the progressive neurobehavioural impairment.

  18. Abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in senile dementia of Lewy body type and Alzheimer disease: evidence that the disorders are distinct.

    PubMed

    Strong, C; Anderton, B H; Perry, R H; Perry, E K; Ince, P G; Lovestone, S

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (senile dementia Lewy body type, or SDLT) and dementia in Parkinson's disease is unclear. AD pathology is characterised by both amyloid deposition and abnormal phosphorylation of tau in paired helical filaments (PHF-tau). In AD, abnormally phosphorylated PHF-tau is present in neurofibrillary tangles, in neuritic processes of senile plaques, and also in neuropil threads dispersed throughout the cerebral cortex. Cortical homogenates from 12 cases each of AD and SDLT, 13 cases of Parkinson's disease, and 11 normal controls were examined by Western blot analysis with antibodies that detect PHF-tau. No PHF-tau was found in Parkinson's disease or control cortex. No PHF-tau was found in SDLT cases without histological evidence of tangles. PHF-tau was detectable in SDLT cases with a low density of tangles, and large amounts of PHF-tau were present in AD cases. This study demonstrates that abnormally phosphorylated PHF-tau is only present where tangles are found and not in SDLT cases without tangles or with only occasional tangles. It is concluded that Lewy body dementias are distinct at a molecular level from AD.

  19. Distinct binding of PET ligands PBB3 and AV-1451 to tau fibril strains in neurodegenerative tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Maiko; Sahara, Naruhiko; Kumata, Katsushi; Ji, Bin; Ni, Ruiqing; Koga, Shunsuke; Dickson, Dennis W.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M-Y.; Yoshida, Mari; Hozumi, Isao; Yoshiyama, Yasumasa; van Swieten, John C.; Nordberg, Agneta; Suhara, Tetsuya; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Higuchi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diverse neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by deposition of tau fibrils composed of conformers (i.e. strains) unique to each illness. The development of tau imaging agents has enabled visualization of tau lesions in tauopathy patients, but the modes of their binding to different tau strains remain elusive. Here we compared binding of tau positron emission tomography ligands, PBB3 and AV-1451, by fluorescence, autoradiography and homogenate binding assays with homologous and heterologous blockades using tauopathy brain samples. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated intense labelling of non-ghost and ghost tangles with PBB3 and AV-1451, while dystrophic neurites were more clearly detected by PBB3 in brains of Alzheimer’s disease and diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification, characterized by accumulation of all six tau isoforms. Correspondingly, partially distinct distributions of autoradiographic labelling of Alzheimer’s disease slices with 11C-PBB3 and 18F-AV-1451 were noted. Neuronal and glial tau lesions comprised of 4-repeat isoforms in brains of progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and familial tauopathy due to N279K tau mutation and 3-repeat isoforms in brains of Pick’s disease and familial tauopathy due to G272V tau mutation were sensitively detected by PBB3 fluorescence in contrast to very weak AV-1451 signals. This was in line with moderate 11C-PBB3 versus faint 18F-AV-1451 autoradiographic labelling of these tissues. Radioligand binding to brain homogenates revealed multiple binding components with differential affinities for 11C-PBB3 and 18F-AV-1451, and higher availability of binding sites on progressive supranuclear palsy tau deposits for 11C-PBB3 than 18F-AV-1451. Our data indicate distinct selectivity of PBB3 compared to AV-1451 for diverse tau fibril strains. This highlights the more robust ability of PBB3 to capture wide-range tau pathologies. PMID:28087578

  20. The tau positron-emission tomography tracer AV-1451 binds with similar affinities to tau fibrils and monoamine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Céline; Motte, Philippe; Viot, Delphine; Mairet-Coello, Georges; Courade, Jean-Philippe; Citron, Martin; Mercier, Joël; Hannestad, Jonas; Gillard, Michel

    2018-02-01

    Lilly/Avid's AV-1451 is one of the most advanced tau PET tracers in the clinic. Although results obtained in Alzheimer's disease patients are compelling, discrimination of tracer uptake in healthy individuals and patients with supranuclear palsy (PSP) is less clear as there is substantial overlap of signal in multiple brain regions. Moreover, accurate quantification of [ 18 F]AV-1451 uptake in Alzheimer's disease may not be possible. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro binding of AV-1451 to understand and identify potential off-target binding that could explain the poor discrimination observed in PSP patients. [ 3 H]AV-1451 and AV-1451 were characterized in in vitro binding assays using recombinant and native proteins/tissues from postmortem samples of controls and Alzheimer's disease and PSP patients. [ 3 H]AV-1451 binds to multiple sites with nanomolar affinities in brain homogenates and to tau fibrils isolated from Alzheimer's disease or PSP patients. [ 3 H]AV-1451 also binds with similarly high affinities in brain homogenates devoid of tau pathology. This unexpected binding was demonstrated to be because of nanomolar affinities of [ 3 H]AV-1451 for monoamine oxidase A and B enzymes. High affinity of AV-1451 for monoamine oxidase proteins may limit its utility as a tau PET tracer in PSP and Alzheimer's disease because of high levels of monoamine oxidase expression in brain regions also affected by tau deposition, especially if monoamine oxidase levels change over time or with a treatment intervention. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Phosphorylated human tau associates with mouse prion protein amyloid in scrapie-infected mice but does not increase progression of clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Race, Brent; Phillips, Katie; Kraus, Allison; Chesebro, Bruce

    2016-07-03

    Tauopathies are a family of neurodegenerative diseases in which fibrils of human hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau) are believed to cause neuropathology. In Alzheimer disease, P-tau associates with A-beta amyloid and contributes to disease pathogenesis. In familial human prion diseases and variant CJD, P-tau often co-associates with prion protein amyloid, and might also accelerate disease progression. To test this latter possibility, here we compared progression of amyloid prion disease in vivo after scrapie infection of mice with and without expression of human tau. The mice used expressed both anchorless prion protein (PrP) and membrane-anchored PrP, that generate disease associated amyloid and non-amyloid PrP (PrPSc) after scrapie infection. Human P-tau induced by scrapie infection was only rarely associated with non-amyloid PrPSc, but abundant human P-tau was detected at extracellular, perivascular and axonal deposits associated with amyloid PrPSc. This pathology was quite similar to that seen in familial prion diseases. However, association of human and mouse P-tau with amyloid PrPSc did not diminish survival time following prion infection in these mice. By analogy, human P-tau may not affect prion disease progression in humans. Alternatively, these results might be due to other factors, including rapidity of disease, blocking effects by mouse tau, or low toxicity of human P-tau in this model.

  2. Tau hyperphosphorylation in the brain of ob/ob mice is due to hypothermia: Importance of thermoregulation in linking diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gratuze, Maud; El Khoury, Noura B; Turgeon, Andréanne; Julien, Carl; Marcouiller, François; Morin, Françoise; Whittington, Robert A; Marette, André; Calon, Frédéric; Planel, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been a significant increase in epidemiological studies suggesting that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is linked to a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, how T2DM affects AD pathology, such as tau hyperphosphorylation, is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of T2DM on tau phosphorylation in ob/ob mice, a spontaneous genetic model of T2DM. Tau phosphorylation at the AT8 epitope was slightly elevated in 4-week-old ob/ob mice while 26-week-old ob/ob mice exhibited tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple tau phospho-epitopes (Tau1, CP13, AT8, AT180, PHF1). We then examined the mechanism of tau hyperphosphorylation and demonstrated that it is mostly due to hypothermia, as ob/ob mice were hypothermic and normothermia restored tau phosphorylation to control levels. As caffeine has been shown to be beneficial for diabetes, obesity and tau phosphorylation, we, therefore, used it as therapeutic treatment. Unexpectedly, chronic caffeine intake exacerbated tau hyperphosphorylation by promoting deeper hypothermia. Our data indicate that tau hyperphosphorylation is predominately due to hypothermia consequent to impaired thermoregulation in ob/ob mice. This study establishes a novel link between diabetes and AD, and reinforces the importance of recording body temperature to better assess the relationship between diabetes and AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Specific serum antibody binding to phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau in non-cognitively impaired, mildly cognitively impaired, and Alzheimer's disease subjects: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Klaver, Andrea C; Coffey, Mary P; Bennett, David A; Loeffler, David A

    2017-01-01

    Tau vaccination and administration of anti-tau antibodies can prevent pathology and cognitive impairment in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy, suggesting that therapies which increase anti-tau antibodies might slow the development and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The extent to which individuals with no cognitive impairment (NCI) possess serum anti-tau antibodies, and whether their concentrations of these antibodies differ from anti-tau antibody levels in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD, are unclear. Previous studies measuring these antibodies did not account for antibody polyvalent binding, which can be extensive, nor that antibody binding to phosphorylated tau peptides could be due to binding to non-phosphorylated epitopes on those peptides. An ELISA controlling for these factors was used to measure the specific binding of serum IgG and IgM to phosphorylated ("pTau;" phosphorylated at Serine-199 and Serine-202) and non-phosphorylated ("non-pTau") tau 196-207 in subjects with NCI, MCI, or AD ( n  = 10/group). Between-group differences in these antibody levels were evaluated for statistical significance, and correlations were examined in pooled data from all subjects between these antibody levels and subject age, global cognitive functioning, and NFT counts. Specific IgG binding to pTau and non-pTau was detected in all subjects except for one NCI control. Specific IgM binding was detected to pTau in all subjects except for two AD patients, and to non-pTau in all subjects. Mean pTau IgG was increased in MCI subjects by 53% and 70% vs. AD and NCI subjects respectively (both p  < 0.05), while no significant differences were found between groups for non-pTau IgG ( p  = 0.052), pTau IgM, or non-pTau IgM. Non-pTau IgG was negatively associated with global cognition (Spearman rho = -0.50). Specific binding of serum IgG and IgM to phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau may be present in older persons regardless of their

  4. Proteomic profiling of brain cortex tissues in a Tau transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Seong-Hun; Jung, In-Soo; Han, Gi-Yeon

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A transgenic mouse model expressing NSE-htau23 was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2D-gel electrophoresis to analyze the cortex proteins of transgenic mice was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentially expressed spots in different stages of AD were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTP1 and CAII were downregulated with the progression of AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SCRN1 and ATP6VE1 were up regulated and down regulated differentially. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves regionalized neuronal death, synaptic loss, and an accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular senile plaques. Although there have been numerous studies on tau proteins and AD in various stages of neurodegenerative disease pathology, the relationship between taumore » and AD is not yet fully understood. A transgenic mouse model expressing neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled human wild-type tau (NSE-htau23), which displays some of the typical Alzheimer-associated pathological features, was used to analyze the brain proteome associated with tau tangle deposition. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed to compare the cortex proteins of transgenic mice (6- and 12-month-old) with those of control mice. Differentially expressed spots in different stages of AD were identified with ESI-Q-TOF (electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight) mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, glutathione S-transferase P 1 (GSTP1) and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) were down-regulated with the progression of AD, and secerin-1 (SCRN1) and V-type proton ATPase subunit E 1 (ATP6VE1) were up-regulated only in the early stages, and down-regulated in the later stages of AD. The proteins, which were further confirmed by RT-PCR at the mRNA level and with western blotting at the protein level, are expected to be good candidates as drug targets for AD. The

  5. Structure-based inhibitors of tau aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, P. M.; Boyer, D. R.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Sawaya, M. R.; Cascio, D.; Murray, K.; Gonen, T.; Eisenberg, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    Aggregated tau protein is associated with over 20 neurological disorders, which include Alzheimer's disease. Previous work has shown that tau's sequence segments VQIINK and VQIVYK drive its aggregation, but inhibitors based on the structure of the VQIVYK segment only partially inhibit full-length tau aggregation and are ineffective at inhibiting seeding by full-length fibrils. Here we show that the VQIINK segment is the more powerful driver of tau aggregation. Two structures of this segment determined by the cryo-electron microscopy method micro-electron diffraction explain its dominant influence on tau aggregation. Of practical significance, the structures lead to the design of inhibitors that not only inhibit tau aggregation but also inhibit the ability of exogenous full-length tau fibrils to seed intracellular tau in HEK293 biosensor cells into amyloid. We also raise the possibility that the two VQIINK structures represent amyloid polymorphs of tau that may account for a subset of prion-like strains of tau.

  6. Changes in tau phosphorylation in hibernating rodents.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; García, Esther; García-Escudero, Vega; Hernández, Félix; Defelipe, Javier; Avila, Jesús

    2013-07-01

    Tau is a cytoskeletal protein present mainly in the neurons of vertebrates. By comparing the sequence of tau molecule among different vertebrates, it was found that the variability of the N-terminal sequence in tau protein is higher than that of the C-terminal region. The N-terminal region is involved mainly in the binding of tau to cellular membranes, whereas the C-terminal region of the tau molecule contains the microtubule-binding sites. We have compared the sequence of Syrian hamster tau with the sequences of other hibernating and nonhibernating rodents and investigated how differences in the N-terminal region of tau could affect the phosphorylation level and tau binding to cell membranes. We also describe a change, in tau phosphorylation, on a casein kinase 1 (ck1)-dependent site that is found only in hibernating rodents. This ck1 site seems to play an important role in the regulation of tau binding to membranes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Early neurovascular dysfunction in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Illsung L.; Lai, Aaron Y.; Bazzigaluppi, Paolo; Koletar, Margaret M.; Dorr, Adrienne; Brown, Mary E.; Thomason, Lynsie A. M.; Sled, John G.; McLaurin, JoAnne; Stefanovic, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), pathologically characterized by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neurodegeneration, is thought to involve early-onset neurovascular abnormalities. Hitherto studies on AD-associated neurovascular injury have used animal models that exhibit only a subset of AD-like pathologies and demonstrated some Aβ-dependent vascular dysfunction and destabilization of neuronal network. The present work focuses on the early stage of disease progression and uses TgF344-AD rats that recapitulate a broader repertoire of AD-like pathologies to investigate the cerebrovascular and neuronal network functioning using in situ two-photon fluorescence microscopy and laminar array recordings of local field potentials, followed by pathological analyses of vascular wall morphology, tau hyperphosphorylation, and amyloid plaques. Concomitant to widespread amyloid deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation, cerebrovascular reactivity was strongly attenuated in cortical penetrating arterioles and venules of TgF344-AD rats in comparison to those in non-transgenic littermates. Blood flow elevation to hypercapnia was abolished in TgF344-AD rats. Concomitantly, the phase-amplitude coupling of the neuronal network was impaired, evidenced by decreased modulation of theta band phase on gamma band amplitude. These results demonstrate significant neurovascular network dysfunction at an early stage of AD-like pathology. Our study identifies early markers of pathology progression and call for development of combinatorial treatment plans. PMID:28401931

  8. Early neurovascular dysfunction in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joo, Illsung L; Lai, Aaron Y; Bazzigaluppi, Paolo; Koletar, Margaret M; Dorr, Adrienne; Brown, Mary E; Thomason, Lynsie A M; Sled, John G; McLaurin, JoAnne; Stefanovic, Bojana

    2017-04-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathologically characterized by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neurodegeneration, is thought to involve early-onset neurovascular abnormalities. Hitherto studies on AD-associated neurovascular injury have used animal models that exhibit only a subset of AD-like pathologies and demonstrated some Aβ-dependent vascular dysfunction and destabilization of neuronal network. The present work focuses on the early stage of disease progression and uses TgF344-AD rats that recapitulate a broader repertoire of AD-like pathologies to investigate the cerebrovascular and neuronal network functioning using in situ two-photon fluorescence microscopy and laminar array recordings of local field potentials, followed by pathological analyses of vascular wall morphology, tau hyperphosphorylation, and amyloid plaques. Concomitant to widespread amyloid deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation, cerebrovascular reactivity was strongly attenuated in cortical penetrating arterioles and venules of TgF344-AD rats in comparison to those in non-transgenic littermates. Blood flow elevation to hypercapnia was abolished in TgF344-AD rats. Concomitantly, the phase-amplitude coupling of the neuronal network was impaired, evidenced by decreased modulation of theta band phase on gamma band amplitude. These results demonstrate significant neurovascular network dysfunction at an early stage of AD-like pathology. Our study identifies early markers of pathology progression and call for development of combinatorial treatment plans.

  9. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D.; Hendrix, Laura H.

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsymore » Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic

  10. Tau and β-Amyloid Are Associated with Medial Temporal Lobe Structure, Function, and Memory Encoding in Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Normal aging is associated with a decline in episodic memory and also with aggregation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins and atrophy of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures crucial to memory formation. Although some evidence suggests that Aβ is associated with aberrant neural activity, the relationships among these two aggregated proteins, neural function, and brain structure are poorly understood. Using in vivo human Aβ and tau imaging, we demonstrate that increased Aβ and tau are both associated with aberrant fMRI activity in the MTL during memory encoding in cognitively normal older adults. This pathological neural activity was in turn associated with worse memory performance and atrophy within the MTL. A mediation analysis revealed that the relationship with regional atrophy was explained by MTL tau. These findings broaden the concept of cognitive aging to include evidence of Alzheimer's disease-related protein aggregation as an underlying mechanism of age-related memory impairment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alterations in episodic memory and the accumulation of Alzheimer's pathology are common in cognitively normal older adults. However, evidence of pathological effects on episodic memory has largely been limited to β-amyloid (Aβ). Because Aβ and tau often cooccur in older adults, previous research offers an incomplete understanding of the relationship between pathology and episodic memory. With the recent development of in vivo tau PET radiotracers, we show that Aβ and tau are associated with different aspects of memory encoding, leading to aberrant neural activity that is behaviorally detrimental. In addition, our results provide evidence linking Aβ- and tau-associated neural dysfunction to brain atrophy. PMID:28213439

  11. Tau, amyloid, and cascading network failure across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Jones, David T; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Lowe, Val J; Wiste, Heather J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Senjem, Matthew L; Botha, Hugo; Kantarci, Kejal; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R

    2017-12-01

    Functionally related brain regions are selectively vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. However, molecular markers of this pathophysiology (i.e., beta-amyloid and tau aggregates) have discrepant spatial and temporal patterns of progression within these selectively vulnerable brain regions. Existing reductionist pathophysiologic models cannot account for these large-scale spatiotemporal inconsistencies. Within the framework of the recently proposed cascading network failure model of Alzheimer's disease, however, these large-scale patterns are to be expected. This model postulates the following: 1) a tau-associated, circumscribed network disruption occurs in brain regions specific to a given phenotype in clinically normal individuals; 2) this disruption can trigger phenotype independent, stereotypic, and amyloid-associated compensatory brain network changes indexed by changes in the default mode network; 3) amyloid deposition marks a saturation of functional compensation and portends an acceleration of the inciting phenotype specific, and tau-associated, network failure. With the advent of in vivo molecular imaging of tau pathology, combined with amyloid and functional network imaging, it is now possible to investigate the relationship between functional brain networks, tau, and amyloid across the disease spectrum within these selectively vulnerable brain regions. In a large cohort (n = 218) spanning the Alzheimer's disease spectrum from young, amyloid negative, cognitively normal subjects to Alzheimer's disease dementia, we found several distinct spatial patterns of tau deposition, including 'Braak-like' and 'non-Braak-like', across functionally related brain regions. Rather than arising focally and spreading sequentially, elevated tau signal seems to occur system-wide based on inferences made from multiple cross-sectional analyses we conducted looking at regional patterns of tau signal. Younger age-of-disease-onset was associated with 'non

  12. Lack of tau proteins rescues neuronal cell death and decreases amyloidogenic processing of APP in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Karelle; Ando, Kunie; Laporte, Vincent; Dedecker, Robert; Suain, Valérie; Authelet, Michèle; Héraud, Céline; Pierrot, Nathalie; Yilmaz, Zehra; Octave, Jean-Noël; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    Lack of tau expression has been reported to protect against excitotoxicity and to prevent memory deficits in mice expressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) identified in familial Alzheimer disease. In APP mice, mutant presenilin 1 (PS1) enhances generation of Aβ42 and inhibits cell survival pathways. It is unknown whether the deficient phenotype induced by concomitant expression of mutant PS1 is rescued by absence of tau. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of tau deletion in mice expressing mutant APP and PS1. Although APP/PS1/tau(+/+) mice had a reduced survival, developed spatial memory deficits at 6 months and motor impairments at 12 months, these deficits were rescued in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Neuronal loss and synaptic loss in APP/PS1/tau(+/+) mice were rescued in the APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. The amyloid plaque burden was decreased by roughly 50% in the cortex and the spinal cord of the APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. The levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42, and the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio were reduced in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Levels of phosphorylated APP, of β-C-terminal fragments (CTFs), and of β-secretase 1 (BACE1) were also reduced, suggesting that β-secretase cleavage of APP was reduced in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that tau deletion had a protective effect against amyloid induced toxicity even in the presence of mutant PS1 and reduced the production of Aβ. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. RNA Interference Silencing of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Inhibites Tau Phosphorylation in Mice with Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Bian, Hong; Bian, Wei; Lin, Xiaoying; Ma, Zhaoyin; Chen, Wen; Pu, Ying

    2016-09-01

    To explore the effect of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) silencing on Tau-5 phosphorylation in mice suffering Alzheimer disease (AD). GSK-3β was firstly silenced in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells using special lentivirus (LV) and the content of Tau (A-12), p-Tau (Ser396) and p-Tau (PHF-6) proteins. GSK-3β was also silenced in APP/PS1 mouse model of AD mice, which were divided into three groups (n = 10): AD, vehicle, and LV group. Ten C57 mice were used as control. The memory ability of mice was tested by square water maze, and the morphological changes of hippocampus and neuron death were analyzed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, the levels of Tau and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) were detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The lentivirus-mediated GSK-3β silencing system was successfully developed and silencing GSK-3β at the cellular level reduced Tau phosphorylation obviously. Moreover, GSK-3β silence significantly improved the memory ability of AD mice in LV group compared with AD group (P < 0.05) according to the latency periods and error numbers. As for the hippocampus morphology and neuron death, no significant change was observed between LV group and normal control. Immunohistochemical detection and western blotting revealed that the levels of Tau and p-Tau were significantly down-regulated after GSK-3β silence. Silencing GSK-3β may have a positive effect on inhibiting the pathologic progression of AD through down-regulating the level of p-Tau.

  14. Tau regulates the subcellular localization of calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Barreda, Elena Gomez de; Avila, Jesus, E-mail: javila@cbm.uam.es; CIBER de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, 28031 Madrid

    Highlights: {yields} In this work we have tried to explain how a cytoplasmic protein could regulate a cell nuclear function. We have tested the role of a cytoplasmic protein (tau) in regulating the expression of calbindin gene. We found that calmodulin, a tau-binding protein with nuclear and cytoplasmic localization, increases its nuclear localization in the absence of tau. Since nuclear calmodulin regulates calbindin expression, a decrease in nuclear calmodulin, due to the presence of tau that retains it at the cytoplasm, results in a change in calbindin expression. -- Abstract: Lack of tau expression in neuronal cells results in amore » change in the expression of few genes. However, little is known about how tau regulates gene expression. Here we show that the presence of tau could alter the subcellular localization of calmodulin, a protein that could be located at the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Nuclear calmodulin binds to co-transcription factors, regulating the expression of genes like calbindin. In this work, we have found that in neurons containing tau, a higher proportion of calmodulin is present in the cytoplasm compared with neurons lacking tau and that an increase in cytoplasmic calmodulin correlates with a higher expression of calbindin.« less

  15. Comprehensive Early Stimulation Program for Infants. Instruction Manual [and] Early Interventionist's Workbook [and] Parent/Caregiver Workbook. William Beaumont Hospital Speech and Language Pathology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Altagracia A.; Bottino, Patti M.

    This early intervention kit includes a Comprehensive Early Stimulation Program for Infants (CESPI) instruction manual, an early interventionist workbook, and ten parent/caregiver workbooks. The CESPI early intervention program is designed to provide therapists, teachers, other health professionals, and parents with a common-sense, practical guide…

  16. The Microjet of AA Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. W.; Hilton, G. M.; Williger, G. M.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B.

    2005-12-01

    The microjet of AA Tau A.W. Cox (Atholton High School, Columbia MD), G.M. Hilton (SSAI and GSFC), G.M. Williger (JHU and U. Louisville), C.A. Grady (Eureka Scientific and GSFC) B.Woodgate (NASA's GSFC) AA Tau is a classical T Tauri star with a spatially resolved disk viewed at approximately 70 degrees from pole-on. Photo-polarimetric variability of the star has been interpreted as being caused by the stellar magnetic field being inclined at 30 degrees with respect to the stellar rotation axis, producing a warp in the inner disk. Under these conditions, any jet should be less collimated than typical of T Tauri microjets, and should show signs of the jet axis precessing around the stellar rotation axis. When compared with the microjets imaged in the HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging survey, the AA Tau jet has an opening half-angle of approximately 10-15 degrees rather than the 3-5 degrees typical of the other T Tauri stars which have been coronagraphically imaged by HST/STIS. Using the HST data with ultra-narrowband imagery and long slit spectroscopy obtained with the Goddard Fabry-Perot and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, we derive the jet inclination, knot ejection epochs, and ejection frequency. We also compare the jet opening angle with model predictions. Apache Point Observatory observations with the Goddard Fabry-Perot were made through a grant of Director's Discretionary Time. Apache Point Observatory is operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. The GFP was supported under NASA RTOP 51-188-01-22 to GSFC. Grady is supported under NASA contract NNH05CD30C to Eureka Scientific.

  17. Alzheimer disease therapy--moving from amyloid-β to tau.

    PubMed

    Giacobini, Ezio; Gold, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer disease (AD) have focused mainly on reducing levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Some compounds have achieved this goal, but none has produced clinically meaningful results. Several methodological issues relating to clinical trials of these agents might explain this failure; an additional consideration is that the amyloid cascade hypothesis--which places amyloid plaques at the heart of AD pathogenesis--does not fully integrate a large body of data relevant to the emergence of clinical AD. Importantly, amyloid deposition is not strongly correlated with cognition in multivariate analyses, unlike hyperphosphorylated tau, neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and neuronal loss, which are closely associated with memory deficits. Targeting tau pathology, therefore, might be more clinically effective than Aβ-directed therapies. Furthermore, numerous immunization studies in animal models indicate that reduction of intracellular levels of tau and phosphorylated tau is possible, and is associated with improved cognitive performance. Several tau-related vaccines are in advanced preclinical stages and will soon enter clinical trials. In this article, we present a critical analysis of the failure of Aβ-directed therapies, discuss limitations of the amyloid cascade hypothesis, and suggest the potential value of tau-targeted therapy for AD.

  18. Reduction of Nuak1 Decreases Tau and Reverses Phenotypes in a Tauopathy Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Lasagna-Reeves, Cristian A; de Haro, Maria; Hao, Shuang; Park, Jeehye; Rousseaux, Maxime W C; Al-Ramahi, Ismael; Jafar-Nejad, Paymaan; Vilanova-Velez, Luis; See, Lauren; De Maio, Antonia; Nitschke, Larissa; Wu, Zhenyu; Troncoso, Juan C; Westbrook, Thomas F; Tang, Jianrong; Botas, Juan; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2016-10-19

    Many neurodegenerative proteinopathies share a common pathogenic mechanism: the abnormal accumulation of disease-related proteins. As growing evidence indicates that reducing the steady-state levels of disease-causing proteins mitigates neurodegeneration in animal models, we developed a strategy to screen for genes that decrease the levels of tau, whose accumulation contributes to the pathology of both Alzheimer disease (AD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Integrating parallel cell-based and Drosophila genetic screens, we discovered that tau levels are regulated by Nuak1, an AMPK-related kinase. Nuak1 stabilizes tau by phosphorylation specifically at Ser356. Inhibition of Nuak1 in fruit flies suppressed neurodegeneration in tau-expressing Drosophila, and Nuak1 haploinsufficiency rescued the phenotypes of a tauopathy mouse model. These results demonstrate that decreasing total tau levels is a valid strategy for mitigating tau-related neurodegeneration and reveal Nuak1 to be a novel therapeutic entry point for tauopathies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GWAS of cerebrospinal fluid tau levels identifies risk variants for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cruchaga, Carlos; Kauwe, John S K; Harari, Oscar; Jin, Sheng Chih; Cai, Yefei; Karch, Celeste M; Benitez, Bruno A; Jeng, Amanda T; Skorupa, Tara; Carrell, David; Bertelsen, Sarah; Bailey, Matthew; McKean, David; Shulman, Joshua M; De Jager, Philip L; Chibnik, Lori; Bennett, David A; Arnold, Steve E; Harold, Denise; Sims, Rebecca; Gerrish, Amy; Williams, Julie; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Haines, Jonathan L; Mayeux, Richard; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Farrer, Lindsay A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Peskind, Elaine R; Galasko, Douglas; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M; Morris, John C; Goate, Alison M

    2013-04-24

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau, tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (ptau), and Aβ₄₂ are established biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been used as quantitative traits for genetic analyses. We performed the largest genome-wide association study for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau/ptau levels published to date (n = 1,269), identifying three genome-wide significant loci for CSF tau and ptau: rs9877502 (p = 4.89 × 10⁻⁹ for tau) located at 3q28 between GEMC1 and OSTN, rs514716 (p = 1.07 × 10⁻⁸ and p = 3.22 × 10⁻⁹ for tau and ptau, respectively), located at 9p24.2 within GLIS3 and rs6922617 (p = 3.58 × 10⁻⁸ for CSF ptau) at 6p21.1 within the TREM gene cluster, a region recently reported to harbor rare variants that increase AD risk. In independent data sets, rs9877502 showed a strong association with risk for AD, tangle pathology, and global cognitive decline (p = 2.67 × 10⁻⁴, 0.039, 4.86 × 10⁻⁵, respectively) illustrating how this endophenotype-based approach can be used to identify new AD risk loci. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion Decreases Neurotrophin Signaling without Affecting Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Genetically Susceptible Mice.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Marion T; Coulson, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease that destroys memory and cognitive function. Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are a prominent feature in the brain of patients with AD, and are a major contributor to neuronal toxicity and disease progression. However, the factors that initiate the toxic cascade that results in tau hyperphosphorylation in sporadic AD are unknown. Here we investigated whether degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) and/or a resultant decrease in neurotrophin signaling cause aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation. Our results reveal that the loss of BFCNs in pre-symptomatic pR5 (P301L) tau transgenic mice results in a decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and reduced TrkB receptor activation. However, there was no exacerbation of the levels of phosphorylated tau or its aggregation in the hippocampus of susceptible mice. Furthermore the animals' performance in a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory task was unaltered, and no changes in hippocampal synaptic markers were observed. This suggests that tau pathology is likely to be regulated independently of BFCN degeneration and the corresponding decrease in hippocampal neurotrophin levels, although these features may still contribute to disease etiology.

  1. Alzheimer's disease and alpha-synuclein pathology in the olfactory bulbs of infants, children, teens and adults ≤ 40 years in Metropolitan Mexico City. APOE4 carriers at higher risk of suicide accelerate their olfactory bulb pathology.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Kulesza, Randy J; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Rönkkö, Topi; Doty, Richard L

    2018-06-20

    There is growing evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, most notably Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). It is generally assumed that the pathology of these diseases arises only later in life and commonly begins within olfactory eloquent pathways prior to the onset of the classical clinical symptoms. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure to high levels of air pollution results in AD- and PD-related pathology within the olfactory bulbs of children and relatively young adults ages 11 months to 40 years. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 179 residents of highly polluted Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) were evaluated for AD- and alpha-synuclein-related pathology. Even in toddlers, hyperphosphorylated tau (hTau) and Lewy neurites (LN) were identified in the OBs. By the second decade, 84% of the bulbs exhibited hTau (48/57), 68% LNs and vascular amyloid (39/57) and 36% (21/57) diffuse amyloid plaques. OB active endothelial phagocytosis of red blood cell fragments containing combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) and the neurovascular unit damage were associated with myelinated and unmyelinated axonal damage. OB hTau neurites were associated mostly with pretangle stages 1a and 1b in subjects ≤ 20 years of age, strongly suggesting olfactory deficits could potentially be an early guide of AD pretangle subcortical and cortical hTau. APOE4 versus APOE3 carriers were 6-13 times more likely to exhibit OB vascular amyloid, neuronal amyloid accumulation, alpha-synuclein aggregates, hTau neurofibrillary tangles, and neurites. Remarkably, APOE4 carriers were 4.57 times more likely than non-carriers to die by suicide. The present findings, along with previous data that over a third of clinically healthy MMC teens and young adults exhibit low scores on an odor identification test, support the concept that olfactory testing may aid in identifying young people at high risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover

  2. Mutual relationship between Tau and central insulin signalling: consequences for AD and Tauopathies ?

    PubMed

    Gratuze, Maud; Joly-Amado, Aurélie; Vieau, Didier; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2018-02-13


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes such as Tau lesions and amyloid plaques, but also associated with non-cognitive symptomatology. Metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as alterations in body weight, brain insulin impairments and lower brain glucose metabolism, that often precede clinical diagnosis, have been extensively reported in AD patients. However, the origin of these symptoms and their relation to pathology and cognitive impairments remain misunderstood. Insulin is a hormone involved in the control of energy homeostasis both peripherally and centrally, and insulin resistant state has been linked to increased risk of dementia. It is now well established that insulin resistance can exacerbate Tau lesions, mainly by disrupting the balance between Tau kinases and phosphatases. On the other hand, emerging literature indicates that Tau protein can also modulate insulin signalling in the brain, thus creating a detrimental vicious circle. The following review will highlight our current understanding on the role of insulin in the brain and its relation to Tau protein in the context of AD and Tauopathies. Considering that insulin signaling is prone to be pharmacologically targeted at multiple levels, it constitutes an appealing approach to improve both insulin brain sensitivity and mitigate brain pathology with expected positive outcome in term of cognition.
    . ©2018S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Association of Amyloid Pathology With Myelin Alteration in Preclinical Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Dean, Douglas C; Hurley, Samuel A; Kecskemeti, Steven R; O'Grady, J Patrick; Canda, Cristybelle; Davenport-Sis, Nancy J; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Alexander, Andrew L; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2017-01-01

    observed between myelin water fraction and phosphorylated tau 181/β-amyloid 42, suggesting that phosphorylated tau 181/β-amyloid 42 levels modulate age-related changes in myelin water fraction. These findings suggest amyloid pathologies significantly influence white matter and that these abnormalities may signify an early feature of the disease process. We expect that clarifying the nature of myelin damage in preclinical AD may be informative on the disease's course and lead to new markers of efficacy for prevention and treatment trials.

  4. Association of Amyloid Pathology With Myelin Alteration in Preclinical Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Douglas C.; Hurley, Samuel A.; Kecskemeti, Steven R.; O’Grady, J. Patrick; Canda, Cristybelle; Davenport-Sis, Nancy J.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2016-01-01

    preferentially affected in AD. Furthermore, significant age-by-biomarker interactions were observed between myelin water fraction and phosphorylated tau 181/β-amyloid 42, suggesting that phosphorylated tau 181/β-amyloid 42 levels modulate age-related changes in myelin water fraction. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest amyloid pathologies significantly influence white matter and that these abnormalities may signify an early feature of the disease process. We expect that clarifying the nature of myelin damage in preclinical AD may be informative on the disease’s course and lead to new markers of efficacy for prevention and treatment trials. PMID:27842175

  5. Intraneuronal accumulation of misfolded tau protein induces overexpression of Hsp27 in activated astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Filipcik, Peter; Cente, Martin; Zilka, Norbert; Smolek, Tomas; Hanes, Jozef; Kucerak, Juraj; Opattova, Alena; Kovacech, Branislav; Novak, Michal

    2015-07-01

    Accumulation of misfolded forms of microtubule associated, neuronal protein tau causes neurofibrillary degeneration typical of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. This process is accompanied by elevated cellular stress and concomitant deregulation of heat-shock proteins. We used a transgenic rat model of tauopathy to study involvement of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) in the process of neurofibrillary degeneration, its cell type specific expression and correlation with the amount of insoluble tau protein aggregates. The expression of Hsp27-mRNA is more than doubled and levels of Hsp27 protein tripled in aged transgenic animals with tau pathology. The data revealed a strong positive and highly significant correlation between Hsp27-mRNA and amount of sarkosyl insoluble tau. Interestingly, intracellular accumulation of insoluble misfolded tau protein in neurons was associated with overexpression of Hsp27 almost exclusively in reactive astrocytes, not in neurons. The topological dissociation of neuronally expressed pathological tau and the induction of astrocytic Hsp27, GFAP, and Vimentin along with up-regulation of microglia specific markers such as CD18, CD68 and C3 point to cooperation of astrocytes, microglia and neurons in response to intra-neuronal accumulation of insoluble tau. Our data suggest that over expression of Hsp27 represents a part of microglia-mediated astrocytic response mechanism in the process of neurofibrillary degeneration, which is not necessarily associated with neuroprotection and which in contrary may accelerate neurodegeneration in late stage of the disease. This phenomenon should be considered during development of disease modifying strategies for treatment of tauopathies and AD via regulation of activity of Hsp27. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. P301L tau expression affects glutamate release and clearance in the hippocampal trisynaptic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Holly C; Rudy, Carolyn C; Batten, Seth R; Gerhardt, Greg A; Reed, Miranda N

    2015-01-01

    Individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) often exhibit hippocampal hyperexcitability. A growing body of evidence suggests that perturbations in the glutamatergic tripartite synapse may underlie this hyperexcitability. Here, we used a tau mouse model of AD (rTg(TauP301L)4510) to examine the effects of tau pathology on hippocampal glutamate regulation. We found a 40% increase in hippocampal vesicular glutamate transporter, which packages glutamate into vesicles, and has previously been shown to influence glutamate release, and a 40% decrease in hippocampal glutamate transporter 1, the major glutamate transporter responsible for removing glutamate from the extracellular space. To determine whether these alterations affected glutamate regulation in vivo, we measured tonic glutamate levels, potassium-evoked glutamate release, and glutamate uptake/clearance in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 3(CA3), and cornu ammonis 1(CA1) regions of the hippocampus. P301L tau expression resulted in a 4- and 7-fold increase in potassium-evoked glutamate release in the dentate gyrus and CA3, respectively, and significantly decreased glutamate clearance in all three regions. Both release and clearance correlated with memory performance in the hippocampal-dependent Barnes maze task. Alterations in mice expressing P301L were observed at a time when tau pathology was subtle and before readily detectable neuron loss. These data suggest novel mechanisms by which tau may mediate hyperexcitability. Pre-synaptic vesicular glutamate transporters (vGLUTs) package glutamate into vesicles before exocytosis into the synaptic cleft. Once in the extracellular space, glutamate acts on glutamate receptors. Glutamate is removed from the extracellular space by excitatory amino acid transporters, including GLT-1, predominantly localized to glia. P301L tau expression increases vGLUT expression and glutamate release, while also decreasing GLT-1 expression and glutamate clearance. © 2014

  7. Tau Deficiency Down-Regulated Transcription Factor Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 Expression in the Dopaminergic Neurons in Ventral Tegmental Area and Caused No Obvious Motor Deficits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaolu; Jiao, Luyan; Zheng, Meige; Yan, Yan; Nie, Qi; Wu, Ting; Wan, Xiaomei; Zhang, Guofeng; Li, Yonglin; Wu, Song; Jiang, Bin; Cai, Huaibin; Xu, Pingyi; Duan, Jinhai; Lin, Xian

    2018-01-01

    Tau protein participates in microtubule stabilization, axonal transport, and protein trafficking. Loss of normal tau function will exert a negative effect. However, current knowledge on the impact of tau deficiency on the motor behavior and related neurobiological changes is controversial. In this study, we examined motor functions and analyzed several proteins implicated in the maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons (mDANs) function of adult and aged tau+/+, tau+/−, tau−/− mice. We found tau deficiency could not induce significant motor disorders. However, we discovered lower expression levels of transcription factors Orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) of mDANs in older aged mice. Compared with age-matched tau+/+ mice, there were 54.1% lower (p = 0.0192) OTX2 protein (OTX2-fluorescence intensity) in VTA DA neurons of tau+/−mice and 43.6% lower (p = 0.0249) OTX2 protein in VTA DA neurons of tau−/−mice at 18 months old. Combined with the relevant reports, our results suggested that tau deficiency alone might not be enough to mimic the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. However, OTX2 down-regulation indicates that mDANs of tau-deficient mice will be more sensitive to toxic damage from MPTP. PMID:29337233

  8. Acetylated tau destabilizes the cytoskeleton in the axon initial segment and is mislocalized to the somatodendritic compartment.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Peter Dongmin; Tracy, Tara E; Son, Hye-In; Zhou, Yungui; Leite, Renata E P; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Grinberg, Lea T; Gan, Li

    2016-06-29

    Neurons are highly polarized cells in which asymmetric axonal-dendritic distribution of proteins is crucial for neuronal function. Loss of polarized distribution of the axonal protein tau is an early sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The cytoskeletal network in the axon initial segment (AIS) forms a barrier between the axon and the somatodentritic compartment, contributing to axonal retention of tau. Although perturbation of the AIS cytoskeleton has been implicated in neurological disorders, the molecular triggers and functional consequence of AIS perturbation are incompletely understood. Here we report that tau acetylation and consequent destabilization of the AIS cytoskeleton promote the somatodendritic mislocalization of tau. AIS cytoskeletal proteins, including ankyrin G and βIV-spectrin, were downregulated in AD brains and negatively correlated with an increase in tau acetylated at K274 and K281. AIS proteins were also diminished in transgenic mice expressing tauK274/281Q, a tau mutant that mimics K274 and K281 acetylation. In primary neuronal cultures, the tauK274/281Q mutant caused hyperdynamic microtubules (MTs) in the AIS, shown by live-imaging of MT mobility and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Using photoconvertible tau constructs, we found that axonal tauK274/281Q was missorted into the somatodendritic compartment. Stabilizing MTs with epothilone D to restore the cytoskeletal barrier in the AIS prevented tau mislocalization in primary neuronal cultures. Together, these findings demonstrate that tau acetylation contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease by compromising the cytoskeletal sorting machinery in the AIS.

  9. The interactions of p53 with tau and Aß as potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Maja; Slade, Neda; Hof, Patrick R; Šimić, Goran

    2018-05-04

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by severe cognitive decline and personality changes as a result of synaptic and neuronal loss. The defining clinicopathological hallmarks of the disease are deposits of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-derived amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in the brain parenchyma, and intracellular aggregates of truncated and hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). At the cellular and molecular levels, many intertwined pathological mechanisms that relate Aβ and tau pathology with a transcription factor p53 have been revealed. p53 is activated in response to various stressors that threaten genomic stability. Depending on damage severity, it promotes neuronal death or survival, predominantly via transcription-dependent mechanisms that affect expression of apoptosis-related target genes. Levels of p53 are enhanced in the AD brain and maintain sustained tau hyperphosphorylation, whereas intracellular Aβ directly contributes to p53 pool and promotes downstream p53 effects. The review summarizes the role of p53 in neuronal function, discusses the interactions of p53, tau, and Aβ in the normal brain and during the progression of AD pathology, and considers the impact of the most prominent hereditary risk factors of AD on p53/tau/Aβ interactions. A better understanding of this intricate interplay would provide deeper insight into AD pathology and might offer some novel therapeutic targets for the improvement of treatment options. In this regard, drugs and natural compounds targeting the p53 pathway are of growing interest in neuroprotection as they may represent promising therapeutic approaches in the prevention of oxidative stress-dependent pathological processes underlying AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Team Approach to Training Early Intervention and Preschool Personnel in Speech-Language Pathology, 1998-2000. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Jose State Univ., CA.

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of a project designed to train specialists to work collaboratively across settings to improve the outcomes of young children with language and learning disabilities. It provided education for trainees that led to a Masters degree in speech-language pathology with a specialty in early…

  11. RNA stores tau reversibly in complex coacervates

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yanxian; Eschmann, Neil A.; Zhou, Hongjun; Rauch, Jennifer N.; Hernandez, Israel; Guzman, Elmer; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Han, Songi

    2017-01-01

    Nonmembrane-bound organelles that behave like liquid droplets are widespread among eukaryotic cells. Their dysregulation appears to be a critical step in several neurodegenerative conditions. Here, we report that tau protein, the primary constituent of Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles, can form liquid droplets and therefore has the necessary biophysical properties to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in cells. Consonant with the factors that induce LLPS, tau is an intrinsically disordered protein that complexes with RNA to form droplets. Uniquely, the pool of RNAs to which tau binds in living cells are tRNAs. This phase state of tau is held in an approximately 1:1 charge balance across the protein and the nucleic acid constituents, and can thus be maximal at different RNA:tau mass ratios, depending on the biopolymer constituents involved. This feature is characteristic of complex coacervation. We furthermore show that the LLPS process is directly and sensitively tuned by salt concentration and temperature, implying it is modulated by both electrostatic interactions between the involved protein and nucleic acid constituents, as well as net changes in entropy. Despite the high protein concentration within the complex coacervate phase, tau is locally freely tumbling and capable of diffusing through the droplet interior. In fact, tau in the condensed phase state does not reveal any immediate changes in local protein packing, local conformations and local protein dynamics from that of tau in the dilute solution state. In contrast, the population of aggregation-prone tau as induced by the complexation with heparin is accompanied by large changes in local tau conformations and irreversible aggregation. However, prolonged residency within the droplet state eventually results in the emergence of detectable β-sheet structures according to thioflavin-T assay. These findings suggest that the droplet state can incubate tau and predispose the protein toward the

  12. Progressive Motor Deficit is Mediated by the Denervation of Neuromuscular Junctions and Axonal Degeneration in Transgenic Mice Expressing Mutant (P301S) Tau Protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhuoran; Valkenburg, Femke; Hornix, Betty E; Mantingh-Otter, Ietje; Zhou, Xingdong; Mari, Muriel; Reggiori, Fulvio; Van Dam, Debby; Eggen, Bart J L; De Deyn, Peter P; Boddeke, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Tauopathies include a variety of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau, resulting in progressive cognitive decline and motor impairment. The underlying mechanism for motor deficits related to tauopathy is not yet fully understood. Here, we use a novel transgenic tau mouse line, Tau 58/4, with enhanced neuron-specific expression of P301S mutant tau to investigate the motor abnormalities in association with the peripheral nervous system. Using stationary beam, gait, and rotarod tests, motor deficits were found in Tau 58/4 mice already 3 months after birth, which deteriorated during aging. Hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in the cell bodies and axons of motor neurons. At the age of 9 and 12 months, significant denervation of the neuromuscular junction in the extensor digitorum longus muscle was observed in Tau 58/4 mice, compared to wild-type mice. Muscle hypotrophy was observed in Tau 58/4 mice at 9 and 12 months. Using electron microscopy, we observed ultrastructural changes in the sciatic nerve of 12-month-old Tau 58/4 mice indicative of the loss of large axonal fibers and hypomyelination (assessed by g-ratio). We conclude that the accumulated hyperphosphorylated tau in the axon terminals may induce dying-back axonal degeneration, myelin abnormalities, neuromuscular junction denervation, and muscular atrophy, which may be the mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of the motor function in Tau 58/4 mice. Tau 58/4 mice represent an interesting neuromuscular degeneration model, and the pathological mechanisms might be responsible for motor signs observed in some human tauopathies.

  13. Exaggerated phosphorylation of brain tau protein in CRH KO mice exposed to repeated immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Kvetnansky, Richard; Novak, Petr; Vargovic, Peter; Lejavova, Katarina; Horvathova, Lubica; Ondicova, Katarina; Manz, George; Filipcik, Peter; Novak, Michal; Mravec, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses are orchestrated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing neurons. Recent findings indicate that stress may promote development of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated relationships among stress, tau protein phosphorylation, and brain NE using wild-type (WT) and CRH-knockout (CRH KO) mice. We assessed expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the PHF-1 epitope and NE concentrations in the locus coeruleus (LC), A1/C1 and A2/C2 catecholaminergic cell groups, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and frontal cortex of unstressed, singly stressed or repeatedly stressed mice. Moreover, gene expression and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and CRH receptor mRNA were determined in the LC. Plasma corticosterone levels were also measured. Exposure to a single stress increases tau phosphorylation throughout the brain in WT mice when compared to singly stressed CRH KO animals. In contrast, repeatedly stressed CRH KO mice showed exaggerated tau phosphorylation relative to WT controls. We also observed differences in extent of tau phosphorylation between investigated structures, e.g. the LC and hippocampus. Moreover, CRH deficiency leads to different responses to stress in gene expression of TH, NE concentrations, CRH receptor mRNA, and plasma corticosterone levels. Our data indicate that CRH effects on tau phosphorylation are dependent on whether stress is single or repeated, and differs between brain regions. Our findings indicate that CRH attenuates mechanisms responsible for development of stress-induced tau neuropathology, particularly in conditions of chronic stress. However, the involvement of central catecholaminergic neurons in these mechanisms remains unclear and is in need of further investigation.

  14. The nonlinear relationship between cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 and tau in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Mony J; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Saint-Louis, Les; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fortea, Juan; Fossati, Silvia; Laska, Eugene; Siegel, Carole; Butler, Tracy; Li, Yi; Rusinek, Henry; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj

    2018-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies consistently show that CSF levels of amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ42) are reduced and tau levels increased prior to the onset of cognitive decline related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the preclinical prediction accuracy for low CSF Aβ42 levels, a surrogate for brain Aβ42 deposits, is not high. Moreover, the pathology data suggests a course initiated by tauopathy contradicting the contemporary clinical view of an Aβ initiated cascade. CSF Aβ42 and tau data from 3 normal aging cohorts (45-90 years) were combined to test both cross-sectional (n = 766) and longitudinal (n = 651) hypotheses: 1) that the relationship between CSF levels of Aβ42 and tau are not linear over the adult life-span; and 2) that non-linear models improve the prediction of cognitive decline. Supporting the hypotheses, the results showed that a u-shaped quadratic fit (Aβ2) best describes the relationship for CSF Aβ42 with CSF tau levels. Furthermore we found that the relationship between Aβ42 and tau changes with age-between 45 and 70 years there is a positive linear association, whereas between 71 and 90 years there is a negative linear association between Aβ42 and tau. The quadratic effect appears to be unique to Aβ42, as Aβ38 and Aβ40 showed only positive linear relationships with age and CSF tau. Importantly, we observed the prediction of cognitive decline was improved by considering both high and low levels of Aβ42. Overall, these data suggest an earlier preclinical stage than currently appreciated, marked by CSF elevations in tau and accompanied by either elevations or reductions in Aβ42. Future studies are needed to examine potential mechanisms such as failing CSF clearance as a common factor elevating CSF Aβxx analyte levels prior to Aβ42 deposition in brain.

  15. Learning Impairments, Memory Deficits, and Neuropathology in Aged Tau Transgenic Mice Are Dependent on Leukotrienes Biosynthesis: Role of the cdk5 Kinase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Phillip F; Chiu, Jian; Praticò, Domenico

    2018-06-07

    Previous studies showed that the leukotrienes pathway is increased in human tauopathy and that its manipulation may modulate the onset and development of the pathological phenotype of tau transgenic mice. However, whether interfering with leukotrienes biosynthesis is beneficial after the behavioral deficits and the neuropathology have fully developed in these mice is not known. To test this hypothesis, aged tau transgenic mice were randomized to receive zileuton, a specific leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor, or vehicle starting at 12 months of age for 16 weeks and then assessed in their functional and pathological phenotype. Compared with baseline, we observed that untreated tau mice had a worsening of their memory and spatial learning. By contrast, tau mice treated with zileuton had a reversal of these deficits and behaved in an undistinguishable manner from wild-type mice. Leukotriene-inhibited tau mice had an amelioration of synaptic integrity, lower levels of neuroinflammation, and a significant reduction in tau phosphorylation and pathology, which was secondary to an involvement of the cdk5 kinase pathway. Taken together, our findings represent the first demonstration that the leukotriene biosynthesis is functionally involved at the later stages of the tau pathological phenotype and represents an ideal target with viable therapeutic potential for treating human tauopathies.

  16. Prospect for measuring the CP phase in the $$h\\tau\\tau$$ coupling at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Askew, Andrew; Jaiswal, Prerit; Okui, Takemichi

    The search for a new source of CP violation is one of the most important endeavors in particle physics. A particularly interesting way to perform this search is to probe the CP phase in themore » $$h\\tau\\tau$$ coupling, as the phase is currently completely unconstrained by all existing data. Recently, a novel variable $$\\Theta$$ was proposed for measuring the CP phase in the $$h\\tau\\tau$$ coupling through the $$\\tau^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0 \

  17. Prospect for measuring the CP phase in the $$h\\tau\\tau$$ coupling at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Askew, Andrew; Jaiswal, Prerit; Okui, Takemichi; ...

    2015-04-01

    The search for a new source of CP violation is one of the most important endeavors in particle physics. A particularly interesting way to perform this search is to probe the CP phase in themore » $$h\\tau\\tau$$ coupling, as the phase is currently completely unconstrained by all existing data. Recently, a novel variable $$\\Theta$$ was proposed for measuring the CP phase in the $$h\\tau\\tau$$ coupling through the $$\\tau^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0 \

  18. Liraglutide Improves Water Maze Learning and Memory Performance While Reduces Hyperphosphorylation of Tau and Neurofilaments in APP/PS1/Tau Triple Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuyi; Sun, Jie; Zhao, Gang; Guo, Ai; Chen, Yanlin; Fu, Rongxia; Deng, Yanqiu

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how liraglutide affects AD-like pathology and cognitive function in APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic (3 × Tg) Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice. Male 3 × Tg mice and C57BL/6 J mice were treated for 8 weeks with liraglutide (300 μg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection) or saline. Levels of phosphorylated tau, neurofilaments (NFs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in brain tissues were assessed with western blots. Fluoro-Jade-B labeling were applied to detect pathological changes. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the spatial learning and memory. Liraglutide decreased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau and NFs in 3 × Tg liraglutide-treated (Tg + LIR) mice, increased ERK phosphorylation, and decreased JNK phosphorylation. Liraglutide also decreased the number of degenerative neurons in the hippocampus and cortex of Tg + LIR mice, and shortened their escape latencies and increased their hidden platform crossings in the MWM task. Liraglutide did not significantly affect the animals' body weight (BW) or fasting blood glucose. Liraglutide can reduce hyperphosphorylation of tau and NFs and reduce neuronal degeneration, apparently through alterations in JNK and ERK signaling, which may be related to its positive effects on AD-like learning and memory impairment.

  19. Determination of the Michel Parameters and the tau Neutrino Helicity in tau Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, Colin P.

    2003-05-07

    Using the CLEO II detector at the e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring CESR, we have determined the Michel parameters {rho}, {zeta}, and {delta} in {tau}{sup {-+}}{nu}{bar {nu}} decay as well as the {tau} neutrino helicity parameter H{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}} in {tau}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup 0}{nu} decay. From a data sample of 3.02 x 10{sup 6} {tau} pairs produced at {radical}s = 10.6 GeV, using events of the topology e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} {yields} (l{sup {+-}}{nu}{bar {nu}})({pi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}) and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} {yields} ({pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0}{bar {nu}})({pi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}), and the determined sign of h{submore » {nu}{sub {tau}}} [1,2], the combined result of the three samples is: {rho} = 0.747 {+-} 0.010 {+-} 0.006, {zeta} = 1.007 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.015, {zeta}{delta} = 0.745 {+-}0.026 {+-}0.009, and h{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}} = -0.995 {+-} 0.010 {+-} 0.003. The results are in agreement with the Standard Model V-A interaction.« less

  20. Reduction of aggregated Tau in neuronal processes but not in the cell bodies after Abeta42 immunisation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Boche, Delphine; Donald, Jane; Love, Seth; Harris, Scott; Neal, James W; Holmes, Clive; Nicoll, James A R

    2010-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is characterised by aggregation in the brain of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau (phospho-tau), although how these proteins interact in disease pathogenesis is unclear. Abeta immunisation results in removal of Abeta from the brain but cognitive decline continues to progress, possibly due to persistent phospho-tau. We quantified phospho-tau and Abeta42 in the brains of 10 AD patients (iAD) who were actively immunised with Abeta42 (AN1792, Elan Pharmaceuticals) compared with 28 unimmunised AD cases (cAD). The phospho-tau load was lower in the iAD than the cAD group in the cerebral cortex (cAD 1.08% vs. iAD 0.72%, P = 0.048), CA1 hippocampus (cAD 2.26% vs. iAD 1.05%; P = 0.001), subiculum (cAD 1.60% vs. iAD 0.31%; P = 0.001) and entorhinal cortex (cAD 1.10% vs. iAD 0.18%; P < 0.001). Assessment of the localisation within neurons of phospho-tau indicated that the Abeta immunotherapy-associated reduction was confined to neuronal processes, i.e. neuropil threads and dystrophic neurites. However, the phospho-tau accumulation in the neuronal cell bodies, contributing to neurofibrillary tangles, appeared not to be affected. In showing that Abeta immunisation can influence phospho-tau pathology, we confirm the position of Abeta as a target for modifying tau accumulation in AD and demonstrate a link between these proteins. However, the continuing progression of cognitive decline in AD patients after Abeta immunisation may be explained by its lack of apparent effect on tangles.

  1. Dendritic Degeneration, Neurovascular Defects, and Inflammation Precede Neuronal Loss in a Mouse Model for Tau-Mediated Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Tomasz; Lechat, Benoit; Demedts, David; Gielis, Lies; Devijver, Herman; Borghgraef, Peter; Duimel, Hans; Verheyen, Fons; Kügler, Sebastian; Van Leuven, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated expression of wild-type or mutant P301L protein tau produces massive degeneration of pyramidal neurons without protein tau aggregation. We probed this novel model for genetic and structural factors and early parameters of pyramidal neurodegeneration. In yellow fluorescent protein–expressing transgenic mice, intracerebral injection of AAV-tauP301L revealed early damage to apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas their somata remained normal. Ultrastructurally, more and enlarged autophagic vacuoles were contained in degenerating dendrites and manifested as dark, discontinuous, vacuolated processes surrounded by activated astrocytes. Dendritic spines were lost in AAV-tauP301L–injected yellow fluorescent protein–expressing transgenic mice, and ultrastructurally, spines appeared dark and degenerating. In CX3CR1EGFP/EGFP-deficient mice, microglia were recruited early to neurons expressing human tau. The inflammatory response was accompanied by extravasation of plasma immunoglobulins. α2-Macroglobulin, but neither albumin nor transferrin, became lodged in the brain parenchyma. Large proteins, but not Evans blue, entered the brain of mice injected with AAV-tauP301L. Ultrastructurally, brain capillaries were constricted and surrounded by swollen astrocytes with extensions that contacted degenerating dendrites and axons. Together, these data corroborate the hypothesis that neuroinflammation participates essentially in tau-mediated neurodegeneration, and the model recapitulates early dendritic defects reminiscent of “dendritic amputation” in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21839061

  2. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Amyloid Precursor Protein Exhibit Early Metabolic Deficits and a Pathologically Low Leptin State Associated with Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Arcuate Neuropeptide Y Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Makoto; Wang, Gang; Racchumi, Gianfranco; Dyke, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is a prominent early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that often precedes the cognitive decline and clinical diagnosis. While the exact pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain is thought to lead to the neuronal dysfunction and death underlying the dementia. In this study, we examined whether transgenic mice overexpressing the Swedish mutation of APP (Tg2576), recapitulating selected features of AD, have hypothalamic leptin signaling dysfunction leading to early body weight deficits. We found that 3-month-old Tg2576 mice, before amyloid plaque formation, exhibit decreased weight with markedly decreased adiposity, low plasma leptin levels, and increased energy expenditure without alterations in feeding behavior. The expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus to the low leptin state was abnormal at basal and fasting conditions. In addition, arcuate NPY neurons exhibited abnormal electrophysiological responses to leptin in Tg2576 hypothalamic slices or wild-type slices treated with Aβ. Finally, the metabolic deficits worsened as Tg2576 mice aged and amyloid burden increased in the brain. These results indicate that excess Aβ can potentially disrupt hypothalamic arcuate NPY neurons leading to weight loss and a pathologically low leptin state early in the disease process that progressively worsens as the amyloid burden increases. Collectively, these findings suggest that weight loss is an intrinsic pathological feature of Aβ accumulation and identify hypothalamic leptin signaling as a previously unrecognized pathogenic site of action for Aβ. PMID:24990930

  3. Hyperphosphorylated tau in patients with refractory epilepsy correlates with cognitive decline: a study of temporal lobe resections.

    PubMed

    Tai, Xin You; Koepp, Matthias; Duncan, John S; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Pamela; Baxendale, Sallie; Liu, Joan Y W; Reeves, Cheryl; Michalak, Zuzanna; Thom, Maria

    2016-09-01

    SEE BERNASCONI DOI101093/AWW202 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Temporal lobe epilepsy, the most prevalent form of chronic focal epilepsy, is associated with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment but the responsible underlying pathological mechanisms are unknown. Tau, the microtubule-associated protein, is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that hyperphosphorylated tau pathology is associated with cognitive decline in temporal lobe epilepsy and explored this through clinico-pathological study. We first performed pathological examination on tissue from 33 patients who had undergone temporal lobe resection between ages 50 and 65 years to treat drug-refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. We identified hyperphosphorylated tau protein using AT8 immunohistochemistry and compared this distribution to Braak patterns of Alzheimer's disease and patterns of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We quantified tau pathology using a modified tau score created specifically for analysis of temporal lobectomy tissue and the Braak staging, which was limited without extra-temporal brain areas available. Next, we correlated tau pathology with pre- and postoperative cognitive test scores and clinical risk factors including age at time of surgery, duration of epilepsy, history of secondary generalized seizures, history of head injury, handedness and side of surgery. Thirty-one of 33 cases (94%) showed hyperphosphorylated tau pathology in the form of neuropil threads and neurofibrillary tangles and pre-tangles. Braak stage analysis showed 12% of our epilepsy cohort had a Braak staging III-IV compared to an age-matched non-epilepsy control group from the literature (8%). We identified a mixture of tau pathology patterns characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We also found unusual patterns of subpial tau deposition, sparing of the hippocampus and

  4. Hyperphosphorylated tau in patients with refractory epilepsy correlates with cognitive decline: a study of temporal lobe resections

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Xin You; Koepp, Matthias; Duncan, John S.; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Pamela; Baxendale, Sallie; Liu, Joan Y. W.; Reeves, Cheryl; Michalak, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract See Bernasconi (doi:10.1093/aww202) for a scientific commentary on this article. Temporal lobe epilepsy, the most prevalent form of chronic focal epilepsy, is associated with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment but the responsible underlying pathological mechanisms are unknown. Tau, the microtubule-associated protein, is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that hyperphosphorylated tau pathology is associated with cognitive decline in temporal lobe epilepsy and explored this through clinico-pathological study. We first performed pathological examination on tissue from 33 patients who had undergone temporal lobe resection between ages 50 and 65 years to treat drug-refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. We identified hyperphosphorylated tau protein using AT8 immunohistochemistry and compared this distribution to Braak patterns of Alzheimer’s disease and patterns of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We quantified tau pathology using a modified tau score created specifically for analysis of temporal lobectomy tissue and the Braak staging, which was limited without extra-temporal brain areas available. Next, we correlated tau pathology with pre- and postoperative cognitive test scores and clinical risk factors including age at time of surgery, duration of epilepsy, history of secondary generalized seizures, history of head injury, handedness and side of surgery. Thirty-one of 33 cases (94%) showed hyperphosphorylated tau pathology in the form of neuropil threads and neurofibrillary tangles and pre-tangles. Braak stage analysis showed 12% of our epilepsy cohort had a Braak staging III-IV compared to an age-matched non-epilepsy control group from the literature (8%). We identified a mixture of tau pathology patterns characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We also found unusual patterns of subpial tau deposition, sparing of

  5. No added diagnostic value of non-phosphorylated tau fraction (p-taurel) in CSF as a biomarker for differential dementia diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Joery; Bjerke, Maria; Struyfs, Hanne; Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Somers, Charisse; Van den Bossche, Tobi; Van Mossevelde, Sara; De Vil, Bart; Sieben, Anne; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Cras, Patrick; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2017-07-14

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers Aβ 1-42 , t-tau, and p-tau 181 overlap with other diseases. New tau modifications or epitopes, such as the non-phosphorylated tau fraction (p-tau rel ), may improve differential dementia diagnosis. The goal of this study is to investigate if p-tau rel can improve the diagnostic performance of the AD CSF biomarker panel for differential dementia diagnosis. The study population consisted of 45 AD, 45 frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 45 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and 21 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) patients, and 20 cognitively healthy controls. A substantial subset of the patients was pathology-confirmed. CSF levels of Aβ 1-42 , t-tau, p-tau 181 , and p-tau rel were determined with commercially available single-analyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, and area under the curve (AUC) values were compared using DeLong tests. The diagnostic performance of single markers as well as biomarker ratios was determined for each pairwise comparison of different dementia groups and controls. The addition of p-tau rel to the AD biomarker panel decreased its diagnostic performance when discriminating non-AD, FTLD, and DLB from AD. As a single marker, p-tau rel increased the diagnostic performance for CJD. No significant difference was found in AUC values with the addition of p-tau rel when differentiating between AD or non-AD dementias and controls. The addition of p-tau rel to the AD CSF biomarker panel failed to improve differentiation between AD and non-AD dementias.

  6. Contrasting Pathology of the Stress Granule Proteins TIA-1 and G3BP in Tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Vanderweyde, Tara; Yu, Haung; Varnum, Megan; Liu-Yesucevitz, Liqun; Citro, Allison; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Duff, Karen; Wolozin, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Stress induces aggregation of RNA-binding proteins to form inclusions, termed stress granules (SGs). Recent evidence suggests that SG proteins also colocalize with neuropathological structures, but whether this occurs in Alzheimer’s disease is unknown. We examined the relationship between SG proteins and neuropathology in brain tissue from P301L Tau transgenic mice, as well as in cases of Alzheimer’s disease and FTDP-17. The pattern of SG pathology differs dramatically based on the RNA-binding protein examined. SGs positive for T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) or tristetraprolin (TTP) initially do not colocalize with tau pathology, but then merge with tau inclusions as disease severity increases. In contrast, G3BP (ras GAP-binding protein) identifies a novel type of molecular pathology that shows increasing accumulation in neurons with increasing disease severity, but often is not associated with classic markers of tau pathology. TIA-1 and TTP both bind phospho-tau, and TIA-1 overexpression induces formation of inclusions containing phospho-tau. These data suggest that SG formation might stimulate tau pathophysiology. Thus, study of RNA-binding proteins and SG biology highlights novel pathways interacting with the pathophysiology of AD, providing potentially new avenues for identifying diseased neurons and potentially novel mechanisms regulating tau biology. PMID:22699908

  7. Tau hyperphosphorylation induces oligomeric insulin accumulation and insulin resistance in neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Patricia; Sandebring-Matton, Anna; Merino-Serrais, Paula; Parrado-Fernandez, Cristina; Rabano, Alberto; Winblad, Bengt; Ávila, Jesús; Ferrer, Isidre; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel

    2017-12-01

    Insulin signalling deficiencies and insulin resistance have been directly linked to the progression of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. However, to date little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms or insulin state and distribution in the brain under pathological conditions. Here, we report that insulin is accumulated and retained as oligomers in hyperphosphorylated tau-bearing neurons in Alzheimer's disease and in several of the most prevalent human tauopathies. The intraneuronal accumulation of insulin is directly dependent on tau hyperphosphorylation, and follows the tauopathy progression. Furthermore, cells accumulating insulin show signs of insulin resistance and decreased insulin receptor levels. These results suggest that insulin retention in hyperphosphorylated tau-bearing neurons is a causative factor for the insulin resistance observed in tauopathies, and describe a novel neuropathological concept with important therapeutic implications. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Preclinical Evaluation of [(18)F]THK-5105 Enantiomers: Effects of Chirality on Its Effectiveness as a Tau Imaging Radiotracer.

    PubMed

    Tago, Tetsuro; Furumoto, Shozo; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Harada, Ryuichi; Adachi, Hajime; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Ren; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2016-04-01

    Noninvasive imaging of tau and amyloid-β pathologies would facilitate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, we have developed [(18)F]THK-5105 for selective detection of tau pathology by positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to clarify biological properties of optically pure [(18)F]THK-5105 enantiomers. Binding for tau aggregates in AD brain section was evaluated by autoradiography (ARG). In vitro binding assays were performed to evaluate the binding properties of enantiomers for AD brain homogenates. The pharmacokinetics in the normal mouse brains was assessed by ex vivo biodistribution assay The ARG of enantiomers showed the high accumulation of radioactivity corresponding to the distribution of tau deposits. In vitro binding assays revealed that (S)-[(18)F]THK-5105 has slower dissociation from tau than (R)-[(18)F]THK-5105. Biodistribution assays indicated that (S)-[(18)F]THK-5105 eliminated faster from the mouse brains and blood compared with (R)-[(18)F]THK-5105. (S)-[(18)F]THK-5105 could be more suitable than (R)-enantiomer for a tau imaging agent.

  9. Mild cognitive impairment and asymptomatic Alzheimer disease subjects: equivalent β-amyloid and tau loads with divergent cognitive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Diego; Resnick, Susan M; O'Brien, Richard; Zonderman, Alan B; An, Yang; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Crain, Barbara; Troncoso, Juan C

    2014-04-01

    Older adults with intact cognition before death and substantial Alzheimer disease (AD) lesions at autopsy have been termed "asymptomatic AD subjects" (ASYMAD). We previously reported hypertrophy of neuronal cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli in the CA1 of the hippocampus (CA1), anterior cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and primary visual cortex of ASYMAD versus age-matched Control and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. However, it was unclear whether the neuronal hypertrophy could be attributed to differences in the severity of AD pathology. Here, we performed quantitative analyses of the severity of β-amyloid (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (tau) loads in the brains of ASYMAD, Control, MCI, and AD subjects (n = 15 per group) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Tissue sections from CA1, anterior cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and primary visual cortex were immunostained for Aβ and tau; the respective loads were assessed using unbiased stereology by measuring the fractional areas of immunoreactivity for each protein in each region. The ASYMAD and MCI groups did not differ in Aβ and tau loads. These data confirm that ASYMAD and MCI subjects have comparable loads of insoluble Aβ and tau in regions vulnerable to AD pathology despite divergent cognitive outcomes. These findings imply that cognitive impairment in AD may be caused or modulated by factors other than insoluble forms of Aβ and tau.

  10. Pathological analysis of the Candida albicans-infected tongue tissues of a murine oral candidiasis model in the early infection stage.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masashi; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Miyasaka, Takahiro; Abe, Shigeru; Satoh, Tazuko

    2013-04-01

    The early pathological process of Candida infection and immunological responses in tongues of the mice with experimental oral candidiasis was analysed. CD-1 mice, pretreated by prednisolone were orally inoculated with Candida albicans. Symptoms were monitored by measuring the area of white tongue coating and number of viable Candida cells in oral cavity. The histopathological analysis was carried by PAS-stain and immunofluorescent staining. IL-4, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α in recovered from the homogenates of the tongues were measured by ELISA. The fungus invaded the tongue surface of the mice and white patches developed within 24h after inoculation. Histopathological examination indicated the presence of local acute inflammation in superficial tissues of tongues covered by mycelium of C. albicans. Pathological exacerbation was observed from 24 to 48 h after the inoculation and from then the symptoms of oral candidiasis appeared to move into the recovery phase. Inflammatory cells mainly consisting of neutrophils was accumulated and located under the lesions covered by Candida-hyphae. An increase in IL-12p70 and IFN-γ in tongue homogenates was observed at 48 h after inoculation. The worst condition in the pathological process in experimental oral candidiasis was found 48 h after C. albicans inoculation. When the surface of the Candida-inoculated tongues was covered with Candida-hyphae, a dense accumulation of neutrophils was observed under the lesions and homogenates of the tongues contained increased levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ. These suggested that local pathological condition of Candida-infected tongues may be affected by neutrophils accumulation and increased levels of some cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Specific Calpain Inhibition by Calpastatin Prevents Tauopathy and Neurodegeneration and Restores Normal Lifespan in Tau P301L Mice

    PubMed Central

    McBrayer, Mary Kate; Campbell, Jabbar; Kumar, Asok; Hashim, Audrey; Sershen, Henry; Stavrides, Philip H.; Ohno, Masuo; Hutton, Michael; Nixon, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    Tau pathogenicity in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies is thought to involve the generation of hyperphosphorylated, truncated, and oligomeric tau species with enhanced neurotoxicity, although the generative mechanisms and the implications for disease therapy are not well understood. Here, we report a striking rescue from mutant tau toxicity in the JNPL3 mouse model of tauopathy. We show that pathological activation of calpains gives rise to a range of potentially toxic forms of tau, directly, and by activating cdk5. Calpain overactivation in brains of these mice is accelerated as a result of the marked depletion of the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin. When levels of this inhibitor are restored in neurons of JNPL3 mice by overexpressing calpastatin, tauopathy is prevented, including calpain-mediated breakdown of cytoskeletal proteins, cdk5 activation, tau hyperphosphorylation, formation of potentially neurotoxic tau fragments by either calpain or caspase-3, and tau oligomerization. Calpastatin overexpression also prevents loss of motor axons, delays disease onset, and extends survival of JNPL3 mice by 3 months to within the range of normal lifespan. Our findings support the therapeutic promise of highly specific calpain inhibition in the treatment of tauopathies and other neurodegenerative states. PMID:25009256

  12. Tau burden and the functional connectome in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Cope, Thomas E; Rittman, Timothy; Borchert, Robin J; Jones, P Simon; Vatansever, Deniz; Allinson, Kieren; Passamonti, Luca; Vazquez Rodriguez, Patricia; Bevan-Jones, W Richard; O'Brien, John T; Rowe, James B

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) represent neurodegenerative tauopathies with predominantly cortical versus subcortical disease burden. In Alzheimer's disease, neuropathology and atrophy preferentially affect 'hub' brain regions that are densely connected. It was unclear whether hubs are differentially affected by neurodegeneration because they are more likely to receive pathological proteins that propagate trans-neuronally, in a prion-like manner, or whether they are selectively vulnerable due to a lack of local trophic factors, higher metabolic demands, or differential gene expression. We assessed the relationship between tau burden and brain functional connectivity, by combining in vivo PET imaging using the ligand AV-1451, and graph theoretic measures of resting state functional MRI in 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 17 patients with PSP, and 12 controls. Strongly connected nodes displayed more tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease, independently of intrinsic connectivity network, validating the predictions of theories of trans-neuronal spread but not supporting a role for metabolic demands or deficient trophic support in tau accumulation. This was not a compensatory phenomenon, as the functional consequence of increasing tau burden in Alzheimer's disease was a progressive weakening of the connectivity of these same nodes, reducing weighted degree and local efficiency and resulting in weaker 'small-world' properties. Conversely, in PSP, unlike in Alzheimer's disease, those nodes that accrued pathological tau were those that displayed graph metric properties associated with increased metabolic demand and a lack of trophic support rather than strong functional connectivity. Together, these findings go some way towards explaining why Alzheimer's disease affects large scale connectivity networks throughout cortex while neuropathology in PSP is concentrated in a small number of subcortical structures. Further, we demonstrate that in

  13. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  14. Intracerebroventricular administration of okadaic acid induces hippocampal glucose uptake dysfunction and tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Broetto, Núbia; Hansen, Fernanda; Brolese, Giovana; Batassini, Cristiane; Lirio, Franciane; Galland, Fabiana; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Intraneuronal aggregates of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), together with beta-amyloid plaques and astrogliosis, are histological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanism of sporadic AD remains poorly understood, but abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is suggested to have a role in NFTs genesis, which leads to neuronal dysfunction and death. Okadaic acid (OKA), a strong inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, has been used to induce dementia similar to AD in rats. We herein investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of OKA (100 and 200ng) on hippocampal tau phosphorylation at Ser396, which is considered an important fibrillogenic tau protein site, and on glucose uptake, which is reduced early in AD. ICV infusion of OKA (at 200ng) induced a spatial cognitive deficit, hippocampal astrogliosis (based on GFAP increment) and increase in tau phosphorylation at site 396 in this model. Moreover, we observed a decreased glucose uptake in the hippocampal slices of OKA-treated rats. In vitro exposure of hippocampal slices to OKA altered tau phosphorylation at site 396, without any associated change in glucose uptake activity. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of OKA neurotoxicity, in vivo and vitro, particularly with regard to the role of tau phosphorylation, and reinforce the importance of the OKA dementia model for studying the neurochemical alterations that may occur in AD, such as NFTs and glucose hypometabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb) alters the expression of the human tau gene and its products in a transgenic animal model

    PubMed Central

    Dash, M.; Eid, A.; Subaiea, G.; Chang, J.; Deeb, R.; Masoud, A.; Renehan, W.E.; Adem, A.; Zawia, N.H.

    2016-01-01

    Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregationof the tau protein in the human brain. The best known of these illnesses is Alzheimer's disease (AD); a disease where the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) becomes hyperphosphorylated (lowering its binding affinity to microtubules) and aggregates within neurons in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). In this paper we examine whether environmental factors play a significant role in tau pathogenesis. Our studies were conducted in a double mutant mouse model that expressed the human tau gene and lacked the gene for murine tau. The human tau mouse model was tested for the transgene's ability to respond to an environmental toxicant. Pups were developmentally exposed to lead (Pb) from postnatal day (PND) 1-20 with 0.2% Pb acetate. Mice were then sacrificed at PND 20, 30, 40 and 60. Protein and mRNA levels for tau and CDK5 as well as tau phosphorylation at Ser396 were determined. In addition, the potential role of miRNA in tau expression was investigated by measuring levels of miR-34c, a miRNA that targets the mRNA for human tau, at PND20 and 50. The expression of the human tau transgene was altered by developmental exposure to Pb. This exposure also altered the expression of miR-34c. Our findings are the first of their kind to test the responsiveness of the human tau gene to an environmental toxicant and to examine an epigenetic mechanism that may be involved in the regulation of this gene's expression. PMID:27293183

  16. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTor) Mediates Tau Protein Dyshomeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhi; Bereczki, Erika; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Shan; Li, Chunxia; Ji, Xinying; Branca, Rui M.; Lehtiö, Janne; Guan, Zhizhong; Filipcik, Peter; Xu, Shaohua; Winblad, Bengt; Pei, Jin-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence from post-mortem Alzheimer disease (AD) brains and drug (especially rapamycin)-oriented in vitro and in vivo models implicated an aberrant accumulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) in tangle-bearing neurons in AD brains and its role in the formation of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau. Compelling evidence indicated that the sequential molecular events such as the synthesis and phosphorylation of tau can be regulated through p70 S6 kinase, the well characterized immediate downstream target of mTor. In the present study, we further identified that the active form of mTor per se accumulates in tangle-bearing neurons, particularly those at early stages in AD brains. By using mass spectrometry and Western blotting, we identified three phosphoepitopes of tau directly phosphorylated by mTor. We have developed a variety of stable cell lines with genetic modification of mTor activity using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as background. In these cellular systems, we not only confirmed the tau phosphorylation sites found in vitro but also found that mTor mediates the synthesis and aggregation of tau, resulting in compromised microtubule stability. Changes of mTor activity cause fluctuation of the level of a battery of tau kinases such as protein kinase A, v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-1, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, and tau protein phosphatase 2A. These results implicate mTor in promoting an imbalance of tau homeostasis, a condition required for neurons to maintain physiological function. PMID:23585566

  17. Tau-Centric Targets and Drugs in Clinical Development for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Imbimbo, Bruno P.; Lozupone, Madia; Santamato, Andrea; Zecca, Chiara; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Bellomo, Antonello; Pilotto, Alberto; Daniele, Antonio; Greco, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The failure of several Phase II/III clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with drugs targeting β-amyloid accumulation in the brain fuelled an increasing interest in alternative treatments against tau pathology, including approaches targeting tau phosphatases/kinases, active and passive immunization, and anti-tau aggregation. The most advanced tau aggregation inhibitor (TAI) is methylthioninium (MT), a drug existing in equilibrium between a reduced (leuco-methylthioninium) and oxidized form (MT+). MT chloride (methylene blue) was investigated in a 24-week Phase II clinical trial in 321 patients with mild to moderate AD that failed to show significant positive effects in mild AD patients, although long-term observations (50 weeks) and biomarker studies suggested possible benefit. The dose of 138 mg/day showed potential benefits on cognitive performance of moderately affected AD patients and cerebral blood flow in mildly affected patients. Further clinical evidence will come from the large ongoing Phase III trials for the treatment of AD and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia on a new form of this TAI, more bioavailable and less toxic at higher doses, called TRx0237. More recently, inhibitors of tau acetylation are being actively pursued based on impressive results in animal studies obtained by salsalate, a clinically used derivative of salicylic acid. PMID:27429978

  18. Tau Oligomers as Potential Targets for Alzheimer’s Diagnosis and Novel Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Martinez, Leonardo; Farías, Gonzalo A.; Maccioni, Ricardo Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A cumulative number of approaches have been carried out to elucidate the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Tangles formation has been identified as a major event involved in the neurodegenerative process, due to the conversion of either soluble peptides or oligomers into insoluble filaments. Most of recent studies share in common the observation that formation of tau oligomers and the subsequent pathological filaments arrays is a critical step in AD etiopathogenesis. Oligomeric tau species appear to be toxic for neuronal cells, and therefore appear as an appropriate target for the design of molecules that may control morphological and functional alterations leading to cognitive impairment. Thus, current therapeutic strategies are aimed at three major types of molecules: (1) inhibitors of protein kinases and phosphatases that modify tau and that may control neuronal degeneration, (2) methylene blue, and (3) natural phytocomplexes and polyphenolics compounds able to either inhibit the formation of tau filaments or disaggregate them. Only a few polyphenolic molecules have emerged to prevent tau aggregation. In this context, fulvic acid (FA), a humic substance, has potential protective activity cognitive impairment. In fact, formation of paired helical filaments in vitro, is inhibited by FA affecting the length of fibrils and their morphology. PMID:24191153

  19. Cholinesterase inhibitors may increase phosphorylated tau in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilcock, Gordon K.; Vinters, Harry V.; Perry, Elaine K.; Perry, Robert; Ballard, Clive G.; Love, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In vitro and in animal studies, ChEIs have been shown to influence the processing of Aβ and the phosphorylation of tau, proteins that are the principal constituents of the plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively, in AD brain. However, little is known about the effects of these drugs on Aβ and tau pathology in AD. Using avidin-biotin immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted image analysis, we compared Aβ and tau loads in the frontal and temporal cortices of 72 brains from matched cohorts of AD patients who had or had not received ChEIs. Patients treated with ChEIs had accumulated significantly more phospho-tau in their cerebral cortex than had untreated patients (P = 0.004). Aβ accumulation was reduced but not significantly. These data raise the possibility that increased tau phosphorylation may influence long-term clinical responsiveness to ChEIs. PMID:19240967

  20. Metabolic changes over the course of aging in a mouse model of tau deposition

    PubMed Central

    Joly-Amado, Aurélie; Serraneau, Karisa S.; Brownlow, Milene; Marín de Evsikova, Caralina; Speakman, John R.; Gordon, Marcia N.; Morgan, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss and food intake disturbances that often precede cognitive decline and diagnosis have been extensively reported in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Previously, we observed that transgenic mice overexpressing tau seemed to eat more food, yet weigh less than non-transgenic littermates. Thus the present longitudinal study measured the time course of changes in metabolic state over the lifespan of the tau depositing Tg4510 mouse model of tau deposition. Although body weight was comparable to non-transgenic littermates at 2 months of age, Tg4510 mice weighed less at older ages. This was accompanied by the accumulation of tau pathology and by dramatically increased activity in all phases of the 24-hour cycle. Resting metabolic rate was also increased at 7 months of age. At 12 months near the end of the Tg4510 lifespan, there was a wasting phase, with a considerable decrease of resting metabolic rate, although hyperactivity was maintained. These diverse changes in metabolism in a mouse model of tau deposition are discussed in the context of known changes in energy metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27318134

  1. Inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling Activity With Huangkui Capsule Alleviates the Early Glomerular Pathological Changes in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Wei; Han, Wen-Bei; Liu, Ying-Lu; Tu, Yue; Yang, Hai-Ming; Fang, Qi-Jun; Zhou, Mo-Yi; Wan, Zi-Yue; Tang, Ren-Mao; Tang, Hai-Tao; Wan, Yi-Gang

    2018-01-01

    Huangkui capsule (HKC), a Chinese modern patent medicine extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L.) medic, has been widely applied to clinical therapy in the early diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients. However, it remains elusive whether HKC can ameliorate the inchoate glomerular injuries in hyperglycemia. Recently the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-threonine kinase (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and its downstream regulator, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), play important roles in the early glomerular pathological changes of DN including glomerular hypertrophy, glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and mild mesangial expansion. This study thereby aimed to clarify therapeutic effects of HKC during the initial phase of DN and its underlying mechanisms. Fifteen rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the normal group, the model group and the HKC group. The early DN model rats were induced by unilateral nephrectomy combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, and administered with either HKC suspension or vehicle after modeling and for a period of 4 weeks. Changes in the incipient glomerular lesions-related parameters in urine and blood were analyzed. Kidneys were isolated for histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blotting (WB) at sacrifice. In vitro , murine mesangial cells (MCs) were used to investigate inhibitory actions of hyperoside (HYP), a bioactive component of HKC, on cellular hypertrophy-associated signaling pathway by WB, compared with rapamycin (RAP). For the early DN model rats, HKC ameliorated micro-urinary albumin, body weight and serum albumin, but had no significant effects on renal function and liver enzymes; HKC improved renal shape, kidney weight and kidney hypertrophy index; HKC attenuated glomerular hypertrophy, GBM thickening and mild mesangial expansion; HKC inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, and the protein over

  2. Emerging drug targets for Aβ and tau in Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    West, Sophie; Bhugra, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Aims Currently, treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) focuses on the cholinergic hypothesis and provides limited symptomatic effects. Research currently focuses on other factors that are thought to contribute to AD development such as tau proteins and Aβ deposits, and how modification of the associated pathology affects outcomes in patients. This systematic review summarizes and appraises the evidence for the emerging drugs affecting Aβ and tau pathology in AD. Methods A comprehensive, systematic online database search was conducted using the databases ScienceDirect and PubMed to include original research articles. A systematic review was conducted following a minimum set of standards, as outlined by The PRISMA Group 1. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed and studies fitting the criteria were selected. No human trials were included in this review. In vitro and in vivo AD models were used to assess efficacy to ensure studied agents were emerging targets without large bodies of evidence. Results The majority of studies showed statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) of Aβ and/or tau pathology, or cognitive effects. Many studies conducted in AD animal models have shown a reduction in Aβ peptide burden and a reduction in tau phosphorylation post-intervention. This has the potential to reduce plaque formation and neuronal degeneration. Conclusions There are many emerging targets showing promising results in the effort to modify the pathological effects associated with AD. Many of the trials also provided evidence of the clinical effects of such drugs reducing pathological outcomes, which was often demonstrated as an improvement of cognition. PMID:25753046

  3. Observation of Upsilon(3S)-->tau+tau- and tests of lepton universality in Upsilon decays.

    PubMed

    Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mehrabyan, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Horwitz, N; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Brock, I; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Shepherd, M R

    2007-02-02

    Using data collected with the CLEO III detector at the CESR e+e- collider, we report on a first observation of the decay Upsilon(3S)-->tau+tau-, and precisely measure the ratio of branching fractions of Upsilon(nS), n=1, 2, 3, to tau+tau- and mu+mu- final states, finding agreement with expectations from lepton universality. We derive absolute branching fractions for these decays, and also set a limit on the influence of a low mass CP-odd Higgs boson in the decay of the Upsilon(1S).

  4. [Pathology of basal ganglia in neurodegenerative diseases].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Koichi; Tanji, Kunikazu; Mori, Fumiaki

    2009-04-01

    Intra- and/or extracellular proteinaceous inclusions in the brain tissue are characteristic pathological markers of many neurodegenerative diseases. Tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles and beta-amyloid in senile plaques are associated with Alzheimer's disease. Tau is associated with various neurological conditions, which are collectively referred to as tauopathies. Alpha-synucleinopathy is a term that collectively refers to a set of diseases in which neurodegeneration is accompanied by intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein in neurons or glial cells. Recently, TDP-43 has been identified as a major disease protein in the ubiquitinated inclusions in deseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau-negative, ubiquitin-positive inclusions. Thus, these neurodegenerative disorders comprise a new disease class, namely, TDP-43 proteinopathy. In this article, we review the present understanding of histopathological features of basal ganglia lesions in protein conformation disorders, including tauopathy, alpha-synucleinopathy, and TDP-43 proteinopathy.

  5. Amyloid and Tau PET Demonstrate Region-Specific Associations in Normal Older People

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Schöll, Michael; Baker, Suzanne L.; Ayakta, Nagehan; Swinnerton, Kaitlin N.; Bell, Rachel K.; Mellinger, Taylor J.; Shah, Vyoma D.; O’Neil, James P.; Janabi, Mustafa; Jagust, William J.

    2017-01-01

    β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau pathology become increasingly prevalent with age, however, the spatial relationship between the two pathologies remains unknown. We examined local (same region) and non-local (different region) associations between these 2 aggregated proteins in 46 normal older adults using [18F]AV-1451 (for tau) and [11C]PiB (for Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) and 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. While local voxelwise analyses showed associations between PiB and AV-1451 tracer largely in the temporal lobes, k-means clustering revealed that some of these associations were driven by regions with low tracer retention. We followed this up with a whole-brain region-by-region (local and non-local) partial correlational analysis. We calculated each participant’s mean AV-1451 and PiB uptake values within 87 regions of interest (ROI). Pairwise ROI analysis demonstrated many positive PiB—AV-1451 associations. Importantly, strong positive partial correlations (controlling for age, sex, and global gray matter fraction, p < .01) were identified between PiB in multiple regions of association cortex and AV-1451 in temporal cortical ROIs. There were also less frequent and weaker positive associations of regional PiB with frontoparietal AV-1451 uptake. Particularly in temporal lobe ROIs, AV-1451 uptake was strongly predicted by PiB across multiple ROI locations. These data indicate that Aβ and tau pathology show significant local and non-local regional associations among cognitively normal elderly, with increased PiB uptake throughout the cortex correlating with increased temporal lobe AV-1451 uptake. The spatial relationship between Aβ and tau accumulation does not appear to be specific to Aβ location, suggesting a regional vulnerability of temporal brain regions to tau accumulation regardless of where Aβ accumulates. PMID:28232190

  6. Methylene blue upregulates Nrf2/ARE genes and prevents tau-related neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Cliona; Jainuddin, Shari; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Launay, Nathalie; Pujol, Aurora; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Thomas, Bobby; Tampellini, Davide; Beal, M. Flint; Dumont, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB, methylthioninium chloride) is a phenothiazine that crosses the blood brain barrier and acts as a redox cycler. Among its beneficial properties are its abilities to act as an antioxidant, to reduce tau protein aggregation and to improve energy metabolism. These actions are of particular interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with tau protein aggregates known as tauopathies. The present study examined the effects of MB in the P301S mouse model of tauopathy. Both 4 mg/kg MB (low dose) and 40 mg/kg MB (high dose) were administered in the diet ad libitum from 1 to 10 months of age. We assessed behavior, tau pathology, oxidative damage, inflammation and numbers of mitochondria. MB improved the behavioral abnormalities and reduced tau pathology, inflammation and oxidative damage in the P301S mice. These beneficial effects were associated with increased expression of genes regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE), which play an important role in antioxidant defenses, preventing protein aggregation, and reducing inflammation. The activation of Nrf2/ARE genes is neuroprotective in other transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and it appears to be an important mediator of the neuroprotective effects of MB in P301S mice. Moreover, we used Nrf2 knock out fibroblasts to show that the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE genes by MB is Nrf2 dependent and not due to secondary effects of the compound. These findings provide further evidence that MB has important neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases with tau pathology. PMID:24556215

  7. Methylene blue upregulates Nrf2/ARE genes and prevents tau-related neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stack, Cliona; Jainuddin, Shari; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia; Starkov, Anatoly A; Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Launay, Nathalie; Pujol, Aurora; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Thomas, Bobby; Tampellini, Davide; Beal, M Flint; Dumont, Magali

    2014-07-15

    Methylene blue (MB, methylthioninium chloride) is a phenothiazine that crosses the blood brain barrier and acts as a redox cycler. Among its beneficial properties are its abilities to act as an antioxidant, to reduce tau protein aggregation and to improve energy metabolism. These actions are of particular interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with tau protein aggregates known as tauopathies. The present study examined the effects of MB in the P301S mouse model of tauopathy. Both 4 mg/kg MB (low dose) and 40 mg/kg MB (high dose) were administered in the diet ad libitum from 1 to 10 months of age. We assessed behavior, tau pathology, oxidative damage, inflammation and numbers of mitochondria. MB improved the behavioral abnormalities and reduced tau pathology, inflammation and oxidative damage in the P301S mice. These beneficial effects were associated with increased expression of genes regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE), which play an important role in antioxidant defenses, preventing protein aggregation, and reducing inflammation. The activation of Nrf2/ARE genes is neuroprotective in other transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and it appears to be an important mediator of the neuroprotective effects of MB in P301S mice. Moreover, we used Nrf2 knock out fibroblasts to show that the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE genes by MB is Nrf2 dependent and not due to secondary effects of the compound. These findings provide further evidence that MB has important neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases with tau pathology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Rational Design of in Vivo Tau Tangle-Selective Near-Infrared Fluorophores: Expanding the BODIPY Universe.

    PubMed

    Verwilst, Peter; Kim, Hye-Ri; Seo, Jinho; Sohn, Nak-Won; Cha, Seung-Yun; Kim, Yeongmin; Maeng, Sungho; Shin, Jung-Won; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Jong Seung

    2017-09-27

    The elucidation of the cause of Alzheimer's disease remains one of the greatest questions in neurodegenerative research. The lack of highly reliable low-cost sensors to study the structural changes in key proteins during the progression of the disease is a contributing factor to this lack of insight. In the current work, we describe the rational design and synthesis of two fluorescent BODIPY-based probes, named Tau 1 and Tau 2. The probes were evaluated on the molecular surface formed by a fibril of the PHF6 ( 306 VQIVYK 311 ) tau fragment using molecular docking studies to provide a potential molecular model to rationalize the selectivity of the new probes as compared to a homologous Aβ-selective probe. The probes were synthesized in a few steps from commercially available starting products and could thus prove to be highly cost-effective. We demonstrated the excellent photophysical properties of the dyes, such as a large Stokes shift and emission in the near-infrared window of the electromagnetic spectrum. The probes demonstrated a high selectivity for self-assembled microtubule-associated protein tau (Tau protein), in both solution and cell-based experiments. Moreover, the administration to an acute murine model of tauopathy clearly revealed the staining of self-assembled hyperphosphorylated tau protein in pathologically relevant hippocampal brain regions. Tau 1 demonstrated efficient blood-brain barrier penetrability and demonstrated a clear selectivity for tau tangles over Aβ plaques, as well as the capacity for in vivo imaging in a transgenic mouse model. The current work could open up avenues for the cost-effective monitoring of the tau protein aggregation state in animal models as well as tissue staining. Furthermore, these fluorophores could serve as the basis for the development of clinically relevant sensors, for example based on PET imaging.

  9. Novel mouse models of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) reveal early onset mitochondrial defects and suggest loss of PABPN1 may contribute to pathology.

    PubMed

    Vest, Katherine E; Phillips, Brittany L; Banerjee, Ayan; Apponi, Luciano H; Dammer, Eric B; Xu, Weiting; Zheng, Dinghai; Yu, Julia; Tian, Bin; Pavlath, Grace K; Corbett, Anita H

    2017-09-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late onset disease caused by polyalanine expansion in the poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). Several mouse models have been generated to study OPMD; however, most of these models have employed transgenic overexpression of alanine-expanded PABPN1. These models do not recapitulate the OPMD patient genotype and PABPN1 overexpression could confound molecular phenotypes. We have developed a knock-in mouse model of OPMD (Pabpn1+/A17) that contains one alanine-expanded Pabpn1 allele under the control of the native promoter and one wild-type Pabpn1 allele. This mouse is the closest available genocopy of OPMD patients. We show that Pabpn1+/A17 mice have a mild myopathic phenotype in adult and aged animals. We examined early molecular and biochemical phenotypes associated with expressing native levels of A17-PABPN1 and detected shorter poly(A) tails, modest changes in poly(A) signal (PAS) usage, and evidence of mitochondrial damage in these mice. Recent studies have suggested that a loss of PABPN1 function could contribute to muscle pathology in OPMD. To investigate a loss of function model of pathology, we generated a heterozygous Pabpn1 knock-out mouse model (Pabpn1+/Δ). Like the Pabpn1+/A17 mice, Pabpn1+/Δ mice have mild histologic defects, shorter poly(A) tails, and evidence of mitochondrial damage. However, the phenotypes detected in Pabpn1+/Δ mice only partially overlap with those detected in Pabpn1+/A17 mice. These results suggest that loss of PABPN1 function could contribute to but may not completely explain the pathology detected in Pabpn1+/A17 mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A metabolic switch toward lipid use in glycolytic muscle is an early pathologic event in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Palamiuc, Lavinia; Schlagowski, Anna; Ngo, Shyuan T; Vernay, Aurelia; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Henriques, Alexandre; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence; Zoll, Joffrey; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; René, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common fatal motor neuron disease in adults. Numerous studies indicate that ALS is a systemic disease that affects whole body physiology and metabolic homeostasis. Using a mouse model of the disease (SOD1G86R), we investigated muscle physiology and motor behavior with respect to muscle metabolic capacity. We found that at 65 days of age, an age described as asymptomatic, SOD1G86R mice presented with improved endurance capacity associated with an early inhibition in the capacity for glycolytic muscle to use glucose as a source of energy and a switch in fuel preference toward lipids. Indeed, in glycolytic muscles we showed progressive induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression. Phosphofructokinase 1 was inhibited, and the expression of lipid handling molecules was increased. This mechanism represents a chronic pathologic alteration in muscle metabolism that is exacerbated with disease progression. Further, inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 activity with dichloroacetate delayed symptom onset while improving mitochondrial dysfunction and ameliorating muscle denervation. In this study, we provide the first molecular basis for the particular sensitivity of glycolytic muscles to ALS pathology. PMID:25820275

  11. Simulated Cytoskeletal Collapse via Tau Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sendek, Austin; Fuller, Henry R.; Hayre, N. Robert; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Cox, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a coarse-grained two dimensional mechanical model for the microtubule-tau bundles in neuronal axons in which we remove taus, as can happen in various neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimers disease, tauopathies, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Our simplified model includes (i) taus modeled as entropic springs between microtubules, (ii) removal of taus from the bundles due to phosphorylation, and (iii) a possible depletion force between microtubules due to these dissociated phosphorylated taus. We equilibrate upon tau removal using steepest descent relaxation. In the absence of the depletion force, the transverse rigidity to radial compression of the bundles falls to zero at about 60% tau occupancy, in agreement with standard percolation theory results. However, with the attractive depletion force, spring removal leads to a first order collapse of the bundles over a wide range of tau occupancies for physiologically realizable conditions. While our simplest calculations assume a constant concentration of microtubule intercalants to mediate the depletion force, including a dependence that is linear in the detached taus yields the same collapse. Applying percolation theory to removal of taus at microtubule tips, which are likely to be the protective sites against dynamic instability, we argue that the microtubule instability can only obtain at low tau occupancy, from 0.06–0.30 depending upon the tau coordination at the microtubule tips. Hence, the collapse we discover is likely to be more robust over a wide range of tau occupancies than the dynamic instability. We suggest in vitro tests of our predicted collapse. PMID:25162587

  12. Modulation of neuroinflammation and pathology in the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease using a biased and selective beta-1 adrenergic receptor partial agonist.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Pooneh Memar; Evans, Andrew K; Yi, Bitna; Nguyen, Tiffany; Coutellier, Laurence; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2017-04-01

    Degeneration of noradrenergic neurons occurs at an early stage of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The noradrenergic system regulates arousal and learning and memory, and has been implicated in regulating neuroinflammation. Loss of noradrenergic tone may underlie AD progression at many levels. We have previously shown that acute administration of a partial agonist of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1), xamoterol, restores behavioral deficits in a mouse model of AD. The current studies examined the effects of chronic low dose xamoterol on neuroinflammation, pathology, and behavior in the pathologically aggressive 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of AD. In vitro experiments in cells expressing human beta adrenergic receptors demonstrate that xamoterol is highly selective for ADRB1 and functionally biased for the cAMP over the β-arrestin pathway. Data demonstrate ADRB1-mediated attenuation of TNF-α production with xamoterol in primary rat microglia culture following LPS challenge. Finally, two independent cohorts of 5XFAD and control mice were administered xamoterol from approximately 4.0-6.5 or 7.0-9.5 months, were tested in an array of behavioral tasks, and brains were examined for evidence of neuroinflammation, and amyloid beta and tau pathology. Xamoterol reduced mRNA expression of neuroinflammatory markers (Iba1, CD74, CD14 and TGFβ) and immunohistochemical evidence for microgliosis and astrogliosis. Xamoterol reduced amyloid beta and tau pathology as measured by regional immunohistochemistry. Behavioral deficits were not observed for 5XFAD mice. In conclusion, chronic administration of a selective, functionally biased, partial agonist of ADRB1 is effective in reducing neuroinflammation and amyloid beta and tau pathology in the 5XFAD model of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Escitalopram attenuates β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei-Gang; Wu, Di; Tang, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Fang-Fang; Bai, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether escitalopram could inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms, we treated the rat primary hippocampal neurons with Aβ1-42 and examined the effect of escitalopram on tau hyperphosphorylation. Results showed that escitalopram decreased Aβ1–42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, escitalopram activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Moreover, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 blocked the activation of Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Finally, escitalopram improved Aβ1–42 induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and spine density, and reversed Aβ1–42 induced reduction of synaptic proteins. Our results demonstrated that escitalopram attenuated Aβ1–42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26950279

  14. Escitalopram attenuates β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Juan; Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wu, Di; Tang, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Fang-Fang; Bai, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-03-22

    Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether escitalopram could inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms, we treated the rat primary hippocampal neurons with Aβ1-42 and examined the effect of escitalopram on tau hyperphosphorylation. Results showed that escitalopram decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, escitalopram activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Moreover, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 blocked the activation of Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Finally, escitalopram improved Aβ1-42 induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and spine density, and reversed Aβ1-42 induced reduction of synaptic proteins. Our results demonstrated that escitalopram attenuated Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of sentinel node biopsy and pathological ultrastaging in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Brar, Harinder; Hogen, Liat; Covens, Al

    2017-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of radical hysterectomy (RH) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for the management of early-stage cervical cancer (stage IA2-IB1). A simple decision tree model was developed to follow a simulated cohort of patients with early-stage cervical cancer treated with RH and 1 of 3 lymph node assessment strategies: systematic pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), SLNB using technetium 99 (Tc99) and blue dye, and SLNB using Tc99 only. SLNB using indocyanine green (ICG) was used as an exploratory strategy. Relevant studies were identified to extract the probability data and utility parameters and to estimate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and absolute life-years (ALYs). Only direct medical costs were modeled, and the time horizon for the study was 5 years. SLNB using Tc99 and blue dye cost $21,089 and yielded 4.54 QALYs and 4.90 ALYs. PLND cost $22,353 and yielded 4.47 QALYs and 4.91 ALYs. SLNB using blue dye and Tc99 was the most cost-effective strategy when ALYs were considered with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $144,531. When QALYs were considered, the SLNB technique using Tc99 and blue dye dominated all other strategies. SLNB using ICG cost $20,624 and yielded 4.90 ALYs and 4.54 QALYs. It was clinically superior to and less expensive than all other strategies when QALYs were the outcome of interest and had an ICER of $221,171 per ALY in comparison with RH plus PLND. SLNB using Tc99 and blue dye with ultrastaging is considered the most cost-effective strategy with respect to 5-year progression-free survival and morbidity-free survival. Although it was included only as an exploratory strategy in this study, SLNB with ICG has the potential to be the most cost-effective strategy. Cancer 2017;123:1751-1759. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Cellular Models of Aggregation-dependent Template-directed Proteolysis to Characterize Tau Aggregation Inhibitors for Treatment of Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Charles R; Storey, John M D; Clunas, Scott; Harrington, Kathleen A; Horsley, David; Ishaq, Ahtsham; Kemp, Steven J; Larch, Christopher P; Marshall, Colin; Nicoll, Sarah L; Rickard, Janet E; Simpson, Michael; Sinclair, James P; Storey, Lynda J; Wischik, Claude M

    2015-04-24

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a degenerative tauopathy characterized by aggregation of Tau protein through the repeat domain to form intraneuronal paired helical filaments (PHFs). We report two cell models in which we control the inherent toxicity of the core Tau fragment. These models demonstrate the properties of prion-like recruitment of full-length Tau into an aggregation pathway in which template-directed, endogenous truncation propagates aggregation through the core Tau binding domain. We use these in combination with dissolution of native PHFs to quantify the activity of Tau aggregation inhibitors (TAIs). We report the synthesis of novel stable crystalline leucomethylthioninium salts (LMTX®), which overcome the pharmacokinetic limitations of methylthioninium chloride. LMTX®, as either a dihydromesylate or a dihydrobromide salt, retains TAI activity in vitro and disrupts PHFs isolated from AD brain tissues at 0.16 μM. The Ki value for intracellular TAI activity, which we have been able to determine for the first time, is 0.12 μM. These values are close to the steady state trough brain concentration of methylthioninium ion (0.18 μM) that is required to arrest progression of AD on clinical and imaging end points and the minimum brain concentration (0.13 μM) required to reverse behavioral deficits and pathology in Tau transgenic mice. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Palmitic and stearic fatty acids induce Alzheimer-like hyperphosphorylation of tau in primary rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sachin; Chan, Christina

    2005-08-26

    Epidemiological studies suggest that high fat diets significantly increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, the AD brain is characterized by high fatty acid content compared to that of healthy subjects. Nevertheless, the basic mechanism relating elevated fatty acids and the pathogenesis of AD remains unclear. The present study examines the role of fatty acids in causing hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein, one of the characteristic signatures of AD pathology. Hyperphosphorylation of tau disrupts the cell cytoskeleton and leads to neuronal degeneration. Here, primary rat cortical neurons and astrocytes were treated with saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitic and stearic acids. There was no change in the levels of phosphorylated tau in rat cortical neurons treated directly with these FFAs. The conditioned media from FFA-treated astrocytes, however, caused hyperphosphorylation of tau in the cortical neurons at AD-specific phospho-epitopes. Co-treatment of neurons with N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, reduced FFA-induced hyperphosphorylation of tau. The present results establish a central role of FFAs in causing hyperphosphorylation of tau through astroglia-mediated oxidative stress.

  18. Genome-wide association study of CSF biomarkers Abeta1-42, t-tau, and p-tau181p in the ADNI cohort.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Swaminathan, S; Shen, L; Risacher, S L; Nho, K; Foroud, T; Shaw, L M; Trojanowski, J Q; Potkin, S G; Huentelman, M J; Craig, D W; DeChairo, B M; Aisen, P S; Petersen, R C; Weiner, M W; Saykin, A J

    2011-01-04

    CSF levels of Aβ1-42, t-tau, and p-tau181p are potential early diagnostic markers for probable Alzheimer disease (AD). The influence of genetic variation on these markers has been investigated for candidate genes but not on a genome-wide basis. We report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CSF biomarkers (Aβ1-42, t-tau, p-tau181p, p-tau181p/Aβ1-42, and t-tau/Aβ1-42). A total of 374 non-Hispanic Caucasian participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort with quality-controlled CSF and genotype data were included in this analysis. The main effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) under an additive genetic model was assessed on each of 5 CSF biomarkers. The p values of all SNPs for each CSF biomarker were adjusted for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni method. We focused on SNPs with corrected p<0.01 (uncorrected p<3.10×10(-8)) and secondarily examined SNPs with uncorrected p values less than 10(-5) to identify potential candidates. Four SNPs in the regions of the APOE, LOC100129500, TOMM40, and EPC2 genes reached genome-wide significance for associations with one or more CSF biomarkers. SNPs in CCDC134, ABCG2, SREBF2, and NFATC4, although not reaching genome-wide significance, were identified as potential candidates. In addition to known candidate genes, APOE, TOMM40, and one hypothetical gene LOC100129500 partially overlapping APOE; one novel gene, EPC2, and several other interesting genes were associated with CSF biomarkers that are related to AD. These findings, especially the new EPC2 results, require replication in independent cohorts.

  19. Involvement of GSK3 and PP2A in ginsenoside Rb1's attenuation of aluminum-induced tau hyperphosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-hua; Di, Jing; Liu, Wen-su; Liu, Hui-li; Lai, Hong; Lü, Yong-li

    2013-03-15

    Environmental agent aluminum, a well-known neurotoxin, has been proposed to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and produced clinical and pathological features which were strikingly similar to those seen in AD brain, such as neurofibrillary tangles. Ginsenoside Rb1, highly abundant active component of ginseng, has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective against various neurotoxins. In this study we investigated the effect of Rb1 on aluminum-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in ICR mice. Mice were exposed to aluminum chloride (200 mg/kg/day) for 6 months followed by a post treatment of Rb1 (20 mg/kg/day) for another 4 months. Aluminum exposure induced the cognitive ability by Morris water maze, and upregulated the tau phosphorylation level at Ser396 accompanied by increasing p-GSK and decreasing PP2A level in motor, sensory cortex and hippocampal formation. Post treatment of Rb1 significantly improved the learning and memory and reduced the tau phosphorylation by reversing the p-GSK3 and PP2A level. Our results indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 protected mice against Al-induced toxicity. The possible mechanism may be its role in preventing tau hyperphosphorylation by regulating p-GSK3 and PP2A level, which implicate Rb1 as the potential preventive drug candidate for AD and other tau pathology-related neuronal degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Rapid changes in phospho-MAP/tau epitopes during neuronal stress: cofilin-actin rods primarily recruit microtubule binding domain epitopes.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Ineka T; Minamide, Laurie S; Goh, De Lian; Bamburg, James R; Goldsbury, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal mitochondrial function is a widely reported contributor to neurodegenerative disease including Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, a mechanistic link between mitochondrial dysfunction and the initiation of neuropathology remains elusive. In AD, one of the earliest hallmark pathologies is neuropil threads comprising accumulated hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau in neurites. Rod-like aggregates of actin and its associated protein cofilin (AC rods) also occur in AD. Using a series of antibodies--AT270, AT8, AT100, S214, AT180, 12E8, S396, S404 and S422--raised against different phosphoepitopes on tau, we characterize the pattern of expression and re-distribution in neurites of these phosphoepitope labels during mitochondrial inhibition. Employing chick primary neuron cultures, we demonstrate that epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody 12E8, are the only species rapidly recruited into AC rods. These results were recapitulated with the actin depolymerizing drug Latrunculin B, which induces AC rods and a concomitant increase in the 12E8 signal measured on Western blot. This suggests that AC rods may be one way in which MAP redistribution and phosphorylation is influenced in neurons during mitochondrial stress and potentially in the early pathogenesis of AD.

  1. The identification of raft-derived tau-associated vesicles that are incorporated into immature tangles and paired helical filaments.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, T; Takahashi, T; Nakamori, M; Hosomi, N; Maruyama, H; Miyazaki, Y; Izumi, Y; Matsumoto, M

    2016-12-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), a cardinal pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are primarily composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Recently, several other molecules, including flotillin-1, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), have also been revealed as constituents of NFTs. Flotillin-1 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 are considered markers of raft microdomains, whereas CDK5 is a tau kinase. Therefore, we hypothesized that NFTs have a relationship with raft domains and the tau phosphorylation that occurs within NFTs. We investigated six cases of AD, six cases of other neurodegenerative diseases with NFTs and three control cases. We analysed the PtdIns(4,5)P2-immunopositive material in detail, using super-resolution microscopy and electron microscopy to elucidate its pattern of expression. We also investigated the spatial relationship between the PtdIns(4,5)P2-immunopositive material and tau kinases through double immunofluorescence analysis. Pretangles contained either paired helical filaments (PHFs) or PtdIns(4,5)P2-immunopositive small vesicles (approximately 1 μm in diameter) with nearly identical topology to granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) bodies. Various combinations of these vesicles and GVD bodies, the latter of which are pathological hallmarks observed within the neurons of AD patients, were found concurrently in neurons. These vesicles and GVD bodies were both immunopositive not only for PtdIns(4,5)P2, but also for several tau kinases such as glycogen synthase kinase-3β and spleen tyrosine kinase. These observations suggest that clusters of raft-derived vesicles that resemble GVD bodies are substructures of pretangles other than PHFs. These tau kinase-bearing vesicles are likely involved in the modification of tau protein and in NFT formation. © 2015 The Authors Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of

  2. Phenotype analysis of early risk factors from electronic medical records improves image-derived diagnostic classifiers for optic nerve pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nabar, Kunal P.; Nelson, Katrina M.; Mawn, Louise A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    We examine imaging and electronic medical records (EMR) of 588 subjects over five major disease groups that affect optic nerve function. An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. We developed an automated image processing pipeline that identifies the orbital structures within the human eyes from computed tomography (CT) scans, calculates structural size, and performs volume measurements. We customized the EMR-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to derive diagnostic EMR phenotypes that occur at least two years prior to the onset of the conditions of interest from a separate cohort of 28,411 ophthalmology patients. We used random forest classifiers to evaluate the predictive power of image-derived markers, EMR phenotypes, and clinical visual assessments in identifying disease cohorts from a control group of 763 patients without optic nerve disease. Image-derived markers showed more predictive power than clinical visual assessments or EMR phenotypes. However, the addition of EMR phenotypes to the imaging markers improves the classification accuracy against controls: the AUC improved from 0.67 to 0.88 for glaucoma, 0.73 to 0.78 for intrinsic optic nerve disease, 0.72 to 0.76 for optic nerve edema, 0.72 to 0.77 for orbital inflammation, and 0.81 to 0.85 for thyroid eye disease. This study illustrates the importance of diagnostic context for interpretation of image-derived markers and the proposed PheWAS technique provides a flexible approach for learning salient features of patient history and incorporating these data into traditional machine learning analyses.

  3. A Tangled Web – Tau and Sporadic Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Selina; Lewis, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a major challenge for health care systems around the world: it is the most common degenerative movement disorder of old age, affecting over 100,000 people in the UK alone (Schrag et al., 2000). Despite the remarkable success of treatments directed at potentiating or replacing dopamine within the brain, which can relieve symptoms for over a decade, PD remains an incurable and invariably fatal disorder. As such, efforts to understand the processes that lead to cell death in the brains of patients with PD are a priority for neurodegenerative researchers. A great deal of progress has been made in this regard by taking advantage of advances in genetics, initially by the identification of genes responsible for rare Mendelian forms of PD (outlined in Table 1), and more recently by applying genome wide association studies (GWAS) to the sporadic form of the disease (Hardy et al., 2009). Several such GWAS have now been carried out, with a meta-analysis currently under way. Using over 6000 cases and 10,000 controls, two of these studies have identified variation at a number of loci as being associated with an increased risk of disease (Satake et al., 2009; Simon-Sanchez et al., 2009). Three genes stand out as candidates from these studies – the SNCA gene, coding for α-synuclein, the LRRK2 gene, coding for leucine rich repeat kinase 2, and MAPT, coding for the microtubule-associated protein tau. Mutations at all three of these loci have been associated with Mendelian forms of disease presenting with the clinical syndrome of Parkinsonism, however only SNCA and LRRK2 have been previously associated with pathologically defined PD (Hardy et al., 2009). Point mutations in α-synuclein, along with gene multiplication events, result in autosomal dominant PD, often with a significant dementia component. In addition to this, α-synuclein is the principle component of the main pathological hallmark of idiopathic PD, the Lewy body, making it an

  4. A tangled web - tau and sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wray, Selina; Lewis, Patrick A

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a major challenge for health care systems around the world: it is the most common degenerative movement disorder of old age, affecting over 100,000 people in the UK alone (Schrag et al., 2000). Despite the remarkable success of treatments directed at potentiating or replacing dopamine within the brain, which can relieve symptoms for over a decade, PD remains an incurable and invariably fatal disorder. As such, efforts to understand the processes that lead to cell death in the brains of patients with PD are a priority for neurodegenerative researchers. A great deal of progress has been made in this regard by taking advantage of advances in genetics, initially by the identification of genes responsible for rare Mendelian forms of PD (outlined in Table 1), and more recently by applying genome wide association studies (GWAS) to the sporadic form of the disease (Hardy et al., 2009). Several such GWAS have now been carried out, with a meta-analysis currently under way. Using over 6000 cases and 10,000 controls, two of these studies have identified variation at a number of loci as being associated with an increased risk of disease (Satake et al., 2009; Simon-Sanchez et al., 2009). Three genes stand out as candidates from these studies - the SNCA gene, coding for α-synuclein, the LRRK2 gene, coding for leucine rich repeat kinase 2, and MAPT, coding for the microtubule-associated protein tau. Mutations at all three of these loci have been associated with Mendelian forms of disease presenting with the clinical syndrome of Parkinsonism, however only SNCA and LRRK2 have been previously associated with pathologically defined PD (Hardy et al., 2009). Point mutations in α-synuclein, along with gene multiplication events, result in autosomal dominant PD, often with a significant dementia component. In addition to this, α-synuclein is the principle component of the main pathological hallmark of idiopathic PD, the Lewy body, making it an

  5. Aminothienopyridazines and Methylene Blue Affect Tau Fibrillization via Cysteine Oxidation*

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Smith, Amos B.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23443659

  6. Search for the lepton-flavor-violating leptonic B(0)-->mu(+/-)tau(-/+) and B(0)-->e(+/-)tau(-/+).

    PubMed

    Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Weinstein, A J; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Rosner, J L; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Sun, W M; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Arms, K; Gan, K K; Severini, H; Skubic, P; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Park, C S; Park, W; Thayer, J B; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Nandakumar, R; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M

    2004-12-10

    We have searched a sample of 9.6 x 10(6) BB events for the lepton-flavor-violating leptonic B decays, B(0)-->mu(+/-)tau(-/+) and B(0)-->e(+/-)tau(-/+). The tau lepton was detected through the decay modes tau-->lnunu(-) , where l=e, mu. There is no indication of a signal, and we obtain the 90% confidence level upper limits B(B(0)-->mu(+/-)tau(-/+))<3.8 x 10(-5) and B(B(0)-->e(+/-)tau(-/+))<1.3 x 10(-4).

  7. Alteration in amyloid β42, phosphorylated tau protein, interleukin 6, and acetylcholine during diabetes-accelerated memory dysfunction in diabetic rats: correlation of amyloid β42 with changes in glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Zhao, Ying; Xie, Hailong; Wang, Yan; Liu, Lin; Yan, Xinjia

    2015-08-14

    Diabetes accelerates memory dysfunction in a continuous, slowly pathological process. Studies suggest that the time course of certain biomarkers can characterize the pathological course of the disease to provide information for early intervention. Thus, there is an urgent need for validated biomarkers to characterize the cognitive impairment induced by DM. We aimed to detect changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers such as amyloid β42, phosphorylated tau protein, interleukin 6, and acetylcholine in diabetic rats over time, and to analyse the relationship between diabetes and cognitive impairment. Rats were injected once intraperitoneally with 1% of streptozotocin to establish a diabetic model. Index changes were investigated longitudinally and all were measured at the end of the experiment at day 75. Aβ42, P-tau, IL-6, and ACh levels in CSF, insulin levels in plasma, and Aβ42 levels in plasma and brain tissue were measured by ELISA. Compared with control, the diabetic model showed ACh in CSF to be decreased by day 15, continuing lower out to day 75. Aβ42 changes in brain and blood showed the same trends but exhibited minima at different time points: day 30 in CSF and day 15 in plasma. After the minimum, Aβ42 in cerebrospinal fluid rose and levelled off lower than in the control group, whereas Aβ42 in plasma rose and went above the controls at day 30, slowly trending upwards for the remainder of the experiment. P-tau protein in CSF in diabetic rats showed an increasing trend, becoming significantly different from the controls at day 60 and day 75. Aβ42 in CSF was strongly negatively correlated with blood glucose at day 15 and was negatively correlated with insulin in serum, particularly at day 45. Our longitudinal research model suggest that changes in the measured biomarkers appear before learning and memory impairments do. Aβ42 and ACh in the diabetes model group clearly changed from day 0 to day 45, and then P-tau and IL-6 varied significantly from day

  8. Pathology Reports

    MedlinePlus

    ... pathology report will include the results of these tests. For example, the pathology report may include information obtained from ... markers or indicators of a specific cancer. For example, the Philadelphia chromosome ... ( 3 ). Some tests that might be performed on a tissue sample ...

  9. Comparing Plasma Phospho Tau, Total Tau, and Phospho Tau–Total Tau Ratio as Acute and Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Richard; Chang, Binggong; Yue, John K.; Chiu, Allen; Winkler, Ethan A.; Puccio, Ava M.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Yuh, Esther L.; Mukherjee, Pratik; Valadka, Alex B.; Gordon, Wayne A.; Okonkwo, David O.; Davies, Peter; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Lin, Fan; Sarkis, George; Yadikar, Hamad; Yang, Zhihui; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Wang, Kevin K. W.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Annually in the United States, at least 3.5 million people seek medical attention for traumatic brain injury (TBI). The development of therapies for TBI is limited by the absence of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Microtubule-associated protein tau is an axonal phosphoprotein. To date, the presence of the hypophosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) in plasma from patients with acute TBI and chronic TBI has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between plasma P-tau and total-tau (T-tau) levels and injury presence, severity, type of pathoanatomic lesion (neuroimaging), and patient outcomes in acute and chronic TBI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In the TRACK-TBI Pilot study, plasma was collected at a single time point from 196 patients with acute TBI admitted to 3 level I trauma centers (<24 hours after injury) and 21 patients with TBI admitted to inpatient rehabilitation units (mean [SD], 176.4 [44.5] days after injury). Control samples were purchased from a commercial vendor. The TRACK-TBI Pilot study was conducted from April 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012. Data analysis for the current investigation was performed from August 1, 2015, to March 13, 2017. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Plasma samples were assayed for P-tau (using an antibody that specifically recognizes phosphothreonine-231) and T-tau using ultra-high sensitivity laser-based immunoassay multi-arrayed fiberoptics conjugated with rolling circle amplification. RESULTS In the 217 patients with TBI, 161 (74.2%) were men; mean (SD) age was 42.5 (18.1) years. The P-tau and T-tau levels and P-tau–T-tau ratio in patients with acute TBI were higher than those in healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for the 3 tau indices demonstrated accuracy with area under the curve (AUC) of 1.000, 0.916, and 1.000, respectively, for discriminating mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score, 13–15, n = 162) from healthy controls. The P-tau level and P-tau–T-tau ratio

  10. Hyperphosphorylated tau in the brains of mice and monkeys with long-term administration of ketamine.

    PubMed

    Yeung, L Y; Wai, Maria S M; Fan, Ming; Mak, Y T; Lam, W P; Li, Zhen; Lu, Gang; Yew, David T

    2010-03-15

    Ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, might impair memory function of the brain. Loss of memory is also a characteristic of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Hyperphosphorylation of tau is an early event in the aging process and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we aimed to find out whether long-term ketmaine administration is related to hyperphosphorylation of tau or not in the brains of mice and monkeys. Results showed that after 6 months' administration of ketamine, in the prefrontal and entorhinal cortical sections of mouse and monkey brains, there were significant increases of positive sites for the hyperphosphorylated tau protein as compared to the control animals receiving no ketamine administration. Furthermore, about 15% of hyperphosphorylated tau positive cells were also positively labeled by terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) indicating there might be a relationship between hyperphosphorylation of tau and apoptosis. Therefore, the long-term ketamine toxicity might involve neurodegenerative process similar to that of aging and/or Alzheimer's disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tau and spectraplakins promote synapse formation and maintenance through Jun kinase and neuronal trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Voelzmann, Andre; Okenve-Ramos, Pilar; Qu, Yue; Chojnowska-Monga, Monika; del Caño-Espinel, Manuela; Prokop, Andreas; Sanchez-Soriano, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating synapse numbers during development and ageing are essential for normal brain function and closely linked to brain disorders including dementias. Using Drosophila, we demonstrate roles of the microtubule-associated protein Tau in regulating synapse numbers, thus unravelling an important cellular requirement of normal Tau. In this context, we find that Tau displays a strong functional overlap with microtubule-binding spectraplakins, establishing new links between two different neurodegenerative factors. Tau and the spectraplakin Short Stop act upstream of a three-step regulatory cascade ensuring adequate delivery of synaptic proteins. This cascade involves microtubule stability as the initial trigger, JNK signalling as the central mediator, and kinesin-3 mediated axonal transport as the key effector. This cascade acts during development (synapse formation) and ageing (synapse maintenance) alike. Therefore, our findings suggest novel explanations for intellectual disability in Tau deficient individuals, as well as early synapse loss in dementias including Alzheimer’s disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14694.001 PMID:27501441

  12. Near-atomic model of microtubule-tau interactions.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth H; Hejab, Nisreen M A; Poepsel, Simon; Downing, Kenneth H; DiMaio, Frank; Nogales, Eva

    2018-06-15

    Tau is a developmentally regulated axonal protein that stabilizes and bundles microtubules (MTs). Its hyperphosphorylation is thought to cause detachment from MTs and subsequent aggregation into fibrils implicated in Alzheimer's disease. It is unclear which tau residues are crucial for tau-MT interactions, where tau binds on MTs, and how it stabilizes them. We used cryo-electron microscopy to visualize different tau constructs on MTs and computational approaches to generate atomic models of tau-tubulin interactions. The conserved tubulin-binding repeats within tau adopt similar extended structures along the crest of the protofilament, stabilizing the interface between tubulin dimers. Our structures explain the effect of phosphorylation on MT affinity and lead to a model of tau repeats binding in tandem along protofilaments, tethering together tubulin dimers and stabilizing polymerization interfaces. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Selective clearance of aberrant tau proteins and rescue of neurotoxicity by transcription factor EB.

    PubMed

    Polito, Vinicia A; Li, Hongmei; Martini-Stoica, Heidi; Wang, Baiping; Yang, Li; Xu, Yin; Swartzlander, Daniel B; Palmieri, Michela; di Ronza, Alberto; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Sardiello, Marco; Ballabio, Andrea; Zheng, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates impairment of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently discovered, transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a molecule shown to play central roles in cellular degradative processes. Here we investigate the role of TFEB in AD mouse models. In this study, we demonstrate that TFEB effectively reduces neurofibrillary tangle pathology and rescues behavioral and synaptic deficits and neurodegeneration in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy with no detectable adverse effects when expressed in wild-type mice. TFEB specifically targets hyperphosphorylated and misfolded Tau species present in both soluble and aggregated fractions while leaving normal Tau intact. We provide in vitro evidence that this effect requires lysosomal activity and we identify phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as a direct target of TFEB that is required for TFEB-dependent aberrant Tau clearance. The specificity and efficacy of TFEB in mediating the clearance of toxic Tau species makes it an attractive therapeutic target for treating diseases of tauopathy including AD. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. Evaluating the Patterns of Aging-Related Tau Astrogliopathy Unravels Novel Insights Into Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Robinson, John L; Xie, Sharon X; Lee, Edward B; Grossman, Murray; Wolk, David A; Irwin, David J; Weintraub, Dan; Kim, Christopher F; Schuck, Theresa; Yousef, Ahmed; Wagner, Stephanie T; Suh, Eunran; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

    2017-04-01

    The term "aging-related tau astrogliopathy" (ARTAG) describes pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes. We evaluated the correlates of ARTAG types (i.e., subpial, subependymal, white and gray matter, and perivascular) in different neuroanatomical regions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic (eg, APOE ε4 allele, MAPT H1/H2 haplotype) data from 628 postmortem brains from subjects were investigated; most of the patients had been longitudinally followed at the University of Pennsylvania. We found that (i) the amygdala is a hotspot for all ARTAG types; (ii) age at death, male sex, and presence of primary frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) tauopathy are significantly associated with ARTAG; (iii) age at death, greater degree of brain atrophy, ventricular enlargement, and Alzheimer disease (AD)-related variables are associated with subpial, white matter, and perivascular ARTAG types; (iv) AD-related variables are associated particularly with lobar white matter ARTAG; and (v) gray matter ARTAG in primary FTLD-tauopathies appears in areas without neuronal tau pathology. We provide a reference map of ARTAG types and propose at least 5 constellations of ARTAG. Furthermore, we propose a conceptual link between primary FTLD-tauopathy and ARTAG-related astrocytic tau pathologies. Our observations serve as a basis for etiological stratification and definition of progression patterns of ARTAG. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tau Phosphorylation by GSK3 in Different Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Jesús; León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; García, Esther; García-Escudero, Vega; Hernández, Félix; DeFelipe, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Almost a 20% of the residues of tau protein are phosphorylatable amino acids: serine, threonine, and tyrosine. In this paper we comment on the consequences for tau of being a phosphoprotein. We will focus on serine/threonine phosphorylation. It will be discussed that, depending on the modified residue in tau molecule, phosphorylation could be protective, in processes like hibernation, or toxic like in development of those diseases known as tauopathies, which are characterized by an hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau. PMID:22675648

  16. Tau Oligomers as Pathogenic Seeds: Preparation and Propagation In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Julia E; Sengupta, Urmi; Kayed, Rakez

    2017-01-01

    Tau oligomers have been shown to be the main toxic tau species in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. In order to study tau oligomers both in vitro and in vivo, we have established methods for the reliable preparation, isolation, and detection of tau oligomers. Methods for the seeding of tau oligomers, isolation of tau oligomers from tissue, and detection of tau oligomers using tau oligomer-specific antibodies by biochemical and immunohistochemical methods are detailed below.

  17. Antibody uptake into neurons occurs primarily via clathrin-dependent Fcγ receptor endocytosis and is a prerequisite for acute tau protein clearance.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Erin E; Gu, Jiaping; Sait, Hameetha B R; Sigurdsson, Einar M

    2013-12-06

    Tau immunotherapy is effective in transgenic mice, but the mechanisms of Tau clearance are not well known. To this end, Tau antibody uptake was analyzed in brain slice cultures and primary neurons. Internalization was rapid (<1 h), saturable, and substantial compared with control mouse IgG. Furthermore, temperature reduction to 4 °C, an excess of unlabeled mouse IgG, or an excess of Tau antibodies reduced uptake in slices by 63, 41, and 62%, respectively (p = 0.002, 0.04, and 0.005). Uptake strongly correlated with total and insoluble Tau levels (r(2) = 0.77 and 0.87 and p = 0.002 and 0.0002), suggesting that Tau aggregates influence antibody internalization and/or retention within neurons. Inhibiting phagocytosis did not reduce uptake in slices or neuronal cultures, indicating limited microglial involvement. In contrast, clathrin-specific inhibitors reduced uptake in neurons (≤ 78%, p < 0.0001) and slices (≤ 35%, p = 0.03), demonstrating receptor-mediated endocytosis as the primary uptake pathway. Fluid phase endocytosis accounted for the remainder of antibody uptake in primary neurons, based on co-staining with internalized dextran. The receptor-mediated uptake is to a large extent via low affinity FcγII/III receptors and can be blocked in slices (43%, p = 0.04) and neurons (53%, p = 0.008) with an antibody against these receptors. Importantly, antibody internalization appears to be necessary for Tau reduction in primary neurons. Overall, these findings clarify that Tau antibody uptake is primarily receptor-mediated, that these antibodies are mainly found in neurons with Tau aggregates, and that their intracellular interaction leads to clearance of Tau pathology, all of which have major implications for therapeutic development of this approach.

  18. Antisense reduction of tau in adult mice protects against seizures.

    PubMed

    DeVos, Sarah L; Goncharoff, Dustin K; Chen, Guo; Kebodeaux, Carey S; Yamada, Kaoru; Stewart, Floy R; Schuler, Dorothy R; Maloney, Susan E; Wozniak, David F; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C Frank; Cirrito, John R; Holtzman, David M; Miller, Timothy M

    2013-07-31

    Tau, a microtubule-associated protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in regard to both neurofibrillary tangle formation and neuronal network hyperexcitability. The genetic ablation of tau substantially reduces hyperexcitability in AD mouse lines, induced seizure models, and genetic in vivo models of epilepsy. These data demonstrate that tau is an important regulator of network excitability. However, developmental compensation in the genetic tau knock-out line may account for the protective effect against seizures. To test the efficacy of a tau reducing therapy for disorders with a detrimental hyperexcitability profile in adult animals, we identified antisense oligonucleotides that selectively decrease endogenous tau expression throughout the entire mouse CNS--brain and spinal cord tissue, interstitial fluid, and CSF--while having no effect on baseline mo