Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J
For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Bin; Liao, Zhixiang; Locascio, Joseph J.; Lesniak, Kristen A.; Roderick, Sarah S.; Watt, Marla L.; Eklund, Aron C.; Zhang-James, Yanli; Kim, Peter D.; Hauser, Michael A.; Grünblatt, Edna; Moran, Linda B.; Mandel, Silvia A.; Riederer, Peter; Miller, Renee M.; Federoff, Howard J.; Wüllner, Ullrich; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon; Youdim, Moussa B.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ippolita; Young, Anne B.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Davis, Richard L.; Hedreen, John C.; Adler, Charles H.; Beach, Thomas G.; Graeber, Manuel B.; Middleton, Frank A.; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Scherzer, Clemens R.
Parkinson’s disease affects 5 million people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, we report a genome-wide meta-analysis of gene sets (groups of genes that encode the same biological pathway or process) in 410 samples from patients with symptomatic Parkinson’s and subclinical disease and healthy controls. We analyzed 6.8 million raw data points from nine genome-wide expression studies, and 185 laser-captured human dopaminergic neuron and substantia nigra transcriptomes, followed by two-stage replication on three platforms. We found 10 gene sets with previously unknown associations with Parkinson’s disease. These gene sets pinpoint defects in mitochondrial electron transport, glucose utilization, and glucose sensing and reveal that they occur early in disease pathogenesis. Genes controlling cellular bioenergetics that are expressed in response to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) are underexpressed in Parkinson’s disease patients. Activation of PGC-1α results in increased expression of nuclear-encoded subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and blocks the dopaminergic neuron loss induced by mutant α-synuclein or the pesticide rotenone in cellular disease models. Our systems biology analysis of Parkinson’s disease identifies PGC-1α as a potential therapeutic target for early intervention. PMID:20926834
Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.
This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…
Schembre, D B; Kozarek, R A
At the close of the 20th century, therapeutic endoscopy in the esophagus has expanded to encompass a broad array of interventions. As the number of procedures grows, emphasis in the medical literature has begun to shift to analyses of which procedures should be performed. Many studies published in 1999 on topics ranging from endoscopic treatment of benign and malignant strictures, to variceal bleeding, to Barrett esophagus have focused on which of several methods provides the best long-term response with the fewest interventions. This is a review of the major published studies of endoscopic interventions in the esophagus as well as selected abstracts. The conclusions of these studies and reports of new endoscopic therapies draw a clear map of where nonoperative esophageal therapeutics are headed in the next several years.
Kumaran, Neruban; Moore, Anthony T; Weleber, Richard G; Michaelides, Michel
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD) are both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, and characterised clinically by severe congenital/early infancy visual loss, nystagmus, amaurotic pupils and markedly reduced/absent full-field electroretinograms. The vast genetic heterogeneity of inherited retinal disease has been established over the last 10 - 20 years, with disease-causing variants identified in 25 genes to date associated with LCA/EOSRD, accounting for 70-80% of cases, with thereby more genes yet to be identified. There is now far greater understanding of the structural and functional associations seen in the various LCA/EOSRD genotypes. Subsequent development/characterisation of LCA/EOSRD animal models has shed light on the underlying pathogenesis and allowed the demonstration of successful rescue with gene replacement therapy and pharmacological intervention in multiple models. These advancements have culminated in more than 12 completed, ongoing and anticipated phase I/II and phase III gene therapy and pharmacological human clinical trials. This review describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of LCA/EOSRD and the differential diagnoses to be considered. We discuss in further detail the diagnostic clinical features, pathophysiology, animal models and human treatment studies and trials, in the more common genetic subtypes and/or those closest to intervention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
The Neuronal Group Selection Theory (NGST) could offer new insights into the mechanisms directing motor disorders, such as cerebral palsy and developmental coordination disorder. According to NGST, normal motor development is characterized by two phases of variability. Variation is not at random but determined by criteria set by genetic information. Development starts with the phase of primary variability,during which variation in motor behavior is not geared to external conditions. At function-specific ages secondary variability starts, during which motor performance can be adapted to specific situations. In both forms, of variability, selection on the basis of afferent information plays a significant role. From the NGST point of view, children with pre- or perinatally acquired brain damage, such as children with cerebral palsy and part of the children with developmental coordination disorder, suffer from stereotyped motor behavior, produced by a limited repertoire or primary (sub)cortical neuronal networks. These children also have roblems in selecting the most efficient neuronal activity, due to deficits in the processing of sensory information. Therefore, NGST suggests that intervention in these children at early age should aim at an enlargement of the primary neuronal networks. With increasing age, the emphasis of intervention could shift to the provision of ample opportunities for active practice, which might form a compensation for the impaired selection. PMID:11530887
Patel, Dilip R
Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.
Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John
Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small
Andersen, Susan L.; Navalta, Carryl P.
Our aim is to present a working model that may serve as a valuable heuristic to predict enduring effects of drugs when administered during development. Our primary tenet is that a greater understanding of neurodevelopment can lead to improved treatment that intervenes early in the progression of a given disorder and prevents symptoms from manifesting. The immature brain undergoes significant changes during the transitions between childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Such changes in innervation, neurotransmitter levels, and their respective signaling mechanisms have profound and observable changes on typical behavior, but also increase vulnerability to psychiatric disorders when the maturational process goes awry. Given the remarkable plasticity of the immature brain to adapt to its external milieu, preventive interventions may be possible. We intend for this review to initiate a discussion of how currently used psychotropic agents can influence brain development. Drug exposure during sensitive periods may have beneficial long-term effects, but harmful delayed consequences may be possible as well. Regardless of the outcome, this information needs to be used to improve or develop alternative approaches for the treatment of childhood disorders. With this framework in mind, we present what is known about the effects of stimulants, antidepressants, and antipsychotics on brain maturation (including animal studies that use more clinically-relevant dosing paradigms or relevant animal models). We endeavor to provocatively set the stage for altering treatment approaches for improving mental health in non-adult populations. PMID:21309771
McGorry, Patrick D.
Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380
desensitization and reprocessing ( EMDR ) as a early mental health intervention, following mass violence and disasters, is a treatment of choice over other...village. Military operations take place under the eye of the world and are surrounded by high political attention. International missions far exceed...consistently reduce risks of later post-traumatic stress disorder or related adjustment difficulties. • There is no evidence that eye movement
Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.
This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…
... intervention, however. If you’re concerned about your child’s development, you may contact your local program directly and ... learn, so it’s always of concern when a child’s development seems slow or more difficult than would normally ...
Clements, Douglas H; Sarama, Julie
Preschool and primary grade children have the capacity to learn substantial mathematics, but many children lack opportunities to do so. Too many children not only start behind their more advantaged peers, but also begin a negative trajectory in mathematics. Interventions designed to facilitate their mathematical learning during ages 3 to 5 years have a strong positive effect on these children's lives for many years thereafter.
Nanoparticles have the potential to contribute to new modalities in molecular imaging and sensing as well as in therapeutic interventions. In this Nano Focus article, we identify some of the current challenges and knowledge gaps that need to be confronted to accelerate the developments of various applications. Using specific examples, we journey from the characterization of these complex hybrid nanomaterials; continue with surface design and (bio)physicochemical properties, their fate in biological media and cells, and their potential for cancer treatment; and finally reflect on the role of animal models to predict their behavior in humans. PMID:24641589
Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.
Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Foorman, Barbara
The purpose of this paper is to describe the efficacy of early literacy interventions and to discuss possible roles for volunteer tutors in helping prevent reading difficulties within the Response to Intervention process. First, we describe a landmark study that evaluated the impact of primary classroom instruction on reducing the proportion of students at risk for reading failure, and a more recent series of studies exploring the effects of individualizing classroom reading instruction based on students’ initial skills. Second, we review studies of more intensive early intervention to demonstrate how these interventions substantially reduce the proportion of students at risk. Third, we examine effective tutoring models that utilize volunteers. Finally, we discuss the potential role of community tutors in supporting primary classroom instruction and secondary interventions. PMID:25221452
Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha
Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and
Sawyer, Brook E.; Campbell, Philippa H.
The overarching research aim of this study was to examine learning opportunities available for caregivers during early intervention sessions. Of specific interest were providers' purposeful (i.e., explicit) teaching behaviors and opportunities from which caregivers might learn incidentally. Relations between teaching behaviors, caregiver…
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane
With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…
Bala, John L.; Schwaitzberg, Steven D.
With the debut of antibiotic drug therapy, and as a result of its ease of use and general success in treating infection, drugs have become the treatment of choice for most bacterial infections. However, the advent of multiple, very aggressive drug-resistant bacteria, an increasing population which cannot tolerate drugs, and the high cost of drug therapy suggest that a new modality for treating infections is needed. The complex interplay of clonal spread, persistence, transfer of resistance elements and cell-to-cell interaction all contribute to the difficulty in developing drugs to treat new antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. A dynamic non-drug system, using extant pulsed ultraviolet lightwave technology to kill infection, is being developed to destroy pathogens. This paper theorizes that the shock effect of pulsed xenon's high energy ultraviolet pulses at wavelengths between 250-270nm separates the bacteria's DNA bands, and, subsequently, destroys them. Preliminary laboratory tests have demonstrated the ability of the technology to destroy Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella punemonia, Bacillus subtillis, and Aspergillus fumigates at penetration depths of greater than 3mm in fluids with 100% effectiveness in less than five seconds of exposure to pulsed xenon lightwaves. Micro Invasive Technology, Inc is developing .pulsed xenon therapeutic catheters and endoscopic instruments for internal antimicrobial eradication and topographical devices for prophylactic wound, burn and surgical entrance/exit site sterilization. Pulsed Xenon light sources have a broad optical spectrum (190-1200nm), and can generate light pulses with sufficient energy for combined imaging and therapeutic intervention by multiplexing a fiber optic pathway into the body. In addition, Pulsed Xenon has proven ability to activate photo reactive dyes; share endoscopic lightguides with lasers while, simultaneously
Skinner, Harvey A.; Holt, Stephen
Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in clinical practice. There is increasing evidence that problem drinking can be successfully treated by brief intervention. The general practitioner is in a good position to identify patients who drink excessively, and to intervene with brief counselling at an early stage when prognosis is more favourable. A practical strategy is described for diagnosis and intervention that could be readily implemented in clinical practice. PMID:6361249
Andersen, Susan L.; Navalta, Carryl P.
Our aim is to present a working model that may serve as a valuable heuristic to predict enduring effects of drugs when administered during development. Our primary tenet is that a greater understanding of neurodevelopment can lead to improved treatment that intervenes early in the progression of a given disorder and prevents symptoms from…
Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at present it is unknown whether early intervention is…
Jeffreys, JoAnn; Spang, Joan
This action research outlines an early reading intervention project for improving students' reading skills and promoting the implementation of early reading intervention programs. The targeted population includes first and second grade students in one school located in the suburbs of a major city in Illinois. The problem of early reading…
Atkinson, Cathy; Squires, Garry; Bragg, Joanna; Wasilewski, David; Muscutt, Janet
This project follows a survey into the role of UK educational psychologists (EPs) in delivering therapeutic interventions to children and young people. Four educational psychology services (EPSs) that identified themselves as providing effective therapeutic practice were selected on the basis of their qualitative responses to the survey. Site…
Spillios, James; Janzen, Henry L.
The need for training counselors specifically for intervention with the physically handicapped is the major focus of this article. Definitions of disabilities, rehabilitation and emotional factors are stressed as important variables in physical and psychotherapeutic treatment. The authors review some of the psychological aspects in counseling the…
Kelly, Cynthia W
To present a new nursing intervention category called therapeutic enhancement. Fewer than half of North Americans follow their physician's recommendations for diet and exercise, even when such are crucial to their health or recovery. It is imperative that nurses consider new ways to promote healthy behaviours. Therapeutic enhancement is intended to provide such a fresh approach. Traditional intervention techniques focusing on education, contracts, social support and more frequent interaction with physicians appear not to be effective when used alone. Successful strategies have been multidisciplinary; and have included interventions by professional nurses who assist patients to understand their disease and the disease process and that helps them to develop disease-management and self-management skills. Therapeutic enhancement incorporates The Stages of Change Theory, Commitment to Health Theory, Motivational Interviewing techniques and instrumentation specifically designed for process evaluation of health-promoting interventions. This is a critical review of approaches that, heretofore, have not been synthesised in a single published article. Based on the commonly used Stages of Change model, therapeutic enhancement is useful for patients who are at the action stage of change. Using therapeutic enhancement as well as therapeutic strategies identified in Stages of Change Theory, such as contingency management, helping relationships, counterconditioning, stimulus control and Motivational Interviewing techniques, nursing professionals can significantly increase the chances of patients moving from action to the maintenance stage of change for a specific health behaviour. Using the nursing intervention category, therapeutic enhancement can increase caregivers' success in helping patients maintain healthy behaviours.
The ethical issues surrounding early intervention services to young children with disabilities are discussed. The conflict between parental autonomy and paternalistic interventions is evaluated. Value-based intervention decisions, such as parent choice of alternative therapies, refusal of services, and family-centered versus child-centered care,…
Non syndromic forms of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) constitute a collection of clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited retinal degenerative diseases. They are characterized by a bilateral progressive visual loss susceptible to cause blindness. These diseases are transmitted through pedigrees according to all known modes of inheritance. They are bilateral and usually start during infancy. However, very early clinical presentations exist, such as those observed in children affected by Leber Congenital Amaurosis, as well as late onset autosomal dominant forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The characteristic clinical aspect of the rod-cone RP dystrophies is marked by alterations of the peripheral retina associated with a night blindness and a progressive narrowing of the visual field. The ophthalmoscopic examination of RP patients commonly reveals thin retinal arteries and scattered pigmentary accumulations. In contrast, there are cone rod retinal dystrophies whose onset is marked by a decreased visual acuity before the appearance of any visual field alteration. Some forms of RPs display an ocular fundus devoid of any pigmentary alteration. Syndromic forms of RPs are not uncommon. The association of deafness with RP is detected in nearly 30% of the patients. Other associations with RP can include mental deficiency, facial dysmorphy, microcephaly, obesity, kidney deficiency, immune deficiencies, metabolic disorders. The existence of such syndromic forms of RP localizes RPs at the crossroad of several medical specialties. A long lasting collaboration between our department of ophthalmology and the department of medical genetics of the Necker-Sick Children Hospital has allowed us to establish numerous genotype-phenotype correlations, especially in LCA and Stargardt's disease. ABCR gene mutations cause Stargardt disease. ABCR mutations may also cause some types of Ages Related Macular Degenerations (AMD). Nowadays, there is no known efficient therapy available for
Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd
State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…
Kuhn, Miriam; Marvin, Christine A.
Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 requires early intervention teams craft individualized and effective plans to meet the needs of young children with special needs and their families (Küpper, 2012). Many early intervention teams, however, may struggle to follow a process that results in…
This review of the literature on early childhood intervention with special needs children provides a Canadian perspective on theory, models, program development, effects, and training. After an introductory chapter, the second chapter identifies theoretical influences on early childhood intervention, including the work of Piaget, Bronfenbrenner,…
Zack, Chad J; Nishimura, Rick A
Isolated tricuspid regurgitation (TR) can be caused by primary valvular abnormalities such as flail leaflet or secondary annular dilation as is seen in atrial fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension and left heart disease. There is an increasing recognition of a subgroup of patients with isolated TR in the absence of other associated cardiac abnormalities. Left untreated isolated TR significantly worsens survival. Stand-alone surgery for isolated TR is rarely performed due to an average operative mortality of 8%–10% and a paucity of data demonstrating improved survival. When surgery is performed, valve repair may be preferred over replacement; however, there is a risk of significant recurrent regurgitation after repair. Existing society guidelines do not fully address the management of isolated TR. We propose that patients at low operative risk with symptomatic severe isolated TR and no reversible cause undergo surgery prior to the onset of right ventricular dysfunction and end-organ damage. For patients at increased surgical risk novel percutaneous interventions may offer an alternative treatment but further research is needed. Significant knowledge gaps remain and future research is needed to define operative outcomes and provide comparative data for medical and surgical therapy. PMID:29229649
Siersema, Peter D
This article reviews the most notable results of esophageal interventions for dysphagia and bleeding published in 2005. Long-term rubber tube placement was shown to be an interesting treatment option for difficult esophageal strictures. Two studies demonstrated that only 50% of patients who had undergone pneumatic dilation for achalasia were dysphagia-free after long-term follow-up. It was shown that patients with dysphagia from esophageal cancer should be treated by intraluminal radiotherapy (brachytherapy), whereas stent placement was preferable in those with a poor prognosis. Temporary stent placement is an option in patients undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable esophageal cancer to increase the dysphagia-free period. Two studies were published on the successful use of silicone-covered plastic stents for sealing of leaks after surgery of the esophagus. The optimal treatment for bleeding varices was confirmed to be endoscopic band ligation. A meta-analysis demonstrated that adding sclerotherapy to band ligation for secondary prophylaxis of bleeding varices had no effect on clinical outcome. In 2005, new techniques for the treatment of complicated strictures were presented. In addition, expanding indications for stents were reported. Finally, endoscopic band ligation was confirmed to be the most optimal technique for the treatment of varices.
Zigler, Edward; Berman, Winnie
Examines the recent history of early childhood intervention efforts; discusses principles that guided the formation of intervention programs in the 1960s and 1970s; describes the Head Start program and lessons learned from its development; considers issues in evaluating intervention programs; and presents suggestions for future directions in early…
van der Pol, Jochem; Vöö, Stefan; Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix M
Radiopharmaceutical extravasation can potentially lead to severe soft tissue damage, but little is known about incidence, medical consequences, possible interventions, and effectiveness of these. The aims of this study are to estimate the incidence of extravasation of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, to evaluate medical consequences, and to evaluate medical treatment applied subsequently to those incidents. A sensitive and elaborate literature search was performed in Embase and PubMed using the keywords "misadministration", "extravasation", "paravascular infiltration", combined with "tracer", "radionuclide", "radiopharmaceutical", and a list of keywords referring to clinically used tracers (i.e. "Technetium-99m", "Yttrium-90"). Reported data on radiopharmaceutical extravasation and applied interventions was extracted and summarised. Thirty-seven publications reported 3016 cases of diagnostic radiopharmaceutical extravasation, of which three cases reported symptoms after extravasation. Eight publications reported 10 cases of therapeutic tracer extravasation. The most severe symptom was ulceration. Thirty-four different intervention and prevention strategies were performed or proposed in literature. Extravasation of diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals is common. 99m Tc, 123 I, 18 F, and 68 Ga labelled tracers do not require specific intervention. Extravasation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can give severe soft tissue lesions. Although not evidence based, surgical intervention should be considered. Furthermore, dispersive intervention, dosimetry and follow up is advised. Pharmaceutical intervention has no place yet in the immediate care of radiopharmaceutical extravasation.
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
Smallwood, Heather S.; Duan, Susu; Morfouace, Marie; ...
Influenza is a worldwide health and financial burden posing a significant risk to the immune-compromised, obese, diabetic, elderly, and pediatric populations. We identified increases in glucose metabolism in the lungs of pediatric patients infected with respiratory pathogens. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found metabolic changes occurring after influenza infection in primary human respiratory cells and validated infection-associated increases in c-Myc, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. We confirmed these findings with a metabolic drug screen that identified the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a regulator of infectious virus production. BEZ235 treatment ablated the transient induction of c-Myc, restored PI3K/mTOR pathway homeostasis measured by 4E-BP1more » and p85 phosphorylation, and reversed infection-induced changes in metabolism. Importantly, BEZ235 reduced infectious progeny but had no effect on the early stages of viral replication. BEZ235 significantly increased survival in mice, while reducing viral titer. We show metabolic reprogramming of host cells by influenza virus exposes targets for therapeutic intervention.« less
Smallwood, Heather S.; Duan, Susu; Morfouace, Marie
Influenza is a worldwide health and financial burden posing a significant risk to the immune-compromised, obese, diabetic, elderly, and pediatric populations. We identified increases in glucose metabolism in the lungs of pediatric patients infected with respiratory pathogens. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found metabolic changes occurring after influenza infection in primary human respiratory cells and validated infection-associated increases in c-Myc, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. We confirmed these findings with a metabolic drug screen that identified the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a regulator of infectious virus production. BEZ235 treatment ablated the transient induction of c-Myc, restored PI3K/mTOR pathway homeostasis measured by 4E-BP1more » and p85 phosphorylation, and reversed infection-induced changes in metabolism. Importantly, BEZ235 reduced infectious progeny but had no effect on the early stages of viral replication. BEZ235 significantly increased survival in mice, while reducing viral titer. We show metabolic reprogramming of host cells by influenza virus exposes targets for therapeutic intervention.« less
Stern, Francine Martin; Gorga, Delia
Use of neurodevelopmental treatment, also known as the Bobath method, is discussed, including its history, philosophy, goals, and treatment emphasis with infants and children with movement disorders. Examples of children before and after therapeutic intervention illustrate use of the technique, and controversies in measuring therapy efficacy are…
Boyer, Valerie E.; Fullman, Leah I.; Bruns, Deborah A.
Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), the most common microdeletion syndrome, is increasingly diagnosed in young children because of advances in diagnostic testing. The result is an increase in the number of young children with VCFS referred for early intervention (EI) services. We describe early development of children with VCFS and strategies to…
Norris-Shortle, Carole; Melley, Alison H.; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric; Cosgrove, Kim; Leviton, Audrey
PACT: Helping Children with Special Needs, an affiliate of the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, operates a therapeutic nursery that serves families who have at least one child from birth to 3 years of age, and who are living in a Baltimore City homeless shelter. In partnership with the Martin Luther King Early Head Start Program…
Bailey, Pamela W.; Trohanis, Pascal L.
The document contains summaries of over 50 publicly available publications which support the case for early intervention for handicapped children and their families. Section 1 contains studies pertaining to the effectiveness of any intervention. This section also describes projects approved by the United States Department of Education's Joint…
Slaughter, Diana T.
The purposes of this longitudinal study of early intervention with 83 black mother-child dyads were (a) to test the thesis that sociocultural transmission influences childhood development in educationally significant ways, and (b) to describe the process through which such transmission can occur. Two social intervention programs were contrasted;…
Geoffray, Marie-Maude; Thevenet, Marion; Georgieff, Nicolas
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental trouble which prevents the child from socio-communicative interaction, and learning from his environment. Non-medical early intervention attempts to improve prognosis. We will review the main current hypothesis, intervention models and scientific supports about early intervention. We conducted a search of the literature published on Medline between 2010 and 2015 related to intervention models provided to children with ASD aged less than 3 years. Data were extracted from systematic reviews and recent randomized controlled trials with moderate to high GRADE quality of evidence. Early intervention refers to brain plasticity theory. With the epidemiological studies of infant "at risk" there is an attempt to intervene earlier before full syndrome is present. Interventions tend to follow more on a developmental hierarchy of socio-communicative skills and to focus on the dyadic relation between the child and the caregivers to improve the core autistic symptoms. Over the last 6 years, there's been news and fine-tuned ways about early intervention, and more and more systematic evaluation. However, there are only few interventions which were evaluated in trial with a strong GRADE recommendation and all of them have methodological concerns. It is important to be cautious in recommendations for mental health politic, even if it is important to improve access to services for all children and their families, hence finance and design rigorous project in research.
In late 2005, individuals from across the country traveled to attend the national Office of Special Education Conference on Early Childhood in Washington, DC. Connected by networking at the conference, a group of parents with children with special needs left committed to collaboratively formulate a plan to create a family-centered and…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
"Early Risers" is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children's emotional and behavioral…
As the preschool and early years of schooling were becoming the focus of increasing attention, the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department commissioned a review of United Kingdom and international literature on the use of early intervention schemes for disadvantaged students. The resulting review presents evidence on the most appropriate…
This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed
Page, Phil; Hoogenboom, Barb; Voight, Michael
The foundation of evidence-based practice lies in clinical research, which is based on the utilization of the scientific method. The scientific method requires that all details of the experiment be provided in publications to support replication of the study in order to evaluate and validate the results. More importantly, clinical research can only be translated into practice when researchers provide explicit details of the study. Too often, rehabilitation exercise intervention studies lack the appropriate detail to allow clinicians to replicate the exercise protocol in their patient populations. Therefore, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide guidelines for optimal reporting of therapeutic exercise interventions in rehabilitation research. 5.
van den Berg, René; Mayer, Thomas E
A web-based survey was performed among the members of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology to determine the differences in availability, pricing, and performance of endovascular devices with special focus on coils, intra-arterial stroke devices, detachable balloons, and liquid embolic materials. The results of this survey show that the quality of the majority of interventional neuroradiology devices is good and compatibility issues are limited. Individual action towards suppliers is recommended to discuss the availability and pricing of devices and embolization materials. © The Author(s) 2015.
Casey, Amanda Faith; Quenneville-Himbeault, Gabriel; Normore, Alexa; Davis, Hanna; Martell, Stephen G
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a highly structured therapeutic skating intervention on motor outcomes and functional capacity in 2 boys with autism spectrum disorder aged 7 and 10 years. This multiple-baseline, single-subject study assigned participants to three 1-hour skating sessions per week for 12 weeks focusing on skill and motor development. Multiple data points assessed (a) fidelity to the intervention and (b) outcomes measures including the Pediatric Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go, floor to stand, Six-Minute Walk Test, goal attainment, and weekly on-ice testing. Improvements were found in balance, motor behavior, and functional capacity by posttest with gains remaining above pretest levels at follow-up. Therapeutic skating may produce physical benefits for children with autism spectrum disorder and offer a viable, inexpensive community-based alternative to other forms of physical activity.
Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.
Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, p<0.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception. (Spearman r=−0.075, p=0.329). Dispositional optimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (p<0.0001) were independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017
Revelj, Elizabeth O.
In response to a research review indicating that few programs address the father's role in early intervention and preschool programs for the young exceptional child, a three-month practicum was designed which included fathers in physical therapy sessions and in daily home exercise programming for their developmentally disabled children. Practicum…
Ray, David M; Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Vilmann, Peter; McCowan, Timothy C; Patel, Akash M
Acute upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, enteral feeding, cecostomy tubes and luminal strictures are some of the common reasons for gastroenterology service. While surgery was initially considered the main treatment modality, the advent of both therapeutic endoscopy and interventional radiology have resulted in the paradigm shift in the management of these conditions. In this paper, we discuss the patient’s work up, indications, and complementary roles of endoscopic and angiographic management in the settings of gastrointestinal bleeding, enteral feeding, cecostomy tube placement and luminal strictures. These conditions often require multidisciplinary approaches involving a team of interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists and surgeons. Further, the authors also aim to describe how the fields of interventional radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are overlapping and complementary in the management of these complex conditions. PMID:28396724
Šago, Daniela; Filipčić, Igor; Lovretić, Vanja; Mayer, Nina
In long-term outcome studies on individuals with first-episode psychosis, improved remission and recovery rates perhaps reflect the improved treatment in dedicated early intervention program. The first episode is a critical period in which individuals with psychosis, as well as members of their families, are confronted with the illness for the first time. Until nowadays, treatment of first psychotic episodes in Croatia has usually been provided in hospital setting. The day hospital provides comprehensive therapeutic approach that refers to early systematic application of all available and effective therapeutic methods in the initial phases of psychotic disorders, and aims to attain and maintain remission and recovery, as well as insight and adherence to treatment. The day hospital is a time-limited structured program that comprises diagnostic procedures, treatment and rehabilitation based on various group psychotherapy and socio-therapy approaches. It is cheaper than hospital treatment and preferred by patients and their families. The importance of involving family members along with patients in the therapeutic process is recognized. The aim of this paper is to present the first day hospital for early intervention and treatment of individuals with psychotic disorder, established within Psychiatric hospital "Sveti Ivan", Zagreb, Croatia.
Shukla, Prashant; Rao, G Madhava; Pandey, Gitu; Sharma, Shweta; Mittapelly, Naresh; Shegokar, Ranjita; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome characterized by a multisystem response to a pathogenic assault due to underlying infection that involves a combination of interconnected biochemical, cellular and organ–organ interactive networks. After the withdrawal of recombinant human-activated protein C (rAPC), researchers and physicians have continued to search for new therapeutic approaches and targets against sepsis, effective in both hypo- and hyperinflammatory states. Currently, statins are being evaluated as a viable option in clinical trials. Many agents that have shown favourable results in experimental sepsis are not clinically effective or have not been clinically evaluated. Apart from developing new therapeutic molecules, there is great scope for for developing a variety of drug delivery strategies, such as nanoparticulate carriers and phospholipid-based systems. These nanoparticulate carriers neutralize intracorporeal LPS as well as deliver therapeutic agents to targeted tissues and subcellular locations. Here, we review and critically discuss the present status and new experimental and clinical approaches for therapeutic intervention in sepsis. PMID:24977655
Wadsworth, Donna E. Dugger; Wartelle, Noah L.
Prior to the 1986 passage of PL 99-457, an extension of the special services coverage under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, early intervention programs were primarily interventionist directed and child focused. The new legislation provided incentives for providing programs that were family-centered and family-driven. The goal of…
Dinnebeil, Laurie A.
This response to Mahoney et al. (EC 623 392) offers a definition of parent education and discusses the importance of identifying intended outcomes and providing effective educational opportunities. Two models of parent education in early intervention are described: Parents Interacting with Infants and the Individualized Support Project. Some…
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela
Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…
Wade, Darryl; Johnston, Amy; Campbell, Bronwyn; Littlefield, Lyn
Mental and substance use disorders are leading contributors to the burden of disease among young people in Australia, but young people experience a range of barriers to accessing appropriate treatment for their mental health concerns. The development of early intervention services that provide accessible and effective mental health care has the…
O'Connor, Michelle; Fleischmann, Charles; Kenner, Emily; McCobin, Allison; McGoey, Kara
In the area of early childhood gifted education and effective interventions for young children identified as intellectually gifted, there appears to be a persistent lack of research. There is also very little research on the characteristics and social-emotional development of young gifted children, particularly those of preschool age. The small…
Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
Mitchell, Kevin, Ed.
"The ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This issue focuses on early intervention and its role in making higher education accessible to all students, especially those who are traditionally underrepresented or at risk. An introductory section contains one article,…
Wolfe, David A.
A longitudinal study was made of a prevention-oriented early intervention program intended to help parents who had insufficient and inappropriate childrearing abilities. The program was designed for young parents with fewer than 5 years of childrearing experience; participants were referred from a child protection agency following investigation of…
Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.
This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is intended to apply to all types of service and support program models for children (birth to age 5) with various developmental delays and/or disabilities. The measures are appropriate for either home-based or center-based service delivery models. Section 1…
Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the introduction in several countries of universal neonatal hearing screening programs has changed the landscape of education for deaf children. Due to the increasing provision of early intervention services for children identified with hearing loss, public education for deaf children often starts…
Lu, Lucia Y.
Clay's Reading Recovery has been one of the most effective one-to-one tutorial sessions. To make the daily lesson more interesting and fully engage the at-risk readers, the author modified Clay's Reading Recovery Program by conceptualizing phonics and semiotics into early intervention. In this case study, three at-risk first graders formed an…
Margalit, M.; Kleitman, T.
The aim of the study was to examine factors that predict maternal stress, reported by mothers whose infants were diagnosed as having developmental disabilities at the beginning of participating in an early intervention programme "Me and My Mommy" and after one year. A second goal was to identify and to portray a subgroup of resilient…
Kearns, Megan C.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Zatzick, Doug; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov
The high prevalence of trauma exposure and subsequent negative consequences for both survivors and society as a whole emphasize the need for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder. However, clinicians and relief workers remain limited in their ability to intervene effectively in the aftermath of trauma and alleviate traumatic stress reactions that can lead to chronic PTSD. The scientific literature on early intervention for PTSD is reviewed, including early studies on psychological debriefing, pharmacological, and psychosocial interventions aimed at preventing chronic PTSD. Studies on fear extinction and memory consolidation are discussed in relation to PTSD prevention and the potential importance of immediate versus delayed intervention approaches and genetic predictors are briefly reviewed. Preliminary results from a modified prolonged exposure intervention applied within hours of trauma exposure in an emergency room setting are discussed, along with considerations related to intervention reach and overall population impact. Suggestions for future research are included. Prevention of PTSD, although currently not yet a reality, remains an exciting and hopeful possibility with current research approaches translating work from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:22941845
Ma, Yun-Zhi; Zhai, Hong-Yin; Su, Chun-Ya
To observe the therapeutic effect of hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs (HT-C) in early intervention on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). HIE children were assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 50 in each, at random depending on the willingness of patients' parents. Both groups received the conventional functional training, according to the "0 -3-year-old early intervention outline", but for the treatment group, HT-C was applied additionally. Indexes for quality of sleep, gross motor function, severity of spasm and intellectual development were observed and compared before and after treatment to assess the therapeutic effects. Therapeutic effect in the treatment group was better than that in the control group in all the indexes observed, showing statistical significance (all P <0.05). Early intervention of HT-C could improve clinical symptom, promote the functional recovery and intellectual development in children HIE, and also could reduce or prevent the sequelae occurrence of the nervous system in them.
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...
Amendum, Steven J.
The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…
Limacher, Lori Houger; Wright, Lorraine M
Offered in this article are interpretations that emerged in a qualitative, interpretive study focused on the family intervention called a "commendation." The tradition of philosophical hermeneutics informs and shapes the analysis of the data. Research participants include a heterosexual couple and a nurse who engaged in therapeutic conversations focused on difficulties with Internet pornography. Data sources include videotapes of clinical sessions, documentation, and research interviews. Isolated segments of clinical videotape are shared with the couple to prompt their memory of commending practices that emerged in clinical sessions. Commendations are not experienced by this couple as gentle and warm but instead as extremely provocative, albeit constructive. This study illuminates the complex, contextual nature of commending practice and suggests that the noticing of strengths and resources contains much more than the spoken word.
Young, Susan; Greer, Ben; Church, Richard
This review considers juvenile delinquency and justice from an international perspective. Youth crime is a growing concern. Many young offenders are also victims with complex needs, leading to a public health approach that requires a balance of welfare and justice models. However, around the world there are variable and inadequate legal frameworks and a lack of a specialist workforce. The UK and other high-income countries worldwide have established forensic child and adolescent psychiatry, a multifaceted discipline incorporating legal, psychiatric and developmental fields. Its adoption of an evidence-based therapeutic intervention philosophy has been associated with greater reductions in recidivism compared with punitive approaches prevalent in some countries worldwide, and it is therefore a superior approach to dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency. PMID:28184313
Young, Susan; Greer, Ben; Church, Richard
This review considers juvenile delinquency and justice from an international perspective. Youth crime is a growing concern. Many young offenders are also victims with complex needs, leading to a public health approach that requires a balance of welfare and justice models. However, around the world there are variable and inadequate legal frameworks and a lack of a specialist workforce. The UK and other high-income countries worldwide have established forensic child and adolescent psychiatry, a multifaceted discipline incorporating legal, psychiatric and developmental fields. Its adoption of an evidence-based therapeutic intervention philosophy has been associated with greater reductions in recidivism compared with punitive approaches prevalent in some countries worldwide, and it is therefore a superior approach to dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency.
van der Steen, Jenny T; van Soest-Poortvliet, Mirjam C; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Bruinsma, Manon S; Scholten, Rob Jpm; Vink, Annemiek C
Dementia is a clinical syndrome with a number of different causes which is characterised by deterioration in cognitive, behavioural, social and emotional functions. Pharmacological interventions are available but have limited effect to treat many of the syndrome's features. Less research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments. In this review, we examined the evidence for effects of music-based interventions as a treatment. To assess the effects of music-based therapeutic interventions for people with dementia on emotional well-being including quality of life, mood disturbance or negative affect, behavioural problems, social behaviour, and cognition at the end of therapy and four or more weeks after the end of treatment. We searched ALOIS, the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG) on 14 April 2010 using the terms: music therapy, music, singing, sing, auditory stimulation. Additional searches were also carried out on 3 July 2015 in the major healthcare databases MEDLINE, Embase, psycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS; and in trial registers and grey literature sources. On 12 April 2016, we searched the major databases for new studies for future evaluation. We included randomized controlled trials of music-based therapeutic interventions (at least five sessions) for people with dementia that measured any of our outcomes of interest. Control groups either received usual care or other activities. Two reviewers worked independently to screen the retrieved studies against the inclusion criteria and then to extract data and assess methodological quality of the included studies. If necessary, we contacted trial authors to ask for additional data, including relevant subscales, or for other missing information. We pooled data using random-effects models. We included 17 studies. Sixteen studies with a total of 620 participants contributed data to meta-analyses. Participants in the studies had dementia of varying degrees of
Atkinson, Cathy; Corban, Ian; Templeton, Jenny
This article considers the evolving role of the educational psychologist (EP) in providing therapeutic support to children and young people. Through two small-scale research studies, EPs' use of therapeutic interventions and issues in delivering them are explored. Findings reveal use of a range of therapeutic interventions in different contexts…
Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gunnar, Megan R.; Burraston, Bert O.
Atypical diurnal patterns of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity have been observed samples of individuals following early life adversity. A characteristic pattern arising from disrupted caregiving is a low early morning cortisol level that changes little from morning to evening. Less well understood is the plasticity of the HPA axis in response to subsequent supportive caregiving environments. Monthly early morning and evening cortisol levels were assessed over 12 months in a sample of 3- to 6-year-old foster children enrolled in a randomized trial of a family-based therapeutic intervention (N = 117; intervention condition n = 57; regular foster care condition n = 60), and a community comparison group of same-aged, nonmaltreated children from low-income families (n = 60). Latent growth analyses revealed stable and typical diurnal (morning-to-evening) cortisol activity among community comparison children. Foster children in the intervention condition exhibited cortisol activity that became comparable to the comparison group children over the course of the study. In contrast, children in regular foster care condition exhibited increasingly flattened morning-to-evening cortisol activity over the course of the study. In sum, improvements in caregiving following early adversity appear to have the potential to reverse or prevent disruptions in HPA axis functioning. PMID:17656028
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Availability of early intervention services. 303.112... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.112 Availability of early intervention services...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention service provider. 303.12 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.12 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of early intervention services. 303.112... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.112 Availability of early intervention services...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention service provider. 303.12 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.12 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of early intervention services. 303.112... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.112 Availability of early intervention services...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention service provider. 303.12 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.12 Early intervention service...
Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon
The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Di Giusto, M; Lazzari, R; Giorgetti, T; Paesano, R; Pachi, A
The early discovery of a fetal pathology creates a "crisis" situation fraught with psychic problems for the couple who must live through it. The Authors observed a group of patients in the second trimester of pregnancy. They had all requested therapeutic abortion since serious malformation of the fetus had been confirmed. By means of a questionnaire constructed for the purpose, certain characteristics of fetal malformation and of pregnancy were evidenced, as well as the way these were experienced by the patients. The immediate and delayed reactions to the diagnosis of malformation were also studied, as was the experience lived when faced with the choice of abortion.
Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Srihari, Vinod H.; Pollard, Jessica M.; Addington, Donald N.; Woods, Scott W.
Aim The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. Methods We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Results Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches (‘pick-a-point’ and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Conclusion Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness. PMID:20536970
Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Srihari, Vinod H; Pollard, Jessica M; Addington, Donald N; Woods, Scott W
The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches ('pick-a-point' and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness.
Straja, D; Marincaş, M; Alecu, M; Boroghina, G; Simion, L; Stanescu, A; Drilea, E; Brătucu, E
The aim of this paper is to identify the early and late implications of JPDD for biliary pathology, as well as for endoscopic therapy and classical surgery dealing mainly with lithiasis. This paper is based on a retrospective study comprising a number of 675 ERCP performed on 601 patients between 1997-2007, out of which 399 cases were followed by therapeutic measures. A total of 79 procedures were performed on 65 cases with JPDD. The main criteria were: gender, age, indications regarding the performance of ERCP+/-ES, complications that occurred while carrying out these procedures. In all the cases examined (601) the percentage of JPDD reported was of 10.81%. The rate of complications in the sphincterotomized patients without JPDD was 5.75% and the rate in the sphincterotomized patients with JPDD was 14.89%. In conclusion, the paper discusses the clinical and therapeutic implications of JPDD in biliary pathology. It has been found that JPDD is an important etiological cause for the late diseases occurring after cholelithiasis surgery. JPDD also leads to immediate therapeutic implications such as: difficult cannulation and high incidence of ERCP+/-ES complications.
Solomonov, Nili; McCarthy, Kevin S; Gorman, Bernard S; Barber, Jacques P
To develop a brief version of the Multitheoretical List of Therapeutic Interventions (MULTI-60) in order to decrease completion time burden by approximately half, while maintaining content coverage. Study 1 aimed to select 30 items. Study 2 aimed to examine the reliability and internal consistency of the MULTI-30. Study 3 aimed to validate the MULTI-30 and ensure content coverage. In Study 1, the sample included 186 therapist and 255 patient MULTI ratings, and 164 ratings of sessions coded by trained observers. Internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega) was calculated and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. Psychotherapy experts rated content relevance. Study 2 included a sample of 644 patient and 522 therapist ratings, and 793 codings of psychotherapy sessions. In Study 3, the sample included 33 codings of sessions. A series of regression analyses was conducted to examine replication of previously published findings using the MULTI-30. The MULTI-30 was found valid, reliable, and internally consistent across 2564 ratings examined across the three studies presented. The MULTI-30 a brief and reliable process measure. Future studies are required for further validation.
Sha, Su-Hua; Schacht, Jochen
Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) due to industrial, military, and recreational noise exposure is a major, but also potentially preventable cause of acquired hearing loss. For the United States it is estimated that 26 million people (15% of the population) between the ages of 20 and 69 have a high-frequency NIHL at a detriment to the quality of life of the affected individuals and great economic cost to society. Areas covered This review outlines the pathology and pathophysiology of hearing loss as seen in humans and animal models. Results from molecular studies are presented that have provided the basis for therapeutic strategies successfully applied to animals. Several compounds emerging from these studies (mostly antioxidants) are now being tested in field trials. Expert opinion Although no clinically applicable intervention has been approved yet, recent trials are encouraging. In order to maximize protective therapies, future work needs to apply stringent criteria for noise exposure and outcome parameters. Attention needs to be paid not only to permanent NIHL due to death of sensory cells but also to temporary effects that may show delayed consequences. Existing results combined with the search for efficacious new therapies should establish a viable treatment within a decade. PMID:27918210
Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J.; Must, Aviva
Purpose of review Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Recent findings Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Summary Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible. PMID:28455678
Mercieca, Daniela; Mercieca, Duncan P.
Early intervention comes in-between the lives of children, families and teachers. This article uses part of a report written by an educational psychologist about a little girl to question the nature of intervention through Rancière's writings. As children and parents are seen as put into the position of inadequacy, they require such…
Pieterse, Moira, Ed.; And Others
A collection of papers on the Australian experience with early intervention for children with disabilities gives regional overviews, describes specific intervention programs, and discusses a variety of issues. Overviews are given of early intervention in Australia in general, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western…
Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H
The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.
Galbán, C. J.; Hoff, B. A.; Chenevert, T. L.; Ross, B. D.
Imaging biomarkers for the predictive assessment of treatment response in patients with cancer earlier than standard tumor volumetric metrics would provide new opportunities to individualize therapy. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI), highly sensitive to microenvironmental alterations at the cellular level, has been evaluated extensively as a technique for the generation of quantitative and early imaging biomarkers of therapeutic response and clinical outcome. First demonstrated in a rodent tumor model, subsequent studies have shown that DW-MRI can be applied to many different solid tumors for the detection of changes in cellularity as measured indirectly by an increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water molecules within the lesion. The introduction of quantitative DW-MRI into the treatment management of patients with cancer may aid physicians to individualize therapy, thereby minimizing unnecessary systemic toxicity associated with ineffective therapies, saving valuable time, reducing patient care costs and ultimately improving clinical outcome. This review covers the theoretical basis behind the application of DW-MRI to monitor therapeutic response in cancer, the analytical techniques used and the results obtained from various clinical studies that have demonstrated the efficacy of DW-MRI for the prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:26773848
McWilliam, R. A.
Identifies characteristics (such as cure claims, practitioner specialization, and questionable research) of controversial practices in early intervention. Evaluates 13 such practices grouped into medical, educational, and therapeutic categories and suggests reasons that professionals and parents adopt such practices. Suggestions for the field…
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Early intervention approaches have rarely been implemented for the prevention of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this paper we explore whether such an approach may represent an important new direction for therapeutic innovation. We propose that such an approach is most likely to be of value when grounded in and informed by…
Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S
This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.
Early Intervention; Child of Impaired Parents; Child; Adolescent; Mental Disorders, Severe; Schizophrenia; Bipolar Disorder; Depressive Disorder, Recurrent; Psychotic Disorders; Parent-Child Relations
Clarke, Joanna I; Dear, James W; Antoine, Daniel J
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) represents a serious medical challenge and a potentially fatal adverse event. Currently, DILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, and whilst the electronic evaluation of serious drug-induced hepatotoxicity (eDISH) have revolutionised the early assessment of DILI, this model is dependent upon clinical chemistry parameters that lack sensitivity and specificity. DILI management usually consists of initial withdrawal of the suspected drug and, in the case of acetaminophen, administration of specific therapy. We summarise recent advances and knowledge gaps in the development and qualification of novel DILI biomarkers and therapeutic interventions. Promising biomarkers have been identified that provide increased hepatic specificity (miR-122), mechanistic insight (Keratin-18), and prognostic information (HMGB1, KIM-1, CSF-1). Pharmacogenomics holds potential to preselect susceptible populations and tailor drug therapy. Biomarkers can uncover new mechanisms of drug-induced pathophysiology which, for HMGB1 and CSF-1, have led to promising mechanism-based therapeutic interventions. However, these biomarkers have not been formally qualified and are not in routine clinical use. With the development of inventive clinical trials and by maximising DILI data registries, these novel biomarkers could add substantial value to the current armoury, change the management of DILI in the near future and improve patient safety.
Nabel, Elisa M.; Morishita, Hirofumi
Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development – the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity-actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins – endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24273519
Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen
Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…
Hernandez-Melis, Claudia; Fenning, Pamela; Lawrence, Elizabeth
The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of an alternative to suspension intervention on students' subsequent major referrals. The intervention included activities designed to teach social coping strategies as well as mediation to resolve interpersonal conflicts. The intervention was implemented in a therapeutic high school, and…
This report provides a description of a national consultation that was undertaken in 2001-2002 to provide feedback on two companion national policy documents: "National Action Plan for Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health 2000" and "Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: A…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
Hu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xijie
Early intervention services to young children with developmental delays in China have experienced significant growth since 1978, the beginning of the period of Reform and Opening. This article described the present situation of early intervention practices in mainland China, framed around the key components and guiding principles of Guralnick's…
Scarborough, Anita A.; Spiker, Donna; Mallik, Sangeeta; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Bailey Jr., Donald B.; Simeonsson, Rune J.
The National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS) is the first study of Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) early intervention system with a nationally representative sample of infants and toddlers with disabilities. This article presents national estimates of characteristics of infants and toddlers and their…
This study documents the wide range of early intervention services across the province of Ontario. The services are mapped across the province showing geographic information as well as the scope of services (clinical, family-based, resource support, etc.), the range of early intervention professionals, sources of funding and the populations served…
McWilliam, Robin; Tocci, Lynn; Sideris, John; Harbin, Gloria
A case study approach was used to examine the complexities of service utilization in early intervention with infants, toddlers, and young children with disabilities. Seventy-two families of children (ages birth to 4) participating in nine early intervention programs in three states (Colorado, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania) and their service…
Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Block, Stephen R.; Robinson, Cordelia C.
This study compared levels of parent involvement in early intervention services for children under three which were delivered in community settings (children's homes and child care programs) and specialized settings (early intervention centers and provider offices) in the USA. Respondents reported the highest levels of parental involvement in the…
Hurley, Jennifer J.; Looby, Winnie; Goodrum, Ashley R.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Bonti, Gregg K.; Raymon, Becca A.; Condon, Rebecca; Schwaeber, Sami E.; Mauceri, Melina E.; Bourne, Erin M.; Callahan, Elizabeth D.; Hardy, Danielle L.; Mathews, Pamela
Early intervention (EI) services are provided for families and children at risk for or with developmental delays. Early intervention includes services that are provided in the natural environment as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2004). The natural environment is where children and families would naturally spend…
Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.
This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is designed to assist families in evaluating the quality of early intervention services they receive. The measures apply to all types of service and support program models for children with various developmental delays and/or disabilities and their families.…
The need to ask educators about their opinions on the subject to what extent early intervention methods enhance mathematical performance is long overdue. The purpose of this quantitative research is to examine the extent to which teachers agree that early intervention methods enhance the mathematical performance of students with mathematical…
Francois, Jennifer R.; Coufal, Kathy L.; Subramanian, Anu
The preparation of students for professional practice in the field of early intervention has changed as a result of mandates through Part C, Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this survey research was to describe the knowledge and skill areas, specific to early intervention, included in pre-professional curricula…
Foorman, Barbara; Dombek, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin
The objective of this article is to describe seven elements important to successful implementation of early literacy intervention. The seven elements are drawn from research as well as from the authors' recent randomized controlled trial of effective early literacy interventions in kindergarten through second grade in 55 schools across Florida.…
This article describes why one low-secure unit chose to initiate a horticultural therapy project and organise it as a 'workers' cooperative'. The therapeutic benefits of gardening are explored, particularly focusing on the social benefits. The article also discusses the issue of hope, which is an intrinsic requirement in gardening.
Group therapy can be an effective mode of therapy, used on an inpatient unit, as it can allow patients to become allies in their journey to understand and overcome their mental health needs. The therapeutic principles discussed by Dr Irvin Yalom illustrate the significance and importance of group therapy, which was strongly incorporated into…
Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-man; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Simmons, Leslie E.; Fogarty, Melissa; Oslund, Eric; Coyne, Michael D.
This study compared the effects of Tier 2 reading interventions that operated in response-to-intervention contexts. Kindergarten children (N = 90) who were identified as at risk for reading difficulties were stratified by school and randomly assigned to receive (a) Early Reading Intervention (ERI; Pearson/Scott Foresman, 2004) modified in response…
Kardos, Gregory R.; Robertson, Gavin P.
Control of the protein synthetic machinery is deregulated in many cancers, including melanoma, in order to increase protein production. Tumor suppressors and oncogenes play key roles in protein synthesis from the transcription of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis to mRNA translation initiation and protein synthesis. Major signaling pathways are altered in melanoma to modulate the protein synthetic machinery thereby promoting tumor development. However, despite the importance of this process in melanoma development, involvement of the protein synthetic machinery in this cancer type is an underdeveloped area of study. Here, we review the coupling of melanoma development to deregulation of the protein synthetic machinery. We examine existing knowledge regarding RNA Polymerase I inhibition and mRNA translation focusing on their inhibition for therapeutic applications in melanoma. Furthermore, the contribution of amino acid biosynthesis and involvement of ribosomal proteins are also reviewed as future therapeutic strategies to target deregulated protein production in melanoma. PMID:26139519
Hackett, Shannon; McWhirter, Paula T; Lesher, Susan
A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother-child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828
Spence, Christine M.; Connor, Susan M.; Burke, Ted; Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.
A statewide needs assessment was conducted with early interventionists to gather information on perceived professional development (PD) needs. Across 3 years, 4,455 early interventionists responded to an online survey. Data were analyzed for reported needs on PD topics in seven broad areas related to early intervention processes and content.…
Banerjee, Rashida; Chopra, Ritu V.; DiPalma, Geraldine
Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of…
Meier, Petra S; Donmall, Michael C; Barrowclough, Christine; McElduff, Patrick; Heller, Richard F
To predict the early therapeutic alliance from a range of potentially relevant factors, including clients' social relationships, motivation and psychological resources, and counsellors' professional experience and ex-user status. The study recruited 187 clients starting residential rehabilitation treatment for drug misuse in three UK services. Counsellor and client information was assessed at intake, and client and counsellor ratings of the alliance were obtained during weeks 1, 2 and 3. The intake assessment battery included scales on psychological wellbeing, treatment motivation, coping strategies and attachment style. Client and counsellor versions of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-S) were used for weekly alliance measurement. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the relationship between alliance and predictor variables. Clients who had better motivation, coping strategies, social support and a secure attachment style were more likely to develop good alliances. Findings with regard to counsellor characteristics were not clear cut: clients rated their relationships with ex-user counsellors, experienced counsellors and male counsellors as better, but more experienced counsellors rated their alliances as worse. The findings offer important leads as to what interventions might improve the therapeutic alliance. Further work will need to establish whether the therapeutic alliance and ultimately treatment outcomes can be enhanced by working on improving clients' motivation and psychosocial resources.
Early and late benefits of prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a TRITON-TIMI 38 (TRial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet InhibitioN with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) analysis.
Antman, Elliott M; Wiviott, Stephen D; Murphy, Sabina A; Voitk, Juri; Hasin, Yonathan; Widimsky, Petr; Chandna, Harish; Macias, William; McCabe, Carolyn H; Braunwald, Eugene
We evaluated the relative contributions of the loading and maintenance doses of prasugrel on events in a TRITON-TIMI 38 (TRial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet InhibitioN with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) analysis. Prasugrel is superior to clopidogrel in preventing ischemic events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, but it is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding. Landmark analyses for efficacy, safety, and net clinical benefit were performed from randomization to day 3 and from day 3 to the end of the trial. Significant reductions in ischemic events, including myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and urgent target vessel revascularization, were observed with the use of prasugrel both during the first 3 days and from 3 days to the end of the trial. Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major non-coronary artery bypass graft bleeding was similar to clopidogrel during the first 3 days but was significantly greater with the use of prasugrel from 3 days to the end of the study. Net clinical benefit significantly favored prasugrel both early and late in the trial. Both the loading dose and maintenance dose of prasugrel were superior to clopidogrel for the reduction of ischemic events. This result emphasizes the importance of maintaining high levels of inhibition of platelet aggregation via P2Y(12) receptor inhibition, not only for the prevention of periprocedural ischemic events but also during long-term follow-up. The excess major bleeding observed with the use of prasugrel occurred predominantly during the maintenance phase. Approaches to reduce the relative excess of bleeding with prasugrel should focus on the maintenance dose (e.g., reduction in maintenance dose in previously reported high-risk subgroups, such as the elderly and those patients with low body weight). (A Comparison of CS-747 and Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndrome
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Koerting, Johanna; Smith, Elizabeth; McCann, Donna C; Thompson, Margaret
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a high-cost/high-burden disorder. Early detection and intervention may prevent or ameliorate the development of the disorder and reduce its long-term impact. In this article, we set out a rationale for an early detection and intervention program. First, we highlight the costs of the condition and second, we discuss the limitations of the current treatments. We then outline the potential value of an early detection and intervention program. We review evidence on predictors of poor outcomes for early ADHD signs and discuss how these might allow us to target early intervention more cost-effectively. We then examine potential barriers to engagement with at-risk samples. This leads to a discussion of possible intervention approaches and how these could be improved. Finally, we describe the Program for Early Detection and Intervention for ADHD (PEDIA), a 5-year program of research supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research and conducted at the University of Southampton (Southampton, UK), which aims to develop and evaluate a strategy for early intervention.
Austoker, J; Bankhead, C; Forbes, L J L; Atkins, L; Martin, F; Robb, K; Wardle, J; Ramirez, A J
Background: Low cancer awareness contributes to delay in presentation for cancer symptoms and may lead to delay in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to raise cancer awareness and promote early presentation in cancer to inform policy and future research. Methods: We searched bibliographic databases and reference lists for randomised controlled trials of interventions delivered to individuals, and controlled or uncontrolled studies of interventions delivered to communities. Results: We found some evidence that interventions delivered to individuals modestly increase cancer awareness in the short term and insufficient evidence that they promote early presentation. We found limited evidence that public education campaigns reduce stage at presentation of breast cancer, malignant melanoma and retinoblastoma. Conclusions: Interventions delivered to individuals may increase cancer awareness. Interventions delivered to communities may promote cancer awareness and early presentation, although the evidence is limited. PMID:19956160
LaRocque, Michelle; Brown, Sharan E.; Johnson, Kurt L.
This article advocates the use of functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) in the development of Individualized Family Service Plans for children with or at risk of developing behavioral disorders. It describes the FBA and BIP processes and proposes a parent collaborative model for assessment and…
Ganne, Sudha; Arora, Surender; Karam, Jocelyne; McFarlane, Samy I
Hypertension is a major component of the metabolic syndrome and a major cardiovascular risk factor. Both disorders are rapidly increasing in frequency, with hypertension affecting nearly 60 million Americans and over 1 billion people worldwide, and metabolic syndrome affecting 44% of the US population above the age of 60 years. Sedentary lifestyle, together with obesity and aging of the population, are the major contributing factors for this growing epidemic. Hypertension in metabolic syndrome possesses unique pathophysiological aspects that have considerable implications on therapy of this disease. In this article, we review the pathophysiology and provide a rationale for the current therapeutic options in light of the most recent clinical trials in the field.
Gunasingam, Nishmi; Perczuk, Adam; Talbot, Michael; Kaffes, Arthur; Saxena, Payal
Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder. It is the absence of peristalsis in the esophageal body and inability of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax, which characterizes this rare condition. Its features typically include dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain, and weight loss. The ultimate goal in treating achalasia is to relieve the patient's symptoms, improve esophageal emptying, and prevent further dilatation of the esophagus. Current treatment modalities targeted at achalasia include pharmacological therapy, endoscopic therapy, and surgery. This review focuses on the current therapeutic options and explores the role of peroral endoscopic myotomy in the management armamentarium. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Johnson, Rhaya L; Wilson, Christopher G
In this review, we provide an overview of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical uses of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as well as information about the ongoing studies and preclinical research to expand the use of VNS to additional applications. VNS is currently FDA approved for therapeutic use in patients aged >12 years with drug-resistant epilepsy and depression. Recent studies of VNS in in vivo systems have shown that it has anti-inflammatory properties which has led to more preclinical research aimed at expanding VNS treatment across a wider range of inflammatory disorders. Although the signaling pathway and mechanism by which VNS affects inflammation remain unknown, VNS has shown promising results in treating chronic inflammatory disorders such as sepsis, lung injury, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and diabetes. It is also being used to control pain in fibromyalgia and migraines. This new preclinical research shows that VNS bears the promise of being applied to a wider range of therapeutic applications. PMID:29844694
Bagi, Zsolt; Feher, Attila; Cassuto, James
Obesity has detrimental effects on the microcirculation. Functional changes in microvascular responsiveness may increase the risk of developing cardiovascular complications in obese patients. Emerging evidence indicates that selective therapeutic targeting of the microvessels may prevent life-threatening obesity-related vascular complications, such as ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and hypertension. It is also plausible that alterations in adipose tissue microcirculation contribute to the development of obesity. Therefore, targeting adipose tissue arterioles could represent a novel approach to reducing obesity. This review aims to examine recent studies that have been focused on vasomotor dysfunction of resistance arteries in obese humans and animal models of obesity. Particularly, findings in coronary resistance arteries are contrasted to those obtained in other vascular beds. We provide examples of therapeutic attempts, such as use of statins, ACE inhibitors and insulin sensitizers to prevent obesity-related microvascular complications. We further identify some of the important challenges and opportunities going forward. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3 PMID:21797844
Fallon, Lindsay M.; Feinberg, Adam B.
The research base for Check-in, Check-out (CICO), a targeted behavioral intervention within a schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports framework, is growing. However, little has been written about its application in therapeutic alternative programs. To extend the literature base, the current article describes a study conducted…
Knealing, Todd W.; Roebuck, M. Christopher; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth
The therapeutic workplace is a novel intervention that uses access to paid training and employment to reinforce drug abstinence within the context of standard methadone maintenance. We used the Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program as a standard method of estimating the economic costs of this intervention. Over a one-year period, the therapeutic workplace served 122 methadone maintenance clients who had a median length of stay of 22 weeks. The workplace maintained a mean daily census of 48 clients. The combined cost of methadone maintenance and the therapeutic workplace was estimated at $362 per week. This cost is less than other treatments that might be used to promote abstinence in individuals who continue to use drugs during methadone treatment. Given prior evidence of effectiveness, these cost data may be useful to policymakers, social service agencies, and researchers interested in using or further developing the therapeutic workplace intervention. PMID:17614239
Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G
Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine
This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…
Ghali, Sharif; Fisher, Helen L; Joyce, John; Major, Barnaby; Hobbs, Lorna; Soni, Sujata; Chisholm, Brock; Rahaman, Nikola; Papada, Peggy; Lawrence, Jo; Bloy, Sally; Marlowe, Karl; Aitchison, Katherine J; Power, Paddy; Johnson, Sonia
Ethnic variations have previously been identified in the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and pathways into psychiatric services. These have not been examined in the context of early intervention services, which may alter these trajectories. To explore ethnic differences in the nature and duration of pathways into early intervention services. In a naturalistic cohort study, data were collected for 1024 individuals with psychotic disorders accepted for case management by eight London early intervention services. Duration of untreated psychosis was prolonged in the White British group compared with most other ethnic groups. White British individuals were more likely to make contact with their general practitioner and less likely to be seen within emergency medical services. All Black patient groups were more likely than their White British counterparts to experience involvement of criminal justice agencies. Variations continue to exist in how and when individuals from different ethnic groups access early intervention services. These may account for disparities in DUP.
Blüher, Susan; Shah, Sunali; Mantzoros, Christos S.
The discovery of leptin has significantly advanced our understanding of the metabolic importance of adipose tissue and has revealed that both leptin deficiency and leptin excess are associated with severe metabolic, endocrine, and immunological consequences. We and others have shown that a prominent role of leptin in humans is to mediate the neuroendocrine adaptation to energy deprivation. Humans with genetic mutations in the leptin and leptin receptor genes have deregulated food intake and energy expenditure leading to a morbidly obese phenotype and a disrupted regulation in neuroendocrine and immune function and in glucose and fat metabolism. Observational and interventional studies in humans with (complete) congenital leptin deficiency caused by mutations in the leptin gene or with relative leptin deficiency as seen in states of negative energy balance such as lipoatrophy, anorexia nervosa, or exercise-induced hypothalamic and neuroendocrine dysfunction have contributed to the elucidation of the pathophysiological role of leptin in these conditions and of the clinical significance of leptin administration in these subjects. More specifically, interventional studies have demonstrated that several neuroendocrine, metabolic, or immune disturbances in these states could be restored by leptin administration. Leptin replacement therapy is currently available through a compassionate use program for congenital complete leptin deficiency and under an expanded access program to subjects with leptin deficiency associated with congenital or acquired lipoatrophy. In addition, leptin remains a potentially forthcoming treatment for several other states of energy deprivation including anorexia nervosa or milder forms of hypothalamic amenorrhea pending appropriate clinical trials. PMID:19730134
Blüher, Susan; Shah, Sunali; Mantzoros, Christos S
The discovery of leptin has significantly advanced our understanding of the metabolic importance of adipose tissue and has revealed that both leptin deficiency and leptin excess are associated with severe metabolic, endocrine, and immunological consequences. We and others have shown that a prominent role of leptin in humans is to mediate the neuroendocrine adaptation to energy deprivation. Humans with genetic mutations in the leptin and leptin receptor genes have deregulated food intake and energy expenditure leading to a morbidly obese phenotype and a disrupted regulation in neuroendocrine and immune function and in glucose and fat metabolism. Observational and interventional studies in humans with (complete) congenital leptin deficiency caused by mutations in the leptin gene or with relative leptin deficiency as seen in states of negative energy balance such as lipoatrophy, anorexia nervosa, or exercise-induced hypothalamic and neuroendocrine dysfunction have contributed to the elucidation of the pathophysiological role of leptin in these conditions and of the clinical significance of leptin administration in these subjects. More specifically, interventional studies have demonstrated that several neuroendocrine, metabolic, or immune disturbances in these states could be restored by leptin administration. Leptin replacement therapy is currently available through a compassionate use program for congenital complete leptin deficiency and under an expanded access program to subjects with leptin deficiency associated with congenital or acquired lipoatrophy. In addition, leptin remains a potentially forthcoming treatment for several other states of energy deprivation including anorexia nervosa or milder forms of hypothalamic amenorrhea pending appropriate clinical trials.
Huxman, Frankie; Klassen, Eydie; Koontz, Barbara; Nottingham, Cheryl; Vierthaler, Charlene
This is a report on a school-wide ethnographic study of intervention strategies for at-risk students in kindergarten through second grade. A group of 5 teachers from an elementary school of approximately 250 students in a Midwest community of about 18,000 people (2 first-grade teachers, 2 second-grade teachers, and 1 music teacher) comprised the…
Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.
This report briefly describes the Marin City, California community and summarizes progress made by the Far West Laboratory's Western Regional Laboratory in the development of a long-range community intervention program. Marin City is a predominantly low-income, black community in which 30 percent of households, mainly those headed by single women,…
Sarimski, Klaus; Hintermair, Manfred; Lang, Markus
Parental self-efficacy is seen as an important concern in family-centered early intervention. This article reports the data from 125 parents of young children with intellectual disabilities, hearing impairment or visual impairment. The relationship between parental self-efficacy, parental stress and several parent and child variables is analyzed. The results support the relevance of parental self-efficacy for parental coping. Some recommendations for promoting their experience of participation and partnership in early intervention services are discussed.
Bryant, Richard A
The potentially debilitating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created much interest in early intervention strategies that can reduce PTSD. This review critiques the evidence for psychological debriefing approaches and alternate early intervention strategies. The review critiques the randomized controlled trials of psychological debriefing, and early provision of cognitive behavior therapy. The latter approach involves therapy attention on acutely traumatized individuals who are high risk for PTSD development, and particularly in people with acute stress disorder (ASD). Psychological debriefing does not prevent PTSD. Cognitive behaviour therapy strategies have proven efficacy in reducing subsequent PTSD in ASD populations. Despite the promising evidence for early provision of CBT, many people do not benefit from CBT. This review concludes with consideration of major challenges facing early intervention approaches in the context of terrorist attacks and mass disasters.
Fisher, Philip A; Beauchamp, Kate G; Roos, Leslie E; Noll, Laura K; Flannery, Jessica; Delker, Brianna C
Early adverse experiences are well understood to affect development and well-being, placing individuals at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. A growing literature documents the effects of adversity on developing neurobiological systems. Fewer studies have examined stress neurobiology to understand how to mitigate the effects of early adversity. This review summarizes the research on three neurobiological systems relevant to interventions for populations experiencing high levels of early adversity: the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis, the prefrontal cortex regions involved in executive functioning, and the system involved in threat detection and response, particularly the amygdala. Also discussed is the emerging field of epigenetics and related interventions to mitigate early adversity. Further emphasized is the need for intervention research to integrate knowledge about the neurobiological effects of prenatal stressors (e.g., drug use, alcohol exposure) and early adversity. The review concludes with a discussion of the implications of this research topic for clinical psychology practice and public policy.
Group therapy can be an effective mode of therapy, used on an inpatient unit, as it can allow patients to become allies in their journey to understand and overcome their mental health needs. The therapeutic principles discussed by Dr Irvin Yalom illustrate the significance and importance of group therapy, which was strongly incorporated into interactive behavior therapy (IBT) developed by Dr Daniel J Tomasulo. IBT is a type of group therapy, more action oriented, created to allow patients with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to better comprehend discussed topics, by designing and tailoring activities to meet their cognitive and linguistic capabilities. Additional details found in this article will illustrate the methods by which IBT is capable of meeting the needs of patients with ID. Such adjustments include shorter duration of activities to maximize concentration, proactive role-playing involving the synergistic effort of all members of the group, and limiting the authoritative role of the therapist in a group environment. © The Author(s) 2014.
lesions. Peptide conjugated AgNP were injected intravenously in mice and mammary glands were isolated and analyzed for nanoparticle accumulation by silver ...Furthermore, these probes will be used to develop targeted therapeutic nanoparticles for early intervention in breast cancer. 2. KEYWORDS...cancer (Months 18-24) (To be done) Specific Aim 3: Target premalignant lesions utilizing peptide-conjugated nanoparticles to prevent/delay
Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle
This study examined the effectiveness of a targeted early literacy intervention among Spanish-speaking kindergarten English Learners (ELs). Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, participants were screened in English to ensure a need for additional literacy support. Selected students were then screened in Spanish, and students with…
Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…
Kemp, Peggy; Turnbull, Ann P.
The purpose of this article was to synthesize intervention studies using coaching with parents in early intervention with a focus on (a) definitions and descriptions of coaching with parents; (b) characteristics of families and coaches; (c) parameters such as settings, contexts, dosage, and professional development related to coaching; and (d)…
Brian, Ali; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Logan, Jessica A.; Sutherland, Sue
Background: Fundamental motor skill (FMS) interventions when delivered by an expert can significantly improve the FMS of young children with and without developmental delays. However, there is a gap in the literature as few early childhood centers employ experts with the professional background to deliver FMS intervention. Purpose: The primary…
Shapiro, Cheri J.
Young children with disabilities may be at elevated risk for behavior problems as well as maltreatment. preventive approaches that can be infused into early intervention services are needed to support parents, build competencies among young children, and enhance protective factors that may temper risk. Two interventions--Stepping Stones Triple P,…
Lovett, David L.; Haring, Kathryn A.
This article explores three broad themes about transitions that have emerged in a naturalistic study of experiences of families with young children with disabilities. Generalizations regarding early transitions include families going through a birth crisis have difficulty understanding all the information they are provided. Not only is their role…
Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...
Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.
Phonemic awareness has been consistently identified as an essential skill for as well as an important predictor of later reading achievement. Children who lack these early literacy skills at kindergarten entry are more likely to demonstrate both short- and long-term reading difficulties. Despite the importance of providing intervention early,…
Boyer, Valerie E.; Thompson, Stacy D.
The National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC) reported 348,604 children received services in the United States under Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 2009, representing 2.7% of the population (NECTAC, 2012). Early Intervention (EI), or Part C, is designed to provide services to families of…
Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla
Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…
Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann; Naig, Lisa A.; Kyzar, Kathleen; Friend, Anna; Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Turnbull, Ann P.
Home visiting in early intervention is the primary model for delivering services and building partnerships with children and families. Using interviews with early interventionists and family members, this study investigated the extent to which families' and professionals' emotional needs were met during home visits and what factors contributed to…
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social and communication development, accompanied by stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. The focus of this paper is on the early development of communication in autism, and early intervention for impairments in communication associated with this disorder. An overview of…
Blasco, Patricia M.; Guy, Sybille; Saxton, Sage N.; Duvall, Susanne W.
Infants with low birth weight (LBW = 2,500 g) are at high risk for developmental delays, including cognitive impairments. Retrospective studies have shown that these children often have learning and/or behavioral difficulties at school age. Early evaluation and enrollment in early intervention (EI) programs may reduce the impact of these…
Eller-Smith, Olivia C.; Nicol, Andrea L.; Christianson, Julie A.
magnetic resonance spectroscopy and are shown to contribute to the widespreadness of pain and poor mood in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic urological pain. Non-pharmacological therapeutics, including exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), have shown great promise in treating symptoms of centralized pain. PMID:29487504
Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Gribble, Phillip A.
Context: Clinicians perform therapeutic interventions, such as stretching, manual therapy, electrotherapy, ultrasound, and exercises, to increase ankle dorsiflexion. However, authors of previous studies have not determined which intervention or combination of interventions is most effective. Objective: To determine the magnitude of therapeutic intervention effects on and the most effective therapeutic interventions for restoring normal ankle dorsiflexion after ankle sprain. Data Sources: We performed a comprehensive literature search in Web of Science and EBSCO HOST from 1965 to May 29, 2011, with 19 search terms related to ankle sprain, dorsiflexion, and intervention and by cross-referencing pertinent articles. Study Selection: Eligible studies had to be written in English and include the means and standard deviations of both pretreatment and posttreatment in patients with acute, subacute, or chronic ankle sprains. Outcomes of interest included various joint mobilizations, stretching, local vibration, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, electrical stimulation, and mental-relaxation interventions. Data Extraction: We extracted data on dorsiflexion improvements among various therapeutic applications by calculating Cohen d effect sizes with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and evaluated the methodologic quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Data Synthesis: In total, 9 studies (PEDro score = 5.22 ± 1.92) met the inclusion criteria. Static-stretching interventions with a home exercise program had the strongest effects on increasing dorsiflexion in patients 2 weeks after acute ankle sprains (Cohen d = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.12, 2.42). The range of effect sizes for movement with mobilization on ankle dorsiflexion among individuals with recurrent ankle sprains was small (Cohen d range = 0.14 to 0.39). Conclusions: Static-stretching intervention as a part of standardized care yielded the strongest effects on dorsiflexion after acute ankle sprains. The
Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A
Clinicians perform therapeutic interventions, such as stretching, manual therapy, electrotherapy, ultrasound, and exercises, to increase ankle dorsiflexion. However, authors of previous studies have not determined which intervention or combination of interventions is most effective. To determine the magnitude of therapeutic intervention effects on and the most effective therapeutic interventions for restoring normal ankle dorsiflexion after ankle sprain. We performed a comprehensive literature search in Web of Science and EBSCO HOST from 1965 to May 29, 2011, with 19 search terms related to ankle sprain, dorsiflexion, and intervention and by cross-referencing pertinent articles. Eligible studies had to be written in English and include the means and standard deviations of both pretreatment and posttreatment in patients with acute, subacute, or chronic ankle sprains. Outcomes of interest included various joint mobilizations, stretching, local vibration, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, electrical stimulation, and mental-relaxation interventions. We extracted data on dorsiflexion improvements among various therapeutic applications by calculating Cohen d effect sizes with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and evaluated the methodologic quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. In total, 9 studies (PEDro score = 5.22 ± 1.92) met the inclusion criteria. Static-stretching interventions with a home exercise program had the strongest effects on increasing dorsiflexion in patients 2 weeks after acute ankle sprains (Cohen d = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.12, 2.42). The range of effect sizes for movement with mobilization on ankle dorsiflexion among individuals with recurrent ankle sprains was small (Cohen d range = 0.14 to 0.39). Static-stretching intervention as a part of standardized care yielded the strongest effects on dorsiflexion after acute ankle sprains. The existing evidence suggests that clinicians need to consider what may be the limiting factor of
Since the early 1980s, there has been considerable attention in the psychology literature to mental health problems related to living in a world threatened by nuclear destruction. Questionnaires were mailed to 630 psychotherapists from the Colorado Psychological Association, California Psychotherapists for Social Responsibility, California Psychologists for Social Responsibility, the US Army, and the APA Division of Military Psychology; 174 questionnaires were returned. It was hypothesized that liberalism, nuclear weapons opposition, nuclear concern, nuclear awareness, and anti-nuclear activism in psychotherapists would facilitate perception of, and openness to working with, a client's nuclear concerns and thus, would be positively correlated with intentionsmore » to discuss nuclear issues with clients in three different clinical vignettes. Results indicated that when controlling for subject group, psychotherapy orientation, age, sex, and income, all five independent variables were positively correlated with responses to all three clinical vignettes, with nuclear concern having the strongest unique effect in accounting for variance in responses to the vignettes.« less
Zalaquett, Daniela F; Schönstedt, Marianne G; Angeli, Milagros; Herrrera, Claudia C; Moyano, Andrea C
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. They have a prevalence of 0.6% in the general population, although there are no national statistics. Even though their evolution is variable, it has been observed that early intervention is an important factor determining prognosis. The aim of this study is to update concepts regarding the current available evidence on the importance of early intervention. After analyzing the collected information, the importance of early intervention programs for children with ASD is confirmed, as well as the role of pediatricians and other health professionals in the early detection of these disorders. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Simopoulos, Thomas T; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Gupta, Sanjeeva; Aydin, Steve M; Kim, Chong Hwan; Solanki, Daneshvari; Nampiaparampil, Devi E; Singh, Vijay; Staats, Peter S; Hirsch, Joshua A
The sacroiliac joint is well known as a cause of low back and lower extremity pain. Prevalence estimates are 10% to 25% in patients with persistent axial low back pain without disc herniation, discogenic pain, or radiculitis based on multiple diagnostic studies and systematic reviews. However, at present there are no definitive management options for treating sacroiliac joint pain. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. The available literature on diagnostic and therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions was reviewed. The quality assessment criteria utilized were the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) checklist for diagnostic accuracy studies, Cochrane review criteria to assess sources of risk of bias, and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM-QRB) criteria for randomized therapeutic trials and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment for Nonrandomized Studies (IPM-QRBNR) for observational therapeutic assessments. The level of evidence was based on a best evidence synthesis with modified grading of qualitative evidence from Level I to Level V. Data sources included relevant literature published from 1966 through March 2015 that were identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE, manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles, and all other sources. For the diagnostic accuracy assessment, and for the therapeutic modalities, the primary outcome measure of pain relief and improvement in functional status were utilized. A total of 11 diagnostic accuracy studies and 14 therapeutic studies were included. The evidence for diagnostic accuracy is Level II for dual diagnostic blocks with at least 70% pain relief as the criterion
Nepali, Kunal; Ojha, Ritu; Lee, Hsueh-Yun; Liou, Jing-Ping
Microtubules represent one of the most logical and strategic molecular targets amongst the current targets for chemotherapy, alongside DNA. In the past decade, tubulin inhibitors as cancer therapeutics have been an area of focus due to the improved understanding and biological relevance of microtubules in cellular functions. Fueled by the objective of developing novel chemotherapeutics and with the aim of establishing the benefits of tubulin inhibition, several clinical trials have been conducted with others ongoing. At present, the antitubulin development pipeline contains an armful of agents under clinical investigation. This review focuses on novel tubulin inhibitors as cancer therapeutics. The article covers the agents which have completed the phase II studies along with the agents demonstrating promising results in phase I studies. Countless clinical trials evaluating the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of novel tubulin inhibitors highlights the scientific efforts being paid to establish their candidature as cancer therapeutics. Colchicine binding site inhibitors as vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) and new taxanes appear to be the most likely agents for future clinical interest. Numerous agents have demonstrated clinical benefits in terms of efficacy and survival in phase I and II studies. However conclusive benefits can only be ascertained on the basis of phase III studies.
Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary
Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.
Vasilić, B.; Ladinsky, G. A.; Saha, P. K.; Wehrli, F. W.
Osteoporosis is the cause of over 1.5 million bone fractures annually. Most of these fractures occur in sites rich in trabecular bone, a complex network of bony struts and plates found throughout the skeleton. The three-dimensional structure of the trabecular bone network significantly determines mechanical strength and thus fracture resistance. Here we present a data acquisition and processing system that allows efficient noninvasive assessment of trabecular bone structure through a "virtual bone biopsy". High-resolution MR images are acquired from which the trabecular bone network is extracted by estimating the partial bone occupancy of each voxel. A heuristic voxel subdivision increases the effective resolution of the bone volume fraction map and serves a basis for subsequent analysis of topological and orientational parameters. Semi-automated registration and segmentation ensure selection of the same anatomical location in subjects imaged at different time points during treatment. It is shown with excerpts from an ongoing clinical study of early post-menopausal women, that significant reduction in network connectivity occurs in the control group while the structural integrity is maintained in the hormone replacement group. The system described should be suited for large-scale studies designed to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic intervention in subjects with metabolic bone disease.
Peng, Liang; Parpura, Vladimir; Verkhratsky, Alexei
Neuroglia of the central nervous system (CNS), represented by cells of neural (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and NG2 glial cells) and myeloid (microglia) origins are fundamental for homeostasis of the nervous tissue. Astrocytes are critical for the development of the CNS, they are indispensable for synaptogenesis, and they define structural organisation of the nervous tissue, as well as the generation and maintenance of CNS-blood and cerebrospinal fluid-blood barriers. Astroglial cells control homeostasis of ions and neurotransmitters and provide neurones with metabolic support. Oligodendrocytes, through the process of myelination, as well as by homoeostatic support of axons provide for interneuronal connectivity. The NG2 cells receive direct synaptic inputs, and might be important elements of adult remyelination. Microglial cells, which originate from foetal macrophages invading the brain early in embryogenesis, shape the synaptic connections through removing of redundant synapses and phagocyting apoptotic neurones. Neuroglia also form the defensive system of the CNS through complex and context-specific programmes of activation, known as reactive gliosis. Many neurological diseases are associated with neurogliopathologies represented by asthenic and atrophic changes in glial cells that, through the loss or diminution of their homeostatic and defensive functions, assist evolution of pathology. Conceptually, neurological and psychiatric disorders can be regarded as failures of neuroglial homeostatic/ defensive responses, and, hence, glia represent a (much underappreciated) target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25342938
Baumel, Amit; Muench, Fred
In recent years, the number of available eHealth interventions aimed at treating behavioral and mental health challenges has been growing. From the perspective of health care providers, there is a need for eHealth interventions to be evaluated prior to clinical trials and for the limited resources allocated to empirical research to be invested in the most promising products. Following a literature review, a gap was found in the availability of eHealth interventions evaluation principles related to the patient experience of the therapeutic process. This paper introduces principles and concepts for the evaluation of eHealth interventions developed as a first step in a process to outline general evaluation guidelines that relate to the clinical context from health care providers' perspective. Our approach was to conduct a review of literature that relates to the examination of eHealth interventions. We identified the literature that was most relevant to our study and used it to define guidelines that relate to the clinical context. We then compiled a list of heuristics we found to be useful for the evaluation of eHealth intervention products' suitability for empirical examination. Four heuristics were identified with respect to the therapeutic process: (1) the product's ease of use (ie, usability), (2) the eHealth intervention's compatibility with the clinical setting, (3) the presence of tools that make it easier for the user to engage in therapeutic activities, and (4) the provision of a feasible therapeutic pathway to growth. We then used this set of heuristics to conduct a detailed examination of MyFitnessPal. This line of work could help to set the bar higher for product developers and to inform health care providers about preferred eHealth intervention designs.
Gisladottir, Margret; Treasure, Janet; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic conversation intervention in group and caregiver sessions on the supporting role of caregivers. Caregivers of people with eating disorders are known to suffer major difficulties and are in great need of support. Unhelpful parental support strategies can delay the recovery of an individual with an eating disorder. Skill training interventions can equip parents with skills, guidance and techniques by helping them to be a support person and making them one of the most important links in the treatment process. The therapeutic conversation intervention consisted of five group and caregiver sessions and three booster sessions. The Calgary Family Assessment and Calgary Family Intervention Models, the Illness Beliefs Model and the New Maudsley Method were used as theoretical frameworks. The content of the intervention consisted of work on difficult behaviours, feelings and helpful strategies. The participants (n = 58) included primary and secondary caregivers of 12- to 24-year-old patients with eating disorders. Eight caregivers dropped out of treatment. This study had a quasi-experimental design with one pre- and two post-test measures. Between 90-96% of caregivers rated the therapeutic conversation intervention as supportive. Furthermore, the study revealed significant differences in caregiver emotional and cognitive support, illness beliefs, disruptive behaviour and quality of life, negative aspects of care giving demands and caregiver and patient behavioural difficulties after the intervention and/or at follow-up. Therapeutic conversation intervention with caregivers in group and private sessions proved to be beneficial. This outcome provides information for healthcare professionals on how they can help primary caregivers in their supporting role, which can, in turn, improve services in healthcare centres and psychiatric hospitals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Carbonell, Félix M; Evans, Alan C
Personalized Medicine (PM) seeks to assist the patients according to their specific treatment needs and potential intervention responses. However, in the neurological context, this approach is limited by crucial methodological challenges, such as the requirement for an understanding of the causal disease mechanisms and the inability to predict the brain's response to therapeutic interventions. Here, we introduce and validate the concept of the personalized Therapeutic Intervention Fingerprint (pTIF), which predicts the effectiveness of potential interventions for controlling a patient's disease evolution. Each subject's pTIF can be inferred from multimodal longitudinal imaging (e.g. amyloid-β, metabolic and tau PET; vascular, functional and structural MRI). We studied an aging population (N = 331) comprising cognitively normal and neurodegenerative patients, longitudinally scanned using six different neuroimaging modalities. We found that the resulting pTIF vastly outperforms cognitive and clinical evaluations on predicting individual variability in gene expression (GE) profiles. Furthermore, after regrouping the patients according to their predicted primary single-target interventions, we observed that these pTIF-based subgroups present distinctively altered molecular pathway signatures, supporting the across-population identification of dissimilar pathological stages, in active correspondence with different therapeutic needs. The results further evidence the imprecision of using broad clinical categories for understanding individual molecular alterations and selecting appropriate therapeutic needs. To our knowledge, this is the first study highlighting the direct link between multifactorial brain dynamics, predicted treatment responses, and molecular alterations at the patient level. Inspired by the principles of PM, the proposed pTIF framework is a promising step towards biomarker-driven assisted therapeutic interventions, with additional important
Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.
Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…
Swanson, Daniel E W; Polackwich, A Scott; Helfand, Brian T; Masson, Puneet; Hwong, James; Dugi, Daniel D; Martinez Acevedo, Ann C; Hedges, Jason C; McVary, Kevin T
To report a series of penile fractures, describing preoperative evaluation, surgical repair, and long-term outcomes. Medical records from Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Oregon Health & Science University from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. Clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, time from injury, mechanism and site of injury, and presence of urethral injury were assessed. Outcomes including erectile dysfunction, penile curvature, and voiding symptoms were evaluated using International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function scores. Twenty-nine patients with 30 separate episodes of penile fractures presenting to the emergency room were identified. Mean patient age was 43 ± 9.6 years. The time from presentation to the initiation of surgery was 5.5 ± 4.4 hours. Mechanism of injury was intercourse in 26 of 30 fractures with the remaining attributed to masturbation or "rolling over." Immediate surgical repair was offered to all patients. Twenty-seven patients underwent surgery. Urethral injury was noted in 5 of the 27. The site of fracture was at the proximal shaft in 11, mid shaft in 12, and distal shaft in 4 patients. The mean follow-up period was 14.3 ± 15.8 weeks. Nine patients reported new mild erectile dysfunction or penile curvature. One patient reported new irritative voiding symptoms. The most common mechanism of penile fracture was from sexual intercourse, and frequent concomitant urethral injuries were observed. The frequency of concomitant urethral injury was higher than in previous studies. Although we observed high incidence of erectile dysfunction or penile curvature with early surgical repair, we retain it as the favored approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hantson, Julie; Wang, Pan Pan; Grizenko-Vida, Michael; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Harvey, William; Joober, Ridha; Grizenko, Natalie
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-week therapeutic summer day camp for children with ADHD, which included a social skills training program and parent psychoeducation and training program. This was an open-label, nonrandomized Phase I Clinical Intervention Trial. Method: Parents completed the Weiss…
Weaver, Lehn K; Behrens, Edward M
Cytokine storm syndromes require rapid diagnosis and treatment to limit the morbidity and mortality caused by the hyperinflammatory state that characterizes these devastating conditions. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge that guides our therapeutic decision-making and personalization of treatment for patients with cytokine storm syndromes. Firstly, ICU-level supportive care is often required to stabilize patients with fulminant disease while additional diagnostic evaluations proceed to determine the underlying cause of cytokine storm. Pharmacologic interventions should be focused on removing the inciting trigger of inflammation and initiation of an individualized immunosuppressive regimen when immune activation is central to the underlying disease pathophysiology. Monitoring for a clinical response is required to ensure that changes in the therapeutic regimen can be made as clinically warranted. Escalation of immunosuppression may be required if patients respond poorly to the initial therapeutic interventions, while a slow wean of immunosuppression in patients who improve can limit medication-related toxicities. In certain scenarios, a decision must be made whether an individual patient requires hematopoietic cell transplantation to prevent recurrence of disease. Despite these interventions, significant morbidity and mortality remains for cytokine storm patients. Therefore, we use this review to propose a clinical schema to guide current and future attempts to design rational therapeutic interventions for patients suffering from these devastating conditions, which we believe speeds the diagnosis of disease, limits medication-related toxicities, and improves clinical outcomes by targeting the heterogeneous and dynamic mechanisms driving disease in each individual patient.
Bibby, Robert Christopher
Traumatic life events are stressful and when coupled with decreased emotional expression they can have deleterious effects on a person's psychological and physical health. The empirical literature on programmed assignments, specifically Programmed Writing (PW) as a therapeutic intervention, was examined for its potential as a means to facilitate…
In recent years, the number of available eHealth interventions aimed at treating behavioral and mental health challenges has been growing. From the perspective of health care providers, there is a need for eHealth interventions to be evaluated prior to clinical trials and for the limited resources allocated to empirical research to be invested in the most promising products. Following a literature review, a gap was found in the availability of eHealth interventions evaluation principles related to the patient experience of the therapeutic process. This paper introduces principles and concepts for the evaluation of eHealth interventions developed as a first step in a process to outline general evaluation guidelines that relate to the clinical context from health care providers’ perspective. Our approach was to conduct a review of literature that relates to the examination of eHealth interventions. We identified the literature that was most relevant to our study and used it to define guidelines that relate to the clinical context. We then compiled a list of heuristics we found to be useful for the evaluation of eHealth intervention products’ suitability for empirical examination. Four heuristics were identified with respect to the therapeutic process: (1) the product’s ease of use (ie, usability), (2) the eHealth intervention’s compatibility with the clinical setting, (3) the presence of tools that make it easier for the user to engage in therapeutic activities, and (4) the provision of a feasible therapeutic pathway to growth. We then used this set of heuristics to conduct a detailed examination of MyFitnessPal. This line of work could help to set the bar higher for product developers and to inform health care providers about preferred eHealth intervention designs. PMID:26764209
Tsang, Hector W H; Ching, S C; Tang, K H; Lam, H T; Law, Peggy Y Y; Wan, C N
Internalized stigma can lead to pervasive negative effects among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although prevalence of internalized stigma is high, there is a dearth of interventions and meanwhile a lack of evidence as to their effectiveness. This study aims at unraveling the existence of different therapeutic interventions and the effectiveness internalized stigma reduction in people with SMI via a systematic review and meta-analysis. Five electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they (1) involved community or hospital based interventions on internalized stigma, (2) included participants who were given a diagnosis of SMI>50%, and (3) were empirical and quantitative in nature. Fourteen articles were selected for extensive review and five for meta-analysis. Nine studies showed significant decrease in internalized stigma and two showed sustainable effects. Meta-analysis showed that there was a small to moderate significant effect in therapeutic interventions (SMD=-0.43; p=0.003). Among the intervention elements, four studies suggested a favorable effect of psychoeducation. Meta-analysis showed that there was small to moderate significant effect (SMD=-0.40; p=0.001). Most internalized stigma reduction programs appear to be effective. This systematic review cannot make any recommendation on which intervention is more effective although psychoeducation seems most promising. More Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) on particular intervention components using standard outcome measures are recommended in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Golubović, Špela; Marković, Jasminka; Perović, Lidija
Early intervention implies a model of support focused on a child, family and a broader community from early childhood. The aim of this study was to analyze the elements of the successful early intervention in childhood, as well as to assess the role of a special educator and rehabilitator and level of their involvement in implementing the program on the territory of Novi Sad. The study sample included 100 parents of children with disabilities (aged 3-7), who completed the questionnaire designed for the purposes of this research, based on a similar questionnaire design. Speech delay is one of the most common reasons (over 50%) why parents seek professional help. By the end of the first year of life of their child, 43% of parents responded that they had noticed the first problems, that is, a problem was identified in 25% of children of this age group, and the same number was included in the treatment. About 55% of children were involved in organized treatment from 3 years of age onwards. Special educators and rehabilitators are usually involved in treatment when the team consists of three or more professionals. It is necessary to improve early intervention services, to educate staff, and provide conditions which would make it possible to overcome the existing disadvantages in treating children from an early age. In addition, the involvement of special education and rehabilitation professionals in treatment teams since children's early age is vital.
Whaley, Shannon E; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise
To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis of variance tests showed that the intervention had a small but significant impact on TV watching and fruit intake. The intervention was most protective for children younger than 2 years of age. Although the impact of the intervention was relatively small and limited to the youngest children served by WIC, findings suggest that the WIC setting is appropriate for improving healthful behaviors that are linked to reducing the rates of early childhood overweight. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bond, G R; Drake, R E; Luciano, A
Young adults with early psychosis want to pursue normal roles - education and employment. This paper summarises the empirical literature on the effectiveness of early intervention programmes for employment and education outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of employment/education outcomes for early intervention programmes, distinguishing three programme types: (1) those providing supported employment, (2) those providing unspecified vocational services and (3) those without vocational services. We summarised findings for 28 studies. Eleven studies evaluated early intervention programmes providing supported employment. In eight studies that reported employment outcomes separately from education outcomes, the employment rate during follow-up for supported employment patients was 49%, compared with 29% for patients receiving usual services. The two groups did not differ on enrolment in education. In four controlled studies, meta-analysis showed that the employment rate for supported employment participants was significantly higher than for control participants, odds ratio = 3.66 [1.93-6.93], p < 0.0001. Five studies (four descriptive and one quasi-experimental) of early intervention programmes evaluating unspecified vocational services were inconclusive. Twelve studies of early intervention programmes without vocational services were methodologically heterogeneous, using diverse methods for evaluating vocational/educational outcomes and precluding a satisfactory meta-analytic synthesis. Among studies with comparison groups, 7 of 11 (64%) reported significant vocational/education outcomes favouring early intervention over usual services. In early intervention programmes, supported employment moderately increases employment rates but not rates of enrolment in education. These improvements are in addition to the modest effects early programmes alone have on vocational/educational outcomes compared with usual services.
Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N; Greiner, Wolfgang
referring to the Lovaas model remain the most empirically evaluated early interventions in autism. Preschool children with autism can achieve improvements in cognitive and functional domains when treated within behavioural interventions with a frequency of at least 20 hours per week. It is not clear which is the minimum duration of effective interventions, and which active components are necessary for the effectiveness. There was no high quality evidence for other comprehensive early interventions. The identified health economic study is not suitable to evaluate the cost-effectiveness or cost consequences of early interventions. No publications concerning legal, ethical or social aspects were identified. The financial situation of persons with autisms and their families will be improved through the implementation of the "Pflege-Weiterententwicklungsgesetz" (Pf-WG). Further questions concern the organisation of care and the legal representation of autistic patients. Ethical questions arise mainly in the context of the equal supply of care to each individual patient in all regions of the country and the situation of the caregivers. There are only a few studies with high methodology evaluating early interventions in children with autism. Most studies have a short duration with a lack of blinded outcome assessment in many cases. The lack of high quality comparative studies does not allow answering questions of comparative effectiveness of early interventions in autism. It can be concluded that interventions referring to the Lovaas model seem to have the highest effectiveness. This seems to be especially true when they are run clinic-based. However, there was no solid evidence with regard to factors responsible for the effectiveness of programms according to the ABA model. With regard to communication improvement, a systematic parent training seems to be superior to treatment as usual where a mixture of therapeutic elements is used. As well for clinical and health economic
Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang
therapeutic elements is used. As well for clinical and health economic studies there is a substantial problem of generalisability into the German context. The identified health economic study is not suitable to evaluate the cost-effectiveness or cost consequences of early interventions. Conclusion Based on the available studies, there is no sufficient evidence for any of the evaluated behavioural early intervention programmes. Studies suggest that preschool children with autism in behavioural intervention programmes with a frequency of at least 20 hours per week can achieve improvements in cognitive and functional domains. There is no evidence that in a substantial portion of the children a normal development can be achieved by early interventions. Most research evidence is available for ABA. A minimal necessary intensity of interventions to achieve positive outcomes cannot be derived from literature. There are no valid statements possible as to cost-effectiveness or consequences of these interventions. Effective early interventions may reduce total autism costs in the long run. This may be achieved when the initial high treatment expenditures are more than compensated later if persons with this disorder have better social functioning. PMID:21289897
Research on Internet interventions has grown rapidly over the recent years and evidence is growing that Internet-based treatments often result in similar outcomes as conventional face-to-face psychotherapy. Yet there are still unanswered concerns such as whether a therapeutic alliance can be established over the Internet and whether the alliance is important in this new treatment format. A narrative review of studies formally assessing the therapeutic alliance in Internet interventions was conducted. It is the first review summarizing findings on the therapeutic alliance that (i) distinguishes between different forms of Internet interventions and (ii) does not restrict itself to specific Internet-based treatment formats such as guided self-help treatments, e-mail or videoconferencing therapies. Independent of communication modalities, diagnostic groups and amount of contact between clients and therapists, client-rated alliance scores were high, roughly equivalent to alliance ratings found in studies on face-to-face therapy. Mixed results were found regarding the therapist-rated alliance and alliance-outcome associations. The review points to the limitations of the available evidence and identifies unanswered questions. It is concluded that one of the major tasks for future research is to identify unique characteristics of the therapeutic alliance in the different treatment formats.
Reynolds, Arthur J.
Although early intervention programs have enjoyed popular and legislative support, little hard data exist on the long-term consequences of these efforts. This study examined the long-term effects of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) program in Chicago. Begun in 1967, the program operates out of 24 centers, located in proximity to the elementary…
Haber, Julian S.
This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…
Snowling, Margaret J.
This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and…
Khetani, Mary Alunkal
Participation in the natural settings of home and community is one of four major goals for families receiving Part C early intervention services. While participation has been formally recognized as an important service-related outcome, there is a need to build knowledge about its key features to adequately apply the concept in practice. The need…
This paper reviews the American Association on Mental Retardation's (AAMR's) presentation of issues surrounding the field of early intervention. AAMR's publications are the primary sources of information in the paper. Specific sections address: (1) the impact of public laws on the rights of children and families to a free and appropriate public…
Evans, Joyce; Bricker, Donna
The fourth of seven modules for professionals working with young (birth to age 3) handicapped children provides information on equipment, materials, and activities in early intervention. Background information discusses ways to catalog materials and equipment and describes teaching approaches using toys and manipulatives. A variety of teaching…
Vander Schee, Brian A.
The number of studies conducted on college-student attrition is overwhelming. But few examine the impact of adding an early-intervention assessment tool to existing retention programs. Too often, colleges and universities conduct initiatives with similar purposes as disconnected efforts; retention programs in particular can benefit from a more…
King, Gillian; Strachan, Deborah; Tucker, Michelle; Duwyn, Betty; Desserud, Sharon; Shillington, Monique
This article reviews the literature on the transdisciplinary approach to early intervention services and identifies the essential elements of this approach. A practice model describing the implementation of the approach is then presented, based on the experiences of staff members in a home visiting program for infants that has been in existence…
Grotberg, Edith H.
Deprivation may take many forms: malnutrition, understimulation or overstimulation, limited language or social-emotional experiences, and others. The more extended the time of the deprivation, the greater the problem of amelioration. Research has shown that children who experienced deprivations do respond to early intervention and improve their…
Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara
Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)
Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula
This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…
Harbin, Gloria L.; Bruder, Mary Beth; Adams, Candace; Mazzarella, Cynthia; Whitbread, Kathy; Gabbard, Glenn; Staff, Ilene
Effective implementation of service coordination in early intervention, as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, remains a challenge for most states. The present study provides a better understanding of the various aspects of the policy infrastructure that undergird service coordination across the United States. Data from a…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko
This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…
Slaughter, Diana T.
The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…
Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.
Textbooks in developmental and abnormal psychology were examined for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence. The absence of citations to articles in refereed journals shows how research data of questionable validity can seep into the research literature without going through the journal review…
Glovinsky, Ira; Keller, Jackie
An early intervention project for preschool handicapped children is described. Specific program goals (including improved functioning in social, emotional, communication, and preacademic areas) are listed, and roles of the interdisciplinary staff members are considered. Among evaluation approaches discussed are psychological measures, family…
Sibieta, Luke; Kotecha, Mehul; Skipp, Amy
The Nuffield Early Language Intervention is designed to improve the spoken language ability of children during the transition from nursery to primary school. It is targeted at children with relatively poor spoken language skills. Three sessions per week are delivered to groups of two to four children starting in the final term of nursery and…
The purpose of this study was intended to investigate the current system of early intervention needs assessment in Taiwan in order to understand the problems encountered and provide the coping strategies for improving the system. Documentary analysis, phone interview and participant observation were employed in the study to collect the research…
Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret
The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…
Suchman, Nancy E.; DeCoste, Cindy L.
New developments in the treatment of mothers and infants affected by opioid addiction point to the promising effects of interventions that adopt a developmental perspective, occur concurrently with addiction treatment, and target the parent-infant relationship as early as possible. In this article, the authors provide general guidelines for…
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley
Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…
Edwards, Nicole Megan; Gallagher, Peggy A.
In 1 state's Part C early intervention (EI) program, families are afforded a unique opportunity to connect with parent educators (PEs), parents of children who have received EI services, and who are trained to support EI families and staff with a range of tailored duties. In an effort to continually reflect and improve upon the role of PEs, the…
At age 3, children with hearing loss transition from Part C early intervention to Part B public school services. These children represent a heterogeneous population when considering factors such as communication approaches; speech, language, auditory and cognitive skills; social-emotional and motor development; parental involvement; hearing…
Hurry, Jane; Sylva, Kathy
This study explores the long-term effectiveness of two differing models of early intervention for children with reading difficulties: Reading Recovery and a specific phonological training. Approximately 400 children were pre-tested, 95 were assigned to Reading Recovery, 97 to Phonological Training and the remainder acted as controls. In the short…
Professional training in early childhood intervention (ECI), particularly additional certificates, degrees, or continuing education, is currently a major topic within European working groups. The complexity of ECI, including medical, pedagogical, psychological, and social involvement, the need for both family- and child-centered work, and the…
Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine
The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…
Olmsted, Murrey G.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Nelson, Robin E.; Robinson, Nyle D.; Simpson, Mary Ellen; Guillen, Chelsea
In this study, the authors use data from two states to compare how families participating in early intervention who completed a Spanish version of the Family Outcomes Survey (FOS) (n = 291) compared with Hispanic (n = 486) and non-Hispanic (n = 2,363) families who completed the English version. In general, most families reported positive outcomes,…
Brown, William; Horn, Eva M.; Heiser, JoAnn G.; Odom, Samuel L.
This paper describes a model demonstration project to provide inclusive early intervention services to young children with developmental delays and their families. It notes the importance of collaborative partnerships among the significant adults in a child's life as a basis for effective program implementation. The project has three major…
Kyarkanaye, Thilendree; Dada, Shakila; Samuels, Alecia E.
A central tenant of early childhood intervention (ECI) is collaboration between professionals and the caregivers of children receiving these services. There are limited studies on caregiver perceptions of collaboration in ECI teams particularly in resource-limited countries. Sixty-four caregivers participated in this study by completing a…
Scanlon, Donna M.; Anderson, Kimberly L.; Sweeney, Joan M.
This book presents a research-supported framework for early literacy instruction that aligns with multi-tiered response-to-intervention (RTI) models. The book focuses on giving teachers a better understanding of literacy development and how to effectively support children as they begin to read and write. The authors' interactive strategies…
Parada, Patricia M.
The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…
Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…
Early intervention (EI) services are mandated by Part C of The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The EI team, a multidisciplinary team overseen by individual states, is charged with providing family-centered services to support child development in the natural environment. This article examines the use of occupational…
The purpose of this article is to provide a framework that offers a way for early intervention (EI) service providers to better meet the needs of the culturally diverse children and families they serve. This framework was created to organize existing research and literature on cultural responsiveness in a way that fit the unique context of EI. The…
Hiebert, Elfrieda H., Ed.; Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.
Presenting descriptions of seven successful emergent literacy programs, this book demonstrates that early literacy intervention programs with a focus on accelerated learning and on authentic reading and writing tasks can prevent many first-grade children from failing to learn to read. Programs described in the book focus on story book reading and…
Coling, Marcia Cain
This book presents an amalgam of early intervention ideas from the fields of education, occupational therapy, and physical therapy for children with developmental delays. An introductory chapter describes the approach's three theoretical bases: neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT), sensory integration, and Piagetian theory. Chapter 1 considers…
Lennon, Joan M.
A review of literature was conducted in order to: (1) determine whether factors placing the young child at risk for school failure can be identified; (2) determine whether early family interventions and early childhood programs are effective; and (3) identify policy implications. Findings are summarized, and recommendations are offered. Research…
This technical assistance document provides guidelines for child assessment and eligibility determination for early intervention and early childhood special education programs in Oregon. An overview of the assessment process explains screening, eligibility evaluation, and assessment for the Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP). Legal requirements…
Narzisi, Antonio; García-Primo, Patricia; Kawa, Rafal
Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1) analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2) provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes. PMID:29194420
Salmani, Zahra; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Salehi, Mehrdad; K Killeen, Therese; Merghati-Khoei, Effat
In recent years, a growing number of interventions for treatment of female orgasmic problems (FODs) have emerged. Whereas orgasm is a extra biologically and learnable experience, there is a need for practitioners that to be able to select which therapy is the most appropriate to their context. In this critical literature review, we aimed to assess areas of controversy in the existing therapeutic interventions in FOD with taking into accounted the Iranian cultural models. For the present study, we conducted an extensive search of electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy from 1970 till 2014. This strategy was using Google Scholar search, "pearl-growing" techniques and by hand-searching key guidelines, to identify distinct interventions to women's orgasmic problem therapy. We utilized various key combinations of words such as:" orgasm" OR "orgasmic "," female orgasmic dysfunction" OR Female anorgasmia OR Female Orgasmic Disorder ", orgasmic dysfunction AND treatment, "orgasm AND intervention". Selection criteria in order to be included in this review, studies were required to: 1 employ clinical-based interventions, 2 focus on FOD. The majority of interventions (90%) related to non-pharmacological and other were about pharmacological interventions. Self-direct masturbation is suggested as the most privilege treatment in FOD. Reviewing all therapies indicates couple therapy, sexual skill training and sex therapy seem to be more appropriate to be applied in Iranian clinical settings. Since many therapeutic interventions are introduced to inform sexually-related practices, it is important to select an intervention that will be culturally appropriate and sensitive to norms and values. Professionals working in the fields of health and sexuality need to be sensitive and apply culturally appropriate therapies for Iranian population. We further suggest community well defined protocols to screen, assessment and management of women' sexual problems such as FOD
Chanen, Andrew M; Berk, Michael; Thompson, Katherine
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid construct in young people (adolescents and young adults). Both borderline- and mood-related psychopathology become clinically apparent from puberty through to young adulthood, frequently co-occur, can reinforce one another, and can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This Gordian knot of overlapping clinical features, common risk factors, and precursors to both BPD and mood disorders complicates clinical assessment, prevention, and treatment. Regardless of whether an individual crosses an arbitrary diagnostic threshold, a considerable proportion of young people with borderline- and mood-related psychopathology will develop significant and persistent functional, vocational, and interpersonal impairment and disability during this critical risk and developmental period. There is a clear need for early intervention, but spurious diagnostic certainty risks stigma, misapplication of diagnostic labels, inappropriate treatment, and unfavorable outcomes. This article aims to integrate early intervention for BPD and mood disorders in the clinical context of developmental and phenomenological change and evolution. "Clinical staging," similar to disease staging in general medicine, is presented as a pragmatic, heuristic, and trans-diagnostic framework to guide prevention and intervention. It acknowledges that the early stages of these disorders cannot be disentangled sufficiently to allow for disorder-specific preventive measures and early interventions. Clinical staging defines an individual's location along the continuum of the evolving temporal course of a disorder. Such staging aids differentiation of early or milder clinical phenomena from those that accompany illness progression and chronicity, and suggests the application of appropriate and proportionate intervention strategies.
Gersten, Russell; Jordan, Nancy C; Flojo, Jonathan R
This article highlights key findings from the small body of research on mathematics difficulties (MD) relevant to early identification and early intervention. The research demonstrates that (a) for many children, mathematics difficulties are not stable over time; (b) the presence of reading difficulties seems related to slower progress in many aspects of mathematics; (c) almost all students with MD demonstrate problems with accurate and automatic retrieval of basic arithmetic combinations, such as 6 + 3. The following measures appear to be valid and reliable indicators of potential MD in kindergartners: (a) magnitude comparison (i.e., knowing which digit in a pair is larger), (b) sophistication of counting strategies, (c) fluent identification of numbers, and (d) working memory (as evidenced by reverse digit span). These are discussed in terms of the components of number sense. Implications for early intervention strategies are explored.
McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A
This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A
Aims This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. Methods The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. Results After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Conclusions Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. PMID:24354855
Hiremath, Pranoti G; Kearney, Kathleen; Smith, Bryn; Don, Creighton; Dvir, Danny; Aldea, Gabriel; Reisman, Mark; McCabe, James M
Prosthetic leaflet thrombosis is a growing concern in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Given the uncertainty of best practices for antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapies in the post-TAVR period, additional evidence regarding the impact of anticoagulation on prosthetic valve function after TAVR is needed. Patients undergoing native-valve TAVR at a single academic institution between 2012 and 2015 were analyzed based on any anticoagulant use at hospital discharge post TAVR. Changes in prosthetic valve peak velocity and mean gradient were assessed based on transthoracic echocardiograms performed immediately following valve implant and at 4-week follow-up. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to explore the impact of anticoagulation status on early TAVR valve performance. For 403 patients, there were no available data to analyze. Of those, 29.6% were discharged on anticoagulation. Following TAVR, the average mean prosthetic valve gradient was 11.8 ± 5.6 mm Hg and peak velocity was 2.33 ± 0.52 m/s. There were no significant differences between anticoagulated and non-anticoagulated groups in the mean or peak gradients or velocity immediately following implant or at 4 weeks, which remained true following multivariate adjustment (P=.80 for delta mean gradient; P=.91 for delta peak velocity). Our data suggest that the absence of anticoagulation is not associated with short-term degradation in TAVR performance and do not support the routine use of anticoagulation following native-valve TAVR.
Pfister, Katie M; Zhang, Lei; Miller, Neely C; Hultgren, Solveig; Boys, Chris J; Georgieff, Michael K
Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) carries high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) reduces this risk, particularly for moderate encephalopathy (ME). Nevertheless, these infants often have subtle functional deficits, including abnormal memory function. Detection of deficits at the earliest possible time-point would allow for intervention during a period of maximal brain plasticity. Recognition memory function in 22 infants with NE treated with TH was compared to 23 healthy controls using event-related potentials (ERPs) at 2 wk of age. ERPs were recorded to mother's voice alternating with a stranger's voice to assess attentional responses (P2), novelty detection (slow wave), and discrimination between familiar and novel (difference wave). Development was tested at 12 mo using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). The NE group showed similar ERP components and BSID-III scores to controls. However, infants with NE showed discrimination at midline leads (P = 0.01), whereas controls showed discrimination in the left hemisphere (P = 0.05). Normal MRI (P = 0.05) and seizure-free electroencephalogram (EEG) (P = 0.04) correlated positively with outcomes. Infants with NE have preserved recognition memory function after TH. The spatially different recognition memory processing after early brain injury may represent compensatory changes in the brain circuitry and reflect a benefit of TH.
Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P
Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Dispositional optimism was found to be significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r], 0.333; P<.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception (Spearman r, -0.075; P = .329). Dispositional optimism was found to be weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r, 0.215; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (P = .02) and unrealistic optimism (P<.0001) were found to be independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (P = .0001), but not dispositional optimism, was found to be independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information regarding the trials. The data from the current study indicate that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations concerning specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have
Salmani, Zahra; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Salehi, Mehrdad; K.Killeen, Therese; Merghati-Khoei, Effat
Background: In recent years, a growing number of interventions for treatment of female orgasmic problems (FODs) have emerged. Whereas orgasm is a extra biologically and learnable experience, there is a need for practitioners that to be able to select which therapy is the most appropriate to their context. Objective: In this critical literature review, we aimed to assess areas of controversy in the existing therapeutic interventions in FOD with taking into accounted the Iranian cultural models. Materials and Methods: For the present study, we conducted an extensive search of electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy from 1970 till 2014. This strategy was using Google Scholar search, “pearl-growing” techniques and by hand-searching key guidelines, to identify distinct interventions to women's orgasmic problem therapy. We utilized various key combinations of words such as:" orgasm" OR "orgasmic "," female orgasmic dysfunction" OR Female anorgasmia OR Female Orgasmic Disorder ", orgasmic dysfunction AND treatment, “orgasm AND intervention”. Selection criteria in order to be included in this review, studies were required to: 1 employ clinical-based interventions, 2 focus on FOD. Results: The majority of interventions (90%) related to non-pharmacological and other were about pharmacological interventions. Self-direct masturbation is suggested as the most privilege treatment in FOD. Reviewing all therapies indicates couple therapy, sexual skill training and sex therapy seem to be more appropriate to be applied in Iranian clinical settings. Conclusion: Since many therapeutic interventions are introduced to inform sexually-related practices, it is important to select an intervention that will be culturally appropriate and sensitive to norms and values. Professionals working in the fields of health and sexuality need to be sensitive and apply culturally appropriate therapies for Iranian population. We further suggest community well defined protocols
Song, Yi Lin; Yap, Adrian U-Jin
This systematic review aims to determine the impact of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) therapeutic interventions on patients' oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to recommend approaches that improve QoL. A systematic search of the literature was performed between January 2007 and October 2017 to identify articles on TMD interventions and OHRQoL. Randomized controlled trials, and retrospective and prospective cohort studies that mentioned dedicated tools for measurement of OHRQoL changes in TMD patients after therapeutic interventions were included. Abstracts of studies that did not mention any form of measurement of OHRQoL in their treatment outcome were excluded. The initial screening yielded 171 articles. After evaluation of abstracts and full text articles, five articles fulfilled all selection criteria and were included. Most TMD treatment interventions seem to improve QoL to some extent, but no single treatment modality can be advocated as the sole approach to managing TMD. Psychotherapy, occlusal appliance therapy, arthrocentesis, and orthodontics/ orthognathic surgery (in subjects with severe malocclusion) appear to improve OHRQoL of TMD patients. Recommendation on the best TMD intervention for improving QoL could not be made due to the diverse TMD subtypes and non-disease specific OHRQoL instruments employed. More studies incorporating TMD-specific OHRQoL measures and targeting explicit TMD subtypes based on internationally accepted diagnostic criteria are warranted in this area of research.
Storbeck, Claudine; Pittman, Paula
Since little information is available on the outcome of early hearing intervention programs in South Africa, this article examines data on infants and families registered with a family-centred, home-based intervention program (HI HOPES) over a 12-month period in order to track the effectiveness of the holistic unbiased support to families of infants and toddlers with a hearing-loss. The aim of HI HOPES, which is based on the SKI-HI model of early intervention in the USA, is to ensure that families are enabled to make informed choices for their unique infant. Data were gathered on 32 infants ages birth to three years and their families using both qualitative and quantitative measures which included analysis of demographic data, quarterly language assessments, and parent satisfaction surveys. The report on the pilot year of this early intervention program shows that, though the sample is small, there is significant improvement in infant receptive and expressive language for infants identified before seven months of age, as well as a high level of satisfaction from families who have received services.
Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel
Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Colpaert, Kirsten; Hoste, Eric A; Steurbaut, Kristof; Benoit, Dominique; Van Hoecke, Sofie; De Turck, Filip; Decruyenaere, Johan
To evaluate whether a real-time electronic alert system or "AKI sniffer," which is based on the RIFLE classification criteria (Risk, Injury and Failure), would have an impact on therapeutic interventions and acute kidney injury progression. Prospective intervention study. Surgical and medical intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 951 patients having in total 1,079 admission episodes were admitted during the study period (prealert control group: 227, alert group: 616, and postalert control group: 236). Three study phases were compared: A 1.5-month prealert control phase in which physicians were blinded for the acute kidney injury sniffer and a 3-month intervention phase with real-time alerting of worsening RIFLE class through the Digital Enhanced Cordless Technology telephone system followed by a second 1.5-month postalert control phase. A total of 2593 acute kidney injury alerts were recorded with a balanced distribution over all study phases. Most acute kidney injury alerts were RIFLE class risk (59.8%) followed by RIFLE class injury (34.1%) and failure (6.1%). A higher percentage of patients in the alert group received therapeutic intervention within 60 mins after the acute kidney injury alert (28.7% in alert group vs. 7.9% and 10.4% in the pre- and postalert control groups, respectively, p μ .001). In the alert group, more patients received fluid therapy (23.0% vs. 4.9% and 9.2%, p μ .01), diuretics (4.2% vs. 2.6% and 0.8%, p μ .001), or vasopressors (3.9% vs. 1.1% and 0.8%, p μ .001). Furthermore, these patients had a shorter time to intervention (p μ .001). A higher proportion of patients in the alert group showed return to a baseline kidney function within 8 hrs after an acute kidney injury alert "from normal to risk" compared with patients in the control group (p = .048). The real-time alerting of every worsening RIFLE class by the acute kidney injury sniffer increased the number and timeliness of early therapeutic interventions
Matthews, Anne; Dowswell, Therese; Haas, David M; Doyle, Mary; O’Mathúna, Dónal P
Background Nausea, retching and vomiting are very commonly experienced by women in early pregnancy. There are considerable physical and psychological effects on women who experience these symptoms. This is an update of a review of interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy previously published in 2003. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of all interventions for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy, up to 20 weeks’ gestation. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (28 May 2010). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials of any intervention for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy. We excluded trials of interventions for hyperemesis gravidarum which are covered by another review. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials and trials using a crossover design. Data collection and analysis Four review authors, in pairs, reviewed the eligibility of trials and independently evaluated the risk of bias and extracted the data for included trials. Main results Twenty-seven trials, with 4041 women, met the inclusion criteria. These trials covered many interventions, including acupressure, acustimulation, acupuncture, ginger, vitamin B6 and several antiemetic drugs. We identified no studies of dietary or other lifestyle interventions. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of P6 acupressure, auricular (ear) acupressure and acustimulation of the P6 point was limited. Acupuncture (P6 or traditional) showed no significant benefit to women in pregnancy. The use of ginger products may be helpful to women, but the evidence of effectiveness was limited and not consistent. There was only limited evidence from trials to support the use of pharmacological agents including vitamin B6, and anti-emetic drugs to relieve mild or moderate nausea and vomiting. There was little information on maternal and fetal adverse outcomes and on psychological, social or economic outcomes. We
Wicks, K M
This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.
Squires, Garry; Bragg, Joanna; Muscutt, Janet; Wasilewski, David
There is growing concern internationally about the prevalence of mental health problems among school-aged children and their access to specialist services. School psychologists (SPs) may be one group of professionals well-positioned to support the well-being of children and young people, due to their position as applied psychologists working within educational settings and their capability to deliver therapeutic interventions. This research considers findings from a large scale, United Kingdom (UK)-wide survey of the views of SPs (N = 455) about facilitators and barriers to the provision of therapeutic interventions to children and young people. Principal Components Analyses of ranked questionnaire responses yielded three components: The role of the SP; training and practice; and support and psychology service context. Quantitative findings were then triangulated, using qualitative responses from the survey. Greater direction and clarification of the role of the SP as a provider of therapeutic interventions is recommended, particularly given the diverse roles undertaken by SPs and competing demands, particularly from assessment activities. PMID:26412911
Siefert, Caleb J; Hilsenroth, Mark J
Several studies have examined associations between client attachment status and therapeutic alliance. Most, however, measure alliance at a single time point only. This study is among the first to examine how client attachment relates to changes in the therapeutic alliance early in treatment. Forty-six outpatients from a university-based community clinic participated. Attachment status was assessed with the Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) prior to beginning treatment. Participants rated therapeutic alliance after an evaluation feedback session and again early in psychotherapy. Fearful insecurity was associated with declines in therapeutic alliance, while attachment security was associated with increasing client-therapist bonds. Although unrelated to global alliance, preoccupied insecurity was associated with greater confident collaboration at both time points and declines in idealized relationship from the evaluation to the early therapy time point. Results are discussed in light of prior theoretical formulations and previous research. Limitations of the study are reviewed, implications for clinical practice are noted, and suggestions for future research are made. Assessing client attachment status can provide clinicians with information that helps them identify clients at risk for difficulties establishing a therapeutic alliance. Clients high in attachment security are more likely to develop strong bonds with therapists during the early portion of treatment. Clients high in fearful insecurity are at risk for developing weaker alliances early in treatment. Such clients appear more likely to experience declines in client-therapist bond, goal-task agreement and overall alliance early in the treatment process. Clients high in preoccupied insecurity may enter therapy with great confidence in the therapist and willing to engage in therapy but report more conflicts with therapists in the early phase of treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley
Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Carbonell, Jordi; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Sanmartí, Raimon; Balsa, Alejandro; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentín; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra-Cortés, José; Lisbona, Pilar; Alperi, Mercedes; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Carmona, Loreto
To compare the outcome of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a country where early clinics were established versus the outcome of patients in nonprotocolized clinics. We compared 2 multicenter cohorts: an RA cohort derived from an early arthritis registry set in 36 reference hospitals in which a specific intervention was established (Evaluation of a Model for Arthritis Care in Spain [SERAP]), and a historical control cohort of patients with early RA attending 34 rheumatology departments (Prognosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis [PROAR] cohort). Effectiveness was tested by comparing the change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the change in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the change in the Sharp/van der Heijde radiologic score using marginal structural models. A total of 161 early RA patients were recruited in the PROAR cohort and 447 in the SERAP cohort. Being a SERAP patient was inversely correlated with activity, resulting in a decrease of -0.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.39, -0.08) units in the population average of the DAS28 after adjustment was made. Moreover, intervention may be seen as a protective factor of radiologic damage, with a decrease of -0.05 (95% CI -0.09, -0.01) units in the logarithm of the total Sharp/van der Heijde score. On the other hand, a decrease in functional impairment was detected, but intervention was not statistically associated with HAQ changes. Preventing major radiographic progression in a 2-year term inside structured and organized special programs for the management of disease, such as early arthritis clinics, are effective compared to nonprotocolized referrals, treatment, and followup. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Kurowski, Donna; Jonczak, Karin; Shah, Qaisar; Yaghi, Shadi; Marshall, Randolph S; Ahmad, Haroon; McKinney, James; Torres, Jose; Ishida, Koto; Cucchiara, Brett
Intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is contraindicated in therapeutically anti-coagulated patients. Such patients may be considered for endovascular intervention. However, there are limited data on its safety. We performed a multicenter retrospective study of patients undergoing endovascular intervention for acute ischemic stroke while on therapeutic anticoagulation. We compared the observed rate of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke defined symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) with risk-adjusted historical control rates of sICH after IV tPA using weighted averages of the hemorrhage after thrombolysis (HAT) and Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS) prediction scores. We also performed a metaanalysis of studies assessing risk of sICH with endovascular intervention in patients on anticoagulation. Of 94 cases, mean age was 73 years and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 19. Anticoagulation consisted of warfarin (n = 51), dabigatran (n = 6), rivaroxaban (n = 13), apixaban (n = 1), IV heparin (n = 19), low molecular weight heparin (n = 3), and combined warfarin and IV heparin (n = 3). sICH was seen in 7 patients (7%, 95% confidence interval 4-15), all on warfarin. Predicted sICH rates for the cohort based on HAT and MSS scoring were 12% and 7%, respectively. Meta-analysis of 6 studies showed no significant difference in sICH between patients undergoing endovascular intervention on anticoagulation and comparator groups. Endovascular intervention in subjects on therapeutic anticoagulation appears reasonably safe, with a sICH rate similar to patients not on anticoagulation receiving IV tPA. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ballesteros, Mónica; Montero, Nadia; López-Pousa, Antonio; Urrútia, Gerard; Solà, Ivan; Rada, Gabriel; Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Bonfill, Xavier
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours. Currently, different pharmacological and surgical options are used to treat localised and metastatic GISTs, although this research field is broad and the body of evidence is scattered and expanding. Our objectives are to identify, describe and organise the current available evidence for GIST through an evidence mapping approach. We followed the methodology of Global Evidence Mapping (GEM). We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and Epistemonikos in order to identify systematic reviews (SRs) with or without meta-analyses published between 1990 and March 2016. Two authors assessed eligibility and extracted data. Methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using AMSTAR. We organised the results according to identified PICO questions and presented the evidence map in tables and a bubble plot. A total of 17 SRs met eligibility criteria. These reviews included 66 individual studies, of which three quarters were either observational or uncontrolled clinical trials. Overall, the quality of the included SRs was moderate or high. In total, we extracted 14 PICO questions from them and the corresponding results mostly favoured the intervention arm. The most common type of study used to evaluate therapeutic interventions in GIST sarcomas has been non-experimental studies. However, the majority of the interventions are reported as beneficial or probably beneficial by the respective authors of SRs. The evidence mapping is a useful and reliable methodology to identify and present the existing evidence about therapeutic interventions.
Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily
The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salisbury, Christine L.; Cushing, Lisa S.
Despite calls for adoption and use of triadic early intervention practices, remarkably little research has prospectively compared this approach with traditional, provider-led service delivery. The aim of this study was to compare the actions of providers and caregivers within triadic and provider-led interactions with regard to the following: (1)…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2008
"Early Intervention in Reading"[R] is a program designed to provide extra instruction to groups of students at risk of failing to learn to read. The program uses picture books to stress instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, and contextual analysis, along with repeated reading and writing. In grades K, 1, and 2, the program is based on…
Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb
This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…
Sandoval, Julio; Gomez-Arroyo, Jose; Gaspar, Jorge; Pulido-Zamudio, Tomas
Despite significant advances in pharmacological treatments, pulmonary arterial hypertension remains an incurable disease with an unreasonably high morbidity and mortality. Although specific pharmacotherapies have shifted the survival curves of patients and improved exercise endurance as well as quality of life, it is also true that these pharmacological interventions are not always accessible (particularly in developing countries) and, perhaps most importantly, not all patients respond similarly to these drugs. Furthermore, many patients will continue to deteriorate and will eventually require an additional, non-pharmacological, intervention. In this review we analyze the role of atrial septostomy and Potts anastomosis in the management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, we summarize the current worldwide clinical experience (case reports and case series), and discuss why these interventional/surgical strategies might have a therapeutic role beyond that of a "bridge" to transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Hans; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Simopoulos, Thomas T; Christo, Paul J; Gupta, Sanjeeva; Smith, Howard S; Hameed, Haroon; Cohen, Steven P
The contribution of the sacroiliac joint to low back and lower extremity pain has been a subject of debate with extensive research. It is generally accepted that approximately 10% to 25% of patients with persistent low back pain may have pain arising from the sacroiliac joints. In spite of this, there are currently no definite conservative, interventional, or surgical management options for managing sacroiliac joint pain. In addition, there continue to be significant variations in the application of various techniques as well as a paucity of literature. A systematic review of therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions. To evaluate the accuracy of therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions. The available literature on therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain was reviewed. The quality assessment and clinical relevance criteria utilized were the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group criteria for randomized trials of interventional techniques and the criteria developed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. The level of evidence was classified as good, fair, or poor based on the quality of evidence developed by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data sources included relevant literature published from 1966 through December 2011 that was identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. The primary outcome measure was pain relief (short-term relief = up to 6 months and long-term > 6 months). Secondary outcome measures were improvement in functional status, psychological status, return to work, and reduction in opioid intake. For this systematic review, 56 studies were considered for inclusion. Of these, 45 studies were excluded and a total of 11 studies met inclusion criteria for methodological quality assessment with 6 randomized trials and 5 non-randomized studies. The evidence for cooled
Semler, Elisa; Anderl-Straub, Sarah; Uttner, Ingo; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Danek, Adrian; Einsiedler, Beate; Fassbender, Klaus; Fliessbach, Klaus; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Jahn, Holger; Kornhuber, Johannes; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Lauer, Martin; Muche, Rainer; Prudlo, Johannes; Schneider, Anja; Schroeter, Matthias L; Ludolph, Albert C; Otto, Markus
With upcoming therapeutic interventions for patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), instruments for the follow-up of patients are needed to describe disease progression and to evaluate potential therapeutic effects. So far, volumetric brain changes have been proposed as clinical endpoints in the literature, but cognitive scores are still lacking. This study followed disease progression predominantly in language-based performance within 1 year and defined a PPA sum score which can be used in therapeutic interventions. We assessed 28 patients with nonfluent variant PPA, 17 with semantic variant PPA, 13 with logopenic variant PPA, and 28 healthy controls in detail for 1 year. The most informative neuropsychological assessments were combined to a sum score, and associations between brain atrophy were investigated followed by a sample size calculation for clinical trials. Significant absolute changes up to 20% in cognitive tests were found after 1 year. Semantic and phonemic word fluency, Boston Naming Test, Digit Span, Token Test, AAT Written language, and Cookie Test were identified as the best markers for disease progression. These tasks provide the basis of a new PPA sum score. Assuming a therapeutic effect of 50% reduction in cognitive decline for sample size calculations, a number of 56 cases is needed to find a significant treatment effect. Correlations between cognitive decline and atrophy showed a correlation up to r = 0.7 between the sum score and frontal structures, namely the superior and inferior frontal gyrus, as well as with left-sided subcortical structures. Our findings support the high performance of the proposed sum score in the follow-up of PPA and recommend it as an outcome measure in intervention studies.
Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.
The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…
Ijichi, Shinji; Ijichi, Naomi
Although the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a major methodological breakthrough extending the limits of objectivity in clinical medical science, clinical trials of surgery have seldom included placebo surgery as a control, for ethical reasons. Especially in clinical studies intended eventually to establish a new intervention for developmental conditions, it has been recognized that there is huge examiner bias. In addition, the many miraculous cases that have been reported in nonsurgical open trials for developmental conditions and have eventually been evaluated as nonspecific positive outcomes in RCTs suggest that empirically promising interventions must be subjected to scientific scrutiny as soon as possible in the field of developmental conditions. Therefore, in childhood neurosurgery, clinical studies to establish a new therapeutic measure for developmental conditions should be designed as rigorously as possible using optimized scientific methods. The worldwide ethical guideline, the Declaration of Helsinki issued by the World Medical Association, can provide principles for the establishment of a new intervention in the treatment of a patient when proven therapeutic methods do not exist or methods used thus far have been ineffective. Physicians' discretion to use unproven or new therapeutic measures for such patients is approved in the presence of efforts of an ethical and scientific approach. Even if the measure is a very promising intervention, the research aspects must completely be demonstrated for informed consent and review by the ethical committee and the trial must be regarded as a clinical research. Especially when an RCT is not possible for ethical reasons, appropriate epidemiological data or animal experiments should suggest that the new measure is effective before a clinical trial. In a clinical setting, where neither epidemiological studies nor animal experimentation can be introduced, if necessary the researcher should collaborate with
Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H
Although specific interventions in early mathematics have been successful, few have been brought to scale successfully, especially across the challenging diversity of populations and contexts in the early childhood system in the United States. In this chapter, we analyze a theoretically based scale-up model for early mathematics that was designed to avoid the pollution and dilution that often plagues efforts to achieve broad success. We elaborate the theoretical framework by noting the junctures that are susceptible to dilution or pollution. Then we expatiate the model's guidelines to describe specifically how they were designed and implemented to mitigate pollution and dilution. Finally, we provide evidence regarding the success of these efforts. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Kendall H.; Lujan, J. Luis; Trevathan, James K.; Ross, Erika K.; Bartoletta, John J.; Park, Hyung Ook; Paek, Seungleal Brian; Nicolai, Evan N.; Lee, Jannifer H.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Kimble, Christopher J.; Blaha, Charles D.; Bennet, Kevin E.
There has been significant progress in understanding the role of neurotransmitters in normal and pathologic brain function. However, preclinical trials aimed at improving therapeutic interventions do not take advantage of real-time in vivo neurochemical changes in dynamic brain processes such as disease progression and response to pharmacologic, cognitive, behavioral, and neuromodulation therapies. This is due in part to a lack of flexible research tools that allow in vivo measurement of the dynamic changes in brain chemistry. Here, we present a research platform, WINCS Harmoni, which can measure in vivo neurochemical activity simultaneously across multiple anatomical targets to study normal and pathologic brain function. In addition, WINCS Harmoni can provide real-time neurochemical feedback for closed-loop control of neurochemical levels via its synchronized stimulation and neurochemical sensing capabilities. We demonstrate these and other key features of this platform in non-human primate, swine, and rodent models of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Ultimately, systems like the one described here will improve our understanding of the dynamics of brain physiology in the context of neurologic disease and therapeutic interventions, which may lead to the development of precision medicine and personalized therapies for optimal therapeutic efficacy.
Fulton, Alexandra M; Paynter, Jessica M; Trembath, David
Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the social, communication, and cognitive functioning, as well as level of ASD symptoms, in a cohort of children who presented for early intervention to inform understanding of gender differences in this population, as well as to inform understanding of the mechanisms by which gender bias may occur. Participants included 254 children (42 females) aged 29-74 months who completed measures of cognition, communication skills, adaptive behaviour, and ASD symptoms on entry to early intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, no significant gender differences were found both overall, and when split by functioning level. However, a similar ratio of males and females was found in both high- and low-functioning groups contrary to predictions. These results are consistent with some of the previous research that suggests gender differences may not be apparent in clinical samples at this young age. We highlight a need for further research that may use universal screening or longitudinal methods to understand the trajectory of development for females with ASD specifically. Such research could better inform timely and tailored intervention from the preschool years onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mastellos, D C; Ricklin, D; Hajishengallis, E; Hajishengallis, G; Lambris, J D
There is increasing appreciation that complement dysregulation lies at the heart of numerous immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders. Complement inhibitors are therefore being evaluated as new therapeutic options in various clinical translation programs and the first clinically approved complement-targeted drugs have profoundly impacted the management of certain complement-mediated diseases. Among the many members of the intricate protein network of complement, the central component C3 represents a 'hot-spot' for complement-targeted therapeutic intervention. C3 modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses and is linked to diverse immunomodulatory systems and biological processes that affect human pathophysiology. Compelling evidence from preclinical disease models has shown that C3 interception may offer multiple benefits over existing therapies or even reveal novel therapeutic avenues in disorders that are not commonly regarded as complement-driven, such as periodontal disease. Using the clinically developed compstatin family of C3 inhibitors and periodontitis as illustrative examples, this review highlights emerging therapeutic concepts and developments in the design of C3-targeted drug candidates as novel immunotherapeutics for oral and systemic inflammatory diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Portero McLellan, Katia Cristina; Wyne, Kathleen; Villagomez, Evangelina Trejo; Hsueh, Willa A
Clinical trials have demonstrated that it is possible to prevent diabetes through lifestyle modification, pharmacological intervention, and surgery. This review aims to summarize the effectiveness of these various therapeutic interventions in reducing the risk of progression of prediabetes to diabetes, and address the challenges to implement a diabetes prevention program at a community level. Strategies focusing on intensive lifestyle changes are not only efficient but cost-effective and/or cost-saving. Indeed, lifestyle intervention in people at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been successful in achieving sustained behavioral changes and a reduction in diabetes incidence even after the counseling is stopped. Although prediabetes is associated with health and economic burdens, it has not been adequately addressed by interventions or regulatory agencies in terms of prevention or disease management. Lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent T2DM should be distinct for different populations around the globe and should emphasize sex, age, ethnicity, and cultural and geographical considerations to be feasible and to promote better compliance. The translation of diabetes prevention research at a population level, especially finding the most effective methods of preventing T2DM in various societies and cultural settings remains challenging, but must be accomplished to stop this worldwide epidemic. PMID:24672242
Catlett, Camille, Comp.; Winton, Pamela J., Comp.
This resource guide is intended to identify both primary and supplementary resources for designing preservice and inservice training on early intervention programs for children with disabilities. The instructional materials are described and listed in three sections. The first section provides annotated descriptions of instructional materials in…
Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy
Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…
Peralta, Susana; Torraco, Alessandra; Iommarini, Luisa; Diaz, Francisca
Mitochondrial defects are the cause of numerous disorders affecting the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) in humans leading predominantly to neurological and muscular degeneration. The molecular origin, manifestations, and progression of mitochondrial diseases have a broad spectrum, which makes very challenging to find a globally effective therapy. The study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial dysfunction indicates that there is a wide range of pathways, enzymes and molecules that could be potentially targeted for therapeutic purpose. Therefore, focusing on the pathology of the disease is essential to design new treatments. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the different therapeutic interventions tested in some mouse models of mitochondrial diseases laying emphasis on the molecular mechanisms of action and their potential applications. PMID:25638392
Abend, Michael; Port, Matthias
The authors herein summarize six presentations dedicated to the key session "molecular radiation epidemiology" of the ConRad meeting 2015. These presentations were chosen in order to highlight the promise when combining conventional radiation epidemiology with molecular biology. Conventional radiation epidemiology uses dose estimates for risk predictions on health. However, combined with molecular biology, dose-dependent bioindicators of effect hold the promise to improve clinical diagnostics and to provide target molecules for potential therapeutic intervention. One out of the six presentations exemplified the use of radiation-induced molecular changes as biomarkers of exposure by measuring stabile chromosomal translocations. The remaining five presentations focused on molecular changes used as bioindicators of the effect. These bioindicators of the effect could be used for diagnostic purposes on colon cancers (genomic instability), thyroid cancer (CLIP2), or head and neck squamous cell cancers. Therapeutic implications of gene expression changes were examined in Chernobyl thyroid cancer victims and Mayak workers.
Scheff, Stephen W; Ansari, Mubeen A
There has been a tremendous focus on the discovery and development of neuroprotective agents that might have clinical relevance following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This type of brain injury is very complex and is divided into two major components. The first component, a primary injury, occurs at the time of impact and is the result of the mechanical insult itself. This primary injury is thought to be irreversible and resistant to most treatments. A second component or secondary brain injury, is defined as cellular damage that is not immediately obvious after trauma, but that develops after a delay of minutes, hours, or even days. This injury appears to be amenable to treatment. Because of the complexity of the secondary injury, any type of therapeutic intervention needs to be multi-faceted and have the ability to simultaneously modulate different cellular changes. Because of diverse pharmaceutical interactions, combinations of different drugs do not work well in concert and result in adverse physiological conditions. Research has begun to investigate the possibility of using natural compounds as a therapeutic intervention following TBI. These compounds normally have very low toxicity and have reduced interactions with other pharmaceuticals. In addition, many natural compounds have the potential to target numerous different components of the secondary injury. Here, we review 33 different plant-derived natural compounds, phytochemicals, which have been investigated in experimental animal models of TBI. Some of these phytochemicals appear to have potential as possible therapeutic interventions to offset key components of the secondary injury cascade. However, not all studies have used the same scientific rigor, and one should be cautious in the interpretation of studies using naturally occurring phytochemical in TBI research.
Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.
The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mondi, Christina F.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Hayakawa, Momo
We describe the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote the well-being of vulnerable children and families. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions beginning in the first few years of life. Relatively large effects of program participation have been documented for school readiness skills, parent involvement, K-12 achievement, reduced need for remedial education, educational attainment, and crime prevention. The three processes account for up to half of the program impact on well-being. They also help to explain the positive economic returns of many effective programs. The generalizability of these processes is supported by a sizable knowledge base, including a scale-up of the Child-Parent Centers in two states. PMID:28195326
Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F; Hayakawa, Momoko
This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions beginning by age 4. Relatively large effects of participation have been documented for school readiness skills at age 5, parent involvement, K-12 achievement, remedial education, educational attainment, and crime prevention. The three processes account for up to half of the program impacts on well-being. They also help to explain the positive economic returns of many effective programs. The generalizability of these processes is supported by a sizable knowledge base, including a scale up of the Child-Parent Centers. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung
The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.126 Early intervention services in natural...
... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Early intervention requirements for certain... SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (REGULATION X) Mortgage Servicing § 1024.39 Early intervention requirements for... of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 1024.39 Early intervention requirements for...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention services in natural environments. 303...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.126 Early intervention services in natural...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.126 Early intervention services in natural...
Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Carbonell, Félix M; Sotero, Roberto C; Chouinard-Decorte, Francois; Evans, Alan C
Generative models focused on multifactorial causal mechanisms in brain disorders are scarce and generally based on limited data. Despite the biological importance of the multiple interacting processes, their effects remain poorly characterized from an integrative analytic perspective. Here, we propose a spatiotemporal multifactorial causal model (MCM) of brain (dis)organization and therapeutic intervention that accounts for local causal interactions, effects propagation via physical brain networks, cognitive alterations, and identification of optimum therapeutic interventions. In this article, we focus on describing the model and applying it at the population-based level for studying late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). By interrelating six different neuroimaging modalities and cognitive measurements, this model accurately predicts spatiotemporal alterations in brain amyloid-β (Aβ) burden, glucose metabolism, vascular flow, resting state functional activity, structural properties, and cognitive integrity. The results suggest that a vascular dysregulation may be the most-likely initial pathologic event leading to LOAD. Nevertheless, they also suggest that LOAD it is not caused by a unique dominant biological factor (e.g. vascular or Aβ) but by the complex interplay among multiple relevant direct interactions. Furthermore, using theoretical control analysis of the identified population-based multifactorial causal network, we show the crucial advantage of using combinatorial over single-target treatments, explain why one-target Aβ based therapies might fail to improve clinical outcomes, and propose an efficiency ranking of possible LOAD interventions. Although still requiring further validation at the individual level, this work presents the first analytic framework for dynamic multifactorial brain (dis)organization that may explain both the pathologic evolution of progressive neurological disorders and operationalize the influence of multiple interventional
Panteliadis, Christos P; Hagel, Christian; Karch, Dieter; Heinemann, Karl
One of the oldest and probably well-known examples of cerebral palsy is the mummy of the Pharaoh Siptah about 1196–1190 B.C., and a letter from Hippocrates (460–390 B.C.). Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common congenital or acquired neurological impairments in paediatric patients, and refers to a group of children with motor disability and related functional defects. The visible core of CP is characterized by abnormal coordination of movements and/or muscle tone which manifest very early in the development. Resulting from pre- or perinatal brain damage CP is not a progressive condition per se. However, without systematic medical and physiotherapeutic support the dystonia leads to muscle contractions and to deterioration of the handicap. Here we review the three general spastic manifestations of CP hemiplegia, diplegia and tetraplegia, describe the diagnostic procedures and delineate a time schedule for an early intervention. PMID:26191093
Hervier, B; Magar, Y; Allab, F; Richard, K; Neves, Y; Danjou, S; Amoura, Z; Ayçaguer, S
Though recommended, participation of patients with specific expertise in therapeutic education programs (TEP) is rare. This work reports the experience of a national reference centre for rare systemic diseases. Involvement of "expert patients" (EP) has been planned from the development of a TEP dedicated to systemic lupus: patients' roles and required expertise have been defined and linked to the pedagogical tools. Such patients have been recruited during individual interviews and called to participate to specific pedagogical training. EP intervention have been evaluated by questionnaire to EP and health care providers. Three EP's functions have been identified: sharing experiences, giving "tips and tricks" and promoting dialogue. EP's interventions has been organised into a hierarchy (from sharing to co-animation). Among 298 patients enrolled in the TEP, 25 (8.4%) have been identified as possible EP. Eight of them (32%) benefited from a specific training of 12 hours. Among these patients, two (25%) regularly participate to the education sessions. For EP as well as for health care providers, EP's intervention seems beneficial (visual scale scores of 7.5 and 9.5, respectively). Though difficult to organise, EP's intervention in TEP dedicated to rare systemic diseases seems useful and would earn to be increase. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Birnbaum, Michael L; Garrett, Chantel; Baumel, Amit; Scovel, Maria; Rizvi, Asra F; Muscat, Whitney; Kane, John M
Identifying and engaging youth with early-stage psychotic disorders in order to facilitate timely treatment initiation remains a major public health challenge. Although advertisers routinely use the Internet to directly target consumers, limited efforts have focused on applying available technology to proactively encourage help-seeking in the mental health community. This study explores how one might take advantage of Google AdWords in order to reach prospective patients with early psychosis. A landing page was developed with the primary goal of encouraging help-seeking individuals in New York City to contact their local early psychosis intervention clinic. In order to provide the best opportunity to reach the intended audience, Google AdWords was utilized to link more than 2,000 selected search terms to strategically placed landing page advertisements. The campaign ran for 14 weeks between April 11 and July 18, 2016 and had a total budget of $1,427. The ads appeared 191,313 times and were clicked on 4,350 times, at a per-click cost of $.33. Many users took additional help-seeking steps, including obtaining psychosis-specific information/education (44%), completing a psychosis self-screener (15%), and contacting the local early treatment program (1%). Digital ads appear to be a reasonable and cost-effective method to reach individuals who are searching for behavioral health information online. More research is needed to better understand the many complex steps between online search inquiries and making first clinical contact.
Day-Hess, Crystal; Clements, Douglas H
The DREME Network was created to advance the field of early mathematics research and improves the opportunities to develop math competencies offered to children birth through age 8 years, with an emphasis on the preschool years. All four main Network projects will have implications for interventions. Section 1 introduces the Network and its four projects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on one of these four projects, Making More of Math (MMM), in depth. MMM is directly developing an intervention for children, based on selecting high-quality instructional activities culled from the burgeoning curriculum resources. We first report a review of 457 activities from 6 research-based curricula, which describes the number of activities by content focus, type (nature), and setting of each activity. Given the interest in higher-order thinking skills and self-regulation, we then identified activities that had the potential to, develop both mathematics and executive function (EF) proficiencies. We rated these, selecting the top 10 for extensive coding by mathematics content and EF processes addressed. We find a wide divergence across curricula in all these categories and provide comprehensive reports for those interested in selecting, using, or developing early mathematics curricula. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.
Vlaskamp, Carla; Nakken, Han
For several reasons, people with profound and multiple disabilities may be offered a variety of therapeutic interventions. Thus far, researchers have shown a limited interest in providing an empirical base for these interventions. Research is needed on the theoretical rationale (if any), the supposed "modus operandi" and the claimed…
Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base.
Johansen, Ragnhild; Melle, Ingrid; Iversen, Valentina Cabral; Hestad, Knut
The quality of the therapeutic alliance is associated with engagement in- and thus important to the outcome of- treatment in schizophrenia. In non-psychotic disorders, general personality traits and individual patterns of interpersonal problems have been linked to the formation and quality of the therapeutic alliance. The role of these factors in relation to therapeutic alliance has not previously been explored in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. To investigate associations between personality traits, interpersonal problems and the quality of the therapeutic alliance in early schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Demographic and clinical characteristics including Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores were assessed in 42 patients. Personality traits and interpersonal problems were assessed with the NEO Five factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and the circumplex model of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64C). Therapeutic alliance was measured with the Working Alliance Inventory - short form (WAI-S). Patient WAI-S scores were predicted by IIP-64C Submissive/Hostile interpersonal problems, age and PANSS excitative symptoms. Therapist WAI-S scores were predicted by NEO-FFI Agreeableness and the PANSS insight item. Core traits of personality and dimensions of interpersonal problems are associated with both patients' and therapists' perceptions of the quality of the working alliance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bruns, Deborah A.; LaRocco, Diana J.; Sharp, Olga L.; Sopko, Kim Moherek
In 2015, the Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children released a position statement on leadership in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). Division for Early Childhood emphasized the importance of developing and supporting high-quality leadership within and across all levels of EI/ECSE…
Gotsman, Israel; Ezra, Orly; Hirsh Raccah, Bruria; Admon, Dan; Lotan, Chaim; Dekeyser Ganz, Freda
Many patients with heart failure need anticoagulants, including warfarin. Good control is particularly challenging in heart failure patients, with <60% of international normalized ratio (INR) measurements in the therapeutic range, thereby increasing the risk of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a patient-specific tailored intervention on anticoagulation control in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure taking warfarin therapy (n = 145) were randomized to either standard care or a 1-time intervention assessing potential risk factors for lability of INR, in which they received patient-specific instructions. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) using Rosendaal's linear model was assessed 3 months before and after the intervention. The patient-tailored intervention significantly increased anticoagulation control. The median TTR levels before intervention were suboptimal in the interventional and control groups (53% vs 45%, P = .14). After intervention the median TTR increased significantly in the interventional group compared with the control group (80% [interquartile range, 62%-93%] vs 44% [29%-61%], P <.0001). The intervention resulted in a significant improvement in the interventional group before versus after intervention (53% vs 80%, P <.0001) but not in the control group (45% vs 44%, P = .95). The percentage of patients with a TTR ≥60%, considered therapeutic, was substantially higher in the interventional group: 79% versus 25% (P <.0001). The INR variability (standard deviation of each patient's INR measurements) decreased significantly in the interventional group, from 0.53 to 0.32 (P <.0001) after intervention but not in the control group. Patient-specific tailored intervention significantly improves anticoagulation therapy in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zorzela, Liliane; Mior, Silvano; Boon, Heather; Gross, Anita; Yager, Jeromy; Carter, Rose; Vohra, Sunita
To develop and test a tool to assess the causality of direct and indirect adverse events associated with therapeutic interventions. The intervention was one or more drugs and/or natural health products, a device, or practice (professional delivering the intervention). Through the assessment of causality of adverse events, we can learn about factors contributing to the harm and consider what modification may prevent its reoccurrence. Existing scales (WHO-UMC, Naranjo and Horn) were adapted to develop a tool (algorithm and table) to evaluate cases of serious harmful events reported through a national surveillance study. We also incorporated a novel approach that assesses indirect harm (caused by the delay in diagnosis/treatment) and the health provider delivering the intervention (practice). The tool was tested, revised and then implemented to assess all reported cases of serious events resulting from use of complementary therapies. The use of complementary therapies was the trigger to report the event. Each case was evaluated by two assessors, out of a panel of five, representing different health care professionals. The tool was used in assessment of eight serious adverse events. Each event was independently evaluated by two assessors. The algorithm facilitated assessment of a serious direct or indirect harm. Assessors agreed in the final score on seven of eight cases (weighted kappa coefficient of 0.75). A tool to support the assessment of causality of adverse events was developed and tested. We propose a novel method to assess direct and indirect harms related to product(s), device(s), practice or a combination of the previous. Further research will probably help evaluate this approach across different settings and interventions.
Larmar, Stephen; Gatfield, Terry
The Early Impact (EI) program is an early intervention and prevention program for reducing the incidence of conduct problems in pre-school aged children. The EI intervention framework is ecological in design and includes universal and indicated components. This paper delineates key principles and associated strategies that underpin the EI program.…
Maillard, Pauline; Kramer, Ueli
Self-criticism is considered as a harsh or punitive evaluation of the self. It is omnipresent in culture, in daily life as well as in psychotherapy. Self-criticism can lead to question oneself but can also open new perspectives and guide us. However, it can become excessive, rigid, and might turn out to be deleterious. This present article focuses on the concept of self-criticism in clinical psychology and psychotherapy and aims to review current knowledge about this topic. First, its definition and the reasons for its development in individuals will be presented. Second, a description of the links between self-criticism and psychopathology will be made, in particular regarding depression. Finally, the third part of this article will be dedicated to the therapeutic interventions that can reduce self-criticism.
Arduino, Daniela M; Esteves, A Raquel; Silva, Diana F F; Martins-Branco, Diogo; Santos, Daniel; Pimentel, Diana F Gomes; Cardoso, Sandra M
Cellular homeostasis relies on quality control systems so that damaged biologic structures are either repaired or degraded and entirely replaced by newly formed proteins or even organelles. The clearance of dysfunctional cellular structures in long-lived postmitotic cells, like neurons, is essential to eliminate, per example, defective mitochondria, lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes and oxidized proteins. Short-lived proteins are degraded mainly by proteases and proteasomes whether most long-lived proteins and all organelles are digested by autophagy in the lysosomes. Recently, it an interplay was established between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and macroautophagy, so that both degradative mechanisms compensate for each other. In this article we describe each of these clearance systems and their contribution to neuronal quality control. We will highlight some of the findings that provide evidence for the dysfunction of these systems in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Ultimately, we provide an outline on potential therapeutic interventions based on the modulation of cellular degradative systems.
Journy, N; Sinno-Tellier, S; Maccia, C; Le Tertre, A; Pirard, P; Pagès, P; Eilstein, D; Donadieu, J; Bar, O
Objective The study aimed to characterise the factors related to the X-ray dose delivered to the patient's skin during interventional cardiology procedures. Methods We studied 177 coronary angiographies (CAs) and/or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties (PTCAs) carried out in a French clinic on the same radiography table. The clinical and therapeutic characteristics, and the technical parameters of the procedures, were collected. The dose area product (DAP) and the maximum skin dose (MSD) were measured by an ionisation chamber (Diamentor; Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and radiosensitive film (Gafchromic; International Specialty Products Advanced Materials Group, Wayne, NJ). Multivariate analyses were used to assess the effects of the factors of interest on dose. Results The mean MSD and DAP were respectively 389 mGy and 65 Gy cm−2 for CAs, and 916 mGy and 69 Gy cm−2 for PTCAs. For 8% of the procedures, the MSD exceeded 2 Gy. Although a linear relationship between the MSD and the DAP was observed for CAs (r=0.93), a simple extrapolation of such a model to PTCAs would lead to an inadequate assessment of the risk, especially for the highest dose values. For PTCAs, the body mass index, the therapeutic complexity, the fluoroscopy time and the number of cine frames were independent explanatory factors of the MSD, whoever the practitioner was. Moreover, the effect of technical factors such as collimation, cinematography settings and X-ray tube orientations on the DAP was shown. Conclusion Optimising the technical options for interventional procedures and training staff on radiation protection might notably reduce the dose and ultimately avoid patient skin lesions. PMID:22457404
Cornelius, Carolin; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Calabrese, Edward J.; Mattson, Mark P.
Abstract Despite the capacity of chaperones and other homeostatic components to restore folding equilibrium, cells appear poorly adapted for chronic oxidative stress that increases in cancer and in metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Modulation of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms represents an innovative approach to therapeutic intervention in diseases causing chronic tissue damage, such as in neurodegeneration. This article introduces the concept of hormesis and its applications to the field of neuroprotection. It is argued that the hormetic dose response provides the central underpinning of neuroprotective responses, providing a framework for explaining the common quantitative features of their dose–response relationships, their mechanistic foundations, and their relationship to the concept of biological plasticity, as well as providing a key insight for improving the accuracy of the therapeutic dose of pharmaceutical agents within the highly heterogeneous human population. This article describes in mechanistic detail how hormetic dose responses are mediated for endogenous cellular defense pathways, including sirtuin and Nrf2 and related pathways that integrate adaptive stress responses in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Particular attention is given to the emerging role of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide gases in hormetic-based neuroprotection and their relationship to membrane radical dynamics and mitochondrial redox signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 1763–1811. PMID:20446769
Yang, Jessica F.; Walia, Amit; Huang, Yu-hui; Han, Kyu-yeon; Rosenblatt, Mark I; Azar, Dimitri T.; Chang, Jin-Hong
A major focus of cancer research for several decades has been understanding the ability of tumors to induce new blood vessel formation, a process known as angiogenesis. Unfortunately, only limited success has been achieved in the clinical application of angiogenesis inhibitors. We now know that lymphangiogenesis, the growth of lymphatic vessels, likely also plays a major role in tumor progression. Thus, therapeutic strategies targeting lymphangiogenesis or both lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis may represent promising approaches for treating cancer and other diseases. Importantly, research progress toward understanding lymphangiogenesis is significantly behind that related to angiogenesis. A PubMed search of ‘angiogenesis’ returns nearly 80,000 articles, whereas a search of ‘lymphangiogenesis’ returns approximately 2,635 articles. This stark contrast can be explained by the lack of molecular markers for identifying the invisible lymphatic vasculature that persisted until less than two decades ago combined with the intensity of research interest in angiogenesis during the past half-century. Still, significant strides have been made in developing strategies to modulate lymphangiogenesis, largely using ocular disease models. Here, we review the current knowledge of lymphangiogenesis in the context of knockout models, ocular diseases, the biology of activators and inhibitors, and the potential for therapeutic interventions targeting this process. PMID:26706194
Ameur, Hayet; Ravaud, Philippe; Fayard, Florence; Riveros, Carolina; Dechartres, Agnes
To determine whether recently published and ongoing systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions assess patient-important outcomes. For this methodological review, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed for recently published systematic reviews and online registry of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) for ongoing systematic reviews. We selected systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. We extracted all outcomes defined in the methods section and categorized them. Mortality, other clinical events, pain, quality of life, function, and therapeutic decisions were considered patient-important outcomes. We included 420 systematic reviews: 90 Cochrane reviews, 200 other published reviews, and 130 registered ongoing reviews. Primary outcomes were defined in 85 Cochrane reviews (95%), 98 (49%) other published reviews and all ongoing reviews. At least one patient-important outcome was defined as a primary outcome in 81/85 Cochrane reviews (95%), 78/98 other published reviews (80%), and 117/130 ongoing reviews (90%). Considering all outcomes assessed, at least one patient-important outcome was evaluated in 90/90 Cochrane reviews (100%), 189/200 other published reviews (95%), and 121/130 ongoing reviews (93%). Most recent systematic reviews aim to assess patient-important outcomes, which contrasts with RCTs. These results suggest some important gaps between primary and secondary research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To describe the establishment and development of an Early Psychosis Intervention Programme in Singapore that is based on a business model and with concepts drawn from the corporate world. The author who directed this programme describes the circumstances that led to this initiative, the ideas borrowed and adapted from the corporate world, and the lessons learnt in setting up this intervention programme. The modus operandi of the programme is based on the Balanced Scorecard - a model which stresses four equally important components: customers, internal processes, financial health and learning and innovation. Other complementary actions like creating a sense of urgency, forging a vision with a core ideology, empowerment of team members, creating short-term wins, anchoring the changes and finding meaning in the work are vital for the programme to thrive. This model also emphasizes the importance of accountability through the measurability of indicators. These indicators included a significant reduction in the duration of untreated psychosis, a positive change in the referral patterns with better engagement of the primary health-care sector and an improvement in the quality of care for the patients. Much can be learnt from the business world in building and maintaining a public mental health programme. Effective change also requires effective leadership, and the successful implementation of certain strategic steps.
Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.
We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct…
Mooney, Kathleen C.
An abundance of research on early literacy intervention indicates that struggling, K-2 readers and writers can be effectively supported through the receipt of intervention services in school; however, research in the area has not yet addressed study of the unique, contextualized design and implementation of early literacy intervention in different…
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…
Bailey, Drew H.; Nguyen, Tutrang; Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Domina, Thurston; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie S.
A robust finding across research on early childhood educational interventions is that the treatment effect diminishes over time, with children not receiving the intervention eventually catching up to children who did. One popular explanation for fadeout of early mathematics interventions is that elementary school teachers may not teach the kind of…
Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli
This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…
Homan, Susan; King, James R.; Hogarty, Kris
Over the last 2 years, Accelerated Literacy Learning (ALL) has experimented with the small group model in early literacy intervention, with success comparable to that in one-to-one intervention. There can be little doubt that intervention provided to struggling readers is most effectively initiated at an early stage. The ALL program was conceived…
Bumaschny, Viviana F.; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S.J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity. PMID:23093774
Restek-Petrović, Branka; Mayer, Nina; Grah, Majda
Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan" in Zagreb, Croatia, offers an outpatient Early intervention programme for patients with psychotic disorders (RIPEPP), consisting of psychoeducational workshops and group psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy presents a unique conceptual format not offered by other types of psychotherapy, and it is especially useful for population of patients with psychotic disorders. During group work, gradual establishment of communication and interactions, and creating a network of relations through experiences of corrective emotional symbiosis, affect the constellation of internal objects and relationships between members, and their restructuring. The function of group psychotherapy is not only to offer relief, support, and elements of education, but also to enable internal changes. Therapeutic factors contributing to the improvement of people with schizophrenia include supportive aspects such as universality, acceptance, cohesion, hope and altruism. This paper contains vignettes from inpatient and outpatient group dynamics.
Wong, Horng Hien; Yong, Yee Huei; Shahwan, Shazana; Cetty, Laxman; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Hon, Charlene; Lee, Helen; Loh, Christopher; Abdin, Edimansyah; Subramaniam, Mythily
This qualitative study explored the perspectives of clients and caregivers on case management provided by the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme (EPIP), with the intent to understand the salient aspects of case management from their perspective. Clients and their caregivers were recruited from the EPIP outpatient clinics. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted at a community centre outside the hospital with 47 clients and 19 caregivers. Facilitators were experienced researchers who were not involved in the care of the clients and trained in qualitative research methodologies. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim with all participants' identifiers omitted to protect confidentiality. Qualitative data analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. There were 11 themes that emerged from the FGDs: therapeutic alliance, holistic monitoring, collaborative role with other care providers, counselling and guidance, crisis management, bridging role, client-centred care, client empowerment and strength building, psychoeducation/education on illness, support and problem solving. "Problem solving" surfaced only from the client FGDs; the remaining themes were common to both groups. The voices of clients and caregivers are important to EPIP case management service. This study has provided insights into their perspectives, understandings and lived experiences of case management and its impact on clients and caregivers. © 2017 The Authors Early Intervention in Psychiatry Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bush, Matthew L.; Burton, Mary; Loan, Ashley; Shinn, Jennifer B.
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the timing of early intervention diagnostic and therapeutic services in cochlear implant recipients from rural and urban areas. Study design Retrospective case series review Setting Tertiary referral center Patients Cochlear implant recipients from a single comprehensive hearing institute born with severe congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined. Timing of diagnostic and therapeutic services was examined. Intervention(s) Diagnosis, amplification, and eventual cochlear implantation for all patients in the study Main outcome measure(s) Time points of definitive diagnosis, amplification, and cochlear implantation for children from urban and rural regions were examined. Correlation analysis of distance to testing center and timing of services was also assessed. Results 40 children born with congenital hearing loss were included in the study and were diagnosed at a median age of 13 weeks after birth. Children from rural regions obtained amplification at a median age of 47.7 weeks after birth, while urban children were amplified at 26 weeks after birth. Cochlear implantation was performed at a median age of 182 weeks after birth in those from rural areas and at 104 weeks after birth in urban-dwelling patients. A linear relationship was identified between distance to the implant center and timing of hearing aid amplification (r=0.5, p=0.033) and cochlear implantation (r=0.5, p=0.016). Conclusions Children residing outside of metro areas may be at higher risk of delayed rehabilitative services and cochlear implantation than those residing in urban areas that may be closer in proximity to tertiary care centers. PMID:24136305
Diken, Ibrahim H.; Bayhan, Pinar; Turan, Figen; Sipal, R. Firat; Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Ceber-Bakkaloglu, Hatice; Gunel, Mintaze Kerem; Kara, Ozgun Kaya
The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of early childhood intervention and early childhood special education (ECI/ECSE) services and practices in Turkey by using the Developmental System Approach (M. J. Guralnick, 2001). After pointing out the history of early childhood and ECI/ECSE services and current legislations with regard to…
Bohjanen, Sharon L.
Infants and toddlers who live in poverty are more likely to experience developmental delays or disabilities and less likely to access early intervention (EI) services. The federal initiative Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) was designed to increase access to high quality early learning programs for children at risk for…
Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin
Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status.
Jensen, Matthew B.; Janik, Erika L.; Waclawik, Andrew J.
We sought to identify early uses of blinding in therapeutic clinical trials of neurological disorders by multiple search methods. A 1784 report by Benjamin Franklin and others described the evaluation of the use of Mesmerism to treat neurological and other syndromes including headache and epilepsy, using blindfolds and screens. This report demonstrated the usefulness of blinding to reduce bias in clinical research, yet despite this early discovery, blinding was not widely accepted or routinely used until the 20th century. Blinded clinical trials began to be used for various neurological syndromes in the 1950s, sporadically at first and then increasing in frequency in subsequent years. The reason for this delay is unclear, but we propose several hypotheses. PMID:27617324
Crous-Bou, Marta; Minguillón, Carolina; Gramunt, Nina; Molinuevo, José Luis
Due to the progressive aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming a healthcare burden of epidemic proportions for which there is currently no cure. Disappointing results from clinical trials performed in mild-moderate AD dementia combined with clear epidemiological evidence on AD risk factors are contributing to the development of primary prevention initiatives. In addition, the characterization of the long asymptomatic stage of AD is allowing the development of intervention studies and secondary prevention programmes on asymptomatic at-risk individuals, before substantial irreversible neuronal dysfunction and loss have occurred, an approach that emerges as highly relevant.In this manuscript, we review current strategies for AD prevention, from primary prevention strategies based on identifying risk factors and risk reduction, to secondary prevention initiatives based on the early detection of the pathophysiological hallmarks and intervention at the preclinical stage of the disease. Firstly, we summarize the evidence on several AD risk factors, which are the rationale for the establishment of primary prevention programmes as well as revising current primary prevention strategies. Secondly, we review the development of public-private partnerships for disease prevention that aim to characterize the AD continuum as well as serving as platforms for secondary prevention trials. Finally, we summarize currently ongoing clinical trials recruiting participants with preclinical AD or a higher risk for the onset of AD-related cognitive impairment.The growing body of research on the risk factors for AD and its preclinical stage is favouring the development of AD prevention programmes that, by delaying the onset of Alzheimer's dementia for only a few years, would have a huge impact on public health.
Wilson, J Hamilton
Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. Margaret Mead It has been my privilege to work in partnership with hundreds of patients experiencing emergent psychosis, in Hamilton, Ontario during the course of my lengthy nursing career. Indeed, the knowledge I have gleaned from both the courageous individuals who have experienced serious mental illness and their resilient families has been monumental. When I first began my career, I was utterly naïve and most certainly held the misguided assumption that to be a mental health nurse required an adherence to a strict set of nursing principles and that the nurse-patient relationship was approached from an objective and 'safe' distance. Reflecting on this now, many years later I understand that the therapeutic relationship between nurses and those they serve is foundational to the delivery of safe and ethical mental health care. Although increasingly clinical practice guidelines and evidence-based interventions serve to inform nursing practice, in my mind it is the embodied experience of relationship that is the real instrument of healing and transformation. Recognizing that early intervention provides an unprecedented opportunity to begin anew with young patients who have no prior experiences with the mental health care system, the purpose of this paper is to serve as a vehicle for discussion and potentially inspire a group of thoughtful, committed nurses to change the world of mental health services by creating a respectful moral community. I propose that relational ethics form the values and ideals of a fully humane early psychosis intervention community in Ontario. Using the foundational tenets of the nurse-patient relationship illustrated through the use of a clinical narrative, I will suggest ways that nurses can proactively take up the early intervention challenge and contribute to an overall culture of optimism and hope
Mastri, Michalis; Shah, Zaeem; Hsieh, Karin; Wang, Xiaowen; Wooldridge, Bailey; Martin, Sean; Suzuki, Gen; Lee, Techung
Progressive fibrosis is a pathological hallmark of many chronic diseases responsible for organ failure. Although there is currently no therapy on the market that specifically targets fibrosis, the dynamic fibrogenic process is known to be regulated by multiple soluble mediators that may be therapeutically intervened. The failing hamster heart exhibits marked fibrosis and increased expression of secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) amenable to reversal by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy. Given the previous demonstration that sFRP2-null mice subjected to myocardial infarction exhibited reduced fibrosis and improved function, we tested whether antibody-based sFRP2 blockade might counteract the fibrogenic pathway and repair cardiac injury. Cardiomyopathic hamsters were injected intraperitoneally twice a week each with 20 μg of sFRP2 antibody. Echocardiography, histology, and biochemical analyses were performed after 1 mo. sFRP2 antibody increased left ventricular ejection fraction from 40 ± 1.2 to 49 ± 6.5%, whereas saline and IgG control exhibited a further decline to 37 ± 0.9 and 31 ± 3.2%, respectively. Functional improvement is associated with a ∼ 50% reduction in myocardial fibrosis, ∼ 65% decrease in apoptosis, and ∼ 75% increase in wall thickness. Consistent with attenuated fibrosis, both MSC therapy and sFRP2 antibody administration significantly increased the activity of myocardial matrix metalloproteinase-2. Gene expression analysis of the hamster heart and cultured fibroblasts identified Axin2 as a downstream target, the expression of which was activated by sFRP2 but inhibited by therapeutic intervention. sFRP2 blockade also increased myocardial levels of VEGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) along with increased angiogenesis. These findings highlight the pathogenic effect of dysregulated sFRP2, which may be specifically targeted for antifibrotic therapy.
Novak, Iona; Morgan, Cathy; Adde, Lars; Blackman, James; Boyd, Roslyn N; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice; Cioni, Giovanni; Damiano, Diane; Darrah, Johanna; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; de Vries, Linda S; Einspieler, Christa; Fahey, Michael; Fehlings, Darcy; Ferriero, Donna M; Fetters, Linda; Fiori, Simona; Forssberg, Hans; Gordon, Andrew M; Greaves, Susan; Guzzetta, Andrea; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Harbourne, Regina; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Karlsson, Petra; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Latal, Beatrice; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Maitre, Nathalie; McIntyre, Sarah; Noritz, Garey; Pennington, Lindsay; Romeo, Domenico M; Shepherd, Roberta; Spittle, Alicia J; Thornton, Marelle; Valentine, Jane; Walker, Karen; White, Robert; Badawi, Nadia
Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function. This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86
Pighini, Maria J; Goelman, Hillel; Buchanan, Marla; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly; Brynelsen, Dana
Using a multiple case study approach, this ethnography examined the experiences of parents of children deemed at risk for developmental delays or disabilities who had received early intervention (EI) services (birth to age 3 years) in a large urban location in Western Canada. Participants (11 adult parents and 7 children) were drawn from six families. Methods of data collection included focus groups (FG), face-to-face interviews and file reviews. Member check and expert reviews were conducted throughout data collection and data analyses as part of the validation process in this ethnography. Qualitative content analyses followed by thematic analyses highlighted the implementation of family-centred practices (FCP) as a main theme. Parents identified how EI professionals using FCP embraced collaborative practices. FCP resulted in parents leading the EI process for their children. More specifically, EI professionals shared strategies and information to support parents in gaining a deeper understanding of their children's individual developmental characteristics. Parents expressed how empowering this level of understanding was for them as they learned to articulate what were their children's needs for developmental, health and educational services. Recommendations for future research include inquiring about parents' experiences for families of diverse constellations and/or residing in smaller urban or rural communities. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
McHugh, Neil J
About 30% of individuals with skin psoriasis will develop an inflammatory disease of the peripheral or axial skeleton involving synovial and/or entheseal tissue termed psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In most cases psoriasis will precede PsA by several years. Hence skin psoriasis provides an opportune model to investigate genetic and environmental factors that interact and contribute to the development of a common form of inflammatory arthritis. Further, the preexisting presence of psoriasis represents a unique opportunity for the early detection of arthritis and the potential for more effective intervention. However, despite the presence of psoriasis, there may be delay in the diagnosis of PsA that is associated with adverse longterm outcome. Undiagnosed disease is not uncommon, as demonstrated by studies applying screening questionnaires to primary care and dermatology clinic populations. Other potential risk factors, such as obesity and smoking, the presence of certain genetic and biomarker profiles, combined with accurate imaging modalities, offer the potential for more targeted screening. So in future it should be possible to detect PsA at a much earlier stage and prevent significant joint damage and associated disability before it happens.
Aitoro, Rosita; Paparo, Lorella; Amoroso, Antonio; Di Costanzo, Margherita; Cosenza, Linda; Granata, Viviana; Di Scala, Carmen; Nocerino, Rita; Trinchese, Giovanna; Montella, Mariangela; Ercolini, Danilo; Berni Canani, Roberto
The gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in immune system development and function. Modification in the gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) early in life is a critical factor affecting the development of food allergy. Many environmental factors including caesarean delivery, lack of breast milk, drugs, antiseptic agents, and a low-fiber/high-fat diet can induce gut microbiota dysbiosis, and have been associated with the occurrence of food allergy. New technologies and experimental tools have provided information regarding the importance of select bacteria on immune tolerance mechanisms. Short-chain fatty acids are crucial metabolic products of gut microbiota responsible for many protective effects against food allergy. These compounds are involved in epigenetic regulation of the immune system. These evidences provide a foundation for developing innovative strategies to prevent and treat food allergy. Here, we present an overview on the potential role of gut microbiota as the target of intervention against food allergy.
Fettig, Angel; Barton, Erin E.; Carter, Alice S.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.
This study examined the effects of e-coaching on the implementation of a functional assessment-based intervention delivered by an early intervention provider in reducing challenging behaviors during home visits. A multiple baseline design across behavior support plan components was used with a provider-child dyad. The e-coaching intervention…
Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Deal, Angela G.
The effectiveness of three types of in-service training designed to improve early intervention practitioners' abilities to use family-systems intervention practices was evaluated in the study of 473 participants. Participants attended either conference presentations or one of two types of workshops (half day/full day or multi-day), or received one…
Claxton, Melanie; Onwumere, Juliana; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam
Family interventions for psychosis (FIp) are effective in reducing service user relapse and carer distress in people with schizophrenia-spectrum conditions. Several treatment and best practice guidelines recommend FIp for all people with schizophrenia. However, outcome findings in relation to early psychosis groups have been inconsistent. The current paper reports a systematic review and meta-analyses of articles that evaluated FIp in early psychosis with a clearly defined comparison group. A combination of electronic database searches (using PsychINFO, Medline, and CENTRAL), citation searches and hand searches of key journals and reviews was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles published in English from database inception to June 2016 were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP). Seventeen papers from 14 studies met inclusion criteria for review, the overall quality of which was moderate. Meta-analytic synthesis showed that FIp improved service user functioning and reduced the likelihood of relapse by the end of treatment. Psychotic symptoms were significantly reduced in the FIp group at follow up, but this was not evident at end of treatment. In terms of FIp target mechanisms, carers receiving FIp were more likely to shift from high to low expressed emotion and less likely to report patient focused criticism or engage in conflict communication than carers randomized to standard care. Carer burden and well-being were improved by the end of treatment but gains were not sustained at follow up. FIp had no impact on carer emotional over-involvement. The findings indicate that FIp is an effective intervention for early psychosis service users and their relatives. However, further research is required to establish which key therapeutic components of FIp are most effective for whom, in addition to understanding the mechanisms by which FIp might affect positive change. PMID:28396643
Wong, Gloria H Y; Hui, Christy L M; Tang, Jennifer Y M; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry K W; Xu, Jia-Qi; Lin, Jessie J X; Lai, Dik-Chee; Tam, Wendy; Kok, Joy; Chung, Dicky; Hung, S F; Chen, Eric Y H
Hong Kong is among the first few cities in Asia to have implemented early intervention for psychosis in 2001. Substantial changes in psychosis service have since taken place. We reviewed available outcome data in Hong Kong, with reference to the philosophy of early intervention in psychosis, discussing experience and lessons learned from the implementation process, and future opportunities and challenges. Data accumulated in the past decade provided evidence for the benefits and significance of early intervention programmes: patients under the care of early intervention service showed improved functioning, milder symptoms, and fewer hospitalizations and suicides. Early intervention is more cost-effective compared with standard care. Stigma and misconception remains an issue, and public awareness campaigns are underway. In recent years, a critical mass is being formed, and Hong Kong has witnessed the unfolding of public service extension, new projects and organizations, and increasing interest from the community. Several major platforms are in place for coherent efforts, including the public Early Assessment Service for Young people with psychosis (EASY) programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention (PSI) research unit, the independent Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society (EPISO), the Jockey Club Early Psychosis (JCEP) project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. The first decade of early intervention work has been promising; consolidation and further development is needed on many fronts of research, service and education. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perry, TracyAnn; Greig, Nigel H
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide (GLP-1) is an insulinotropic hormone, secreted from the enteroendocrine L cells of the intestinal tract in response to nutrient ingestion. It enhances pancreatic islet beta-cell proliferation and glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and lowers blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1 receptors, which are coupled to the cyclic AMP second messenger pathway, are expressed throughout the brains of rodents and humans. The chemoarchitecture of receptor distribution in the brain correlates well with a central role for GLP-1 in the regulation of food intake and response to aversive stress. We have recently reported that GLP-1 and several longer acting analogs that bind at the GLP-1 receptor, possess neurotrophic properties, and offer protection against glutamate-induced apoptosis and oxidative injury in cultured neuronal cells. Furthermore, GLP-1 can modify processing of the amyloid beta- protein precursor in cell culture and dose-dependently reduces amyloid beta-peptide levels in the brain in vivo. As such, this review discusses the known role of GLP-1 within the central nervous system, and considers the potential of GLP-1 and analogs as novel therapeutic targets for intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and potentially other central and peripheral neurodegenerative conditions.
Shanbhag, Vinit; Sachdev, Shrikesh; Flores, Jacqueline A.; Modak, Mukund J.; Singh, Kamalendra
DNA polymerases are essential for genome replication, DNA repair and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Broadly, these enzymes belong to two groups: replicative and non-replicative DNA polymerases. A considerable body of data suggests that both groups of DNA polymerases are associated with cancer. Many mutations in cancer cells are either the result of error-prone DNA synthesis by non-replicative polymerases, or the inability of replicative DNA polymerases to proofread mismatched nucleotides due to mutations in 3′-5′ exonuclease activity. Moreover, non-replicative, TLS-capable DNA polymerases can negatively impact cancer treatment by synthesizing DNA past lesions generated from treatments such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, etoposide, bleomycin, and radiotherapy. Hence, the inhibition of DNA polymerases in tumor cells has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. Here, we review the association of DNA polymerases in cancer from the A and B families, which participate in lesion bypass, and conduct gene replication. We also discuss possible therapeutic interventions that could be used to maneuver the role of these enzymes in tumorigenesis. PMID:29301327
Somkuwar, Sucharita S.; Staples, Miranda C.; Fannon, McKenzie J.; Ghofranian, Atoosa; Mandyam, Chitra D.
Abstract The need for effective treatments for addiction and dependence to the illicit stimulant methamphetamine in primary care settings is increasing, yet no effective medications have been FDA approved to reduce dependence . This is partially attributed to the complex and dynamic neurobiology underlying the various stages of addiction . Therapeutic strategies to treat methamphetamine addiction, particularly the relapse stage of addiction, could revolutionize methamphetamine addiction treatment. In this context, preclinical studies demonstrate that voluntary exercise (sustained physical activity) could be used as an intervention to reduce methamphetamine addiction. Therefore, it appears that methamphetamine disrupts normal functioning in the brain and this disruption is prevented or reduced by engaging in exercise. This review discusses animal models of methamphetamine addiction and sustained physical activity and the interactions between exercise and methamphetamine behaviors. The review highlights how methamphetamine and exercise affect neuronal plasticity and neurotoxicity in the adult mammalian striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, and presents the emerging mechanisms of exercise in attenuating intake and in preventing relapse to methamphetamine seeking in preclinical models of methamphetamine addiction. PMID:29765835
Sacco, Antonio; Fenotti, Adriano; Affò, Loredana; Bazzana, Stefano; Russo, Domenico; Presta, Marco; Malagola, Michele; Anastasia, Antonella; Motta, Marina; Patterson, Christopher J.; Rossi, Giuseppe; Imberti, Luisa; Treon, Steven P.; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Roccaro, Aldo M.
The Literature has recently reported on the importance of genomics in the field of hematologic malignancies, including B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders such as Waldenström's Macrolgobulinemia (WM). Particularly, whole exome sequencing has led to the identification of the MYD88L265P and CXCR4C1013G somatic variants in WM, occurring in about 90% and 30% of the patients, respectively. Subsequently, functional studies have demonstrated their functional role in supporting WM pathogenesis and disease progression, both in vitro and in vivo, thus providing the pre-clinical evidences for extremely attractive targets for novel therapeutic interventions in WM. Of note, recent evidences have also approached and defined the transcriptome profiling of WM cells, revealing a signature that mirrors the somatic aberrations demonstrated within the tumor clone. A parallel research field has also reported on microRNAs (miRNAs), highlighting the oncogenic role of miRNA-155 in WM. In the present review, we focus on the latest reports on genomics and miRNAs in WM, providing an overview of the clinical relevance of the latest acquired knowledge about genomics and miRNA aberrations in WM. PMID:28423722
Sacco, Antonio; Fenotti, Adriano; Affò, Loredana; Bazzana, Stefano; Russo, Domenico; Presta, Marco; Malagola, Michele; Anastasia, Antonella; Motta, Marina; Patterson, Christopher J; Rossi, Giuseppe; Imberti, Luisa; Treon, Steven P; Ghobrial, Irene M; Roccaro, Aldo M
The Literature has recently reported on the importance of genomics in the field of hematologic malignancies, including B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders such as Waldenström's Macrolgobulinemia (WM). Particularly, whole exome sequencing has led to the identification of the MYD88L265P and CXCR4C1013G somatic variants in WM, occurring in about 90% and 30% of the patients, respectively. Subsequently, functional studies have demonstrated their functional role in supporting WM pathogenesis and disease progression, both in vitro and in vivo, thus providing the pre-clinical evidences for extremely attractive targets for novel therapeutic interventions in WM. Of note, recent evidences have also approached and defined the transcriptome profiling of WM cells, revealing a signature that mirrors the somatic aberrations demonstrated within the tumor clone. A parallel research field has also reported on microRNAs (miRNAs), highlighting the oncogenic role of miRNA-155 in WM. In the present review, we focus on the latest reports on genomics and miRNAs in WM, providing an overview of the clinical relevance of the latest acquired knowledge about genomics and miRNA aberrations in WM.
Gisladottir, M; Svavarsdottir, E K
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Caregivers of adolescents with ADHD experience major difficulties as care providers and are in need of guidance and support. Adolescents with ADHD may develop oppositional and criminal behaviour. More than 50 % have the symptoms in adulthood, and up to one-fourth with severe emotional or antisocial difficulties. There is a lack of evidence of caregivers' supporting intervention although caregiver groups have been found to contribute to better coping, decreased stress and improvements in ADHD symptoms. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Primary caregivers of adolescents with ADHD experienced better quality of life after the Therapeutic Conversation Intervention. The intervention contributed to better social functioning among secondary caregivers. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The content of the Therapeutic Conversation Intervention is significant and highlights the utility of a combination of group and private sessions for caregivers of people with ADHD. The intervention can influence how services for families are organized, such that a Therapeutic Conversation Intervention could be offered on a regular basis. Introduction Caregivers of adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are burdened with tasks and many suffer from distress. Adolescents with ADHD may develop antisocial behaviour and caregiver's group can empower caregiver's supporting role. Aim/Question To evaluate the effectiveness of a Therapeutic Conversation Intervention on caregivers of adolescents with ADHD regarding strengthening the supportive role. Method The study utilized a quasi-experimental design. The participants (n = 60) were caregivers of adolescents (13-17 years old) with ADHD. The intervention consisted in-group and parent sessions. The Calgary Family Model and the Family Illness Beliefs Model were used as theoretical frameworks. Results The study revealed significant differences in the improvement of quality of life
Allaire, Saralynn J.; Niu, Jingbo; Zhu, Yanyan; Brett, Belle
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the translation of positive research findings about a job retention intervention for persons with chronic illnesses to rehabilitation practice. A program to provide the intervention was developed and marketed in the community. Fifty-seven consumers with chronic illnesses received the intervention provided…
This study utilised a structured analogue method to evaluate factors which impact preschool teachers' preference for language interventions. These factors included type of treatment approach (naturalistic versus therapeutic), person delivering the intervention (classroom teacher versus speech and language pathologist), and severity of language…
Li, Yihong; Tanner, Anne
Purpose The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify research-based evidence for an effect of antimicrobial therapeutic approaches on the cariogenic microbiota and early childhood caries (ECC) outcomes. Additionally, we reviewed methods used to perform microbial assessments in clinical studies of ECC. Methods Multiple database searches were conducted; only clinical cohort studies and randomized controlled trials published from 1998 to 2014 were selected for the review. A total of 471 titles and abstracts were identified; 114 studies met the inclusion criteria for a full review, and finally 41 studies were selected for the meta-analyses. Results Moderate reductions in cariogenic bacterial levels, mainly in mutans streptococci (MS), were demonstrated following the use of antimicrobial agents. The results varied depending on the different approaches used. In most of the reviewed studies MS levels were reduced after treatment, but the bacterial regrowth occurred once the treatment had ceased, and new caries lesions developed, particularly in high-risk children. Relatively consistent findings suggested that anti-cariogenic-microbial interventions in mothers significantly reduced MS acquisition by children. However, studies of the long-term benefits of ECC prevention are lacking. Conclusion Based on the meta-analyses, antimicrobial interventions and treatments show temporary reductions in MS colonization levels. However, insufficient evidence suggest that the approaches used produced sustainable effects on cariogenic microbial colonization, caries reduction, and ECC prevention. PMID:26063552
Li, Yihong; Tanner, Anne
The purposes of this systematic literature review were to identify research-based evidence for an effect of antimicrobial therapeutic approaches on the cariogenic microbiota and early childhood caries (ECC) outcomes; and to review methods used to perform microbial assessments in clinical studies of ECC. Multiple databases were searched; only clinical cohort studies and randomized controlled trials published from 1998 to 2014 were selected. A total of 471 titles and abstracts were identified; 114 studies met the inclusion criteria for a full review, from which 41 studies were included in the meta-analyses. In most of the reviewed studies, moderate reductions in cariogenic bacterial levels, mainly in mutans streptococci (MS), were demonstrated following the use of antimicrobial agents, but bacterial regrowth occurred and new carious lesions developed once the treatment had ceased, particularly in high-risk children. Relatively consistent findings suggested that anti-cariogenic microbial interventions in mothers significantly reduced MS acquisition by children. However, studies of the long-term benefits of ECC prevention are lacking. Based on the meta-analyses, antimicrobial interventions and treatments show temporary reductions in MS colonization levels. However, there is insufficient evidence to indicate that the approaches used produced sustainable effects on cariogenic microbial colonization or ECC reduction and prevention.
Coogle, Christan Grygas
The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate the early intervention experiences of mothers who have a young child at risk for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). More specifically, the goal was to explore the family centered help giving practices mothers identify and how these practices affect their early intervention experiences. Five…
Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia
Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…
McWilliam, R. A.
Early intervention for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families has strayed from its conceptual roots and the intent of the original legislation. The author describes the top 10 mistakes commonly made in early intervention, including what happens at intake, assessment, plan development, and delivery of services. He proposes five…
Litt, Jonathan S.; Perrin, James M.
This study aims to characterize participation of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates in early intervention (EI). We used data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study. We fit models of days from referral to Individualized Family Service Plan creation (plan time), days from referral to initiation of services (service time),…
Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl
This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of…
Rivero, Estela M.; Cimini, M. Dolores; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.
Objective: This case study examined the effects of an early intervention program designed to respond to residential college students demonstrating risk for suicide. Participants: Participants were 108 undergraduates at a large northeastern public university referred to an early intervention program subsequent to presenting with risk factors for…
Winton, Pamela J.; Catlett, Camille
This report summarizes the activities of the SIFT-OUT program, a federally funded project designed to prepare teams of university faculty, family members, practitioners, and agency representatives from six states, to serve as leaders in providing early intervention training in their states. A total of 166 state-level early intervention leaders…
Thompson, Carla J.
Improving student performance for high-need student populations by improving the use of data in decision-making for early reading intervention programs in northwest Florida is the focus of this research to practice effort. The study is conceptually based on using a relational-feedback intervention (RFI) database model in early learning…
Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…
Rodger, Sylvia; Keen, Deb; Braithwaite, Michelle; Cook, Shannon
Background: Early intervention services adopting a family-centred approach are considered important for ensuring parent satisfaction. This study investigated the satisfaction of two mothers with an early intervention programme for young children with autistic spectrum disorder. Materials and Methods: While 16 mother-child dyads participated in a…
Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Tiongco, Cynthia G.; Tkach, Melanie M.; Thom, Carly
Occupational therapists in the field of early intervention (EI) are challenged with limited opportunities for communication and collaboration with colleagues and other EI team members. One hundred and two occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants with early intervention experience completed a descriptive survey. Questions on the…
Matthews, Alice; Rix, Jonathan
Early intervention activities for very young disabled children are frequently linked to developmental targets and goals. A key challenge for parents and practitioners involved in early intervention programmes is to encourage their child to play and develop creatively through enjoyable, everyday childhood experiences. This paper reports on a…
Xie, Huichao; Chen, Ching-I; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Squires, Jane; Li, Wenge; Liu, Tian
China is expected to have a rapid growth in specialized early intervention (EI) services for young children ages birth to 6 and their families. A major barrier in the provision of EI services in China is the shortage of well-trained EI personnel. In 2013, a Home-Based Early Intervention Program (HBEIP) was started at South China Normal University…
Colgan, Siobhan Eileen
This study investigated the relationship between maternal depression and children's access to early intervention services among a sample of children with developmental delay at age two who were determined to be eligible for early intervention services, were full term and of normal birth weight, and were not previously identified with any special…
Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara
Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…
Pretto, Aneesha Patrice
In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…
Martin-Prudent, Angi; Lartz, Maribeth; Borders, Christina; Meehan, Tracy
Early identification and appropriate intervention services for children who are deaf or hard of hearing significantly increase the likelihood of better language, speech, and social-emotional development. However, current research suggests that there is a critical shortage of professionals trained to provide early intervention services to deaf and…
MacDonald, Colleen; Figueredo, Lauren
A history of poverty and low academic achievement in four urban schools pointed to the need to implement an early intervention focused on oral language and emergent literacy. The Kindergarten Early Literacy Tutoring (KELT) Program was designed to target senior (5 year old) kindergarten students most at-risk. The intervention consisted of an extra…
Luby, Joan; Lenze, Shannon; Tillman, Rebecca
Background: Validation for depression in preschool children has been established; however, to date no empirical investigations of interventions for the early onset disorder have been conducted. Based on this and the modest efficacy of available treatments for childhood depression, the need for novel early interventions has been emphasized. Large…
Kelso, Ginger L.; Fiechtl, Barbara J.; Olsen, Susan T.; Rule, Sarah
Although videoconferencing has been used to deliver distance education, tutoring for children, and telemedicine observations, there is limited information on the efficacy of its use in delivering part C early intervention services. Four families receiving early intervention services in a rural program participated in a pilot study to test the…
Paynter, Jessica M.; Riley, Emma P.; Beamish, Wendi; Scott, James G.; Heussler, Helen S.
There is a relative paucity of evidence examining the effectiveness of early intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, in particular those delivered through educationally-based programmes. This study aimed to evaluate the real world effectiveness of a community-based autism-specific early learning and intervention programme in…
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Tucker, Phebe; Newman, Elana
Background: The need to establish an evidence base for early child disaster interventions has been long recognized. Objective: This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the empirical research on early disaster mental health interventions delivered to children within the first 3 months post event. Methods: Characteristics and findings of the…
... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 4-Model Clauses for the Written Early Intervention Notice MS Appendix MS Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION REAL ESTATE...-4 Appendix MS-4—Model Clauses for the Written Early Intervention Notice MS-4(A)—Statement...
Wagner, Dana L.; Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Deris, Aaron R.
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of brief experimental analysis (BEA) to identify early reading interventions for students in the primary grades and to compare teachers' judgments about their students' early reading intervention needs to BEA results. In addition, the research was conducted to explore how teachers make decisions…
... HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Department, Orlando, Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part C, Early Intervention Services (EIS), HIV...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County, Orlando...
Shulman, Cory; Meadan, Hedda; Sandhaus, Yoram
This article aims to analyze early intervention programs in Israel according to the Developmental Systems Model (Guralnick, 2001), in an attempt to identify strengths and areas for further development for service delivery for young children with disabilities in Israel. Early intervention in Israel is part of a comprehensive healthcare model…
Alexander, Laura; Gallen, Robert T.; Salazar, Ruby; Shahmoon-Shanok, Rebecca
When Pennsylvania's Early Intervention system implemented an early intervention-reflective supervision project, modest expectations for change were anticipated, given the limited amount of time and funding for the project. In this article, one participant tells the story of her professional development, which enabled her to augment her skills as…
Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri
Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered…
Brown, Wesley; Conroy, Maureen
Examines early-intervention entitlements currently extended by all states. Perspectives from the legislative process, federal and state implementation, judicial interpretation, and professional views are included. Distinctions among the key provisions for differing early intervention service systems are presented, legal cases are reviewed, and…
Pira, Shamira; Durr, Georges; Pawliuk, Nicole; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok
Specialized early intervention services for first-episode psychosis should treat a proportion of patients without using inpatient beds. This study compared such service users by their initial mode of treatment before entry-inpatient (N=157) or outpatient (N=102). On entry to a Montreal early intervention service, the groups were compared on baseline clinical and functional variables and on hospitalizations during two years of treatment. Initial presentation at an emergency service, shorter duration of untreated psychosis, lower functioning level, and aggressive and bizarre behavior were associated with the inpatient entry mode to early intervention services. During follow-up, individuals entering as inpatients spent more days hospitalized than those entering as outpatients, and their time to rehospitalization was shorter. Results suggest that entry into early intervention services via the hospital emergency department and presentation with behavioral and functional disturbances were more predictive than core psychotic symptoms of hospital inpatient status on referral to an early intervention service.
Sandy, K Bowen
Today's pluralistic society is characterized by families from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds, including families with infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh). Taking a multicultural perspective, the author examines family-centered early intervention (FCEI) and the transition to school services for children who are d/Dhh. Working with d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs) and their families presents a unique challenge to early intervention professionals: ensuring that families have adequate information and resources to make informed choices, particularly regarding communication. The author presents information and research related to (a) family and professional partnerships, (b) cultural contexts for early intervention, (c) family communication decisions and linguistic diversity, (d) emerging research on DMLs, (e) considerations for early intervention providers and interpreters who work with culturally and linguistically diverse d/Dhh infants and toddlers, and (f) cultural reflections on ensuring smooth transitions from early intervention into preschool programs.
Meier, Petra S; Donmall, Michael C; McElduff, Patrick; Barrowclough, Christine; Heller, Richard F
To investigate the role of the therapeutic alliance in predicting length of retention in residential drug treatment. The study recruited 187 clients starting residential rehabilitation treatment for drug misuse in three UK services. Counsellor and client information was assessed at intake, and the average total scores of client and counsellor ratings on the WAI-S (obtained during weeks 1-3) were use as the alliance measure. Length of retention and treatment completion (stay beyond 90 days) were used as measures of retention. Clients with weak counsellor rated alliances dropped out of treatment significantly sooner than clients with strong counsellor rated therapeutic alliances, whether or not the model adjusted for individual counsellor effects and potential confounders including psychological well-being, treatment motivation and readiness, coping strategies, and attachment style. The client rated alliance did not predict length of retention. Apart from the alliance, pre-treatment crack use, secure attachment style and better coping strategies were associated with shorter retention, whereas greater confidence in treatment, older client age and better education predicted treatment completion. Counsellors with greater experience of delivering drug counselling retained clients longer. The findings of this study stress the importance of treatment professionals attending to the therapeutic alliance in drug treatment, as counsellors' alliance ratings were found to be amongst the strongest predictors of dropout. Using alliance measures as clinical tools may help treatment practitioners to become aware of the risk of disengagement early on. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether strategies of reallocating clients with poor alliances to different counsellors lead to improvements in retention.
Lam, Elizabeth A.; McMaster, Kristen L.
The purpose of this review was to update previous reviews on factors related to students' responsiveness to early literacy intervention. The 14 studies in this synthesis used experimental designs, provided small-group or one-on-one reading interventions, and analyzed factors related to responsiveness to those interventions. Participants were…
Jackson, Jane B.; Paratore, Jeanne R.; Chard, David J.; Garnick, Sheila
A study examined the degree to which eight teachers would faithfully implement an early literacy intervention plan. Teachers implemented the intervention with a high degree of fidelity and benefited from the community approach to intervention for struggling readers. Most children made substantial gains in phonemic blending and segmenting…
Nores, Milagros; Barnett, W. Steven
This paper reviews the international (non-U.S.) evidence on the benefits of early childhood interventions. A total of 38 contrasts of 30 interventions in 23 countries were analyzed. It focuses on studies applying a quasi-experimental or random assignment. Studies were coded according to: the type of intervention (cash transfer, nutritional,…
Schwarz, Donald F.; O'Sullivan, Ann L.; Guinn, Judith; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Carlson, Elyse C.; Zhao, Huaqing; Zhang, Xuemei; Esposito, Tara L.; Askew, Megan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn
The MOM Program is a randomized, controlled trial of an intervention to promote mothers' care for the health and development of their children, including accessing early intervention (EI) services. Study aims were to determine whether, relative to controls, this intervention increased receipt of and referral to EI services. Mothers (N = 302)…
Hopwood, Christopher J.
Second-generation early intervention research typically involves the specification of multivariate relations between interventions, outcomes, and other variables. Moderation and mediation involve variables or sets of variables that influence relations between interventions and outcomes. Following the framework of Baron and Kenny's (1986) seminal…
Paynter, Jessica M.; Ferguson, Sarah; Fordyce, Kathryn; Joosten, Annette; Paku, Sofia; Stephens, Miranda; Trembath, David; Keen, Deb
A number of autism intervention practices have been demonstrated to be effective. However, the use of unsupported practices persists in community early intervention settings. Recent research has suggested that personal, professional and workplace factors may influence intervention choices. The aim of this research was to investigate knowledge and…
Hobby, Patti Tennant
This qualitative study used an ethnographic method to investigate teachers' perceptions of reading interventions delivered in a state-funded early intervention program (EIP). Academically at-risk students struggle to meet grade-level standards year after year, even with interventions involving small group, targeted assistance. Teacher perceptions…
Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil
Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…
Clements, Karen M; Barfield, Wanda D; Ayadi, M Femi; Wilber, Nancy
Characterizing the cost of preterm birth is important in assessing the impact of increasing prematurity rates and evaluating the cost-effectiveness of therapies to prevent preterm delivery. To assess early intervention costs that are associated with preterm births, we estimated the program cost of early intervention services for children who were born in Massachusetts, by gestational age at birth. Using the Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal Data Set, birth certificates for infants who were born in Massachusetts between July 1999 and June 2000 were linked to early intervention claims through 2003. We determined total program costs, in 2003 dollars, of early intervention and mean cost per surviving infant by gestational age. Costs by plurality, eligibility criteria, provider discipline, and annual costs for children's first 3 years also were examined. Overall, 14,033 of 76,901 surviving infants received early intervention services. Program costs totaled almost $66 million, with mean cost per surviving infant of $857. Mean cost per infant was highest for children who were 24 to 31 weeks' gestational age ($5393) and higher for infants who were 32 to 36 weeks' gestational age ($1578) compared with those who were born at term ($725). Cost per surviving infant generally decreased with increasing gestational age. Among children in early intervention, mean cost per child was higher for preterm infants than for term infants. At each gestational age, mean cost per surviving infant was higher for multiples than for singletons, and annual early intervention costs were higher for toddlers than for infants. Compared with their term counterparts, preterm infants incurred higher early intervention costs. This information along with data on birth trends will inform budget forecasting for early intervention programs. Costs that are associated with early childhood developmental services must be included when considering the long-term costs of prematurity.
Alexopoulos, George S; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Seirup, Joanna K; Novitch, Richard S; Ghosh, Samiran; Banerjee, Samprit; Raue, Patrick J
We developed a personalized intervention for depressed patients with COPD (PID-C) aimed to mobilize patients to participate in the care of both conditions. We showed that PID-C reduced depressive symptoms and dyspnea-related disability more than usual care over 28 weeks. This study focused on untangling key therapeutic ingredients of PID-C. Randomized controlled trial. Community. 138 patients who received the diagnoses of COPD and major depression after screening 898 consecutive admissions for acute inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation. Nine sessions of PID-C compared with usual care over 28 weeks. Primary outcome measures were the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire-Modified. Other measures were adherence to rehabilitation exercise (≥2 hours per week) and adherence to adequate antidepressant prescriptions. Low severity of dyspnea-related disability and adherence to antidepressants predicted subsequent improvement of depression. Exercise and low depression severity predicted improvement of dyspnea-related disability. PID-C led to an interacting spiral of improvement in both depression and disability in a gravely medically ill population with a 17% mortality rate over 28 weeks and an expected deterioration in disability. The interrelationship of the course of depression and dyspnea-related disability underscores the need to target adherence to both antidepressants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rehabilitation. PID-C may serve as a care management model for depressed persons suffering from medical illnesses with a deteriorating course. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ashton, Carol M; Wray, Nelda P; Jarman, Anna F; Kolman, Jacob M; Wenner, Danielle M; Brody, Baruch A
Background If trials of therapeutic interventions are to serve society’s interests, they must be of high methodological quality and must satisfy moral commitments to human subjects. The authors set out to develop a clinical-trials compendium in which standards for the ethical treatment of human subjects are integrated with standards for research methods. Methods The authors rank-ordered the world’s nations and chose the 31 with >700 active trials as of 24 July 2008. Governmental and other authoritative entities of the 31 countries were searched, and 1004 English-language documents containing ethical and/or methodological standards for clinical trials were identified. The authors extracted standards from 144 of those: 50 designated as ‘core’, 39 addressing trials of invasive procedures and a 5% sample (N=55) of the remainder. As the integrating framework for the standards we developed a coherent taxonomy encompassing all elements of a trial’s stages. Findings Review of the 144 documents yielded nearly 15 000 discrete standards. After duplicates were removed, 5903 substantive standards remained, distributed in the taxonomy as follows: initiation, 1401 standards, 8 divisions; design, 1869 standards, 16 divisions; conduct, 1473 standards, 8 divisions; analysing and reporting results, 997 standards, four divisions; and post-trial standards, 168 standards, 5 divisions. Conclusions The overwhelming number of source documents and standards uncovered in this study was not anticipated beforehand and confirms the extraordinary complexity of the clinical trials enterprise. This taxonomy of multinational ethical and methodological standards may help trialists and overseers improve the quality of clinical trials, particularly given the globalisation of clinical research. PMID:21429960
Ashton, Carol M; Wray, Nelda P; Jarman, Anna F; Kolman, Jacob M; Wenner, Danielle M; Brody, Baruch A
If trials of therapeutic interventions are to serve society's interests, they must be of high methodological quality and must satisfy moral commitments to human subjects. The authors set out to develop a clinical-trials compendium in which standards for the ethical treatment of human subjects are integrated with standards for research methods. The authors rank-ordered the world's nations and chose the 31 with >700 active trials as of 24 July 2008. Governmental and other authoritative entities of the 31 countries were searched, and 1004 English-language documents containing ethical and/or methodological standards for clinical trials were identified. The authors extracted standards from 144 of those: 50 designated as 'core', 39 addressing trials of invasive procedures and a 5% sample (N=55) of the remainder. As the integrating framework for the standards we developed a coherent taxonomy encompassing all elements of a trial's stages. Review of the 144 documents yielded nearly 15 000 discrete standards. After duplicates were removed, 5903 substantive standards remained, distributed in the taxonomy as follows: initiation, 1401 standards, 8 divisions; design, 1869 standards, 16 divisions; conduct, 1473 standards, 8 divisions; analysing and reporting results, 997 standards, four divisions; and post-trial standards, 168 standards, 5 divisions. The overwhelming number of source documents and standards uncovered in this study was not anticipated beforehand and confirms the extraordinary complexity of the clinical trials enterprise. This taxonomy of multinational ethical and methodological standards may help trialists and overseers improve the quality of clinical trials, particularly given the globalisation of clinical research.
Kolodziejczyk, Patrycjusz; Gromotowicz-Poplawska, Anna; Aleksiejczuk, Michal; Chabielska, Ewa; Tutka, Piotr; Miltyk, Wojciech
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, plays a crucial role in the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Although, this role is undoubtedly important, it is not a hormonal action that attracts the most attention. Aldosterone seems to be very important important as a local messenger in the pathology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In the last few years, the attention was focused on the correlation between raised aldosterone level and increased risk of cardiovascular events. It has been demonstrated that aldosterone contributes to fibrosis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, fibrinolytic disordes, and oxidative stress leading to CVD development and progression. It used to be thought that the effects of aldosterone are mediated via classic nuclear receptors - mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). Now we know that the mechanism of aldosterone action in cardiovascular system is much more complex, since experimental and clinical studies indicate that MR blockade may be not sufficient to abolish aldosterone-incuced harmful effects in the cardiovascular system. Therefore, the involvement of some other than MR, receptors and factors is suggested. Moreover, in addition to the generally known genomic action of aldosterone, which involves MR activation, the nongenomic pathways are postulated in the mode of hormone action. More and more attention is focused on the membrane-coupled receptors, which mediate the rapid effects of aldosterone and have been already confirmed in different cells and tissues of a cardiovascular system. The confirmation of multiple mechanisms of aldosterone action opens a new perspective for more effective therapeutic intervention in aldosterone-related CVD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Scheen, A J
There appears to be a continuum between the cardiovascular risk and the level of blood cholesterol, which hinders the definition of normal values, intervention threshold and therapeutic goals. The more and more convincing evidences provided by the "Evidence-Based Medicine" should be confronted to the pharmaco-economical constraints in order to first focus the essential of the efforts and resources on the target population with the highest risk. Unfortunately, the therapeutic strategy concerns a rather high percentage of the population of industrialized countries.
Whaley, Shannon E.; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise
Objective: To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Design: Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.…
Ben Itzchak, Esther; Zachor, Ditza A.
The current study characterized stability and changes of autism diagnostic classification with intervention in very young children and examined pre-treatment predictors and post-intervention outcome. Sixty-eight children diagnosed with autism, aged 18-35 months (M = 25.4, SD = 4.0) participated in the study. Children underwent comprehensive…
Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza
Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System.
Gantt, Soren; Muller, William J.
Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect a large proportion of the world's population. Infection is life-long and can cause periodic mucocutaneous symptoms, but it only rarely causes life-threatening disease among immunocompetent children and adults. However, when HSV infection occurs during the neonatal period, viral replication is poorly controlled and a large proportion of infants die or develop disability even with optimal antiviral therapy. Increasingly, specific differences are being elucidated between the immune system of newborns and those of older children and adults, which predispose to severe infections and reflect the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Studies in healthy individuals of different ages, individuals with primary or acquired immunodeficiencies, and animal models have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that control HSV infection and how these may be impaired during the neonatal period. This paper outlines our current understanding of innate and adaptive immunity to HSV infection, immunologic differences in early infancy that may account for the manifestations of neonatal HSV infection, and the potential of interventions to augment neonatal immune protection against HSV disease. PMID:23606868
Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Chiu, Caya; Kemp, Peggy; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lindeman, David P.
This article reports findings from 2 studies situated within a larger scope of design research on a professional development program, "Early Years," for Part C early intervention practitioners, working with families in home and community settings. Early Years includes online modules and onsite mentor coaching, and its development has…
Steele, Marcee M.
The early identification of children with learning disabilities (LD) is difficult but can be accomplished. Observation of key behaviors which are indicators of LD by preschool and kindergarten teachers can assist in this process. This early identification facilitates the use of intervention strategies to provide a positive early experience for…
Pearcy, Caitlin P; Anderson, Rebecca A; Egan, Sarah J; Rees, Clare S
The presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can result in low quality of life, with significant impairments in social and occupational functioning. An increase in the dissemination of self-help programs has been observed in the treatment of OCD, and has provided improved accessibility to treatment. The present study examined the efficacy of self-help interventions for OCD in the context of therapeutic contact. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies were identified through computerised database searches. Self-help format (bibliotherapy, internet-based, computerised), and therapeutic contact were examined for their effect on treatment outcomes. Eighteen studies targeting self-help for OCD met inclusion criteria with 1570 participants. The average post-treatment effect size (Hedges' g) of self-help interventions on primary outcomes was .51 (95% CI: .41 to 0.61). Subgroup analysis revealed large effect sizes for minimal-contact self-help (g = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.66 to 1.17), moderate effect sizes for predominantly self-help (g = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.96), and small effect sizes for self-administered self-help (g = 0.33, 95% CI: .18 to 0.47). A large variation of treatment approaches, amount of therapeutic contact, and risk of bias within each study may account for the large magnitude in effect sizes across studies. Additionally, the long-term follow-up effects of treatment approaches were not examined. A growing body of literature supporting to the use of self-help treatments for OCD is evident, however, further investigation through use of randomised controlled trials is required, particularly the use of stepped care and long-term effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cronin, Timothy J; Lawrence, Katherine A; Taylor, Kate; Norton, Peter J; Kazantzis, Nikolaos
Between-session interventions, or homework, are crucial to a range of psychological therapies, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Therapeutic interventions often involve experiencing emotions and situations, or examining strongly held views about their problems, that clients can find distressing. Hence, the clinician faces a particular challenge in collaborating with the client to carry out these interventions between sessions. In this article, we convey how this process in CBT requires not only a consideration of the theoretically meaningful determinants of adherence behavior but also a sophisticated cognitive case conceptualization. Using case material, we illustrate the interplay between in-session design, planning, and review of between-session interventions and the conceptualization. We also include a distinction between generic elements of the therapeutic relationship and CBT-specific elements. The case material also attends to the person of the therapist, and his or her own cognitive and emotional reactions occurring throughout the process of discussing between-session interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neisworth, John T.; Bagnato, Stephen J.
Major presumptions that underlie the use of early intelligence tests are presented and disputed, centering on the construct of early intelligence, reliability, prediction, standardized administration, professional acceptability, utility for decision making, and congruence with Public Law 99-457. Professional solidarity is urged in opposing the…
Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar; Kolios, Michael C.
Imaging methods capable of indicating the potential for success of an individualized treatment course, during or immediately following the treatment, could improve therapeutic outcomes. Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSLs) provide an effective way to deliver chemotherapeutics to a localized tumoral area heated to mild-hyperthermia (HT). The high drug levels reached in the tumor vasculature lead to increased tumor regression via the cascade of events during and immediately following treatment. For a TSL carrying doxorubicin (DOX) these include the rapid and intense exposure of endothelial cells to high drug concentrations, hemorrhage, blood coagulation and vascular shutdown. In this study, ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging was used to probe the changes to tumors following treatment with the TSL, HaT-DOX (Heat activated cytoToxic). Levels of oxygen saturation (sO2) were studied in a longitudinal manner, from 30 min pre-treatment to 7 days post-treatment. The efficacious treatments of HT-HaT-DOX were shown to induce a significant drop in sO2 (>10%) as early as 30 min post-treatment that led to tumor regression (in 90% of cases); HT-Saline and non-efficacious HT-HaT-DOX (10% of cases) treatments did not show any significant change in sO2 at these timepoints. The changes in sO2 were further corroborated with histological data, using the vascular and perfusion markers CD31 and FITC-lectin. These results allowed us to further surmise a plausible mechanism of the cellular events taking place in the TSL treated tumor regions over the first 24 hours post-treatment. The potential for using photoacoustic imaging to measure tumor sO2 as a surrogate prognostic marker for predicting therapeutic outcome with a TSL treatment is demonstrated. PMID:27788199
Arango, Celso; Bernardo, Miguel; Bonet, Pere; Cabrera, Ana; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Cuesta, Manuel J; González, Nel; Parrabera, Sílvia; Sanjuan, Julio; Serrano, Alfonso; Vieta, Eduard; Lennox, Belinda R; Melau, Marianne
There is now sufficient evidence to support the importance of interventions in the early stages of psychosis. The delay in the detection and treatment of the first-episode psychosis is related to a lower and slower recovery, as well as a higher risk of relapse. Despite this fact, early intervention units or teams are still not regularly implemented in mental health service settings in Spain. In this opinion article, a review is presented of the main arguments for defending the need to implement these programs and strategies in order to achieve this aim. There are a number of programs for early intervention for psychosis currently working in other countries, with a therapeutic program that includes pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, together with public awareness, information dissemination, and family-professional collaboration activities. Published literature on the experience of these programs indicates that early intervention is not only effective in terms of the improvement of health status, but is also economically efficient. The main steps and recommendations needed to implement such early intervention programs in our country are described. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. All rights reserved.
Einfeld, Stewart L; Tonge, Bruce J; Clarke, Kristina S
To review the recent evidence regarding early intervention and prevention studies for children with developmental disabilities and behaviour problems from 2011 to 2013. Recent advances in the field are discussed and important areas for future research are highlighted. Recent reviews and studies highlight the utility of antecedent interventions and skills training interventions for reducing behaviour problems. There is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of parent training interventions when delivered in minimally sufficient formats or in clinical settings. Two recent studies have demonstrated the utility of behavioural interventions for children with genetic causes of disability. Various forms of behavioural and parent training interventions are effective at reducing the behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities. However, research on prevention and early intervention continues to be relatively scarce. Further large-scale dissemination studies and effectiveness studies in clinical or applied settings are needed.
MacVicar, John; Kreiner, D Scott; Duszynski, Belinda; Kennedy, David J
To provide an overview of a multisociety effort to formulate appropriate use criteria for image-guided injections and radiofrequency procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of sacroiliac joint and posterior sacroiliac complex pain. The Spine Intervention Society convened a multisociety effort to guide physicians and define for payers the appropriate use of image-guided injections and radiofrequency procedures. An evidence panel was established to write systematic reviews, define key terms and assumptions, and develop clinical scenarios to be addressed. The rating panel considered the evidence presented in the systematic reviews, carefully reviewed the definitions and assumptions, and rated the clinical scenarios. Final median ratings, in combination with the level of agreement, determined the final ratings for the appropriate use of sacroiliac injections and radiofrequency neurotomy. More than 10,000 scenarios were addressed in the appropriate use criteria and are housed within five modules in the portal, available on the Spine Intervention Society website: Module 1: Clinical Indications and Imaging; Module 2: Anticoagulants; Module 3: Timing of Injections; Module 4: Number of Injections; and Module 5: Lateral Branch Radiofrequency Neurotomy. Within several of these modules, several issues of interest are identified and discussed. Physicians and payers can access the appropriate use criteria portal on the Spine Intervention Society's website and select specific clinical indications for a particular patient in order to learn more about the appropriateness of the intervention(s) under consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Biscarini, Andrea; Contemori, Samuele; Busti, Daniele; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E
Quadriceps strengthening exercises designed for the early phase of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation should limit the anterior tibial translation developed by quadriceps contraction near full knee extension, in order to avoid excessive strain on the healing tissue. We hypothesize that knee-flexion exercises with simultaneous voluntary contraction of quadriceps (voluntary quadriceps cocontraction) can yield considerable levels of quadriceps activation while preventing the tibia from translating forward relative to the femur. Electromyographic activity in quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured in 20 healthy males during isometric knee-flexion exercises executed near full knee extension with maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction and external resistance (R) ranging from 0% to 60% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Biomechanical modeling was applied to derive the shear (anterior/posterior) tibiofemoral force developed in each exercise condition. Isometric knee-flexion exercises with small external resistance (R=10% 1RM) and maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction yielded a net posterior (ACL-unloading) tibial pull (P=0.005) and levels of activation of 32%, 50%, and 45% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction, for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis, respectively. This exercise might potentially rank as one of the most appropriate quadriceps strengthening interventions in the early phase of ACL rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Connor, Amanda; Blewitt, Claire; Nolan, Andrea; Skouteris, Helen
Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process. Early childhood pedagogical programs are also shaped by these principles; however, educators tend to draw on implicit knowledge when working with families. IM offers this sector the opportunity to formally incorporate theoretical, evidence-based research into the development of early childhood education and care social and emotional interventions. Emerging literature indicates IM is useful for designing health and wellbeing interventions for children within early childhood education and care settings. Considering the similar underlying principles of IM, existing applications within early childhood education and care and development of interventions beyond health behaviour change, it is recommended IM be utilised to design early childhood education and care interventions focusing on supporting children's social and emotional development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Unique approaches are important to explore for every aspect of our work with children, including therapeutic support for traumatized children. Sometimes, these techniques involve inviting some furry friends into the classroom.
The National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.
Jason, Leonard A.; Ferone, Louise
The paper describes a four-year research effort aimed at developing preventive educational interventions for children with behavior problems in inner city schools. The implications of switching the emphasis from early secondary to primary preventive programs are discussed. (Author)
Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu
This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the Five-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion.
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu
This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches, and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the 5-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion. PMID:26497315
Osborne, Lisa A; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil
This community-based study examined the influence of early teaching interventions on children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and the dynamics between the time intensity of the interventions and parenting stress, on child outcomes. Intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavior and social functioning were all measured. Sixty-five children were divided into four groups, based on the levels of time intensity of their intervention, and on their parents' stress levels. There were gains in intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavioral and social skills, and there was a positive relationship between the time intensity of the early teaching interventions and child outcome gains. More importantly, however, high levels of parenting stress counteracted the effectiveness of the early teaching interventions.
Smith, Ashlyn L.; Hustad, Katherine C.
The current study examined parent perceptions of communication, the focus of early intervention goals and strategies, and factors predicting the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for 26, 2-year-old children with cerebral palsy. Parents completed a communication questionnaire and provided early intervention plans detailing child speech and language goals. Results indicated that receptive language had the strongest association with parent perceptions of communication. Children who were not talking received a greater number of intervention goals, had a greater variety of goals, and had more AAC goals than children who were emerging and established talkers. Finally, expressive language had the strongest influence on AAC decisions. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between parent perceptions and language skills, communication as an emphasis in early intervention, AAC intervention decisions, and the importance of receptive language. PMID:26401966
Baumel, Amit; Faber, Keren; Mathur, Nandita; Kane, John M; Muench, Fred
Studies of criteria-based assessment tools have demonstrated the feasibility of objectively evaluating eHealth interventions independent of empirical testing. However, current tools have not included some quality constructs associated with intervention outcome, such as persuasive design, behavior change, or therapeutic alliance. In addition, the generalizability of such tools has not been explicitly examined. The aim is to introduce the development and further analysis of the Enlight suite of measures, developed to incorporate the aforementioned concepts and address generalizability aspects. As a first step, a comprehensive systematic review was performed to identify relevant quality rating criteria in line with the PRISMA statement. These criteria were then categorized to create Enlight. The second step involved testing Enlight on 42 mobile apps and 42 Web-based programs (delivery mediums) targeting modifiable behaviors related to medical illness or mental health (clinical aims). A total of 476 criteria from 99 identified sources were used to build Enlight. The rating measures were divided into two sections: quality assessments and checklists. Quality assessments included usability, visual design, user engagement, content, therapeutic persuasiveness, therapeutic alliance, and general subjective evaluation. The checklists included credibility, privacy explanation, basic security, and evidence-based program ranking. The quality constructs exhibited excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlations=.77-.98, median .91) and internal consistency (Cronbach alphas=.83-.90, median .88), with similar results when separated into delivery mediums or clinical aims. Conditional probability analysis revealed that 100% of the programs that received a score of fair or above (≥3.0) in therapeutic persuasiveness or therapeutic alliance received the same range of scores in user engagement and content-a pattern that did not appear in the opposite direction. Preliminary
Faber, Keren; Mathur, Nandita; Kane, John M; Muench, Fred
Background Studies of criteria-based assessment tools have demonstrated the feasibility of objectively evaluating eHealth interventions independent of empirical testing. However, current tools have not included some quality constructs associated with intervention outcome, such as persuasive design, behavior change, or therapeutic alliance. In addition, the generalizability of such tools has not been explicitly examined. Objective The aim is to introduce the development and further analysis of the Enlight suite of measures, developed to incorporate the aforementioned concepts and address generalizability aspects. Methods As a first step, a comprehensive systematic review was performed to identify relevant quality rating criteria in line with the PRISMA statement. These criteria were then categorized to create Enlight. The second step involved testing Enlight on 42 mobile apps and 42 Web-based programs (delivery mediums) targeting modifiable behaviors related to medical illness or mental health (clinical aims). Results A total of 476 criteria from 99 identified sources were used to build Enlight. The rating measures were divided into two sections: quality assessments and checklists. Quality assessments included usability, visual design, user engagement, content, therapeutic persuasiveness, therapeutic alliance, and general subjective evaluation. The checklists included credibility, privacy explanation, basic security, and evidence-based program ranking. The quality constructs exhibited excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlations=.77-.98, median .91) and internal consistency (Cronbach alphas=.83-.90, median .88), with similar results when separated into delivery mediums or clinical aims. Conditional probability analysis revealed that 100% of the programs that received a score of fair or above (≥3.0) in therapeutic persuasiveness or therapeutic alliance received the same range of scores in user engagement and content—a pattern that did not appear in
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose and Applicable Regulations § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with...
... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...
... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention...
... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose and Applicable Regulations § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with...
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose and Applicable Regulations § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with...
van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.
This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…
Mahoney, Gerald; Perales, Frida
In this article we discuss the results of a motor intervention study that we conducted with young children with Down syndrome and other disabilities (Mahoney, Robinson & Fewell, 2001). Results from this study indicated that neither of the two major treatment models that are commonly used with young children with motor impairments was effective at…
Itzchak, Esther Ben; Zachor, Ditza A.
Research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) described individual differences in response to intervention. This study explored child and parental characteristics at baseline that predict outcomes in adaptive skills and acquisition of cognitive gains. Seventy-eight children aged 15-35 months diagnosed with ASD by standardized diagnostic tools were…
Murphy, Jean C.; Hernandez, Leonor
"Teacher, I can read!" exclaimed Saree, a fourth-quarter second grader who was placed in the lowest of reading groups at a southwest side elementary school in Chicago. This was her proud announcement after three weeks of intensive intervention with Ms. Gomez, a student teacher in her final semester at Chicago State University. "Ms.…
Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques
Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…
Kumar, Muthu; Kan, Min-Yen; Tan, Bernard C. Y.; Ragupathi, Kiruthika
With large student enrollment, MOOC instructors face the unique challenge in deciding when to intervene in forum discussions with their limited bandwidth. We study this problem of "instructor intervention." Using a large sample of forum data culled from 61 courses, we design a binary classifier to predict whether an instructor should…
Ungerleider, Steven; Caudill, Barry D.
Project IMPACT is based on an innovative prevention/community intervention model designed to stem the use of drugs and alcohol in an Oregon school district. A total of 74 teachers, administrators, and community leaders participated in a training session which included didactic and experiential sessions informing participants about the nature and…
1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0118 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...December 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION...COVERED 30Sep2012 - 29Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic
Silvestri, Enzo; Barile, Antonio; Albano, Domenico; Messina, Carmelo; Orlandi, Davide; Corazza, Angelo; Zugaro, Luigi; Masciocchi, Carlo; Sconfienza, Luca Maria
To perform an online survey among all members of the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology to understand how therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures are performed in daily practice in Italy. We administered an online survey to all 2405 members about the use of therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures in their institutions asking 16 different questions. Subgroup analysis was performed between general and orthopaedic hospitals with Mann-Whitney U and χ 2 statistics. A total of 129/2405 answers (5.4% of members) were included in our analysis. A median of 142.5 (25th-75th percentiles: 50-535.5; range 10-5000) therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures per single institution was performed in 2016. Arthropathic pain was the main indication. The most common procedures were joint injection, bursal/tendon injection, and irrigation of calcific tendinopathy. Ultrasound-guided procedures were mainly performed in ultrasonography rooms (77.4%) rather than in dedicated interventional rooms (22.6%). Conversely, fluoroscopic procedures were performed almost with the same frequency in interventional radiology suites (52.4%) and in general radiology rooms (47.6%). In most institutions (72%), autologous blood or components were not used. The median number of therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures performed in orthopaedic hospitals was significantly higher than in general hospitals (P = 0.002), as well as for the use of autologous preparations (P = 0.004). Joint injection, bursal/tendon injection, and irrigation of calcific tendinopathy were the most common therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures, being arthropathic pain the main indication. The percentage of procedures and the use of autologous preparations were significantly higher in orthopaedic hospitals than in general hospitals.
Daniels, Lynne Allison; Mallan, Kimberley Margaret; Nicholson, Jan Maree; Thorpe, Karen; Nambiar, Smita; Mauch, Chelsea Emma; Magarey, Anthea
Report long-term outcomes of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial (RCT), which evaluated a universal intervention commencing in infancy to provide anticipatory guidance to first-time mothers on "protective" complementary feeding practices that were hypothesized to reduce childhood obesity risk. The NOURISH RCT enrolled 698 mothers (mean age 30.1 years, SD = 5.3) with healthy term infants (51% female). Mothers were randomly allocated to usual care or to attend two 6-session, 12-week group education modules. Outcomes were assessed 5 times: baseline (infants 4.3 months); 6 months after module 1 (infants 14 months); 6 months after module 2 (infants 2 years) and at 3.5 and 5 years of age. Maternal feeding practices were self-reported using validated questionnaires. BMI Z-score was calculated from measured child height and weight. Linear mixed models evaluated intervention (group) effect across time. Retention at age 5 years was 61%. Across ages 2 to 5 years, intervention mothers reported less frequent use of nonresponsive feeding practices on 6 of 9 scales. At 5 years, they also reported more appropriate responses to food refusal on 7 of 12 items (Ps ≤ .05). No statistically significant group effect was noted for anthropometric outcomes (BMI Z-score: P = .06) or the prevalence of overweight/obesity (control 13.3% vs intervention 11.4%, P = .66). Anticipatory guidance on complementary feeding resulted in first-time mothers reporting increased use of protective feeding practices. These intervention effects were sustained up to 5 years of age and were paralleled by a nonsignificant trend for lower child BMI Z-scores at all postintervention assessment points. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Matić, Katarina; Gereš, Natko; Gerlach, Josefina; Prskalo-Čule, Diana; Zadravec Vrbanc, Tihana; Lovretić, Vanja; Librenjak, Dina; Vuk Pisk, Sandra; Ivezić, Ena; Šimunović Filipčić, Ivona; Jeleč, Vjekoslav; Filipčić, Igor
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that early and effective management in the critical early years of schizophrenia can improve long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate time to relapse of the patients with early-phase psychosis treated in the Centre for integrative psychiatry (CIP). We performed a retrospective cohort study on the sample of 373 early-phase psychosis patients admitted to Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Zagreb Croatia: from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. The primary outcome was time to relapse. Patients who were admitted to group psychotherapeutic program after the end of acute treatment had 70% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.30; 95% CI 0.16-0.58). Patients who were included first in the psychotherapeutic program and then treated and controlled in the daily hospital had 74% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.26; 95% CI 0.10-0.67). In early-phase psychosis, integrative early intervention service has relevant beneficial effects compare to treatment as usual. These results justified the implementation of multimodal early intervention services in treatment of patients with early-phase psychosis.
Claussen, Angelika H.; Scott, Keith G.; Mundy, Peter C.; Katz, Lynne F.
Cocaine use during pregnancy is a high-risk indicator for adverse developmental outcomes. Three levels of intervention (center, home, and primary care) were compared in a full service, birth to age 3, early intervention program serving children exposed to cocaine prenatally. Data were collected on 130 children from urban, predominantly poor,…
Nilsen, Ann Christin E.
Building on ideals of social cohesion, equality of opportunities and socio-economic benefits, there has been an increasing awareness in Norway of kindergarten employees' responsibility to initiate early childhood intervention. The process of identifying children in need of intervention involves a complex chain of actions in which documentation is…
Costa, Leandro Oliveira; Carnoy, Martin
Beginning in 2007, the Literacy Program at the Right Age (Pacto pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa [PAIC]) in Brazil's Ceará state required municipal schools to implement a tiered, whole-school early-grade literacy intervention. This intervention was complemented by other policies to help municipalities improve student achievement. The present…
Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…
Thomas, Anne E.; Marvin, Christine A.
Program monitoring is an important and necessary assessment practice within the field of early childhood deaf education. Effective program monitoring requires a focus on both the consistent implementation of intervention strategies (fidelity) and the assessment of children's ongoing progress in response to interventions (progress monitoring).…
Power, D. J., Ed.; And Others
Five papers focus on issues of early intervention with young hearing impaired children. The papers were presented at a seminar in 1981 in Queensland, Australia. A. Hayes begins with "The Emergence of Interest in Social Interaction in Infancy," in which he considers the role of metaphors in influencing intervention research. D. Power and G. Elias…
Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented "Foundations for Literacy" with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used…
Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.
Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with…
This study aims to examine the session goals and their realization during the session flow for a child with a hearing loss and his mother in an early intervention program. The study was designed as a case study. Video recordings of the intervention sessions, reflective journals, session plans, and the plan evaluations were used to collect and…
Schwartz, Robert M.
This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of the Reading Recovery early intervention. At-risk 1st-grade students were randomly assigned to receive the intervention during the 1st or 2nd half of the school year. High-average and low-average students from the same classrooms provided additional comparisons. Thirty-seven teachers from…
Dunst, Carl J.
A model for designing and implementing evidence-based in-service professional development in early childhood intervention as well as the key features of the model are described. The key features include professional development specialist (PDS) description and demonstration of an intervention practice, active and authentic job-embedded…
Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas
This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Hart, Katie C.; Karch, Kathryn M.; Mullins, Adam D.; Ries, Emily E.
A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of…
Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert
The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…
Smith, Isabel M.; Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn K.; Openden, Daniel A.; Fossum, Kristin L.; Bryson, Susan E.
The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model--NS EIBI (Bryson et al., 2007) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment--PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel,…
Weitzner-Lin, Barbara; And Others
A survey of 175 speech-language pathologists was conducted to determine the preparation they received to comply with Public Law 99-457's mandated services to infants and toddlers. Respondents reported that important content areas in provision of early intervention services included oral-motor/feeding issues, family assessment and intervention, and…
Marsh, Carolyn; Casey, Patrick H.
The Kids First program at the University of Arkansas Medical School (UAMS) is an outgrowth of the Infant Health and Development Program, a randomized trial of an early intervention approach for premature, low birth weight children, which showed that intensive intervention had significant initial benefits in the cognitive development and behavior…
Bailey, Drew H.; Nguyen, Tutrang; Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Domina, Thurston; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine
A consistent finding across early childhood interventions targeting mathematics and other achievement-related skills that is that initial treatment effects fade over time, with children not receiving the intervention catching up to children who did (Clements et al., 2013; Leak et al., 2010; Puma et al., 2010). One popular explanation for this is…
Macy, Daniel J.; And Others
Project DEBT (Developmental Education Birth through Two), an early identification and intervention program for handicapped and at risk children and their parents, is described. The Koontz Child Developmental Program, the core curriculum for instructional planning and intervention in DEBT, is reviewed, and new data are presented. It is explained…
Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.
This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…
Webster, Alec; Feiler, Anthony; Webster, Valerie; Lovell, Claire
Previous research on early intensive intervention in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) has largely focused on outcomes of treatment for children. Although some account has been taken of parental viewpoints, the potential impact of intervention on families has not achieved the same kind of research prominence. This contrasts with the considerable…
Salomone, Erica; Beranová, Štepánka; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Briciet Lauritsen, Marlene; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Buitelaar, Jan; Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; Felhosi, Gabriella; Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Freitag, Christine; Fuentes, Joaquin; Gallagher, Louise; Garcia Primo, Patricia; Gliga, Fotinica; Gomot, Marie; Green, Jonathan; Heimann, Mikael; Jónsdóttir, Sigridur Loa; Kaale, Anett; Kawa, Rafal; Kylliainen, Anneli; Lemcke, Sanne; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Marschik, Peter B; McConachie, Helen; Moilanen, Irma; Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio; Noterdaeme, Michele; Oliveira, Guiomar; Oosterling, Iris; Pijl, Mirjam; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Poustka, Luise; Roeyers, Herbert; Rogé, Bernadette; Sinzig, Judith; Vicente, Astrid; Warreyn, Petra; Charman, Tony
Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7?years or younger (N?=?1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions their child received. There was considerable…
Dunst, Carl J.
A conceptualization-operationalization-measurement framework is described for developing evidence-informed early childhood intervention performance checklists. Performance checklists include lists of practice indicators where the indicators, taken together, operationally define particular types of intervention practices that, when used as…
Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife
The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…
Bryant, Brian R.; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Roberts, Greg; Fall, Anna-Maria
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an early numeracy intervention delivered by kindergarten teachers to students identified as having mathematics difficulties. A multigroup growth-modeling-with-random-assignment-to-intervention-condition design was employed. Thirty-two teachers were randomly assigned to the treatment or…
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Currie, Janet; Besharov, Douglas J.
While recent research in cognitive development suggests that the period from birth to age 3 provides a unique opportunity for interventions to change the life-course of children, there is great disagreement regarding the best means of allocating public funds toward early childhood intervention. Further, there is little research into the long-term…
McWilliam, R. A.
Early intervention for infants and toddlers began with high hopes, but became mired in overspecialization, bureaucracy, and turf guarding. Nevertheless, two important advances in the field have been (a) a recognition that the child's natural caregivers are in the best position to be the intervention agents and, concomitantly, (b) a rethinking…
Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil
This community-based study examined the influence of early teaching interventions on children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and the dynamics between the time intensity of the interventions and parenting stress, on child outcomes. Intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavior and social functioning were all measured. Sixty-five…
Amendum, Steven J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Ginsberg, Marnie C.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. The TRI was delivered via an innovative…
Background Exposure to acute, potentially traumatic events is an unfortunately common experience for children and adolescents. Posttraumatic stress (PTS) responses following acute trauma can have an ongoing impact on child development and well-being. Early intervention to prevent or reduce PTS responses holds promise but requires careful development and empirical evaluation. Objectives The aims of this review paper are to present a framework for thinking about the design, delivery, and evaluation of early interventions for children who have been exposed to acute trauma; highlight targets for early intervention; and describe next steps for research and practice. Results and conclusions Proposed early intervention methods must (1) have a firm theoretical grounding that guides the design of intervention components; (2) be practical for delivery in peri-trauma or early post-trauma contexts, which may require creative models that go outside of traditional means of providing services to children; and (3) be ready for evaluation of both outcomes and mechanisms of action. This paper describes three potential targets for early intervention—maladaptive trauma-related appraisals, excessive early avoidance, and social/interpersonal processes—for which there is theory and evidence suggesting an etiological role in the development or persistence of PTS symptoms in children. PMID:25018860
Fricke, Silke; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Haley, Allyson J.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.
Background: Oral language skills in the preschool and early school years are critical to educational success and provide the foundations for the later development of reading comprehension. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 180 children from 15 UK nursery schools ("n" = 12 from each setting; M[subscript age] = 4;0) were randomly…
DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee
The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often begin early in life. In fact, many young children enter school with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that put them at a significant disadvantage compared with their typically-developing peers. Over the past several decades, researchers, psychologists and educators have devoted…
Success in early literacy activities is associated with improved educational outcomes, including reduced dropout risk, in-grade retention, and special education referrals. When considering programs that will work for a particular school and context; cost-effectiveness analysis may provide useful information for decision makers. The study…
Hardman, Margaret; Jones, Lynn
Evaluation of an early literacy initiative in which free books and literacy information were given to 40 caregivers of infants. Compared book-related activity in the home before and 2 months after the program. Results showed significant increases in book ownership and frequency of mothers and babies looking at children's books together. (SK)
Bright, B.; Cansler, D. P.
The KIK (Kentucky Individualized Kindergartens) project, a collaborative project between Kentucky's Department of Education and the Chapel Hill (NC) Training-Outreach project, is designed to serve high risk children. KIK provides early identification of high risk kindergarteners, development of individualized education programs, and implementation…
Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.
Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…
Frantz, Rebecca; Hansen, Sarah Grace; Squires, Jane; Machalicek, Wendy
Child development occurs within the context of the child's family, neighborhood, and community environment. Early childhood providers support positive outcomes, not only for the children with whom they directly work with but also for their families. Families of children with developmental delays often experience unique challenges. A family…
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early... non-competitive transfer of Part C funds from North General Hospital to the Institute for Family Health. SUMMARY: HRSA will be transferring Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C funds as a Non-Competitive...
Favre, Julien; Jolles, Brigitte M.
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful and incapacitating disease affecting a large portion of the elderly population, for which no cure exists. There is a critical need to enhance our understanding of OA pathogenesis, as a means to improve therapeutic options. Knee OA is a complex disease influenced by many factors, including the loading environment. Analysing knee biomechanics during walking - the primary cyclic load-bearing activity - is therefore particularly relevant. There is evidence of meaningful differences in the knee adduction moment, flexion moment and flexion angle during walking between non-OA individuals and patients with medial knee OA. Furthermore, these kinetic and kinematic gait variables have been associated with OA progression. Gait analysis provides the critical information needed to understand the role of ambulatory biomechanics in OA development, and to design therapeutic interventions. Multidisciplinary research is necessary to relate the biomechanical alterations to the structural and biological components of OA. Cite this article: Favre J, Jolles BM. Analysis of gait, knee biomechanics and the physiopathology of knee osteoarthritis in the development of therapeutic interventions. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:368-374. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000051. PMID:28461915
Ma, Min; Diao, Kai-Yue; Liu, Xiao-Jing; He, Yong
Anatomic variations, calcified, tortuous, angulated lesions, and lack of support to increase the complexity of transradial intervention (TRI). Guidezilla is a mother-and-child catheter enabling increased support during complex interventions. As there are few published reports of its use, we describe our experience using this device to assist TRI in Chinese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the Guidezilla guide extension catheter in complex coronary interventions. Thirty-two patients' clinical characteristics, angiographic details, and in-hospital outcome retrospectively collected between June 2015 and August 2017. Patients were 59.44 ± 10.48 years of age and 26 (81%) were men. The most frequent target vessels were the RCA (34%) and LAD (31%), patients had complex type C (53%) or B (47%) lesions, severely tortuous (41%) and angulated (22%).With the use of Guidezilla, technique success was 100%, and procedural success was 94%. The mean diameter of the deployed stents was 2.97 ± 0.37 mm, and the length was 27.19 ± 8.14 mm. The estimated mean distance of Guidezilla intubation into the target vessel was 7.66 ± 2.29 cm.The Guidezilla catheter extension safely facilitated successful completion of TRI in complex coronary artery lesions. This device can help interventionalists successfully perform difficult procedures.
The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of early intervention. The purpose of early intervention in Taipei City is to help child development, promote parenting skills, and reduce educational and social costs. In order to meet these goals, parenting groups and Taipei City Council have made great efforts to make early intervention work in Taipei City. In April 1995, Taipei City Government started planning and setting up the service network. To date, Taipei City has set up one reporting and referral center?, ?six community resources centers, 22 medical assessment and intervention clinics, 12 child development centers, one early intervention training center, three non-profit foundations and more than 300 inclusion schools, such as kindergartens and day care centers. With parent participation, professional devotion and Taipei City Government's commitment, the number of assisted children has increased from 98 to 2,523 /year. By the end of 2006, Taipei had already funded 25,277 children. We estimate Taipei City early intervention services to have affected at least 75,000 persons, including development-delayed and disabled children, their parents?, ?grandparents and siblings. We found that early intervention services help the children to build up self esteem, grow their potential, learn how to socialize, and receive an education, while the most important aim is to help them to reduce their level of disability or to prevent them from getting worse. At the same time, their families get support and a diverse range of services. An integrated early intervention program should include children, families, and multidisciplinary professionals. The system should therefore be more "family-centered" and "community-oriented" to provide appropriate services to children and families through a positive and aggressive attitude.
Birkin, Christina; Anderson, Angelika; Seymour, Fred; Moore, Dennis W.
Background: The EarlyBird program is a psycho-educational early intervention program for parents of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). It aims to provide parents with skills to increase their child's communication and manage challenging behaviour using behavioural techniques. Method: Two interlinked studies examined access to the…
Buzhardt, Jay; Greenwood, Charles; Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith; Terry, Barbara; Garrett, Matthew
Progress monitoring and data-based intervention decision making have become key components of providing evidence-based early childhood special education services. Unfortunately, there is a lack of tools to support early childhood service providers' decision-making efforts. The authors describe a Web-based system that guides service providers…
Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Skucy, Jim
Assessment within the fields of early childhood education and early childhood intervention is guided by the "deductive-psychometric model", which is a framework for legitimizing constructs that arise from theories. An alternative approach, termed the "inductive-experimental model", places significantly more restrictions on what constitutes a…
Franklin, Diane, Ed.; Bankston, Karen, Ed.
The earlier a parent can detect and respond to a child's involvement with alcohol and other drugs (AOD), the better. Just as early detection heightens the cure rate for cancer, so too does early intervention increase the chances of ending AOD use. This booklet outlines warning signs of AOD use and lists the hazards of adolescent drug use.…
Glover, Todd A.
Given the importance of early reading performance as a foundational prerequisite for student achievement, schools have allocated significant attention over the past decade to training teachers to assess and monitor students' reading progress and to implement instruction or interventions targeting early reading skills (e.g., Fletcher & Vaughn,…
Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia
Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…
Su, Xueyun; Long, Toby; Chen, Lianjun; Fang, Junming
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were first reported in China in 1982. Since then, autism and other related disorders have been recognized by both the public and professionals. The importance of early intervention for children with ASD is becoming more accepted throughout China. A survey was designed to investigate the status of early intervention…
Noyes-Grosser, Donna M.; Elbaum, Batya; Wu, Yan; Siegenthaler, Kirsten M.; Cavalari, Rachel S.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be diagnosed as early as 18 months of age. State Early Intervention (EI) programs under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) are serving increasing numbers of children with ASD; however, little is known about outcomes of these services. This study evaluated the impact of EI for…
McWilliam, P. J., Ed.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr., Ed.
This book presents 21 case studies of young children with disabilities in a variety of family situations and settings, for early interventionists to study in planning and applying recommended practices. Section I, "Defining and Delivering Quality Services in Early Intervention," provides two introductory chapters: "The Search for Quality…
Hammond, Helen; Ingalls, Lawrence
The value of early intervention programs for children with delays and/or disabilities has been well accepted in the research. Providing appropriate special education services at an early age of detecting academic and behavioral/social problems has proven to be effective at eliminating or decreasing special services at a later age. This…
Communication Disorders Quarterly, 2014
In February, 2013, the Division of Early Childhood, the National Association for the Education of Young Children, and the National Head Start Association released a collaborative paper to provide clarification and assistance regarding the relationship of response to intervention (RTI) with the field of early childhood (EC). In addition to…
McAlenney, Athena Lentini; Coyne, Michael D.
Accurate identification of at-risk kindergarten and 1st-grade students through early reading screening is an essential element of responsiveness to intervention models of reading instruction. The authors consider predictive validity and classification accuracy of early reading screening assessments with attention to sensitivity and specificity.…
Jung, Pyung-Gang; McMaster, Kristen L.; delMas, Robert C.
We examined effects of research-based early writing intervention delivered within a data-based instruction (DBI) framework for children with intensive needs. We randomly assigned 46 students with and without disabilities in Grades 1 to 3 within classrooms to either treatment or control. Treatment students received research-based early writing…
Fenske, Robert H.; Geranios, Christine A.; Keller, Jonathan E.; Moore, David E.
This digest summarizes a larger document of the same title which examines early intervention programs providing services and resources to encourage low-income/minority youth to finish high school and enter college. It notes provisions of federal law which encourage such programs and the unifying mission of the National Early Intervention…
Baglama, Basak; Demirok, Mukaddes Sakalli
Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with…
McDaid, Janet L.
California's K-6 Early Intervention Project was established in 1986 under the authority of California Assembly Bill 1535, Pilot Project on Hyperactivity, to provide a system of early identification and assistance to children in kindergarten through grade 6 whose behavior problems interfere with learning. This report contains evaluation findings…
Olusanya, Bolajoko O.
Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and…
Hickman, Robbin; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Long, Toby M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.
Changes in early childhood science, theory, and best practices for improving outcomes of children with motor delay or dysfunction and their families have evolved rapidly since EI began. Changes in daily early intervention (EI) practice have been more elusive. Closing the gap between knowledge and practice requires EI providers to piece together…
Niles, Michael D.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique
Background: To explore whether social or emotional outcomes for high-risk early adolescent youth that attended an established preventive intervention called the Chicago Child-Parent Center Preschool Program (CPC) are moderated by individual, family and program variations. Purpose: Two questions are addressed: (1) Do the effects of CPC preschool…
McConnell, Scott R.
This article discusses three future directions of early childhood assessment: attention to assessment of progress and growth, adaptation of methods typically associated with ecobehavioral research to assess environmental conditions that affect performance, and continued integration and linkage of assessment and intervention, which will yield more…
Burns, Debra S; Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E
The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a therapeutic music video (TMV) intervention for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) undergoing stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Twelve AYAs (aged 11-24 years) were randomized to the TMV or an audio-book protocol. The TMV was designed to diminish symptom distress and improve coping, derived meaning, resilience, and quality of life by supporting AYAs in exploring thoughts and feelings. Six sessions with a board-certified music therapist were held twice a week for 3 weeks. The Adolescent Resilience Model guided the selection of a large, comprehensive battery of outcome measures. Major data collections occurred before admission, after intervention, and at 100 days after transplantation. Participants completed a brief set of measures at presession/postsessions 2, 4, and 6. Rates of consent, session completion, and questionnaire completion supported feasibility. Immediate follow-up measures suggest positive trends in the TMV group for hope, spirituality, confidence/mastery, and self-transcendence. Positive trends at 100 days include MOS, symptoms distress, defensive coping, spirituality, and self-transcendence. Therapeutic music video participants also demonstrated gains in quality of life. The TMV intervention may buffer the immediate after-effects of the stem-cell transplantation experience, and a larger study is warranted.
Gładysiak, Aleksandra; Ślęzak, Daniel
Myopia is a condition of the eye where parallel rays focus in front of, instead of on, the retina, which results in excessive refractive power of the cornea or the lens or eyeball elongation. Studies carried out in recent years show that the etiology of myopia is complex with genetic and environmental factors playing a role. Refraction defects decrease the quality of vision, while progressing myopia can lead to partial loss of vision, which can be particularly dramatic in young adults. Therefore, it is so crucial to take appropriate actions aimed at preventing myopia progression. This is a review of nonpharmacological therapeutic possibilities of refraction defect prevention in young adults, with special regard to myofascial therapy, osteopathy, and massage of acupuncture points surrounding the eye. PMID:29576878
Fisher, Philip A; Gunnar, Megan R; Dozier, Mary; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C
Young children in foster care are exposed to high levels of stress. These experiences place foster children at risk for poor social, academic, and mental heath outcomes. The role of adverse events in stimulating neurobiological stress responses presumably plays a role in shaping neural systems that contribute to these problems. Systematic and developmentally well-timed interventions might have the potential to change developmental trajectories and promote resilience. Moreover, understanding how specific dimensions of early adversity affect underlying stress response systems and how alterations in these systems are related to later psychosocial outcomes might facilitate more precise and targeted interventions. Data are drawn from two ongoing randomized trials involving foster infants/toddlers and preschoolers. Consistent with prior animal models of early adversity, these studies have shown that early adversity-particularly neglect, younger age at first foster placement, and higher number of placements-is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. The interventions under investigation have produced evidence that it is possible to impact many areas that have been negatively affected by early stress, including HPA axis activity, behavior, and attachment to caregivers.
Dhakal, Laxmi P; Sen, Ayan; Stanko, Carlene M; Rawal, Bhupendra; Heckman, Michael G; Hoyne, Jonathan B; Dimberg, Elliot L; Freeman, Michelle L; Ng, Lauren K; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Freeman, William D
Loss of pupillary light reactivity is one recognized indicator of poor prognosis after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, drug overdose, low cardiac output, and/or resuscitation drugs can lead to impaired pupillary light reflex. To investigate pupillary light reflex status before therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in relation to neurological outcome, we retrospectively reviewed the data of a prospectively implemented TH protocol in patients with cardiac arrest (CA) at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida (January 2006-January 2012), and Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona (August 2010-March 2014). During this period, all CA patients who underwent hypothermia were included. These patients were selected from an institutional database and hypothermia data set. The Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) at time of discharge was our primary outcome measure. A CPC of 1 to 2 was defined as good outcome and a CPC from 3 to 5 was defined as poor outcome. We identified 99 patients who had CA treated with TH. Twenty-nine patients (29%) had pupils that were nonreactive to light on admission examination before TH, eight of whom later had return of pupil reactivity by day 3. Two of these 29 patients (6.9%) had good outcome, compared to 24 of 70 patients (34.3%) with pupils that were reactive to light (p = 0.005). Both of these patients had CA after illicit drug overdose. Early nonreactive pupils occurred in almost a third of patients after CPR and before TH in our patient population. Recovery of pupillary light reactivity is possible, and in a small minority of those cases (particularly when CA is preceded by the use of illicit drugs), a good outcome can be achieved.
Soyez, Veerle; De Leon, George; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves
Although numerous studies recognize the importance of social network support in engaging substance abusers into treatment, there is only limited knowledge of the impact of network involvement and support during treatment. The primary objective of this research was to enhance retention in Therapeutic Community treatment utilizing a social network intervention. The specific goals of this study were (1) to determine whether different pre-treatment factors predicted treatment retention in a Therapeutic Community; and (2) to determine whether participation of significant others in a social network intervention predicted treatment retention. Consecutive admissions to four long-term residential Therapeutic Communities were assessed at intake (n = 207); the study comprised a mainly male (84.9%) sample of polydrug (41.1%) and opiate (20.8%) abusers, of whom 64.4% had ever injected drugs. Assessment involved the European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), the Circumstances, Motivation, Readiness scales (CMR), the Dutch version of the family environment scale (GKS/FES) and an in-depth interview on social network structure and perceived social support. Network members of different cohorts were assigned to a social network intervention, which consisted of three elements (a video, participation at an induction day and participation in a discussion session). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that client-perceived social support (F1,198 = 10.9, P = 0.001) and treatment motivation and readiness (F1,198 = 8.8; P = 0.003) explained a significant proportion of the variance in treatment retention (model fit: F7,197 = 4.4; P = 0.000). By including the variable 'significant others' participation in network intervention' (network involvement) in the model, the fit clearly improved (F1,197 = 6.2; P = 0.013). At the same time, the impact of perceived social support decreased (F1,197 = 2.9; P = 0.091). Participation in the social network intervention was associated
Foster, Byron A; Farragher, Jill; Parker, Paige; Sosa, Erica T
With 25% of preschool-age children in the United States being overweight or obese, effective interventions for these children would have significant public health implications. Randomized trials targeting this age group have been performed since the last systematic review. To systematically review the literature on treatment interventions for overweight or obesity in preschool-age children. Medline (1948-July 2014), the Cochrane Central Registry (1991-July 2014), CINAHL (1990-July2014), and PAS abstracts (2000-2014). Inclusion criteria were children aged 0 to 6 in the study and adiposity as an outcome. Exclusions were having normal-weight children in the trial and not having a comparison group. Data were extracted independently by 2 authors using a template. The initial search yielded 1981 results, narrowed to 289 abstracts after initial review. Further analysis and cross-referencing led to the selection of 6 randomized controlled trials representing 1222 children. Two studies used systems changes and motivational interviewing and showed no significant effect on adiposity. Two studies used an intensive, multidisciplinary approach over 6 months and demonstrated significant decreases in adiposity. One study tested parental coaching and showed a significant reduction in adiposity at 6 months. One study used education on a dairy-rich diet and showed a possible effect on adiposity. The study designs were too heterogeneous for meta-analysis; few ethnic minority subjects were included. Multidisciplinary, intensive interventions have some evidence of efficacy in reducing adiposity in preschool children. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bloom, Julia; Dorsett, Pat; McLennan, Vanette
Introduction: The design was a narrative review. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential for early vocational rehabilitation (VR) interventions for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) in overcoming barriers in returning to work, and to pinpoint factors contributing to effectiveness in early VR intervention for this population. The setting was at Queensland, Australia. Materials and methods: Synthesis of the findings of a literature search of online databases ProQuest and CINAHL, using keywords relating to the employment situation and VR of people with SCI. Themes were identified and analysed in accordance with the research objectives. Results: Despite increasing government commitment to the workforce and social participation of people with disabilities, Australians living with SCI have significantly diminished employment outcomes compared with the general population. Current VR approaches usually do not commence until some months post discharge, potentially missing a window of opportunity to preserve pre-existing employment or assist in vocational decision making. The review found that there are opportunities for enhancing VR service provision following SCI, namely integrating the VR programme within the primary rehabilitation team thus facilitating early VR intervention. Discussion: Emerging evidence shows promising results for early intervention in VR; however, questions remain regarding ideal intervention approaches, and it is clear that further empirical investigation is required to support the use of early intervention models post SCI. The study was sponsored by Motor Accident Insurance Commission (MAIC). PMID:28382213
McAllister, Kerrie; Walker, David; Donnan, Peter T; Swan, Iain
Bell's palsy is an acute paralysis of one side of the face of unknown aetiology. Bell's palsy should only be used as a diagnosis in the absence of all other pathology. As the proposed pathophysiology is swelling and entrapment of the nerve, some surgeons suggest surgical decompression of the nerve as a possible management option. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To assess the effects of surgery in the management of Bell's palsy. On 29 October 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2012) and EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012). We also handsearched selected conference abstracts for the original version of the review. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving any surgical intervention for Bell's palsy. We compared surgical interventions to no treatment, sham treatment, other surgical treatments or medical treatment. Two review authors independently assessed whether trials identified from the searches were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Two trials with a total of 69 participants met the inclusion criteria. The first study considered the treatment of 403 people but only included 44 participants in the surgical trial, who were randomised into surgical and non-surgical groups. However, the report did not provide information on the method of randomisation. The second study randomly allocated 25 participants into surgical or control groups using statistical charts. There was no attempt in either study to conceal allocation. Neither participants nor outcome assessors were blind to the interventions, in either study. The first study lost seven participants to follow-up and there were no losses to follow-up in the second study.Surgeons in both studies decompressed the nerves of all the surgical group participants using a retroauricular approach. The
Tewari, Devesh; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sureda, Antoni; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Atanasov, Atanas G; Vacca, Rosa Anna; Sethi, Gautam; Bishayee, Anupam
Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a key transcription factor in the control of several cellular processes responsible for cell survival proliferation and differentiation. Dysfunctional AP-1 expression and activity are involved in several severe diseases, especially inflammatory disorders and cancer. Therefore, targeting AP-1 has recently emerged as an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. This review summarizes our current understanding of AP-1 biology and function as well as explores and discusses several natural bioactive compounds modulating AP-1-associated signaling pathways for cancer prevention and intervention. Current limitations, challenges, and future directions of research are also critically discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miranda, D R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W
To validate a simplified version of the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, the TISS-28, and to determine the association of TISS-28 with the time spent on scored and nonscored nursing activities. Prospective, multicenter study. Twenty-two adult medical, surgical, and general Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). A total of 903 patients consecutively admitted to the ICUs. TISS-28 was constructed from a random sample of 10,000 records of TISS-76 items. The respective weights were calculated using multivariable regression analysis through the origin; TISS-76 scores were used as predicted values. Cross validation was performed in another random sample of 10,000 records and the scores of TISS-76 were compared with those scores obtained with TISS-28 (r = .96, r2 = .93). Nursing activities in the ICU were inventoried and divided into six categories: a) activities in TISS-28; b) patient care activities not in TISS-28; c) indirect patient care (activities related to but not in direct contact with the patient, such as contact with family, maintaining supplies); d) organizational activities (e.g., meetings, trainee supervision, research); e) personal activities (for the nurse him/herself, such as taking a break, going to the bathroom); f) other. During a 1-month period, TISS-76 and TISS-28 scores were determined daily from the patient's records by independent raters. During a 1-wk period, all of the nurses on duty scored their activities using a method called "work sampling." The analysis of validation included 1,820 valid pairs of TISS-76 and TISS-28 records. The mean value of TISS-28 (28.8 +/- 11.1) was higher (p < .00) than that value of TISS-76 (24.2 +/- 10.2). TISS-28 explained 86% of the variation in TISS-76 (r = .93, r2 = .86). "Work sampling" generated 10,079 registrations of nursing activities, of which 5,530 could be matched with TISS-28 records. Samples were taken from medical (19.3%), surgical (19.1%), and general (61.6%) ICUs. Of these samples, 51
Wilhelmus, Kirk R
are limited to superseded interventions. Trifluridine and acyclovir are more effective than idoxuridine or vidarabine and similar in therapeutic effectiveness. Brivudine and foscarnet do not substantially differ in effectiveness from trifluridine or acyclovir. Ganciclovir is at least as effective as acyclovir. The addition of interferon to a nucleoside antiviral agent and the combination of debridement with antiviral treatment need to be further assessed to substantiate any possible advantage in healing. PMID:25879115
Mallipattu, Sandeep K.; He, John C.; Uribarri, Jaime
It has been nearly 100 years since the first published report of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by the French chemist Maillard. Since then, our understanding of AGEs in diseased states has dramatically changed. Especially in the last 25 years, AGEs have been implicated in complications related to aging, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Although AGE formation has been well characterized by both in vitro and in vivo studies, few prospective human studies exist demonstrating the role of AGEs in patients on chronic renal replacement therapy. As the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States rises, it is essential to identify therapeutic strategies that either delay progression to ESRD or improve morbidity and mortality in this population. This article reviews the role of AGEs, especially those of dietary origin, in ESRD patients as well as potential therapeutic anti-AGE strategies in this population. PMID:22548330
Mallipattu, Sandeep K; He, John C; Uribarri, Jaime
It has been nearly 100 years since the first published report of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by the French chemist Maillard. Since then, our understanding of AGEs in diseased states has dramatically changed. Especially in the last 25 years, AGEs have been implicated in complications related to aging, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Although AGE formation has been well characterized by both in vitro and in vivo studies, few prospective human studies exist demonstrating the role of AGEs in patients on chronic renal replacement therapy. As the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States rises, it is essential to identify therapeutic strategies that either delay progression to ESRD or improve morbidity and mortality in this population. This article reviews the role of AGEs, especially those of dietary origin, in ESRD patients as well as potential therapeutic anti-AGE strategies in this population. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomas, Rae; Herschell, Amy D
Children who have experienced maltreatment can often display behavioral difficulties; their parents may lack disciplinary knowledge, be less sensitive to their children, and engage in coercive parenting practices. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is a well-known, evidence-based treatment (EBT) for child behavior problems and within the last decade has garnered significant evidence to suggest its utility for parents engaged in child maltreatment. This article uses a case example to describe PCIT treatment phases and PCIT research within the child maltreatment sector is synthesized with particular focus on treatment modifications. Successful augmentations and modifications include a motivation component, keeping therapeutic time shorter rather than longer, and whether to incorporate individual counseling and in-home PCIT are also considered. Practical strategies from both a therapeutic and research experience are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.