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Sample records for early thrombin generation

  1. Normal pregnancy is associated with an increase in thrombin generation from the very early stages of the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Bagot, C N; Leishman, E; Onyiaodike, C C; Jordan, F; Freeman, D J

    2017-09-01

    Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis, which begins during the first trimester, but the exact time of onset is unknown. Thrombin generation, a laboratory marker of thrombosis risk, increases during normal pregnancy but it is unclear exactly how early this increase occurs. We assessed thrombin generation by Calibrated Automated Thrombography in women undergoing natural cycle in vitro fertilization, who subsequently gave birth at term following a normal pregnancy (n=22). Blood samples were taken just prior to conception and repeated five times during very early pregnancy, up to Day 59 estimated gestation. Mean Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP), peak thrombin generation and Velocity Index (VI) increased significantly from pre-pregnancy to Day 43 gestation (p=0.024-0.0004). This change persisted to Day 59 gestation. The mean of the percentage change from baseline, accounting for inter-individual variation, in ETP, peak thrombin and VI increased significantly from pre-pregnancy to Day 32 gestation (p=0.0351-<0.0001) with the mean increase from baseline persisting to Day 59 gestation. Thrombin generation increases significantly during the very early stages of normal pregnancy when compared to the pre-pregnancy state. The increased risk of venous thrombosis therefore likely begins very early in a woman's pregnancy, suggesting that women considered clinically to be at high thrombotic risk should start thromboprophylaxis as early as possible after a positive pregnancy test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling thrombin generation: plasma composition based approach.

    PubMed

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E; Everse, Stephen J; Mann, Kenneth G; Orfeo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Thrombin has multiple functions in blood coagulation and its regulation is central to maintaining the balance between hemorrhage and thrombosis. Empirical and computational methods that capture thrombin generation can provide advancements to current clinical screening of the hemostatic balance at the level of the individual. In any individual, procoagulant and anticoagulant factor levels together act to generate a unique coagulation phenotype (net balance) that is reflective of the sum of its developmental, environmental, genetic, nutritional and pharmacological influences. Defining such thrombin phenotypes may provide a means to track disease progression pre-crisis. In this review we briefly describe thrombin function, methods for assessing thrombin dynamics as a phenotypic marker, computationally derived thrombin phenotypes versus determined clinical phenotypes, the boundaries of normal range thrombin generation using plasma composition based approaches and the feasibility of these approaches for predicting risk.

  3. Increased thrombin generation after acute versus chronic coronary disease as assessed by the thrombin generation test.

    PubMed

    Orbe, Josune; Zudaire, Maite; Serrano, Rosario; Coma-Canella, Isabel; Martínez de Sizarrondo, Sara; Rodríguez, Jose A; Páramo, Jose A

    2008-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathophysiologic substrate of coronary artery disease (CAD). Whereas plaque progression and arterial remodeling are critical components in chronic CAD, intracoronary thrombosis over plaque disruption is causally related to acute CAD. It was the objective of this study to investigate the differences between prior acute CAD and chronic CAD by a simple global coagulation assay measuring thrombin generation. A cross-sectional study involving 15 healthy controls, 35 patients with chronic stable CAD, and 60 patients after an episode of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was performed. Thrombin generation was measured between three and 11 months after the initial diagnosis (mean 6 months) by a commercially available fluorogenic assay (Technothrombin TGA). In each patient the lag phase, velocity index and peak thrombin were obtained from the thrombogram profile. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded, and the inflammatory markers, fibrinogen and hs-C-reactive protein were determined. Compared with stable CAD patients, showing normal thrombograms, those with previous AMI showed earlier lag phase (p < 0.05) and significant increase of both the velocity index (p < 0.001) and peak thrombin (p < 0.05), indicating faster and higher thrombin generation in the AMI group. Differences in thrombin generation between stable and acute CAD patients remained significant (p < 0.001) after adjusting for conventional CAD risk factors (age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia). In conclusion, patients with a previous history of acute CAD showed earlier, faster and higher thrombin generation than stable chronic CAD patients. The thrombin generation test may be of clinical value to monitor hypercoagulable/vulnerable blood and/or guide therapy in CAD.

  4. THROMBIN GENERATION AND BLEEDING IN HEMOPHILIA A

    PubMed Central

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Whelihan, Matthew F.; Gissel, Matthew; Mann, Kenneth G.; Rivard, Georges E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A displays phenotypic heterogeneity with respect to clinical severity. Aim To determine if tissue factor (TF)-initiated thrombin generation profiles in whole blood in the presence of corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) are predictive of bleeding risk in hemophilia A. Methods We studied factor(F) VIII deficient individuals (11 mild, 4 moderate and 12 severe) with a well-characterized five-year bleeding history that included hemarthrosis, soft tissue hematoma and annual FVIII concentrate usage. This clinical information was used to generate a bleeding score. The bleeding scores (range 0–32) were separated into three groups (bleeding score groupings: 0, 0 and ≤9.6, >9.6), with the higher bleeding tendency having a higher score. Whole blood collected by phlebotomy and contact pathway suppressed by 100μg/mL CTI was stimulated to react by the addition of 5pM TF. Reactions were quenched at 20min by inhibitors. Thrombin generation, determined by ELISA for thrombin – antithrombin was evaluated in terms of clot time (CT), maximum level (MaxL) and maximum rate (MaxR) and compared to the bleeding score. Results Data are shown as the mean±SD. MaxL was significantly different (p<0.001) between the groups: 504±114nM, 315±117nM, and 194±91nM; with higher thrombin concentrations in the groups with lower bleeding scores. MaxR was higher in the groups with a lower bleeding score; 97±51nM/min, 86±60nM/min and 39±16nM/min (p=0.09). No significant difference was detected in CT among the groups, 5.6±1.3min, 4.7±0.7min, 5.6±1.3min. Conclusions Our empirical study in CTI-inhibited whole blood shows that the MaxL of thrombin generation appears to correlate with the bleeding phenotype of hemophilia A. PMID:19563500

  5. Anticoagulants and the propagation phase of thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Orfeo, Thomas; Gissel, Matthew; Butenas, Saulius; Undas, Anetta; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E; Mann, Kenneth G

    2011-01-01

    The view that clot time-based assays do not provide a sufficient assessment of an individual's hemostatic competence, especially in the context of anticoagulant therapy, has provoked a search for new metrics, with significant focus directed at techniques that define the propagation phase of thrombin generation. Here we use our deterministic mathematical model of tissue-factor initiated thrombin generation in combination with reconstructions using purified protein components to characterize how the interplay between anticoagulant mechanisms and variable composition of the coagulation proteome result in differential regulation of the propagation phase of thrombin generation. Thrombin parameters were extracted from computationally derived thrombin generation profiles generated using coagulation proteome factor data from warfarin-treated individuals (N = 54) and matching groups of control individuals (N = 37). A computational clot time prolongation value (cINR) was devised that correlated with their actual International Normalized Ratio (INR) values, with differences between individual INR and cINR values shown to derive from the insensitivity of the INR to tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). The analysis suggests that normal range variation in TFPI levels could be an important contributor to the failure of the INR to adequately reflect the anticoagulated state in some individuals. Warfarin-induced changes in thrombin propagation phase parameters were then compared to those induced by unfractionated heparin, fondaparinux, rivaroxaban, and a reversible thrombin inhibitor. Anticoagulants were assessed at concentrations yielding equivalent cINR values, with each anticoagulant evaluated using 32 unique coagulation proteome compositions. The analyses showed that no anticoagulant recapitulated all features of warfarin propagation phase dynamics; differences in propagation phase effects suggest that anticoagulants that selectively target fXa or thrombin may

  6. Thrombin Generating Capacity and Phenotypic Association in ABO Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Romy M W; Mohamed, Abdulrahman B O; Pelkmans, Leonie; Hindawi, Salwa; Hemker, H Coenraad; de Laat, H Bas; Huskens, Dana; Al Dieri, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with blood group O have a higher bleeding risk than non-O blood groups. This could be explained by the lower levels of FVIII and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels in O individuals. We investigated the relationship between blood groups, thrombin generation (TG), prothrombin activation and thrombin inactivation. Plasma levels of VWF, FVIII, antithrombin, fibrinogen, prothrombin and α2Macroglobulin (α2M) levels were determined. TG was measured in platelet rich (PRP) and platelet poor plasma (PPP) of 217 healthy donors and prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation were calculated. VWF and FVIII levels were lower (75% and 78%) and α2M levels were higher (125%) in the O group. TG is 10% lower in the O group in PPP and PRP. Less prothrombin was converted in the O group (86%) and the thrombin decay capacity was lower as well. In the O group, α2M plays a significantly larger role in the inhibition of thrombin (126%). In conclusion, TG is lower in the O group due to lower prothrombin conversion, and a larger contribution of α2M to thrombin inactivation. The former is unrelated to platelet function because it is similar in PRP and PPP, but can be explained by the lower levels of FVIII.

  7. Thrombin Generating Capacity and Phenotypic Association in ABO Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hindawi, Salwa; Hemker, H. Coenraad; de Laat, H. Bas; Huskens, Dana; Al Dieri, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with blood group O have a higher bleeding risk than non-O blood groups. This could be explained by the lower levels of FVIII and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels in O individuals. We investigated the relationship between blood groups, thrombin generation (TG), prothrombin activation and thrombin inactivation. Plasma levels of VWF, FVIII, antithrombin, fibrinogen, prothrombin and α2Macroglobulin (α2M) levels were determined. TG was measured in platelet rich (PRP) and platelet poor plasma (PPP) of 217 healthy donors and prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation were calculated. VWF and FVIII levels were lower (75% and 78%) and α2M levels were higher (125%) in the O group. TG is 10% lower in the O group in PPP and PRP. Less prothrombin was converted in the O group (86%) and the thrombin decay capacity was lower as well. In the O group, α2M plays a significantly larger role in the inhibition of thrombin (126%). In conclusion, TG is lower in the O group due to lower prothrombin conversion, and a larger contribution of α2M to thrombin inactivation. The former is unrelated to platelet function because it is similar in PRP and PPP, but can be explained by the lower levels of FVIII. PMID:26509437

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-10 is upregulated by thrombin in endothelial cells and increased in patients with enhanced thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Orbe, Josune; Rodríguez, José A; Calvayrac, Olivier; Rodríguez-Calvo, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Cristina; Roncal, Carmen; Martínez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Reverter, Juan C; Martínez-González, José; Páramo, José A

    2009-12-01

    Thrombin is a multifunctional serine protease that promotes vascular proinflammatory responses whose effect on endothelial MMP-10 expression has not previously been evaluated. Thrombin induced endothelial MMP-10 mRNA and protein levels, through a protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)-dependent mechanism, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was mimicked by a PAR-1 agonist peptide (TRAP-1) and antagonized by an anti-PAR-1 blocking antibody. MMP-10 induction was dependent on extracellular regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. By serial deletion analysis, site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay an AP-1 site in the proximal region of MMP-10 promoter was found to be critical for thrombin-induced MMP-10 transcriptional activity. Thrombin and TRAP-1 upregulated MMP-10 in murine endothelial cells in culture and in vivo in mouse aorta. This effect of thrombin was not observed in PAR-1-deficient mice. Interestingly, circulating MMP-10 levels (P<0.01) were augmented in patients with endothelial activation associated with high (disseminated intravascular coagulation) and moderate (previous acute myocardial infarction) systemic thrombin generation. Thrombin induces MMP-10 through a PAR-1-dependent mechanism mediated by ERK1/2, JNK, and AP-1 activation. Endothelial MMP-10 upregulation could be regarded as a new proinflammatory effect of thrombin whose pathological consequences in thrombin-related disorders and plaque stability deserve further investigation.

  9. Contact system activation and high thrombin generation in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namhee; Gu, Ja-Yoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Han, Se Eun; Kim, Young Il; Nam-Goong, Il Sung; Kim, Eun Sook; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombotic risk. As contact system activation through formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) has emerged as an important trigger of thrombosis, we hypothesized that the contact system is activated along with active NET formation in hyperthyroidism and that their markers correlate with disease severity. In 61 patients with hyperthyroidism and 40 normal controls, the levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, and factor VII, VIII, IX, XI and XII), D-dimer, thrombin generation assay (TGA) markers, NET formation markers (histone-DNA complex, double-stranded DNA and neutrophil elastase) and contact system markers (activated factor XII (XIIa), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein and bradykinin) were measured. Patients with hyperthyroidism showed higher levels of fibrinogen (median (interquartile range), 315 (280-344) vs 262 (223-300), P  = 0.001), D-dimer (103.8 (64.8-151.5) vs 50.7 (37.4-76.0), P  < 0.001), peak thrombin (131.9 (102.2-159.4) vs 31.6 (14.8-83.7), P  < 0.001) and endogenous thrombin potential (649 (538-736) vs 367 (197-1147), P  = 0.021) in TGA with 1 pM tissue factor, neutrophil elastase (1.10 (0.39-2.18) vs 0.23 (0.20-0.35), P  < 0.001), factor XIIa (66.9 (52.8-87.0) vs 73.0 (57.1-86.6), P  < 0.001), HMWK (6.11 (4.95-7.98) vs 3.83 (2.60-5.68), P  < 0.001), prekallikrein (2.15 (1.00-6.36) vs 1.41 (0.63-2.22), P  = 0.026) and bradykinin (152.4 (137.6-180.4) vs 118.3 (97.1-137.9), P  < 0.001) than did normal controls. In age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis, fibrinogen, factor VIII, IX and XIIa, D-dimer, peak thrombin, neutrophil elastase, HMWK and bradykinin showed significant odds ratios representing hyperthyroidism's contribution to coagulation and contact system activation. Free T4 was significantly correlated with factors VIII and IX, D-dimer, double-stranded DNA and bradykinin. This study demonstrated that contact system

  10. Kinetic Modeling Sheds Light on the Mode of Action of Recombinant Factor VIIa on Thrombin Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Regular Article Kinetic modeling sheds light on the mode of action of recombinant factor VIIa on thrombin generation Alexander Y. Mitrophanov...its effects on the quantitative parameters of thrombin generation. For recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) ― a promising hemostasis-inducing...modulate thrombin production , it is necessary to identify rFVIIa-induced effects that are compatible with the available biochemical knowledge about

  11. Characterization of the thrombin generation profile in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kern, A; Barabás, E; Balog, A; Burcsár, Sz; Kiszelák, M; Vásárhelyi, B

    2017-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic inflammatory autoimmune disorder. Thrombotic events occur at a higher incidence among SLE patients. The investigation of thrombin generation (TG) with calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) test as a global hemostasis assay is applicable for the overall functional assessment of the hemostasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the hemostatic alterations observed in SLE by CAT assay. In this study, CAT parameters and basic coagulation parameters of SLE patients (n = 22) and healthy control subjects (n = 34) were compared. CAT area under the curve (i.e., endogenous thrombin potential) was lower than normal in SLE (807 vs. 1,159 nM*min, respectively), whereas other CAT parameters (peak, lag time, time to peak, and velocity index) and the basic coagulation tests were within the normal range. The presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies and the applied therapy was not associated with hemostasis parameters in SLE. We concluded that the reported high risk of thrombosis is not related to TG potential.

  12. Kinetic modeling sheds light on the mode of action of recombinant factor VIIa on thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Mitrophanov, Alexander Y; Reifman, Jaques

    2011-10-01

    The therapeutic potential of a hemostatic agent can be assessed by investigating its effects on the quantitative parameters of thrombin generation. For recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa)--a promising hemostasis-inducing biologic--experimental studies addressing its effects on thrombin generation yielded disparate results. To elucidate the inherent ability of rFVIIa to modulate thrombin production, it is necessary to identify rFVIIa-induced effects that are compatible with the available biochemical knowledge about thrombin generation mechanisms. The existing body of knowledge about coagulation biochemistry can be rigorously represented by a computational model that incorporates the known reactions and parameter values constituting the biochemical network. We used a thoroughly validated numerical model to generate activated factor VII (FVIIa) titration curves in the cases of normal blood composition, hemophilia A and B blood, blood lacking factor VII, blood lacking tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and diluted blood. We utilized the generated curves to perform systematic fold-change analyses for five quantitative parameters characterizing thrombin accumulation. The largest fold changes induced by increasing FVIIa concentration were observed for clotting time, thrombin peak time, and maximum slope of the thrombin curve. By contrast, thrombin peak height was much less affected by FVIIa titrations, and the area under the thrombin curve stayed practically unchanged. Comparisons with experimental data demonstrated that the computationally derived patterns can be observed in vitro. rFVIIa modulates thrombin generation primarily by accelerating the process, without significantly affecting the total amount of generated thrombin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Concizumab, an anti-tissue factor pathway inhibitor antibody, induces increased thrombin generation in plasma from haemophilia patients and healthy subjects measured by the thrombin generation assay.

    PubMed

    Waters, E K; Sigh, J; Friedrich, U; Hilden, I; Sørensen, B B

    2017-09-01

    Concizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), is being developed as a subcutaneously (s.c.) administered treatment for haemophilia. It demonstrated a concentration-dependent procoagulant effect in functional TFPI assays; however, global haemostatic assays, such as the thrombin generation assay (TGA), offer a more complete picture of coagulation. We investigated how concizumab affects thrombin generation following ex vivo spiking in plasma from haemophilia patients using the TGA, and if the assay can detect the effect of multiple s.c. concizumab doses in healthy subjects. For the ex vivo spiking study, platelet-poor plasma (PPP) from 18 patients with severe haemophilia was spiked with 0.001-500 nm concizumab. For the multiple-dosing study, four healthy males received concizumab 250 μg kg -1 s.c. every other day for eight doses; blood was collected before and after dosing and processed into PPP. In both studies, thrombin generation was measured using a Calibrated Automated Thrombogram ® system with 1 pm tissue factor. In spiked samples from haemophilia patients, peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) increased concentration dependently, reaching near-normal levels at concizumab concentrations >10 nm. Repeated s.c. doses of concizumab in healthy subjects increased both peak thrombin and ETP; these effects were sustained throughout the dosing interval. Thrombin generation assay demonstrated increased thrombin generation with concizumab after ex vivo spiking of haemophilia plasma and multiple s.c. doses in healthy subjects, supporting both the utility of the TGA in evaluating concizumab treatment and the potential of s.c. concizumab as a novel haemophilia therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Augmentation of thrombin generation in neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Guzzetta, N A; Szlam, F; Kiser, A S; Fernandez, J D; Szlam, A D; Leong, T; Tanaka, K A

    2014-02-01

    Factor concentrates are currently available and becoming increasingly used off-label for treatment of bleeding. We compared recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) with three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (3F-PCC) for the ability to augment thrombin generation (TG) in neonatal plasma after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). First, we used a computer-simulated coagulation model to assess the impact of rFVIIa and 3F-PCC, and then performed similar measurements ex vivo using plasma from neonates undergoing CPB. Simulated TG was computed according to the coagulation factor levels from umbilical cord plasma and the therapeutic levels of rFVIIa, 3F-PCC, or both. Subsequently, 11 neonates undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled. Two blood samples were obtained from each neonate: pre-CPB and post-CPB after platelet and cryoprecipitate transfusion. The post-CPB products sample was divided into control (no treatment), control plus rFVIIa (60 nM), and control plus 3F-PCC (0.3 IU ml(-1)) aliquots. Three parameters of TG were measured ex vivo. The computer-simulated post-CPB model demonstrated that rFVIIa failed to substantially improve lag time, TG rate and peak thrombin without supplementing prothrombin. Ex vivo data showed that addition of rFVIIa post-CPB significantly shortened lag time; however, rate and peak were not statistically significantly improved. Conversely, 3F-PCC improved all TG parameters in parallel with increased prothrombin levels in both simulated and ex vivo post-CPB samples. Our data highlight the importance of prothrombin replacement in restoring TG. Despite a low content of FVII, 3F-PCC exerts potent procoagulant activity compared with rFVIIa ex vivo. Further clinical evaluation regarding the efficacy and safety of 3F-PCC is warranted.

  15. Dynamics of Thrombin Generation and Flux from Clots during Whole Human Blood Flow over Collagen/Tissue Factor Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu; Lu, Yichen; Sinno, Talid; Diamond, Scott L

    2016-10-28

    Coagulation kinetics are well established for purified blood proteases or human plasma clotting isotropically. However, less is known about thrombin generation kinetics and transport within blood clots formed under hemodynamic flow. Using microfluidic perfusion (wall shear rate, 200 s -1 ) of corn trypsin inhibitor-treated whole blood over a 250-μm long patch of type I fibrillar collagen/lipidated tissue factor (TF; ∼1 TF molecule/μm 2 ), we measured thrombin released from clots using thrombin-antithrombin immunoassay. The majority (>85%) of generated thrombin was captured by intrathrombus fibrin as thrombin-antithrombin was largely undetectable in the effluent unless Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro (GPRP) was added to block fibrin polymerization. With GPRP present, the flux of thrombin increased to ∼0.5 × 10 -12 nmol/μm 2 -s over the first 500 s of perfusion and then further increased by ∼2-3-fold over the next 300 s. The increased thrombin flux after 500 s was blocked by anti-FXIa antibody (O1A6), consistent with thrombin-feedback activation of FXI. Over the first 500 s, ∼92,000 molecules of thrombin were generated per surface TF molecule for the 250-μm-long coating. A single layer of platelets (obtained with α IIb β 3 antagonism preventing continued platelet deposition) was largely sufficient for thrombin production. Also, the overall thrombin-generating potential of a 1000-μm-long coating became less efficient on a per μm 2 basis, likely due to distal boundary layer depletion of platelets. Overall, thrombin is robustly generated within clots by the extrinsic pathway followed by late-stage FXIa contributions, with fibrin localizing thrombin via its antithrombin-I activity as a potentially self-limiting hemostatic mechanism. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Platelet-derived microparticles regulates thrombin generation via phophatidylserine in abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhi; Zhang, Su; Luo, Lingtao; Norström, Eva; Braun, Oscar Ö; Mörgelin, Matthias; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2018-02-01

    Sepsis is associated with dysfunctional coagulation. Recent data suggest that platelets play a role in sepsis by promoting neutrophil accumulation. Herein, we show that cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) triggered systemic inflammation, which is characterized by formation of IL-6 and CXC chemokines as well as neutrophil accumulation in the lung. Platelet depletion decreased neutrophil accumulation, IL-6, and CXC chemokines formation in septic lungs. Depletion of platelets increased peak thrombin formation and total thrombin generation (TG) in plasma from septic animals. CLP elevated circulating levels of platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs). In vitro generated PMPs were a potent inducer of TG. Interestingly, in vitro wild-type recombinant annexin V abolished PMP-induced thrombin formation whereas a mutant annexin V protein, which does not bind to phosphatidylserine (PS), had no effect. Administration of wild-type, but not mutant annexin V, significantly inhibited thrombin formation in septic animals. Moreover, CLP-induced formation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes were reduced in platelet-depleted mice and in animals pretreated with annexin V. PMP-induced TG attenuated in FXII- and FVII-deficient plasma. These findings suggest that sepsis-induced TG is dependent on platelets. Moreover, PMPs formed in sepsis are a potent inducer of TG via PS exposure, and activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of coagulation. In conclusion, these observations suggest that PMPs and PS play an important role in dysfunctional coagulation in abdominal sepsis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Therapeutic Correction of Thrombin Generation in Dilution-Induced Coagulopathy: Computational Analysis Based on a Data Set of Healthy Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Factor VIIa tended to primarily impact clotting time, thrombin peak time, and maximum slope of the thrombin curve, whereas in the case of PCC- FVII ...constituents of existing PCCs are the four coagulation factors (F) II (prothrombin), FVII , FIX, and FX.3 Notably, FVII inhibits thrombin generation by...proposed PCC composition (coagulation factors [F] II, IX, and X and the anticoagulant antithrombin), designated PCC-AT, was compared with that of

  18. A direct thrombin inhibitor suppresses protein C activation and factor Va degradation in human plasma: Possible mechanisms of paradoxical enhancement of thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Kamisato, Chikako; Furugohri, Taketoshi; Morishima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated that antithrombin (AT)-independent thrombin inhibitors paradoxically increase thrombin generation (TG) in human plasma in a thrombomodulin (TM)- and protein C (PC)-dependent manner. We determined the effects of AT-independent thrombin inhibitors on the negative-feedback system, activation of PC and production and degradation of factor Va (FVa), as possible mechanisms underlying the paradoxical enhancement of TG. TG in human plasma containing 10nM TM was assayed by means of the calibrated automated thrombography. As an index of PC activation, plasma concentration of activated PC-PC inhibitor complex (aPC-PCI) was measured. The amounts of FVa heavy chain and its degradation product (FVa(307-506)) were examined by western blotting. AT-independent thrombin inhibitors, melagatran and dabigatran (both at 25-600nM) and 3-30μg/ml active site-blocked thrombin (IIai), increased peak levels of TG. Melagatran, dabigatran and IIai significantly decreased plasma concentration of aPC-PCI complex at 25nM or more, 75nM or more, and 10 and 30μg/ml, respectively. Melagatran (300nM) significantly increased FVa and decreased FVa(307-506). In contrast, a direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban preferentially inhibited thrombin generation (≥25nM), and higher concentrations were required to inhibit PC activation (≥150nM) and FVa degradation (300nM). The present study suggests that the inhibitions of protein C activation and subsequent degradation of FVa and increase in FVa by antithrombin-independent thrombin inhibitors may contribute to the paradoxical TG enhancement, and edoxaban may inhibit PC activation and FVa degradation as a result of TG suppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Determinants of Thrombin Generation and Their Relation to Venous Thrombosis: Results from the GAIT-2 Project

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Fernandez, Laura; Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Carrasco, Marina; Millon, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Vilalta, Noelia; Brunel, Helena; Font, Montserrat; Hamsten, Anders; Souto, Juan Carlos; Soria, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease where known genetic risk factors explain only a small portion of the genetic variance. Then, the analysis of intermediate phenotypes, such as thrombin generation assay, can be used to identify novel genetic risk factors that contribute to VTE. Objectives To investigate the genetic basis of distinct quantitative phenotypes of thrombin generation and its relationship to the risk of VTE. Patients/Methods Lag time, thrombin peak and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were measured in the families of the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia 2 (GAIT-2) Project. This sample consisted of 935 individuals in 35 extended families selected through a proband with idiopathic thrombophilia. We performed also genome wide association studies (GWAS) with thrombin generation phenotypes. Results The results showed that 67% of the variation in the risk of VTE is attributable to genetic factors. The heritabilities of lag time, thrombin peak and ETP were 49%, 54% and 52%, respectively. More importantly, we demonstrated also the existence of positive genetic correlations between thrombin peak or ETP and the risk of VTE. Moreover, the major genetic determinant of thrombin generation was the F2 gene. However, other suggestive signals were observed. Conclusions The thrombin generation phenotypes are strongly genetically determined. The thrombin peak and ETP are significantly genetically correlated with the risk of VTE. In addition, F2 was identified as a major determinant of thrombin generation. We reported suggestive signals that might increase our knowledge to explain the variability of this important phenotype. Validation and functional studies are required to confirm GWAS results. PMID:26784699

  20. Changes in amniotic fluid concentration of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes in patients with preterm labor: evidence of an increased thrombin generation

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Gomez, Ricardo; Maymon, Eli; Pacora, Percy; Edwin, Samuel S.; Kim, Chong Jai; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mittal, Pooja; Yeo, Lami; Dong, Zhong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S; Mazor, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Objective Preterm labor is associated with excessive maternal thrombin generation as evidenced by increased circulating thrombin–antithrombin (TAT) III complexes concentration. In addition to its hemostatic functions, thrombin has uterotonic properties that may participate in the mechanism leading to preterm birth in cases of intrauterine bleeding. Thrombin also has a proinflammatory role, and inflammation is associated with increased thrombin generation. The aim of this study was to determine whether intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) is associated with increased amniotic fluid (AF) thrombin generation in women with preterm and term deliveries. Study design This cross-sectional study included the following groups: 1) mid-trimester (n=74); 2) term not in labor (n=39); 3) term in labor (n=25); 4) term in labor with IAI (n=22); 5) spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) who delivered at term (n=62); 6) PTL without IAI who delivered preterm (n=59); 7) PTL with IAI (n=71). The AF TAT III complexes concentration was measured by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results 1) TAT III complexes were identified in all AF samples; 2) patients with PTL who delivered preterm, with and without IAI, had a significantly higher median AF TAT III complexes concentration than those with an episode of PTL who delivered at term (p<0.001, p=0.03, respectively); 3) among patients with preterm labor without IAI, elevated AF TAT III complexes concentration were independently associated with a shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery interval (hazard ratio- 1.5, 95%CI, 1.07–2.1); 4) among patients at term, those with IAI had a higher median AF TAT III complexes concentration than those without IAI, whether in labor or not in labor (p=0.02); 5) there was no significant difference between the median AF TAT III complexes concentration of patients at term with and without labor; and 6) patients who had a mid-trimester amniocentesis had a lower median AF TAT III complexes

  1. Impaired thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation in patients with dilutional coagulopathy during major surgery.

    PubMed

    Schols, S E M; Lancé, M D; Feijge, M A H; Damoiseaux, J; Marcus, M A; Hamulyák, K; Ten Cate, H; Heemskerk, J W M; van Pampus, E C M

    2010-02-01

    Patients subjected to haemodilution during surgery are at increased risk of bleeding. We hypothesised that, in the acquired dilutional coagulopathy, insufficient haemostasis is due to either insufficient thrombin generation or insufficient fibrin clot formation. In tissue factor-activated plasmas from patients with coagulation deficiency, we measured time curves of thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation (thromboelastography). Investigated were in study A: 10 patients treated with vitamin K antagonist and five healthy subjects; in study B: 30 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery and infused with on average 2,000 ml crystalloids and colloids (no major bleeding); in study C: 58 patients undergoing major general surgery, and transfused with >5,000 ml crystalloids, colloids and red cell concentrates, who experienced major bleeding and were post-transfused with fresh frozen plasma. The treatment with vitamin K antagonist led to a progressive reduction in thrombin generation but not fibrin clot formation. In CPB patients, plasma factor levels post-surgery were 53-60% of normal. This was accompanied by moderate reduction in both haemostatic processes. In plasmas from patients undergoing major surgery, factor levels were 38-41% of normal, and these levels increased after plasma transfusion. Taking preset thresholds for normal thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation, at least one of these processes was low in 88-93% of the patients with (persistent) bleeding, but only in 40-53% of the patients without bleeding. In conclusion, the ability of thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation is independently reduced in acquired dilutional coagulopathy, while minimal levels of both are required for adequate haemostasis.

  2. Protein Z efficiently depletes thrombin generation in disseminated intravascular coagulation with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nuri; Kim, Ji-Eun; Gu, Ja-Yoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Inho; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Park, Seonyang; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is characterized by consumption of coagulation factors and anticoagulants. Thrombin generation assay (TGA) gives useful information about global hemostatic status. We developed a new TGA system that anticoagulant addition can deplete thrombin generation in plasma, which may reflect defective anticoagulant system in DIC. TGAs were measured on the calibrated automated thrombogram with and without thrombomodulin or protein Z in 152 patients who were suspected of having DIC, yielding four parameters including lag time, endogenous thrombin potential, peak thrombin and time-to-peak in each experiment. Nonsurvivors showed significantly prolonged lag time and time-to-peak in TGA-protein Z system, which was performed with added protein Z. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, lag time and time-to-peak in TGA system were significant independent prognostic factors. In TGA-protein Z system, lag time and time-to-peak were revealed as independent prognostic factors of DIC. Protein Z addition could potentiate its anticoagulant effect in DIC with poor prognosis, suggesting the presence of defective protein Z system. The prolonged lag time and time-to-peak in both TGA and TGA-protein Z systems are expected to be used as independent prognostic factors of DIC.

  3. Reproducibility, stability, and biological variability of thrombin generation using calibrated automated thrombography in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Cuq, Benoît; Blois, Shauna L; Wood, R Darren; Monteith, Gabrielle; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C; Bédard, Christian; Wood, Geoffrey A

    2018-06-01

    Thrombin plays a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Calibrated automated thrombography (CAT), a thrombin generation assay, may be a useful test for hemostatic disorders in dogs. To describe CAT results in a group of healthy dogs, and assess preanalytical variables and biological variability. Forty healthy dogs were enrolled. Lag time (Lag), time to peak (ttpeak), peak thrombin generation (peak), and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were measured. Direct jugular venipuncture and winged-needle catheter-assisted saphenous venipuncture were used to collect samples from each dog, and results were compared between methods. Sample stability at -80°C was assessed over 12 months in a subset of samples. Biological variability of CAT was assessed via nested ANOVA using samples obtained weekly from a subset of 9 dogs for 4 consecutive weeks. Samples for CAT were stable at -80°C over 12 months of storage. Samples collected via winged-needle catheter venipuncture showed poor repeatability compared to direct venipuncture samples; there was also poor agreement between the 2 sampling methods. Intra-individual variability of CAT parameters was below 25%; inter-individual variability ranged from 36.9% to 78.5%. Measurement of thrombin generation using CAT appears to be repeatable in healthy dogs, and samples are stable for at least 12 months when stored at -80°C. Direct venipuncture sampling is recommended for CAT. Low indices of individuality suggest that subject-based reference intervals are more suitable when interpreting CAT results. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Effect of BAX499 aptamer on tissue factor pathway inhibitor function and thrombin generation in models of hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Gissel, Matthew; Orfeo, Thomas; Foley, Jonathan H; Butenas, Saulius

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction In hemophilia, thrombin generation is significantly suppressed due to decreased factor (F)X activation. Clinical studies and experiments with transgenic mice have suggested that the severity of hemophilia is substantially reduced by tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) deficiency. Methods We evaluated the effect of TFPI antagonist aptamer BAX499 (formerly ARC19499) on TFPI function in purified systems and on thrombin generation and clot formation in plasma and blood. Results BAX499 effectively neutralized TFPI inhibition of FXa and FXa dependent inhibition of TF/FVIIa by TFPI. BAX499 did not inhibit FXa or TF/FVIIa when used up to 500 nM. In the synthetic coagulation proteome with TFPI at its mean physiologic concentration, BAX499 at 1 – 10 nM increased thrombin generation triggered with 5 pM relipidated TF in a concentration-dependent manner. In severe hemophilia A or B models using the synthetic coagulation proteome, the addition of BAX499 at 5 nM increased thrombin generation to the levels observed in normal control. Thrombin generation measured in induced hemophilia B plasma required ~100 nM BAX499 to restore thrombin levels to those seen in untreated plasma. In induced hemophilia B whole blood, BAX499 repaired the clotting time but failed to appreciably impact the propagation phase of thrombin generation. Conclusion These data suggest that inhibition of TFPI by BAX499 may have potential for hemophilia treatment but requires further study in blood-based hemophilia systems. PMID:22951415

  5. Thrombin generation correlates with disease duration in multiple sclerosis (MS): Novel insights into the MS-associated prothrombotic state.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Martin Em; O'Connell, Karen; Allen, Seamus; Egan, Karl; Szklanna, Paulina B; McGuigan, Christopher; Ní Áinle, Fionnuala; Maguire, Patricia B

    2017-01-01

    Thrombin is well recognised for its role in the coagulation cascade but it also plays a role in inflammation, with enhanced thrombin generation observed in several inflammatory disorders. Although patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a higher incidence of thrombotic disease, thrombin generation has not been studied to date. The aim of this study was to characterise calibrated automated thrombography parameters in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS) in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). Calibrated automated thrombography was performed on platelet poor plasma from 15 patients with RRMS, 15 with PPMS and 19 HCs. We found that patients with RRMS generate thrombin at a significantly faster rate than the less inflammatory subtype, PPMS or HCs. In addition, the speed of thrombin generation was significantly correlated with time from clinical diagnosis in both subtypes. However, in RRMS the rate of thrombin generation was increased with increased time from clinical diagnosis, while in PPMS the rate of thrombin generation decreased with increased time from clinical diagnosis. These data likely reflect the differential active proinflammatory states in each MS subtype and provide novel mechanistic insights into the clinically relevant prothrombotic state observed in these patients.

  6. Different Recovery Profiles of Coagulation Factors, Thrombin Generation, and Coagulation Function After Hemorrhagic Shock in Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-06

    Different recovery profiles of coagulation factors, thrombin generation, and coagulation function after hemorrhagic shock in pigs Wenjun Z. Martini ...Defense. Address for reprints: Wenjun Z. Martini , PhD, The US Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3698 Chambers Pass, Ft. Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX...control number 1. REPORT DATE 01 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Different recovery profiles of

  7. Computational Analysis of Intersubject Variability and Thrombin Generation in Dilutional Coagulopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    proteins: Factor (F)II, FV, FVII , FVIII, F IX, and FX, as well as the anticoagulants antithrombin (AT) and TF pathway inhibi- tor (TFPI). The results...coagulation factors FII, FV, FVII , FVIIa, FVIII, F IX and FX, as well as the anticoagulants TFPI and AT and the throm- bin generation inducer TF. The model...scenario and tissue factor concentration. CONCLUSION: Dilutional effects on thrombin genera- tion in a human population can be predicted from trends

  8. Platelet glycoprotein VI binds to polymerized fibrin and promotes thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Mammadova-Bach, Elmina; Ollivier, Véronique; Loyau, Stéphane; Schaff, Mathieu; Dumont, Bénédicte; Favier, Rémi; Freyburger, Geneviève; Latger-Cannard, Véronique; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Gachet, Christian; Mangin, Pierre H; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine

    2015-07-30

    Fibrin, the coagulation end product, consolidates the platelet plug at sites of vascular injury and supports the recruitment of circulating platelets. In addition to integrin αIIbβ3, another as-yet-unidentified receptor is thought to mediate platelet interaction with fibrin. Platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI) interacts with collagen and several other adhesive macromolecules. We evaluated the hypothesis that GPVI could be a functional platelet receptor for fibrin. Calibrated thrombin assays using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) showed that tissue factor-triggered thrombin generation was impaired in GPVI-deficient patients and reduced by the anti-GPVI Fab 9O12. Assays on reconstituted PRP and PRP from fibrinogen-deficient patients revealed a fibrinogen-dependent enhancement of thrombin generation, which relied on functional GPVI. The effect of GPVI was found to depend on fibrin polymerization. A binding assay showed a specific interaction between GPVI-Fc and fibrin, inhibited by the Fab 9O12. This Fab also reduced platelet adhesion to fibrin at low (300 s(-1)) and high (1500 s(-1)) wall shear rates. Platelets adherent to fibrin displayed shape change, exposure of procoagulant phospholipids, and the formation of small clots. When hirudinated blood was perfused at 1500 s(-1) over preformed fibrin-rich clots, the Fab 9O12 decreased the recruitment of platelets by up to 85%. This study identifies GPVI as a platelet receptor for polymerized fibrin with 2 major functions: (1) amplification of thrombin generation and (2) recruitment of circulating platelets to clots. These so-far-unrecognized properties of GPVI confer on it a key role in thrombus growth and stabilization. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Thrombin generation in mesalazine refractory ulcerative colitis and the influence of low molecular weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Vrij, Anton A; Oberndorff-Klein-Woolthuis, Ardi; Dijkstra, Gerard; de Jong, Andrea E; Wagenvoord, Rob; Hemker, Hendrik C; Stockbrügger, Reinhold W

    2007-10-01

    In ulcerative colitis (UC), a state of hypercoagulation has frequently been observed. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has shown beneficial effects as an adjuvant treatment of steroid refractory UC in open trials. We assessed potential therapeutic effects of the LMWH reviparin in hospitalised patients with mesalazine refractory UC, as well as its influence on haemostasis factors. Twenty-nine patients with mild-to-moderately active UC were included in a double-blind placebo controlled trial. All patients had a flare-up of disease under mesalazine treatment. Reviparin (Clivarin) 3,436 IU anti-Xa/0.6 ml or placebo s.c. was added, and self-administered twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were monitored for possible adverse events and changes in clinical symptoms. Endoscopical, histological, biochemical and haemostasis parameters were analysed. Tolerability and compliance were excellent and no serious adverse events occurred. No significant differences were observed on the clinical, endoscopical and histological outcome, as compared to placebo. A high intrinsic and extrinsic thrombin potential was found before LMWH therapy. However, the significant reduction in the thrombin generation by LMWH was not related to the reduction in disease activity. The LMWH reviparine reduces thrombin generation in patients with mild-to-moderately active, mesalazine refractory UC, but is not associated with a reduction in disease activity.

  10. Antiplatelet Agents Can Promote Two-Peaked Thrombin Generation in Platelet Rich Plasma: Mechanism and Possible Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tarandovskiy, Ivan D.; Artemenko, Elena O.; Panteleev, Mikhail A.; Sinauridze, Elena I.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombin generation assay is a convenient and widely used method for analysis of the blood coagulation system status. Thrombin generation curve (TGC) is usually bell-shaped with a single peak, but there are exceptions. In particular, TGC in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can sometimes have two peaks. Objective We sought to understand the mechanism underlying the occurrence of two peaks in the PRP thrombin generation curve. Methods Tissue factor-induced thrombin generation in PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) was monitored using continuous measurement of the hydrolysis rate of the thrombin-specific fluorogenic substrate Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AMC. Expression of phosphatidylserine (PS) and CD62P on the surface of activated platelets was measured by flow cytometry using corresponding fluorescently labeled markers. Results The addition of the P2Y12 receptor antagonist MeS-AMP (160 µM), 83 nM prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), or 1.6% DMSO to PRP caused the appearance of two peaks in the TGC. The PS exposure after thrombin activation on washed platelets in a suspension supplemented with DMSO, PGE1 or MeS-AMP was delayed, which could indicate mechanism of the second peak formation. Supplementation of PRP with 1.6% DMSO plus 830 nM PGE1 mediated the disappearance of the second peak and decreased the amplitude of the first peak. Increasing the platelet concentration in the PRP promoted the consolidation of the two peaks into one. Conclusions Procoagulant tenase and prothrombinase complexes in PRP assemble on phospholipid surfaces containing PS of two types - plasma lipoproteins and the surface of activated platelets. Thrombin generation in the PRP can be two-peaked. The second peak appears in the presence of platelet antagonists as a result of delayed PS expression on platelets, which leads to delayed assembly of the membrane-dependent procoagulant complexes and a second wave of thrombin generation. PMID:23405196

  11. Only minor changes in thrombin generation of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus - A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cimenti, Christina; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Leschnik, Bettina; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Jasser-Nitsche, Hildegard; Haidl, Harald; Suppan, Elisabeth; Weinhandl, Gudrun; Leberl, Maximilian; Borkenstein, Martin; Muntean, Wolfgang E

    2016-12-01

    Micro- and macrovascular diseases are frequent complications in patients with diabetes. Hypercoagulability may contribute to microvascular alterations. In this study, we investigated whether type 1 diabetes in children is associated with a hypercoagulable state by performing a global function test of coagulation - the thrombin generation assay. 75 patients with type 1 diabetes aged between 2 and 19years were compared to an age-matched healthy control group. Diabetes patients were divided into high-dose and low-dose insulin cohorts with a cut-off at 0.8Ukg -1 d -1 . Measurements were performed with platelet poor plasma using Calibrated Automated Thrombography and 1 pM or 5 pM tissue factor. Additionally, we quantified prothrombin fragments F1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and antithrombin. Patients with type 1 diabetes exhibited a significantly shorter of lag time as well as decreased thrombin peak and endogenous thrombin potential compared to control subjects with 5 pM but not with 1 pM tissue factor. In high-dose insulin patients peak thrombin generation was higher and time to peak shorter than in low-dose patients. Thrombin-antithrombin complex was decreased in patients with type 1 diabetes, whereas prothrombin fragments F1+2 was comparable in both groups. Thrombin generation parameters did not correlate with parameters of metabolic control and the duration of diabetes. Taken together, we found only minor changes of thrombin generation in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes which - in contrast to type 2 diabetes - do not argue for a hypercoagulable state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correcting thrombin generation ex vivo using different haemostatic agents following cardiac surgery requiring the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Percy, Charles L; Hartmann, Rudolf; Jones, Rhidian M; Balachandran, Subramaniam; Mehta, Dheeraj; Dockal, Michael; Scheiflinger, Friedrich; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Hall, Judith E; Collins, Peter W

    2015-06-01

    Recently, lower thrombin generation has been associated with excess bleeding post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Therefore, treatment to correct thrombin generation is a potentially important aspect of management of bleeding in this group of patients. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibition on thrombin generation when added ex vivo to the plasma of patients who had undergone cardiac surgery requiring CPB. Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were recruited. Blood samples were collected before administration of heparin and 30 min after its reversal. Thrombin generation was measured in the presence and absence of different concentrations of FFP, rFVIIa, PCC and an anti-TFPI antibody. A total of 102 patients were recruited. Thrombin generation following CPB was lower compared with pre-CPB (median endogenous thrombin potential pre-CPB 339 nmol/l per min, post-CPB 155 nmol/l per min, P < 0.0001; median peak thrombin pre-CPB 35 nmol/l, post-CPB 11 nmol/l, P < 0.0001). Coagulation factors and anticoagulants decreased, apart from total TFPI, which increased (55-111 ng/ml, P < 0.0001), and VWF (144-170 IU/dl, P < 0.0001). Thrombin generation was corrected to pre-CPB levels by the equivalent of 15 ml/kg FFP, 45 μg/kg rFVIIa and 25 U/kg of PCC. Inhibition of TFPI resulted in an enhancement of thrombin generation significantly beyond pre-CPB levels. This study shows that FFP, rFVIIa, PCC and inhibition of TFPI correct thrombin generation in the plasma of patients who have undergone surgery requiring CPB. Inhibition of TFPI may be a further potential therapeutic strategy for managing bleeding in this group of patients.

  13. Correlation to FVIII:C in Two Thrombin Generation Tests: TGA-CAT and INNOVANCE ETP.

    PubMed

    Ljungkvist, Marcus; Berndtsson, Maria; Holmström, Margareta; Mikovic, Danijela; Elezovic, Ivo; Antovic, Jovan P; Zetterberg, Eva; Berntorp, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Several thrombin-generation tests are available, but few have been directly compared. Our primary aim was to investigate the correlation of two thrombin generation tests, thrombin generation assay-calibrated automated thrombogram (TGA-CAT) and INNOVANCE ETP, to factor VIII levels (FVIII:C) in a group of patients with hemophilia A. The secondary aim was to investigate inter-laboratory variation for the TGA-CAT method. Blood samples were taken from 45 patients with mild, moderate and severe hemophilia A. The TGA-CAT method was performed at both centers while the INNOVANCE ETP was only performed at the Stockholm center. Correlation between parameters was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation test. For determination of the TGA-CAT inter-laboratory variability, Bland-Altman plots were used. The correlation for the INNOVANCE ETP and TGA-CAT methods with FVIII:C in persons with hemophilia (PWH) was r=0.701 and r=0.734 respectively.The correlation between the two methods was r=0.546.When dividing the study material into disease severity groups (mild, moderate and severe) based on FVIII levels, both methods fail to discriminate between them.The variability of the TGA-CAT results performed at the two centers was reduced after normalization; before normalization, 29% of values showed less than ±10% difference while after normalization the number increased to 41%. Both methods correlate in an equal manner to FVIII:C in PWH but show a poor correlation with each other. The level of agreement for the TGA-CAT method was poor though slightly improved after normalization of data. Further improvement of standardization of these methods is warranted.

  14. Thrombin generation and fibrin formation under flow on biomimetic tissue factor-rich surfaces.

    PubMed

    Onasoga-Jarvis, A A; Puls, T J; O'Brien, S K; Kuang, L; Liang, H J; Neeves, K B

    2014-01-01

    Blood flow regulates coagulation and fibrin assembly by controlling the rate of transport of zymogens, enzymes and plasma proteins to and from the site of an injury. The objective of this work was to define the hemodynamic conditions under which fibrin can form under flow on tissue factor (TF)-rich substrates. TF-coated silica beads (~ 800 nm) were patterned into 18-85-μm spots. Normal pooled plasma and factors VIII, IX and XI deficient plasmas were perfused over the beads coated with 0.08, 0.8 and 8 molecules-TF μm(-2) at shear rates of 50-1000 s(-1) . Fibrin deposition and thrombin generation were measured by fluorescence microscopy in a hydrodynamic focusing microfluidic device. Fibrin deposition was supported on patterned bead spots, but not planar TF substrates at the same surface TF concentration. There was a threshold spot size and a shear rate dependent TF concentration that was necessary to support fibrin polymerization. FVIII and FIX had minor effects on fibrin dynamics at 8 molecules-TF μm(-2) , but were essential at 0.8 molecules-TF μm(-2) . The absence of FXI influenced thrombin generation and fibrin deposition at both 0.8 and 8 molecules-TF μm(-2) . These results show that fibrin deposition requires perturbations in the flow field that protect reactions from dilution by flow under venous and arterial conditions. FVIII and FIX have a modest effect on fibrin deposition at high TF concentrations, but are necessary for fibrin deposition at low TF concentrations. FXI amplifies thrombin generation under flow at both low and high TF concentrations. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  15. Key role of integrin α(IIb)β (3) signaling to Syk kinase in tissue factor-induced thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Paola E J; Feijge, Marion A H; Swieringa, Frauke; Gilio, Karen; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan; Hamulyák, Karly; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2012-10-01

    The fibrin(ogen) receptor, integrin α(IIb)β(3), has a well-established role in platelet spreading, aggregation and clot retraction. How α(IIb)β(3) contributes to platelet-dependent coagulation is less well resolved. Here, we demonstrate that the potent suppressing effect of clinically used α(IIb)β(3) blockers on tissue factor-induced thrombin generation is linked to diminished platelet Ca(2+) responses and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. The same blockers suppress these responses in platelets stimulated with collagen and thrombin receptor agonists, whereas added fibrinogen potentiates these responses. In platelets spreading on fibrinogen, outside-in α(IIb)β(3) signaling similarly enhances thrombin-induced Ca(2+) rises and PS exposure. These responses are reduced in α(IIb)β(3)-deficient platelets from patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Furthermore, the contribution of α(IIb)β(3) to tissue factor-induced platelet Ca(2+) rises, PS exposure and thrombin generation in plasma are fully dependent on Syk kinase activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation analysis confirms a key role of Syk activation, which is largely but not exclusively dependent on α(IIb)β(3) activation. It is concluded that the majority of tissue factor-induced procoagulant activity of platelets relies on Syk activation and ensuing Ca(2+) signal generation, and furthermore that a considerable part of Syk activation relies on α(IIb)β(3) signaling. These results hence point to a novel role of Syk in integrin-dependent thrombin generation.

  16. Clotting factor VIII (FVIII) and thrombin generation in camel plasma: A comparative study with humans

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Gader, Abdel Galil M.; Al Momen, Abdul Karim M.; Alhaider, Abdulqader; Brooks, Marjory B.; Catalfamo, James L.; Al Haidary, Ahmed A.; Hussain, Mansour F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the highly elevated levels of clotting factor VIII (FVIII) in camel plasma. Whole blood was collected from healthy camels and factor VIII clotting activity (FVIII:C) assays were conducted using both the clotting and the chromogenic techniques. The anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA) produced the highest harvest of FVIII:C, the level of plasma factor VIII, compared to heparin:saline and heparin:CPDA anticoagulants. Camel FVIII can be concentrated 2 to 3 times in cryoprecipitate. There was a significant loss of camel FVIII when comparing levels of FVIII in camel plasma after 1 h of incubation at 37°C (533%), 40°C (364%), and 50°C (223%). Thrombin generation of camel plasma is comparable to that of human plasma. It was concluded that camel plasma contains very elevated levels of FVIII:C, approaching 8 times the levels in human plasma, and that these elevated levels could not be attributed to excessive thrombin generation. Unlike human FVIII:C, camel FVIII:C is remarkably heat stable. Taken together, these unique features of camel FVIII could be part of the physiological adaptation of hemostasis of the Arabian camel in order to survive in the hot desert environment. PMID:24082408

  17. Correction of microplate location effects improves performance of the thrombin generation test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microplate-based thrombin generation test (TGT) is widely used as clinical measure of global hemostatic potential and it becomes a useful tool for control of drug potency and quality by drug manufactures. However, the convenience of the microtiter plate technology can be deceiving: microplate assays are prone to location-based variability in different parts of the microtiter plate. Methods In this report, we evaluated the well-to-well consistency of the TGT variant specifically applied to the quantitative detection of the thrombogenic substances in the immune globulin product. We also studied the utility of previously described microplate layout designs in the TGT experiment. Results Location of the sample on the microplate (location effect) contributes to the variability of TGT measurements. Use of manual pipetting techniques and applications of the TGT to the evaluation of procoagulant enzymatic substances are especially sensitive. The effects were not sensitive to temperature or choice of microplate reader. Smallest location effects were observed with automated dispenser-based calibrated thrombogram instrument. Even for an automated instrument, the use of calibration curve resulted in up to 30% bias in thrombogenic potency assignment. Conclusions Use of symmetrical version of the strip-plot layout was demonstrated to help to minimize location artifacts even under the worst-case conditions. Strip-plot layouts are required for quantitative thrombin-generation based bioassays used in the biotechnological field. PMID:23829491

  18. Correction of microplate location effects improves performance of the thrombin generation test.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yideng; Woodle, Samuel A; Shibeko, Alexey M; Lee, Timothy K; Ovanesov, Mikhail V

    2013-07-05

    Microplate-based thrombin generation test (TGT) is widely used as clinical measure of global hemostatic potential and it becomes a useful tool for control of drug potency and quality by drug manufactures. However, the convenience of the microtiter plate technology can be deceiving: microplate assays are prone to location-based variability in different parts of the microtiter plate. In this report, we evaluated the well-to-well consistency of the TGT variant specifically applied to the quantitative detection of the thrombogenic substances in the immune globulin product. We also studied the utility of previously described microplate layout designs in the TGT experiment. Location of the sample on the microplate (location effect) contributes to the variability of TGT measurements. Use of manual pipetting techniques and applications of the TGT to the evaluation of procoagulant enzymatic substances are especially sensitive. The effects were not sensitive to temperature or choice of microplate reader. Smallest location effects were observed with automated dispenser-based calibrated thrombogram instrument. Even for an automated instrument, the use of calibration curve resulted in up to 30% bias in thrombogenic potency assignment. Use of symmetrical version of the strip-plot layout was demonstrated to help to minimize location artifacts even under the worst-case conditions. Strip-plot layouts are required for quantitative thrombin-generation based bioassays used in the biotechnological field.

  19. Thrombin-activated human platelets acutely generate oxidized docosahexaenoic-acid-containing phospholipids via 12-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lloyd T; Thomas, Christopher P; Kühn, Hartmut; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2010-10-01

    Arachidonate-containing oxidized phospholipids are acutely generated by 12-LOX (12-lipoxygenase) in agonist-activated platelets. In the present study, formation of structurally related lipids by oxidation of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)-containing phospholipids is demonstrated using lipidomic approaches. Precursor scanning reverse-phase LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem MS) identified a new family of lipids that comprise phospholipid-esterified HDOHE (hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid). Two diacyl and two plasmalogen PEs (phosphatidylethanolamines) containing predominantly the 14-HDOHE positional isomer (18:0p/14-HDOHE-PE, 18:0a/14-HDOHE-PE, 16:0a/14-HDOHE-PE and 16:0p/14-HDOHE-PE) were structurally characterized using MS/MS and by comparison with biogenic standards. An involvement of 12-LOX was indicated as purified recombinant human 12-LOX also generated the 14-HDOHE isomer from DHA. Pharmacological studies using inhibitors and recombinant platelet 12-LOX indicate that they form via esterification of newly formed non-esterified HDOHE. HDOHE-PEs formed at significant rates (2-4 ng/4×10(7) cells) within 2-180 min of thrombin stimulation, and their formation was blocked by calcium chelation. In summary, a new family of oxidized phospholipid was identified in thrombin-activated human platelets.

  20. Phospholipid-esterified eicosanoids are generated in agonist-activated human platelets and enhance tissue factor-dependent thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher P; Morgan, Lloyd T; Maskrey, Benjamin H; Murphy, Robert C; Kühn, Hartmut; Hazen, Stanley L; Goodall, Alison H; Hamali, Hassan A; Collins, Peter W; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2010-03-05

    Here, a group of specific lipids, comprising phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)- or phosphatidylcholine (PC)-esterified 12S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12S-HETE), generated by 12-lipoxygenase was identified and characterized. 12S-HETE-PE/PCs were formed within 5 min of activation by thrombin, ionophore, or collagen. Esterified HETE levels generated in response to thrombin were 5.85 +/- 1.42 (PE) or 18.35 +/- 4.61 (PC), whereas free was 65.5 +/- 17.6 ng/4 x 10(7) cells (n = 5 separate donors, mean +/- S.E.). Their generation was stimulated by triggering protease-activated receptors-1 and -4 and signaling via Ca(2+) mobilization secretory phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase, src tyrosine kinases, and protein kinase C. Stable isotope labeling showed that they form predominantly by esterification that occurs on the same time scale as free acid generation. Unlike free 12S-HETE that is secreted, esterified HETEs remain cell-associated, with HETE-PEs migrating to the outside of the plasma membrane. 12-Lipoxygenase inhibition attenuated externalization of native PE and phosphatidylserine and HETE-PEs. Platelets from a patient with the bleeding disorder, Scott syndrome, did not externalize HETE-PEs, and liposomes supplemented with HETE-PC dose-dependently enhanced tissue factor-dependent thrombin generation in vitro. This suggests a role for these novel lipids in promoting coagulation. Thus, oxidized phospholipids form by receptor/agonist mechanisms, not merely as an undesirable consequence of vascular and inflammatory disease.

  1. Increased thrombin generation in a mouse model of cancer cachexia is partially interleukin-6 dependent.

    PubMed

    Reddel, C J; Allen, J D; Ehteda, A; Taylor, R; Chen, V M Y; Curnow, J L; Kritharides, L; Robertson, G

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Cancer cachexia and cancer-associated thrombosis have not previously been mechanistically linked. We assessed thrombin generation and coagulation parameters in cachectic C26 tumor-bearing mice. C26 mice are hypercoagulable, partially corrected by blocking tumor derived interleukin-6. Coagulability and anti-inflammatory interventions may be clinically important in cancer cachexia. Background Cancer cachexia and cancer-associated thrombosis are potentially fatal outcomes of advanced cancer, which have not previously been mechanistically linked. The colon 26 (C26) carcinoma is a well-established mouse model of complications of advanced cancer cachexia, partially dependent on high levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by the tumor. Objectives To assess if cancer cachexia altered the coagulation state and if this was attributable to tumor IL-6 production. Methods In male BALB/c*DBA2 (F1 hybrid) mice with a C26 tumor we used modified calibrated automated thrombogram and fibrin generation (based on overall hemostatic potential) assays to assess the functional coagulation state, and also examined fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and hepatic expression of coagulation factors by microarray. C26 mice were compared with non-cachectic NC26, pair-fed and sham control mice. IL-6 expression in C26 cells was knocked down by lentiviral shRNA constructs. Results C26 mice with significant weight loss and highly elevated IL-6 had elevated thrombin generation, fibrinogen, ESR, platelets and TFPI compared with all control groups. Fibrin generation was elevated compared with pair-fed and sham controls but not compared with NC26 tumor mice. Hepatic expression of coagulation factors and fibrinolytic inhibitors was increased. Silencing IL-6 in the tumor significantly, but incompletely, attenuated the increased thrombin generation, fibrinogen and TFPI. Conclusions Cachectic C26 tumor-bearing mice are in a

  2. Grape intake reduces thrombin generation and enhances plasma fibrinolysis. Potential role of circulating procoagulant microparticles.

    PubMed

    Ammollo, Concetta T; Semeraro, Fabrizio; Milella, Rosa Anna; Antonacci, Donato; Semeraro, Nicola; Colucci, Mario

    2017-12-01

    Phytochemicals contained in grapes down-regulate several prothrombotic pathways in vitro. We evaluated the effect of grape consumption on coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy volunteers. Thirty subjects were enrolled: 20 were given grape (5 g/kg body weight/day for 3 weeks), while 10 served as controls. Blood samples were taken at baseline (T0), at the end of the grape diet (T1) and after 4-week wash-out (T2). Grape intake caused a significant decrease of the procoagulant and inflammatory responses of whole blood and/or mononuclear cells to bacterial lipopolysaccharide at both T1 and T2. At plasma level, grape diet decreased thrombin generation at T1 and T2, largely through a reduction in the number and/or activity of procoagulant microparticles. This anticoagulant effect resulted in the formation of clots that were more susceptible to fibrinolysis, mainly because of a lesser activation of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. No difference in any variables was detected in controls at the time points considered. In conclusion, chronic grape consumption induces sustained anticoagulant and profibrinolytic effects with potential benefits for human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Different profile of thrombin generation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with native or pegylated asparaginase: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Laurence; Noubouossie, Denis; Dedeken, Laurence; Huybrechts, Sophie; Lê, Phu Quoc; Ferster, Alina; Demulder, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Asparaginase (Asp) and corticosteroid (CS) treatment in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events. Characterization of global haemostatic phenotypes of patients with ALL during Asp therapy. Thrombin generation (TG) was monitored in platelet-poor plasma of 56 children treated for a B lineage ALL (36 with native, 20 with PEG Asp) using 1 pM tissue factor and 4 μM phospholipids, with and without thrombomodulin. Protein C activity (PC), free protein S (PS), antithrombin (AT) and fibrinogen levels were also measured. Elevated endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and peak of TG were noted at diagnosis, throughout the Induction phase and Late Intensification but was significantly less for PEG than for native Asp (P < 0.001), while age, sex, type of corticosteroid during Induction and molecular response had no significant effect. The reduction of ETP after addition of thrombomodulin was significantly lower in ALL children compared with that in controls, suggesting impairment in PS/PC pathway. Three patients experienced thrombosis: two treated with native and one with PEG Asp. The two patients with native Asp had, at the time of thrombosis, a prothrombotic profile. Treatment with Asp, in combination with CS, enhances TG in children with ALL, more significantly with native than PEG Asp, which is present early at diagnosis, persists during Induction and reappears during Late Intensification. This is consistent with the high incidence of thrombotic events described during these phases of therapy. The less pronounced effect of PEG Asp remains to be elucidated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Graft Product for Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Enhances Thrombin Generation and Expresses Procoagulant Microparticles and Tissue Factor.

    PubMed

    Sidibe, Fatoumata; Spanoudaki, Anastasia; Vanneaux, Valerie; Mbemba, Elisabeth; Larghero, Jerome; Van Dreden, Patrick; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Elalamy, Ismail; Larsen, Annette K; Gerotziafas, Grigoris T

    2018-05-01

    The beneficial effect of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) may be compromised by acute vascular complications related to hypercoagulability. We studied the impact of graft product on thrombin generation of normal plasma and the expression of tissue factor (TF) and procoagulant platelet-derived procoagulant microparticles (Pd-MPs) in samples of graft products. Graft products from 10 patients eligible for APBSCT were mixed with platelet-poor plasma (PPP) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from healthy volunteers and assessed for in vitro thrombin generation. In control experiments, thrombin generation was assessed in (1) PPP and PRP without any exogenous TF and/or procoagulant phospholipids, (2) PPP with the addition of TF (5 pM) and procoagulant phospholipids (4 μM), (3) in PRP with the addition of TF (5 pM). Graft products were assessed with Western blot assay for TF expression, with a specific clotting assay for TF activity and with flow cytometry assay for Pd-MPs. The graft product enhanced thrombin generation and its procoagulant activity was related to the presence of Pd-MPs and TF. The concentration of Pd-MPs in the graft product was characterized by a significant interindividual variability. The present study reveals the need for a thorough quality control of the graft products regarding their procoagulant potential.

  5. Activated factor XI and tissue factor in aortic stenosis: Links with thrombin generation

    PubMed Central

    Luszczak, Joanna; Undas, Anetta; Gissel, Matthew; Olszowska, Maria; Butenas, Saulius

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In our previous studies we showed that a significant proportion of patients with various cardiovascular diseases have active tissue factor (TF) and factor (F)XIa in their plasma. Objective To evaluate these two proteins in plasma from patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and established their relationship with the severity of the disease. Methods Fifty-four consecutive patients with AS, including 38 (70.4%) severe AS patients, were studied. Plasma FXIa and TF activity were determined in clotting assays by measuring the response to inhibitory monoclonal antibodies. Results TF activity was detectible in plasma from 14 of 54 patients (25.9%), including 13 of 38 with severe AS (34.2%) and 1 of 16 (6.25%) with moderate AS (p=0.052). FXIa activity was found in 12 (22.2%) patients, mostly in individuals with severe AS (11 of 38, 28.9%, p=0.067). All 12 patients with circulating FXIa had active TF in their plasma as well. Severe AS patients with detectable TF had higher maximal (111±20 vs 97±16 mm Hg, p=0.02) and mean (61±12 vs 53±8 mm Hg, p=0.02) transvalvular gradient, compared with those without such activity in plasma. In severe AS patients with detectable active TF, prothrombin fragment 1.2, a thrombin generation marker, was higher than in patients without TF (375±122 vs. 207±64 pM, p<0.001). Conclusions Detectable FXIa and TF activity was observed for the first time in AS patients, primarily in severe ones. This activity correlates with thrombin generation in those patients. PMID:21519234

  6. Comparing thrombin generation in patients with hemophilia A and patients on vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    de Koning, M L Y; Fischer, K; de Laat, B; Huisman, A; Ninivaggi, M; Schutgens, R E G

    2017-05-01

    Essentials It is unknown if hemophilia patients with atrial fibrillation need anticoagulation. Endogenous thrombin potentials (ETP) in hemophilia patients and patients on coumarins were compared. Severe hemophilia patients had comparable ETP to therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). In non-severe hemophilia, 33% had higher ETP than therapeutic INR and may need anticoagulation. Click to hear Dr Negrier's perspective on global assays for assessing coagulation SUMMARY: Background It is unknown whether patients with hemophilia A with atrial fibrillation require treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to the same extent as the normal population. Objective To compare hemostatic potential in hemophilia patients and patients on VKAs using thrombin generation (TG). Methods In this cross-sectional study, TG, initiated with 1pM tissue factor, was measured in 133 patients with severe (FVIII < 1%, n = 15) and non-severe (FVIII 1-50%, n = 118) hemophilia A, 97 patients on a VKA with an international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1.5 and healthy controls. Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) (nm*min) was compared according to FVIII level (< 1%, 1-19% and 20-50%) with healthy controls and patients with sub-therapeutic INR (1.5-1.9) and therapeutic INR (≥ 2.0). Medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated. Results Compared with healthy controls (898 [IQR 803-1004]), both hemophilia patients and patients on VKAs had lower median ETPs at 304 (196-449) and 176 (100-250), respectively. ETP was quite similar in severe hemophilia patients (185 [116-307]) and patients with a therapeutic INR (156 [90-225]). Compared with patients with therapeutic INR, ETP in patients with FVIII 1-19% and patients with FVIII 20-50% was higher at 296 (203-430) and 397 (219-632), respectively. All patients with therapeutic INR had an ETP < 400. Considering this threshold, 93% of severe hemophilia patients, 70% of patients with FVIII 1-19% and 52% of patients with FVIII 20-50% had an

  7. In vitro effects of recombinant activated factor VII on thrombin generation and coagulation following inhibition of platelet procoagulant activity by prasugrel.

    PubMed

    Mazzeffi, Michael; Szlam, Fania; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Sugidachi, Atsuhiro; Levy, Jerrold H

    2013-07-01

    Prasugrel is a thienopyridyl P2Y12 antagonist with potent antiplatelet effects. At present, little is known about its effects on thrombin generation or what strategies may emergently reverse its anticoagulant effects. In the current study we evaluated whether recombinant activated factor VII may reverse prasugrel induced effects and increase thrombin generation in an in vitro model. The effect of prasugrel active metabolite, PAM (R-138727), was evaluated on platelet aggregation, thrombin generation, and rotational thromboelastometry parameters using blood from 20 healthy volunteers. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and recombinant activated factor VII on restoring these parameters towards baseline values. PAM reduced maximum platelet aggregation and led to platelet disaggregation. It also decreased peak thrombin, increased lag time, and increased time to peak thrombin. Treatment with recombinant activated factor VII restored all three parameters of thrombin generation towards baseline. ADP decreased lag time and time to peak thrombin, but had no effect on peak thrombin. When recombinant activated factor VII and ADP were combined they had a greater effect on thrombin parameters than either drug alone. PAM also increased thromboelastometric clotting time and clot formation time, but had no effect on maximum clot firmness. Treatment with either recombinant activated factor VII or ADP restored these values towards baseline. Recombinant activated factor VII restores thrombin generation in the presence of PAM. In patients taking prasugrel with life-threatening refractory bleeding it has the potential to be a useful therapeutic approach. Additional clinical studies are needed to validate our findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Statistical analysis plan for the WOMAN-ETAPlaT study: Effect of tranexamic acid on platelet function and thrombin generation

    PubMed Central

    Dallaku, Kastriot; Shakur, Haleema; Edwards, Phil; Beaumont, Danielle; Roberts, Ian; Huque, Sumaya; Delius, Maria; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a potentially life-threatening complication for women, and the leading cause of maternal mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic used worldwide to treat uterine haemorrhage and to reduce blood loss in general surgery. TXA may have effects on thrombin generation, platelet function and coagulation factors as a result of its inhibition on the plasmin. Methods. WOMAN ETAPlaT is a sub-study of the World Maternal Antifibrinolitic trial (WOMAN trial). All adult women clinically diagnosed with PPH after a vaginal delivery or caesarean section, are eligible for inclusion in the study. Blood samples will be collected at the baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of study treatment is given. Platelet function will be evaluated in whole blood immediately after sampling with Multiplate® tests (ADPtest and TRAPtest). Thrombin generation, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors vW, V and VIII will be analysed using platelet poor plasma. Results. Recruitment to WOMAN ETAPlaT started on 04 November 2013 and closed on 13 January 2015, during this time  188 patients were recruited. The final participant follow-up was completed on 04 March 2015. This article introduces the statistical analysis plan for the study, without reference to unblinded data.   Conclusion. The data from this study will provide evidence for the effect of TXA on thrombin generation, platelet function and coagulation factors in women with PPH. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00872469; ISRCTN76912190 PMID:28413832

  9. In vitro comparison of the effect of two factor XI (FXI) concentrates on thrombin generation in major FXI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pike, G N; Cumming, A M; Hay, C R M; Sempasa, B; Sutherland, M; Thachil, J; Burthem, J; Bolton-Maggs, P H B

    2016-05-01

    Bleeding risk in factor XI (FXI) deficiency following surgery may be reduced by treatment with either of two FXI concentrates, but indications for their use are unclear and treatment has been associated with thrombosis. To quantify and compare the effects of two different FXI concentrates on thrombin generation (TG) in major FXI deficiency (FXI:C < 15 IU dL(-1) ). Thrombin generation was measured in controls (n = 50), FXI-deficient individuals pre and post in vitro spiking with FXI concentrates (n = 10), and in ex vivo samples following treatment with FXI concentrate (n = 3). Thrombin generation was significantly impaired in FXI deficiency but improved following FXI replacement in vitro and in vivo. LFB Hemoleven(®) had greater effect on TG than BPL FXI concentrate in vitro (equivalent in vivo doses 10, 20 and 30 U kg(-1) ): higher endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) (P < 0.0001), peak height (P < 0.01) velocity (P < 0.0002) and shorter lag time and time to peak (both P < 0.003). Some measurements with LFB Hemoleven(®) exceeded the reference range. At lower dose (5 U kg(-1) ), BPL FXI concentrate normalized all TG parameters and LFB Hemoleven(®) normalized the ETP but exceeded the reference range with other parameters. Both FXI concentrates improve TG in vitro in major FXI deficiency but differ in dose response, and for both products, doses lower than previously recommended normalized TG in vitro. Comparison of in vitro spiked and ex vivo samples suggest that in vitro results could be used to estimate an expected in vivo response to FXI replacement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Jayavel; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Srinivasa, Arun R

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  11. Thrombin generation during cardiopulmonary bypass: the possible role of retransfusion of blood aspirated from the surgical field

    PubMed Central

    Weerwind, Patrick W; Lindhout, Theo; Caberg, Nicole EH; de Jong, Dick S

    2003-01-01

    Background In spite of using heparin-coated extracorporeal circuits, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is still associated with an extensive thrombin generation, which is only partially suppressed by the use of high dosages of heparin. Recent studies have focused on the origins of this thrombotic stimulus and the possible role of retransfused suctioned blood from the thoracic cavities on the activation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. The present study was designed to find during CPB an association between retransfusion of suctioned blood from the pericardium and pleural space, containing activated factor VIIa and systemic thrombin generation. Methods Blood samples taken from 12 consenting patients who had elective cardiac surgery were assayed for plasma factor VIIa, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) concentrations. Blood aspirated from the pericardium and pleural space was collected separately, assayed for F1+2, TAT, and factor VIIa and retransfused to the patient after the aorta occlusion. Results After systemic heparinization and during CPB thrombin generation was minimal, as indicated by the lower than base line plasma levels of F1+2, and TAT after correction for hemodilution. In contrast, blood aspirated from the thoracic cavities had significantly higher levels of factor VIIa, F1+2, and TAT compared to the simultaneous samples from the blood circulation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after retransfusion of the suctioned blood (range, 200–1600 mL) circulating levels of F1+2, and TAT rose significantly from 1.6 to 2.9 nmol/L (P = 0.002) and from 5.1 to 37.5 μg/L (P = 0.01), respectively. The increase in both F1+2, and TAT levels correlated significantly with the amount of retransfused suctioned blood (r = 0.68, P = 0.021 and r = 0.90, P = 0.001, respectively). However, the circulating factor VIIa levels did not correlate with TAT and F1+2 levels. Conclusions These data suggest that blood aspirated from the thoracic cavities during

  12. Effects of normoxic and hypoxic exercise regimens on monocyte-mediated thrombin generation in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jong-Shyan; Chang, Ya-Lun; Chen, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Fu, Tieh-Cheng

    2015-08-01

    Exercise and hypoxia paradoxically modulate vascular thrombotic risks. The shedding of procoagulant-rich microparticles from monocytes may accelerate the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. The present study explores the manner in which normoxic and hypoxic exercise regimens affect procoagulant monocyte-derived microparticle (MDMP) formation and monocyte-promoted thrombin generation (TG). Forty sedentary healthy males were randomized to perform either normoxic (NET; 21% O2, n=20) or hypoxic (HET; 15% O2, n=20) exercise training (60% VO(2max)) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 5 weeks. At rest and immediately after HET (100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min), the MDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. The results demonstrated that acute 12% O2 exercise (i) increased the release of coagulant factor V (FV)/FVIII-rich, phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed and tissue factor (TF)-expressed microparticles from monocytes, (ii) enhanced the peak height and rate of TG in monocyte-rich plasma (MRP) and (iii) elevated concentrations of norepinephrine/epinephrine, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma. Following the 5-week intervention, HET exhibited higher enhancements of peak work-rate and cardiopulmonary fitness than NET did. Moreover, both NET and HET decreased the FV/FVIII-rich, PS-exposed and TF-expressed MDMP counts and the peak height and rate of TG in MRP following the HET. However, HET elicited more suppression for the HE (hypoxic exercise)-enhanced procoagulant MDMP formation and dynamic TG in MPR and catecholamine/peroxide/pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in plasma than NET. Hence, we conclude that HET is superior to NET for enhancing aerobic capacity. Furthermore, HET effectively suppresses procoagulant MDMP formation and monocyte-mediated TG under severe hypoxic stress, compared with NET.

  13. Red blood cell-derived microparticles isolated from blood units initiate and propagate thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Olivier; Delobel, Julien; Prudent, Michel; Lion, Niels; Kohl, Kid; Tucker, Erik I; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne

    2013-08-01

    Red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) are small phospholipid vesicles shed from RBCs in blood units, where they accumulate during storage. Because microparticles are bioactive, it could be suggested that RMPs are mediators of posttransfusion complications or, on the contrary, constitute a potential hemostatic agent. This study was performed to establish the impact on coagulation of RMPs isolated from blood units. Using calibrated automated thrombography, we investigated whether RMPs affect thrombin generation (TG) in plasma. We found that RMPs were not only able to increase TG in plasma in the presence of a low exogenous tissue factor (TF) concentration, but also to initiate TG in plasma in absence of exogenous TF. TG induced by RMPs in the absence of exogenous TF was neither affected by the presence of blocking anti-TF nor by the absence of Factor (F)VII. It was significantly reduced in plasma deficient in FVIII or F IX and abolished in FII-, FV-, FX-, or FXI-deficient plasma. TG was also totally abolished when anti-XI 01A6 was added in the sample. Finally, neither Western blotting, flow cytometry, nor immunogold labeling allowed the detection of traces of TF antigen. In addition, RMPs did not comprise polyphosphate, an important modulator of coagulation. Taken together, our data show that RMPs have FXI-dependent procoagulant properties and are able to initiate and propagate TG. The anionic surface of RMPs might be the site of FXI-mediated TG amplification and intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complex assembly. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. Does Lipid Profile Affect Thrombin Generation During Ramadan Fasting in Patients With Cardiovascular Risks?

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mouna; Chakroun, Taher; Chouchène, Saoussen; Hellara, Ilhem; Boubaker, Hamdi; Grissa, Mohamed Habib; Khochtali, Ines; Hassine, Mohsen; Addad, Faouzi; Elalamy, Ismail; Nouira, Semir

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence that diet and variation in lipid metabolism can influence blood coagulation, but little is known about the effect of Ramadan fasting on plasmatic coagulation pattern. We investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on thrombin generation (TG) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks, and we aimed to assess the effect of lipid profile on TG parameters. The study was conducted in 36 adults having at least 2 CVD risks and in 30 healthy controls. Coagulation pattern was assessed by both classical clotting times and TG test. A complete lipid profile was performed simultaneously. Patients were invited 2 times: 1 week before Ramadan and during the last week of the Ramadan. The TG parameters were not different in patients with CVD risks compared to healthy controls. Fasting had no effect on plasmatic coagulation parameters and on TG profile. Individual analysis of the mean rate index (MRI) of TG revealed 3 groups: group 1 with no modification of MRI, group 2 with a significant increase in MRI (81.64 nM/min vs 136.07 nM/min; P < .001), and group 3 with a significant decrease in MRI (125.27 nM/min vs 73.18 nM/min; P = .001). Only in group 2, a significant increase was observed in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Changes in lipid profile during Ramadan fasting did not influence the global coagulation pattern in patients with CVD risks. Whereas, a significant increase in the propagation phase of TG was associated with a significant increase in cholesterol levels, which was not found with the other TG parameters.

  15. Differential Contributions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways to Thrombin Generation in Adult, Maternal and Cord Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Nicklaus T.; Szlam, Fania; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Bernstein, Peter S.; Szlam, Arthur D.; Tanaka, Kenichi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombin generation (TG) is a pivotal process in achieving hemostasis. Coagulation profiles during pregnancy and early neonatal period are different from that of normal (non-pregnant) adults. In this ex vivo study, the differences in TG in maternal and cord plasma relative to normal adult plasma were studied. Methods Twenty consented pregnant women and ten consented healthy adults were included in the study. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery. Platelet-poor plasma was isolated for the measurement of TG. In some samples, anti-FIXa aptamer, RB006, or a TFPI inhibitor, BAX499 were added to elucidate the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway to TG. Additionally, procoagulant and inhibitor levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma, and these values were used to mathematically simulate TG. Results Peak TG was increased in maternal plasma (393.6±57.9 nM) compared to adult and cord samples (323.2±38.9 nM and 209.9±29.5 nM, respectively). Inhibitory effects of RB006 on TG were less robust in maternal or cord plasma (52% vs. 12% respectively) than in adult plasma (81%). Likewise the effectiveness of BAX499 as represented by the increase in peak TG was much greater in adult (21%) than in maternal (10%) or cord plasma (12%). Further, BAX499 was more effective in reversing RB006 in adult plasma than in maternal or cord plasma. Ex vivo data were reproducible with the results of the mathematical simulation of TG. Conclusion Normal parturient plasma shows a large intrinsic pathway reserve for TG compared to adult and cord plasma, while TG in cord plasma is sustained by extrinsic pathway, and low levels of TFPI and AT. PMID:27196067

  16. Thrombin Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Panel Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... thrombin time is just one component of the battery of tests typically required to evaluate a bleeding ...

  17. In vivo increase in thrombin generation by four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate in apixaban-treated healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Y W; Barco, S; Hutten, B A; Meijers, J C M; Middeldorp, S; Coppens, M

    2015-10-01

    Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) (Cofact; Sanquin Blood Supply) 50 IU kg(-1) increased thrombin generation beyond baseline values in healthy, rivaroxaban-treated subjects. To assess whether infusion with doses of 37.5 IU kg(-1) and 25 IU kg(-1) PCC reverses the anticoagulant effect of high-dose apixaban, another oral direct factor Xa inhibitor. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, six healthy subjects received twice-daily apixaban 10 mg for 3.5 days followed by a single bolus of 37.5 IU kg(-1) PCC, 25 IU kg(-1) PCC, or placebo. The primary outcome was the effect of PCC 15 min after infusion on thrombin generation (endogenous thrombin potential [ETP]); secondary outcomes were the immediate effect of PCC on prothrombin time (PT) and the effect of PCC as compared with placebo over a period of 24 h on ETP and PT. Fifteen minutes after infusion of 37.5 IU kg(-1) and 25 IU kg(-1) PCC, ETP increased from 41% ± 11% to 56% ± 23% (P = 0.06) and from 44% ± 12% to 51% ± 15% (P = 0.03), respectively. ETP significantly differed over time between 37.5 IU kg(-1) PCC and placebo during 24 h after infusion (P < 0.01). Both PCC doses restored apixaban-induced PT prolongation after 15 min (P < 0.01), and this was sustained over a period of 24 h. Both 37.5 IU kg(-1) PCC and 25 IU/kg PCC improved coagulation parameters in healthy subjects, suggesting partial reversal of the anticoagulant effect of apixaban. This implies that PCC might be considered in patients with apixaban-associated bleeding. However, ETP was not immediately restored to pre-apixaban levels, suggesting that these doses are too low to instantly and fully restore hemostasis at peak apixaban levels. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. Increased thrombin generation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study on the effect of metformin and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Glintborg, Dorte; Sidelmann, Johannes J; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Mumm, Hanne; Andersen, Marianne

    2015-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) which may be modified by the use of metformin and oral contraceptives (OC). Thrombin generation (TG) measures are risk markers of CVD and address the composite of multiple factors that influence blood coagulation. This prospective, randomized, intervention study evaluated the potential influence of PCOS on TG measures and the effect of OC and/or metformin on TG measures in women with PCOS. Ninety patients with PCOS and 35 controls were included. Patients were randomized to 12 months of treatment with metformin, metformin+OC or OC alone. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, trunk fat mass, body mass index, estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as well as TG measures, i.e. the lag time for formation of thrombin, the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), peak thrombin concentration (peak) and time to peak were determined at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. CRP and total testosterone were significantly higher and SHBG significantly lower in PCOS women than in controls (P=0.012, P<0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). The TG measures ETP, peak and lag time were increased in women with PCOS compared to controls (P<0.01). Significant correlations were observed between TG measures and fibrinogen, CRP, SHBG and fat trunk mass (P>0.01). ETP (P=0.006), peak (P=0.003) and lag time (P=0.023) remained increased after adjustment for these potential confounders. Treatment with OC and metformin+OC further increased ETP (P<0.001) and peak (P<0.005) and reduced time to peak (P<0.04). The increase in ETP was significantly lower in the metformin+OC group than in the OC group (P<0.05). Metformin alone did not affect TG significantly. PCOS is associated with increase in TG measures independent of other risk factors of CVD. OC increase TG measures further and may thus add to the increased risk of CVD already present in women with PCOS. Copyright

  19. Global measurement of coagulation in plasma from normal and haemophilia dogs using a novel modified thrombin generation test – Demonstrated in vitro and ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Daniel Elenius; Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Waters, Emily K.; Wiinberg, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Canine models of severe haemophilia resemble their human equivalents both regarding clinical bleeding phenotype and response to treatment. Therefore pre-clinical studies in haemophilia dogs have allowed researchers to make valuable translational predictions regarding the potency and efficacy of new anti-haemophilia drugs (AHDs) in humans. To refine in vivo experiments and reduce number of animals, such translational studies are ideally preceded by in vitro prediction of compound efficacy using a plasma based global coagulation method. One such widely used method is the thrombin generation test (TGT). Unfortunately, commercially available TGTs are incapable of distinguishing between normal and haemophilia canine plasma, and therefore in vitro prediction using TGT has so far not been possible in canine plasma material. Aim Establish a modified TGT capable of: 1) distinguishing between normal and haemophilia canine plasma, 2) monitoring correlation between canine plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and IX (FIX) and thrombin generation, 3) assessing for agreement between compound activity and thrombin generation in ex vivo samples. Methods A modified TGT assay was established where coagulation was triggered using a commercially available activated partial thromboplastin time reagent. Results With the modified TGT a significant difference was observed in thrombin generation between normal and haemophilia canine plasma. A dose dependent thrombin generation was observed when assessing haemophilia A and B plasma spiked with dilution series of FVIII and FIX, respectively. Correlation between FVIII activity and thrombin generation was observed when analyzing samples from haemophilia A dogs dosed with canine FVIII. Limit of detection was 0.1% (v/v) FVIII or FIX. Conclusion A novel modified TGT suitable for monitoring and prediction of replacement therapy efficacy in plasma from haemophilia A and B dogs was established. PMID:28384182

  20. Differential inhibitory action of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of forming thrombi: Studies with circulating blood and in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Pujadas-Mestres, Lluis; Lopez-Vilchez, Irene; Arellano-Rodrigo, Eduardo; Reverter, Joan Carles; Lopez-Farre, Antonio; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Badimon, Juan Jose; Escolar, Gines

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms of action of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) suggest a potential therapeutic use in the prevention of thrombotic complications in arterial territories. However, effects of DOACs on platelet activation and aggregation have not been explored in detail. We have investigated the effects of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of thrombus formation under static and flow conditions. We assessed the effects of apixaban (10, 40 and 160 ng/mL) on: 1) platelet deposition and fibrin formation onto a thrombogenic surface, with blood circulating at arterial shear-rates; 2) viscoelastic properties of forming clots, and 3) thrombin generation in a cell-model of coagulation primed by platelets. In studies with flowing blood, only the highest concentration of apixaban, equivalent to the therapeutic Cmax, was capable to significantly reduce thrombus formation, fibrin association and platelet-aggregate formation. Apixaban significantly prolonged thromboelastometry parameters, but did not affect clot firmness. Interestingly, results in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation under more static conditions, revealed a dose dependent persistent inhibitory action by apixaban, with concentrations 4 to 16 times below the therapeutic Cmax significantly prolonging kinetic parameters and reducing the total amount of thrombin generated. Our studies demonstrate the critical impact of rheological conditions on the antithrombotic effects of apixaban. Studies under flow conditions combined with modified thrombin generation assays could help discriminating concentrations of apixaban that prevent excessive platelet accumulation, from those that deeply impair fibrin formation and may unnecessarily compromise hemostasis.

  1. Differential inhibitory action of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of forming thrombi: Studies with circulating blood and in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Rodrigo, Eduardo; Reverter, Joan Carles; Lopez-Farre, Antonio; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Badimon, Juan Jose; Escolar, Gines

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mechanisms of action of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) suggest a potential therapeutic use in the prevention of thrombotic complications in arterial territories. However, effects of DOACs on platelet activation and aggregation have not been explored in detail. We have investigated the effects of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of thrombus formation under static and flow conditions. Methods We assessed the effects of apixaban (10, 40 and 160 ng/mL) on: 1) platelet deposition and fibrin formation onto a thrombogenic surface, with blood circulating at arterial shear-rates; 2) viscoelastic properties of forming clots, and 3) thrombin generation in a cell-model of coagulation primed by platelets. Results In studies with flowing blood, only the highest concentration of apixaban, equivalent to the therapeutic Cmax, was capable to significantly reduce thrombus formation, fibrin association and platelet-aggregate formation. Apixaban significantly prolonged thromboelastometry parameters, but did not affect clot firmness. Interestingly, results in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation under more static conditions, revealed a dose dependent persistent inhibitory action by apixaban, with concentrations 4 to 16 times below the therapeutic Cmax significantly prolonging kinetic parameters and reducing the total amount of thrombin generated. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate the critical impact of rheological conditions on the antithrombotic effects of apixaban. Studies under flow conditions combined with modified thrombin generation assays could help discriminating concentrations of apixaban that prevent excessive platelet accumulation, from those that deeply impair fibrin formation and may unnecessarily compromise hemostasis. PMID:28192448

  2. Thrombin generation by activated factor VII on platelet activated by different agonists. Extending the cell-based model of hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Raul; Scazziota, Alejandra Silvia; Herrera, Maria de Lourdes; Gonzalez, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    Background Platelet activation is crucial in normal hemostasis. Using a clotting system free of external tissue factor, we investigated whether activated Factor VII in combination with platelet agonists increased thrombin generation (TG) in vitro. Methods and results TG was quantified by time parameters: lag time (LT) and time to peak (TTP), and by amount of TG: peak of TG (PTG) and area under thrombin formation curve after 35 minutes (AUC→35min) in plasma from 29 healthy volunteers using the calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) technique. TG parameters were measured at basal conditions and after platelet stimulation by sodium arachidonate (AA), ADP, and collagen (Col). In addition, the effects of recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) alone or combined with the other platelet agonists on TG parameters were investigated. We found that LT and TTP were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and PTG and AUC→35min were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in platelet rich plasma activated with AA, ADP, Col, and rFVIIa compared to non-activated platelet rich plasma from normal subjects (p = 0.01). Furthermore platelet rich plasma activated by the combined effects of rFVIIa plus AA, ADP or Col had significantly reduced LT and TTP and increased AUC→35min (but not PTG) when compared to platelet rich plasma activated with agonists in the absence of rFVIIa. Conclusion Platelets activated by AA, ADP, Col or rFVIIa triggered TG. This effect was increased by combining rFVIIa with other agonists. Our intrinsic coagulation system produced a burst in TG independent of external tissue factor activity an apparent hemostatic effect with little thrombotic capacity. Thus we suggest a modification in the cell-based model of hemostasis. PMID:16630353

  3. Analytical and between-subject variation of thrombin generation measured by calibrated automated thrombography on plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Anne F; Kristensen, Søren R; Falkmer, Ursula; Münster, Anna-Marie B; Pedersen, Shona

    2018-05-01

    The Calibrated Automated Thrombography (CAT) is an in vitro thrombin generation (TG) assay that holds promise as a valuable tool within clinical diagnostics. However, the technique has a considerable analytical variation, and we therefore, investigated the analytical and between-subject variation of CAT systematically. Moreover, we assess the application of an internal standard for normalization to diminish variation. 20 healthy volunteers donated one blood sample which was subsequently centrifuged, aliquoted and stored at -80 °C prior to analysis. The analytical variation was determined on eight runs, where plasma from the same seven volunteers was processed in triplicates, and for the between-subject variation, TG analysis was performed on plasma from all 20 volunteers. The trigger reagents used for the TG assays included both PPP reagent containing 5 pM tissue factor (TF) and PPPlow with 1 pM TF. Plasma, drawn from a single donor, was applied to all plates as an internal standard for each TG analysis, which subsequently was used for normalization. The total analytical variation for TG analysis performed with PPPlow reagent is 3-14% and 9-13% for PPP reagent. This variation can be minimally reduced by using an internal standard but mainly for ETP (endogenous thrombin potential). The between-subject variation is higher when using PPPlow than PPP and this variation is considerable higher than the analytical variation. TG has a rather high inherent analytical variation but considerable lower than the between-subject variation when using PPPlow as reagent.

  4. Effects of recombinant human prothrombin on thrombin generation in plasma from patients with hemophilia A and B.

    PubMed

    Hansson, K M; Gustafsson, D; Skärby, T; Frison, L; Berntorp, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of FII levels, and their increase, on the hemostatic potential in plasma from hemophilia A and B patients with and without inhibitors. Recombinant human factor (F) II (rhFII) was added ex vivo to plasma from 68 patients with hemophilia A and B, with or without inhibitors. The hemostatic potential as measured by thrombin generation (calibrated automated thrombogram [CAT]) was focused on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) as it has been shown to correlate with the clinical phenotype of bleeding in hemophilia patients and has also been used to guide bypassing therapy in hemophilia patients with inhibitors before elective surgery. The factor eight inhibitor bypassing agent (FEIBA(®) ) was used as a reference to the clinical situation. The study shows that rhFII concentration-dependently increased ETP by a similar magnitude in hemophilia A and B, both with and without inhibitors. Compared with FEIBA, rhFII showed a shallower concentration-response curve. In both types of hemophilia 100 mg L(-1) of rhFII roughly doubled the ETP. A corresponding response was obtained by 0.5 U mL(-1) of FEIBA. These data support the theory that FII is one of the major components responsible for the efficacy of FEIBA. The data also indicate that rhFII may be useful, alone or in combination with other coagulation factors, in some of the conditions for which FEIBA is used today, although more data are needed to substantiate this. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  5. Comparative biochemical studies of fresh frozen plasma and pooled solvent/detergent-treated plasma (octaplasLG® ) with focus on protein S and its impact in different thrombin generation assay set-ups.

    PubMed

    Heger, A; Janisch, S; Pock, K; Römisch, J

    2016-10-01

    The solvent/detergent treatment enables effective and robust inactivation of all lipid-enveloped viruses, but also inactivates partly sensitive plasma proteins such as protein S. The aim of this study was to investigate the thrombin generation capacity of octaplasLG ® , in particular focusing on the function of protein S in thrombin generation assay and the impact of assay settings. Sixteen octaplasLG ® batches and 32 units of single donor fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were investigated. For protein S, both functional activity and free antigen levels were measured. Thrombin generation assay was performed using two fluorogenic tests with different triggers. Finally, rotational thromboelastometry was performed. Mean protein S levels were lower in octaplasLG ® , but a wider range of values was found for FFP. Clotting parameters and thrombin generation capacities overlapped between the two plasma groups as demonstrated using both thrombin generation assays and different triggers. Spiking studies with protein S-depleted plasma, human purified protein S or antibodies against protein S confirmed a correlation between protein S and thrombin generation capacity under specific assay conditions, especially in an assay with low tissue factor concentration. Correlation between protein S and thrombin generation capacity was demonstrated in the TGA. Due to higher variability in protein S content in the FFP group, overlapping haemostatic potentials of the two plasma groups were found. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Tissue factor activity in women with preeclampsia or SGA: a potential explanation for the excessive thrombin generation in these syndromes.

    PubMed

    Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Than, Nandor Gabor; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Mittal, Pooja; Dong, Zhong; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Chong Jai; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Kim, Sun Kwon; Yeo, Lami; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia S

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the activity of tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in the plasma of women with preeclampsia (PE) and small for gestational age (SGA) neonate differ from that of normal pregnant women and whether they are related to specific placental lesions. This cross-sectional study included the following groups: (1) normal pregnancy (n = 68); (2) PE (n= 128); and (3) SGA (n = 56). Maternal plasma TF and TFPI activity was determined with chromogenic assays. (1) The median maternal plasma TF activity, but not TFPI activity, differed among the study groups (p < .0001 and p = .4, respectively); (2) patients with PE had a higher median maternal plasma TF activity than women with normal pregnancies (p < .0001) and mothers with SGA fetuses (p = .002); (3) among patients with PE, those with distal villous hypoplasia had a higher median maternal TF activity than those without these placental lesions (p = .018); and (4) following adjustment for confounding variables, maternal plasma TF and TFPI activity were not associated with an SGA neonate. Plasma TF activity is higher in women with PE than in those with SGA or normal pregnancies. We propose that these changes may be responsible, at least in part, for the increased in-vivo thrombin generation observed in this obstetrical syndrome.

  7. Thrombin generation, ProC(®)Global, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in thawed plasma stored for seven days and after methylene blue/light pathogen inactivation.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Thomas; Hron, Gregor; Kellner, Sarah; Wasner, Christina; Westphal, Antje; Warkentin, Theodore E; Greinacher, Andreas; Selleng, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Methylene blue pathogen inactivation and storage of thawed plasma both lead to changes in the activity of several clotting factors. We investigated how this translates into a global loss of thrombin generation potential and alterations in the protein C pathway. Fifty apheresis plasma samples were thawed and each divided into three subunits. One subunit was stored for 7 days at 4 °C, one was stored for 7 days at 22 °C and one was stored at 4 °C after methylene blue/light treatment. Thrombin generation parameters, ProC(®)Global-NR, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were assessed on days 0 and 7. The velocity of thrombin generation increased significantly after methylene blue treatment (increased thrombin generation rate; time to peak decreased) and decreased after storage (decreased thrombin generation rate and peak thrombin; increased lag time and time to peak). The endogenous thrombin generation potential remained stable after methylene blue treatment and storage at 4 °C. Methylene blue treatment and 7 days of storage at 4 °C activated the protein C pathway, whereas storage at room temperature and storage after methylene blue treatment decreased the functional capacity of the protein C pathway. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time showed only modest alterations. The global clotting capacity of thawed plasma is maintained at 4 °C for 7 days and directly after methylene blue treatment of thawed plasma. Thrombin generation and ProC(®)Global are useful tools for investigating the impact of pathogen inactivation and storage on the clotting capacity of therapeutic plasma preparations.

  8. Role of the thrombin receptor in restenosis and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baykal, D; Schmedtje, J F; Runge, M S

    1995-02-23

    Thrombus generation is central to thrombosis at vascular lesion sites, including post-PCTA acute reocclusion and chronic restenosis. Thrombin stimulates platelet activation, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, and endothelial production of prothrombotic factors. The varied physiologic effects of thrombin are due to the widespread presence of thrombin receptors in many cell types. The receptor is uniquely activated: thrombin binds to the receptor at the thrombin anion-binding exosite, the receptor ligand ("tethered ligand") apparently being a sequence of 6 amino acids (SFLLRN). Thus, peptides corresponding to the sequence of the tethered ligand can stimulate almost all functions of native thrombin itself. Several intracellular signaling pathways have been identified as important in the restenosis process: the G protein-related pathway, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) mediator pathway, and tyrosine kinase activation pathway. In situ hybridization has demonstrated an increase in thrombin receptor mRNA throughout the period of neointimal and vascular lesion development. The mechanism of this increase is unknown, but may be mediated by multiple inflammatory modulators. Several strategies have been tested in animal models for inhibiting thrombin: (1) Hirudin not only prevents thrombin from cleaving fibrinogen, but also prevents thrombin receptor activation. (2) Thrombin receptor antagonist peptides block platelet aggregation effects of thrombin. (3) Mono- and polyclonal antibodies inhibit thrombin receptor activation. (4) Antisense oligonucleotides block thrombin receptor expression.

  9. Effects of thromboprophylactic doses of apixaban and rivaroxaban on coagulation and thrombin generation in association with total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Helin, Tuukka A; Virtanen, Lauri; Manninen, Mikko; Leskinen, Jarkko; Leppilahti, Juhana; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Lassila, Riitta

    2017-05-01

    Factor Xa inhibitors (FXaI) apixaban and rivaroxaban are used for thromboprophylaxis after major elective orthopaedic surgery. Because few patient sample studies exist, we postoperatively assessed patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty, including 22 treated with apixaban (2.5 mg BID) and 20 treated with rivaroxaban (10 mg OD). We collected blood samples before and 3 h after drug intake at 4 time points, preoperatively, as well as on day 1, week 1 (day 2-8) and day 28 post-operation. APTT and PT were immediately analysed. Calibrated anti-FXa activity, Russel's Viper Venom Time (RVVT) and thrombin generation (TG; Calibrated Automated Thrombogram ® ) captured the effects of FXaI on coagulation and TG. APTT and PT remained within the reference interval throughout, and did not correlate with FXaI levels (PT R 2  = 0.44, APTT R 2  = 0.07). Mean apixaban concentration at the peak varied by eightfold (19-153 ng/mL), but rivaroxaban only by 1.5-fold (111-183 ng/mL). Rivaroxaban, but not apixaban prolonged RVVT at peak levels. Both FXaIs had a prolonged lag time of TG (p < 0.001). Rivaroxaban decreased ETP peak at all time points and reached a minimum at day 28 (540 nM/min at rivaroxaban 184 ng/mL, p < 0.001), while rivaroxaban trough levels were low and ETP values normal. However, with apixaban, after an initial decrease, ETP did not differ between peak and trough levels until decreasing on day 28 at peak (990 nM/min at apixaban 112 ng/mL, p = 0.005). In conclusion, due to different dosing and pharmacology rivaroxaban and apixaban distinctly inhibited TG under postoperative conditions.

  10. Statins but Not Aspirin Reduce Thrombotic Risk Assessed by Thrombin Generation in Diabetic Patients without Cardiovascular Events: The RATIONAL Trial

    PubMed Central

    Macchia, Alejandro; Laffaye, Nicolás; Comignani, Pablo D.; Cornejo Pucci, Elena; Igarzabal, Cecilia; Scazziota, Alejandra S.; Herrera, Lourdes; Mariani, Javier A.; Bragagnolo, Julio C.; Catalano, Hugo; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background The systematic use of aspirin and statins in patients with diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events is controversial. We sought to assess the effects of aspirin and statins on the thrombotic risk assessed by thrombin generation (TG) among patients with type II diabetes mellitus and no previous cardiovascular events. Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective, randomized, open, blinded to events evaluation, controlled, 2×2 factorial clinical trial including 30 patients randomly allocated to aspirin 100 mg/d, atorvastatin 40 mg/d, both or none. Outcome measurements included changes in TG levels after treatment (8 to 10 weeks), assessed by a calibrated automated thrombogram. At baseline all groups had similar clinical and biochemical profiles, including TG levels. There was no interaction between aspirin and atorvastatin. Atorvastatin significantly reduced TG measured as peak TG with saline (85.09±55.34 nmol vs 153.26±75.55 nmol for atorvastatin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.018). On the other hand, aspirin had no effect on TG (121.51±81.83 nmol vs 116.85±67.66 nmol, for aspirin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.716). The effects of treatments on measurements of TG using other agonists were consistent. Conclusions/Significance While waiting for data from ongoing large clinical randomized trials to definitively outline the role of aspirin in primary prevention, our study shows that among diabetic patients without previous vascular events, statins but not aspirin reduce thrombotic risk assessed by TG. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793754 PMID:22470429

  11. Interval and continuous exercise regimens suppress neutrophil-derived microparticle formation and neutrophil-promoted thrombin generation under hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Ho, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-04-01

    Acute hypoxic exposure increases vascular thrombotic risk. The release of procoagulant-rich microparticles from neutrophils accelerates the pathogenesis of inflammatory thrombosis. The present study explicates the manner in which interval and continuous exercise regimens affect neutrophil-derived microparticle (NDMP) formation and neutrophil/NDMP-mediated thrombin generation (TG) under hypoxic condition. A total of 60 sedentary males were randomized to perform either aerobic interval training [AIT; 3-min intervals at 40% and 80% V̇O2max (maximal O2 consumption)] or moderate continuous training (MCT; sustained 60% V̇O2max) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 5 weeks, or to a control (CTL) group who did not receive any form of training. At rest and immediately after hypoxic exercise test (HE, 100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min), the NDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. Before the intervention, HE (i) elevated coagulant factor VIII/fibrinogen concentrations and shortened activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), (ii) increased total and tissue factor (TF)-rich/phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed NDMP counts and (iii) enhanced the peak height and rate of TG promoted by neutrophils/NDMPs. Following the 5-week intervention, AIT exhibited higher enhancement of V̇O2max than did MCT. Notably, both MCT and AIT attenuated the extents of HE-induced coagulant factor VIII/fibrinogen elevations and aPTT shortening. Furthermore, the two exercise regimens significantly decreased TF-rich/PS-exposed NDMP formation and depressed neutrophil/NDMP-mediated dynamic TG at rest and following HE. Hence, we conclude that AIT is superior to MCT for enhancing aerobic capacity. Moreover, either AIT or MCT effectively ameliorates neutrophil/NDMP-promoted TG by down-regulating expression of procoagulant factors during HE, which may reduce thrombotic risk evoked by hypoxia. Moreover, either AIT or MCT effectively ameliorates neutrophil

  12. Effect of Chronic Blood Transfusion on Biomarkers of Coagulation Activation and Thrombin Generation in Sickle Cell Patients at Risk for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Adams, Robert J.; Greenberg, Charles S.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Hill, Allyson; Hibbert, Jacqueline M.; Gee, Beatrice E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercoagulability in sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with multiple SCD phenotypes, association with stroke risk has not been well described. We hypothesized that serum levels of biomarkers of coagulation activation correlate with high transcranial Doppler ultrasound velocity and decreases with blood transfusion therapy in SCD patients. Stored serum samples from subjects in the Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP) trial were analyzed using ELISA and protein multiplexing techniques. 40 subjects from each treatment arm (Standard Care [SC] and Transfusion [Tx]) at three time points—baseline, study exit and one year post-trial and 10 each of age matched children with SCD but normal TCD (SNTCD) and with normal hemoglobin (HbAA) were analyzed. At baseline, median vWF, TAT and D-dimer levels were significantly higher among STOP subjects than either HbAA or SNTCD. At study exit, median hemoglobin level was significantly higher while median TCD velocity was significantly lower in Tx compared to SC subjects. Median vWF (409.6 vs. 542.9 μg/ml), TAT (24.8 vs. 40.0 ng/ml) and D-dimer (9.2 vs. 19.1 μg/ml) levels were also significantly lower in the Tx compared to the SC group at study exit. Blood levels of biomarkers coagulation activation/thrombin generation correlated positively with TCD velocity and negatively with number of blood transfusions. Biomarkers of coagulation activation/thrombin generation were significantly elevated in children with SCD, at high risk for stroke. Reduction in levels of these biomarkers correlated with reduction in stroke risk (lower TCD velocity), indicating a possible role for hypercoagulation in SCD associated stroke. PMID:26305570

  13. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21-80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  14. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Methods Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21–80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Results Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10−9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. Conclusion This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease. PMID:26540111

  15. Contributions of procoagulants and anticoagulants to the international normalized ratio and thrombin generation assay in patients treated with warfarin: potential role of protein Z as a powerful determinant of coagulation assays.

    PubMed

    Choi, Qute; Kim, Ji-Eun; Hyun, Jungwon; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2013-07-01

    The effects of warfarin are measured with the international normalized ratio (INR). However, the thrombin generation assay (TGA) may offer more information about global coagulation. We analyzed the monitoring performance of the TGA and INR and investigated the impact of procoagulants (fibrinogen, factor (F)II, FVII, FIX, and FX) and anticoagulants (proteins C, S, and Z) on them. The TGA was performed on a calibrated automated thrombogram, producing lag time, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), and peak thrombin in 239 patients treated with warfarin. Pro- and anticoagulant levels were also measured. The INR was significantly and inversely correlated with ETP. The therapeutic range of ETP comparable to an INR range of 2.0-3.0 was 290.1-494.6. ETP showed comparable performance to the INR as a warfarin-monitoring parameter with respect to clinical complication rate. The median levels of FII, FVII, FIX, and FX and proteins C and Z tended to decrease gradually with increasing anticoagulation intensity according to the INR or ETP. Of note, protein Z levels decreased dramatically with increasing anticoagulation status. INRs were significantly determined by FII, FVII, and protein Z. ETP was significantly dependent on FVII, and proteins C and Z concentration. Protein Z significantly reduced the total amount of thrombin generation and prolonged PT value in vitro. The INR and ETP exhibit similar efficacy for warfarin monitoring according to the clinical complication rate. Protein Z is considered to be a significant determinant of INR and ETP in patients on warfarin therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Absolute hypoxic exercise training enhances in vitro thrombin generation by increasing procoagulant platelet-derived microparticles under high shear stress in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ching; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2013-05-01

    HS (high shear) stress associated with artery stenosis facilitates TG (thrombin generation) by increasing the release of procoagulant PDMPs (platelet-derived microparticles). Physical exercise and hypoxia may paradoxically modulate vascular thrombotic risks. The aim of the present study was to investigate how exercise training with/without hypoxia affected TG mediated by PDMPs under physio-pathological shear flows. A total of 75 sedentary males were randomly divided into five groups (n=15 in each group): 21% O2 [NC (normoxic control)] or 15% O2 [HC (hypoxic control)] at rest or were trained at 50% of peak work rate under 21% O2 [NT (normoxic training)] or 15% O2 [HAT (hypoxic-absolute training)], or 50% of HR (heart rate) reserve under 15% O2 [HRT (hypoxic-relative training)] for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The PDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. Before the intervention, strenuous exercise markedly increased the PDMP count (14.8%) and TG rate (19.5%) in PDMP-rich plasma at 100 dynes/cm2 of shear stress (P<0.05). After the interventions, both NT and HRT significantly attenuated the enhancement of HS-induced PDMPs (4.7 and 4.9%) and TG rate (3.8 and 3.0%) (P<0.05) by severe exercise. Conversely, HAT notably promoted the PDMP count (37.3%) and TG rate (38.9%) induced by HS (P<0.05), concurrent with increasing plasma TF (tissue factor) and coagulation factor V levels at rest or following exercise. We conclude that both HRT and NT depress similarly HS-mediated TG during exercise, but HAT accelerates the prothrombotic response to vigorous exercise. These findings provide new insights into how exercise training under a hypoxic condition influences the risk of thrombosis associated with stenotic arteries.

  17. Joint health scores in a haemophilia A cohort from Pakistan with minimal or no access to factor VIII concentrate: correlation with thrombin generation and underlying mutation.

    PubMed

    Khanum, F; Bowen, D J; Kerr, B C; Collins, P W

    2014-05-01

    Haemophilia A is associated with recurrent joint bleeding which leads to synovitis and debilitating arthropathy. Coagulation factor VIII level is an important determinant of bleed number and development of arthropathy . The aim of this study was to compare the haemophilia joint health score (HJHS) and Gilbert score with severity, age, thrombin generation (TG) and underlying mutation in a haemophilia A cohort which had minimal access to haemostatic replacement therapy. Ninety-two haemophilia A individuals were recruited from Pakistan. Age, age at first bleed, target joints, haemophilic arthropathy joints, HJHS and Gilbert score were recorded. A strong correlation was found between HJHS and Gilbert score (r = 0.98), both were significantly higher in severe (n = 59) compared with non-severe (n = 29) individuals before the age of 12 years (P ≤ 0.01) but not thereafter. When individuals were divided according to developmental age (<12 years, 12-16 years and >16 years), both HJHS and Gilbert score were significantly lower in the youngest group (P ≤ 0.001), there was no difference between 12-16 years and >16 years. In severe individuals there was no correlation between in vitro TG and joint score, whereas in non-severe individuals there was a weak negative correlation. In the severe group, no significant difference was observed for either joint score according to the underlying mutation type (inversion, missense, nonsense, frameshift). In this cohort of haemophilia A individuals with minimal access to haemostatic treatment, haemophilic arthropathy correlated with severity and age; among severe individuals, joint health scores did not relate to either the underlying mutation or in vitro TG. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Duplex/quadruplex oligonucleotides: Role of the duplex domain in the stabilization of a new generation of highly effective anti-thrombin aptamers.

    PubMed

    Russo Krauss, Irene; Napolitano, Valeria; Petraccone, Luigi; Troisi, Romualdo; Spiridonova, Vera; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; Sica, Filomena

    2018-02-01

    Recently, mixed duplex/quadruplex oligonucleotides have attracted great interest for use as biomedical aptamers. In the case of anti-thrombin aptamers, the addition of duplex-forming sequences to a G-quadruplex module identical or very similar to the best-known G-quadruplex of the Thrombin Binding Aptamer (HD1) results in new or improved biological properties, such as higher activity or different recognition properties with respect to HD1. Remarkably, this bimodular fold was hypothesized, based on its sequence, for the only anti-thrombin aptamer in advanced clinical trial, NU172. Whereas cation modulation of G-quadruplex conformation and stability is well characterized, only few data from similar analysis on duplex/quadruplex oligonucleotides exist. Here we have performed a characterization of structure and stability of four different duplex/quadruplex anti-thrombin aptamers, including NU172, in the presence of different cations and in physiological-mimicking conditions in comparison to HD1, by means of spectroscopic techniques (UV and circular dichroism) and differential scanning calorimetry. Our data show a strong reciprocal influence of each domain on the stability of the other and in particular suggest a stabilizing effect of the duplex region in the presence of solutions mimicking the physiological conditions, strengthening the idea that bimodular aptamers present better therapeutic potentialities than those containing a single G-quadruplex domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thrombin enhances herpes simplex virus infection of cells involving protease-activated receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M R; Friedman, H M; Pryzdial, E L G

    2007-05-01

    We have previously shown that the surface of purified herpes family viruses can initiate thrombin production by expressing host-encoded and virus-encoded procoagulant factors. These enable the virus to bypass the normal cell-regulated mechanisms for initiating coagulation, and provide a link between infection and vascular disease. In the current study we investigated why these viruses may have evolved to generate thrombin. Using cytolytic viral plaque assays, the current study examines the effect of thrombin on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) or human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) infection by purified herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and type 2 (HSV2). Demonstrating that the availability of thrombin is an advantage to the virus, purified thrombin added to serum-free inoculation media resulted in up to a 3-fold enhancement of infection depending on the virus strain and cell type. The effect of thrombin on HUVEC infection was generally greater than its effect on HFF. To illustrate the involvement of thrombin produced during inoculation, hirudin was shown to inhibit the infection of each HSV strain, but only when serum containing clotting factors for thrombin production was present in media. The involvement of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) was supported using PAR1-activating peptides in place of thrombin and PAR1-specific antibodies to inhibit the effects of thrombin. These data show that HSV1 and HSV2 initiate thrombin production to increase the susceptibility of cells to infection through a mechanism involving PAR1-mediated cell modulation.

  20. Effect of two oral doses of 17beta-estradiol associated with dydrogesterone on thrombin generation in healthy menopausal women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Alexandra; Robert, Annie; Gerotziafas, Grigoris; Torchin, Dahlia; Zannad, Faiez; Lacut, Karine; Libersa, Christian; Dasque, Eric; Démolis, Jean-Louis; Elalamy, Ismail; Simon, Tabassome

    2010-04-01

    Oral hormone therapy is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Drug agencies recommend the use of the lowest efficient dose to treat menopausal symptoms for a better risk/ratio profile, although this profile has not been totally investigated yet. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of the standard dose of 17beta-estradiol to a lower one on thrombin generation (TG). In a 2-month study, healthy menopausal women were randomized to receive daily 1mg or 2 mg of 17beta-estradiol (E1, n = 24 and E2, n = 26; respectively) with 10 mg dydrogesterone or placebo (PL, n = 22). Plasma levels factors VII, X, VIII and II were assessed before and after treatment as well as Tissue factor triggered TG, which allows the investigation of the different phases of coagulation process. The peak of thrombin was higher in hormone therapy groups (E1: 42.39 +/- 50.23 nm, E2: 31.08 +/- 85.86 nm vs. 10.52 +/- 40.63 nm in PL, P = 0.002 and P = 0.01). Time to reach the peak was also shortened (PL: 0.26 +/- 0.69 min vs. E1: -0.26 +/- 0.80 min, E2: -0.55 +/- 0.79 min, P <10(-3) for both comparisons) and mean rate index of the propagation phase of TG was significantly increased. Among the studied clotting factors, only the levels of FVII were significantly increased after treatment administration. The two doses of 17beta-estradiol induced in a similar degree an acceleration of the initiation and propagation phase of tissue factor triggered thrombin generation and a significant increase of FVII coagulant activity.

  1. Thrombin stimulates increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 release from liver compared to lung endothelium.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Kelher, Marguerite R; Sauaia, Angela; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C

    2018-05-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a major regulator of the fibrinolytic system, covalently binding to tissue plasminogen activator and blocking its activity. Fibrinolysis shutdown is evident in the majority of severely injured patients in the first 24 h and is thought to be due to PAI-1. The source of this PAI-1 is thought to be predominantly endothelial cells, but there are known organ-specific differences, with higher levels thought to be in the liver. Thrombin generation is also elevated in injured patients and is a potent stimulus for PAI-1 release in human umbilical endothelial cells. We hypothesize that thrombin induces liver endothelial cells to release increased amounts of PAI-1, versus pulmonary endothelium, consisting of both stored PAI-1 and a larger contribution from de novo PAI-1 synthesis. Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and human microvascular lung endothelial cells (HMVECs) were stimulated in vitro ± thrombin (1 and 5 IU/mL) for 15-240 min, the supernatants were collected, and PAI-1 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To elucidate the PAI-1 contribution from storage versus de novo synthesis, cycloheximide (10 μg/mL) was added before thrombin in separate experiments. While both LSECs and HMVECs rapidly stimulated PAI-1 release, LSECs released more PAI-1 than HMVECs in response to high-dose thrombin, whereas low-dose thrombin did not provoke immediate release. LSECs continued to release PAI-1 over the ensuing 240 min, whereas HMVECs did not. Cycloheximide did not inhibit early PAI-1 release from LSECs but did at the later time points (30-240 min). Thrombin elicits increased amounts of PAI-1 release from liver endothelium compared with lung, with a small presynthesized stored contribution and a later, larger increase in PAI-1 release via de novo synthesis. This study suggests that the liver may be an important therapeutic target for inhibition of the hypercoagulable surgical patient and the

  2. Coagulation factor XII genetic variation, ex vivo thrombin generation, and stroke risk in the elderly: results from the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Olson, N C; Butenas, S; Lange, L A; Lange, E M; Cushman, M; Jenny, N S; Walston, J; Souto, J C; Soria, J M; Chauhan, G; Debette, S; Longstreth, W T; Seshadri, S; Reiner, A P; Tracy, R P

    2015-10-01

    The relationships of thrombin generation (TG) with cardiovascular disease risk are underevaluated in population-based cohorts. To evaluate the relationships of TG influenced by the contact and tissue factor coagulation pathways ex vivo with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and incident cardiovascular disease and stroke. We measured peak TG (pTG) in baseline plasma samples of Cardiovascular Health Study participants (n = 5411), both with and without inhibitory anti-factor XIa antibody (pTG/FXIa(-) ). We evaluated their associations with ~ 50 000 SNPs by using the IBCv2 genotyping array, and with incident cardiovascular disease and stroke events over a median follow-up of 13.2 years. The minor allele for an SNP in the FXII gene (F12), rs1801020, was associated with lower pTG in European-Americans (β = - 34.2 ± 3.5 nm; P = 3.3 × 10(-22) ; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.23) and African-Americans (β = - 31.1 ± 7.9 nm; P = 9.0 × 10(-5) ; MAF = 0.42). Lower FXIa-independent pTG (pTG/FXIa(-) ) was associated with the F12 rs1801020 minor allele, and higher pTG/FXIa(-) was associated with the ABO SNP rs657152 minor allele (β = 16.3 nm; P = 4.3 × 10(-9) ; MAF = 0.37). The risk factor-adjusted ischemic stroke hazard ratios were 1.09 (95% confidence interval CI 1.01-1.17; P = 0.03) for pTG, 1.06 (95% CI 0.98-1.15; P = 0.17) for pTG/FXIa(-) , and 1.11 (95% CI 1.02-1.21; P = 0.02) for FXIa-dependent pTG (pTG/FXIa(+) ), per one standard deviation increment (n = 834 ischemic strokes). In a multicohort candidate gene analysis, rs1801020 was not associated with incident ischemic stroke (β = - 0.02; standard error = 0.08; P = 0.81). These results support the importance of contact activation pathway-dependent TG as a risk factor for ischemic stroke, and indicate the importance of F12 SNPs for TG ex vivo and in vivo. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Thrombin generation potential and clot-forming capacity of thawed fresh-frozen plasma, plasma frozen within 24 h and solvent/detergent-treated plasma (octaplasLG® ), during 5-day storage at 1-6°C.

    PubMed

    Heger, A; Neisser-Svae, A; Trawnicek, L; Triulzi, D

    2018-04-23

    To enable rapid availability of plasma in emergency situations, the shelf-life of thawed fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) has been extended from 24 h to 5 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thrombin generation (TG) potential and clot-forming ability during 5 days of refrigerated storage of thawed FFP, plasma frozen within 24 h and solvent/detergent-treated plasma octaplasLG ® . During storage for 5 days, TG capacity decreased significantly over time, and rotational thromboelastometry showed significantly prolonged clotting times. However, the stability studies confirmed comparable in vitro haemostatic potentials of all three thawed plasma products at day 5. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. New synthetic thrombin inhibitors: molecular design and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Sinauridze, Elena I; Romanov, Alexey N; Gribkova, Irina V; Kondakova, Olga A; Surov, Stepan S; Gorbatenko, Aleksander S; Butylin, Andrey A; Monakov, Mikhail Yu; Bogolyubov, Alexey A; Kuznetsov, Yuryi V; Sulimov, Vladimir B; Ataullakhanov, Fazoyl I

    2011-01-01

    The development of new anticoagulants is an important goal for the improvement of thromboses treatments. The design, synthesis and experimental testing of new safe and effective small molecule direct thrombin inhibitors for intravenous administration. Computer-aided molecular design of new thrombin inhibitors was performed using our original docking program SOL, which is based on the genetic algorithm of global energy minimization in the framework of a Merck Molecular Force Field. This program takes into account the effects of solvent. The designed molecules with the best scoring functions (calculated binding energies) were synthesized and their thrombin inhibitory activity evaluated experimentally in vitro using a chromogenic substrate in a buffer system and using a thrombin generation test in isolated plasma and in vivo using the newly developed model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation in rats. The acute toxicities of the most promising new thrombin inhibitors were evaluated in mice, and their stabilities in aqueous solutions were measured. New compounds that are both effective direct thrombin inhibitors (the best K(I) was <1 nM) and strong anticoagulants in plasma (an IC(50) in the thrombin generation assay of approximately 100 nM) were discovered. These compounds contain one of the following new residues as the basic fragment: isothiuronium, 4-aminopyridinium, or 2-aminothiazolinium. LD(50) values for the best new inhibitors ranged from 166.7 to >1111.1 mg/kg. A plasma-substituting solution supplemented with one of the new inhibitors prevented hypercoagulation in the rat model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation. Activities of the best new inhibitors in physiological saline (1 µM solutions) were stable after sterilization by autoclaving, and the inhibitors remained stable at long-term storage over more than 1.5 years at room temperature and at 4°C. The high efficacy, stability and low acute toxicity reveal that the inhibitors that were developed

  5. Intracellular Ascorbate Prevents Endothelial Barrier Permeabilization by Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Parker, William H; Qu, Zhi-chao; May, James M

    2015-08-28

    Intracellular ascorbate (vitamin C) has previously been shown to tighten the endothelial barrier and maintain barrier integrity during acute inflammation in vitro. However, the downstream effectors of ascorbate in the regulation of endothelial permeability remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated ascorbate as a mediator of thrombin-induced barrier permeabilization in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and their immortalized hybridoma line, EA.hy926. We found that the vitamin fully prevented increased permeability to the polysaccharide inulin by thrombin in a dose-dependent manner, and it took effect both before and after subjection to thrombin. Thrombin exposure consumed intracellular ascorbate but not the endogenous antioxidant GSH. Likewise, the antioxidants dithiothreitol and tempol did not reverse permeabilization. We identified a novel role for ascorbate in preserving cAMP during thrombin stimulation, resulting in two downstream effects. First, ascorbate maintained the cortical actin cytoskeleton in a Rap1- and Rac1-dependent manner, thus preserving stable adherens junctions between adjacent cells. Second, ascorbate prevented actin polymerization and formation of stress fibers by reducing the activation of RhoA and phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Although ascorbate and thrombin both required calcium for their respective effects, ascorbate did not prevent thrombin permeabilization by obstructing calcium influx. However, preservation of cAMP by ascorbate was found to depend on both the production of nitric oxide by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, which ascorbate is known to activate, and the subsequent generation cGMP by guanylate cyclase. Together, these data implicate ascorbate in the prevention of inflammatory endothelial barrier permeabilization and explain the underlying signaling mechanism. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Intracellular Ascorbate Prevents Endothelial Barrier Permeabilization by Thrombin*

    PubMed Central

    Parker, William H.; Qu, Zhi-chao; May, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular ascorbate (vitamin C) has previously been shown to tighten the endothelial barrier and maintain barrier integrity during acute inflammation in vitro. However, the downstream effectors of ascorbate in the regulation of endothelial permeability remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated ascorbate as a mediator of thrombin-induced barrier permeabilization in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and their immortalized hybridoma line, EA.hy926. We found that the vitamin fully prevented increased permeability to the polysaccharide inulin by thrombin in a dose-dependent manner, and it took effect both before and after subjection to thrombin. Thrombin exposure consumed intracellular ascorbate but not the endogenous antioxidant GSH. Likewise, the antioxidants dithiothreitol and tempol did not reverse permeabilization. We identified a novel role for ascorbate in preserving cAMP during thrombin stimulation, resulting in two downstream effects. First, ascorbate maintained the cortical actin cytoskeleton in a Rap1- and Rac1-dependent manner, thus preserving stable adherens junctions between adjacent cells. Second, ascorbate prevented actin polymerization and formation of stress fibers by reducing the activation of RhoA and phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Although ascorbate and thrombin both required calcium for their respective effects, ascorbate did not prevent thrombin permeabilization by obstructing calcium influx. However, preservation of cAMP by ascorbate was found to depend on both the production of nitric oxide by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, which ascorbate is known to activate, and the subsequent generation cGMP by guanylate cyclase. Together, these data implicate ascorbate in the prevention of inflammatory endothelial barrier permeabilization and explain the underlying signaling mechanism. PMID:26152729

  7. Recombinant P-selectin glycoprotein-ligand-1 delays thrombin-induced platelet aggregation: a new role for P-selectin in early aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Théorêt, Jean-François; Chahrour, Wissam; Yacoub, Daniel; Merhi, Yahye

    2006-01-01

    P-selectin is involved, with P-selectin glycoprotein (GP)-ligand-1 (PSGL-1), in platelet/leukocyte interactions during thrombo-inflammatory reactions; it also stabilizes platelet aggregates. Its antagonism accelerates thrombolysis and enhances the anti-aggregatory effects of GPIIb–IIIa inhibitors. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms of P-selectin-mediated platelet aggregation. In freshly isolated human platelets, P-selectin translocation after thrombin stimulation increased rapidly to 48, 72, and 86% positive platelets after 60, 120, and 300 s, respectively. Platelet aggregation at 60 s post-stimulation averaged 46.7±1.9% and its extent followed closely the kinetics of P-selectin translocation. Pre-treatment of platelets with P-selectin antagonists, a recombinant PSGL-1 (rPSGL-Ig) or a blocking monoclonal antibody, significantly delayed platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. At 100 μg ml−1 of rPSGL-Ig, platelet aggregation was completely inhibited up to 60 s post-stimulation and increased thereafter to reach maximal aggregation at 5 min. The second phase of platelet aggregation, in the presence of rPSGL-Ig, was completely prevented by the addition of a GPIIb–IIIa antagonist (Reopro) at 60 s, whereas its addition in the absence of rPSGL-Ig was without any significant effect. Combination of rPSGL-Ig with Reopro or with an inhibitor of Pi3K (LY294002), which reduces GPIIb–IIIa activation, showed to be more effective in inhibiting platelet aggregation, in comparison to the effects observed individually. rPSGL-Ig blocks P-selectin, whereas Reopro and LY294002 block GPIIb–IIIa and its activation, respectively, without a major effect on the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin. In summary, platelet P-selectin participates with GPIIb–IIIa in the initiation of platelet aggregation. Its inhibition, with rPSGL-Ig, delays the aggregation process and increases the anti-aggregatory potency of Reopro. Thus

  8. Recombinant P-selectin glycoprotein-ligand-1 delays thrombin-induced platelet aggregation: a new role for P-selectin in early aggregation.

    PubMed

    Théorêt, Jean-François; Chahrour, Wissam; Yacoub, Daniel; Merhi, Yahye

    2006-06-01

    1. P-selectin is involved, with P-selectin glycoprotein (GP)-ligand-1 (PSGL-1), in platelet/leukocyte interactions during thrombo-inflammatory reactions; it also stabilizes platelet aggregates. Its antagonism accelerates thrombolysis and enhances the anti-aggregatory effects of GPIIb-IIIa inhibitors. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms of P-selectin-mediated platelet aggregation. 2. In freshly isolated human platelets, P-selectin translocation after thrombin stimulation increased rapidly to 48, 72, and 86% positive platelets after 60, 120, and 300 s, respectively. Platelet aggregation at 60 s post-stimulation averaged 46.7 +/- 1.9% and its extent followed closely the kinetics of P-selectin translocation. 3. Pre-treatment of platelets with P-selectin antagonists, a recombinant PSGL-1 (rPSGL-Ig) or a blocking monoclonal antibody, significantly delayed platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. At 100 microg ml(-1) of rPSGL-Ig, platelet aggregation was completely inhibited up to 60 s post-stimulation and increased thereafter to reach maximal aggregation at 5 min. The second phase of platelet aggregation, in the presence of rPSGL-Ig, was completely prevented by the addition of a GPIIb-IIIa antagonist (Reopro) at 60 s, whereas its addition in the absence of rPSGL-Ig was without any significant effect. 4. Combination of rPSGL-Ig with Reopro or with an inhibitor of Pi3K (LY294002), which reduces GPIIb-IIIa activation, showed to be more effective in inhibiting platelet aggregation, in comparison to the effects observed individually. 5. rPSGL-Ig blocks P-selectin, whereas Reopro and LY294002 block GPIIb-IIIa and its activation, respectively, without a major effect on the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin. 6. In summary, platelet P-selectin participates with GPIIb-IIIa in the initiation of platelet aggregation. Its inhibition, with rPSGL-Ig, delays the aggregation process and increases the anti-aggregatory potency of Reopro. Thus

  9. Glycoprotein Ib activation by thrombin stimulates the energy metabolism in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Corona de la Peña, Norma; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Thrombin-induced platelet activation requires substantial amounts of ATP. However, the specific contribution of each ATP-generating pathway i.e., oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) versus glycolysis and the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced activation of energy metabolism remain unclear. Here we report an integral analysis on the role of both energy pathways in human platelets activated by several agonists, and the signal transducing mechanisms associated with such activation. We found that thrombin, Trap-6, arachidonic acid, collagen, A23187, epinephrine and ADP significantly increased glycolytic flux (3–38 times vs. non-activated platelets) whereas ristocetin was ineffective. OxPhos (33 times) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (88%) were increased only by thrombin. OxPhos was the main source of ATP in thrombin-activated platelets, whereas in platelets activated by any of the other agonists, glycolysis was the principal ATP supplier. In order to establish the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced OxPhos activation in platelets, several signaling pathways associated with mitochondrial activation were analyzed. Wortmannin and LY294002 (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors), ristocetin and heparin (GPIb inhibitors) as well as resveratrol, ATP (calcium-release inhibitors) and PP1 (Tyr-phosphorylation inhibitor) prevented the thrombin-induced platelet activation. These results suggest that thrombin activates OxPhos and glycolysis through GPIb-dependent signaling involving PI3K and Akt activation, calcium mobilization and protein phosphorylation. PMID:28817667

  10. Tsunami Generation Modelling for Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziato, A.; Matias, L.; Ulutas, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Carrilho, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre and the Institute of Meteorology in Portugal, a complete analytical tool to support Early Warning Systems is being developed. The tool will be part of the Portuguese National Early Warning System and will be used also in the frame of the UNESCO North Atlantic Section of the Tsunami Early Warning System. The system called Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) includes a worldwide scenario database that has been pre-calculated using the SWAN-JRC code (Annunziato, 2007). This code uses a simplified fault generation mechanism and the hydraulic model is based on the SWAN code (Mader, 1988). In addition to the pre-defined scenario, a system of computers is always ready to start a new calculation whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismic networks (such as USGS or EMSC) and is judged capable to generate a Tsunami. The calculation is performed using minimal parameters (epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake): the programme calculates the rupture length and rupture width by using empirical relationship proposed by Ward (2002). The database calculations, as well the newly generated calculations with the current conditions are therefore available to TAT where the real online analysis is performed. The system allows to analyze also sea level measurements available worldwide in order to compare them and decide if a tsunami is really occurring or not. Although TAT, connected with the scenario database and the online calculation system, is at the moment the only software that can support the tsunami analysis on a global scale, we are convinced that the fault generation mechanism is too simplified to give a correct tsunami prediction. Furthermore short tsunami arrival times especially require a possible earthquake source parameters data on tectonic features of the faults like strike, dip, rake and slip in order to minimize real time uncertainty of rupture parameters. Indeed the earthquake

  11. Endogenous Thrombin Potential Changes during the First Cycle of Oral Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Carolyn L.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Cremers, Serge; Eisenberger, Andrew; Thomassen, Stella; Rosing, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk increases within months of combination oral contraceptive (COC) initiation. Because elevated endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) has been found in several studies to be a VTE risk factor, we evaluated the extent of ETP changes during the initial cycle of an ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) COC. We also assessed the relationship between ETP changes and systemic EE and LNG concentrations. Study Design Participants provided multiple blood samples during a first 21-day cycle of a 30 µg EE/150 µg LNG COC and after a further 7 days without an active COC. Thrombin generation measured with and without addition of activated protein C (APC) yielded ETP+APC and ETP−APC and the normalized APC sensitivity ratio (nAPCsr). EE and LNG pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted over 24 hours after the first COC tablet and again at steady state. Results Thrombin generation was determined in 16 of the 17 women who completed the study. Mean ETP−APC increased steadily to 21% above baseline at 24 hours after the 6th COC tablet (COC624; p < 0.001) and to 28% above baseline at steady state (COC21; p < 0.001). Mean ETP+APC increased considerably more – by 54% at COC624 and by 79% at steady state. Mean nAPCsr increased by 28% at COC624 and by 41% at steady state. Higher concentrations of EE or LNG were not correlated with greater increases in ETP. Conclusions ETP increases during the first COC cycle were substantial. Implications The early increases in ETP may provide biological support for the rapid increase in VTE risk during initial COC use. The lack of association between this clotting system perturbation and the systemic EE concentration is surprising and deserves further study. PMID:28088496

  12. Induction of apoptosis by thrombin in the cultured neurons of dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Zhang, W; Li, J-Y; Chai, B-X; Peng, J; Wang, H; Mulholland, M W

    2011-03-01

    A previous study demonstrated the presence of protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV). The aim of this study is to characterize the effect of thrombin on the apoptosis of DMV neurons. The dorsal motor nucleus of vagus neurons were isolated from neonatal rat brainstems using micro-dissection and enzymatic digestion and cultured. Apoptosis of DMV neurons were examined in cultured neurons. Apoptotic neuron was examined by TUNEL and ELISA. Data were analyzed using anova and Student's t-test. Exposure of cultured DMV neurons to thrombin (0.1 to 10 U mL(-1)) for 24 h significantly increased apoptosis. Pretreatment of DMV neurons with hirudin attenuated the apoptotic effect of thrombin. Similar induction of apoptosis was observed for the PAR1 receptor agonist SFLLR, but not for the PAR3 agonist TFRGAP, nor for the PAR4 agonist YAPGKF. Protease-activated receptors 1 receptor antagonist Mpr(Cha) abolished the apoptotic effect of thrombin, while YPGKF, a specific antagonist for PAR4, demonstrated no effect. After administration of thrombin, phosphorylation of JNK and P38 occurred as early as 15 min, and remained elevated for up to 45 min. Pretreatment of DMV neurons with SP600125, a specific inhibitor for JNK, or SB203580, a specific inhibitor for P38, significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by thrombin. Thrombin induces apoptosis in DMV neurons through a mechanism involving the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Platelet-targeting sensor reveals thrombin gradients within blood clots forming in microfluidic assays and in mouse.

    PubMed

    Welsh, J D; Colace, T V; Muthard, R W; Stalker, T J; Brass, L F; Diamond, S L

    2012-11-01

    Thrombin undergoes convective and diffusive transport, making it difficult to visualize during thrombosis. We developed the first sensor capable of revealing inner clot thrombin dynamics. An N-terminal-azido thrombin-sensitive fluorescent peptide (ThS-P) with a thrombin-releasable quencher was linked to anti-CD41 using click chemistry to generate a thrombin-sensitive platelet binding sensor (ThS-Ab). Rapid thrombin cleavage of ThS-P (K(m) = 40.3 μm, k(cat) = 1.5 s(-1) ) allowed thrombin monitoring by ThS-P or ThS-Ab in blood treated with 2-25 pm tissue factor (TF). Individual platelets had > 20-fold more ThS-Ab fluorescence after clotting. In a microfluidic assay of whole blood perfusion over collagen ± linked TF (wall shear rate = 100 s(-1) ), ThS-Ab fluorescence increased between 90 and 450 s for 0.1-1 molecule-TF μm(-2) and co-localized with platelets near fibrin. Without TF, neither thrombin nor fibrin was detected on the platelet deposits by 450 s. Using a microfluidic device to control the pressure drop across a thrombus forming on a porous collagen/TF plug (521 s(-1) ), thrombin and fibrin were detected at the thrombus-collagen interface at a zero pressure drop, whereas 80% less thrombin was detected at 3200 Pa in concert with fibrin polymerizing within the collagen. With anti-mouse CD41 ThS-Ab deployed in a mouse laser injury model, the highest levels of thrombin arose between 40 and 160 s nearest the injury site where fibrin co-localized and where the thrombus was most mechanically stable. ThS-Ab reveals thrombin locality, which depends on surface TF, flow and intrathrombus pressure gradients. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. Real-time measurement of free thrombin: evaluation of the usability of a new thrombin assay for coagulation monitoring during extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Stefanie; Krauss, Sabrina; Kurz, Julia; Neumann, Bernd; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans P

    2014-03-01

    In patients undergoing cardiac surgery with heart-lung machine support, adequate anticoagulation to mitigate blood clotting caused by the artificial surfaces of the extracorporeal circulation (ECC) system is essential. These patients routinely receive heparin, whose effectiveness is monitored by measurements of the activated clotting time (ACT). However, ACT values only poorly correlate with the actual hemostatic status. The aim of our study was to evaluate the detection of free thrombin in heparinized human blood as a monitor of anticoagulation during ECC. Human whole blood was anticoagulated with different concentrations of heparin (0.75, 1, 2 or 3 IU/ml) and circulated in the Chandler-loop model for up to 240 min at 37 °C. Next to ACT, ECC-mediated changes in free active thrombin, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) and thrombin-antithrombin-III (TAT) levels were measured before and during circulation. Platelet activation and cell count parameters were further investigated. Our study shows that detection of ECC-mediated changes in free thrombin is possible in blood anticoagulated with 0.75 or 1 IU/ml heparin, whereas no thrombin was detectable at higher heparin concentrations. Thrombin generation during 240 min of ECC is comparable to F 1+2 and TAT plasma levels during ECC. Thrombin is the key enzyme in the coagulation cascade and hence represents a promising marker for monitoring the coagulation status of patients. Although detection of free thrombin was not feasible at high heparin concentrations, the employed test represents an additional test to current laboratory methods investigating blood coagulation at low heparin concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongying; Suter, Jonathan D.; White, Ian M.; Fan, Xudong

    2006-01-01

    We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer as receptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface is modified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectral position of the microsphere's whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on the order of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments with non-aptamer oligonucleotide and BSA are also carried out to confirm the specific binding between aptamer and thrombin. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive biomarker sensors based on aptamer with lower cost and higher throughput than current technology.

  16. Thrombin impairs human endometrial endothelial angiogenesis; implications for progestin-only contraceptive-induced abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, John P; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A; Semerci, Nihan; Huang, S Joseph; Arlier, Sefa; Larsen, Kellie; Fadda, Paolo; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J

    2017-06-01

    Progestin-only contraceptives induce abnormal uterine bleeding, accompanied by prothrombin leakage from dilated endometrial microvessels and increased thrombin generation by human endometrial stromal cell (HESC)-expressed tissue factor. Initial studies of the thrombin-treated HESC secretome identified elevated levels of cleaved chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), impairing pericyte-endothelial interactions. Thus, we investigated direct and CSPG4-mediated effects of thrombin in eliciting abnormal uterine bleeding by disrupting endometrial angiogenesis. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluated conditioned medium supernatant and cell lysates from control versus thrombin-treated HESCs. Pre- and post-Depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-administered endometria were immunostained for CSPG4. Proliferation, apoptosis and tube formation were assessed in human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) incubated with recombinant human (rh)-CSPG4 or thrombin or both. Thrombin induced CSPG4 protein expression in cultured HESCs as detected by mass spectrometry and ELISA (p<.02, n=3). Compared to pre-DMPA endometria (n=5), stromal cells in post-DMPA endometria (n=5) displayed stronger CSPG4 immunostaining. In HEEC cultures (n=3), total tube-formed mesh area was significantly higher in rh-CSPG4 versus control (p<.05). However, thrombin disrupted HEEC tube formation by a concentration- and time-dependent reduction of angiogenic parameters (p<.05), whereas CSPG4 co-treatment did not reverse these thrombin-mediated effects. These results suggest that disruption of HEEC tube formation by thrombin induces aberrant angiogenesis and abnormal uterine bleeding in DMPA users. Mass spectrometry analysis identified several HESC-secreted proteins regulated by thrombin. Therapeutic agents blocking angiogenic effects of thrombin in HESCs can prevent or minimize progestin

  17. Reversible thrombin detection by aptamer functionalized STING sensors.

    PubMed

    Actis, Paolo; Rogers, Adam; Nivala, Jeff; Vilozny, Boaz; Seger, R Adam; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Pourmand, Nader

    2011-07-15

    Signal Transduction by Ion NanoGating (STING) is a label-free technology based on functionalized quartz nanopipettes. The nanopipette pore can be decorated with a variety of recognition elements and the molecular interaction is transduced via a simple electrochemical system. A STING sensor can be easily and reproducibly fabricated and tailored at the bench starting from inexpensive quartz capillaries. The analytical application of this new biosensing platform, however, was limited due to the difficult correlation between the measured ionic current and the analyte concentration in solution. Here we show that STING sensors functionalized with aptamers allow the quantitative detection of thrombin. The binding of thrombin generates a signal that can be directly correlated to its concentration in the bulk solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reversible thrombin detection by aptamer functionalized STING sensors

    PubMed Central

    Actis, Paolo; Rogers, Adam; Nivala, Jeff; Vilozny, Boaz; Seger, R. Adam; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Pourmand, Nader

    2011-01-01

    Signal Transduction by Ion NanoGating (STING) is a label-free technology based on functionalized quartz nanopipettes. The nanopipette pore can be decorated with a variety of recognition elements and the molecular interaction is transduced via a simple electrochemical system. A STING sensor can be easily and reproducibly fabricated and tailored at the bench starting from inexpensive quartz capillaries. The analytical application of this new biosensing platform, however, was limited due to the difficult correlation between the measured ionic current and the analyte concentration in solution. Here we show that STING sensors functionalized with aptamers allow the quantitative detection of thrombin. The binding of thrombin generates a signal that can be directly correlated to its concentration in the bulk solution. PMID:21636261

  19. Metabolic plasticity in resting and thrombin activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Saranya; Chacko, Balu; Sawada, Hirotaka; Kramer, Philip A; Johnson, Michelle S; Benavides, Gloria A; O'Donnell, Valerie; Marques, Marisa B; Darley-Usmar, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Platelet thrombus formation includes several integrated processes involving aggregation, secretion of granules, release of arachidonic acid and clot retraction, but it is not clear which metabolic fuels are required to support these events. We hypothesized that there is flexibility in the fuels that can be utilized to serve the energetic and metabolic needs for resting and thrombin-dependent platelet aggregation. Using platelets from healthy human donors, we found that there was a rapid thrombin-dependent increase in oxidative phosphorylation which required both glutamine and fatty acids but not glucose. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation or glutamine utilization could be compensated for by increased glycolytic flux. No evidence for significant mitochondrial dysfunction was found, and ATP/ADP ratios were maintained following the addition of thrombin, indicating the presence of functional and active mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation during the early stages of aggregation. Interestingly, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and glutaminolysis alone or in combination is not sufficient to prevent platelet aggregation, due to compensation from glycolysis, whereas inhibitors of glycolysis inhibited aggregation approximately 50%. The combined effects of inhibitors of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were synergistic in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. In summary, both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation contribute to platelet metabolism in the resting and activated state, with fatty acid oxidation and to a smaller extent glutaminolysis contributing to the increased energy demand.

  20. Thrombin-receptor agonist peptides, in contrast to thrombin itself, are not full agonists for activation and signal transduction in human platelets in the absence of platelet-derived secondary mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, L F; Pumiglia, K; Côté, Y P; Feinstein, M B

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic thrombin receptor peptides (TRPs), comprising the first 6-14 amino acids of the new N-terminus tethered ligand of the thrombin receptor that is generated by thrombin's proteolytic activity, were reported to activate platelets equally with thrombin itself and are considered to be full agonists [Vu et al. (1991) Cell 64, 1057-1068]. Using aspirin plus ADP-scavengers or the ADP-receptor antagonist adenosine 5'-[alpha-thio]triphosphate to prevent the secondary effects of the potent agonists that are normally released from stimulated platelets (i.e. ADP and thromboxane A2), we assessed the direct actions of thrombin and TRPs (i.e. TRP42-47 and TRP42-55). Compared with thrombin, under these conditions, TRPs: (1) failed to aggregate platelets completely; (2) produced less activation of glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa; (3) did not cause association of GPIIb and pp60c-src with the cytoskeleton; and (4) caused less alpha-granule secretion, phosphorylation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2, arachidonic acid release and phosphatidyl inositol (PtdOH) production. Furthermore, TRPs induced transient increases in protein phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase C and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas these same responses to thrombin were greater and more sustained. Hirudin added after thrombin accelerated protein dephosphorylation, thereby mimicking the rate of spontaneous dephosphorylation seen after stimulation by TRPs. Platelets totally desensitized to very high concentrations of TRPs, by prior exposure to maximally effective concentrations of the peptides, remained responsive to alpha- and gamma-thrombins. Thrombin-stimulated PtdOH production in permeabilized platelets desensitized to TRPs was abolished by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[beta S]), as in normal platelets. These results are discussed in terms of the allosteric Ternary Complex Model for G-protein linked receptors [Samama et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 4625-4636]. We conclude that: (1) TRPs

  1. 45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING UNIT USED TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY FOR MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS AND FOR THE TOWN OF RAINELLE. STEAM ENGINE IS A HAMILTON CORLISS. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  2. Dabigatran Etexilate Reduces Thrombin-Induced Inflammation and Thrombus Formation in Experimental Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Dittmeier, Melanie; Wassmuth, Kathrin; Schuhmann, Michael K; Kraft, Peter; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Fluri, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Dabigatran etexilate (DE), a direct-acting, oral inhibitor of thrombin, significantly reduces the risk of stroke compared with traditional anticoagulants, without increasing the risk of major bleeding. However, studies on the fate of cerebral tissue after ischemic stroke in patients receiving DE are sparse and the role of dabigatran-mediated reduction of thrombin in this context has not yet been investigated. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment with DE reduces thrombin-mediated pro-inflammatory mechanisms and leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following ischemic stroke in rats. Male Wistar rats received DE (15 mg/kg) or a vehicle solution 1 hour before transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 minutes. Infarct volume, neurologic outcome and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were determined after tMCAO. Thrombin generation was indirectly assessed by measuring thrombin/antithrombin III complex. Microvascular patency was evaluated histologically. Cytokine expression and immunoreactivity of cluster of differentiation (CD) 68 were examined to characterize inflammatory processes after pretreatment with DE. BBB integrity was examined by quantifying brain edema. Rats given DE revealed a significant reduction in infarct size without an increase in ICH and significant recovery of neurologic deficits compared to controls. Administration of DE decreased thrombin generation and thrombus formation, dampened the CD68-immunoreactivity and attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the cerebral parenchyma ipsilateral to the ischemic lesion. BBB permeability was unaltered following treatment with DE. In summary, prophylactic anticoagulation with DE improves stroke outcome by reducing thrombin-induced inflammation and thrombus formation without increasing the rate of ICH.

  3. The association between early generative concern and caregiving with friends from early to middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawford, Heather L; Doyle, Anna-Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2013-12-01

    Generativity, defined as concern for future generations, is theorized to become a priority in midlife, preceded by a stage in which intimacy is the central issue. Recent research, however, has found evidence of generativity even in adolescence. This longitudinal study explored the associations between caregiving in friendships, closely related to intimacy, and early generative concern in a young adolescent sample. Given the importance of close friendships in adolescence, it was hypothesized that responsive caregiving in early adolescent friendships would predict later generative concern. Approximately 140 adolescents (56 % female, aged 14 at Time 1) completed questionnaires regarding generative concern and responsive caregiving with friends yearly across 2 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that caregiving predicted generative concern 1 year later but generative concern did not predict later caregiving. These results suggest that caregiving in close friendships plays an important role in the development of adolescents' motivation to contribute to future generations.

  4. Next Generation Diagnostic System (NGDS) Increment 1 Early Fielding Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-07

    for a NGDS Warrior Panel test FOB 5- Marburg Virus 2 – Marburg 1 – Staph infection 1 – Flu Yes 5 days post -exposure 70 minutes after...Director, Operational Test and Evaluation Next Generation Diagnostic System (NGDS) Increment 1 Early Fielding Report   June 2017...Increment 1 Early Fielding Report Summary This report provides the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation’s (DOT&E) operational assessment of the

  5. The monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope in the C-terminal region of the fibrinogen alpha-chain reacts with soluble fibrin and fibrin monomer generated by thrombin but not with those formed as plasmin degradation products.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akiko; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Masanao; Miyazaki, Osamu; Yago, Hirokazu

    2007-01-01

    The presence of soluble fibrin (SF) provides evidence of thrombin activation in the blood; therefore, SF is a useful marker for diagnosing blood coagulation diseases such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The antibody that specifically detects SF could be a useful tool for diagnosing thrombotic diseases. By using an acid-solubilized desAA-FM (fibrin monomer) as an immunogen, we developed a monoclonal antibody, namely J2-23, which specifically reacts with SF and FM. We examined the specificity of J2-23 by ELISA and immunoblotting and confirmed the reactivity of J2-23 with SF and FM by gel filtration. J2-23 specifically reacted with SF, but not with fibrinogen or plasmic fibrinogen-derived Fbg-X, Fbg-Y, Fbg-E, and D; thrombin-treated Fbn-X, Fbn-Y, and Fbn-E; and plasmic cross-linked fibrin (DD, XDP). The epitope recognized by J2-23 was located within the Aalpha 502-521 region on the C-terminal of the fibrinogen alpha-chain. The reactivity of J2-23 disappeared following the action of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin. Furthermore, J2-23 reacted not only with SF but also with FM in plasma from DIC patients. This indicated that J2-23 specifically detected coagulation without reflecting the plasmin action. We demonstrated the potential of J2-23 as a useful antibody for detecting SF for diagnosing blood coagulation.

  6. In vivo fluorescence imaging of atherosclerotic plaques with activatable cell-penetrating peptides targeting thrombin activity†

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Emilia S.; Whitney, Michael A.; Friedman, Beth; Aguilera, Todd A.; Crisp, Jessica L.; Baik, Fred M.; Jiang, Tao; Baird, Stephen M.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombin and other coagulation enzymes have been shown to be important during atherosclerotic disease development. Study of these proteases is currently limited because of lack of robust molecular imaging agents for imaging protease activity in vivo. Activatable cell penetrating peptides (ACPPs) have been used to monitor MMP activity in tumors and, in principle, can be modified to detect other proteases. We have developed a probe that incorporates the peptide sequence DPRSFL from the proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) into an ACPP and shown that it is preferentially cleaved by purified thrombin. Active thrombin in serum cleaves DPRSFL–ACPP with >90% inhibition by lepirudin or argatroban. The DPRSFL–ACPP cleavage product accumulated in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in living mice, with 85% reduction in retention upon pre-injection of mice with hirudin. Uptake of the ACPP cleavage product was highest in plaques with histological features associated with more severe disease. Freshly resected human atheromas bathed in DPRSFL–ACPP retained 63% greater cleavage product compared to control ACPP. In conclusion, DPRSFL–ACPP can be used to study thrombin activity in coagulation and atherosclerosis with good spatial and temporal resolution. Thrombin-sensitive ACPPs may be developed into probes for early detection and intraoperative imaging of high risk atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:22534729

  7. In vivo fluorescence imaging of atherosclerotic plaques with activatable cell-penetrating peptides targeting thrombin activity.

    PubMed

    Olson, Emilia S; Whitney, Michael A; Friedman, Beth; Aguilera, Todd A; Crisp, Jessica L; Baik, Fred M; Jiang, Tao; Baird, Stephen M; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Tsien, Roger Y; Nguyen, Quyen T

    2012-06-01

    Thrombin and other coagulation enzymes have been shown to be important during atherosclerotic disease development. Study of these proteases is currently limited because of lack of robust molecular imaging agents for imaging protease activity in vivo. Activatable cell penetrating peptides (ACPPs) have been used to monitor MMP activity in tumors and, in principle, can be modified to detect other proteases. We have developed a probe that incorporates the peptide sequence DPRSFL from the proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) into an ACPP and shown that it is preferentially cleaved by purified thrombin. Active thrombin in serum cleaves DPRSFL-ACPP with >90% inhibition by lepirudin or argatroban. The DPRSFL-ACPP cleavage product accumulated in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in living mice, with 85% reduction in retention upon pre-injection of mice with hirudin. Uptake of the ACPP cleavage product was highest in plaques with histological features associated with more severe disease. Freshly resected human atheromas bathed in DPRSFL-ACPP retained 63% greater cleavage product compared to control ACPP. In conclusion, DPRSFL-ACPP can be used to study thrombin activity in coagulation and atherosclerosis with good spatial and temporal resolution. Thrombin-sensitive ACPPs may be developed into probes for early detection and intraoperative imaging of high risk atherosclerotic plaques.

  8. Thrombin specificity. Requirement for apolar amino acids adjacent to the thrombin cleavage site of polypeptide substrate.

    PubMed

    Chang, J Y

    1985-09-02

    alpha-Thrombin cleavage of 30 polypeptide hormones and their derivatives were analysed by quantitative amino-terminal analysis. The polypeptides included secretin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin fragment, dynorphin A, somatostatins, gastrin-releasing peptide, calcitonins and human parathyroid hormone fragment. Most of them were selected mainly on the ground that they contain sequence structures homologous to the well known tripeptide substrates of alpha-thrombin. All selected polypeptides have one single major cleavage site and both Arg-Xaa and Lys-Xaa bonds were found to be selectively cleaved by alpha-thrombin. Under fixed conditions (1 nmol polypeptide/0.5 NIH unit alpha-thrombin in 20 microliters of 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate at 25 degrees C), the time required for 50% cleavage ranges from less than 1 min to longer than 24 h. Heparin invariably enhanced thrombin cleavage on all polypeptide analysed. The optimum cleavage site for alpha-thrombin has the structures of (a) P4-P3-Pro-Arg-P1'-P2', where P3 and P4 are hydrophobic amino acid and P1', P2' are nonacidic amino acids and (b) P2-Arg-P1', where P2 or P1' are Gly. The requirement for hydrophobic P3 and P4 was further demonstrated by the drastic decrease of thrombin cleavage rates in both gastrin-releasing peptide and calcitonins after chemical removal of hydrophobic P3 and P4 residues. The requirement for nonacidic P1' and P2' residues was demonstrated by the drastic increase of thrombin cleavage rates in both calcitonin and parathyroid hormone fragments, after specific chemical modification of acidic P1' and P2' residues. These findings confirm the importance of hydrophobic P2-P4 residues for thrombin specificity and provide new evidence to indicate that apolar P1' and P2' residues are also crucial for thrombin specificity. It is concluded that specific cleavage of polypeptides by alpha-thrombin can be reasonably predicted and that chemical modification can be a useful tool in enhancing

  9. Retro-binding thrombin active site inhibitors: identification of an orally active inhibitor of thrombin catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Kimball, S David; Lin, James; Lau, Wan; Han, W-C; Wang, Tammy C; Roberts, Daniel G M; Schumacher, W A; Ogletree, Martin L; Seiler, Steven M

    2002-11-04

    A series of retro-binding inhibitors of human alpha-thrombin was prepared to elucidate structure-activity relationships (SAR) and optimize in vivo performance. Compounds 9 and 11, orally active inhibitors of thrombin catalytic activity, were identified to be efficacious in a thrombin-induced lethality model in mice.

  10. Thrombin-activatable fluorescent peptide incorporated gold nanoparticles for dual optical/computed tomography thrombus imaging.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung-Pil; Jeon, Sangmin; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Yoon, Hong Yeol; Ryu, Ju Hee; Choi, Dayil; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Kim, Jiwon; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Dong-Eog; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Ahn, Cheol-Hee

    2018-01-01

    Thrombosis is an important pathophysiologic phenomenon in various cardiovascular diseases, which can lead to oxygen deprivation and infarction of tissues by generation of a thrombus. Thus, direct thrombus imaging can provide beneficial in diagnosis and therapy of thrombosis. Herein, we developed thrombin-activatable fluorescent peptide (TAP) incorporated silica-coated gold nanoparticles (TAP-SiO 2 @AuNPs) for direct imaging of thrombus by dual near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, wherein TAP molecules were used as targeted thrombin-activatable peptide probes for thrombin-specific NIRF imaging. The freshly prepared TAP-SiO 2 @AuNPs had an average diameter of 39.8 ± 2.55 nm and they showed the quenched NIRF signal in aqueous condition, due to the excellent quenching effect of TAP molecules on the silica-gold nanoparticle surface. However, 30.31-fold higher NIRF intensity was rapidly recovered in the presence of thrombin in vitro, due to the thrombin-specific cleavage of quenched TAP molecules on the gold particle surface. Furthermore, TAP-SiO 2 @AuNPs were successfully accumulated in thrombus by their particle size-dependent capturing property, and they presented a potential X-ray absorption property in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, thrombotic lesion was clearly distinguished from peripheral tissues by dual NIRF/micro-CT imaging after intravenous injection of TAP-SiO 2 @AuNPs in the in situ thrombotic mouse model, simultaneously. This study showed that thrombin-activatable fluorescent peptide incorporated silica-coated gold nanoparticles can be potentially used as a dual imaging probe for direct thrombus imaging and therapy in clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Apixaban decreases brain thrombin activity in a male mouse model of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Bushi, Doron; Chapman, Joab; Wohl, Anton; Stein, Efrat Shavit; Feingold, Ekaterina; Tanne, David

    2018-05-14

    Factor Xa (FXa) plays a critical role in the coagulation cascade by generation of thrombin. During focal ischemia thrombin levels increase in the brain tissue and cause neural damage. This study examined the hypothesis that administration of the FXa inhibitor, apixaban, following focal ischemic stroke may have therapeutic potential by decreasing brain thrombin activity and infarct volume. Male mice were divided into a treated groups that received different doses of apixaban (2, 20, 100 mg/kg administered I.P.) or saline (controls) immediately after blocking the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Thrombin activity was measured by a fluorescence assay on fresh coronal slices taken from the mice brains 24 hr following the MCA occlusion. Infarct volume was assessed using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. A high dose of apixaban (100 mg/kg) significantly decreased thrombin activity levels in the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to the control group (Slice#5, p = .016; Slice#6, p = .016; Slice#7, p = .016; Slice#8, p = .036; by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test). In addition, treatment with apixaban doses of both 100 mg/kg (32 ± 8% vs. 76 ± 7% in the treatment vs. control groups respectively; p = .005 by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test) and 20 mg/kg (43 ± 7% vs. 76 ± 7% in the treatment vs. control groups respectively; p = .019 by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test) decreased infarct volumes in areas surrounding the ischemic core (Slices #3 and #8). No brain hemorrhages were observed either in the treated or control groups. In summary, I.P. administration of high dose of apixaban immediately after MCA occlusion decreases brain thrombin activity and reduces infarct size. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Phloretin suppresses thrombin-mediated leukocyte-platelet-endothelial interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Soo; Park, Sin-Hye; Han, Seon-Young; Kim, Yun-Ho; Lee, Eun-Jung; Yoon Park, Jung Han; Kang, Young-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Thrombin playing a pivotal role in coagulation cascade may influence the onset and progression of atherosclerosis as a pro-inflammatory mediator. This study investigated whether phloretin found in apple tree leaves, severed a linkage between thrombosis and atherosclerosis by thrombin. Human endothelial cells were pre-treated with 1-20 μM phloretin and stimulated with 10 U/mL thrombin. Phloretin attenuated adhesion of THP-1 monocytes and platelets to thrombin-inflamed endothelial cells with concurrent inhibition of protease-activated receptor (PAR-1) induction. The thrombin induction of endothelial CD40, endothelial integrin β3 and P-selectin, and monocytic CD40L was dampened by phloretin. Additionally, phloretin inhibited monocyte secretion of MCP-1, IL-6 and IL-8 responsible for pro-inflammatory activity of thrombin inducing endothelial CD40. The monocyte COX-2 induction and PGE2 secretion due to thrombin were down-regulated by phloretin, deterring endothelial CD40 expression. Thrombin promoted production of PAI-1 and tissue factor in monocytes was attenuated by phloretin through blocking PAR-1 and CD40. Thrombin up-regulated the induction of endothelial connective tissue growth factor independent of PAR-1 activation, which was reversed by phloretin. Phloretin disturbed tethering and stable adhesion of monocytes and platelets onto endothelium during increased thrombosis by thrombin. Phloretin would be a potent agent preventing thrombosis and atherosclerosis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Bovine thrombin safety reporting: an example of study design and publication bias.

    PubMed

    Crean, Sheila; Michels, Shannon L; Moschella, Kevin; Reynolds, Matthew W

    2010-01-01

    Bovine thrombin, a popular hemostat and sealant since 1945, has recently been subjected to clinical trial testing due to reformulations in 1998. We sought to compare adverse event rates of early observational studies with those of later interventional trials. A MEDLINE-based literature search in publications that report safety in bovine thrombin exposed surgical patients was extracted and reviewed. In 38 studies, about half were case reports and 31.5% were interventional trials. In case reports, 41% of authors reported severe coagulopathic adverse events. In contrast, whereas blood complications were common in large trials, no association of harm was established for bovine thrombin product exposure and/or immunization. In this review, later clinical trials failed to reproduce the common and severe coagulopathy predicted by earlier observational studies in bovine exposed patients. This example illustrates that perceptions of safety can change as a function of study design, even for a widely adopted, well established biologic such as thrombin. Caution must be exercised in interpreting evidence from observational studies alone.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects of thrombomodulin alfa through carboxypeptidase B2 in the presence of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Tawara, Shunsuke; Sakai, Takumi; Matsuzaki, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) alfa, a recombinant human soluble TM, enhances activation of pro-carboxypeptidase B2 (pro-CPB2) by thrombin. Activated pro-CPB2 (CPB2) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic activities. Therefore, TM alfa may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects through CPB2. However, these effects of TM alfa have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TM alfa on inactivation of complement component C5a as an anti-inflammatory effect and prolongation of clot lysis time as an anti-fibrinolytic effect via CPB2 in vitro. CPB2 activity and tissue factor-induced thrombin generation was examined by a chromogenic assay. C5a inactivation was evaluated by C-terminal cleavage of C5a and inhibition of C5a-induced human neutrophil migration. Clot lysis time prolongation was examined by a tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced clot lysis assay. CPB2 activity in human plasma was increased by TM alfa and thrombin in a concentration-dependent manner. TM alfa inhibited tissue factor-induced thrombin generation and enhanced pro-CPB2 activation in human plasma simultaneously. The mass spectrum of C5a treated with TM alfa, thrombin, and pro-CPB2 was decreased at 156m/z, indicating that TM alfa enhanced the processing of C5a to C-terminal-cleaved C5a, an inactive form of C5a. C5a-induced human neutrophil migration was decreased after C5a treatment with TM alfa, thrombin, and pro-CPB2. TM alfa prolonged the clot lysis time in human plasma, and this effect was completely abolished by addition of a CPB2 inhibitor. TM alfa exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects through CPB2 in the presence of thrombin in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tissue thrombin is associated with the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ito, Keiichi; Hongo, Kenichi; Date, Taro; Ikegami, Masahiro; Hano, Hiroshi; Owada, Mamiko; Morimoto, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Yusuke; Katoh, Daisuke; Yoshino, Takuya; Yoshii, Akira; Kimura, Haruka; Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Kajimura, Ichige; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Akaike, Toru; Minamisawa, Susumu; Ogawa, Kazuo; Minai, Kosuke; Ogawa, Takayuki; Kawai, Makoto; Yajima, Junji; Matsuo, Seiichiro; Yamane, Teiichi; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Morimoto, Sachio; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2017-02-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease known to be the final product of the coagulation cascade. However, thrombin plays other physiological roles in processes such as gastric contractions and vessel wound healing, and a state of coagulability is increased in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In this study, we investigate the role of thrombin in the pathogenesis of DCM. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of thrombin in the pathogenesis of DCM and investigate the possibility of treatment against DCM by thrombin inhibition. We investigated the expression of thrombin in the left ventricles of five patients with DCM who underwent the Batista operation and four patients without heart disease. Furthermore, we investigated the involvement of thrombin in the development of DCM using knock-in mice with a deletion mutation of cardiac troponin T that causes human DCM (∆K210 knock-in mouse) (B6;129-Tnnt2 tm2Mmto ) and assessed the effects of a direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran on ∆K210 knock-in mice using echocardiographic examinations, the Kaplan-Meier method and Western blotting. The immunohistochemical analysis showed a strong thrombin expression in the DCM patients compared to the patients without heart disease. In immunohistochemical analysis, a strong thrombin expression was observed in the heart tissues analysis in the ∆K210 knock-in mice. Dabigatran administration significantly improved fractional shortening according to the echocardiographic examination and the survival outcomes in ∆K210 knock-in mice. Tissue thrombin is involved in the pathogenesis of DCM and thrombin inhibition can be beneficial for the treatment of DCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Probing light chain mutation effects on thrombin via molecular dynamics simulations and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiajie; Melvin, Ryan L; Salsbury, Freddie R

    2018-03-02

    Thrombin is a key component for chemotherapeutic and antithrombotic therapy development. As the physiologic and pathologic roles of the light chain still remain vague, here, we continue previous efforts to understand the impacts of the disease-associated single deletion of LYS9 in the light chain. By combining supervised and unsupervised machine learning methodologies and more traditional structural analyses on data from 10 μs molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the conformational ensemble of the ΔK9 mutant is significantly perturbed. Our analyses consistently indicate that LYS9 deletion destabilizes both the catalytic cleft and regulatory functional regions and result in some conformational changes that occur in tens to hundreds of nanosecond scaled motions. We also reveal that the two forms of thrombin each prefer a distinct binding mode of a Na + ion. We expand our understanding of previous experimental observations and shed light on the mechanisms of the LYS9 deletion associated bleeding disorder by providing consistent but more quantitative and detailed structural analyses than early studies in literature. With a novel application of supervised learning, i.e. the decision tree learning on the hydrogen bonding features in the wild-type and ΔK9 mutant forms of thrombin, we predict that seven pairs of critical hydrogen bonding interactions are significant for establishing distinct behaviors of wild-type thrombin and its ΔK9 mutant form. Our calculations indicate the LYS9 in the light chain has both localized and long-range allosteric effects on thrombin, supporting the opinion that light chain has an important role as an allosteric effector.

  17. A balance between TFPI and thrombin-mediated platelet activation is required for murine embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Ellery, Paul E. R.; Maroney, Susan A.; Cooley, Brian C.; Luyendyk, James P.; Zogg, Mark; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a critical anticoagulant protein present in endothelium and platelets. Mice lacking TFPI (Tfpi−/−) die in utero from disseminated intravascular coagulation. They are rescued by concomitant tissue factor (TF) deficiency, demonstrating that TFPI modulates TF function in vivo. Recent studies have found TFPI inhibits prothrombinase activity during the initiation of coagulation and limits platelet accumulation during thrombus formation, implicating TFPI in modulating platelet procoagulant activity. To examine whether altered platelet function would compensate for the lack of TFPI and rescue TFPI-null embryonic lethality, Tfpi+/− mice lacking the platelet thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4; Par4−/−), or its coreceptor, PAR3, were mated. PAR3 deficiency did not rescue Tfpi−/− embryos, but >40% of expected Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− offspring survived to adulthood. Adult Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice did not exhibit overt thrombosis. However, they had focal sterile inflammation with fibrin(ogen) deposition in the liver and elevated plasma thrombin-antithrombin complexes, indicating activation of coagulation at baseline. Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice have platelet and fibrin accumulation similar to Par4−/− mice following venous electrolytic injury but were more susceptible than Par4−/− mice to TF-induced pulmonary embolism. In addition, ∼30% of the Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice were born with short tails. Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice are the first adult mice described that lack TFPI with unaltered TF. They demonstrate that TFPI physiologically modulates thrombin-dependent platelet activation in a manner that is required for successful embryonic development and identify a role for TFPI in dampening intravascular procoagulant stimuli that lead to thrombin generation, even in the absence of thrombin-mediated platelet activation. PMID:25954015

  18. Dabigatran abrogates brain endothelial cell permeability in response to thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Brian Thomas; Gu, Yu-Huan; Izawa, Yoshikane; del Zoppo, Gregory John

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk and severity of thromboembolic stroke. Generally, antithrombotic agents increase the hemorrhagic risk of thromboembolic stroke. However, significant reductions in thromboembolism and intracerebral hemorrhage have been shown with the antithrombin dabigatran compared with warfarin. As thrombin has been implicated in microvessel injury during cerebral ischemia, we hypothesized that dabigatran decreases the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage by direct inhibition of the thrombin-mediated increase in cerebral endothelial cell permeability. Primary murine brain endothelial cells (mBECs) were exposed to murine thrombin before measuring permeability to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. Thrombin increased mBEC permeability in a concentration-dependent manner, without significant endothelial cell death. Pretreatment of mBECs with dabigatran completely abrogated the effect of thrombin on permeability. Neither the expressions of the endothelial cell β1-integrins nor the tight junction protein claudin-5 were affected by thrombin exposure. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) also increased permeability; this effect was abrogated by treatment with dabigatran, as was the additive effect of thrombin and OGD on permeability. Taken together, these results indicate that dabigatran could contribute to a lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage during embolism-associated ischemia from AF by protection of the microvessel permeability barrier from local thrombin challenge. PMID:25669912

  19. Role of thrombin signalling in platelets in haemostasis and thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambrano, Gilberto R.; Weiss, Ethan J.; Zheng, Yao-Wu; Huang, Wei; Coughlin, Shaun R.

    2001-09-01

    Platelets are critical in haemostasis and in arterial thrombosis, which causes heart attacks and other events triggered by abnormal clotting. The coagulation protease thrombin is a potent activator of platelets ex vivo. However, because thrombin also mediates fibrin deposition and because multiple agonists can trigger platelet activation, the relative importance of platelet activation by thrombin in haemostasis and thrombosis is unknown. Thrombin triggers cellular responses at least in part through protease-activated receptors (PARs). Mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4 (ref. 9). Here we show that platelets from PAR4-deficient mice failed to change shape, mobilize calcium, secrete ATP or aggregate in response to thrombin. This result demonstrates that PAR signalling is necessary for mouse platelet activation by thrombin and supports the model that mouse PAR3 (mPAR3) does not by itself mediate transmembrane signalling but instead acts as a cofactor for thrombin cleavage and activation of mPAR4 (ref. 10). Importantly, PAR4-deficient mice had markedly prolonged bleeding times and were protected in a model of arteriolar thrombosis. Thus platelet activation by thrombin is necessary for normal haemostasis and may be an important target in the treatment of thrombosis.

  20. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test. (a...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test. (a...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test. (a...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test. (a...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test. (a...

  5. [THROMBIN-MEDIATED EFFECTS OF BLOOD MICROPARTICLES ON FORMATION, STRUCTURE, AND STABILITY OF FIBRIN CLOTS].

    PubMed

    Nabiullina, R M; Mustafin, I G; Ataullakhanov, F I; Litvinov, R I; Zubairova, L D

    2015-07-01

    The effects of blood microparticles (MPs) on the dynamics of fibrin polymerization, clot structure and susceptibility to fibrinolysis were studied. Kinetics of fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis, thrombin generation in platelet-free, microparticle-depleted and microparticle-depleted plasma replenished with cephalin, from healthy donors were analyzed in parallel. MPs have profound effects on all stages of fibrin formation, decrease its turbidity. All parameters obtained in the absence of MPs were recovered after reconstitution of phospholipids. Thrombin generation rates were reduced in the absence of MPs. In the presence of MPs the fibrin networks had less poro us structures with thinner fibers, while clots formed in the absence of MPs had larger pores and were built of thicker fibers. Clots formed in the presence of MPs were significantly more resistant to fibrinolysis. Results show that normally circulating MPs can support the formation of stable clots at the sites of vascular injury.

  6. A review of three stand-alone topical thrombins for surgical hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christine M; Meyer-Massetti, Carla; Kayser, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Topical thrombins are active hemostatic agents that can be used to minimize blood loss during surgery. Before 2007, the only topical thrombins available were derived from bovine plasma. Antibody formation to bovine thrombin and/or factor V, with subsequent risk of cross-reactivity with human factor V, and hemorrhagic complications associated with human factor-V deficiencies have been described in case reports of surgeries in which bovine thrombins were used. This risk is now included in the boxed warning section of the bovine thrombin prescribing information. In 2007 and 2008, 2 new topical thrombins from nonbovine sources received approval for use from the US Food and Drug Administration. The 3 active topical thrombins that are currently marketed are bovine plasma-derived thrombin, human plasma-derived thrombin, and human recombinant thrombin. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature on the efficacy and safety of topical thrombins and discuss the pharmacoeconomic considerations associated with their use. PubMed, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched for relevant papers published in English through October 10,2008, using the terms thrombin, human recombinant thrombin, bovine thrombin, plasma derived thrombin, and topical thrombin. Manufacturer-provided materials were also reviewed. Abstracts and unpublished data, as well as evaluations of sealants, adhesives, glues, and other hemostats that contain thrombin mixed with fibrinogen and other clotting factors, were excluded. Four randomized, double-blind studies involving the active, stand-alone topical thrombins were found. The bovine thrombin involved in these studies was the predecessor to the currently marketed, highly purified bovine formulation. No studies comparing the human products, studies involving the highly purified bovine preparation, or placebo-controlled studies involving bovine thrombin were found. In a Phase III comparison of human recombinant thrombin and

  7. Thrombin and factor Xa link the coagulation system with liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Ameet; Sadiq, Fouzia; Anstee, Quentin M; Levene, Adam P; Goldin, Robert D; Thursz, Mark R

    2018-05-08

    Thrombin activates hepatic stellate cells via protease-activated receptor-1. The role of Factor Xa (FXa) in hepatic fibrosis has not been elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the impact of FXa and thrombin in vitro on stellate cells and their respective inhibition in vivo using a rodent model of hepatic fibrosis. HSC-LX2 cells were incubated with FXa and/or thrombin in cell culture, stained for αSMA and relative gene expression and gel contraction calculated. C57BL/6 J mice were administered thioacetamide (TAA) for 8 weeks with Rivaroxaban (n = 15) or Dabigatran (n = 15). Control animals received TAA alone (n = 15). Fibrosis was scored and quantified using digital image analysis and hepatic tissue hydroxyproline estimated. Stellate cells treated with FXa and thrombin demonstrated upregulation of procollagen, TGF-beta, αSMA and significant cell contraction (43.48%+/- 4.12) compared to culturing with FXa or thrombin alone (26.90%+/- 8.90, p = 0.02; 13.1%+/- 9.84, p < 0.001). Mean fibrosis score, percentage area of fibrosis and hepatic hydroxyproline content (2.46 vs 4.08, p = 0.008; 2.02% vs 3.76%, p = 0.012; 276.0 vs 651.3, p = 0.0001) were significantly reduced in mice treated with the FXa inhibitor compared to control mice. FXa inhibition was significantly more effective than thrombin inhibition in reducing percentage area of fibrosis and hepatic hydroxyproline content (2.02% vs 3.70%,p = 0.031; 276.0 vs 413.1,p = 0.001). FXa promotes stellate cell contractility and activation. Early inhibition of coagulation using a FXa inhibitor significantly reduces TAA induced murine liver fibrosis and may be a viable treatment for liver fibrosis in patients.

  8. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.

  9. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828

  10. Aptamer-based SERRS Sensor for Thrombin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hansang; Baker, Brian R.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Pagba, Cynthia V.; Laurence, Ted A.; Lane, Stephen M.; Lee, Luke P.; Tok, Jeffrey B.-H.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an aptamer-based Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) sensor with high sensitivity, specificity, and stability for the detection of a coagulation protein, human α-thrombin. The sensor achieves high sensitivity and a limit of detection of 100 pM by monitoring the SERRS signal change upon the single step of thrombin binding to immobilized thrombin binding aptamer. The selectivity of the sensor is demonstrated by the specific discrimination of thrombin from other protein analytes. The specific recognition and binding of thrombin by the thrombin binding aptamer is essential to the mechanism of the aptamer-based sensor, as shown through measurements using negative control oligonucleotides. In addition, the sensor can detect 1 nM thrombin in the presence of complex biofluids, such as 10% fetal calf serum, demonstrating that the immobilized, 5'-capped, 3'-capped aptamer is sufficiently robust for clinical diagnostic applications. Furthermore, the proposed sensor may be implemented for multiplexed detection using different aptamer-Raman probe complexes. PMID:19367849

  11. Toehold strand displacement-driven assembly of G-quadruplex DNA for enzyme-free and non-label sensitive fluorescent detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunying; Zhou, Wenjiao; Zhou, Ming; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2015-02-15

    Based on a new signal amplification strategy by the toehold strand displacement-driven cyclic assembly of G-quadruplex DNA, the development of an enzyme-free and non-label aptamer sensing approach for sensitive fluorescent detection of thrombin is described. The target thrombin associates with the corresponding aptamer of the partial dsDNA probes and liberates single stranded initiation sequences, which trigger the toehold strand displacement assembly of two G-quadruplex containing hairpin DNAs. This toehold strand displacement reaction leads to the cyclic reuse of the initiation sequences and the production of DNA assemblies with numerous G-quadruplex structures. The fluorescent dye, N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX, binds to these G-quadruplex structures and generates significantly amplified fluorescent signals to achieve highly sensitive detection of thrombin down to 5 pM. Besides, this method shows high selectivity towards the target thrombin against other control proteins. The developed thrombin sensing method herein avoids the modification of the probes and the involvement of any enzyme or nanomaterial labels for signal amplification. With the successful demonstration for thrombin detection, our approach can be easily adopted to monitor other target molecules in a simple, low-cost, sensitive and selective way by choosing appropriate aptamer/ligand pairs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of PAR-1/NADPH oxidase/ROS signaling pathways is crucial for the thrombin-induced sFlt-1 production in extravillous trophoblasts: possible involvement in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Tao; Chen, Jian-Hong; Hang, Li-Lin; Liu, Shi-San; Zhong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia was characterized by excessive thrombin generation in placentas and previous researches showed that thrombin could enhance soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) expression in first trimester trophoblasts. However, the detailed mechanism for the sFlt-1 over-production induced by thrombin was largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible signaling pathway of thrombin-induced sFlt-1 production in extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). An EVT cell line (HRT-8/SVneo) was treated with various concentrations of thrombin. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of sFlt-1 in EVT were detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were determined by DCFH-DA. Exposure of EVT to thrombin induced increased intracellular ROS generation and overexpression of sFlt-1 at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose dependent manner. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against PAR-1 or apocynin (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase) could decrease the intracellular ROS generation and subsequently suppressed the production of sFlt-1 at mRNA and protein levels. Our results suggested that thrombin increased sFlt-1 production in EVT via the PAR-1 /NADPH oxidase /ROS signaling pathway. This also highlights the PAR-1 / NADPH oxidase / ROS pathway might be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of preeclampsia in the future. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Generating Visionary Policy for Early Childhood Education and Care: Politicians' and Early Childhood Sector Advocate/Activists' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the global conversation about generating a "vision" in early childhood education and care policy by reporting on an investigation of influences on politicians' policy decisions in early childhood education and care in Australia. This article is inspired by the provocations of social and political theorists who…

  14. Dynamic Consequences of Mutation of Tryptophan 215 in Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Riley B; Davis, Jessie R; Markwick, Phineus R L; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2018-05-08

    Thrombin normally cleaves fibrinogen to promote coagulation; however, binding of thrombomodulin to thrombin switches the specificity of thrombin toward protein C, triggering the anticoagulation pathway. The W215A thrombin mutant was reported to have decreased activity toward fibrinogen without significant loss of activity toward protein C. To understand how mutation of Trp215 may alter thrombin specificity, hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments (HDXMS), accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations, and activity assays were carried out to compare the dynamics of Trp215 mutants with those of wild type (WT) thrombin. Variation in NaCl concentration had no detectable effect on the sodium-binding (220s CT ) loop, but appeared to affect other surface loops. Trp215 mutants showed significant increases in amide exchange in the 170s CT loop consistent with a loss of H-bonding in this loop identified by the AMD simulations. The W215A thrombin showed increased amide exchange in the 220s CT loop and in the N-terminus of the heavy chain. The AMD simulations showed that a transient conformation of the W215A thrombin has a distorted catalytic triad. HDXMS experiments revealed that mutation of Phe227, which engages in a π-stacking interaction with Trp215, also caused significantly increased amide exchange in the 170s CT loop. Activity assays showed that only the F227V mutant had wild type catalytic activity, whereas all other mutants showed markedly lower activity. Taken together, the results explain the reduced pro-coagulant activity of the W215A mutant and demonstrate the allosteric connection between Trp215, the sodium-binding loop, and the active site.

  15. In vivo ultrasound visualization of non-occlusive blood clots with thrombin-sensitive contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Matthew A; Barback, Christopher V; Fitch, Kirsten R; Farwell, Alexander R; Esener, Sadik C; Mattrey, Robert F; Cha, Jennifer N; Goodwin, Andrew P

    2013-12-01

    The use of microbubbles as ultrasound contrast agents is one of the primary methods to diagnose deep venous thrombosis. However, current microbubble imaging strategies require either a clot sufficiently large to produce a circulation filling defect or a clot with sufficient vascularization to allow for targeted accumulation of contrast agents. Previously, we reported the design of a microbubble formulation that modulated its ability to generate ultrasound contrast from interaction with thrombin through incorporation of aptamer-containing DNA crosslinks in the encapsulating shell, enabling the measurement of a local chemical environment by changes in acoustic activity. However, this contrast agent lacked sufficient stability and lifetime in blood to be used as a diagnostic tool. Here we describe a PEG-stabilized, thrombin-activated microbubble (PSTA-MB) with sufficient stability to be used in vivo in circulation with no change in biomarker sensitivity. In the presence of actively clotting blood, PSTA-MBs showed a 5-fold increase in acoustic activity. Specificity for the presence of thrombin and stability under constant shear flow were demonstrated in a home-built in vitro model. Finally, PSTA-MBs were able to detect the presence of an active clot within the vena cava of a rabbit sufficiently small as to not be visible by current non-specific contrast agents. By activating in non-occlusive environments, these contrast agents will be able to detect clots not diagnosable by current contrast agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Youth Depression and Early Childrearing: Stress Generation and Intergenerational Transmission of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Le Brocque, Robyne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Broadening the concept of stress generation beyond acute life events, the current study explores predictors of the creation of stressful environments--specifically, selection into early childrearing by age 20. It was predicted that youth with early onset depressive disorders would be at higher risk for early childrearing accompanied by…

  17. Thrombin-induced apoptosis in neurons through activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Zu, Jie; He, Qianqian; Zhao, Hui; Zhou, Su; Ye, Xinchun; Yang, Xinxin; Zan, Kun; Zhang, Zuohui; Shi, Hongjuan; Cui, Guiyun

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that thrombin activation played a central role in cell injuries associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, our study investigated the cytotoxicity of thrombin on neurons, and determined the involvement of JNK pathways in thrombin-induced neuronal apoptosis. Primary cultured neurons were treated with different doses of thrombin. Some neurons were given either SP600125 or vehicle. LDH release assay and flow cytometry were used to measure neuronal apoptosis caused by thrombin. The activation of JNK and capases-3 were measured by Western blot. Our results showed large doses of thrombin that increased the LDH release, the level of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptosis rate of neurons. JNK was activated by thrombin in a time-dependent manner. Administration of SP600125 protects neurons from thrombin-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that the activation of JNK is crucial for thrombin-induced neuronal apoptosis, and inhibition of JNK may be a potential therapeutic target for ICH.

  18. The Effects of Thrombin on Adenyl Cyclase Activity and a Membrane Protein from Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, G. N.; Baenziger, Nancy Lewis; Chase, Lewis R.; Majerus, Philip W.

    1972-01-01

    Washed human platelets were incubated with 0.1-1.0 U/ml human thrombin and the effects on adenyl cyclase activity and on a platelet membrane protein (designated thrombin-sensitive protein) were studied. Adenyl cyclase activity was decreased 70-90% when intact platelets were incubated with thrombin. The T½ for loss of adenyl cyclase activity was less than 15 sec at 1 U/ml thrombin. There was no decrease of adenyl cyclase activity when sonicated platelets or isolated membranes were incubated with these concentrations of thrombin. Loss of adenyl cyclase activity was relatively specific since the activities of other platelet membrane enzymes were unaffected by thrombin. Prior incubation of platelets with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), prostaglandin E1, or theophylline protected adenyl cyclase from inhibition by thrombin. Incubation of intact but not disrupted platelets with thrombin resulted in the release of thrombin-sensitive protein from the platelet membrane. The rapid release of this protein (T½ < 15 sec) at low concentrations of thrombin suggested that removal of thrombin-sensitive protein from the platelet membrane is an integral part of the platelet release reaction. This hypothesis is supported by the parallel effects of thrombin on adenyl cyclase activity and thrombin-sensitive protein release in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandin E1, and theophylline at varying concentrations of thrombin. Images PMID:4331802

  19. Transforming Early Childhood Systems for Future Generations: Obligations and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Roth, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    In a rapidly shifting twenty-first century context, early childhood education and care (ECEC) must consider contextual, scientific, and policy realities in order to realize its social obligations to young children. The current status of ECEC globally bears both good and bad news; many countries are paying attention to the importance of the early…

  20. Effectiveness of self-generated cues in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lipinska, B; Bäckman, L; Mäntylä, T; Viitanen, M

    1994-12-01

    The ability to utilize cognitive support in the form of self-generated cues in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the factors promoting efficient cue utilization in this group of patients, were examined in two experiments on memory for words. Results from both experiments showed that normal old adults as well as AD patients performed better with self-generated cues than with experimenter-provided cues, although the latter type of cues resulted in gains relative to free recall. The findings indicate no qualitative differences in patterns of performance between the normal old and the AD patients. For both groups of subjects, cue effectiveness was optimized when (a) there was self-generation activity at encoding, and (b) encoding and retrieval conditions were compatible.

  1. Metallicities and Nucleosynthesis Patterns in Early Generation Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T.

    2004-05-01

    I review our present knowledge of the Metallicity Distribution Function of stars in the low-metallicity tail of the halo population of the Galaxy, and the variety of observed elemental signatures that might be associated with particular astrophysical origins in the early Universe. Such signatures include stars that exhibit (a) highly and mildly enhanced r-process element ratios, as compared to the solar ratios, (b) highly s-process enriched stars, (c) stars showing large enrichments of both the r- and and s-process elements, and (d) stars that are greatly enhanced in the light element species, such as CNO, and (in some cases) the alpha elements. Because the stars in which these characteristics are observed all have metallicity [Fe/H] ≤ -2.5, they are inferred to have formed no more than 0.5-1 Gyrs after the Big Bang, prior to the final assemblage of the Milky Way. As such, they provide our best available probes of the nature of early element producers, such as Type II SN and hypernovae, as well as binaries that included (now deceased) stars of intermediate (1.5 - 3 Mo) masses. I outline ongoing and future plans for dramatically accelerating the pace of discovery of these rare, but clearly important, objects. Partial support for this work has been received from NSF grants AST 00-98508 and AST 00-98549, and from JINA, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, an NSF Physics Frontier Center.

  2. A Novel Photoelectrochemical Biosensor for Tyrosinase and Thrombin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiexia; Liu, Yifan; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for step-by-step assay of tyrosinase and thrombin was fabricated based on the specific interactions between the designed peptide and the target enzymes. A peptide chain with a special sequence which contains a positively charged lysine-labeled terminal, tyrosine at the other end and a cleavage site recognized by thrombin between them was designed. The designed peptide can be fixed on surface of the CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode through electrostatic attraction to construct the photoelectrochemical biosensor. The tyrosinase target can catalyze the oxidization of tyrosine by oxygen into ortho-benzoquinone residues, which results in a decrease in the sensor photocurrent. Subsequently, the cleavage site could be recognized and cut off by another thrombin target, restoring the sensor photocurrent. The decrease or increase of photocurrent in the sensor enables us to assay tyrosinase and thrombin. Thus, the detection of tyrosinase and thrombin can be achieved in the linear range from 2.6 to 32 μg/mL and from 4.5 to 100 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.5 μg/mL and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. Most importantly, this strategy shall allow us to detect different classes of enzymes simultaneously by designing various enzyme-specific peptide substrates. PMID:26805846

  3. Generative Mechanisms of Early Childhood Interventions to Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mondi, Christina F.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Hayakawa, Momo

    2016-01-01

    We describe the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote the well-being of vulnerable children and families. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions beginning in the first few years of life. Relatively large effects of program participation have been documented for school readiness skills, parent involvement, K-12 achievement, reduced need for remedial education, educational attainment, and crime prevention. The three processes account for up to half of the program impact on well-being. They also help to explain the positive economic returns of many effective programs. The generalizability of these processes is supported by a sizable knowledge base, including a scale-up of the Child-Parent Centers in two states. PMID:28195326

  4. Enzymatically oxidized phospholipids restore thrombin generation in coagulation factor deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Slatter, David A; Percy, Charles L; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Gajsiewicz, Joshua M; Brooks, Nick J; Clayton, Aled; Tyrrell, Victoria J; Rosas, Marcela; Lauder, Sarah N; Watson, Andrew; Dul, Maria; Garcia-Diaz, Yoel; Aldrovandi, Maceler; Heurich, Meike; Hall, Judith; Morrissey, James H; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sebastien; Delignat, Sandrine; Jenkins, P Vincent; Collins, Peter W; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2018-03-22

    Hemostatic defects are treated using coagulation factors; however, clot formation also requires a procoagulant phospholipid (PL) surface. Here, we show that innate immune cell-derived enzymatically oxidized phospholipids (eoxPL) termed hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-phospholipids (HETE-PLs) restore hemostasis in human and murine conditions of pathological bleeding. HETE-PLs abolished blood loss in murine hemophilia A and enhanced coagulation in factor VIII- (FVIII-), FIX-, and FX-deficient human plasma . HETE-PLs were decreased in platelets from patients after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To explore molecular mechanisms, the ability of eoxPL to stimulate individual isolated coagulation factor/cofactor complexes was tested in vitro. Extrinsic tenase (FVIIa/tissue factor [TF]), intrinsic tenase (FVIIIa/FIXa), and prothrombinase (FVa/FXa) all were enhanced by both HETE-PEs and HETE-PCs, suggesting a common mechanism involving the fatty acid moiety. In plasma, 9-, 15-, and 12-HETE-PLs were more effective than 5-, 11-, or 8-HETE-PLs, indicating positional isomer specificity. Coagulation was enhanced at lower lipid/factor ratios, consistent with a more concentrated area for protein binding. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed binding of FII and FX to HETE-PEs. HETE-PEs increased membrane curvature and thickness, but not surface charge or homogeneity, possibly suggesting increased accessibility to cations/factors. In summary, innate immune-derived eoxPL enhance calcium-dependent coagulation factor function, and their potential utility in bleeding disorders is proposed.

  5. Enzymatically oxidized phospholipids restore thrombin generation in coagulation factor deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Slatter, David A.; Percy, Charles L.; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Gajsiewicz, Joshua M.; Brooks, Nick J.; Tyrrell, Victoria J.; Lauder, Sarah N.; Watson, Andrew; Dul, Maria; Garcia-Diaz, Yoel; Aldrovandi, Maceler; Heurich, Meike; Hall, Judith; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sebastien; Delignat, Sandrine; Jenkins, P. Vincent; Collins, Peter W.; O’Donnell, Valerie B.

    2018-01-01

    Hemostatic defects are treated using coagulation factors; however, clot formation also requires a procoagulant phospholipid (PL) surface. Here, we show that innate immune cell–derived enzymatically oxidized phospholipids (eoxPL) termed hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid–phospholipids (HETE-PLs) restore hemostasis in human and murine conditions of pathological bleeding. HETE-PLs abolished blood loss in murine hemophilia A and enhanced coagulation in factor VIII- (FVIII-), FIX-, and FX-deficient human plasma . HETE-PLs were decreased in platelets from patients after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To explore molecular mechanisms, the ability of eoxPL to stimulate individual isolated coagulation factor/cofactor complexes was tested in vitro. Extrinsic tenase (FVIIa/tissue factor [TF]), intrinsic tenase (FVIIIa/FIXa), and prothrombinase (FVa/FXa) all were enhanced by both HETE-PEs and HETE-PCs, suggesting a common mechanism involving the fatty acid moiety. In plasma, 9-, 15-, and 12-HETE-PLs were more effective than 5-, 11-, or 8-HETE-PLs, indicating positional isomer specificity. Coagulation was enhanced at lower lipid/factor ratios, consistent with a more concentrated area for protein binding. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed binding of FII and FX to HETE-PEs. HETE-PEs increased membrane curvature and thickness, but not surface charge or homogeneity, possibly suggesting increased accessibility to cations/factors. In summary, innate immune-derived eoxPL enhance calcium-dependent coagulation factor function, and their potential utility in bleeding disorders is proposed. PMID:29563336

  6. Mechanistic Modeling of the Effects of Acidosis on Thrombin Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center; U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Ft. Detrick, MD; and Departments of...are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the U.S. Army or of the U.S. Department ...of Defense . This paper has been approved for public release with unlimited distribution. Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address

  7. Participation of the hypophyseal-adrenal cortex system in thrombin clearance during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, B. A.; Uljanov, A. M.; Shapiro, F. B.; Bazazyan, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thrombin marked with I-131 resulted in a considerable increase of the thrombined clearance rate in healthy male rats during stress caused by an immobilization lasting 30 minutes, and in an increase of thrombin clearance occurred by a combination of immobilization and administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Contrary to ACTH, the thrombin clearance is not stimulated in healthy animals by hydrocortisone. The results of the examination are presented.

  8. Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Tricoci, Pierluigi; Huang, Zhen; Held, Claes; Moliterno, David J; Armstrong, Paul W; Van de Werf, Frans; White, Harvey D; Aylward, Philip E; Wallentin, Lars; Chen, Edmond; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Pei, Jinglan; Leonardi, Sergio; Rorick, Tyrus L; Kilian, Ann M; Jennings, Lisa H K; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Bode, Christoph; Cequier, Angel; Cornel, Jan H; Diaz, Rafael; Erkan, Aycan; Huber, Kurt; Hudson, Michael P; Jiang, Lixin; Jukema, J Wouter; Lewis, Basil S; Lincoff, A Michael; Montalescot, Gilles; Nicolau, José Carlos; Ogawa, Hisao; Pfisterer, Matthias; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Ruzyllo, Witold; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Storey, Robert F; Valgimigli, Marco; Whellan, David J; Widimsky, Petr; Strony, John; Harrington, Robert A; Mahaffey, Kenneth W

    2012-01-05

    Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation. In this multinational, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization. Follow-up in the trial was terminated early after a safety review. After a median follow-up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667), the primary end point occurred in 1031 of 6473 patients receiving vorapaxar versus 1102 of 6471 patients receiving placebo (Kaplan-Meier 2-year rate, 18.5% vs. 19.9%; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.01; P=0.07). A composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 822 patients in the vorapaxar group versus 910 in the placebo group (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02). Rates of moderate and severe bleeding were 7.2% in the vorapaxar group and 5.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.45; P<0.001). Rates of nonhemorrhagic adverse events were similar in the two groups. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but significantly increased the risk of major bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRACER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00527943.).

  9. 40 CFR 80.1275 - How are early benzene credits generated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are early benzene credits... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1275 How are early benzene credits generated? (a) For each averaging period per...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1275 - How are early benzene credits generated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are early benzene credits... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1275 How are early benzene credits generated? (a) For each averaging period per...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1275 - How are early benzene credits generated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are early benzene credits... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1275 How are early benzene credits generated? (a) For each averaging period per...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1275 - How are early benzene credits generated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are early benzene credits... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1275 How are early benzene credits generated? (a) For each averaging period per...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1275 - How are early benzene credits generated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are early benzene credits... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1275 How are early benzene credits generated? (a) For each averaging period per...

  14. [Pancreatic tail pseudoaneurysm: percutaneous treatment by thrombin injection].

    PubMed

    Pacheco Jiménez, M; Moreno Sánchez, T; Moreno Rodríguez, F; Guillén Rico, M

    2014-01-01

    Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms secondary to acute and/or chronic pancreatitis are a relatively common and potentially serious complication. Endovascular techniques are the most currently accepted techniques, given the higher morbidity-mortality of surgery. The thrombosis of the pseudoaneurysm using an ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection is emerging as a useful option in those cases in which endovascular embolisation is not possible. We present the case of a patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the transverse pancreatic artery secondary to chronic pancreatitis, and successfully treated by administering percutaneous thrombin. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Generative Text Sets: Tools for Negotiating Critically Inclusive Early Childhood Teacher Education Pedagogical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Through a case study, this article sheds light onto generative text sets as tools for developing and enacting critically inclusive early childhood teacher education pedagogies. In doing so, it positions teaching and learning processes as sociocultural, historical, and political acts as it inquires into the use of generative text sets in one early…

  16. Cognitive Vulnerabilities Amplify the Effect of Early Pubertal Timing on Interpersonal Stress Generation During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology. PMID:24061858

  17. Tyrosine sulfation modulates activity of tick-derived thrombin inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert E.; Liu, Xuyu; Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Alonso-García, Noelia; Parker, Benjamin L.; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Madanin-1 and chimadanin are two small cysteine-free thrombin inhibitors that facilitate blood feeding in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Here, we report a post-translational modification—tyrosine sulfation—of these two proteins that is critical for potent anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activity. Inhibitors produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells displayed heterogeneous sulfation of two tyrosine residues within each of the proteins. One-pot ligation-desulfurization chemistry enabled access to homogeneous samples of all possible sulfated variants of the proteins. Tyrosine sulfation of madanin-1 and chimadanin proved crucial for thrombin inhibitory activity, with the doubly sulfated variants three orders of magnitude more potent than the unmodified inhibitors. The three-dimensional structure of madanin-1 in complex with thrombin revealed a unique mode of inhibition, with the sulfated tyrosine residues binding to the basic exosite II of the protease. The importance of tyrosine sulfation within this family of thrombin inhibitors, together with their unique binding mode, paves the way for the development of anti-thrombotic drug leads based on these privileged scaffolds.

  18. Enzyme-guided plasmonic biosensor based on dual-functional nanohybrid for sensitive detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Lida; Tang, Longhua; Lin, Lei; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2015-08-15

    Rapid and sensitive methodologies for the detection of protein are in urgent requirement for clinic diagnostics. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metal nanostructures has the potential to circumvent this problem due to its sensitive optical properties and strong electromagnetic near-field enhancements. In this work, an enzyme mediated plasmonic biosensor on the basis of a dual-functional nanohybrid was developed for the detection of thrombin. By utilizing LSPR-responsive nanohybrid and anaptamer-enzyme conjugated reporting probe, the sensing platform brings enhanced signal, stability as well as simplicity. Enzymatic reaction catalyzed the reduction of Au(3+) to Au° in situ, further leading to the rapid crystal growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The LSPR absorbance band and color changed company with the nanoparticle generation, which can be real-time monitoring by UV-visible spectrophotometer and naked eye. Nanohybrid constructed by gold and magnetic nanoparticles acts as a dual functional plasmonic unit, which not only plays the role of signal production, but also endows the sensor with the function of magnetic separation. Simultaneously, the introduction of enzyme effectively regulates the programming crystal growth of AuNPs. In addition, enzyme also serves as signal amplifier owing to its high catalysis efficiency. The response of the plasmonic sensor varies linearly with the logarithmic thrombin concentration up to 10nM with a limit of detection of 200 pM. The as-proposed strategy shows good analytical performance for thrombin determination. This simple, disposable method is promising in developing universal platforms for protein monitoring, drug discovery and point-of-care diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Homologous desensitization of HEL cell thrombin receptors. Distinguishable roles for proteolysis and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Brass, L F

    1992-03-25

    Loss of sensitivity to thrombin following an initial response is characteristic of a number of cell types, including platelets. It has recently been proposed that thrombin receptors resemble other G protein-coupled receptors, but that activation involves a novel mechanism in which thrombin cleaves the receptor, exposing a new N terminus that serves as the ligand for the receptor. Based upon this model, we have examined the mechanism of thrombin receptor desensitization by comparing the effects of thrombin with those of a peptide corresponding to the N-terminal sequence of the receptor following proteolysis by thrombin: SFLLRNPNDKYEPF or TRP42/55. Like thrombin, TRP42/55 stimulated pertussis toxin-sensitive inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, raised cytosolic Ca2+, and inhibited cAMP formation in the megakaryoblastic HEL cell line. Exposure to either thrombin or TRP42/55 desensitized the cells to both, but not to a third agonist, neuropeptide Y. The rate of recovery after desensitization depended upon the order of agonist addition. Resensitization of the cell to thrombin following a brief exposure to thrombin required up to 24 h and could be inhibited with cycloheximide. Resensitization to TRP42/55 after exposure to thrombin, or to thrombin after exposure to TRP42/55, on the other hand, was detectable within 30 min and could be inhibited by serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors, but not by cycloheximide. Loss of responsiveness to thrombin and TRP42/55 was also observed following addition of the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). However, while the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine completely prevented the desensitization caused by TPA, it had only a limited effect on the desensitization caused by TRP42/55. These results demonstrate that the G protein-mediated effects of thrombin can be reproduced by a receptor-derived peptide and suggest that desensitization occurs by at least two mechanisms. The first, which is seen with thrombin

  20. Immunization by bovine thrombin used with fibrin glue during cardiovascular operations. Development of thrombin and factor V inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Berruyer, M; Amiral, J; Ffrench, P; Belleville, J; Bastien, O; Clerc, J; Kassir, A; Estanove, S; Dechavanne, M

    1993-05-01

    Brief case histories of three patients aged 58, 38, and 44 years are reported. All underwent cardiovascular operations. Subsequently hemostasis test abnormalities developed between the seventh and eighth postoperative days after exposure to bovine thrombin used with fibrin glue. These were characterized by an increased activated partial thromboplastin time (64 to 147 seconds), prothrombin time (19 to 24 seconds), bovine thrombin time (> 120 seconds) and a markedly reduced factor V level (< 10% in two patients and 16% in the third patient). A patient plasma dilution of 1 in 200 with a normal plasma pool was necessary to correct bovine thrombin time. No fast-acting or progressive inhibitor against factor V could be detected by coagulation tests, and fresh frozen plasma perfusion had no effect. Plasmapheresis was performed preventatively to avoid bleeding, and factor V levels stabilized at around 50% after two to four exchanges. Immunologic studies showed that the inhibitors were directed not only against bovine factors but also against human ones. Therefore factor V decrease could have been the result of rapid clearance from the circulation of complexes formed with a nonneutralizing inhibitor that is not detected by clotting tests. These antibodies were purified by standard methods and immunoaffinity. Fast immunization could be explained by a prior sensitization to bovine thrombin exposure during previous operations. It is suggested that bovine thrombin used with fibrin glue contains small amounts of factor V and may be responsible for these abnormalities. This is in agreement with previous literature reports. However, these described neutralizing factor V inhibitors, which were easily detected.

  1. Computational study of some benzamidine-based inhibitors of thrombin-like snake venom proteinases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, Elsa S.; Nascimento, Marco A. C.; Ramos, Maria João

    Pit viper venoms contain a number of serine proteinases that, despite their observed coagulant thrombin-like action in vitro, exhibit a paradoxical benign defibrinogenating (anticoagulant) action in vivo, with clinical applications in preventing thrombi and improved blood circulation. Considering that several benzamidine-based inhibitors, some highly selective to thrombin, also inhibit the enzymatic activity of such venombins, the modeling of their enzyme-inhibitor interactions could provide valuable information on the topological factors that determine the divergences in activity. The first step, and the object of the present study, was to derive the necessary set of parameters, consistent with the CHARMM force field, and to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a few selected representatives of the inhibitors in question under physiological conditions. Bonding and van der Waals parameters were derived by analogy to similar ones in the existing force field. Net atomic charges were obtained with a restrained fitting to the molecular electrostatic potential generated at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The parameters were refined to reproduce the available experimental geometries and crystal data, and the MD simulations of the free inhibitors in aqueous solution at 298 K provided an insightful description of their available conformational space.

  2. Effect of Thrombin on Human Amnion Mesenchymal Cells, Mouse Fetal Membranes, and Preterm Birth*

    PubMed Central

    Mogami, Haruta; Keller, Patrick W.; Shi, Haolin; Word, R. Ann

    2014-01-01

    Here, we investigated the effects of thrombin on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in fetal membranes. Thrombin activity was increased in human amnion from preterm deliveries. Treatment of mesenchymal, but not epithelial, cells with thrombin resulted in increased MMP-1 and MMP-9 mRNA and enzymatic activity. Thrombin also increased COX2 mRNA and PGE2 in these cells. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) was localized to amnion mesenchymal and decidual cells. PAR-1-specific inhibitors and activating peptides indicated that thrombin-induced up-regulation of MMP-9 was mediated via PAR-1. In contrast, thrombin-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 and COX-2 was mediated through Toll-like receptor-4, possibly through thrombin-induced release of soluble fetal fibronectin. In vivo, thrombin-injected pregnant mice delivered preterm. Mmp8, Mmp9, and Mmp13, and PGE2 content was increased significantly in fetal membranes from thrombin-injected animals. These results indicate that thrombin acts through multiple mechanisms to activate MMPs and PGE2 synthesis in amnion. PMID:24652285

  3. A novel histochemical method for the visualization of thrombin activity in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bushi, D; Gera, O; Kostenich, G; Shavit-Stein, E; Weiss, R; Chapman, J; Tanne, D

    2016-04-21

    Although thrombin has an important role in both central and peripheral nerve diseases, characterization of the anatomical distribution of its proteolytic activity has been limited by available methods. This study presents the development, challenges, validation and implementation of a novel histochemical method for visualization of thrombin activity in the nervous system. The method is based on the cleavage of the substrate, Boc-Asp(OBzl)-Pro-Arg-4MβNA by thrombin to liberate free 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4MβNA). In the presence of 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde, free 4MβNA is captured, yielding an insoluble yellow fluorescent precipitate which marks the site of thrombin activity. The sensitivity of the method was determined in vitro using known concentrations of thrombin while the specificity was verified using a highly specific thrombin inhibitor. Using this method we determined the spatial distribution of thrombin activity in mouse brain following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) and in mouse sciatic nerve following crush injury. Fluorescence microscopy revealed well-defined thrombin activity localized to the right ischemic hemisphere in cortical areas and in the striatum compared to negligible thrombin activity contralaterally. The histochemical localization of thrombin activity following tMCAo was in good correlation with the infarct areas per triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and to thrombin activity measured biochemically in tissue punches (85 ± 35 and 20 ± 3 mU/ml, in the cortical and striatum areas respectively, compared to 7 ± 2 and 13 ± 2 mU/ml, in the corresponding contralateral areas; mean ± SEM; p<0.05). In addition, 24 h following crush injury, focal areas of highly elevated thrombin activity were detected in teased sciatic fibers. This observation was supported by the biochemical assay and western blot technique. The histochemical method developed in this study can serve as an important tool for studying the role of thrombin

  4. Diluted thrombin time reliably measures low to intermediate plasma dabigatran concentrations.

    PubMed

    Božič-Mijovski, Mojca; Malmström, Rickard E; Malovrh, Petra; Antovic, Jovan P; Vene, Nina; Šinigoj, Petra; Mavri, Alenka

    2016-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulant dabigatran was first introduced as a fixed-dose drug without routine coagulation monitoring, but current recommendations suggest that diluted thrombin time can be used to estimate plasma drug level. The aim of this study was to assess a diluted thrombin time assay based on the same thrombin reagent already used for traditional thrombin time measurements that reliably measure low to intermediate plasma dabigatran levels. We included 44 patients with atrial fibrillation who started treatment with dabigatran 150 mg (23 patients) or 110 mg (21 patients) twice a day. Blood samples were collected at baseline (no dabigatran) and 2-4 weeks after the beginning of dabigatran therapy at trough and at peak. Plasma dabigatran levels were measured with diluted thrombin time and compared to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry as the reference method. The performance of the diluted thrombin time was compared to Hemoclot® Thrombin Inhibitor and Ecarin Chromogenic Assay. In ex vivo plasma samples, diluted thrombin time highly correlated with the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (Pearson's R = 0.9799). In the low to intermediate range (dabigatran concentration ≤ 100 µg/L) diluted thrombin time correlated significantly more closely to the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (R = 0.964) than Hemoclot® Thrombin Inhibitor (R = 0.935, p = 0.05) or Ecarin Chromogenic Assay (R = 0.915, p < 0.01). It was also the only functional assay without any significant bias in the low to intermediate range. Both trough and peak diluted thrombin time values were similar to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. We conclude that the diluted thrombin time assay presented in this study reliably detects dabigatran and that it is superior to the Hemoclot® Thrombin Inhibitor assay in the low to intermediate range. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Critical role of FcR gamma-chain, LAT, PLCgamma2 and thrombin in arteriolar thrombus formation upon mild, laser-induced endothelial injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Neena; Auger, Jocelyn M; Atkinson, Ben; Watson, Steve P

    2008-05-01

    The role of collagen receptor complex GPVI-FcR gamma-chain, PLCgamma2 and LAT in laser-induced thrombosis is unclear. Controversy surrounds whether collagen is exposed in this model or whether thrombosis is dependent on thrombin. This study hypothesized that collagen exposure plays a critical role in thrombus formation in this model, which was tested by investigating contributions of FcR gamma-chain, LAT, PLCgamma2 and thrombin. Thrombi were monitored using intravital microscopy in anesthetized wild-type and FcR gamma-chain, LAT and PLCgamma2 knockout mice. Hirudin (thrombin inhibitor) was administered to wild-type and FcR gamma-chain knockout mice. Significantly reduced thrombus formation was observed in FcR gamma-chain and PLCgamma2 knockouts with a greater decrease observed in LAT knockouts. Dramatic reduction was observed in wild-types treated with hirudin, with abolished thrombus formation only observed in FcR gamma-chain knockouts treated with hirudin. GPVI-FcR gamma-chain, LAT and PLCgamma2 are essential for thrombus generation and stability in this laser-induced model of injury. More importantly, a greater role for LAT was identified, which may reflect a role for it downstream of a second matrix protein receptor. However, inhibition of platelet activation by matrix proteins and thrombin generation are both required to maximally prevent thrombus formation.

  6. Combination of FVIII and by-passing agent potentiates in vitro thrombin production in haemophilia A inhibitor plasma.

    PubMed

    Klintman, Jenny; Astermark, Jan; Berntorp, Erik

    2010-11-01

    The by-passing agents, recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) and activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC), are important tools in the treatment of patients with haemophilia A and high-responding inhibitory antibodies. It has been observed clinically that in some patients undergoing immune tolerance induction the bleeding frequency decreases, hypothetically caused by a transient haemostatic effect of infused FVIII not measurable ex vivo. We evaluated how by-passing agents and factor VIII (FVIII) affect thrombin generation (TG) in vitro using plasma from 11 patients with severe haemophilia A and high titre inhibitors. Samples were spiked with combinations of APCC, rFVIIa and five different FVIII products. Combination of APCC and FVIII showed a synergistic effect in eliciting TG (P<0·005) for four FVIII products. When rFVIIa and FVIII were combined the interaction between the preparations was found to be additive. APCC and rFVIIa were then combined without FVIII, resulting in an additive effect on thrombin production. Each product separately increased TG above baseline. In conclusion, the amount of thrombin formed in vitro by adding a by-passing agent, was higher in the presence of FVIII. Our findings support the use of FVIII in by-passing therapy to optimize the haemostatic effect. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Vitamin K antagonists and direct thrombin inhibitors: present and future.

    PubMed

    Pineo, Graham F; Hull, Russell D

    2005-02-01

    Warfarin and related compounds are efficacious and safe in a variety of clinical thrombotic disorders; however, these drugs have a narrow therapeutic window, whereby inadequate therapy is associated with an increased thrombotic risk and overanticoagulation is associated with bleeding. Therefore, attempts have been made to develop alternatives to warfarin. Ximelagatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor, has been shown to be as efficacious and safe as warfarin for the prevention and treatment of different thrombotic disorders. This article reviews the pharmacology of the coumarins, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonists, and the practical aspects regarding their use in the management of thrombotic disorders. The future role of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran also is reviewed.

  8. Early generation selection results from a two year, six location study

    In potato breeding programs, early generation selections are rarely evaluated in multiple environments because of limited seed quantities. By the time seed quantities are available, few clones remain from the original population. The purpose of this study was to allow multiple locations to select ...

  9. Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

  10. Stabilization of the E* Form Turns Thrombin into an Anticoagulant

    SciT

    Bah, Alaji; Carrell, Christopher J.; Chen, Zhiwei

    2009-07-31

    Previous studies have shown that deletion of nine residues in the autolysis loop of thrombin produces a mutant with an anticoagulant propensity of potential clinical relevance, but the molecular origin of the effect has remained unresolved. The x-ray crystal structure of this mutant solved in the free form at 1.55 {angstrom} resolution reveals an inactive conformation that is practically identical (root mean square deviation of 0.154 {angstrom}) to the recently identified E* form. The side chain of Trp215 collapses into the active site by shifting >10 {angstrom} from its position in the active E form, and the oxyanion hole ismore » disrupted by a flip of the Glu192-Gly193 peptide bond. This finding confirms the existence of the inactive form E* in essentially the same incarnation as first identified in the structure of the thrombin mutant D102N. In addition, it demonstrates that the anticoagulant profile often caused by a mutation of the thrombin scaffold finds its likely molecular origin in the stabilization of the inactive E* form that is selectively shifted to the active E form upon thrombomodulin and protein C binding.« less

  11. Weak characteristic information extraction from early fault of wind turbine generator gearbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiuli

    2017-09-01

    Given the weak early degradation characteristic information during early fault evolution in gearbox of wind turbine generator, traditional singular value decomposition (SVD)-based denoising may result in loss of useful information. A weak characteristic information extraction based on μ-SVD and local mean decomposition (LMD) is developed to address this problem. The basic principle of the method is as follows: Determine the denoising order based on cumulative contribution rate, perform signal reconstruction, extract and subject the noisy part of signal to LMD and μ-SVD denoising, and obtain denoised signal through superposition. Experimental results show that this method can significantly weaken signal noise, effectively extract the weak characteristic information of early fault, and facilitate the early fault warning and dynamic predictive maintenance.

  12. Aptamer-crosslinked microbubbles: smart contrast agents for thrombin-activated ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Matthew A; Mattrey, Robert F; Esener, Sadik C; Cha, Jennifer N; Goodwin, Andrew P

    2012-11-27

    Thrombosis, or malignant blood clotting, is associated with numerous cardiovascular diseases and cancers. A microbubble contrast agent is presented that produces ultrasound harmonic signal only when exposed to elevated thrombin levels. Initially silent microbubbles are activated in the presence of both thrombin-spiked and freshly clotting blood in three minutes with detection limits of 20 nM thrombin and 2 aM microbubbles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Binding of thrombin-activated platelets to a fibrin scaffold through α(IIb)β₃ evokes phosphatidylserine exposure on their cell surface.

    PubMed

    Brzoska, Tomasz; Suzuki, Yuko; Mogami, Hideo; Sano, Hideto; Urano, Tetsumei

    2013-01-01

    Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Almost all platelets exposed PS after treatment with tissue factor, thrombin or ionomycin. Argatroban abrogated fibrin network formation in all samples, however, platelet PS exposure was inhibited only in tissue factor- and thrombin-treated samples but not in ionomycin-treated samples. FK633, an α(IIb)β₃ antagonist, and cytochalasin B impaired platelet binding to the fibrin scaffold and significantly reduced PS exposure evoked by thrombin. Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide abrogated not only fibrin network formation, but also PS exposure on platelets without suppressing platelet binding to fibrin/fibrinogen. These results suggest that outside-in signals in platelets generated by their binding to the rigid fibrin network are essential for PS exposure after thrombin treatment.

  14. Binding of Thrombin-Activated Platelets to a Fibrin Scaffold through αIIbβ3 Evokes Phosphatidylserine Exposure on Their Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Brzoska, Tomasz; Suzuki, Yuko; Mogami, Hideo; Sano, Hideto; Urano, Tetsumei

    2013-01-01

    Recently, by employing intra-vital confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that platelets expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and fibrin accumulate only in the center of the thrombus but not in its periphery. To address the question how exposure of platelet anionic phospholipids is regulated within the thrombus, an in-vitro experiment using diluted platelet-rich plasma was employed, in which the fibrin network was formed in the presence of platelets, and PS exposure on the platelet surface was analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Almost all platelets exposed PS after treatment with tissue factor, thrombin or ionomycin. Argatroban abrogated fibrin network formation in all samples, however, platelet PS exposure was inhibited only in tissue factor- and thrombin-treated samples but not in ionomycin-treated samples. FK633, an αIIbβ3 antagonist, and cytochalasin B impaired platelet binding to the fibrin scaffold and significantly reduced PS exposure evoked by thrombin. Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide abrogated not only fibrin network formation, but also PS exposure on platelets without suppressing platelet binding to fibrin/fibrinogen. These results suggest that outside-in signals in platelets generated by their binding to the rigid fibrin network are essential for PS exposure after thrombin treatment. PMID:23383331

  15. Methods of Treating or Preventing Demyelation Using Thrombin Inhibitors | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (“NICHD”), seek CRADA partner or collaboration for development of agents to treat multiple sclerosis or other conditions associated with myelin remodeling by administering an agent that inhibits cleavage of Neurofascin 155 or Caspr1. The agent could be a thrombin inhibitor, an agent that inhibits thrombin expression, an anti-thrombin antibody that specifically inhibits thrombin mediated cleavage of Neurofascin 155, a mutated version or fragment of Neurofascin 155 or Caspr1, or antibodies to Neurofascin 155 or Caspr1.

  16. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of triazole/tetrazole-containing sulfonamides against thrombin and related serine proteases

    PubMed Central

    Siles, Rogelio; Kawasaki, Yuko; Ross, Patrick; Freire, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    A small library of 25 triazole/tetrazole-based sulfonamides have been synthesized and further evaluated for their inhibitory activity against thrombin, trypsin, tryptase and chymase. In general, the triazole-based sulfonamides inhibited thrombin more efficiently than the tetrazole counterparts. Particularly, compound 26 showed strong thrombin inhibition (Ki =880 nM) and significant selectivity against other human related serine proteases like trypsin (Ki =729 µM). Thrombin binding affinity of the same compound was determined by ITC and demonstrated that the binding of this new triazole-based scaffold is enthalpically driven, making it a good candidate for further development. PMID:21807511

  17. Evidence for a hyperglycaemia-dependent decrease of antithrombin III-thrombin complex formation in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Marchi, E; Barbanti, M; Lefèbvre, P

    1990-03-01

    In the presence of increased levels of fibrinopeptide A, decreased antithrombin III biological activity, and thrombin-antithrombin III complex levels are seen in diabetic patients. Induced-hyperglycaemia in diabetic and normal subjects decreased antithrombin III activity and thrombin-antithrombin III levels, and increased fibrinopeptide A plasma levels, while antithrombin III concentration did not change; heparin was shown to reduced these phenomena. In diabetic patients, euglycaemia induced by insulin infusion restored antithrombin III activity, thrombin-antithrombin III complex and fibrinopeptide A concentrations; heparin administration had the same effects. These data stress the role of a hyperglycaemia-dependent decrease of antithrombin III activity in precipitating thrombin hyperactivity in diabetes mellitus.

  18. OVER-EXPRESSION OF THE THROMBIN RECEPTOR (PAR-1) IN THE PLACENTA IN PREECLAMPSIA: A MECHANISM FOR THE INTERSECTION OF COAGULATION AND INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    EREZ, OFFER; ROMERO, ROBERTO; KIM, SUNG-SU; KIM, JUNG-SUN; KIM, YEON MEE; WILDMAN, DEREK E; THAN, NANDOR GABOR; MAZAKI-TOVI, SHALI; GOTSCH, FRANCESCA; PINELES, BETH; KUSANOVIC, JUAN PEDRO; ESPINOZA, JIMMY; MITTAL, POOJA; MAZOR, MOSHE; HASSAN, SONIA S.; KIM, CHONG JAI

    2008-01-01

    Objective Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by excessive thrombin generation that has been implicated in the multiple organ damage associated with the disease. The biological effects of thrombin on coagulation and inflammation are mediated by protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), a G-protein coupled receptor. The aim of this study was to determine whether preterm preeclampsia (PE) is associated with changes in placental expression of PAR-1. Study design This cross-sectional study included two groups matched for gestational age at delivery: 1) patients with preterm PE (<37 weeks of gestation; n=26) and 2) a control group of patients with preterm labor without intraamniotic infection (n=26). Placental tissue microarrays were immunostained for PAR-1. Immunoreactivity of PAR-1 in the villous trophoblasts was graded as negative, weak-positive, or strong-positive. Results 1) The proportion of cases with strong PAR-1 immunoreactivity was significantly higher in placentas of patients with preeclampsia than in placentas from the control group [37.5% (9/24) vs. 8.7% (2/23); p=0.036, respectively]. 2) PAR-1 immunoreactivity was found in the cellular compartments of the placental villous tree, mainly in villous trophoblasts and stromal endothelial cells. 3) PAR-1 was detected in 92.3% (24/26) of the placentas of women with preeclampsia and in 88.5% (23/26) of the placentas from the control group (p=1). Conclusion Placentas from pregnancies complicated by preterm PE had a significantly higher frequency of strong PAR-1 expression than placentas from women with spontaneous PTL. This observation is consistent with a role for PAR-1 as a mediator of the effect of thrombin on coagulation and inflammation in preeclampsia. We propose that the effects of thrombin in PE are due to increased thrombin generation and higher expression of PAR-1, the major receptor for this enzyme. PMID:18570113

  19. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  20. Generative Mechanisms in Early Childhood Interventions: A Confirmatory Research Framework for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the Five-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion.

  1. Generative Mechanisms in Early Childhood Interventions: A Confirmatory Research Framework for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches, and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the 5-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion. PMID:26497315

  2. On the reproductive success of early-generation hatchery fish in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R; Ford, Michael J; Blouin, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of hatchery salmon spawn in wild populations each year. Hatchery fish with multiple generations of hatchery ancestry often have heritably lower reproductive success than wild fish and may reduce the fitness of an entire population. Whether this reduced fitness also occurs for hatchery fish created with local- and predominantly wild-origin parents remains controversial. Here, we review recent studies on the reproductive success of such ‘early-generation’ hatchery fish that spawn in the wild. Combining 51 estimates from six studies on four salmon species, we found that (i) early-generation hatchery fish averaged only half the reproductive success of their wild-origin counterparts when spawning in the wild, (ii) the reduction in reproductive success was more severe for males than for females, and (iii) all species showed reduced fitness due to hatchery rearing. We review commonalities among studies that point to possible mechanisms (e.g., environmental versus genetic effects). Furthermore, we illustrate that sample sizes typical of these studies result in low statistical power to detect fitness differences unless the differences are substantial. This review demonstrates that reduced fitness of early-generation hatchery fish may be a general phenomenon. Future research should focus on determining the causes of those fitness reductions and whether they lead to long-term reductions in the fitness of wild populations. PMID:25469167

  3. Centripetal myosin redistribution in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Relationship to platelet Factor 4 secretion.

    PubMed

    Painter, R G; Ginsberg, M H

    1984-11-01

    We have examined the F-actin and myosin distribution in resting and thrombin-activated platelets by double label immunofluorescence microscopy. In resting, discoid platelets, F-actin and myosin staining was distributed in a diffuse pattern throughout the interior of the cell with slight accentuation at the cell periphery. In contrast, platelet factor 4 antigen (PF4) was more centrally localized in a fine punctate distribution which is consistent with its localization in alpha-granules. Within 5 sec after thrombin stimulation both F-actin and myosin staining were increased at the periphery of the now spherical platelets. Subsequently, a myosin-containing spherical structure decreased in diameter closely surrounding a phase-dense central zone. In contrast, F-actin staining continued to be accentuated at the cell periphery and was prominent in filopodia and blebs. As previously shown, PF4 staining was localized after 30 sec within large intracellular masses that corresponded to closed vacuolar structures at the ultrastructural level. Morphometric analysis of electron micrographs showed that formation of these vacuolar structures kinetically paralleled alpha-granule disappearance and preceded PF4 release. These PF4-containing structures translocated to the cell periphery after 1-3 min, where they appeared to fuse with the plasma membrane. Ultrastructural analysis of thin sections showed that the myosin-rich spherical structure spatially and temporally correlated with a band of microfilaments that closely surrounded the organelle-rich central zone of the cell. Morphometric analysis of these micrographs showed that the absolute volume of this central zone decreased with time after thrombin addition, showing a significant change after 15 sec and reaching a maximum value after 3-5 min. Changes in the volume of this compartment kinetically preceded PF4 release. On the basis of these data, we propose that an actomyosin contractile force is generated which centripetally

  4. Neighborhood Deprivation during Early Childhood and Conduct Problems in Middle Childhood: Mediation by Aggressive Response Generation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2018-01-01

    The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information. PMID:27696324

  5. Neighborhood Deprivation during Early Childhood and Conduct Problems in Middle Childhood: Mediation by Aggressive Response Generation.

    PubMed

    Galán, Chardée A; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2017-07-01

    The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information.

  6. Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of genicular artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Rachakonda, Aditya; Qato, Khalil; Khaddash, Tamim; Carroccio, Alfio; Pamoukian, Vicken; Giangola, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication after arthroscopic procedures involving the knee. A 38-year-old man presented 1 month after right-knee arthroscopy with a 2-cm pulsating mass on the medial side of the right knee. Duplex ultrasound evaluation revealed 2.5 × 2.1-cm pseudoaneurysm just distal to the patella with arterialized flow communicating with the inferior medial genicular artery. Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed in an office setting, and the resolution of active flow within the pseudoaneurysm was confirmed with duplex ultrasonography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Memory of Morphologies by Septins during Neuron Generation Allows Early Polarity Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Boubakar, Leila; Falk, Julien; Ducuing, Hugo; Thoinet, Karine; Reynaud, Florie; Derrington, Edmund; Castellani, Valérie

    2017-08-16

    Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor. Monitoring the dynamics of Septins, which play key roles in yeast polarity, indicates that Septin 7 tags process sites for re-initiation of process growth following mitosis. Interfering with Septins blocks this mechanism. Thus, Septins store polarity features during mitotic rounding so that daughters can reconstitute the initial progenitor polarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure of a retro-binding peptide inhibitor complexed with human alpha-thrombin.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, L; Chang, C Y; Ohringer, S L; Lau, W F; Iwanowicz, E J; Han, W C; Wang, T C; Seiler, S M; Roberts, D G; Sack, J S

    1995-02-10

    The crystallographic structure of the ternary complex between human alpha-thrombin, hirugen and the peptidyl inhibitor Phe-alloThr-Phe-O-CH3, which is acylated at its N terminus with 4-guanidino butanoic acid (BMS-183507), has been determined at 2.6 A resolution. The structure reveals a unique "retro-binding" mode for this tripeptide active site inhibitor. The inhibitor binds with its alkyl-guanidine moiety in the primary specificity pocket and its two phenyl rings occupying the hydrophobic proximal and distal pockets of the thrombin active site. In this arrangement the backbone of the tripeptide forms a parallel beta-strand to the thrombin main-chain at the binding site. This is opposite to the orientation of the natural substrate, fibrinogen, and all the small active site-directed thrombin inhibitors whose bound structures have been previously reported. BMS-183507 is the first synthetic inhibitor proved to bind in a retro-binding fashion to thrombin, in a fashion similar to that of the N-terminal residues of the natural inhibitor hirudin. Furthermore, this new potent thrombin inhibitor (Ki = 17.2 nM) is selective for thrombin over other serine proteases tested and may be a template to be considered in designing hirudin-based thrombin inhibitors with interactions at the specificity pocket.

  9. A chemiluminescence biosensor for the detection of thrombin based on the aptamer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yanna; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Yanhui; Sun, Yuanling; Ding, Chaofan; Sun, Weiyan; Luo, Chuannan

    2018-03-01

    An efficient, rapid, simple and ultrasensitive chemiluminescence (CL) approach was proposed for thrombin detection based on the aptamer-thrombin recognition. The aptamer composites were synthesized in this work using graphene oxide (GO) as the backing material. The thrombin was adsorbed on the aptamer composites based on the aptamer-thrombin recognition. Thus, thrombin could be quantified by the difference value of the CL intensity between supernate of the sample and the mixture which composed of thrombin and coexisted substances. The CL intensity exhibits a stable response to thrombin over a concentration range from 2.5 × 10- 10 to 1 × 10- 9 mol·L- 1 with a detection limit as low as 8.3 × 10- 11 mol·L- 1, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was found to be 4.9% for 11 determinations of 1.25 × 10- 9 mol·L- 1 thrombin. Finally, the applicability of the method was verified by applying to serum samples. The recoveries were in the range of 90.3-101.0% with RSD of 2.6-3.2%.

  10. A host-guest-recognition-based electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hao; Li, Hui; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2012-05-15

    A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection is presented based on the host-guest recognition technique. In this sensing protocol, a 15 based thrombin aptamer (ab. TBA) was dually labeled with a thiol at its 3' end and a 4-((4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)azo) benzoic acid (dabcyl) at its 5' end, respectively, which was previously immobilized on one Au electrode surface by AuS bond and used as the thrombin probe during the protein sensing procedure. One special electrochemical marker was prepared by modifying CdS nanoparticle with β-cyclodextrins (ab. CdS-CDs), which employed as electrochemical signal provider and would conjunct with the thrombin probe modified electrode through the host-guest recognition of CDs to dabcyl. In the absence of thrombin, the probe adopted linear structure to conjunct with CdS-CDs. In present of thrombin, the TBA bond with thrombin and transformed into its special G-quarter structure, which forced CdS-CDs into the solution. Therefore, the target-TBA binding event can be sensitively transduced via detecting the electrochemical oxidation current signal of Cd of CdS nanoparticles in the solution. Using this method, as low as 4.6 pM thrombin had been detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Potential Thrombin Inhibitors from the White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Caroline Fabri Bittencourt; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; Belchor, Mariana Novo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Pena; Pinho, Marcus Vinícius Terashima; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the effects of methanol (MeOH) and hydroalcoholic (HA) extracts and their respective partition phases obtained from white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.) leaves on human thrombin activity. Among the extracts and phases tested, only the ethyl acetate and butanolic partitions significantly inhibited human thrombin activity and the coagulation of plasma in the presence of this enzyme. Chromatographic analyses of the thrombin samples incubated with these phases revealed that different compounds were able to interact with thrombin. The butanolic phase of the MeOH extract had the most potent inhibitory effects, reducing enzymatic activity and thrombin-induced plasma coagulation. Two glycosylated flavonoids in this partition were identified as the most potent inhibitors of human thrombin activity, namely quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (QAra) and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Qn). Chromatographic analyses of thrombin samples incubated with these flavonoids demonstrated the chemical modification of this enzyme, suggesting that the MeOH extract contained other compounds that both induced structural changes in thrombin and diminished its activity. In this article, we show that despite the near absence of the medical use of mangrove compounds, this plant contains natural compounds with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26197325

  12. Crystal Structure of Thrombin Bound to the Uncleaved Extracellular Fragment of PAR1

    SciT

    Gandhi, Prafull S.; Chen, Zhiwei; Di Cera, Enrico

    2010-05-11

    Abundant structural information exists on how thrombin recognizes ligands at the active site or at exosites separate from the active site region, but remarkably little is known about how thrombin recognizes substrates that bridge both the active site and exosite I. The case of the protease-activated receptor PAR1 is particularly relevant in view of the plethora of biological effects associated with its activation by thrombin. Here, we present the 1.8 {angstrom} resolution structure of thrombin S195A in complex with a 30-residue long uncleaved extracellular fragment of PAR1 that documents for the first time a productive binding mode bridging the activemore » site and exosite I. The structure reveals two unexpected features of the thrombin-PAR1 interaction. The acidic P3 residue of PAR1, Asp{sup 39}, does not hinder binding to the active site and actually makes favorable interactions with Gly{sup 219} of thrombin. The tethered ligand domain shows a considerable degree of disorder even when bound to thrombin. The results fill a significant gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of recognition by thrombin in ways that are relevant to other physiological substrates.« less

  13. Histamine and thrombin modulate endothelial focal adhesion through centripetal and centrifugal forces.

    PubMed Central

    Moy, A B; Van Engelenhoven, J; Bodmer, J; Kamath, J; Keese, C; Giaever, I; Shasby, S; Shasby, D M

    1996-01-01

    We examined the contribution of actin-myosin contraction to the modulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell focal adhesion caused by histamine and thrombin. Focal adhesion was measured as the electrical resistance across a cultured monolayer grown on a microelectrode. Actin-myosin contraction was measured as isometric tension of cultured monolayers grown on a collagen gel. Histamine immediately decreased electrical resistance but returned to basal levels within 3-5 min. Histamine did not increase isometric tension. Thrombin also immediately decreased electrical resistance, but, however, resistance did not return to basal levels for 40-60 min. Thrombin also increased isometric tension, ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, prevented increases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and increases in tension development in cells exposed to thrombin. ML-7 did not prevent a decline in electrical resistance in cells exposed to thrombin. Instead, ML-7 restored the electrical resistance to basal levels in a shorter period of time (20 min) than cells exposed to thrombin alone. Also, histamine subsequently increased electrical resistance to above basal levels, and thrombin initiated an increase in resistance during the time of peak tension development. Hence, histamine and thrombin modulate endothelial cell focal adhesion through centripetal and centrifugal forces. PMID:8613524

  14. Adrenaline potentiates PI 3-kinase in platelets stimulated with thrombin and SFRLLN: role of secreted ADP.

    PubMed

    Selheim, F; Frøyset, A K; Strand, I; Vassbotn, F S; Holmsen, H

    2000-11-17

    Adrenaline significantly potentiated late thrombin- and SFRLLN-induced PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production. Furthermore, the potentiating effect of adrenaline on thrombin-induced PtdIns(3, 4)P(2) production was independent on secreted ADP, whereas, the effect of adrenaline on SFRLLN-induced PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production was completely dependent of secreted ADP. However, the ADP-dependent accumulation of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) was not required for irreversible platelet aggregation induced by SFRLLN in the presence of adrenaline. It is concluded that adrenaline can replace secreted ADP to potentiate PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production in thrombin-stimulated but not in SFRLLN-stimulated platelets, thus demonstrating a qualitative difference between platelet stimulation by thrombin and the thrombin receptor activating peptide SFRLLN.

  15. Cation Coordination Alters the Conformation of a Thrombin-Binding G-Quadruplex DNA Aptamer That Affects Inhibition of Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Zavyalova, Elena; Tagiltsev, Grigory; Reshetnikov, Roman; Arutyunyan, Alexander; Kopylov, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Thrombin-binding aptamers are promising anticoagulants. HD1 is a monomolecular antiparallel G-quadruplex with two G-quartets linked by three loops. Aptamer-thrombin interactions are mediated with two TT-loops that bind thrombin exosite I. Several cations were shown to be coordinated inside the G-quadruplex, including K + , Na + , NH 4 + , Ba 2+ , and Sr 2+ ; on the contrary, Mn 2+ was coordinated in the grooves, outside the G-quadruplex. K + or Na + coordination provides aptamer functional activity. The effect of other cations on aptamer functional activity has not yet been described, because of a lack of relevant tests. Interactions between aptamer HD1 and a series of cations were studied. A previously developed enzymatic method was applied to evaluate aptamer inhibitory activity. The structure-function correlation was studied using the characterization of G-quadruplex conformation by circular dichroism spectroscopy. K + coordination provided the well-known high inhibitory activity of the aptamer, whereas Na + coordination supported low activity. Although NH 4 + coordination yielded a typical antiparallel G-quadruplex, no inhibitory activity was shown; a similar effect was observed for Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ coordination. Mn 2+ coordination destabilized the G-quadruplex that drastically diminished aptamer inhibitory activity. Therefore, G-quadruplex existence per se is insufficient for aptamer inhibitory activity. To elicit the nature of these effects, we thoroughly analyzed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray data on the structure of the HD1 G-quadruplex with various cations. The most reasonable explanation is that cation coordination changes the conformation of TT-loops, affecting thrombin binding and inhibition. HD1 counterparts, aptamers 31-TBA and NU172, behaved similarly with some distinctions. In 31-TBA, an additional duplex module stabilized antiparallel G-quadruplex conformation at high concentrations of divalent cations; whereas in NU172, a different

  16. Localization and characterization of an alpha-thrombin-binding site on platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha.

    PubMed

    De Marco, L; Mazzucato, M; Masotti, A; Ruggeri, Z M

    1994-03-04

    Glycoprotein (GP) Ib alpha is required for expression of the highest affinity alpha-thrombin-binding site on platelets, possibly contributing to platelet activation through a pathway involving cleavage of a specific receptor. This function may be important for the initiation of hemostasis and may also play a role in the development of pathological vascular occlusion. We have now identified a discrete sequence in the extracytoplasmic domain of GP Ib alpha, including residues 271-284 of the mature protein, which appears to be part of the high affinity alpha-thrombin-binding site. Synthetic peptidyl mimetics of this sequence inhibit alpha-thrombin binding to GP Ib as well as platelet activation and aggregation induced by subnanomolar concentrations of the agonist; they also inhibit alpha-thrombin binding to purified glycocalicin, the isolated extracytoplasmic portion of GP Ib alpha. The inhibitory peptides interfere with the clotting of fibrinogen by alpha-thrombin but not with the amidolytic activity of the enzyme on a small synthetic substrate, a finding compatible with the concept that the identified GP Ib alpha sequence interacts with the anion-binding exosite of alpha-thrombin but not with its active proteolytic site. The crucial structural elements of this sequence necessary for thrombin binding appear to be a cluster of negatively charged residues as well as three tyrosine residues that, in the native protein, may be sulfated. GP Ib alpha has no significant overall sequence homology with the thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, nor with the specific thrombin receptor on platelets; all three molecules, however, possess a distinct region rich in negatively charged residues that appear to be involved in thrombin binding. This may represent a case of convergent evolution of unrelated proteins for high affinity interaction with the same ligand.

  17. The pharmacological modulation of thrombin-induced cerebral thromboembolism in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    May, G. R.; Paul, W.; Crook, P.; Butler, K. D.; Page, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Intracarotid (i.c.) administration of thrombin induced a marked accumulation of 111indium-labelled platelets and 125I-labelled fibrinogen within the cranial vasculature of anaesthetized rabbits. 2. Thrombin (100 iu kg-1, i.c.) - induced platelet accumulation was completely abolished by pretreatment with desulphatohirudin (CGP 39393; 1 mg kg-1 i.c., 1 min prior to thrombin). Administration of CGP 39393 1 or 20 min after thrombin produced a significant reduction in platelet accumulation. 3. Intravenous (i.v.) administration of the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist BN 52021 (10 mg kg-1) 5 min prior to thrombin (100 iu kg-1, i.c.) had no effect on platelet accumulation. 4. An inhibitor of NO biosynthesis, L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg kg-1, i.c.), had no significant effect on the cranial platelet accumulation response to thrombin (10 iu kg-1, i.c.) when administered 5 min prior to thrombin. 5. Defibrotide (32 or 64 mg kg-1 bolus i.c. followed by 32 or 64 mg kg-1 h-1, i.c., infusion for 45 min) treatment begun 20 min after thrombin (100 iu kg-1, i.c.) did not significantly modify the cranial platelet accumulation response. 6. Cranial platelet accumulation induced by thrombin (100 iu kg-1, i.c.) was significantly reversed by the fibrinolytic drugs urokinase (20 iu kg-1, i.c., infusion for 45 min), anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC) (200 micrograms kg-1, i.v. bolus) or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; 100 micrograms kg-1, i.c. bolus followed by 20 micrograms kg-1 min-1, i.c., infusion for 45 min) administered 20 min after thrombin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1504722

  18. Differential response of normal human fibroblasts to bombesin versus thrombin.

    PubMed

    Hendey, B; Mamrack, M D

    1988-09-01

    Normal human diploid fibroblasts (WS-1 cells) were growth-arrested under serum-free conditions for 48 hr. The addition of fetal bovine serum (10% final concentration) to these cells stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and phosphoinositide breakdown over nine-fold. Thrombin, at concentrations above 0.1 unit/ml (u/ml), was also effective at stimulating DNA synthesis and phosphoinositide breakdown as well as causing a rise in intracellular pH. In contrast, the peptide bombesin (concentrations ranging from 1 nM to 100 nM) stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown but did not enhance DNA synthesis or cause an increase in cytoplasmic pH. The time course of accumulation of inositol phosphates differed in response to these agents. The thrombin effect peaked rapidly and leveled off after 5 min while the bombesin effect showed a constant increase for 30 min. Serum showed an intermediate response. The different rates of inositol phosphate accumulation observed with the two growth factors is viewed as representing a difference in the mechanism of phosphoinositide turnover. The relationship between the difference in phosphoinositide turnover and the initiation of DNA synthesis is also discussed.

  19. The Phenomenology and Generation of Positive Mental Imagery in Early Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Laing, Jennifer; Morland, Tristan; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam

    2016-11-01

    Theoretical models of depression and bipolar disorder emphasise the importance of positive mental imagery in mood and behaviour. Distressing, intrusive images are common in psychosis; however, little is known about positive imagery experiences or their association with clinical symptoms. The aim of the current study was to examine the phenomenology of positive imagery in early psychosis and the relationship between the characteristics of positive, future-oriented imagery and symptom severity. Characteristics, thematic content and appraisals of recent self-reported images were examined in 31 people with early psychosis. The vividness and perceived likelihood of deliberately generated, future-oriented images were investigated in relation to clinical symptoms. Eighty-four percent of participants reported experiencing a recent positive image. Themes included the achievement of personal goals, spending enjoyable time with peers and family, loving, intimate relationships and escape from current circumstances. The vividness and perceived likelihood of generated prospective imagery were negatively correlated with levels of depression and social anxiety. The relationship between emotional problems and the ability to imagine positive, future events may have implications for motivation, mood and goal-directed behaviour in psychosis. Everyday experiences of positive imagery may represent the simulation of future goals, attempts to cope or avoid aversive experiences or idealised fantasy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The majority of participants experienced a recent positive image with themes related to goal attainment and social relationships. Depression and social anxiety levels were correlated with the vividness of intentionally generated positive future-oriented images and their perceived likelihood. The assessment of positive imagery in early psychosis appears warranted and may provide insights regarding individual coping strategies, values and goals. Copyright

  20. Early Preterm Birth Across Generations Among Whites and African-Americans: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Rebecca A; Rankin, Kristin M; Collins, James W

    2017-11-01

    Objectives To determine the extent to which non-Latina White and African-American mother's gestational age is associated with extremely early (<30 weeks), modestly early (30-33 weeks), and late (34-36 weeks) infant preterm birth (PTB) rates. Methods Race-specific stratified and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on the Illinois Transgenerational Birth File of non-Latino White and African-American infants (born 1989-1991) and their mothers (born 1956-1976). Results White mothers (n = 184) born at <30 weeks had a greater extremely early infant PTB rate than White mothers (n = 131,980) born at term: 1.6 versus 0.5%, respectively; RR = 3.6 (1.2, 11.0). African-American mothers (n = 269) born at <30 weeks had a greater extremely early infant PTB rate than African-American mothers (n = 34,885) born at term: 4.1 versus 2.1%, respectively; RR = 2.0 (1.1, 3.6). In logistic regression models the adjusted (controlling for maternal age, education, parity, prenatal care, marital status, and cigarette smoking) OR of extremely early PTB for White and African-American mothers born <30 (compared to ≥37) weeks equaled 4.0 (1.2, 12.6) and 2.3 (1.2, 4.3), respectively. The adjusted OR of modestly early PTB for White and African-American mothers born 30-33 (compared to ≥37) weeks equaled 1.6 (1.0, 2.5) and 1.3 (0.9, 1.7), respectively. The adjusted OR of late PTB for White and African-American mothers born 34-36 (compared to ≥37) weeks equaled 1.2 (1.0, 1.3) and 1.1 (1.0, 1.2), respectively. Conclusions A generational association of extremely early, but not modestly early or late, PTB exists among non-Latino Whites and African-Americans.

  1. Crystal structures of thrombin in complex with chemically modified thrombin DNA aptamers reveal the origins of enhanced affinity.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafal; Lam, Curtis H; Sierant, Malgorzata; Zhao, Qiang; Liu, Feng-Wu; Nawrot, Barbara; Egli, Martin; Yang, Xianbin

    2018-05-18

    Thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) is a DNA 15-mer of sequence 5'-GGT TGG TGT GGT TGG-3' that folds into a G-quadruplex structure linked by two T-T loops located on one side and a T-G-T loop on the other. These loops are critical for post-SELEX modification to improve TBA target affinity. With this goal in mind we synthesized a T analog, 5-(indolyl-3-acetyl-3-amino-1-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (W) to substitute one T or a pair of Ts. Subsequently, the affinity for each analog was determined by biolayer interferometry. An aptamer with W at position 4 exhibited about 3-fold increased binding affinity, and replacing both T4 and T12 with W afforded an almost 10-fold enhancement compared to native TBA. To better understand the role of the substituent's aromatic moiety, an aptamer with 5-(methyl-3-acetyl-3-amino-1-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (K; W without the indole moiety) in place of T4 was also synthesized. This K4 aptamer was found to improve affinity 7-fold relative to native TBA. Crystal structures of aptamers with T4 replaced by either W or K bound to thrombin provide insight into the origins of the increased affinities. Our work demonstrates that facile chemical modification of a simple DNA aptamer can be used to significantly improve its binding affinity for a well-established pharmacological target protein.

  2. The immobilization of a direct thrombin inhibitor to a polyurethane as a nonthrombogenic surface coating for extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jane; Brisbois, Elizabeth; Handa, Hitesh; Annich, Gail; Meyerhoff, Mark; Bartlett, Robert; Major, Terry

    2016-04-07

    A biomaterial with both antithrombin and antiplatelet properties is the ideal surface for use in extracorporeal circulation (ECC) as it targets both fibrin generation and platelet adhesion. A hemocompatible surface coating avoids the need for systemic anticoagulation by providing a local anticoagulant effect at the polymer-blood interface. Previous work has demonstrated the potential use of argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor, as a nonthrombogenic material for extracorporeal devices. The work reported here focuses on the characterization of argatroban linked to a polyurethane-silicone polymer, CarboSil®. Chemical immobilization, the amount of argatroban, incubation times, and saturation point were evaluated to achieve maximal antithrombin activity at the polymer surface. Cross-linked polymer coatings reacted with 10 and 30 µmole of argatroban were prepared and tested. These coatings resulted in argatroban activity levels of 0.131 µM and 0.446 µM, respectively. After refining the cross-linking process, argatroban activity increased by approximately 3.6 fold. Maintenance of activity and leaching from the polymer surface were also evaluated. Using the refined process for linking argatroban to polymer, the resulting polymer was applied as a surface coating to the inner lumen of poly(vinyl chloride) ECC circuit tubing and its antithrombin effect evaluated using a 4 h rabbit ECC model. Following 4 h of blood exposure, the argatroban circuit demonstrated significantly less thrombus formation compared to the control CarboSil® coating with a 4.1 cm 2 thrombus average area for the control coating compared to 1.2 cm 2 for the argatroban coating (n=4). There was no significant change in thrombin time from baseline in plasma from animals in which the argatroban coated circuit was used, with a thrombin time of 16.2 s at t=0 and 14.5 s after 4 h. These results demonstrate the potential efficacy of immobilized argatroban as a hemocompatible biomaterial for extracorporeal

  3. Roles of platelet STIM1 and Orai1 in glycoprotein VI- and thrombin-dependent procoagulant activity and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Gilio, Karen; van Kruchten, Roger; Braun, Attila; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Feijge, Marion A H; Stegner, David; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Varga-Szabo, David; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2010-07-30

    In platelets, STIM1 has been recognized as the key regulatory protein in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) with Orai1 as principal Ca(2+) entry channel. Both proteins contribute to collagen-dependent arterial thrombosis in mice in vivo. It is unclear whether STIM2 is involved. A key platelet response relying on Ca(2+) entry is the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), which accomplishes platelet procoagulant activity. We studied this response in mouse platelets deficient in STIM1, STIM2, or Orai1. Upon high shear flow of blood over collagen, Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets had greatly impaired glycoprotein (GP) VI-dependent Ca(2+) signals, and they were deficient in PS exposure and thrombus formation. In contrast, Stim2(-/-) platelets reacted normally. Upon blood flow in the presence of thrombin generation and coagulation, Ca(2+) signals of Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets were partly reduced, whereas the PS exposure and formation of fibrin-rich thrombi were normalized. Washed Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets were deficient in GPVI-induced PS exposure and prothrombinase activity, but not when thrombin was present as co-agonist. Markedly, SKF96365, a blocker of (receptor-operated) Ca(2+) entry, inhibited Ca(2+) and procoagulant responses even in Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets. These data show for the first time that: (i) STIM1 and Orai1 jointly contribute to GPVI-induced SOCE, procoagulant activity, and thrombus formation; (ii) a compensating Ca(2+) entry pathway is effective in the additional presence of thrombin; (iii) platelets contain two mechanisms of Ca(2+) entry and PS exposure, only one relying on STIM1-Orai1 interaction.

  4. Roles of Platelet STIM1 and Orai1 in Glycoprotein VI- and Thrombin-dependent Procoagulant Activity and Thrombus Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Gilio, Karen; van Kruchten, Roger; Braun, Attila; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Feijge, Marion A. H.; Stegner, David; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Kuijpers, Marijke J. E.; Varga-Szabo, David; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    In platelets, STIM1 has been recognized as the key regulatory protein in store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) with Orai1 as principal Ca2+ entry channel. Both proteins contribute to collagen-dependent arterial thrombosis in mice in vivo. It is unclear whether STIM2 is involved. A key platelet response relying on Ca2+ entry is the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), which accomplishes platelet procoagulant activity. We studied this response in mouse platelets deficient in STIM1, STIM2, or Orai1. Upon high shear flow of blood over collagen, Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets had greatly impaired glycoprotein (GP) VI-dependent Ca2+ signals, and they were deficient in PS exposure and thrombus formation. In contrast, Stim2−/− platelets reacted normally. Upon blood flow in the presence of thrombin generation and coagulation, Ca2+ signals of Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets were partly reduced, whereas the PS exposure and formation of fibrin-rich thrombi were normalized. Washed Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets were deficient in GPVI-induced PS exposure and prothrombinase activity, but not when thrombin was present as co-agonist. Markedly, SKF96365, a blocker of (receptor-operated) Ca2+ entry, inhibited Ca2+ and procoagulant responses even in Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets. These data show for the first time that: (i) STIM1 and Orai1 jointly contribute to GPVI-induced SOCE, procoagulant activity, and thrombus formation; (ii) a compensating Ca2+ entry pathway is effective in the additional presence of thrombin; (iii) platelets contain two mechanisms of Ca2+ entry and PS exposure, only one relying on STIM1-Orai1 interaction. PMID:20519511

  5. The immobilization of a direct thrombin inhibitor to a polyurethane as a nonthrombogenic surface coating for extracorporeal circulation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jane; Brisbois, Elizabeth; Handa, Hitesh; Annich, Gail; Meyerhoff, Mark; Bartlett, Robert; Major, Terry

    2016-01-01

    A biomaterial with both antithrombin and antiplatelet properties is the ideal surface for use in extracorporeal circulation (ECC) as it targets both fibrin generation and platelet adhesion. A hemocompatible surface coating avoids the need for systemic anticoagulation by providing a local anticoagulant effect at the polymer-blood interface. Previous work has demonstrated the potential use of argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor, as a nonthrombogenic material for extracorporeal devices. The work reported here focuses on the characterization of argatroban linked to a polyurethane-silicone polymer, CarboSil®. Chemical immobilization, the amount of argatroban, incubation times, and saturation point were evaluated to achieve maximal antithrombin activity at the polymer surface. Cross-linked polymer coatings reacted with 10 and 30 µmole of argatroban were prepared and tested. These coatings resulted in argatroban activity levels of 0.131 µM and 0.446 µM, respectively. After refining the cross-linking process, argatroban activity increased by approximately 3.6 fold. Maintenance of activity and leaching from the polymer surface were also evaluated. Using the refined process for linking argatroban to polymer, the resulting polymer was applied as a surface coating to the inner lumen of poly(vinyl chloride) ECC circuit tubing and its antithrombin effect evaluated using a 4 h rabbit ECC model. Following 4 h of blood exposure, the argatroban circuit demonstrated significantly less thrombus formation compared to the control CarboSil® coating with a 4.1 cm2 thrombus average area for the control coating compared to 1.2 cm2 for the argatroban coating (n=4). There was no significant change in thrombin time from baseline in plasma from animals in which the argatroban coated circuit was used, with a thrombin time of 16.2 s at t=0 and 14.5 s after 4 h. These results demonstrate the potential efficacy of immobilized argatroban as a hemocompatible biomaterial for extracorporeal

  6. Protein kinase C and P2Y12 take center stage in thrombin-mediated activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Moore, S F; Hunter, R W; Hers, I

    2014-05-01

    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1), reduces platelet spreading, thrombus stability, and clot retraction. Despite an important role of mTORC1 in platelet function, little is known about how it is regulated. The objective of this study was to determine the signaling pathways that regulate mTORC1 in human platelets. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 activation was assessed by measuring the phosphorylation of its downstream substrate ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K). Thrombin or the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbal 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulated activation of mTORC1 in a PKC-dependent, Akt-independent manner that correlated with phosphorylation of tuberin/tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) (Ser939 and Thr1462). In contrast, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-stimulated TSC2 phosphorylation was completely dependent on phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)/Akt but did not result in any detectable mTORC1 activation. Early (Ser939 and Thr1462) and late (Thr1462) TSC2 phosphorylation in response to thrombin were directly PKC dependent, whereas later TSC2 (Ser939) and p70S6K phosphorylation were largely dependent on paracrine signaling through P2Y(12). PKC-mediated adenosine diphosphate (ADP) secretion was essential for thrombin-stimulated mTORC1 activation, as (i) ADP rescued p70S6K phosphorylation in the presence of a PKC inhibitor and (ii) P2Y(12) antagonism prevented thrombin-mediated mTORC1 activation. Rescue of mTORC1 activation with exogenous ADP was completely dependent on the Src family kinases but independent of PI3 kinase/Akt. Interestingly, although inhibition of Src blocked the ADP rescue, it had little effect on thrombin-stimulated p70S6K phosphorylation under conditions where PKC was not inhibited. These results demonstrate that thrombin activates the mTORC1 pathway in human platelets through PKC-mediated ADP secretion and subsequent activation of P2Y(12), in a manner largely independent of the canonical PI3

  7. Protein kinase C and P2Y12 take center stage in thrombin-mediated activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Moore, S F; Hunter, R W; Hers, I

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1), reduces platelet spreading, thrombus stability, and clot retraction. Despite an important role of mTORC1 in platelet function, little is known about how it is regulated. The objective of this study was to determine the signaling pathways that regulate mTORC1 in human platelets. Methods Mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 activation was assessed by measuring the phosphorylation of its downstream substrate ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K). Results Thrombin or the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbal 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulated activation of mTORC1 in a PKC-dependent, Akt-independent manner that correlated with phosphorylation of tuberin/tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) (Ser939 and Thr1462). In contrast, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)–stimulated TSC2 phosphorylation was completely dependent on phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)/Akt but did not result in any detectable mTORC1 activation. Early (Ser939 and Thr1462) and late (Thr1462) TSC2 phosphorylation in response to thrombin were directly PKC dependent, whereas later TSC2 (Ser939) and p70S6K phosphorylation were largely dependent on paracrine signaling through P2Y12. PKC-mediated adenosine diphosphate (ADP) secretion was essential for thrombin-stimulated mTORC1 activation, as (i) ADP rescued p70S6K phosphorylation in the presence of a PKC inhibitor and (ii) P2Y12 antagonism prevented thrombin-mediated mTORC1 activation. Rescue of mTORC1 activation with exogenous ADP was completely dependent on the Src family kinases but independent of PI3 kinase/Akt. Interestingly, although inhibition of Src blocked the ADP rescue, it had little effect on thrombin-stimulated p70S6K phosphorylation under conditions where PKC was not inhibited. Conclusion These results demonstrate that thrombin activates the mTORC1 pathway in human platelets through PKC-mediated ADP secretion and subsequent activation of P2Y12, in a manner

  8. Irregular oscillatory patterns in the early-time region of coherent phonon generation in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Hino, Ken-ichi; Hase, Muneaki; Maeshima, Nobuya

    2017-09-01

    Coherent phonon (CP) generation in an undoped Si crystal is theoretically investigated to shed light on unexplored quantum-mechanical effects in the early-time region immediately after the irradiation of ultrashort laser pulses. We examine time signals attributed to an induced charge density of an ionic core, placing the focus on the effects of the Rabi frequency Ω0 c v on the signals; this frequency corresponds to the peak electric-field of the pulse. It is found that at specific Ω0 c v's, where the energy of plasmon caused by photoexcited carriers coincides with the longitudinal-optical phonon energy, the energetically resonant interaction between these two modes leads to striking anticrossings, revealing irregular oscillations with anomalously enhanced amplitudes in the observed time signals. Also, the oscillatory pattern is subject to the Rabi flopping of the excited carrier density that is controlled by Ω0 c v. These findings show that the early-time region is enriched with quantum-mechanical effects inherent in the CP generation, though experimental signals are more or less masked by the so-called coherent artifact due to nonlinear optical effects.

  9. Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for cell surface molecules expressed on early mouse endoderm.

    PubMed

    Gadue, Paul; Gouon-Evans, Valerie; Cheng, Xin; Wandzioch, Ewa; Zaret, Kenneth S; Grompe, Markus; Streeter, Philip R; Keller, Gordon M

    2009-09-01

    The development of functional cell populations such as hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells from embryonic stem cell (ESC) is dependent on the efficient induction of definitive endoderm early in the differentiation process. To monitor definitive endoderm formation in mouse ESC differentiation cultures in a quantitative fashion, we generated a reporter cell line that expresses human CD25 from the Foxa3 locus and human CD4 from the Foxa2 locus. Induction of these reporter ESCs with high concentrations of activin A led to the development of a CD25-Foxa3+CD4-Foxa2+ population within 4-5 days of culture. Isolation and characterization of this population showed that it consists predominantly of definitive endoderm that is able to undergo hepatic specification under the appropriate conditions. To develop reagents that can be used for studies on endoderm development from unmanipulated ESCs, from induced pluripotent stem cells, and from the mouse embryo, we generated monoclonal antibodies against the CD25-Foxa3+CD4-Foxa2+ population. With this approach, we identified two antibodies that react specifically with endoderm from ESC cultures and from the early embryo. The specificity of these antibodies enables one to quantitatively monitor endoderm development in ESC differentiation cultures, to study endoderm formation in the embryo, and to isolate pure populations of culture- or embryo-derived endodermal cells.

  10. Transcriptional Dynamics of LTR Retrotransposons in Early Generation and Ancient Sunflower Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ungerer, Mark C.; Kawakami, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization and abiotic stress are natural agents hypothesized to influence activation and proliferation of transposable elements in wild populations. In this report, we examine the effects of these agents on expression dynamics of both quiescent and transcriptionally active sublineages of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in wild sunflower species with a notable history of transposable element proliferation. For annual sunflower species Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, neither early generation hybridization nor abiotic stress, alone or in combination, induced transcriptional activation of quiescent sublineages of LTR retrotransposons. These treatments also failed to further induce expression of sublineages that are transcriptionally active; instead, expression of active sublineages in F1 and backcross hybrids was nondistinguishable from, or intermediate relative to, parental lines, and abiotic stress generally decreased normalized expression relative to controls. In contrast to findings for early generation hybridization between H. annuus and H. petiolaris, ancient sunflower hybrid species derived from these same two species and which have undergone massive proliferation events of LTR retrotransposons display 2× to 6× higher expression levels of transcriptionally active sublineages relative to parental sunflower species H. annuus and H. petiolaris. Implications and possible explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:23335122

  11. Trans-generational Effects of Early Life Stress: The Role of Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Claudia; Lee-McDermott, Zoe; Medina, Liorimar Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Using a rodent paradigm of early life stress, infant maternal separation (IMS), we examined whether IMS-triggered behavioral and epigenetic phenotypes of the stress-susceptible mouse strain Balb/c are propagated across generations. These phenotypes include impaired emotional behavior and deficits in executive cognitive functions in adulthood, and they are associated with increased acetylation of histone H4K12 protein (acH4K12) in the forebrain neocortex. These behavioral and epigenetic phenotypes are transmitted to the first progeny of IMS Balb/c mothers, but not fathers, and cross-fostering experiments revealed that this transmission is triggered by maternal behavior and modulated by the genetic background of the pups. In the continued absence of the original stressor, this transmission fades in later progenies. An adolescent treatment that lowers the levels of acH4K12 in IMS Balb/c mice augments their emotional abnormality but abolishes their cognitive deficits. Conversely, a treatment that further elevates the levels of acH4K12 improved the emotional phenotype but had no effects on the cognitive deficits. Moreover, treatments that prevent the emergence of either emotional or cognitive deficits in the mother also prevent the establishment of such deficits in her offspring, indicating that trans-generational effects of early life stress can be prevented. PMID:24786242

  12. The Organophosphate Paraoxon and Its Antidote Obidoxime Inhibit Thrombin Activity and Affect Coagulation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Golderman, Valery; Shavit-Stein, Efrat; Tamarin, Ilia; Rosman, Yossi; Shrot, Shai; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests. Both paraoxon and obidoxime but not atropine significantly inhibited thrombin activity, and prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. When paraoxon and obidoxime were combined, a significant synergistic effect was found on both thrombin activity and coagulation tests. In conclusion, paraoxon and obidoxime affect thrombin activity and consequently alter the function of the coagulation system. Similar interactions may be clinically relevant for coagulation pathways in the blood and possibly in the brain. PMID:27689805

  13. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-Induced Autophagy Contributes to Thrombin-Triggered Endothelial Hyperpermeability in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chiao-Hsuan; Chen, Hong-Ru; Chuang, Yung-Chun; Yeh, Trai-Ming

    2018-07-01

    Vascular leakage contributes to the high morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis. Exposure of the endothelium to inflammatory mediators, such as thrombin and cytokines, during sepsis leads to hyperpermeability. We recently observed that autophagy, a cellular process for protein turnover, is involved in macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Even though it is known that thrombin induces endothelial cells to secrete MIF and to increase vascular permeability, the possible role of autophagy in this process is unknown. In this study, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that MIF-induced autophagy plays an important role in thrombin-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. We evaluated the effects of thrombin on endothelial permeability, autophagy induction, and MIF secretion in vitro using the human microvascular endothelial cell line-1 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Several mechanisms/read outs of endothelial permeability and autophagy formation were examined. We observed that blocking autophagy attenuated thrombin-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Furthermore, thrombin-induced MIF secretion was involved in this process because MIF inhibition reduced thrombin-induced autophagy and hyperpermeability. Finally, we showed that blocking MIF or autophagy effectively alleviated vascular leakage and mortality in endotoxemic mice. Thus, MIF-induced autophagy may represent a common mechanism causing vascular leakage in sepsis.

  14. Thrombin-induced glucose transport via Src–p38 MAPK pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Yasunari; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Thrombin is a mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and has been implicated in the development in atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of thrombin in glucose transport in VSMC. In this study, we examined the effect of thrombin on glucose uptake in rat A10 VSMC. We found that thrombin induced glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner while hirudin, a potent thrombin inhibitor, prevented glucose uptake in the cells. PP2, a selective inhibitor of Src, prevented the thrombin-induced glucose uptake, but did not affect insulin-induced uptake. We also examined whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors influenced thrombin-induced glucose uptake. The p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) inhibited thrombin-induced glucose uptake, but the MEK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. In contrast to thrombin, SB203580 did not affect insulin-induced glucose uptake. Furthermore, thrombin failed to translocate the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4. These findings suggest that thrombin stimulates glucose transport via Src and subsequent p38 MAPK activation in VSMC. PMID:15951827

  15. Thrombin-inhibiting nanoparticles rapidly constitute versatile and detectable anticlotting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley Myerson, Jacob; He, Li; Allen, John Stacy; Williams, Todd; Lanza, Gregory; Tollefsen, Douglas; Caruthers, Shelton; Wickline, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    Restoring an antithrombotic surface to suppress ongoing thrombosis is an appealing strategy for treatment of acute cardiovascular disorders such as erosion of atherosclerotic plaque. An antithrombotic surface would present an alternative to systemic anticoagulation with attendant risks of bleeding. We have designed thrombin-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that bind to sites of active clotting to extinguish local thrombin activity and inhibit platelet deposition while exhibiting only transient systemic anticoagulant effects. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NP) were functionalized with thrombin inhibitors (either D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone or bivalirudin) by covalent attachment of more than 15 000 inhibitors to each PFC NP. Fibrinopeptide A (FPA) ELISA demonstrated that thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented cleavage of fibrinogen by both free and clot-bound thrombin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed that a layer of thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented growth of clots in vitro. Thrombin-inhibiting NPs were administered in vivo to C57BL6 mice subjected to laser injury of the carotid artery. NPs significantly delayed thrombotic occlusion of the artery, whereas an equivalent bolus of free inhibitor was ineffective. For thrombin-inhibiting NPs, only a short-lived (˜10 min) systemic effect on bleeding time was observed, despite prolonged clot inhibition. Imaging and quantification of in vivo antithrombotic NP layers was demonstrated by MRI of the PFC NP. 19F MRI confirmed colocalization of particles with arterial thrombi, and quantitative 19F spectroscopy demonstrated specific binding and retention of thrombin-inhibiting NPs in injured arteries. The ability to rapidly form and image a new antithrombotic surface in acute vascular syndromes while minimizing risks of bleeding would permit a safer method of passivating active lesions than current systemic anticoagulant regimes.

  16. Thrombostatin FM compounds: direct thrombin inhibitors - mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo

    SciT

    Nieman, M T; Burke, F; Warnock, M

    2008-04-29

    Novel pentapeptides called Thrombostatin FM compounds consisting mostly of D-isomers and unusual amino acids were prepared based upon the stable angiotensin converting enzyme breakdown product of bradykinin - RPPGF. These peptides are direct thrombin inhibitors prolonging the thrombin clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time at ≥0.78, 1.6, and 1.6 μm, respectively. They competitively inhibit α-thrombin-induced cleavage of a chromogenic substrate at 4.4--8.2 μm. They do not significantly inhibit plasma kallikrein, factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FIXa, FVIIa-TF, FXa, plasmin or cathepsin G. One form, FM19 [rOicPaF(p-Me)], blocks α-thrombin-induced calcium flux in fibroblasts with an IC 50 of 6.9more » ± 1.2 μm. FM19 achieved 100% inhibition of threshold α- or γ-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation at 8.4 ± 4.7 μm and 16 ± 4 μm, respectively. The crystal structure of thrombin in complex with FM19 shows that the N-terminal D-Arg retrobinds into the S1 pocket, its second residue Oic interacts with His-57, Tyr-60a and Trp-60d, and its C-terminal p-methyl Phe engages thrombin's aryl binding site composed of Ile-174, Trp-215, and Leu-99. When administered intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or orally to mice, FM19 prolongs thrombin clotting times and delays carotid artery thrombosis. FM19, a low affinity reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, might be useful as an add-on agent to address an unmet need in platelet inhibition in acute coronary syndromes in diabetics and others who with all current antiplatelet therapy still have reactive platelets.« less

  17. Synergism between thrombin and adrenaline (epinephrine) in human platelets. Marked potentiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Steen, V M; Tysnes, O B; Holmsen, H

    1988-01-01

    We have studied synergism between adrenaline (epinephrine) and low concentrations of thrombin in gel-filtered human platelets prelabelled with [32P]Pi. Suspensions of platelets, which did not contain added fibrinogen, were incubated at 37 degrees C to measure changes in the levels of 32P-labelled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidate (PA), aggregation and dense-granule secretion after stimulation. Adrenaline alone (3.5-4.0 microM) did not cause a change in any parameter (phosphoinositide metabolism, aggregation and dense-granule secretion), but markedly enhanced the thrombin-induced responses over a narrow range of thrombin concentrations (0.03-0.08 units/ml). The thrombin-induced hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C, which was measured as the formation of [32P]PA, was potentiated by adrenaline, as was the increase in the levels of [32P]PIP2 and [32P]PIP. The presence of adrenaline caused a shift to the left for the thrombin-induced changes in the phosphoinositide metabolism, without affecting the maximal levels of 32P-labelled compounds obtained. A similar shift by adrenaline in the dose-response relationship was previously demonstrated for thrombin-induced aggregation and dense-granule secretion. Also, the narrow range of concentrations of thrombin over which adrenaline potentiates thrombin-induced platelet responses is the same for changes in phosphoinositide metabolism and physiological responses (aggregation and dense-granule secretion). Our observations clearly indicate that adrenaline directly or indirectly influences thrombin-induced changes in phosphoinositide metabolism. PMID:2845924

  18. Thrombin Induces Inositol Trisphosphate-Mediated Spatially Extensive Responses in Lung Microvessels.

    PubMed

    Escue, Rachel; Kandasamy, Kathirvel; Parthasarathi, Kaushik

    2017-04-01

    Activation of plasma membrane receptors initiates compartmentalized second messenger signaling. Whether this compartmentalization facilitates the preferential intercellular diffusion of specific second messengers is unclear. Toward this, the receptor-mediated agonist, thrombin, was instilled into microvessels in a restricted region of isolated blood-perfused mouse lungs. Subsequently, the thrombin-induced increase in endothelial F-actin was determined using confocal fluorescence microscopy. Increased F-actin was evident in microvessels directly treated with thrombin and in those located in adjoining thrombin-free regions. This increase was abrogated by inhibiting inositol trisphosphate-mediated calcium release with Xestospongin C (XeC). XeC also inhibited the thrombin-induced increase in the amplitude of endothelial cytosolic Ca 2+ oscillations. Instillation of thrombin and XeC into adjacent restricted regions increased F-actin in microvessels in the thrombin-treated and adjacent regions but not in those in the XeC-treated region. Thus, inositol trisphosphate, and not calcium, diffused interendothelially to the spatially remote thrombin-free microvessels. Thus, activation of plasma membrane receptors increased the ambit of inflammatory responses via a second messenger different from that used by stimuli that induce cell-wide increases in second messengers. Thrombin however failed to induce the spatially extensive response in microvessels of mice lacking endothelial connexin43, suggesting a role for connexin43 gap junctions. Compartmental second messenger signaling and interendothelial communication define the specific second messenger involved in exacerbating proinflammatory responses to receptor-mediated agonists. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes with thrombin-treated mouse platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, S

    1989-01-01

    The reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC) with mouse platelets before and after thrombin treatment was assessed by flow cytometry. Anti-BrMRBC antibodies could bind to thrombin-treated platelets, although normal platelets were also weakly reactive with the antibodies. The binding of anti-BrMRBC antibodies to platelets was confirmed by complement-dependent lysis. It is suggested that thrombin-activated platelets may be a real target for anti-BrMRBC antibodies. PMID:2467876

  20. Loop Electrostatics Asymmetry Modulates the Preexisting Conformational Equilibrium in Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Nicola; Zerbetto, Mirco; Acquasaliente, Laura; Tescari, Simone; Frezzato, Diego; Polimeno, Antonino; Gohara, David W; Di Cera, Enrico; De Filippis, Vincenzo

    2016-07-19

    Thrombin exists as an ensemble of active (E) and inactive (E*) conformations that differ in their accessibility to the active site. Here we show that redistribution of the E*-E equilibrium can be achieved by perturbing the electrostatic properties of the enzyme. Removal of the negative charge of the catalytic Asp102 or Asp189 in the primary specificity site destabilizes the E form and causes a shift in the 215-217 segment that compromises substrate entrance. Solution studies and existing structures of D102N document stabilization of the E* form. A new high-resolution structure of D189A also reveals the mutant in the collapsed E* form. These findings establish a new paradigm for the control of the E*-E equilibrium in the trypsin fold.

  1. Functional assembly of intrinsic coagulation proteases on monocytes and platelets. Comparison between cofactor activities induced by thrombin and factor Xa

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Generation of coagulation factor Xa by the intrinsic pathway protease complex is essential for normal activation of the coagulation cascade in vivo. Monocytes and platelets provide membrane sites for assembly of components of this protease complex, factors IXa and VIII. Under biologically relevant conditions, expression of functional activity by this complex is associated with activation of factor VIII to VIIIa. In the present studies, autocatalytic regulatory pathways operating on monocyte and platelet membranes were investigated by comparing the cofactor function of thrombin-activated factor VIII to that of factor Xa-activated factor VIII. Reciprocal functional titrations with purified human factor VIII and factor IXa were performed at fixed concentrations of human monocytes, CaCl2, factor X, and either factor IXa or factor VIII. Factor VIII was preactivated with either thrombin or factor Xa, and reactions were initiated by addition of factor X. Rates of factor X activation were measured using chromogenic substrate specific for factor Xa. The K1/2 values, i.e., concentration of factor VIIIa at which rates were half maximal, were 0.96 nM with thrombin- activated factor VIII and 1.1 nM with factor Xa-activated factor VIII. These values are close to factor VIII concentration in plasma. The Vsat, i.e., rates at saturating concentrations of factor VIII, were 33.3 and 13.6 nM factor Xa/min, respectively. The K1/2 and Vsat values obtained in titrations with factor IXa were not significantly different from those obtained with factor VIII. In titrations with factor X, the values of Michaelis-Menten coefficients (Km) were 31.7 nM with thrombin- activated factor VIII, and 14.2 nM with factor Xa-activated factor VIII. Maximal rates were 23.4 and 4.9 nM factor Xa/min, respectively. The apparent catalytic efficiency was similar with either form of factor VIIIa. Kinetic profiles obtained with platelets as a source of membrane were comparable to those obtained with monocytes

  2. Generation of global political priority for early childhood development: the challenges of framing and governance.

    PubMed

    Shawar, Yusra Ribhi; Shiffman, Jeremy

    2017-01-07

    Despite progress, early childhood development (ECD) remains a neglected issue, particularly in resource-poor countries. We analyse the challenges and opportunities that ECD proponents face in advancing global priority for the issue. We triangulated among several data sources, including 19 semi-structured interviews with individuals involved in global ECD leadership, practice, and advocacy, as well as peer-reviewed research, organisation reports, and grey literature. We undertook a thematic analysis of the collected data, drawing on social science scholarship on collective action and a policy framework that elucidates why some global initiatives are more successful in generating political priority than others. The analysis indicates that the ECD community faces two primary challenges in advancing global political priority. The first pertains to framing: generation of internal consensus on the definition of the problem and solutions, agreement that could facilitate the discovery of a public positioning of the issue that could generate political support. The second concerns governance: building of effective institutions to achieve collective goals. However, there are multiple opportunities to advance political priority for ECD, including an increasingly favourable political environment, advances in ECD metrics, and the existence of compelling arguments for investment in ECD. To advance global priority for ECD, proponents will need to surmount the framing and governance challenges and leverage these opportunities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of SanOrg123781A, a synthetic hexadecasaccharide, on clot-bound thrombin and factor Xa in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hérault, J-P; Cappelle, M; Bernat, A; Millet, L; Bono, F; Schaeffer, P; Herbert, J-M

    2003-09-01

    Factor (F)Xa and thrombin bound to the clot during its formation contribute to the propensity of thrombi to activate the coagulation system. The aim of this work was to study the inhibition of clot-bound FXa and clot-bound thrombin by SanOrg123781A, a synthetic hexadecasaccharide that enhances the inhibition of thrombin and FXa by antithrombin (AT). SanOrg123781A, designed to exhibit low non-specific binding to proteins other than AT, was compared with heparin. In buffer, heparin and SanOrg123781A inhibited FXa and thrombin at similar concentrations [concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) of Xa and IIa activity were, respectively: heparin 120 +/- 7 and 3 +/- 1 ng mL-1; SanOrg123781A 77 +/- 5 and 4 +/- 1 ng mL-1]. In human plasma, the activity of both compounds was reduced, although the activity of heparin was much more affected than that of SanOrg123781A (IC50 values for inhibition of FXa and FIIa activity were, respectively: heparin 100 +/- 5 and 800 +/- 40 ng mL-1; SanOrg123781A 10 +/- 5 and 30 +/- 3 ng mL-1). We demonstrated, in agreement with our previous results, that the procoagulant activity of the clot is essentially due to clot-bound FXa and to some extent to clot-bound thrombin. We showed that heparin and SanOrg123781A were able to inhibit fragment F1+2 generation induced by clot-bound FXa with IC50 values of 2 +/- 0.5 micro g mL-1 and 0.6 +/- 0.2 micro g mL-1, respectively. Both compounds also inhibited clot-bound thrombin activity, the IC50 values of heparin and SanOrg123781A being 1 +/- 0.01 micro g mL-1 and 0.1 +/- 0.1 micro g mL-1, respectively. Moreover, both heparin and SanOrg123781A significantly inhibited fibrinopeptide A generated by the action of clot-bound thrombin on fibrinogen but also by free thrombin generated from prothrombin by clot-bound FXa with IC50 values of 4 +/- 0.6 and 1 +/- 0.1 micro g mL-1, respectively. As with clot-bound enzymatic activities, SanOrg123781A was three times more active than heparin in vivo on fibrinogen accretion

  4. High-resolution structures of two complexes between thrombin and thrombin-binding aptamer shed light on the role of cations in the aptamer inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Russo Krauss, Irene; Merlino, Antonello; Randazzo, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Mazzarella, Lelio; Sica, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    The G-quadruplex architecture is a peculiar structure adopted by guanine-rich oligonucleotidic sequences, and, in particular, by several aptamers, including the thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) that has the highest inhibitory activity against human α-thrombin. A crucial role in determining structure, stability and biological properties of G-quadruplexes is played by ions. In the case of TBA, K+ ions cause an enhancement of the aptamer clotting inhibitory activity. A detailed picture of the interactions of TBA with the protein and with the ions is still lacking, despite the importance of this aptamer in biomedical field for detection and inhibition of α-thrombin. Here, we fill this gap by presenting a high-resolution crystallographic structural characterization of the thrombin–TBA complex formed in the presence of Na+ or K+ and a circular dichroism study of the structural stability of the aptamer both free and complexed with α-thrombin, in the presence of the two ionic species. The results indicate that the different effects exerted by Na+ and K+ on the inhibitory activity of TBA are related to a subtle perturbation of a few key interactions at the protein–aptamer interface. The present data, in combination with those previously obtained on the complex between α-thrombin and a modified aptamer, may allow the design of new TBA variants with a pharmacological performance enhancement. PMID:22669903

  5. Bridging the Generation Gap: A Rapid Early Career Hire Training Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieber, Richard R.; Coffee, Thomas; Dong, Shuonan; Infield, Samantha I.; Kilbride, Kendra B.; Seibert, Michael A.; Solish, Benjamin S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a training program to provide Early Career Hires (ECHs) in the aerospace industry with real, rapid, hands-on exposure to multiple phases and multiple disciplines of flight project development. Such a program has become necessary to close the Generation Gap and ensure that aerospace organizations maintain a highly skilled workforce as experienced personnel begin to retire. This paper discusses the specific motivations for and implementation of such a program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. However, the essential features are widely applicable to other NASA centers and organizations delivering large llight systems. This paper details the overall program concept, stages of participation by an ECH, oversight and mentoring, program assessment, training project selection, and facilities requirements.

  6. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  7. A novel intravital multi-harmonic generation microscope for early diagnosis of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Feng; Shih, Ting-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed human cancers and leading causes of cancer death all over the world, but the prognosis and overall survival rate are still poor because of delay in diagnosis and lack of early intervention. The failure of early diagnosis is due to insufficiency of proper diagnostic and screening tools and most patients are reluctant to undergo biopsy. Optical virtual biopsy techniques, for imaging cells and tissues at microscopic details capable of differentiating benign from malignant lesions non-invasively, are thus highly desirable. A novel multi-harmonic generation microscope, excited by a 1260 nm Cr:forsterite laser, with second and third harmonic signals demonstrating collagen fiber distribution and cell morphology in a sub-micron resolution, was developed for clinical use. To achieve invivo observation inside the human oral cavity, a small objective probe with a suction capability was carefully designed for patients' comfort and stability. By remotely changing its focus point, the same objective can image the mucosa surface with a low magnification, illuminated by side light-emitting diodes, with a charge-coupled device (CCD) for site location selection before the harmonic generation biopsy was applied. Furthermore, the slow galvanometer mirror and the fast resonant mirror provide a 30 fps frame rate for high-speed real-time observation and the z-motor of this system is triggered at the same rate to provide fast 3D scanning, again ensuring patients' comfort. Focusing on the special cytological and morphological changes of the oral epithelial cells, our preliminary result disclosed excellent consistency with traditional histopathology studies.

  8. Endoscopic laser-induced steam generator: a new method of treatment for early gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takuya; Arai, Tsunenori; Tajiri, Hisao; Nogami, Yashiroh; Hino, Kunihiko; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1996-05-01

    The minimum invasive endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer has been popular in Japan. The endoscopic mucosal resection and laser coagulation by Nd:YAG laser irradiation has been the popular treatment method in this field. However, the submucosal cancer has not been successfully treated by these methods. To treat the submucosal cancer endoscopically, we developed a new coagulation therapy using hot steam generated by Nd:YAG laser. The steam of which temperature was over 10 deg. in Celsius was generated by the laser power of 30 W with 5 ml/min. of saline. The steam was emitted to canine gastric wall under laparotomy or endoscopy for 50 s respectively. Follow up endoscopy was performed on 3, 7, 14, 28 days after the treatment. Histological examination was studied on 7, 28 days, and just after the emission. In the acute observation, the submucosal layer was totally coagulated. On the 7th day, ulceration with white coat was seen. The mucosal defect, submucosal coagulation, and marked edema without muscle degeneration were found by the histological study. On the 14th day, the ulcer advanced in the scar stage. On the 28th day, it completely healed into white scar with mucosal regeneration and mucosal muscle thickening. We could obtain reproducible coagulation up to deep submucosal layer with large area in a short operation time. Moreover there were no degeneration of proper muscle. This treatment effectiveness could be easily controlled by the steam temperature and emission duration. We think that this method can be applied to early gastric cancer including the submucosal cancer, in particular poor risk case for operation. Further study should be done to apply this method to clinical therapy.

  9. An Investigation of the Characteristics of the Enzyme Thrombin, Suitable for Classwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blofield, B. Ann

    1972-01-01

    Shows how a simple investigation of the enzyme, thrombin, can provide a series of experiments giving information on enzyme characteristics. The results also provide a basis for discussion of the coagulation mechanism and related phenomena. (Author/AL)

  10. Prolyl endopeptidase and thrombin inhibitory diterpenoids from the bark of Xylopia aethiopica.

    PubMed

    Diderot, Noungoue Tchamo; Silvere, Ngouela; Yasin, Amsha; Zareen, Seema; Fabien, Zelefack; Etienne, Tsamo; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2005-09-01

    The inhibitory effects of seven diterpenes, belonging to three different structural classes and isolated from the bark of Xylopia aethiopica, were investigated against the enzymes prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) and alpha-thrombin. Five compounds exhibited inhibitory activity against them.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the complex of human α-thrombin with a modified thrombin-binding aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Russo Krauss, Irene; Merlino, Antonello; Randazzo, Antonio; Mazzarella, Lelio; Sica, Filomena

    2010-01-01

    The thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) is a consensus DNA 15-mer that binds specifically to human α-thrombin at nanomolar concentrations and inhibits its procoagulant functions. Recently, a modified TBA (mTBA) containing a 5′–5′ inversion-of-polarity site has been shown to be more stable and to possess a higher thrombin affinity than its unmodified counterpart. The structure of the thrombin–TBA complex has previously been determined at low resolution, but did not provide a detailed picture of the aptamer conformation or of the protein–DNA assembly, while that of the complex with mTBA is unknown. Crystallographic analysis of the thrombin–mTBA complex has been attempted. The crystals diffracted to 2.15 Å resolution and belonged to space group I222. PMID:20693681

  12. Identification of berberine as a direct thrombin inhibitor from traditional Chinese medicine through structural, functional and binding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Zhang, Yuxin; Yang, Ying; Wu, Xia; Fan, Hantian; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2017-03-01

    Thrombin acts as a key enzyme in the blood coagulation cascade and represents a potential drug target for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to identify small-molecule direct thrombin inhibitors from herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). A pharmacophore model and molecular docking were utilized to virtually screen a library of chemicals contained in compositions of traditional Chinese herbs, and these analyses were followed by in vitro bioassay validation and binding studies. Berberine (BBR) was first confirmed as a thrombin inhibitor using an enzymatic assay. The BBR IC50 value for thrombin inhibition was 2.92 μM. Direct binding studies using surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that BBR directly interacted with thrombin with a KD value of 16.39 μM. Competitive binding assay indicated that BBR could bind to the same argartroban/thrombin interaction site. A platelet aggregation assay demonstrated that BBR had the ability to inhibit thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in washed platelets samples. This study proved that BBR is a direct thrombin inhibitor that has activity in inhibiting thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. BBR may be a potential candidate for the development of safe and effective thrombin-inhibiting drugs.

  13. Thrombin-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Yasunari; Mizuno, Katsushige; Kuroki, Yasutomi; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2001-01-01

    Thrombin is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and has been implicated its pathogenic role in vascular remodelling. However, the signalling pathways by which thrombin mediates its mitogenic response are not fully understood.We have previously reported that thrombin activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) by a tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism, and that p38 MAPK has a role in thrombin-induced mitogenic response in rat VSMC.In the present study, we examine the involvement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in thrombin-induced p38 MAPK activation. We found that thrombin induced EGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation (transactivation) in A10 cells, a clonal VSMC cell line. A selective inhibitor of EGF receptor kinase (AG1478) inhibited the p38 MAPK activation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had no effect on the response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). EGF receptor phosphorylation induced by thrombin was inhibited by BAPTA-AM and GF109203X, which suggest a requirement for intracellular Ca2+ increase and protein kinase C.We next examined the effect of AG1478 on thrombin-induced DNA synthesis. AG1478 inhibited thrombin-induced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, PDGF-induced DNA synthesis was not affected by AG1478.In conclusion, these data suggest that the EGF receptor transactivation and subsequent p38 MAPK activation is required for thrombin-induced proliferation of VSMC. PMID:11309236

  14. Identification and Mechanistic Analysis of a Novel Tick-Derived Inhibitor of Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Jablonka, Willy; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Lukszo, Jan; Drake, Steven K.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    A group of peptides from the salivary gland of the tick Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, a vector of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever show weak similarity to the madanins, a group of thrombin-inhibitory peptides from a second tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis. We have evaluated the anti-serine protease activity of one of these H. marginatum peptides that has been given the name hyalomin-1. Hyalomin-1 was found to be a selective inhibitor of thrombin, blocking coagulation of plasma and inhibiting S2238 hydrolysis in a competitive manner with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 12 nM at an ionic strength of 150 mM. It also blocks the thrombin-mediated activation of coagulation factor XI, thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, and the activation of coagulation factor V by thrombin. Hyalomin-1 is cleaved at a canonical thrombin cleavage site but the cleaved products do not inhibit coagulation. However, the C-terminal cleavage product showed non-competitive inhibition of S2238 hydrolysis. A peptide combining the N-terminal parts of the molecule with the cleavage region did not interact strongly with thrombin, but a 24-residue fragment containing the cleavage region and the C-terminal fragment inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner and also inhibited coagulation of plasma. These results suggest that the peptide acts by binding to the active site as well as exosite I or the autolysis loop of thrombin. Injection of 2.5 mg/kg of hyalomin-1 increased arterial occlusion time in a mouse model of thrombosis, suggesting this peptide could be a candidate for clinical use as an antithrombotic. PMID:26244557

  15. Novel Role for p21-activated Kinase 2 in Thrombin-induced Monocyte Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Gadepalli, Ravisekhar; Kotla, Sivareddy; Heckle, Mark R.; Verma, Shailendra K.; Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the role of thrombin in inflammation, we tested its effects on migration of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. Thrombin induced THP-1 cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Thrombin induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2, Gab1, and p115 RhoGEF, leading to Rac1- and RhoA-dependent Pak2 activation. Downstream to Pyk2, Gab1 formed a complex with p115 RhoGEF involving their pleckstrin homology domains. Furthermore, inhibition or depletion of Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, or Pak2 levels substantially attenuated thrombin-induced THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. Inhibition or depletion of PAR1 also blocked thrombin-induced activation of Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, and Pak2, resulting in diminished THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. Similarly, depletion of Gα12 negated thrombin-induced Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, and Pak2 activation, leading to attenuation of THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. These novel observations reveal that thrombin induces monocyte/macrophage migration via PAR1-Gα12-dependent Pyk2-mediated Gab1 and p115 RhoGEF interactions, leading to Rac1- and RhoA-targeted Pak2 activation. Thus, these findings provide mechanistic evidence for the role of thrombin and its receptor PAR1 in inflammation. PMID:24025335

  16. A cascade signal amplification strategy for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of thrombin based on DNAzyme assistant DNA recycling and rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fenglei; Du, Lili; Tang, Daoquan; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhang, Lixian

    2015-04-15

    A sensitive protocol for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of thrombin is designed with R6G-Ag NPs as a signal tag by combining DNAzyme assistant DNA recycling and rolling circle amplification (RCA). Molecular beacon (MB) as recognition probe immobilizes on the glass slides and performs the amplification procedure. After thrombin-induced structure-switching DNA hairpins of probe 1, the DNAzyme is liberated from the caged structure, which hybridizes with the MB for cleavage of the MB in the presence of cofactor Zn(2+) and initiates the DNA recycling process, leading to the cleavage of a large number of MB and the generation of numerous primers for triggering RCA reaction. The long amplified RCA product which contained hundreds of tandem-repeat sequences, which can bind with oligonucleotide functionalized Ag NPs reporters. The attached signal tags can be easily read out by SERS. Because of the cascade signal amplification, these newly designed protocols provides a sensitive SERS detection of thrombin down to the femolar level (2.3fM) with a linear range of 5 orders of magnitude (from 10(-14) to 10(-9)M) and have high selectivity toward its target protein. The proposed method is expected to be a good clinical tool for the diagnosis of a thrombotic disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A random approach of test macro generation for early detection of hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-hyun; Kim, Chin; Kang, Minsoo; Hwang, Sungwook; Yang, Jae-seok; Harb, Mohammed; Al-Imam, Mohamed; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Kwan, Joe

    2016-03-01

    Multiple-Patterning Technology (MPT) is still the preferred choice over EUV for the advanced technology nodes, starting the 20nm node. Down the way to 7nm and 5nm nodes, Self-Aligned Multiple Patterning (SAMP) appears to be one of the effective multiple patterning techniques in terms of achieving small pitch of printed lines on wafer, yet its yield is in question. Predicting and enhancing the yield in the early stages of technology development are some of the main objectives for creating test macros on test masks. While conventional yield ramp techniques for a new technology node have relied on using designs from previous technology nodes as a starting point to identify patterns for Design of Experiment (DoE) creation, these techniques are challenging to apply in the case of introducing an MPT technique like SAMP that did not exist in previous nodes. This paper presents a new strategy for generating test structures based on random placement of unit patterns that can construct more meaningful bigger patterns. Specifications governing the relationships between those unit patterns can be adjusted to generate layout clips that look like realistic SAMP designs. A via chain can be constructed to connect the random DoE of SAMP structures through a routing layer to external pads for electrical measurement. These clips are decomposed according to the decomposition rules of the technology into the appropriate mandrel and cut masks. The decomposed clips can be tested through simulations, or electrically on silicon to discover hotspots. The hotspots can be used in optimizing the fabrication process and models to fix them. They can also be used as learning patterns for DFM deck development. By expanding the size of the randomly generated test structures, more hotspots can be detected. This should provide a faster way to enhance the yield of a new technology node.

  18. Pulsatile equibiaxial stretch inhibits thrombin-induced RhoA and NF-{kappa}B activation

    SciT

    Haga, Jason H.; Kaunas, Roland; Radeff-Huang, Julie

    2008-07-18

    This study investigated interactions between the effects of mechanical stretch and thrombin on RhoA activation in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). Equibiaxial, pulsatile stretch, or thrombin produced a significant increase in RhoA activation. Surprisingly, in combination, 30 min of stretch inhibited the ability of thrombin to activate RhoA. NO donors and 8-bromo-cGMP significantly inhibited thrombin-induced RhoA activation. Interestingly, the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME increased basal RhoA activity, suggesting that NOS activity exerts a tonic inhibition on RhoA. Stretching RASMC increases nitrite production, consistent with the idea that NO contributes to the inhibitory effects of stretch. Thrombin stimulatesmore » MAP kinase and NF-{kappa}B pathways through Rho and these responses were blocked by 8-bromo-cGMP or stretch and restored by L-NAME. These data suggest that stretch, acting through NO and cGMP, can prevent the ability of thrombin to stimulate Rho signaling pathways that contribute to pathophysiological proliferative and inflammatory responses.« less

  19. Activation of platelet-rich plasma using thrombin receptor agonist peptide.

    PubMed

    Landesberg, Regina; Burke, Andrea; Pinsky, David; Katz, Ronald; Vo, Jennifer; Eisig, Sidney B; Lu, Helen H

    2005-04-01

    This study proposes an alternative preparation method of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Specifically, we compare the use of thrombin receptor agonist peptide-6 (TRAP) and bovine thrombin as a clotting agent in the preparation of PRP. PRP was prepared by centrifugation and clotted with thrombin or TRAP. In vitro clotting times were monitored as a function of TRAP concentration, and clot retraction was determined by measuring clot diameter over time. Following the optimization of TRAP concentration, experiments were repeated with the addition of several commercially available bone substitutes. The release of PRP-relevant growth factors as a function of PRP preparation was also determined. The most rapid polymerization of PRP takes place with the addition of thrombin, followed by TRAP/Allogro (Ceramed, Lakewood, CO), TRAP/BioGlass (Mo-Sci, Rolla, MN), TRAP/BioOss (Osteohealth, Shirley, NY), and TRAP alone. Thrombin caused considerable clot retraction (43%), whereas TRAP alone resulted in only 15% retraction. TRAP/Allogro, TRAP/BioOss, and TRAP/BioGlass all exhibited minimal retraction (8%). The use of TRAP to activate clot formation in the preparation of PRP may be a safe alternative to bovine thrombin. It results in an excellent working time and significantly less clot retraction than the currently available methods of PRP production.

  20. Electrostatic interaction based approach to thrombin detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Juan; Zheng, Peng-Cheng; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin; Liu, Guo-Kun

    2009-01-01

    We have developed an electrostatic interaction based biosensor for thrombin detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This method utilized the electrostatic interaction between capture (thrombin aptamer) and probe (crystal violet, CV) molecules. The specific interaction between thrombin and aptamer could weaken the electrostatic barrier effect from the negative charged aptamer SAMs to the diffusion process of the positively charged CV from the bulk solution to the Au nanoparticle surface. Therefore, the more the bound thrombin, the more the CV molecules near the Au nanoparticle surface and the stronger the observed Raman signal of CV, provided the Raman detections were set at the same time point for each case. This procedure presented a highly specific selectivity and a linear detection of thrombin in the range from 0.1 nM to 10 nM with a detection limit of about 20 pM and realized the thrombin detection in human blood serum solution directly. The electrostatic interaction based technique provides an easy and fast-responding optical platform for a "signal-on" detection of proteins, which might be applicable for the real time assay of proteins.

  1. Screening of benzamidine-based thrombin inhibitors via a linear interaction energy in continuum electrostatics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolotti, Orazio; Giangreco, Ilenia; Miscioscia, Teresa Fabiola; Convertino, Marino; Leonetti, Francesco; Pisani, Leonardo; Carotti, Angelo

    2010-02-01

    A series of 27 benzamidine inhibitors covering a wide range of biological activity and chemical diversity was analysed to derive a Linear Interaction Energy in Continuum Electrostatics (LIECE) model for analysing the thrombin inhibitory activity. The main interactions occurring at the thrombin binding site and the preferred binding conformations of inhibitors were explicitly biased by including into the LIECE model 10 compounds extracted from X-ray solved thrombin-inhibitor complexes available from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Supported by a robust statistics ( r 2 = 0.698; q 2 = 0.662), the LIECE model was successful in predicting the inhibitory activity for about 76% of compounds ( r ext 2 ≥ 0.600) from a larger external test set encompassing 88 known thrombin inhibitors and, more importantly, in retrieving, at high sensitivity and with better performance than docking and shape-based methods, active compounds from a thrombin combinatorial library of 10240 mimetic chemical products. The herein proposed LIECE model has the potential for successfully driving the design of novel thrombin inhibitors with benzamidine and/or benzamidine-like chemical structure.

  2. Baicalin protects against thrombin induced cell injury in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Xiao-Ning; Mu, Wei-Na; Liu, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Mei-Hong; Kong, Feng; Sun, Chao; Zhou, Qing-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin, an extract from the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, was shown to be neuroprotective. However, the precise mechanisms are incompletely known. In this study, we determined the effect of baicalin on thrombin induced cell injury in SH-SY5Y cells, and explored the possible mechanisms. SH-SY5Y cells was treated with thrombin alone or pre-treated with baicalin (5, 10, 20 μM) for 2 h followed by thrombin treatment. Cells without thrombin and baicalin treatment were used as controls. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the mRNA expression of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). Western blotting was conducted to determine the protein expression of PAR-1, Caspase-3 and NF-κB. Baicalin reduced cell death following thrombin treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with concomitant inhibition of NF-κB activation and suppression of PAR-1 expression. In addition, baicalin reduced Caspase-3 expression. The above findings indicated that baicalin prevents against cell injury after thrombin stimulation possibly through inhibition of PAR-1 expression and NF-κB activation. PMID:26823714

  3. Investigation of the heparin-thrombin interaction by dynamic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhou; Jin, Yingzi; Desai, Umesh R; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2015-06-01

    The interaction between heparin and thrombin is a vital step in the blood (anti)coagulation process. Unraveling the molecular basis of the interactions is therefore extremely important in understanding the mechanisms of this complex biological process. In this study, we use a combination of an efficient thiolation chemistry of heparin, a self-assembled monolayer-based single molecule platform, and a dynamic force spectroscopy to provide new insights into the heparin-thrombin interaction from an energy viewpoint at the molecular scale. Well-separated single molecules of heparin covalently attached to mixed self-assembled monolayers are demonstrated, whereby interaction forces with thrombin can be measured via atomic force microscopy-based spectroscopy. Further these interactions are studied at different loading rates and salt concentrations to directly obtain kinetic parameters. An increase in the loading rate shows a higher interaction force between the heparin and thrombin, which can be directly linked to the kinetic dissociation rate constant (koff). The stability of the heparin/thrombin complex decreased with increasing NaCl concentration such that the off-rate was found to be driven primarily by non-ionic forces. These results contribute to understanding the role of specific and nonspecific forces that drive heparin-thrombin interactions under applied force or flow conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thrombin-induced microglial activation impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory ability in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Meikui; Kang, Xiaoni; Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pei; Li, Jingjing

    2015-09-26

    To investigate the effects of microglia/macrophages activation induced by intrastriatal thrombin injection on dentate gyrus neurogenesis and spatial memory ability in mice. The male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups of 10: sham, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), ICH + hirudin (thrombin inhibitor), and ICH + indometacin (Indo, an anti-inflammation drug). ICH model was created by intrastriatal thrombin (1U) injection. BrdU (50 mg/kg) was administrated on the same day after surgery for 6 consecutive days. Motor functions were evaluated with rotarod and beam walking tests. The spatial memory deficit was measured with Morris water maze (MWM). Cell quantification was performed for doublecortin (DCX, immature neuron), BrdU (S-phase proliferating cell population) and CD68 (activated microglia/macrophage) immune-reactive cells. Microglia/macrophages activation induced by intrastriatal thrombin injection reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired spatial memory ability, but did not affect the motor function at 3 and 5 days post-injury. Both hirudin and indometacin reduced microglia/macrophages activation, enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis, and improved spatial memory ability in mice. Microglia/macrophages activation induced by intrastriatal thrombin injection might be responsible for the spatial memory deficit. Targeting both thrombin and inflammation systems in acute phase of ICH might be important in alleviating the significant spatial memory deficits.

  5. Thrombin-induced contraction in alveolar epithelial cells probed by traction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Núria; Sunyer, Raimon; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Farré, Ramon; Rotger, Mar; Navajas, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    Contractile tension of alveolar epithelial cells plays a major role in the force balance that regulates the structural integrity of the alveolar barrier. The aim of this work was to study thrombin-induced contractile forces of alveolar epithelial cells. A549 alveolar epithelial cells were challenged with thrombin, and time course of contractile forces was measured by traction microscopy. The cells exhibited basal contraction with total force magnitude 55.0 +/- 12.0 nN (mean +/- SE, n = 12). Traction forces were exerted predominantly at the cell periphery and pointed to the cell center. Thrombin (1 U/ml) induced a fast and sustained 2.5-fold increase in traction forces, which maintained peripheral and centripetal distribution. Actin fluorescent staining revealed F-actin polymerization and enhancement of peripheral actin rim. Disruption of actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D (5 microM, 30 min) and inhibition of myosin light chain kinase with ML-7 (10 microM, 30 min) and Rho kinase with Y-27632 (10 microM, 30 min) markedly depressed basal contractile tone and abolished thrombin-induced cell contraction. Therefore, the contractile response of alveolar epithelial cells to the inflammatory agonist thrombin was mediated by actin cytoskeleton remodeling and actomyosin activation through myosin light chain kinase and Rho kinase signaling pathways. Thrombin-induced contractile tension might further impair alveolar epithelial barrier integrity in the injured lung.

  6. Detection of Subclinical Arthritis in Mice by a Thrombin Receptor-Derived Imaging Agent.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Beth; Whitney, Michael A; Savariar, Elamprakash N; Caneda, Christa; Steinbach, Paul; Xiong, Qing; Hingorani, Dina V; Crisp, Jessica; Adams, Stephen R; Kenner, Michael; Lippert, Csilla N; Nguyen, Quyen T; Guma, Monica; Tsien, Roger Y; Corr, Maripat

    2018-01-01

    Functional imaging of synovitis could improve both early detection of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and long-term outcomes. Given the intersection of inflammation with coagulation protease activation, this study was undertaken to examine coagulation protease activities in arthritic mice with a dual-fluorescence ratiometric activatable cell-penetrating peptide (RACPP) that has a linker, norleucine (Nle)-TPRSFL, with a cleavage site for thrombin. K/BxN-transgenic mice with chronic arthritis and mice with day 1 passive serum-transfer arthritis were imaged in vivo for Cy5:Cy7 emission ratiometric fluorescence from proteolytic cleavage and activation of RACPP NleTPRSFL . Joint thickness in mice with serum-transfer arthritis was measured from days 0 to 10. The cleavage-evoked release of Cy5-tagged tissue-adhesive fragments enabled microscopic correlation with immunohistochemistry for inflammatory markers. Thrombin dependence of ratiometric fluorescence was tested by ex vivo application of RACPP NleTPRSFL and argatroban to cryosections obtained from mouse hind paws on day 1 of serum-transfer arthritis. In chronic arthritis, RACPP NleTPRSFL fluorescence ratios of Cy5:Cy7 emission were significantly higher in diseased swollen ankles of K/BxN-transgenic mice than in normal mouse ankles. A high ratio of RACPP NleTPRSFL fluorescence in mouse ankles and toes on day 1 of serum-transfer arthritis correlated with subsequent joint swelling. Foci of high ratiometric fluorescence localized to inflammation, as demarcated by immune reactivity for citrullinated histones, macrophages, mast cells, and neutrophils, in soft tissue on day 1 of serum-transfer arthritis. Ex vivo application of RACPP NleTPRSFL to cryosections obtained from mice on day 1 of serum-transfer arthritis produced ratiometric fluorescence that was inhibited by argatroban. RACPP NleTPRSFL activation detects established experimental arthritis, and the detection of inflammation by RACPP NleTPRSFL on day 1 of serum

  7. Insilico direct folding of thrombin-binding aptamer G-quadruplex at all-atom level.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changwon; Kulkarni, Mandar; Lim, Manho; Pak, Youngshang

    2017-12-15

    The reversible folding of the thrombin-binding DNA aptamer G-quadruplexes (GQs) (TBA-15) starting from fully unfolded states was demonstrated using a prolonged time scale (10-12 μs) parallel tempering metadynamics (PTMetaD) simulation method in conjunction with a modified version of the AMBER bsc1 force field. For unbiased descriptions of the folding free energy landscape of TBA-15, this force field was minimally modified. From this direct folding simulation using the modified bsc1 force field, reasonably converged free energy landscapes were obtained in K+-rich aqueous solution (150 mM), providing detailed atomistic pictures of GQ folding mechanisms for TBA-15. This study found that the TBA folding occurred via multiple folding pathways with two major free energy barriers of 13 and 15 kcal/mol in the presence of several intermediate states of G-triplex variants. The early formation of these intermediates was associated with a single K+ ion capturing. Interestingly, these intermediate states appear to undergo facile transitions among themselves through relatively small energy barriers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Effects of Aerobic Capacity on Thrombin-Induced Hydrocephalus and White Matter Injury.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Gao, Feng; Zheng, Mingzhe; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury is less in rats bred for high aerobic capacity (high capacity runners; HCR) compared with those bred for low aerobic capacity (low capacity runners; LCRs). Thrombin, an essential component in the coagulation cascade, is produced after cerebral hemorrhage. Intraventricular injection of thrombin causes significant hydrocephalus and white matter damage. In the present study, we examined the effect of exercise capacity on thrombin-induced hydrocephalus and white matter damage. Mid-aged (13-month-old) female LCRs (n = 13) and HCRs (n = 12) rats were used in this study. Rats received an intraventricular injection of thrombin (3 U, 50 μl). All rats underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 h and were then euthanized for brain histology and Western blot. The mortalities were 20 % in LCRs and 33 % in HCRs after thrombin injection (p > 0.05). No rats died after saline injection. Intraventricular thrombin injection resulted in hydrocephalus and periventricular white matter damage as determined on MRI. In LCR rats, thrombin induced significant ventricle enlargement (23.0 ± 2.3 vs12.8 ± 1.9 mm(3) in LCR saline group; p < 0.01) and white matter lesion (9.3 ± 7.6 vs 0.6 ± 0.5 mm(3) in LCR saline group, p < 0.05). In comparison, in HCR rats thrombin induced less ventricular enlargement (17.3 ± 3.9 vs 23.0 ± 2.3 mm(3) in LCRs, p < 0.01) and smaller white matter lesions (2.6 ± 1.2 mm(3) vs 9.3 ± 7.6 mm(3) in LCRs, p < 0.05). In LCR rats, there was also upregulation of heat shock protein-32, a stress marker, and microglial activation in the periventricular white matter. These changes were significantly reduced in HCR rats. Intraventricular injection of thrombin caused more white matter damage and hydrocephalus in rats with low aerobic capacity. A differential effect of thrombin may contribute to differences in the effects of cerebral

  9. Early Childhood Intervention and Early Adolescent Social and Emotional Competence: Second-Generation Evaluation Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Michael D.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Background: To explore whether social or emotional outcomes for high-risk early adolescent youth that attended an established preventive intervention called the Chicago Child-Parent Center Preschool Program (CPC) are moderated by individual, family and program variations. Purpose: Two questions are addressed: (1) Do the effects of CPC preschool…

  10. Screening cleavage of Factor XIII V34X Activation Peptides by thrombin mutants: A strategy for controlling fibrin architecture.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Madhavi A; Goldsberry, Whitney N; Zink, Sara E; Lamb, Kelsey N; Simmons, Katelyn E; Riposo, Carmela M; Anokhin, Boris A; Maurer, Muriel C

    2017-10-01

    In blood coagulation, thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin monomers that polymerize into a clot network. Thrombin also activates Factor XIII by cleaving the R37-G38 peptide bond of the Activation Peptide (AP) segment. The resultant transglutaminase introduces covalent crosslinks into the fibrin clot. A strategy to modify clot architecture would be to design FXIII AP sequences that are easier or more difficult to be thrombin-cleaved thus controlling initiation of crosslinking. To aid in this design process, FXIII V34X (28-41) Activation Peptides were kinetically ranked for cleavage by wild-type thrombin and several anticoagulant mutants. Thrombin-catalyzed hydrolysis of aromatic FXIII F34, W34, and Y34 APs was compared with V34 and L34. Cardioprotective FXIII L34 remained the variant most readily cleaved by wild-type thrombin. The potent anticoagulant thrombins W215A and W215A/E217A (missing a key substrate platform for binding fibrinogen) were best able to hydrolyze FXIII F34 and W34 APs. Thrombin I174A and L99A could effectively accommodate FXIII W34 and Y34 APs yielding kinetic parameters comparable to FXIII AP L34 with wild-type thrombin. None of the aromatic FXIII V34X APs could be hydrolyzed by thrombin Y60aA. FXIII F34 and W34 are promising candidates for FXIII - anticoagulant thrombin systems that could permit FXIII-catalyzed crosslinking in the presence of reduced fibrin formation. By contrast, FXIII Y34 with thrombin (Y60aA or W215A/E217A) could help assure that both fibrin clot formation and protein crosslinking are hindered. Regulating the activation of FXIII is predicted to be a strategy for helping to control fibrin clot architecture and its neighboring environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of the relic neutrino asymmetry in a hot plasma of the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semikoz, Victor B.; Dvornikov, Maxim

    The neutrino asymmetry in the early universe plasma, nν ‑ nν¯, is calculated both before and after the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). In the Standard Model, before EWPT, the leptogenesis is well known to be driven by the abelian anomaly in a massless hypercharge field. The generation of the neutrino asymmetry in the Higgs phase after EWPT, in its turn, has not been considered previously because of the absence of any quantum anomaly in an external electromagnetic field for such electroneutral particles as neutrino, unlike the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly for charged left and right polarized massless electrons in the same electromagnetic field. Using the neutrino Boltzmann equation, modified by the Berry curvature term in the momentum space, we establish the violation of the macroscopic neutrino current in plasma after EWPT and exactly reproduce the nonconservation of the lepton current in the symmetric phase before EWPT arising in quantum field theory due to the nonzero lepton hypercharge and corresponding triangle anomaly in an external hypercharge field. In the last case, the nonconservation of the lepton current is derived through the kinetic approach without a computation of corresponding Feynman diagrams. Then, the new kinetic equation is applied for the calculation of the neutrino asymmetry accounting for the Berry curvature and the electroweak interaction with background fermions in the Higgs phase. Such an interaction generates a neutrino asymmetry through the electroweak coupling of neutrino currents with electromagnetic fields in plasma, which is ˜ GF2. It turns out that this effect is especially efficient for maximally helical magnetic fields.

  12. Thrombin-Binding Aptamer Quadruplex Formation: AFM and Voltammetric Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Diculescu, Victor Constantin; Chiorcea-Paquim, Ana-Maria; Eritja, Ramon; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption and the redox behaviour of thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) and extended TBA (eTBA) were studied using atomic force microscopy and voltammetry at highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and glassy carbon. The different adsorption patterns and degree of surface coverage were correlated with the sequence base composition, presence/absence of K+, and voltammetric behaviour of TBA and eTBA. In the presence of K+, only a few single-stranded sequences present adsorption, while the majority of the molecules forms stable and rigid quadruplexes with no adsorption. Both TBA and eTBA are oxidized and the only anodic peak corresponds to guanine oxidation. Upon addition of K+ ions, TBA and eTBA fold into a quadruplex, causing the decrease of guanine oxidation peak and occurrence of a new peak at a higher potential due to the oxidation of G-quartets. The higher oxidation potential of G-quartets is due to the greater difficulty of electron transfer from the inside of the quadruplex to the electrode surface than electron transfer from the more flexible single strands. PMID:20798847

  13. Lipopolysaccharide interactions of C-terminal peptides from human thrombin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Schmidtchen, Artur; Malmsten, Martin

    2013-05-13

    Interactions with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), both in aqueous solution and in lipid membranes, were investigated for a series of amphiphilic peptides derived from the C-terminal region of human thrombin, using ellipsometry, dual polarization interferometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering, and z-potential measurements. The ability of these peptides to block endotoxic effects caused by LPS, monitored through NO production in macrophages, was compared to peptide binding to LPS and its endotoxic component lipid A, and to size, charge, and secondary structure of peptide/LPS complexes. While the antiendotoxic peptide GKY25 (GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE) displayed significant binding to both LPS and lipid A, so did two control peptides with either selected D-amino acid substitutions or with maintained composition but scrambled sequence, both displaying strongly attenuated antiendotoxic effects. Hence, the extent of LPS or lipid A binding is not the sole discriminant for the antiendotoxic effect of these peptides. In contrast, helix formation in peptide/LPS complexes correlates to the antiendotoxic effect of these peptides and is potentially linked to this functionality. Preferential binding to LPS over lipid membrane was furthermore demonstrated for these peptides and preferential binding to the lipid A moiety within LPS inferred.

  14. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  15. Transgenerational latent early-life associated regulation unites environment and genetics across generations

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Debomoy K; Maloney, Bryan; Bayon, Baindu L; Chopra, Nipun; White, Fletcher A; Greig, Nigel H; Nurnberger, John I

    2016-01-01

    The origin of idiopathic diseases is still poorly understood. The latent early-life associated regulation (LEARn) model unites environmental exposures and gene expression while providing a mechanistic underpinning for later-occurring disorders. We propose that this process can occur across generations via transgenerational LEARn (tLEARn). In tLEARn, each person is a ‘unit’ accumulating preclinical or subclinical ‘hits’ as in the original LEARn model. These changes can then be epigenomically passed along to offspring. Transgenerational accumulation of ‘hits’ determines a sporadic disease state. Few significant transgenerational hits would accompany conception or gestation of most people, but these may suffice to ‘prime’ someone to respond to later-life hits. Hits need not produce symptoms or microphenotypes to have a transgenerational effect. Testing tLEARn requires longitudinal approaches. A recently proposed longitudinal epigenome/envirome-wide association study would unite genetic sequence, epigenomic markers, environmental exposures, patient personal history taken at multiple time points and family history. PMID:26950428

  16. Cognitive Vulnerabilities as Predictors of Stress Generation in Early Adolescence: Pathway to Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Connolly, Samantha L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Although individuals with depression have been found to experience a higher rate of stress in their lives, it remains unclear to what extent other personal characteristics may contribute to stress generation. The current study extended past research by examining the effects of two theoretically and empirically supported cognitive vulnerabilities to depression (negative cognitive style and rumination) as predictors of dependent interpersonal and achievement events, independent events, and relational peer victimization. In a diverse sample of 301 early adolescents (56% female; Mage = 12.82 years), we found that negative cognitive style prospectively predicted the experience of dependent interpersonal stress and relational victimization, and that rumination did not predict stress in any of the domains. Furthermore, the occurrence of intervening stress mediated the associations between negative cognitive style and subsequent depressive symptoms. Additionally, whereas negative cognitive style predicted relational victimization among both boys and girls, girls were particularly vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms following the occurrence of relational victimization. Thus, a negative cognitive may contribute to the occurrence of stressful events, which in turn increases depressive symptoms. Girls may be particularly reactive to the effects of relational victimization, representing one pathway through which sex differences in depression may emerge. PMID:23624770

  17. An electrochemical label-free and sensitive thrombin aptasensor based on graphene oxide modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Ahour, F; Ahsani, M K

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we tactfully constructed a novel label-free electrochemical aptasensor for rapid and facile detection of thrombin using graphene oxide (GO) and thrombin binding aptamer (TBA). The strategy relies on the preferential adsorption of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to GO over aptamer-target complexes. The TBA-thrombin complex formation was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using the guanine oxidation signal. In the absence of thrombin, the aptamers adsorbed onto the surface of GO leading to a strong background guanine oxidation signal. Conversely, in the presence of thrombin, the conformational transformation of TBA after incubating with the thrombin solution and formation of the aptamer-thrombin complexes which had weak binding ability to GO, leads to the desorption of TBA-thrombin complex from electrode surface and significant oxidation signal decrease. The selectivity of the biosensor was studied using other biological substances. The biosensor's signal was proportional to the thrombin concentration from 0.1 to 10nM with a detection limit of 0.07nM. Particularly, the proposed method could be widely applied to the aptamer-based determination of other target analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Outcomes of Ultrasound-Guided Thrombin Injection of Nongroin Arterial Pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Valesano, Johnathan C; Schmitz, John J; Kurup, A Nicholas; Schmit, Grant D; Moynagh, Michael R; Atwell, Thomas D; Lewis, Bradley D; Lee, Robert A; Callstrom, Matthew R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate success and complication rates of percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of nongroin pseudoaneurysms (PSAs). Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained institutional database yielded 39 cases of arterial PSAs occurring at nongroin sites that were treated with percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection between 2000 and 2016 (average patient age 69.2 y ± 14.0). Of PSAs, 74.4% (29/39) arose in the upper extremities, and 92.3% (36/39) were iatrogenic. The brachial artery was the most commonly affected vessel (51.3% [20/39]), and arterial access was the most common cause (56.4% [22/39]). Average overall PSA size was 2.4 cm (range, 0.5-7.2 cm); average amount of thrombin injected was 320 IU (range, 50-2,000 IU). Technical success was defined as absence of flow within the PSA immediately after thrombin injection. Treatment success was defined as sustained thrombosis on follow-up imaging obtained at 1-3 days after treatment. Technical and treatment success rates of thrombin injections were 100% (39/39) and 84.8% (28/33), respectively. Longer term follow-up imaging (average 71 d; range, 12-201 d) was available for 7 of the treatment successes with 100% (7/7) showing sustained thrombosis. Comparing treatment successes and failures, there was no significant difference in average PSA size (2.3 cm vs 2.0 cm, P = .51) or average amount of thrombin injected (360 IU vs 180 IU, P = .14). There were no complications. Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection is a safe, efficacious treatment option for PSAs arising in nongroin locations. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and characterization of hirulogs: A novel class of bivalent peptide inhibitors of thrombin

    SciT

    Maraganore, J.M.; Bourdon, P.; Jablonski, J.

    1990-07-31

    A novel class of synthetic peptides has been designed that inhibit the thrombin catalytic site and exhibit specificity for the anion-binding exosite (ABE) of {alpha}-thrombin. These peptides, called hirulogs, consist of (i) an active-site specificity sequence with a restricted Arg-Pro scissile bond, (ii) a polymeric linker of glycyl residues from 6 to 18 {angstrom} in length, and (iii) an ABE recognition sequence such as that in the hirudin C-terminus. Hirulog-1 ((D-Phe)-Pro-Arg-Pro-(Gly){sub 4}-Asn-Gly-Asp-Phe-Glu-Glu-Ile-Pro-Glu-Tyr-Leu) inhibits the thrombin-catalyzed hydrolysis of a tripeptide p-nitroanilide substrate with K{sub i} = 2.3 nM. In contrast, the synthetic C-terminal hirudin peptide S-Hir{sub 53-64}, which binds to themore » thrombin ABE, blocked the fibrinogen clotting activity of the enzyme with K{sub i} = 144 nM but failed to inhibit the hydrolysis of p-nitroanilide substrates at concentrations as high as 1 mM. Hirulog-1, but not S-Hir{sub 53-64}, was found to inhibit the incorporation of ({sup 14}C)diisopropyl fluorophosphate in thrombin. Hirulog-1 appears specific for thrombin as it lacks inhibitory activities toward human factor Xa, human plasmin, and bovine trypsin at inhibitor:enzyme concentrations 3 orders of magnitude higher than those required to inhibit thrombin. The optimal inhibitory activity of hirulog-1 depends upon all three components of its structure. Comparison of anticoagulant activities of hirulog-1, hirudin, and S-Hir{sub 53-64} showed that the synthetic hirulog-1 is 2-fold more potent than hirudin and 100-fold more active than S-Hir{sub 53-64} in increasing the activated partial thromboplastin time of normal human plasma.« less

  20. Construction of photoelectrochemical thrombin aptasensor via assembling multilayer of graphene-CdS nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Li; Zhu, Wei; Xue, Yanchun; Liu, Songqin

    2015-02-15

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor for highly sensitive and specific detection of thrombin was developed by using graphene–CdS nanocomposites multilayer as photoactive species and electroactive mediator hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride (Ru(NH(3))(6)(3+)) as signal enhancer. Graphene–CdS nanocomposites (G–CdS) were synthesized by one-pot reduction of oxide graphene and CdCl2 with thioacetamide. The photoactive multilayer was prepared by alternative assembly of the negatively charged 3-mercaptopropionic acid modified graphene–CdS nanocomposites (MPA-G–CdS) and the positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) on ITO electrode. This layer-by-layer assembly method enhanced the stability and homogeneity of the photocurrent readout of G–CdS. Thrombin aptamer was covalently bound to the multilayer by using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking. Electroactive mediator (Ru(NH(3))(6)(3+)) could interact with the DNA phosphate backbone and thus facilitated the electron transfer between G–CdS multilayer and electrode and enhanced the photocurrent. Hybridizing of a long complementary DNA with thrombin aptamer could increase the adsorption amount of (Ru(NH(3))(6)(3+)), which in turn boosted the signal readout. In the presence of target thrombin, the affinity interaction between thrombin and its aptamer resulted in the long complementary DNA releasing from the G–CdS multilayer and decreasing of photocurrent signal. On the basis of G–CdS multilayer as the photoactive species, (Ru (NH(3))(6)(3+)) as an electroactive mediator, and aptamer as a recognition module, a high sensitive PEC aptasensor for thrombin detection was proposed. The thrombin aptasensor displayed a linear range from 2.0 pM to 600.0 pM and a detection limit of 1.0 pM. The present strategy provided a promising ideology for the future development of PEC biosensor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thrombin Cleavage of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Inhibits Cytoadherence

    PubMed Central

    Gillrie, Mark R.; Renaux, Bernard; Russell-Goldman, Eleanor; Avril, Marion; Brazier, Andrew J.; Mihara, Koichiro; Di Cera, Enrico; Milner, Danny A.; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Smith, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most deadly infections worldwide. The pathogenesis of the infection results from the sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IRBC) in vital organs, including the brain, with resulting impairment of blood flow, hypoxia, and lactic acidosis. Sequestration occurs through the adhesion of IRBC to host receptors on microvascular endothelium by Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a large family of variant surface antigens, each with up to seven extracellular domains that can bind to multiple host receptors. Consequently, antiadhesive therapies directed at single endothelial adhesion molecules may not be effective. In this study, we demonstrated that the serine protease thrombin, which is pivotal in the activation of the coagulation cascade, cleaved the major parasite adhesin on the surface of IRBC. As a result, adhesion under flow was dramatically reduced, and already adherent IRBC were detached. Thrombin cleavage sites were mapped to the Duffy binding-like δ1 (DBLδ1) domain and interdomains 1 and 2 in the PfEMP1 of the parasite line IT4var19. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between the presence of thrombin and IRBC in cerebral malaria autopsies of children. We investigated a modified (R67A) thrombin and thrombin inhibitor, hirugen, both of which inhibit the binding of substrates to exosite I, thereby reducing its proinflammatory properties. Both approaches reduced the barrier dysfunction induced by thrombin without affecting its proteolytic activity on PfEMP1, raising the possibility that thrombin cleavage of variant PfEMP1 may be exploited as a broadly inhibitory antiadhesive therapy. PMID:27624125

  2. The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education: Linking Science to Policy for a New Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K., Ed.; Jones, Stephanie M., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education" aims to support the effort to simultaneously scale up and improve the quality of early childhood education by bringing together relevant insights from emerging research to provide guidance for this critical, fledgling field. It reflects the growing recognition that early childhood…

  3. The mechanisms how heparin affects the tumor cell induced VEGF and chemokine release from platelets to attenuate the early metastatic niche formation

    PubMed Central

    Ponert, Jan Moritz; Schwarz, Svenja; Haschemi, Reza; Müller, Jens; Pötzsch, Bernd; Bendas, Gerd

    2018-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer associated fatalities. Tumor cells leaving the primary tumor and entering the blood flow immediately interact with platelets. Activated platelets contribute in different ways to cancer cell survival and proliferation, e.g. in formation of the early metastatic niche by release of different growth factors and chemokines. Here we show that a direct interaction between platelets and MV3 melanoma or MCF7 breast cancer cells induces platelet activation and a VEGF release in citrated plasma that cannot be further elevated by the coagulation cascade and generated thrombin. In contrast, the release of platelet-derived chemokines CXCL5 and CXCL7 depends on both, a thrombin-mediated platelet activation and a direct interaction between tumor cells and platelets. Preincubation of platelets with therapeutic concentrations of unfractionated heparin reduces the tumor cell initiated VEGF release from platelets. In contrast, tumor cell induced CXCL5 and CXCL7 release from platelets was not impacted by heparin pretreatment in citrated plasma. In defibrinated, recalcified plasma, on the contrary, heparin is able to reduce CXCL5 and CXCL7 release from platelets by thrombin inhibition. Our data indicate that different chemokines and growth factors in diverse platelet granules are released in tightly regulated processes by various trigger mechanisms. We show for the first time that heparin is able to reduce the mediator release induced by different tumor cells both in a contact and coagulation dependent manner. PMID:29346400

  4. A multifunctional hemin@metal-organic framework and its application to construct an electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shunbi; Ye, Jiawei; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-10-01

    A new type of multifunctional metal-organic framework (MOF) has been synthesized by encapsulating hemin into the nano-sized Fe-MIL-88 MOFs (hemin@MOFs) and first applied in an electrochemical aptasensor to detect thrombin (TB) with the aid of an enzyme for signal amplification. The gold nanoparticle functionalized hemin@MOFs (Au/hemin@MOFs) have not only simultaneously served as redox mediators and solid electrocatalysts, but have also been utilized as an ideal loading platform to immobilize a large number of biomolecules. In this aptasensor, Au/hemin@MOFs conjugated with glucose oxidase (GOD) and thrombin binding aptamer (TBA II) were used as the secondary aptamer bioconjugates (Au/hemin@MOF-TBA II-GOD bioconjugates), and TB was sandwiched between Au/hemin@MOF-TBA II-GOD bioconjugates and the amino-terminated TBA I which was self-assembled on the gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified electrode. The GOD could oxidize glucose into gluconic acid accompanied by the generation of H2O2. The generated H2O2 on the electrode surface was further electrocatalyzed by hemin@MOFs to amplify the electrochemical signal of hemin contained in hemin@MOFs. Therefore, the synthesized hemin@MOFs represented a new paradigm for multifunctional materials since it combined three different functions including serving as catalysts, redox mediators and loading platforms within a single material. With such an ingenious design, a wide linear range of 0.0001 nM to 30 nM was acquired with a relatively low detection limit of 0.068 pM for TB detection.A new type of multifunctional metal-organic framework (MOF) has been synthesized by encapsulating hemin into the nano-sized Fe-MIL-88 MOFs (hemin@MOFs) and first applied in an electrochemical aptasensor to detect thrombin (TB) with the aid of an enzyme for signal amplification. The gold nanoparticle functionalized hemin@MOFs (Au/hemin@MOFs) have not only simultaneously served as redox mediators and solid electrocatalysts, but have also been utilized as an

  5. Pupil Researchers Generation X: Educating Pupils as Active Participants--An Investigation into Gathering Sensitive Information from Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Jenny E.

    2008-01-01

    Developmentally appropriate research techniques were uncovered by involving ten Year 7 pupils as researchers in a four-hour workshop that investigated the effectiveness of multiple methods in gathering sensitive information from early adolescents. The pupils learned about, tried and evaluated the methods of generating interview questions, peer and…

  6. A multifunctional label-free electrochemical impedance biosensor for Hg(2+), adenosine triphosphate and thrombin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lifen; Chen, Zhong-Ning

    2015-01-01

    A multifunctional label-free biosensor for the detection of Hg(2+), adenosine triphosphate and thrombin has been developed based on the changing of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) from the modified electrodes when nucleic acid subunits interacting with different targets. The modified electrode consists of three interaction sections, including DNA with T-T mismatch recognizing Hg(2+) to form T-Hg(2+)-T complex, split DNA chip against ATP, and DNA domin against thrombin to form G-quadruplex. Upon DNA interaction with thrombin or ATP, an increased charge transfer resistance (Rct) had been detected. However, a decreased Rct against Hg(2+) was obtained. The Rct difference (ΔRct) has relationship with the concentration of the different targets, Hg(2+), ATP and thrombin can be selectively detected with the detection limit of 0.03, 0.25, and 0.20 nmol L(-1), respectively. To separately detect the three analytes existing in the same sample, ATP aptamer, G-rich DNA strands and EDTA were applied to mask ATP, Hg(2+) or thrombin separately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Marine Diterpenes: Molecular Modeling of Thrombin Inhibitors with Potential Biotechnological Application as an Antithrombotic

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rebeca Cristina Costa; Lourenço, André Luiz; Terra, Luciana; Abreu, Paula Alvarez; Laneuville Teixeira, Valéria; Castro, Helena Carla

    2017-01-01

    Thrombosis related diseases are among the main causes of death and incapacity in the world. Despite the existence of antithrombotic agents available for therapy, they still present adverse effects like hemorrhagic risks which justify the search for new options. Recently, pachydictyol A, isopachydictyol A, and dichotomanol, three diterpenes isolated from Brazilian marine brown alga Dictyota menstrualis were identified as potent antithrombotic molecules through inhibition of thrombin, a key enzyme of coagulation cascade and a platelet agonist. Due to the biotechnological potential of these marine metabolites, in this work we evaluated their binding mode to thrombin in silico and identified structural features related to the activity in order to characterize their molecular mechanism. According to our theoretical studies including structure-activity relationship and molecular docking analysis, the highest dipole moment, polar surface area, and lowest electronic density of dichotomanol are probably involved in its higher inhibition percentage towards thrombin catalytic activity compared to pachydictyol A and isopachydictyol A. Interestingly, the molecular docking studies also revealed a good shape complementarity of pachydictyol A and isopachydictyol A and interactions with important residues and regions (e.g., H57, S195, W215, G216, and loop-60), which probably justify their thrombin inhibitor effects demonstrated in vitro. Finally, this study explored the structural features and binding mode of these three diterpenes in thrombin which reinforced their potential to be further explored and may help in the design of new antithrombotic agents. PMID:28335516

  8. Marine Diterpenes: Molecular Modeling of Thrombin Inhibitors with Potential Biotechnological Application as an Antithrombotic.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rebeca Cristina Costa; Lourenço, André Luiz; Terra, Luciana; Abreu, Paula Alvarez; Laneuville Teixeira, Valéria; Castro, Helena Carla

    2017-03-20

    Thrombosis related diseases are among the main causes of death and incapacity in the world. Despite the existence of antithrombotic agents available for therapy, they still present adverse effects like hemorrhagic risks which justify the search for new options. Recently, pachydictyol A, isopachydictyol A, and dichotomanol, three diterpenes isolated from Brazilian marine brown alga Dictyota menstrualis were identified as potent antithrombotic molecules through inhibition of thrombin, a key enzyme of coagulation cascade and a platelet agonist. Due to the biotechnological potential of these marine metabolites, in this work we evaluated their binding mode to thrombin in silico and identified structural features related to the activity in order to characterize their molecular mechanism. According to our theoretical studies including structure-activity relationship and molecular docking analysis, the highest dipole moment, polar surface area, and lowest electronic density of dichotomanol are probably involved in its higher inhibition percentage towards thrombin catalytic activity compared to pachydictyol A and isopachydictyol A. Interestingly, the molecular docking studies also revealed a good shape complementarity of pachydictyol A and isopachydictyol A and interactions with important residues and regions (e.g., H57, S195, W215, G216, and loop-60), which probably justify their thrombin inhibitor effects demonstrated in vitro. Finally, this study explored the structural features and binding mode of these three diterpenes in thrombin which reinforced their potential to be further explored and may help in the design of new antithrombotic agents.

  9. Thrombin promotes diet-induced obesity through fibrin-driven inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Anna K; Abrahams, Sara R; Thornton, Sherry; Palumbo, Joseph S; Mullins, Eric S; Divanovic, Senad; Weiler, Hartmut; Owens, A Phillip; Mackman, Nigel; Goss, Ashley; van Ryn, Joanne; Luyendyk, James P; Flick, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Obesity promotes a chronic inflammatory and hypercoagulable state that drives cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, and several cancers. Elevated thrombin activity underlies obesity-linked thromboembolic events, but the mechanistic links between the thrombin/fibrin(ogen) axis and obesity-associated pathologies are incompletely understood. In this work, immunohistochemical studies identified extravascular fibrin deposits within white adipose tissue and liver as distinct features of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) as well as obese patients. Fibγ390-396A mice carrying a mutant form of fibrinogen incapable of binding leukocyte αMβ2-integrin were protected from HFD-induced weight gain and elevated adiposity. Fibγ390-396A mice had markedly diminished systemic, adipose, and hepatic inflammation with reduced macrophage counts within white adipose tissue, as well as near-complete protection from development of fatty liver disease and glucose dysmetabolism. Homozygous thrombomodulin-mutant ThbdPro mice, which have elevated thrombin procoagulant function, gained more weight and developed exacerbated fatty liver disease when fed a HFD compared with WT mice. In contrast, treatment with dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, limited HFD-induced obesity development and suppressed progression of sequelae in mice with established obesity. Collectively, these data provide proof of concept that targeting thrombin or fibrin(ogen) may limit pathologies in obese patients.

  10. Thrombin Receptors and Protease-Activated Receptor-2 in Human Placentation

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peter J.; Koi, Hideki; Parry, Samuel; Brass, Lawrence F.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Wang, Li-Peng; Tomaszewski, John E.; Christenson, Lane K.

    2003-01-01

    Proteolysis of the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1), may enhance normal and pathological cellular invasion, and indirect evidence suggests that activation of PAR1 expressed by invasive extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) influences human placentation. Here we describe PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 protein distribution in the developing human placenta and implicate PAR1 and PAR2 activation in functions central to EVT invasion. PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 are expressed in cultured 8- to 13-week-old EVTs, and in situ in 18- to 20-week-old placental syncytiotrophoblasts and invasive trophoblasts. Thrombin, but not the PAR2 agonist peptide SLIGKV, inhibited proliferation in cultured EVTs, although both agonists stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and EVT invasion through Matrigel barriers. Thrombin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis was completely inhibited and the thrombin effect on proliferation was prevented when PAR1 cleavage was first blocked with specific monoclonal antibodies, indicating that PAR1 is the predominant thrombin receptor on EVTs. Together these results support a role for PAR1, and potentially PAR2 and PAR3 in the invasive phase of human placentation. PMID:14507634

  11. Thrombin promotes diet-induced obesity through fibrin-driven inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Anna K.; Abrahams, Sara R.; Thornton, Sherry; Palumbo, Joseph S.; Mullins, Eric S.; Weiler, Hartmut; Mackman, Nigel; Goss, Ashley; van Ryn, Joanne; Luyendyk, James P.; Flick, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity promotes a chronic inflammatory and hypercoagulable state that drives cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, and several cancers. Elevated thrombin activity underlies obesity-linked thromboembolic events, but the mechanistic links between the thrombin/fibrin(ogen) axis and obesity-associated pathologies are incompletely understood. In this work, immunohistochemical studies identified extravascular fibrin deposits within white adipose tissue and liver as distinct features of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) as well as obese patients. Fibγ390–396A mice carrying a mutant form of fibrinogen incapable of binding leukocyte αMβ2-integrin were protected from HFD-induced weight gain and elevated adiposity. Fibγ390–396A mice had markedly diminished systemic, adipose, and hepatic inflammation with reduced macrophage counts within white adipose tissue, as well as near-complete protection from development of fatty liver disease and glucose dysmetabolism. Homozygous thrombomodulin-mutant ThbdPro mice, which have elevated thrombin procoagulant function, gained more weight and developed exacerbated fatty liver disease when fed a HFD compared with WT mice. In contrast, treatment with dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, limited HFD-induced obesity development and suppressed progression of sequelae in mice with established obesity. Collectively, these data provide proof of concept that targeting thrombin or fibrin(ogen) may limit pathologies in obese patients. PMID:28737512

  12. Inhibition of thrombin action ameliorates insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Masatomo; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Sumiko; Kinouchi, Mizuho; Kurahashi, Kiyoe; Fujinaka, Yuichi; Akaike, Masashi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2010-02-01

    The binding of thrombin to its receptor stimulates inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1); both are associated with the development of insulin resistance. Because increased adiposity enhanced the expression of coagulation factor VII that stimulates the coagulation pathway in adipose tissue, we tested whether the inhibition of thrombin action ameliorates insulin resistance in obese diabetic (Lpr(-/-):db/db) mice. The 4-wk administration of argatroban, a selective thrombin inhibitor, reduced fasting plasma glucose and ameliorated insulin resistance in these mice. It also reduced adipocyte size and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. The aberrant gene expression of MCP-1, IL-6, adiponectin, and factor VII and suppressed insulin receptor substrate-1-Akt signaling in adipose tissue of db/db mice were reversed by argatroban treatment. These results demonstrate that increased adiposity enhances the production of thrombin in adipose tissue by stimulating factor VII expression and suggest that increased thrombin activity in adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance via enhancing MCP-1 production, leading to macrophage infiltration and insulin receptor substrate-1-Akt pathway inactivation.

  13. Thrombin-induced activation of RhoA in platelet shape change.

    PubMed

    Bodie, S L; Ford, I; Greaves, M; Nixon, G F

    2001-09-14

    Thrombin-induced activation of RhoA and its involvement in the regulation of myosin II light chain(20) phosphorylation (MLC-P) in alpha-toxin permeabilized platelets was investigated. Permeabilized platelets, expressing normal levels of P-selectin, displayed a Ca(2+)-dependent increase in shape change and MLC-P. Thrombin activated RhoA as measured by a rhotekin-binding assay within 30 s of stimulation under conditions of constant [Ca(2+)](i). Under the same conditions and timecourse, thrombin or GTPgammaS induced an increase in MLC-P and platelet shape change which was not dependent on an increase in [Ca(2+)](i). The thrombin- and GTPgammaS-induced MLC-P in constant [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited by the addition of Y27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor. This study directly demonstrates that thrombin can activate RhoA in platelets in a timecourse compatible with a role in increasing MLC-P and shape change (not involving an increase in [Ca(2+)](i)). This is also Rho-kinase-dependent. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. A multifunctional hemin@metal-organic framework and its application to construct an electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shunbi; Ye, Jiawei; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-11-21

    A new type of multifunctional metal-organic framework (MOF) has been synthesized by encapsulating hemin into the nano-sized Fe-MIL-88 MOFs (hemin@MOFs) and first applied in an electrochemical aptasensor to detect thrombin (TB) with the aid of an enzyme for signal amplification. The gold nanoparticle functionalized hemin@MOFs (Au/hemin@MOFs) have not only simultaneously served as redox mediators and solid electrocatalysts, but have also been utilized as an ideal loading platform to immobilize a large number of biomolecules. In this aptasensor, Au/hemin@MOFs conjugated with glucose oxidase (GOD) and thrombin binding aptamer (TBA II) were used as the secondary aptamer bioconjugates (Au/hemin@MOF-TBA II-GOD bioconjugates), and TB was sandwiched between Au/hemin@MOF-TBA II-GOD bioconjugates and the amino-terminated TBA I which was self-assembled on the gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified electrode. The GOD could oxidize glucose into gluconic acid accompanied by the generation of H2O2. The generated H2O2 on the electrode surface was further electrocatalyzed by hemin@MOFs to amplify the electrochemical signal of hemin contained in hemin@MOFs. Therefore, the synthesized hemin@MOFs represented a new paradigm for multifunctional materials since it combined three different functions including serving as catalysts, redox mediators and loading platforms within a single material. With such an ingenious design, a wide linear range of 0.0001 nM to 30 nM was acquired with a relatively low detection limit of 0.068 pM for TB detection.

  15. Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.

  16. Improving the baking quality of bread wheat by genomic selection in early generations.

    PubMed

    Michel, Sebastian; Kummer, Christian; Gallee, Martin; Hellinger, Jakob; Ametz, Christian; Akgöl, Batuhan; Epure, Doru; Güngör, Huseyin; Löschenberger, Franziska; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2018-02-01

    Genomic selection shows great promise for pre-selecting lines with superior bread baking quality in early generations, 3 years ahead of labour-intensive, time-consuming, and costly quality analysis. The genetic improvement of baking quality is one of the grand challenges in wheat breeding as the assessment of the associated traits often involves time-consuming, labour-intensive, and costly testing forcing breeders to postpone sophisticated quality tests to the very last phases of variety development. The prospect of genomic selection for complex traits like grain yield has been shown in numerous studies, and might thus be also an interesting method to select for baking quality traits. Hence, we focused in this study on the accuracy of genomic selection for laborious and expensive to phenotype quality traits as well as its selection response in comparison with phenotypic selection. More than 400 genotyped wheat lines were, therefore, phenotyped for protein content, dough viscoelastic and mixing properties related to baking quality in multi-environment trials 2009-2016. The average prediction accuracy across three independent validation populations was r = 0.39 and could be increased to r = 0.47 by modelling major QTL as fixed effects as well as employing multi-trait prediction models, which resulted in an acceptable prediction accuracy for all dough rheological traits (r = 0.38-0.63). Genomic selection can furthermore be applied 2-3 years earlier than direct phenotypic selection, and the estimated selection response was nearly twice as high in comparison with indirect selection by protein content for baking quality related traits. This considerable advantage of genomic selection could accordingly support breeders in their selection decisions and aid in efficiently combining superior baking quality with grain yield in newly developed wheat varieties.

  17. Mechanism of thrombin-induced vasodilation in human coronary arterioles.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, John J; Terata, Ken; Miura, Hiroto; Sato, Atsushi; Nicolosi, Alfred C; McDonald, Monica; Manthei, Sara A; Saito, Takashi; Hatoum, Ossama A; Gutterman, David D

    2003-04-01

    Thrombin (Thromb), activated as part of the clotting cascade, dilates conduit arteries through an endothelial pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-protein receptor and releases nitric oxide (NO). Thromb also acts on downstream microvessels. Therefore, we examined whether Thromb dilates human coronary arterioles (HCA). HCA from right atrial appendages were constricted by 30-50% with endothelin-1. Dilation to Thromb (10(-4)-1 U/ml) was assessed before and after inhibitors with videomicroscopy. There was no tachyphylaxis to Thromb dilation (maximum dilation = 87.0%, ED(50) = 1.49 x 10(-2)). Dilation to Thromb was abolished with either hirudin or denudation but was not affected by PTX. Neither N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (n = 7), indomethacin (n = 9), (1)H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (n = 6), tetraethylammonium chloride (n = 5), nor iberiotoxin (n = 4) reduced dilation to Thromb. However, KCl (maximum dilation = 89 +/- 5 vs. 20 +/- 10%; P < 0.05; n = 7), tetrabutylammonium chloride (maximum dilation = 79 +/- 7 vs. 21 +/- 4%; P < 0.05; n = 5), and charybdotoxin (maximum dilation = 89 +/- 4 vs. 10 +/- 2%; P < 0.05; n = 4) attenuated dilation to Thromb. In contrast to animal models, Thromb-induced dilation in human arterioles is independent of G(i)-protein activation and NO release. However, Thromb dilation is endothelium dependent, is maintained on consecutive applications, and involves activation of K(+) channels. We speculate that an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to Thromb-induced dilation in HCA.

  18. The effect of cigarette smoke extract on thrombomodulin-thrombin binding: an atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yujie; Zhang, Xuejie; Xu, Li; Yi, Shaoqiong; Li, Yi; Fang, Xiaohong; Liu, Huiliang

    2012-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Smoking can cause vascular endothelial dysfunction and consequently trigger haemostatic activation and thrombosis. However, the mechanism of how smoking promotes thrombosis is not fully understood. Thrombosis is associated with the imbalance of the coagulant system due to endothelial dysfunction. As a vital anticoagulation cofactor, thrombomodulin (TM) located on the endothelial cell surface is able to regulate intravascular coagulation by binding to thrombin, and the binding results in thrombosis inhibition. This work focused on the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on TM-thrombin binding by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single-molecule force spectroscopy. The results from both in vitro and live-cell experiments indicated that CSE could notably reduce the binding probability of TM and thrombin. This study provided a new approach and new evidence for studying the mechanism of thrombosis triggered by cigarette smoking.

  19. Thrombin immobilization to methacrylic acid grafted poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its in vitro application.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan

    2013-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) is nontoxic and biodegradable, with good biocompatibility and potential support for long-term implants. For this reason, it is a good support for enzyme immobilization. Enzyme immobilization could not be done directly because poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) has no functional groups. Therefore, modification should be done for enzyme immobilization. In this study, methacrylic acid was graft polymerized to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and thrombin was immobilized to polymethacrylic acid grafted poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). In fact, graft polymerization of methacrylic acid to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and thrombin immobilization was a model study. Biomolecule immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) could be used as an implant. Thrombin was selected as a biomolecule for this model study and it was immobilized to methacrylic acid grafted poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Then the developed product was used to stop bleeding.

  20. Changes in thrombin-stimulated platelet malondialdehyde production during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Tindall, H; Zuzel, M; Paton, R C; McNicol, G P

    1981-01-01

    Forty normal women had thrombin-stimulated platelet malondialdehyde (MDA) production measured during their menstrual cycle. Twenty women in this group were taking the combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Platelet MDA production was found to fall by 30% during normal menstruation and the week when the subjects were not taking a combined OCP, but it remained constant throughout the remainder of the cycle. No significant change in initial platelet aggregation response to stimulation by thrombin, change in plasma thrombin clotting time, plasma heparin neutralising activity (HNA), or plasma antithrombin III (AT-III) activity was seen when the platelet MDA production was reduced. The bleeding time results showed some variation throughout the menstrual cycle but these did not appear to be related to the variation in platelet MDA production. PMID:7251901

  1. Modeling the microscopic electrical properties of thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) for label-free biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Reggiani, Lino; Cataldo, Rosella; De Nunzio, Giorgio; Giotta, Livia; Guascito, Maria Rachele

    2017-02-01

    Aptamers are chemically produced oligonucleotides, able to bind a variety of targets such as drugs, proteins and pathogens with high sensitivity and selectivity. Therefore, aptamers are largely employed for producing label-free biosensors (aptasensors), with significant applications in diagnostics and drug delivery. In particular, the anti-thrombin aptamers are biomolecules of high interest for clinical use, because of their ability to recognize and bind the thrombin enzyme. Among them, the DNA 15-mer aptamer (TBA), has been widely explored around the possibility of using it in aptasensors. This paper proposes a microscopic model of the electrical properties of TBA and of the aptamer-thrombin complex, combining information from both structure and function, following the issues addressed in an emerging branch of electronics known as proteotronics. The theoretical results are compared and validated with measurements reported in the literature. Finally, the model suggests resistance measurements as a novel tool for testing aptamer-target affinity.

  2. Bombesin and thrombin affect discrete pools of intracellular calcium through different G-proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, J L; Kalyanaraman, S; Vivo, M D; Gautam, N

    1996-11-15

    In mouse NIH 3T3 cells, the mitogens bombesin and thrombin induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Ca2+ release induced by bombesin was inhibited by the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, while Ca2+ release induced by thrombin was unaffected by this agent. The Ca(2+)-release response to bombesin was not affected by pertussis toxin, but the response to thrombin was abolished by the toxin. Stable transfectants overexpressing the G-protein subunit type alpha 9 showed an accentuated response to bombesin, indicating that the bombesin receptor was coupled to a Gq-like G-protein. Together, these results show that the two mitogenic receptors are coupled to distinct G-proteins that affect functionally different pools of Ca2+. Organization of signalling pathways in this manner may allow cells to differentially encode information from different signals.

  3. Bombesin and thrombin affect discrete pools of intracellular calcium through different G-proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J L; Kalyanaraman, S; Vivo, M D; Gautam, N

    1996-01-01

    In mouse NIH 3T3 cells, the mitogens bombesin and thrombin induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Ca2+ release induced by bombesin was inhibited by the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, while Ca2+ release induced by thrombin was unaffected by this agent. The Ca(2+)-release response to bombesin was not affected by pertussis toxin, but the response to thrombin was abolished by the toxin. Stable transfectants overexpressing the G-protein subunit type alpha 9 showed an accentuated response to bombesin, indicating that the bombesin receptor was coupled to a Gq-like G-protein. Together, these results show that the two mitogenic receptors are coupled to distinct G-proteins that affect functionally different pools of Ca2+. Organization of signalling pathways in this manner may allow cells to differentially encode information from different signals. PMID:8947471

  4. Thrombin products: economic impact of immune-mediated coagulopathies and practical formulary considerations.

    PubMed

    Voils, Stacy A

    2009-07-01

    Thrombin has demonstrated utility in aiding surgical hemostasis since its introduction more than 60 years ago. It is used across a wide variety of surgical procedures by virtually every specialty. Only recently have new equally effective and safe products entered the market, causing decision makers to evaluate formulary selection among products with otherwise modest differences. This evaluation includes identifying costs beyond those of acquisition and storage, as well as indirect factors such as monitoring or specialized distribution requirements. One factor to consider specifically in selection of topical thrombin products is the potential for patients to develop an immune-mediated coagulopathy (IMC) after exposure to bovine-derived thrombin. Costs due to adverse drug events fall into the category of indirect costs and, in some instances, can be substantial if bleeding due to IMC occurs.

  5. Modeling the microscopic electrical properties of thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) for label-free biosensors.

    PubMed

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Reggiani, Lino; Cataldo, Rosella; De Nunzio, Giorgio; Giotta, Livia; Guascito, Maria Rachele

    2017-02-10

    Aptamers are chemically produced oligonucleotides, able to bind a variety of targets such as drugs, proteins and pathogens with high sensitivity and selectivity. Therefore, aptamers are largely employed for producing label-free biosensors (aptasensors), with significant applications in diagnostics and drug delivery. In particular, the anti-thrombin aptamers are biomolecules of high interest for clinical use, because of their ability to recognize and bind the thrombin enzyme. Among them, the DNA 15-mer aptamer (TBA), has been widely explored around the possibility of using it in aptasensors. This paper proposes a microscopic model of the electrical properties of TBA and of the aptamer-thrombin complex, combining information from both structure and function, following the issues addressed in an emerging branch of electronics known as proteotronics. The theoretical results are compared and validated with measurements reported in the literature. Finally, the model suggests resistance measurements as a novel tool for testing aptamer-target affinity.

  6. A Universal Base in a Specific Role: Tuning up a Thrombin Aptamer with 5-Nitroindole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Varizhuk, Anna M.; Pozmogova, Galina E.; Smirnov, Igor P.; Kolganova, Natalia A.; Timofeev, Edward N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study we describe new modified analogs of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) containing 5-nitroindole residues. It has been shown that all modified TBAs form an anti-parallel G-quadruplex structure and retain the ability to inhibit thrombin. The most advanced TBA variant (TBA-N8) has a substantially increased clotting time and two-fold lower IC50 value compared to the unmodified prototype. Molecular modelling studies suggest that the improved anticoagulant properties of TBA-N8 result from changes in the binding mode of the analog. A modified central loop in TBA-N8 is presumed to participate in the binding of the target protein. Studies of FAM labelled TBA and TBA-N8 showed an improved binding affinity of the modified aptamer and provided evidence of a direct interaction between the modified central loop and thrombin. Our findings have implications for the design of new aptamers with improved binding affinities.

  7. A Universal Base in a Specific Role: Tuning up a Thrombin Aptamer with 5-Nitroindole

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Varizhuk, Anna M.; Pozmogova, Galina E.; Smirnov, Igor P.; Kolganova, Natalia A.; Timofeev, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we describe new modified analogs of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) containing 5-nitroindole residues. It has been shown that all modified TBAs form an anti-parallel G-quadruplex structure and retain the ability to inhibit thrombin. The most advanced TBA variant (TBA-N8) has a substantially increased clotting time and two-fold lower IC50 value compared to the unmodified prototype. Molecular modelling studies suggest that the improved anticoagulant properties of TBA-N8 result from changes in the binding mode of the analog. A modified central loop in TBA-N8 is presumed to participate in the binding of the target protein. Studies of FAM labelled TBA and TBA-N8 showed an improved binding affinity of the modified aptamer and provided evidence of a direct interaction between the modified central loop and thrombin. Our findings have implications for the design of new aptamers with improved binding affinities.

  8. Improved Stability of Proline-Derived Direct Thrombin Inhibitors through Hydroxyl to Heterocycle Replacement.

    PubMed

    Chobanian, Harry R; Pio, Barbara; Guo, Yan; Shen, Hong; Huffman, Mark A; Madeira, Maria; Salituro, Gino; Terebetski, Jenna L; Ormes, James; Jochnowitz, Nina; Hoos, Lizbeth; Zhou, Yuchen; Lewis, Dale; Hawes, Brian; Mitnaul, Lyndon; O'Neill, Kim; Ellsworth, Kenneth; Wang, Liangsu; Biftu, Tesfaye; Duffy, Joseph L

    2015-05-14

    Modification of the previously disclosed (S)-N-(2-(aminomethyl)-5-chlorobenzyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanoyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide 2 by optimization of the P3 group afforded novel, low molecular weight thrombin inhibitors. Heterocycle replacement of the hydroxyl functional group helped maintain thrombin in vitro potency while improving the chemical stability and pharmacokinetic profile. These modifications led to the identification of compound 10, which showed excellent selectivity over related serine proteases as well as in vivo efficacy in the rat arteriovenous shunt. Compound 10 exhibited significantly improved chemical stability and pharmacokinetic properties over 2 and may be utilized as a structurally differentiated preclinical tool comparator to dabigatran etexilate (Pro-1) to interrogate the on- and off-target effects of oral direct thrombin inhibitors.

  9. Pacemaker implantation rate after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with early and new-generation devices: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Rosendael, Philippe J; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of new-onset conduction abnormalities requiring permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with new-generation prostheses remains debated. This systematic review analyses the incidence of PPI after TAVI with new-generation devices and evaluates the electrical, anatomical, and procedural factors associated with PPI. In addition, the incidence of PPI after TAVI with early generation prostheses was reviewed for comparison. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist, this systematic review screened original articles published between October 2010 and October 2017, reporting on the incidence of PPI after implantation of early and new-generation TAVI prostheses. Of the 1406 original articles identified in the first search for new-generation TAVI devices, 348 articles were examined for full text, and finally, 40 studies (n = 17 139) were included. The incidence of a PPI after the use of a new-generation TAVI prosthesis ranged between 2.3% and 36.1%. For balloon-expandable prostheses, the PPI rate remained low when using an early generation SAPIEN device (ranging between 2.3% and 28.2%), and with the new-generation SAPIEN 3 device, the PPI rate was between 4.0% and 24.0%. For self-expandable prostheses, the PPI rates were higher with the early generation CoreValve device (16.3-37.7%), and despite a reduction in PPI rates with the new Evolut R, the rates remained relatively higher (14.7-26.7%). When dividing the studies according to the highest (>26.0%) and the lowest (<12.1%) quintile of PPI rate, patients within the highest quintile were more frequently women when compared with the lowest quintile group (50.9% vs. 46.3%, P < 0.001). Pre-existent conduction abnormalities (electrical factor), calcification of the left ventricular outflow tract (anatomical factor), and balloon valvuloplasty and depth of implantation (procedural factors) were associated

  10. Aptamer-based turn-on fluorescent four-branched quaternary ammonium pyrazine probe for selective thrombin detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shengyong; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Yangyang; Zhang, Ming; Deng, Minggang; Wang, Xiaolin; Weng, Xiaocheng; Zhou, Xiang

    2011-01-28

    In this thrombin detection system, the bright fluorescence of TASPI is almost eliminated by the DNA aptamer TBA (turn-off); however, in the presence of thrombin, it specifically binds to TBA by folding unrestricted TBA into an anti-parallel G-quadruplex structure and then releasing TASPI molecules, resulting in vivid and facile fluorescence recovery (turn-on).

  11. Catheter-directed Endovascular Application of Thrombin: Report of 3 Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Maybody, Majid; Madoff, David C.; Thornton, Raymond H; Morales, Steven A; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Hsu, Meier; Brody, Lynn A; Brown, Karen T; Covey, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report 3 new cases of catheter-directed endovascular application of thrombin and explore trends by analysis of published case series. Materials and Methods Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. All cases of non-tumoral arterial embolization performed from January 2003 to January 2015 at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Thrombin was used in 7 of 589 cases. In 3 cases intra arterial thrombin was injected via catheter to treat active hemorrhage. Four cases were excluded due to percutaneous injection into visceral pseudoaneurysms (n=3) and making ex vivo autologous clot to be injected via catheter (n=1). Fisher’s exact and the Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to assess for association with acute nontarget thrombosis. Results Catheter-directed thrombin was used in 3/589 (0.5%) cases at our institution. All three cases were technically successful with no further bleeding (100%). Nontarget thrombosis of proximal branches occurred in 2 patients (67%) with no significant clinical consequences. Including our 3 cases, a total of 28 cases were reviewed. Of the variables examined - location (p=0.99), size (p=0.66) and etiology of vascular lesion (p=0.92), pseudoaneurysm neck anatomy (p=0.14), thrombin units (p=0.47), volume (p=0.76) or technique of use of small doses (p=0.99), use of other embolic material (p=0.67) and use of adjunct techniques (p=0.99) - none were found to be significantly associated with acute nontarget thrombosis. Technical success was 96% with no reports of reperfusion after treatment. Conclusions Catheter-directed endovascular thrombin can be an additional tool to treat pseudoaneurysms not amenable to conventional embolization. Further studies are required to optimize technique and outcomes. PMID:27936421

  12. Thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica L. latex: action of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H V; Rajesh, R; Nanda, B L; Dharmappa, K K; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-05-04

    To validate the scientific basis of plant latex to stop bleeding on fresh cuts. Cysteine protease(s) from Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae) plant latex was assessed for pro-coagulant and thrombin like activities. A waxy material from the latex of Asclepias curassavica latex was removed by freezing and thawing. The resulted latex enzyme fraction was assayed for proteolytic activity using denatured casein as substrate. Its coagulant activity and thrombin like activity were determined using citrated plasma and pure fibrinogen, respectively. Inhibition studies were performed using specific protease inhibitors to know the type of protease. The latex enzyme fraction exhibited strong proteolytic activity when compared to trypsin and exerted pro-coagulant action by reducing plasma clotting time from 195 to 58 s whereas trypsin reduced clotting time marginally from 195 to 155 s. The pro-coagulant activity of this enzyme fraction was exerted by selectively hydrolyzing A alpha and B beta subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot when pure fibrinogen was used as substrate as assessed by fibrinogen-agarose plate method and fibrinogen polymerization assay. Trypsin failed to induce any fibrin clot under similar conditions. The electrophoretic pattern of latex enzyme fraction-induced fibrin clot was very much similar to that of thrombin-induced fibrin clot and mimic thrombin like action. The proteolytic activity including thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica latex enzyme fraction was completely inhibited by iodoaceticacid (IAA). Cysteine proteases from Asclepias curassavica latex exhibited strong pro-coagulant action and were found to be specific in its action (Thrombin like). This could be the basis for the use of plant latex in pharmacological applications that justify their use as folk medicine.

  13. Performances of fourth generation HIV antigen/antibody assays on filter paper for detection of early HIV infections.

    PubMed

    Kania, Dramane; Truong, Tam Nguyen; Montoya, Ana; Nagot, Nicolas; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Point-of-care testing and diagnosis of HIV acute infections play important roles in preventing transmission, but HIV rapid diagnosis tests have poor capacity to detect early infections. Filter paper can be used for capillary blood collection and HIV testing using 4th generation immunoassays. Antigen/antibody combined immunoassays were evaluated for their capacity to identify early HIV infections using filter paper in comparison with rapid test. Thirty nine serum samples collected from HIV seroconverters were spotted onto filter paper and tested by the Roche Elecsys(®) HIV Combi PT test and the DiaSorin Liaison XL Murex HIV Ab/Ag assay. Fourth generation immunoassays identified 34 out of 39 HIV early infections using dried serum spot, whereas the Determine™ HIV-1/2 rapid test detected 24 out of 39 HIV positive serum (87.2% vs 61.5% respectively, p = 0.009). p24 antigen was detected by the Liaison XL in 19 dried serum samples (48.7%). In the group characterized by a negative western blot, 7 out of 8 (87.5%) and 6 out of 8 (75.0%) samples were found positive for HIV using the Elecsys and the Liaison XL, respectively. None of these eight samples classified in this group of early acute infections were found positive by the rapid test. Fourth generation Ag/Ab immunoassays performed on dried serum spot had good performance for HIV testing during the early phases of HIV infection. This method may be useful to detect HIV early infections in hard-to-reach populations and individuals living in remote areas before rapid tests become positive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Asthma Related Outcomes in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Hofman, Albert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Few studies have analyzed the association of socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with asthma related outcomes in early childhood, including Fraction of exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) and airway resistance (Rint). We examined the association of socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with wheezing, asthma, FeNO and Rint at age 6 years. Additionally, the role of potential mediating factors was studied. Methods The study included 6717 children participating in The Generation R Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Data on socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, wheezing and asthma were obtained by questionnaires. FeNO and Rint were measured at the research center. Statistical analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression models. Results At age 6 years, 9% (456/5084) of the children had wheezing symptoms and 7% (328/4953) had asthma. Children from parents with financial difficulties had an increased risk of wheezing (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.18–2.24). Parental low education, paternal unemployment and child's male sex were associated with asthma, independent of other socioeconomic or sociodemographic factors (aOR = 1.63, 95% CI:1.24–2.15, aOR = 1.85, 95% CI:1.11–3.09, aOR = 1.58, 95% CI:1.24–2.01, respectively). No socioeconomic or gender differences in FeNO were found. The risks of wheezing, asthma, FeNO and Rint measurements differed between ethnic groups (p<0.05). Associations between paternal unemployment, child's sex, ethnicity and asthma related outcomes remained largely unexplained. Conclusions This study showed differences between the socioeconomic and sociodemographic correlates of wheezing and asthma compared to the correlates of FeNO and Rint at age 6 years. Several socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with wheezing and asthma. Child's ethnicity was the only factor independently associated with FeNO. We

  15. Favorable 2'-substitution in the loop region of a thrombin-binding DNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Awachat, Ragini; Wagh, Atish A; Aher, Manisha; Fernandes, Moneesha; Kumar, Vaijayanti A

    2018-06-01

    Simple 2'-OMe-chemical modification in the loop region of the 15mer G-rich DNA sequence GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG is reported. The G-quadruplex structure of this thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), is stabilized by single modifications (T → 2'-OMe-U), depending on the position of the modification. The structural stability also renders significantly increased inhibition of thrombin-induced fibrin polymerization, a process closely associated with blood-clotting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ratiometric activatable cell-penetrating peptides provide rapid in vivo readout of thrombin activation.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Michael; Savariar, Elamprakash N; Friedman, Beth; Levin, Rachel A; Crisp, Jessica L; Glasgow, Heather L; Lefkowitz, Roy; Adams, Stephen R; Steinbach, Paul; Nashi, Nadia; Nguyen, Quyen T; Tsien, Roger Y

    2013-01-02

    In real time: thrombin activation in vivo can be imaged in real time with ratiometric activatable cell penetrating peptides (RACPPs). RACPPs are designed to combine 1) dual-emission ratioing, 2) far red to infrared wavelengths for in vivo mammalian imaging, and 3) cleavage-dependent spatial localization. The most advanced RACPP uses norleucine (Nle)-TPRSFL as a linker that increases sensitivity to thrombin by about 90-fold. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Structural Characterization of a Thrombin-Aptamer Complex by High Resolution Native Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Loo, Rachel R. Ogorzalek; Loo, Joseph A.

    2017-09-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) has evolved as an invaluable tool for the characterization of intact native proteins and non-covalently bound protein complexes. Here we report the structural characterization by high resolution native top-down MS of human thrombin and its complex with the Bock thrombin binding aptamer (TBA), a 15-nucleotide DNA with high specificity and affinity for thrombin. Accurate mass measurements revealed that the predominant form of native human α-thrombin contains a glycosylation mass of 2205 Da, corresponding to a sialylated symmetric biantennary oligosaccharide structure without fucosylation. Native MS showed that thrombin and TBA predominantly form a 1:1 complex under near physiological conditions (pH 6.8, 200 mM NH4OAc), but the binding stoichiometry is influenced by the solution ionic strength. In 20 mM ammonium acetate solution, up to two TBAs were bound to thrombin, whereas increasing the solution ionic strength destabilized the thrombin-TBA complex and 1 M NH4OAc nearly completely dissociated the complex. This observation is consistent with the mediation of thrombin-aptamer binding through electrostatic interactions and it is further consistent with the human thrombin structure that contains two anion binding sites on the surface. Electron capture dissociation (ECD) top-down MS of the thrombin-TBA complex performed with a high resolution 15 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer showed the primary binding site to be at exosite I located near the N-terminal sequence of the heavy chain, consistent with crystallographic data. High resolution native top-down MS is complementary to traditional structural biology methods for structurally characterizing native proteins and protein-DNA complexes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Parenting begets parenting: A neurobiological perspective on early adversity and the transmission of parenting styles across generations.

    PubMed

    Lomanowska, A M; Boivin, M; Hertzman, C; Fleming, A S

    2017-02-07

    The developing brains of young children are highly sensitive to input from their social environment. Nurturing social experience during this time promotes the acquisition of social and cognitive skills and emotional competencies. However, many young children are confronted with obstacles to healthy development, including poverty, inappropriate care, and violence, and their enhanced sensitivity to the social environment means that they are highly susceptible to these adverse childhood experiences. One source of social adversity in early life can stem from parenting that is harsh, inconsistent, non-sensitive or hostile. Parenting is considered to be the cornerstone of early socio-emotional development and an adverse parenting style is associated with adjustment problems and a higher risk of developing mood and behavioral disorders. Importantly, there is a growing literature showing that an important predictor of parenting behavior is how parents, especially mothers, were parented themselves. In this review, we examine how adversity in early-life affects mothering behavior in later-life and how these effects may be perpetuated inter-generationally. Relying on studies in humans and animal models, we consider evidence for the intergenerational transmission of mothering styles. We then describe the psychological underpinnings of mothering, including responsiveness to young, executive function and affect, as well as the physiological mediators of mothering behavior, including hormones, brain regions and neurotransmitters, and we consider how development in these relevant domains may be affected by adversity experienced in early life. Finally, we explore how genes and early experience interact to predict mothering behavior, including the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding how adverse parenting begets adverse parenting in the next generation is critical for designing interventions aimed at preventing this intergenerational cycle of early adversity

  19. Rumination, Excessive Reassurance Seeking, and Stress Generation among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Sosoo, Effua E.; Wilson, Sylia

    2018-01-01

    Nolen-Hoeksema proposed that rumination increases stressful events and circumstances; however, few studies have examined this question. Thus, we explored whether (a) rumination predicted increases in the generation of chronic and acute stress, (b) excessive reassurance seeking (ERS) mediated links between rumination and stress generation, (c)…

  20. Normal personality traits, rumination and stress generation among early adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Sosoo, Effua E.; Wilson, Sylia

    2017-01-01

    This study examined associations between personality and stress generation. Expanding upon prior work, we examined (a) the role of Positive Emotionality (PE), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Constraint (CON), and their lower-order facets, as predictors of acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation; (b) whether personality moderated effects of rumination on stress generation; and (c) whether personality increased exposure to independent (uncontrollable) stress. These questions were examined in a one-year study of 126 adolescent girls (M age = 12.39 years) using contextual stress interviews. NE predicted increases in acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation, but not independent stress. NE, CON and affiliative PE each moderated the effect of rumination on chronic interpersonal stress generation. These effects were driven by particular lower-order traits. PMID:28845067

  1. Dual Regulation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3)α/β by Protein Kinase C (PKC)α and Akt Promotes Thrombin-mediated Integrin αIIbβ3 Activation and Granule Secretion in Platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Samantha F.; van den Bosch, Marion T. J.; Hunter, Roger W.; Sakamoto, Kei; Poole, Alastair W.; Hers, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a Ser/Thr kinase, tonically active in resting cells but inhibited by phosphorylation of an N-terminal Ser residue (Ser21 in GSK3α and Ser9 in GSK3β) in response to varied external stimuli. Recent work suggests that GSK3 functions as a negative regulator of platelet function, but how GSK3 is regulated in platelets has not been examined in detail. Here, we show that early thrombin-mediated GSK3 phosphorylation (0–30 s) was blocked by PKC inhibitors and largely absent in platelets from PKCα knock-out mice. In contrast, late (2–5 min) GSK3 phosphorylation was dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Similarly, early thrombin-mediated inhibition of GSK3 activity was blocked in PKCα knock-out platelets, whereas the Akt inhibitor MK2206 reduced late thrombin-mediated GSK3 inhibition and largely prevented GSK3 inhibition in PKCα knock-out platelets. More importantly, GSK3 phosphorylation contributes to platelet function as knock-in mice where GSK3α Ser21 and GSK3β Ser9 were mutated to Ala showed a significant reduction in PAR4-mediated platelet aggregation, fibrinogen binding, and P-selectin expression, whereas the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 enhanced these responses. Together, these results demonstrate that PKCα and Akt modulate platelet function by phosphorylating and inhibiting GSK3α/β, thereby relieving the negative effect of GSK3α/β on thrombin-mediated platelet activation. PMID:23239877

  2. Improved thrombin binding aptamer by incorporation of a single unlocked nucleic acid monomer

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Anna; Hernandez, Frank J.; Rasmussen, Lars M.; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    A 15-mer DNA aptamer (named TBA) adopts a G-quadruplex structure that strongly inhibits fibrin-clot formation by binding to thrombin. We have performed thermodynamic analysis, binding affinity and biological activity studies of TBA variants modified by unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers. UNA-U placed in position U3, U7 or U12 increases the thermodynamic stability of TBA by 0.15–0.50 kcal/mol. In contrast, modification of any position within the two G-quartet structural elements is unfavorable for quadruplex formation. The intramolecular folding of the quadruplexes is confirmed by Tm versus ln c analysis. Moreover, circular dichroism and thermal difference spectra of the modified TBAs displaying high thermodynamic stability show bands that are characteristic for antiparallel quadruplex formation. Surface plasmon resonance studies of the binding of the UNA-modified TBAs to thrombin show that a UNA monomer is allowed in many positions of the aptamer without significantly changing the thrombin-binding properties. The biological effect of a selection of the modified aptamers was tested by a thrombin time assay and showed that most of the UNA-modified TBAs possess anticoagulant properties, and that the construct with a UNA-U monomer in position 7 is a highly potent inhibitor of fibrin-clot formation. PMID:20870750

  3. Rigidification of the autolysis loop enhances Na[superscript +] binding to thrombin

    SciT

    Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Raymond; Chen, Zhiwei

    2011-09-20

    Binding of Na{sup +} to thrombin ensures high activity toward physiological substrates and optimizes the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in vivo. Under physiological conditions of pH and temperature, the binding affinity of Na{sup +} is weak due to large heat capacity and enthalpy changes associated with binding, and the K{sub d} = 80 mM ensures only 64% saturation of the site at the concentration of Na{sup +} in the blood (140 mM). Residues controlling Na{sup +} binding and activation have been identified. Yet, attempts to improve the interaction of Na{sup +} with thrombin and possibly increase catalyticmore » activity under physiological conditions have so far been unsuccessful. Here we report how replacement of the flexible autolysis loop of human thrombin with the homologous rigid domain of the murine enzyme results in a drastic (up to 10-fold) increase in Na{sup +} affinity and a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Rigidification of the autolysis loop abolishes the heat capacity change associated with Na{sup +} binding observed in the wild-type and also increases the stability of thrombin. These findings have general relevance to protein engineering studies of clotting proteases and trypsin-like enzymes.« less

  4. Dabigatran affects thrombin-dependent platelet aggregation after a week-long therapy.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Juraj; Nehaj, Frantisek; Ivankova, Jela; Mokan, Michal; Mokan, Marian; Stasko, Jan

    2018-05-29

    Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor. As the main adverse event is bleeding, it is relevant whether dabigatran has additional effects on platelet function. If so, it could affect the bleeding risk. We aimed to assess in vitro aggregation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving dabigatran. We evaluated 32 AF patients treated with dabigatran (study group) and 18 non-anticoagulated non-AF blood donors (control group). We assessed light transmittance platelet aggregation (LTA) with 100 nmol/L γ-thrombin in both groups. The LTA was performed at two time-points in our dabigatran group of patients. The thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was significantly lower two hours after dabigatran was taken compared to baseline measurement (9% ± 6% vs. 29% ± 21%) in our study group. Moreover, we observed that the baseline value of platelet aggregation in patients on dabigatran treatment was significantly lower compared to healthy volunteers (29% ± 21% vs. 89 ± 8). However, one subanalysis showed that this significant reduction in platelet aggregation at baseline was only observed in patients who received dabigatran for over a week. The thrombin-induced platelet aggregation is reduced in non-valvular AF patients receiving dabigatran after a week-long therapy.

  5. A Reusable Impedimetric Aptasensor for Detection of Thrombin Employing a Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, Cristina; Pacios, Mercè; del Valle, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the application of a label-free electrochemical aptasensor based on a graphite-epoxy composite electrode for the detection of thrombin; in this work, aptamers were immobilized onto the electrodes surface using wet physical adsorption. The detection principle is based on the changes of the interfacial properties of the electrode; these were probed in the presence of the reversible redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/[Fe(CN)6]4− using impedance measurements. The electrode surface was partially blocked due to formation of aptamer-thrombin complex, resulting in an increase of the interfacial electron-transfer resistance detected by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The aptasensor showed a linear response for thrombin in the range of 7.5 pM to 75 pM and a detection limit of 4.5 pM. The aptasensor was regenerated by breaking the complex formed between the aptamer and thrombin using 2.0 M NaCl solution at 42 °C, showing its operation for different cycles. The interference response caused by main proteins in serum has been characterized. PMID:22736991

  6. Allosteric Partial Inhibition of Monomeric Proteases. Sulfated Coumarins Induce Regulation, not just Inhibition, of Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Verespy III, Stephen; Mehta, Akul Y.; Afosah, Daniel; Al-Horani, Rami A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteases can offer major regulatory advantages, but remains a concept on paper to date; although it has been routinely documented for receptors and oligomeric proteins. Thrombin, a key protease of the coagulation cascade, displays significant conformational plasticity, which presents an attractive opportunity to discover small molecule probes that induce sub-maximal allosteric inhibition. We synthesized a focused library of some 36 sulfated coumarins to discover two agents that display sub-maximal efficacy (~50%), high potency (<500 nM) and high selectivity for thrombin (>150-fold). Michaelis-Menten, competitive inhibition, and site-directed mutagenesis studies identified exosite 2 as the site of binding for the most potent sulfated coumarin. Stern-Volmer quenching of active site-labeled fluorophore suggested that the allosteric regulators induce intermediate structural changes in the active site as compared to those that display ~80–100% efficacy. Antithrombin inactivation of thrombin was impaired in the presence of the sulfated coumarins suggesting that allosteric partial inhibition arises from catalytic dysfunction of the active site. Overall, sulfated coumarins represent first-in-class, sub-maximal inhibitors of thrombin. The probes establish the concept of allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteins. This concept may lead to a new class of anticoagulants that are completely devoid of bleeding. PMID:27053426

  7. Early College Can Boost College Success Rates for Low-Income, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Wolfe, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Early college high school models are designed to encourage and assist traditionally underrepresented groups of students- low income, Latino, and African-American- to persist in and graduate from high school while earning college credit. Some of the models target high school dropouts, with the aim of helping them acquire the education and training…

  8. Assessment of high early strength limestone blended cement for next generation transportation structures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-01

    This research on Type IL cements for high early strength concretes demonstrated that Type IL cements satisfying AASHTO M 240 specifications may be used in place of Type I/II cements which satisfy AASHTO M 85 specifications for construction of transpo...

  9. Perceived Importance of ICT in Preparing Early Childhood Education Teachers for the New Generation Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olowe, Peter Kayode; Kutelu, Bukola Olaronke

    2014-01-01

    Children of the present age are born into the world that is highly driven by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). They begin to manipulate ICT materials as soon as they grow old enough to manipulate things. There is need therefore to provide ICT-learning experiences that can aid their holistic development. To do this, early childhood…

  10. Child Development Laboratory Schools as Generators of Knowledge in Early Childhood Education: New Models and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…

  11. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  12. Pericellular Ca2+ recycling potentiates thrombin-evoked Ca2+ signals in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Stewart O; Pugh, Nicholas; Farndale, Richard W; Harper, Alan G S

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs) potentiate Ca2+ signaling evoked by thapsigargin in human platelets, via their ability to modulate the secretion of autocoids from dense granules. This link was confirmed in platelets stimulated with the physiological agonist, thrombin, and experiments were performed to examine how Ca2+ removal by the NCX modulates platelet dense granule secretion. In cells loaded with the near-membrane indicator FFP-18, thrombin stimulation was observed to elicit an NCX-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ in a pericellular region around the platelets. To test whether this pericellular Ca2+ accumulation might be responsible for the influence of NCXs over platelet function, platelets were exposed to fast Ca2+ chelators or had their glycocalyx removed. Both manipulations of the pericellular Ca2+ rise reduced thrombin-evoked Ca2+ signals and dense granule secretion. Blocking Ca2+-permeable ion channels had a similar effect, suggesting that Ca2+ exported into the pericellular region is able to recycle back into the platelet cytosol. Single cell imaging with extracellular Fluo-4 indicated that thrombin-evoked rises in extracellular [Ca2+] occurred within the boundary described by the cell surface, suggesting their presence within the open canalicular system (OCS). FFP-18 fluorescence was similarly distributed. These data suggest that upon thrombin stimulation, NCX activity creates a rise in [Ca2+] within the pericellular region of the platelet from where it recycles back into the platelet cytosol, acting to both accelerate dense granule secretion and maintain the initial rise in cytosolic [Ca2+]. PMID:24303163

  13. Building the Next Generation of Earth Scientists: the Deep Carbon Observatory Early Career Scientist Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, K.; Fellowes, J.; Giovannelli, D.; Stagno, V.

    2016-12-01

    Building a network of collaborators and colleagues is a key professional development activity for early career scientists (ECS) dealing with a challenging job market. At large conferences, young scientists often focus on interacting with senior researchers, competing for a small number of positions in leading laboratories. However, building a strong, international network amongst their peers in related disciplines is often as valuable in the long run. The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) began funding a series of workshops in 2014 designed to connect early career researchers within its extensive network of multidisciplinary scientists. The workshops, by design, are by and for early career scientists, thus removing any element of competition and focusing on peer-to-peer networking, collaboration, and creativity. The successful workshops, organized by committees of early career deep carbon scientists, have nucleated a lively community of like-minded individuals from around the world. Indeed, the organizers themselves often benefit greatly from the leadership experience of pulling together an international workshop on budget and on deadline. We have found that a combination of presentations from all participants in classroom sessions, professional development training such as communication and data management, and field-based relationship building and networking is a recipe for success. Small groups within the DCO ECS network have formed; publishing papers together, forging new research directions, and planning novel and ambitious field campaigns. Many DCO ECS also have come together to convene sessions at major international conferences, including the AGU Fall Meeting. Most of all, there is a broad sense of camaraderie and accessibility within the DCO ECS Community, providing the foundation for a career in the new, international, and interdisciplinary field of deep carbon science.

  14. Educational Engagement and Early Family Formation: Differences by Ethnicity and Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Jennifer E.; Ruf, Stacey D.; White, Michael J.; Goldscheider, Frances K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines how school engagement influences the timing of family formation for youth. We pay particular attention to variation across four racial/ethnic groups and by generation status, variation that reflects the diversification of U.S. society through immigration. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we…

  15. A Generational Arc: Early Literacy Practices among Pakistani and Indian Heritage Language Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the attitudes towards reading in the home, handed down through the generations and experienced by the young children in four families of Pakistani and Indian origin. The children's families originally arrived in the UK in the 1960s, and this paper unpicks the stories and attitudinal changes in relation to both English and the…

  16. Interpersonal Stress Generation as a Mechanism Linking Rumination to Internalizing Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Rumination is a risk factor for depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Previous investigations of the mechanisms linking rumination to internalizing problems have focused primarily on cognitive factors. We investigated whether interpersonal stress generation plays a role in the longitudinal relationship between rumination and…

  17. Generation of a transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain for visualization of nuclear dynamics in early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takanobu; Iida, Atsuo; Maegawa, Shingo; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko; Kinoshita, Masato

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we verified nuclear transport activity of an artificial nuclear localization signal (aNLS) in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We generated a transgenic medaka strain expresses the aNLS tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by a medaka beta-actin promoter. The aNLS-EGFP was accumulated in the nuclei of somatic tissues and yolk nuclei of oocytes, but undetectable in the spermatozoa. The fluorescent signal was observed from immediately after fertilization by a maternal contribution. Furthermore, male and female pronuclei were visualized in fertilized eggs, and nuclear dynamics of pronuclear fusion and subsequent cleavage were captured by time-lapse imaging. In contrast, SV40NLS exhibited no activity of nuclear transport in early embryos. In conclusion, the aNLS possesses a strong nuclear localization activity and is a useful probe for fluorescent observation of the pronuclei and nuclei in early developmental stage of medaka. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. Implication of NADPH Oxidases in the Early Inflammation Process Generated by Cystic Fibrosis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pongnimitprasert, Nushjira; Hurtado, Margarita; Lamari, Foudil; El Benna, Jamel; Dupuy, Corinne; Fay, Michèle; Foglietti, Marie-José; Bernard, Maguy; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Braut-Boucher, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, pulmonary inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to further investigate whether oxidative stress could be involved in the early inflammatory process associated with CF pathogenesis. We used a model of CFTR defective epithelial cell line (IB3-1) and its reconstituted CFTR control (S9) cell line cultured in various ionic conditions. This study showed that IB3-1 and S9 cells expressed the NADPH oxidases (NOXs) DUOX1/2 and NOX2 at the same level. Nevertheless, several parameters participating in oxidative stress (increased ROS production and apoptosis, decreased total thiol content) were observed in IB3-1 cells cultured in hypertonic environment as compared to S9 cells and were inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a well-known inhibitor of NOXs; besides, increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 by IB3-1 cells was also inhibited by DPI as compared to S9 cells. Furthermore, calcium ionophore (A23187), which upregulates DUOX and NOX2 activities, strongly induced oxidative stress and IL-8 and IL-6 overexpression in IB3-1 cells. All these events were suppressed by DPI, supporting the involvement of NOXs in the oxidative stress, which can upregulate proinflammatory cytokine production by the airway CFTR-deficient cells and trigger early pulmonary inflammation in CF patients. PMID:24049649

  19. New generation of electrochemical immunoassay based on polymeric nanoparticles for early detection of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mouffouk, Fouzi; Aouabdi, Sihem; Al-Hetlani, Entesar; Serrai, Hacene; Alrefae, Tareq; Leo Chen, Liaohai

    2017-01-01

    Screening and early diagnosis are the key factors for the reduction of mortality rate and treatment cost of cancer. Therefore, sensitive and selective methods that can reveal the low abundance of cancer biomarkers in a biological sample are always desired. Here, we report the development of a novel electrochemical biosensor for early detection of breast cancer by using bioconjugated self-assembled pH-responsive polymeric micelles. The micelles were loaded with ferrocene molecules as “tracers” to specifically target cell surface-associated epithelial mucin (MUC1), a biomarker for breast and other solid carcinoma. The synthesis of target-specific, ferrocene-loaded polymeric micelles was confirmed, and the resulting sensor was capable of detecting the presence of MUC1 in a sample containing about 10 cells/mL. Such a high sensitivity was achieved by maximizing the loading capacity of ferrocene inside the polymeric micelles. Every single event of binding between the antibody and antigen was represented by the signal of hundreds of thousands of ferrocene molecules that were released from the polymeric micelles. This resulted in a significant increase in the intensity of the ferrocene signal detected by cyclic voltammetry. PMID:28450780

  20. Long-term effects of internment during early childhood on third-generation Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Nagata, D K; Trierweiler, S J; Talbot, R

    1999-01-01

    A national survey investigated the long-term effects of World War II internment on family communication, ethnic preference, confidence in personal rights, and attitudes to redress among third-generation Japanese Americans (sansei) who were infants or young children during incarceration. Findings were compared to those for noninterned sansei with and without parents who had been interned. Differences between interned and noninterned sansei were found primarily in family communication and family distance.

  1. Early Performance Results from the GOES-R Product Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, S.; Weiner, A.; Kalluri, S. N.; Hansen, D.; Dittberner, G.

    2013-12-01

    Enhancements to remote sensing capabilities for the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES R-series) scheduled to be launched in 2015 require high performance computing capabilities to output meteorological observations and products at low latency compared to the legacy processing systems. GOES R-series (GOES-R, -S, -T, and -U) represents a generational change in both spacecraft and instrument capability, and the GOES Re-Broadcast (GRB) data which contains calibrated and navigated radiances from all the instruments will be at a data rate of 31 Mb/sec compared to the current 2.11 Mb/sec from existing GOES satellites. To keep up with the data processing rates, the Product Generation (PG) system in the ground segment is designed on a Service Based Architecture (SBA). Each algorithm is executed as a service and subscribes to the data it needs to create higher level products via an enterprise service bus. Various levels of product data are published and retrieved from a data fabric. Together, the SBA and the data fabric provide a flexible, scalable, high performance architecture that meets the needs of product processing now and can grow to accommodate new algorithms in the future. The algorithms are linked together in a precedence chain starting from Level 0 to Level 1b and higher order Level 2 products that are distributed to data distribution nodes for external users. Qualification testing for more than half the product algorithms has so far been completed the PG system.

  2. The neural coding of creative idea generation across adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Jolles, Dietsje D.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is considered key to human prosperity, yet the neurocognitive principles underlying creative performance, and their development, are still poorly understood. To fill this void, we examined the neural correlates of divergent thinking in adults (25–30 years) and adolescents (15–17 years). Participants generated alternative uses (AU) or ordinary characteristics (OC) for common objects while brain activity was assessed using fMRI. Adults outperformed adolescents on the number of solutions for AU and OC trials. Contrasting neural activity for AU with OC trials revealed increased recruitment of left angular gyrus, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral middle temporal gyrus in both adults and adolescents. When only trials with multiple AU were included in the analysis, participants showed additional left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/middle frontal gyrus (MFG) activation for AU compared to OC trials. Correspondingly, individual difference analyses showed a positive correlation between activations for AU relative to OC trials in left IFG/MFG and divergent thinking performance and activations were more pronounced in adults than in adolescents. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that creative idea generation involves recruitment of mainly left lateralized parietal and temporal brain regions. Generating multiple creative ideas, a hallmark of divergent thinking, shows additional lateral PFC activation that is not yet optimized in adolescence. PMID:24416008

  3. Selective albumin-binding surfaces modified with a thrombin-inhibiting peptide.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sidónio C; Maia, Sílvia; Figueiredo, Ana C; Gomes, Paula; Pereira, Pedro J B; Barbosa, Mário A; Martins, M Cristina L

    2014-03-01

    Blood-contacting medical devices have been associated with severe clinical complications, such as thrombus formation, triggered by the activation of the coagulation cascade due to the adsorption of certain plasma proteins on the surface of biomaterials. Hence, the coating of such surfaces with antithrombotic agents has been used to increase biomaterial haemocompatibility. Biomaterial-induced clotting may also be decreased by albumin adsorption from blood plasma in a selective and reversible way, since this protein is not involved in the coagulation cascade. In this context, this paper reports that the immobilization of the thrombin inhibitor D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-D-Thr-CONH2 (fPrt) onto nanostructured surfaces induces selective and reversible adsorption of albumin, delaying the clotting time when compared to peptide-free surfaces. fPrt, synthesized with two glycine residues attached to the N-terminus (GGfPrt), was covalently immobilized onto self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) having different ratios of carboxylate-hexa(ethylene glycol)- and tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiols (EG6-COOH/EG3) that were specifically designed to control GGfPrt orientation, exposure and density at the molecular level. In solution, GGfPrt was able to inactivate the enzymatic activity of thrombin and to delay plasma clotting time in a concentration-dependent way. After surface immobilization, and independently of its concentration, GGfPrt lost its selectivity to thrombin and its capacity to inhibit thrombin enzymatic activity against the chromogenic substrate n-p-tosyl-Gly-Pro-Arg-p-nitroanilide. Nevertheless, surfaces with low concentrations of GGfPrt could delay the capacity of adsorbed thrombin to cleave fibrinogen. In contrast, GGfPrt immobilized in high concentrations was found to induce the procoagulant activity of the adsorbed thrombin. However, all surfaces containing GGfPrt have a plasma clotting time similar to the negative control (empty polystyrene wells), showing resistance to

  4. Turn-on fluorescence sensor based on single-walled-carbon-nanohorn-peptide complex for the detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuyun; Liu, Zhongyuan; Hu, Lianzhe; Yuan, Yali; Xu, Guobao

    2012-12-14

    Proteases play a central role in several widespread diseases. Thus, there is a great need for the fast and sensitive detection of various proteolytic enzymes. Herein, we have developed a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based protease biosensing platform that uses peptides as a fluorescence probe for the first time. Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) and thrombin were used to demonstrate this detection strategy. SWCNHs can adsorb a fluorescein-based dye (FAM)-labeled peptide (FAM-pep) and quench the fluorescence of FAM. In contrast, thrombin can cleave FAM-pep on SWCNHs and recover the fluorescence of FAM, which allows the sensitive detection of thrombin. This biosensor has a high sensitivity and selectivity toward thrombin, with a detection limit of 100 pM. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Macrocyclic Prodrugs of a Selective Nonpeptidic Direct Thrombin Inhibitor Display High Permeability, Efficient Bioconversion but Low Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Vincent; Bergström, Fredrik; Brånalt, Jonas; Grönberg, Gunnar; Gustafsson, David; Karlsson, Staffan; Polla, Magnus; Bergman, Joakim; Kihlberg, Jan

    2016-07-28

    The only oral direct thrombin inhibitors that have reached the market, ximelagatran and dabigatran etexilat, are double prodrugs with low bioavailability in humans. We have evaluated an alternative strategy: the preparation of a nonpeptidic, polar direct thrombin inhibitor as a single, macrocyclic esterase-cleavable (acyloxy)alkoxy prodrug. Two homologous prodrugs were synthesized and displayed high solubilities and Caco-2 cell permeabilities, suggesting high absorption from the intestine. In addition, they were rapidly and completely converted to the active zwitterionic thrombin inhibitor in human hepatocytes. Unexpectedly, the most promising prodrug displayed only moderately higher oral bioavailability in rat than the polar direct thrombin inhibitor, most likely due to rapid metabolism in the intestine or the intestinal wall. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in vivo ADME study of macrocyclic (acyloxy)alkoxy prodrugs, and it remains to be established if the modest increase in bioavailability is a general feature of this category of prodrugs or not.

  6. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of a glucose oxidase-functionalized bioconjugate as a trace label for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lijuan; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Yali; Wang, Yan; Xie, Shunbi

    2012-11-18

    For the first time, a glucose oxidase-functionalized bioconjugate was prepared and served as a new trace label through its direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis in a sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin.

  7. Intra- and Trans-Generational Costs of Reduced Female Body Size Caused by Food Limitation Early in Life in Mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons. Conclusions/Significance Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism – females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males – and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size. PMID:24265745

  8. Endogenously generated gamma-band oscillations in early visual cortex: A neurofeedback study.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Nina; Wibral, Michael; Bland, Gareth; Singer, Wolf

    2018-04-26

    Human subjects were trained with neurofeedback (NFB) to enhance the power of narrow-band gamma oscillations in circumscribed regions of early visual cortex. To select the region and the oscillation frequency for NFB training, gamma oscillations were induced with locally presented drifting gratings. The source and frequency of these induced oscillations were determined using beamforming methods. During NFB training the power of narrow band gamma oscillations was continuously extracted from this source with online beamforming and converted into the pitch of a tone signal. We found that seven out of ten subjects were able to selectively increase the amplitude of gamma oscillations in the absence of visual stimulation. One subject however failed completely and two subjects succeeded to manipulate the feedback signal by contraction of muscles. In all subjects the attempts to enhance visual gamma oscillations were associated with an increase of beta oscillations over precentral/frontal regions. Only successful subjects exhibited an additional marked increase of theta oscillations over precentral/prefrontal and temporal regions whereas unsuccessful subjects showed an increase of alpha band oscillations over occipital regions. We argue that spatially confined networks in early visual cortex can be entrained to engage in narrow band gamma oscillations not only by visual stimuli but also by top down signals. We interpret the concomitant increase in beta oscillations as indication for an engagement of the fronto-parietal attention network and the increase of theta oscillations as a correlate of imagery. Our finding support the application of NFB in disease conditions associated with impaired gamma synchronization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Risk of bleeding in surgical patients treated with topical bovine thrombin sealants: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew W; Clark, John; Crean, Sheila; Samudrala, Srinath

    2008-01-01

    Background One of the most anticipated, but potentially serious complications during or after surgery are bleeding events. Among the many potential factors associated with bleeding complications in surgery, the use of bovine thrombin has been anecdotally identified as a possible cause of increased bleeding risk. Most of these reports of bleeding events in association with the use of topical bovine thrombin have been limited to case reports lacking clear cause and effect relationship determination. Recent studies have failed to establish significant differences in the rates of bleeding events between those treated with bovine thrombin and those treated with either human or recombinant thrombin. Methods We conducted a search of MEDLINE for the most recent past 10 years (1997–2007) and identified all published studies that reported a study of surgical patients with a clear objective to examine the risk of bleeding events in surgical patients. We also specifically noted the reporting of any topical bovine thrombin used during surgical procedures. We aimed to examine whether there were any differences in the risk of bleeds in general surgical populations as compared to those studies that reported exposure to topical bovine thrombin. Results We identified 21 clinical studies that addressed the risk of bleeding in surgery. Of these, 5 studies analyzed the use of bovine thrombin sealants in surgical patients. There were no standardized definitions for bleeding events employed across these studies. The rates of bleeds in the general surgery studies ranged from 0.1%–20.2%, with most studies reporting rates between 2.6%–4%. The rates of bleeding events ranged from 0.0%–13% in the bovine thrombin studies with most studies reporting between a 2%–3% rate. Conclusion The risk of bleeds was not clearly different in those studies reporting use of bovine thrombin in all patients compared to the other surgical populations studied. A well-designed and well-controlled study

  10. Genetic inheritance of pulp colour and selected traits of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) at early generation selection.

    PubMed

    Nduwumuremyi, Athanase; Melis, Rob; Shanahan, Paul; Theodore, Asiimwe

    2018-06-01

    The early generation selection of cassava quantitative and qualitative traits saves breeding resources as it can shorten breeding schemes. Inheritance analysis provides important breeding information for developing new improved varieties. This study aimed at developing an F1 segregating cassava population and determining mode of gene action of pulp colour and selected traits at early generation selection (F1 seedling and clones). The 15 families exhibited significant (P < 0.05) phenotypic variation between offspring. The general combining ability (GCA) was significant for all traits except cassava brown streak disease on leaves, whereas specific combining ability (SCA) was significant for all evaluated traits. The Garukansubire and Gitamisi genotypes were the best general combiners for improving fresh storage root yield, while G1 and G2 were the best general combiners for improved carotenoid (yellow/orange pulp colour) and delayed physiological postharvest deterioration. The pulp colour had the highest GCA/SCA ratio and percent sum of squares due to GCA. The 15 F1 families exhibited essential genetic diversity for cassava improvement. The expression of most cassava traits was controlled by both additive and non-additive gene action. The study elucidated the role of dominance effects over the additive effects for the evaluated traits. However, the pulp colour was predominantly controlled by additive gene action. This implies the possibility of improving cassava through conventional breeding using recurrent selection for most traits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Reduced thrombin formation and excessive fibrinolysis are associated with bleeding complications in patients with dengue fever: a case–control study comparing dengue fever patients with and without bleeding manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently demonstrated that DF represents a heterogeneous group of patients with varied clinical complications and grades of severity. Particularly, bleeding complications, commonly associated to DHF, can be detected in half of the patients with DF. Although a frequent complication, the causes of bleedings in DF have not been fully addressed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of possible pathophysiological mechanisms that could contribute to the bleeding tendency observed in patients with DF. Methods This is a case–control study that enrolled adults with DF without bleeding and adults with DF and bleeding complications during the defervescence period. Healthy controls were also included. Peripheral blood counts, inflammatory, fibrinolysis and endothelial cell activation markers, and thrombin generation were evaluated in patients and controls. Results We included 33 adults with DF without complications, 26 adults with DF and bleeding and 67 healthy controls. Bleeding episodes were mild in 15 (57.6%) and moderate in 11 (42.4%) patients, 8 (30.7%) patients had bleedings in multiple sites. Patients with DF and bleedings had lower platelet counts than DF without bleeding (median = 19,500 vs. 203,500/mm3, P < 0,0001). Levels of TNF-α, thrombomodulin and VWF were significantly increased in the two dengue groups than in healthy controls, but similar between patients with and without bleedings. Plasma levels of tPA and D-dimer were significantly increased in patients with bleedings (median tPA levels were 4.5, 5.2, 11.7 ng/ml, P < 0.0001 and median D-dimer levels were 515.5, 1028 and 1927 ng/ml, P < 0.0001). The thrombin generation test showed that patients with bleeding complications had reduced thrombin

  12. Reduced thrombin formation and excessive fibrinolysis are associated with bleeding complications in patients with dengue fever: a case-control study comparing dengue fever patients with and without bleeding manifestations.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Fernanda A; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Mazetto, Bruna M; Quaino, Susan K P; Santiago-Bassora, Fernanda; Castro, Vagner; de Paula, Erich V; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M

    2013-07-28

    Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently demonstrated that DF represents a heterogeneous group of patients with varied clinical complications and grades of severity. Particularly, bleeding complications, commonly associated to DHF, can be detected in half of the patients with DF. Although a frequent complication, the causes of bleedings in DF have not been fully addressed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of possible pathophysiological mechanisms that could contribute to the bleeding tendency observed in patients with DF. This is a case-control study that enrolled adults with DF without bleeding and adults with DF and bleeding complications during the defervescence period. Healthy controls were also included. Peripheral blood counts, inflammatory, fibrinolysis and endothelial cell activation markers, and thrombin generation were evaluated in patients and controls. We included 33 adults with DF without complications, 26 adults with DF and bleeding and 67 healthy controls. Bleeding episodes were mild in 15 (57.6%) and moderate in 11 (42.4%) patients, 8 (30.7%) patients had bleedings in multiple sites. Patients with DF and bleedings had lower platelet counts than DF without bleeding (median = 19,500 vs. 203,500/mm3, P < 0,0001). Levels of TNF-α, thrombomodulin and VWF were significantly increased in the two dengue groups than in healthy controls, but similar between patients with and without bleedings. Plasma levels of tPA and D-dimer were significantly increased in patients with bleedings (median tPA levels were 4.5, 5.2, 11.7 ng/ml, P < 0.0001 and median D-dimer levels were 515.5, 1028 and 1927 ng/ml, P < 0.0001). The thrombin generation test showed that patients with bleeding complications had reduced thrombin formation (total thrombin generated

  13. Aptamer based label free thrombin assay based on the use of silver nanoparticles incorporated into self-polymerized dopamine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingjun; Wang, Guixiang; Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Guiyun; Lin, Jiehua; Luo, Xiliang

    2018-04-13

    The authors describe an electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin that is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with polydopamine that is loaded with silver nanoparticles (PDA/AgNPs). The use of AgNPs improves the conductivity of the film and increases the surface area of the GCE. PDA was deposited on the GCE via self-polymerization, and the thrombin binding aptamer was grafted onto the PDA-modified GCE by a single step reaction. Residual electrode surface was blocked with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol. On exposure to thrombin, the electrochemical impedance of the modified electrode increases gradually. Response is linear in the 0.1 pM to 5.0 nM thrombin concentration range, and the limit of detection is as low as 36 fM. The method is selective and capable of detecting thrombin in diluted human serum. In our perception, such a GCE modified with AgNP in a PDA matrix may be applied to many other analytes for which appropriate aptamers are available. Graphical abstract Schematic of an electrochemical aptasensor for sensitive and selective thrombin detection based on the use of a self-polymerized polydopamine film loaded with silver nanoparticles.

  14. Thrombin mediated transcriptional regulation using DNA aptamers in DNA based cell free protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the potential of cell free systems will require development of ligand sensitive gene promoters that control gene expression in response to a ligand of interest. Here, we describe an approach to designing ligand sensitive transcriptional control in cell free systems that is based on the combination of a DNA aptamer that binds thrombin and the T7 bacteriophage promoter. Placement of the aptamer near the T7 promoter, and using a primarily single stranded template, results in up to a five-fold change in gene expression in a ligand concentration dependent manner. We further demonstrate that the sensitivity to thrombin concentration and the fold change in expression can be tuned by altering the position of the aptamer. The results described here pave the way for the use of DNA aptamers to achieve modular regulation of transcription in response to a wide variety of ligands in cell free systems. PMID:24059754

  15. Non-enzymatic glycation reduces heparin cofactor II anti-thrombin activity.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Marchi, E; Barbanti, M; Milani, M R; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Lefebvre, P

    1990-04-01

    The effects of non-enzymatic glycation on heparin cofactor II activity, at glucose concentrations which might be expected in physiological or diabetic conditions have been evaluated in this study. Radiolabelled glucose incorporation was associated with a loss of heparin cofactor anti-thrombin activity. The heparin cofactor heparin and dermatan sulfate-dependent inhibition of thrombin was significantly reduced, showing a remarkable decrease of the maximum second order rate constant. This study shows that heparin cofactor can be glycated at glucose concentrations found in the blood, and that this phenomenon produces a loss of heparin cofactor-antithrombin activity. These data suggest, furthermore, a possible link between heparin cofactor glycation and the pathogenesis of thrombosis in diabetes mellitus.

  16. Platelets generated from human embryonic stem cells are functional in vitro and in the microcirculation of living mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shi-Jiang; Li, Feng; Yin, Hong; Feng, Qiang; Kimbrel, Erin A; Hahm, Eunsil; Thon, Jonathan N; Wang, Wei; Italiano, Joseph E; Cho, Jaehyung; Lanza, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis and atherothrombosis. Owing to their short storage time, there is constant demand for this life-saving blood component. In this study, we report that it is feasible to generate functional megakaryocytes and platelets from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on a large scale. Differential-interference contrast and electron microscopy analyses showed that ultrastructural and morphological features of hESC-derived platelets were indistinguishable from those of normal blood platelets. In functional assays, hESC-derived platelets responded to thrombin stimulation, formed microaggregates, and facilitated clot formation/retraction in vitro. Live cell microscopy demonstrated that hESC-platelets formed lamellipodia and filopodia in response to thrombin activation, and tethered to each other as observed in normal blood. Using real-time intravital imaging with high-speed video microscopy, we have also shown that hESC-derived platelets contribute to developing thrombi at sites of laser-induced vascular injury in mice, providing the first evidence for in vivo functionality of hESC-derived platelets. These results represent an important step toward generating an unlimited supply of platelets for transfusion. Since platelets contain no genetic material, they are ideal candidates for early clinical translation involving human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:21221130

  17. In silico direct folding of thrombin-binding aptamer G-quadruplex at all-atom level

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Changwon; Kulkarni, Mandar; Lim, Manho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The reversible folding of the thrombin-binding DNA aptamer G-quadruplexes (GQs) (TBA-15) starting from fully unfolded states was demonstrated using a prolonged time scale (10–12 μs) parallel tempering metadynamics (PTMetaD) simulation method in conjunction with a modified version of the AMBER bsc1 force field. For unbiased descriptions of the folding free energy landscape of TBA-15, this force field was minimally modified. From this direct folding simulation using the modified bsc1 force field, reasonably converged free energy landscapes were obtained in K+-rich aqueous solution (150 mM), providing detailed atomistic pictures of GQ folding mechanisms for TBA-15. This study found that the TBA folding occurred via multiple folding pathways with two major free energy barriers of 13 and 15 kcal/mol in the presence of several intermediate states of G-triplex variants. The early formation of these intermediates was associated with a single K+ ion capturing. Interestingly, these intermediate states appear to undergo facile transitions among themselves through relatively small energy barriers. PMID:29112755

  18. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Orla; McGlanaghy, Edel; O’Farrelly, Christine; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children’s emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728 PMID:27253184

  19. Electron tomography of early melanosomes: Implications for melanogenesis and the generation of fibrillar amyloid sheets

    PubMed Central

    Hurbain, Ilse; Geerts, Willie J. C.; Boudier, Thomas; Marco, Sergio; Verkleij, Arie J.; Marks, Michael S.; Raposo, Graç

    2008-01-01

    Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles (LROs) in which melanins are synthesized and stored. Early stage melanosomes are characterized morphologically by intralumenal fibrils upon which melanins are deposited in later stages. The integral membrane protein Pmel17 is a component of the fibrils, can nucleate fibril formation in the absence of other pigment cell-specific proteins, and forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. Before fibril formation Pmel17 traffics through multivesicular endosomal compartments, but how these compartments participate in downstream events leading to fibril formation is not fully known. By using high-pressure freezing of MNT-1 melanoma cells and freeze substitution to optimize ultrastructural preservation followed by double tilt 3D electron tomography, we show that the amyloid-like fibrils begin to form in multivesicular compartments, where they radiate from the luminal side of intralumenal membrane vesicles. The fibrils in fully formed stage II premelanosomes organize into sheet-like arrays and exclude the remaining intralumenal vesicles, which are smaller and often in continuity with the limiting membrane. These observations indicate that premelanosome fibrils form in association with intralumenal endosomal membranes. We suggest that similar processes regulate amyloid formation in pathological models. PMID:19033461

  20. Electron tomography of early melanosomes: implications for melanogenesis and the generation of fibrillar amyloid sheets.

    PubMed

    Hurbain, Ilse; Geerts, Willie J C; Boudier, Thomas; Marco, Sergio; Verkleij, Arie J; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graç

    2008-12-16

    Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles (LROs) in which melanins are synthesized and stored. Early stage melanosomes are characterized morphologically by intralumenal fibrils upon which melanins are deposited in later stages. The integral membrane protein Pmel17 is a component of the fibrils, can nucleate fibril formation in the absence of other pigment cell-specific proteins, and forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. Before fibril formation Pmel17 traffics through multivesicular endosomal compartments, but how these compartments participate in downstream events leading to fibril formation is not fully known. By using high-pressure freezing of MNT-1 melanoma cells and freeze substitution to optimize ultrastructural preservation followed by double tilt 3D electron tomography, we show that the amyloid-like fibrils begin to form in multivesicular compartments, where they radiate from the luminal side of intralumenal membrane vesicles. The fibrils in fully formed stage II premelanosomes organize into sheet-like arrays and exclude the remaining intralumenal vesicles, which are smaller and often in continuity with the limiting membrane. These observations indicate that premelanosome fibrils form in association with intralumenal endosomal membranes. We suggest that similar processes regulate amyloid formation in pathological models.

  1. Investigating the Early Evolution of Planetary Systems with ALMA and the Next Generation Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Luca; Liu, Shang-Fei; Isella, Andrea; Li, Hui

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the potential of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) to observe substructures in nearby young disks which are due to the gravitational interaction between disk material and planets close to the central star. We simulate the gas and dust dynamics in the disk using the LA-COMPASS hydrodynamical code. We generate synthetic images for the dust continuum emission at submillimeter to centimeter wavelengths and simulate ALMA and ngVLA observations. We explore the parameter space of some of the main disk and planet properties that would produce substructures that can be visible with ALMA and the ngVLA. We find that ngVLA observations with an angular resolution of 5 milliarcsec at 3 mm can reveal and characterize gaps and azimuthal asymmetries in disks hosting planets with masses down to ≈ 5 {M}\\oplus ≈ 1{--}5 {au} from a solar-like star in the closest star-forming regions, whereas ALMA can detect gaps down to planetary masses of ≈ 20 {M}\\oplus at 5 au. Gaps opened by super-Earth planets with masses ≈ 5{--}10 {M}\\oplus are detectable by the ngVLA in the case of disks with low viscosity (α ∼ {10}-5) and low pressure scale height (h ≈ 0.025 au at 5 au). The ngVLA can measure the proper motion of azimuthal asymmetric structures associated with the disk–planet interaction as well as possible circumplanetary disks on timescales as short as one to a few weeks for planets at 1–5 au from the star.

  2. Thermodynamic compensation upon binding to exosite 1 and the active site of thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Treuheit, Nicholas A.; Beach, Muneera A.; Komives, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Several lines of experimental evidence including amide exchange and NMR suggest that ligands binding to thrombin cause reduced backbone dynamics. Binding of the covalent inhibitor dPhe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone to the active site serine, as well as non-covalent binding of a fragment of the regulatory protein, thrombomodulin, to exosite 1 on the back side of the thrombin molecule both cause reduced dynamics. However, the reduced dynamics do not appear to be accompanied by significant conformational changes. In addition, binding of ligands to the active site does not change the affinity of thrombomodulin fragments binding to exosite 1, however, the thermodynamic coupling between exosite 1 and the active site has not been fully explored. We present isothermal titration calorimetry experiments that probe changes in enthalpy and entropy upon formation of binary ligand complexes. The approach relies on stringent thrombin preparation methods and on the use of dansyl-L-arginine-(3-methyl-1,5-pantanediyl) amide and a DNA aptamer as ligands with ideal thermodynamic signatures for binding to the active site and to exosite 1. Using this approach, the binding thermodynamic signatures of each ligand alone as well as the binding signatures of each ligand when the other binding site was occupied were measured. Different exosite 1 ligands with widely varied thermodynamic signatures cause the same reduction in ΔH and a concomitantly lower entropy cost upon DAPA binding at the active site. The results suggest a general phenomenon of enthalpy-entropy compensation consistent with reduction of dynamics/increased folding of thrombin upon ligand binding to either the active site or to exosite 1. PMID:21526769

  3. Thermodynamic compensation upon binding to exosite 1 and the active site of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Treuheit, Nicholas A; Beach, Muneera A; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2011-05-31

    Several lines of experimental evidence including amide exchange and NMR suggest that ligands binding to thrombin cause reduced backbone dynamics. Binding of the covalent inhibitor dPhe-Pro-Arg chloromethyl ketone to the active site serine, as well as noncovalent binding of a fragment of the regulatory protein, thrombomodulin, to exosite 1 on the back side of the thrombin molecule both cause reduced dynamics. However, the reduced dynamics do not appear to be accompanied by significant conformational changes. In addition, binding of ligands to the active site does not change the affinity of thrombomodulin fragments binding to exosite 1; however, the thermodynamic coupling between exosite 1 and the active site has not been fully explored. We present isothermal titration calorimetry experiments that probe changes in enthalpy and entropy upon formation of binary ligand complexes. The approach relies on stringent thrombin preparation methods and on the use of dansyl-l-arginine-(3-methyl-1,5-pantanediyl)amide and a DNA aptamer as ligands with ideal thermodynamic signatures for binding to the active site and to exosite 1. Using this approach, the binding thermodynamic signatures of each ligand alone as well as the binding signatures of each ligand when the other binding site was occupied were measured. Different exosite 1 ligands with widely varied thermodynamic signatures cause a similar reduction in ΔH and a concomitantly lower entropy cost upon DAPA binding at the active site. The results suggest a general phenomenon of enthalpy-entropy compensation consistent with reduction of dynamics/increased folding of thrombin upon ligand binding to either the active site or exosite 1.

  4. Methylation analysis of plasma cell-free DNA for breast cancer early detection using bisulfite next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zibo; Guo, Xinwu; Tang, Lili; Peng, Limin; Chen, Ming; Luo, Xipeng; Wang, Shouman; Xiao, Zhi; Deng, Zhongping; Dai, Lizhong; Xia, Kun; Wang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been considered as a potential biomarker for non-invasive cancer detection. To evaluate the methylation levels of six candidate genes (EGFR, GREM1, PDGFRB, PPM1E, SOX17, and WRN) in plasma cfDNA as biomarkers for breast cancer early detection, quantitative analysis of the promoter methylation of these genes from 86 breast cancer patients and 67 healthy controls was performed by using microfluidic-PCR-based target enrichment and next-generation bisulfite sequencing technology. The predictive performance of different logistic models based on methylation status of candidate genes was investigated by means of the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and odds ratio (OR) analysis. Results revealed that EGFR, PPM1E, and 8 gene-specific CpG sites showed significantly hypermethylation in cancer patients' plasma and significantly associated with breast cancer (OR ranging from 2.51 to 9.88). The AUC values for these biomarkers were ranging from 0.66 to 0.75. Combinations of multiple hypermethylated genes or CpG sites substantially improved the predictive performance for breast cancer detection. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of quantitative measurement of candidate gene methylation in cfDNA by using microfluidic-PCR-based target enrichment and bisulfite next-generation sequencing, which is worthy of further validation and potentially benefits a broad range of applications in clinical oncology practice. Quantitative analysis of methylation pattern of plasma cfDNA by next-generation sequencing might be a valuable non-invasive tool for early detection of breast cancer.

  5. Early Pregnancy Factor Enhances the Generation and Function of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quangang; Zhu, Xiaorong; Chen, Renjin; Liu, Jing; Liu, Peng; Hu, Ankang; Wu, Lianlian; Hua, Hui; Yuan, Honghua

    2016-11-01

    The mechanisms of fetal semi-allograft acceptance by the mother's immune system have been the target of many immunological studies. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a molecule present in the serum of pregnant mammals soon after conception that has been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether immune cells such as CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the suppressive mechanism of EPF. Accordingly, CD4 + CD25 - T cells were isolated from spleens of female C57BL/6 mice and stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody, anti-CD28 antibody and IL-2 in the presence or absence of EPF. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the differentiation of CD4 + CD25 - T cells to CD4 + CD25 + Tregs. We thus found a remarkable rise in the Treg ratio in the EPF-treated cells. Higher mRNA and protein levels of fork head box P3 (Foxp3), a marker of the Treg lineage, were also observed in cells treated with EPF. Furthermore, the effect of EPF on Treg immunosuppressive capacity was evaluated. EPF treatment induced the expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor β1 in Tregs. The suppressive capacity of Tregs was further measured by their capability to inhibit T cell receptor-mediated proliferation of CD4 + CD25 - T cells. We thus found that EPF exposure can enhance the immunosuppressive functions of Tregs. Overall, our data suggest that EPF induces the differentiation of Tregs and increases their immunosuppressive activities, which might be an important mechanism to inhibit immune responses during pregnancy.

  6. Coagulopathy by Hypothermia and Acidosis: Mechanisms of Thrombin Generation and Fibrinogen Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    lowered to 32°C and stabilized, stable iso- tope 1-13C- phenylalanine was infused for 6 hours and d5- phenylalanine was infused for 4 hours to investigate... phenylalanine (for 6 hours) and d5- phenylalanine (for 4 hours) was performed to inves- tigate changes in fibrinogen metabolism. Blood samples were...Sirchia G. Hemostasis testing during massive blood replacement. A study of 172 cases. Vox Sang. 1982;42: 113–123. 28. Martini WZ, Chinkes DL , Pusateri AE

  7. Comparison of laser-activated tissue solders and thrombin-activated cryoprecipitate for wound closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayton, Mark L.; Libutti, Steven K.; Bessler, Marc; Allendorf, John D. F.; Eiref, Simon D.; Marx, Gerard; Mou, Xiaode; Morales, Alfredo M.; Treat, Michael R.; Nowygrod, Roman

    1994-09-01

    To determine the relative strengths of various biologic adhesives at several timepoints, we compared thrombin-activated SD (solvent-detergent treated) cryoprecipitate with laser- activated SD cryoprecipitate and a laser-activated, albumin-based glue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n equals 79) received four, 3-cm, dorsal skin incisions which were closed with either laser- activated cryoprecipitate, laser-activated albumin solder, thrombin-activated cryoprecipitate, or standard skin staples. The cryoprecipitate was derived from pooled human plasma and was treated with a solvent-detergent process, rendering it free of envelope-coated viruses (i.e., HBV, HIV). An 808-nm diode laser was used to activate each solder with an average duration of exposure of 75 seconds per incision. Animals were sacrificed for evaluation of wound tensile strength and histology at 0 hours, 2 hours, 4 hours, and 4 days. At all timepoints tested, laser-activated solders were significantly stronger than thrombin-activated cryoprecipitate (p < 0.03) and control wounds (p < 0.003). There was no significant difference in tensile strength between the two types of laser-activated solder at any timepoint.

  8. Molecular modeling studies of novel retro-binding tripeptide active-site inhibitors of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Lau, W F; Tabernero, L; Sack, J S; Iwanowicz, E J

    1995-08-01

    A novel series of retro-binding tripeptide thrombin active-site inhibitors was recently developed (Iwanowicz, E. I. et al. J. Med. Chem. 1994, 37, 2111(1)). It was hypothesized that the binding mode for these inhibitors is similar to that of the first three N-terminal residues of hirudin. This binding hypothesis was subsequently verified when the crystal structure of a member of this series, BMS-183,507 (N-[N-[N-[4-(Aminoiminomethyl)amino[-1-oxobutyl]-L- phenylalanyl]-L-allo-threonyl]-L-phenylalanine, methyl ester), was determined (Taberno, L.J. Mol. Biol. 1995, 246, 14). The methodology for developing the binding models of these inhibitors, the structure-activity relationships (SAR) and modeling studies that led to the elucidation of the proposed binding mode is described. The crystal structure of BMS-183,507/human alpha-thrombin is compared with the crystal structure of hirudin/human alpha-thrombin (Rydel, T.J. et al. Science 1990, 249,227; Rydel, T.J. et al. J. Mol Biol. 1991, 221, 583; Grutter, M.G. et al. EMBO J. 1990, 9, 2361) and with the computational binding model of BMS-183,507.

  9. Structure-activity studies and therapeutic potential of host defense peptides of human thrombin.

    PubMed

    Kasetty, Gopinath; Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Rydengård, Victoria; Mörgelin, Matthias; Albiger, Barbara; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2011-06-01

    Peptides of the C-terminal region of human thrombin are released upon proteolysis and identified in human wounds. In this study, we wanted to investigate minimal determinants, as well as structural features, governing the antimicrobial and immunomodulating activity of this peptide region. Sequential amino acid deletions of the peptide GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE (GKY25), as well as substitutions at strategic and structurally relevant positions, were followed by analyses of antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Candida albicans. Furthermore, peptide effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, lipoteichoic acid-, or zymosan-induced macrophage activation were studied. The thrombin-derived peptides displayed length- and sequence-dependent antimicrobial as well as immunomodulating effects. A peptide length of at least 20 amino acids was required for effective anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage models, as well as optimal antimicrobial activity as judged by MIC assays. However, shorter (>12 amino acids) variants also displayed significant antimicrobial effects. A central K14 residue was important for optimal antimicrobial activity. Finally, one peptide variant, GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVI (GKY20) exhibiting improved selectivity, i.e., low toxicity and a preserved antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory effect, showed efficiency in mouse models of LPS shock and P. aeruginosa sepsis. The work defines structure-activity relationships of C-terminal host defense peptides of thrombin and delineates a strategy for selecting peptide epitopes of therapeutic interest.

  10. Thinking Across Generations: Unique Contributions of Maternal Early Life and Prenatal Stress to Infant Physiology.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A O; Jones, Christopher W; Theall, Katherine P; Glackin, Erin; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a parasympathetic-mediated biomarker of self-regulation linked to lifespan mental and physical health outcomes. Intergenerational impacts of mothers' exposure to prenatal stress have been demonstrated, but evidence for biological embedding of maternal preconception stress, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on infant RSA is lacking. We examine the independent effects of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress on infant RSA, seeking to broaden the understanding of the earliest origins of mental and physical health risk. Mothers reported on ACEs and prenatal stress. RSA was recorded in a sample of 167 4-month-old infants (49% female and 51% male) during a dyadic stressor, the Still Face Paradigm. Independent contributions of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress to infant RSA were observed. High maternal ACEs were associated with lower RSA, whereas prenatal stress was associated with failure to recover following the stressor. Sex but not race differences were observed. Prenatal stress was associated with higher RSA among boys but lower RSA among girls. Infants' RSA is affected by mothers' life course experiences of stress, with ACEs predicting a lower set point and prenatal stress dampening recovery from stress. For prenatal stress but not ACEs, patterns vary across sex. Findings underscore that stress-reducing interventions for pregnant women or those considering pregnancy may lead to decreased physical and mental health risk across generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early induction of a prechondrogenic population allows efficient generation of stable chondrocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Taylor, Sarah E B; Smeriglio, Piera; Lai, Janice; Maloney, William J; Yang, Fan; Bhutani, Nidhi

    2015-08-01

    Regeneration of human cartilage is inherently inefficient; an abundant autologous source, such as human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), is therefore attractive for engineering cartilage. We report a growth factor-based protocol for differentiating hiPSCs into articular-like chondrocytes (hiChondrocytes) within 2 weeks, with an overall efficiency >90%. The hiChondrocytes are stable and comparable to adult articular chondrocytes in global gene expression, extracellular matrix production, and ability to generate cartilage tissue in vitro and in immune-deficient mice. Molecular characterization identified an early SRY (sex-determining region Y) box (Sox)9(low) cluster of differentiation (CD)44(low)CD140(low) prechondrogenic population during hiPSC differentiation. In addition, 2 distinct Sox9-regulated gene networks were identified in the Sox9(low) and Sox9(high) populations providing novel molecular insights into chondrogenic fate commitment and differentiation. Our findings present a favorable method for generating hiPSC-derived articular-like chondrocytes. The hiChondrocytes are an attractive cell source for cartilage engineering because of their abundance, autologous nature, and potential to generate articular-like cartilage rather than fibrocartilage. In addition, hiChondrocytes can be excellent tools for modeling human musculoskeletal diseases in a dish and for rapid drug screening. © FASEB.

  12. A Linear Temporal Increase in Thrombin Activity and Loss of Its Receptor in Mouse Brain following Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Bushi, Doron; Stein, Efrat Shavit; Golderman, Valery; Feingold, Ekaterina; Gera, Orna; Chapman, Joab; Tanne, David

    2017-01-01

    Brain thrombin activity is increased following acute ischemic stroke and may play a pathogenic role through the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1). In order to better assess these factors, we obtained a novel detailed temporal and spatial profile of thrombin activity in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo). Thrombin activity was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy on coronal slices taken from the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres 2, 5, and 24 h following pMCAo ( n  = 5, 6, 5 mice, respectively). Its spatial distribution was determined by punch samples taken from the ischemic core and penumbra and further confirmed using an enzyme histochemistry technique ( n  = 4). Levels of PAR1 were determined using western blot. Two hours following pMCAo, thrombin activity in the stroke core was already significantly higher than the contralateral area (11 ± 5 vs. 2 ± 1 mU/ml). At 5 and 24 h, thrombin activity continued to rise linearly ( r  = 0.998, p  = 0.001) and to expand in the ischemic hemisphere beyond the ischemic core reaching deleterious levels of 271 ± 117 and 123 ± 14 mU/ml (mean ± SEM) in the basal ganglia and ischemic cortex, respectively. The peak elevation of thrombin activity in the ischemic core that was confirmed by fluorescence histochemistry was in good correlation with the infarcts areas. PAR1 levels in the ischemic core decreased as stroke progressed and thrombin activity increased. In conclusion, there is a time- and space-related increase in brain thrombin activity in acute ischemic stroke that is closely related to the progression of brain damage. These results may be useful in the development of therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke that involve the thrombin-PAR1 pathway in order to prevent secondary thrombin related brain damage.

  13. Structure-activity analysis of synthetic alpha-thrombin-receptor-activating peptides.

    PubMed

    Van Obberghen-Schilling, E; Rasmussen, U B; Vouret-Craviari, V; Lentes, K U; Pavirani, A; Pouysségur, J

    1993-06-15

    alpha-Thrombin stimulates G-protein-coupled effectors leading to secretion and aggregation in human platelets, and to a mitogenic response in CCL39 hamster fibroblasts. alpha-Thrombin receptors can be activated by synthetic peptides corresponding to the receptor sequence starting with serine-42, at the proposed cleavage site. We have previously determined that the agonist domain of receptor-activating peptides resides within the five N-terminal residues [Vouret-Craviari, Van Obberghen-Schilling, Rasmussen, Pavirani, Lecocq and Pouysségur (1992) Mol. Biol. Cell. 3, 95-102], although the 7-residue peptide (SFFLRNP) corresponding to the hamster alpha-thrombin receptor was 10 times more potent than the 5-residue peptide for activation of human platelets. In the present study we have analysed the role of individual amino acids in receptor activation by using a series of modified hexa- or hepta-peptides derived from the human alpha-thrombin-receptor sequence. Cellular events examined here include phospholipase C activation, adenylyl cyclase inhibition and DNA synthesis stimulation in non-transformed CCL39 fibroblasts and a tumorigenic variant of that line (A71 cells). Modification of the peptide sequence had similar functional consequence for each of the assays described, indicating that either a unique receptor or pharmacologically indistinguishable receptor subtypes activate distinct G-protein signalling pathways. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the N-terminal serine can be replaced by small or intermediately sized amino acids (+/- hydroxyl groups) without loss of activity. However, its replacement by an aromatic side-chain or omission of the N-terminal amino group severely reduces activity. (2) An aromatic side-chain on the penultimate N-terminal residue appears to play a critical role since phenylalanine in this position can be substituted by tyrosine without complete loss of activity whereas an alanine in its place is not tolerated. (3) Deletion of the first

  14. Structure-activity analysis of synthetic alpha-thrombin-receptor-activating peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Van Obberghen-Schilling, E; Rasmussen, U B; Vouret-Craviari, V; Lentes, K U; Pavirani, A; Pouysségur, J

    1993-01-01

    alpha-Thrombin stimulates G-protein-coupled effectors leading to secretion and aggregation in human platelets, and to a mitogenic response in CCL39 hamster fibroblasts. alpha-Thrombin receptors can be activated by synthetic peptides corresponding to the receptor sequence starting with serine-42, at the proposed cleavage site. We have previously determined that the agonist domain of receptor-activating peptides resides within the five N-terminal residues [Vouret-Craviari, Van Obberghen-Schilling, Rasmussen, Pavirani, Lecocq and Pouysségur (1992) Mol. Biol. Cell. 3, 95-102], although the 7-residue peptide (SFFLRNP) corresponding to the hamster alpha-thrombin receptor was 10 times more potent than the 5-residue peptide for activation of human platelets. In the present study we have analysed the role of individual amino acids in receptor activation by using a series of modified hexa- or hepta-peptides derived from the human alpha-thrombin-receptor sequence. Cellular events examined here include phospholipase C activation, adenylyl cyclase inhibition and DNA synthesis stimulation in non-transformed CCL39 fibroblasts and a tumorigenic variant of that line (A71 cells). Modification of the peptide sequence had similar functional consequence for each of the assays described, indicating that either a unique receptor or pharmacologically indistinguishable receptor subtypes activate distinct G-protein signalling pathways. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the N-terminal serine can be replaced by small or intermediately sized amino acids (+/- hydroxyl groups) without loss of activity. However, its replacement by an aromatic side-chain or omission of the N-terminal amino group severely reduces activity. (2) An aromatic side-chain on the penultimate N-terminal residue appears to play a critical role since phenylalanine in this position can be substituted by tyrosine without complete loss of activity whereas an alanine in its place is not tolerated. (3) Deletion of the first

  15. Study of thrombinic activation indexes, in patients with lower limb critic ischaemia, before and after prostaglandin E1 therapy.

    PubMed

    Trifiletti, A; Bartolone, S; Scamardi, R; Pizzoleo, M A; Attinà, A; Sottilotta, G; Canobbio, V; Soraci, S; Barbera, N

    1999-03-01

    In this study the action of a prostaglandin, PGE1, was studied in a group of patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). In 16 patients (14 men and 2 women, aged 47-70 years, mean 57 +/- 7) with PAOD, Fontaine stage IIb and III in critical ischemia, the effects on two indexes of thrombin generation and action of the endovenous administration (2 hours) of 60 micrograms of Alprostadil-PGE1 for four weeks were evaluated. In all artheriopathic patients, before and after pharmacological treatment, the following haemostatic parameters were evaluated: the prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and the fibrinopeptide A(FPA). The patients showed plasma levels of FPA significantly decreased at the end of the treatment. On the other hand, no significant difference in plasma F1 + 2 levels was observed after treatment. These results seem to indicate that plasma F1 + 2 levels are significantly elevated, as a marker of thrombosis status, in patients with PAOD before and after treatment with PGE1.

  16. Thrombin-induced Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression Are Regulated by MAPK and PI3K Pathways in C6 Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Song-In; Choi, Yong-Joon; Lee, Won-Ki; Jeong, Myung-Ja; Cha, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Hee Jae; Chun, Wanjoo

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most common and aggressive tumors in central nervous system. It often possesses characteristic necrotic lesions with hemorrhages, which increase the chances of exposure to thrombin. Thrombin has been known as a regulator of MMP-9 expression and cancer cell migration. However, the effects of thrombin on glioma cells have not been clearly understood. In the present study, influences of thrombin on glioma cell migration were examined using Boyden chamber migration assay and thrombin-induced changes in MMP-9 expression were measured using zymography, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting. Furthermore, underlying signaling pathways by which thrombin induces MMP-9 expression were examined. Thrombin-induced migration and MMP-9 expression were significantly potentiated in the presence of wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, whereas MAPK inhibitors suppressed thrombin-induced migration and MMP-9 expression in C6 glioma cells. The present data strongly demonstrate that MAPK and PI3K pathways evidently regulate thrombin-induced migration and MMP-9 expression of C6 glioma cells. Therefore, the control of these pathways might be a beneficial therapeutic strategy for treatment of invasive glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:21994479

  17. Characterization of the altered gene expression profile in early porcine embryos generated from parthenogenesis and somatic cell chromatin transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chi; Dobrinsky, John; Tsoi, Stephen; Foxcroft, George R; Dixon, Walter T; Stothard, Paul; Verstegen, John; Dyck, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro production of early porcine embryos is of particular scientific and economic interest. In general, embryos produced from in vitro Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) manipulations, such as somatic cell chromatin transfer (CT) and parthenogenetic activation (PA), are less developmentally competent than in vivo-derived embryos. The mechanisms underlying the deficiencies of embryos generated from PA and CT have not been completely understood. To characterize the altered genes and gene networks in embryos generated from CT and PA, comparative transcriptomic analyses of in vivo (IVV) expanded blastocysts (XB), IVV hatched blastocyst (HB), PA XB, PA HB, and CT HB were performed using a custom microarray platform enriched for genes expressed during early embryonic development. Differential expressions of 1492 and 103 genes were identified in PA and CT HB, respectively, in comparison with IVV HB. The "eIF2 signalling", "mitochondrial dysfunction", "regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signalling", "protein ubiquitination", and "mTOR signalling" pathways were down-regulated in PA HB. Dysregulation of notch signalling-associated genes were observed in both PA and CT HB. TP53 was predicted to be activated in both PA and CT HB, as 136 and 23 regulation targets of TP53 showed significant differential expression in PA and CT HB, respectively, in comparison with IVV HB. In addition, dysregulations of several critical pluripotency, trophoblast development, and implantation-associated genes (NANOG, GATA2, KRT8, LGMN, and DPP4) were observed in PA HB during the blastocyst hatching process. The critical genes that were observed to be dysregulated in CT and PA embryos could be indicative of underlying developmental deficiencies of embryos produced from these technologies.

  18. Targeted next generation sequencing identifies functionally deleterious germline mutations in novel genes in early-onset/familial prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Pedro; Monteiro, Augusta; Peixoto, Ana; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2018-04-01

    Considering that mutations in known prostate cancer (PrCa) predisposition genes, including those responsible for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer and Lynch syndromes, explain less than 5% of early-onset/familial PrCa, we have sequenced 94 genes associated with cancer predisposition using next generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of 121 PrCa patients. We found monoallelic truncating/functionally deleterious mutations in seven genes, including ATM and CHEK2, which have previously been associated with PrCa predisposition, and five new candidate PrCa associated genes involved in cancer predisposing recessive disorders, namely RAD51C, FANCD2, FANCI, CEP57 and RECQL4. Furthermore, using in silico pathogenicity prediction of missense variants among 18 genes associated with breast/ovarian cancer and/or Lynch syndrome, followed by KASP genotyping in 710 healthy controls, we identified "likely pathogenic" missense variants in ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2 and TP53. In conclusion, this study has identified putative PrCa predisposing germline mutations in 14.9% of early-onset/familial PrCa patients. Further data will be necessary to confirm the genetic heterogeneity of inherited PrCa predisposition hinted in this study.

  19. Ethanol inhibits thrombin-induced secretion by human platelets at a site distinct from phospholipase C or protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Benistant, C; Rubin, R

    1990-01-01

    Ethanol is known to inhibit the activation of platelets in response to several physiological agonists, but the mechanism of this action is unclear. The addition of physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (25-150 mM) to suspensions of washed human platelets resulted in the inhibition of thrombin-induced secretion of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine. Indomethacin was included in the incubation buffer to prevent feedback amplification by arachidonic acid metabolites. Ethanol had no effect on the activation of phospholipase C by thrombin, as determined by the formation of inositol phosphates and the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Moreover, ethanol did not interfere with the thrombin-induced formation of diacylglycerol or phosphatidic acid. Stimulation of platelets with phorbol ester (5-50 nM) resulted in 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine release comparable with those with threshold doses of thrombin. However, ethanol did not inhibit phorbol-ester-induced secretion. Ethanol also did not interfere with thrombin- or phorbol-ester-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (20 kDa) or a 47 kDa protein, a known substrate for protein kinase C. By electron microscopy, ethanol had no effect on thrombin-induced shape change and pseudopod formation, but prevented granule centralization and fusion. The results indicate that ethanol does not inhibit platelet secretion by interfering with the activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C or protein kinase C by thrombin. Rather, the data demonstrate an inhibition of a Ca2(+)-mediated event such as granule centralization. Images p495-a PMID:2117442

  20. Thrombin-inhibiting perfluorocarbon nanoparticles provide a novel strategy for treatment and magnetic resonance imaging of acute thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, J.; He, L.; Lanza, G.; Tollefsen, D.; Wickline, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background As a regulator of the penultimate step in the coagulation cascade, thrombin represents a principal target of direct and specific anticoagulants. Objective A potent thrombin inhibitor complexed with a colloidal nanoparticle was devised as a first-in-class anticoagulant with prolonged and highly localized therapeutic impact conferred by its multivalent thrombin-absorbing particle surface. Methods PPACK (Phe(D)-Pro-Arg-Chloromethylketone) was secured covalently to the surface of perfluorocarbon-core nanoparticle structures. PPACK and PPACK nanoparticle inhibition of thrombin were assessed in vitro via thrombin activity against a chromogenic substrate. In vivo antithrombotic activity of PPACK, heparin, non-functionalized nanoparticles, and PPACK nanoparticles was assessed through IV administration prior to acute photochemical injury of the common carotid artery. Perfluorocarbon particle retention in extracted carotid arteries from injured mice was assessed via 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and imaging (MRI) at 11.7 T. APTT measurements determined the systemic effects of the PPACK nanoparticles at various times after injection. Results Optical assay verified that PPACK nanoparticles exceeded PPACK’s intrinsic activity against thrombin. Application of the an in vivo acute arterial thrombosis model demonstrated that PPACK nanoparticles outperformed both heparin (p=.001) and uncomplexed PPACK (p=.0006) in inhibiting thrombosis. 19F MRS confirmed that PPACK nanoparticles specifically bound to sites of acute thrombotic injury. APTT normalized within twenty minutes of PPACK nanoparticles injection. Conclusions PPACK nanoparticles present thrombin-inhibiting surfaces at sites of acutely forming thrombi that continue to manifest local clot inhibition even as systemic effects rapidly diminish and thus represent a new platform for localized control of acute thrombosis. PMID:21605330

  1. Ground based THz Spectroscopy of Obscured Starbursts in the Early Universe enabled by the 2nd generation Redshift (z) & Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwas, Amit; Stacey, Gordon; Nikola, Thomas; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Parshley, Stephen; Schoenwald, Justin; Lamarche, Cody James; Higdon, James; Higdon, Sarah; Brisbin, Drew; Güesten, Rolf; Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Niemack, Michael; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Amiri, Mandana; Halpern, Mark; Wiebe, Donald; Hasselfield, Matthew; Ade, Peter; Tucker, Carole

    2018-01-01

    Galaxies were surprisingly dusty in the early Universe, with more than half of the light emitted from stars being absorbed by dust within the system and re-radiated into far infrared (FIR, ~50-150μm) wavelengths. Dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) dominate the co-moving star formation rate density of the Universe that peaks around redshift, z~2, making it compelling to study them in rest frame FIR bands. From galaxies at z > 1, the FIR line emission from abundant ions like [O III], [C II] and [N II], are redshifted into the short sub-mm telluric windows. My thesis work is based on building and deploying the 2nd Generation Redshift (z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), a long-slit, echelle grating spectrometer optimized to study broad (Δv = 300km/s) spectral lines from galaxies in the 200-650µm telluric windows using TES bolometers. These far-IR lines being extinction free and major coolants of the gas heated by (young) massive stars, are powerful probes of the physical conditions of the gas and the stellar radiation field. I present results from our survey of the [O III] 88µm line in galaxies at redshift, z ~ 2.8 to 4.6, with ZEUS-2 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope. To interpret our observations along with ancillary data from optical to radio facilities, we apply photoionization models for HII regions and Photo Dissociation Region (PDR) models and confirm that the galaxies host substantial ongoing obscured star formation. The presence of doubly ionized oxygen suggests hard radiation fields and hence, elevated ionization parameters that can only be accounted for by a large population of massive stars formed during the ongoing starburst, that contribute a large fraction of the infrared luminosity. This study highlights the use of FIR line emission to trace the assembly of current day massive galaxies, conditions of star formation and details of their stellar populations. The construction and operation of ZEUS-2 were funded by NSF ATI

  2. Early Benchmarks of Product Generation Capabilities of the GOES-R Ground System for Operational Weather Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, S. N.; Haman, B.; Vititoe, D.

    2014-12-01

    The ground system under development for Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) series of weather satellite has completed a key milestone in implementing the science algorithms that process raw sensor data to higher level products in preparation for launch. Real time observations from GOES-R are expected to make significant contributions to Earth and space weather prediction, and there are stringent requirements to product weather products at very low latency to meet NOAA's operational needs. Simulated test data from all the six GOES-R sensors are being processed by the system to test and verify performance of the fielded system. Early results show that the system development is on track to meet functional and performance requirements to process science data. Comparison of science products generated by the ground system from simulated data with those generated by the algorithm developers show close agreement among data sets which demonstrates that the algorithms are implemented correctly. Successful delivery of products to AWIPS and the Product Distribution and Access (PDA) system from the core system demonstrate that the external interfaces are working.

  3. The Y.E.S. Network: An IYPE legacy for engaging future generations of early-career geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Govoni, D.; Micucci, L.; Gaines, S. M.; Venus, J.; Meng, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Y.E.S. Network, an association of early-career geoscientists who represent professional societies, geoscience companies, and geoscience departments from across the world, was formed as a direct result of the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE). Currently the Y.E.S. Network has representatives in thirty-five countries from six continents. The goal of the network is to engage early-career representatives from geological associations and institutions, policy-makers, and delegates from administrative bodies to establish a worldwide network of future leaders, policy-makers and geoscientists who will work collaboratively to address the scientific challenges future generations will face. To this end, the Y.E.S. Network, in collaboration with IYPE and with the patronage of UNESCO, organized the first international Y.E.S. Congress which was hosted by the China University of Geosciences in Beijing. The conference focused on scientific and career challenges faced by early-career geoscientists, with a particular emphasis on how the Y.E.S. Network can work collaborative and internationally towards solving these challenges and furthering the IYPE motto of “Earth Sciences for Society”. The conference focused on the ten major themes of the IYPE (e.g. health, climate, groundwater, ocean, soils, deep earth, megacities, hazards, resources, and life) at its poster and oral sessions. Roundtable symposia engaged senior and early-career geoscientists via presentations, panel discussions, and working group sessions where strategies related to scientific challenges (i.e. climate change in the polar regions, natural hazards, natural resource sustainability) and academic and career pathway challenges (i.e. academic-industry linkages, gender parity in the geosciences, geoscience education sustainability, and international licensure issues) were developed. These strategies were then tasked to the Y.E.S. Network for further development and implementation. Future Y.E.S. Network

  4. Early exposure to interleukin-21 limits rapidly generated anti-Epstein-Barr virus T-cell line differentiation.

    PubMed

    Orio, Julie; Carli, Cédric; Janelle, Valérie; Giroux, Martin; Taillefer, Julie; Goupil, Mathieu; Richaud, Manon; Roy, Denis-Claude; Delisle, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    The adoptive transfer of ex vivo-expanded Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T-cell lines is an attractive strategy to treat EBV-related neoplasms. Current evidence suggests that for adoptive immunotherapy in general, clinical responses are superior if the transferred cells have not reached a late or terminal effector differentiation phenotype before infusion. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-21 has shown great promise at limiting late T-cell differentiation in vitro, but this remains to be demonstrated in anti-viral T-cell lines. We adapted a clinically validated protocol to rapidly generate EBV-specific T-cell lines in 12 to 14 days and tested whether the addition of IL-21 at the initiation of the culture would affect T-cell expansion and differentiation. We generated clinical-scale EBV-restricted T-cell line expansion with balanced T-cell subset ratios. The addition of IL-21 at the beginning of the culture decreased both T-cell expansion and effector memory T-cell accumulation, with a relative increase in less-differentiated T cells. Within CD4 T-cell subsets, exogenous IL-21 was notably associated with the cell surface expression of CD27 and high KLF2 transcript levels, further arguing for a role of IL-21 in the control of late T-cell differentiation. Our results show that IL-21 has profound effects on T-cell differentiation in a rapid T-cell line generation protocol and as such should be further explored as a novel approach to program anti-viral T cells with features associated with early differentiation and optimal therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Time-dependent inhibitory effects of cGMP-analogues on thrombin-induced platelet-derived microparticles formation, platelet aggregation, and P-selectin expression

    SciT

    Nygaard, Gyrid; Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen; Herfindal, Lars

    Highlights: • We investigated the impact of cyclic nucleotide analogues on platelet activation. • Different time dependence were found for inhibition of platelet activation. • Additive effect was found using PKA- and PKG-activating analogues. • Our results may explain some of the discrepancies reported for cNMP signalling. - Abstract: In platelets, nitric oxide (NO) activates cGMP/PKG signalling, whereas prostaglandins and adenosine signal through cAMP/PKA. Cyclic nucleotide signalling has been considered to play an inhibitory role in platelets. However, an early stimulatory effect of NO and cGMP-PKG signalling in low dose agonist-induced platelet activation have recently been suggested. Here, we investigatedmore » whether different experimental conditions could explain some of the discrepancy reported for platelet cGMP-PKG-signalling. We treated gel-filtered human platelets with cGMP and cAMP analogues, and used flow cytometric assays to detect low dose thrombin-induced formation of small platelet aggregates, single platelet disappearance (SPD), platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) and thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP)-induced P-selectin expression. All four agonist-induced platelet activation phases were blocked when platelets were costimulated with the PKG activators 8-Br-PET-cGMP or 8-pCPT-cGMP and low-doses of thrombin or TRAP. However, extended incubation with 8-Br-PET-cGMP decreased its inhibition of TRAP-induced P-selectin expression in a time-dependent manner. This effect did not involve desensitisation of PKG or PKA activity, measured as site-specific VASP phosphorylation. Moreover, PKG activators in combination with the PKA activator Sp-5,6-DCL-cBIMPS revealed additive inhibitory effect on TRAP-induced P-selectin expression. Taken together, we found no evidence for a stimulatory role of cGMP/PKG in platelets activation and conclude rather that cGMP/PKG signalling has an important inhibitory function in human platelet activation.« less

  6. Thrombin-induced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, M; Gallagher, P; Lizotte-Waniewski, M; Srinivas, S P

    2004-10-01

    Phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (referred to as myosin light chain or MLC) leads to a loss of barrier integrity in cellular monolayers by an increase in the contractility of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. This effect has been examined in corneal endothelial (CE) cells. Experiments were performed using cultured bovine CE cells (BCEC). MLC phosphorylation was induced by a thrombin-mediated activation of the proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). Expression of MLC kinase (MLCK), a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that phosphorylates MLC at its Ser-19 and Thr-18 residues, was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Expression of PAR-1, RhoA, and Rho kinase-1 (effector of RhoA) was ascertained by RT-PCR. MLC phosphorylation was assessed by urea-glycerol gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting. The effects of Rho kinase-1 and PKC were characterized by using their selective inhibitors, Y-27632 and chelerythrine, respectively. Reorganization of the cytoskeleton was evaluated by the phalloidin staining of actin. [Ca2+]i was measured using Fura-2. The barrier integrity was assayed as permeability of BCEC monolayers to horseradish peroxidase (HRP; 44 kDa). RT-PCR showed expression of MLCK, PAR-1, Rho kinase-1, and RhoA. Western blotting indicated expression of the non-muscle and smooth muscle isoforms of MLCK. Exposure to thrombin induced an increase in [Ca2+]i with the peak unaffected by an absence of extracellular Ca2+. Pre-exposure to thrombin (2 U ml(-1); 2 min) led to mono- and di-phosphorylation of MLC. Under both basal conditions and in the presence of thrombin, MLC phosphorylation was prevented by chelerythrine (10 microm) and Y-27632 (<25 microm). Thrombin led to inter-endothelial gaps secondary to the disruption of the cortical actin cytoskeleton, which under resting conditions was organized as a perijunctional actomyosin ring (PAMR). These responses were blocked by pre-treatment with Y-27632. Thrombin also increased

  7. Lava heating and loading of ice sheets on early Mars: Predictions for meltwater generation, groundwater recharge, and resulting landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanelli, James P.; Head, James W.

    2016-06-01

    accumulate to a sufficient thickness to raise the ice-melting isotherm to the base of the superposed lavas. In these locations, if lava accumulation occurs rapidly, bottom-up melting of the ice sheet can continue, or begin, after lava accumulation has completed in a process we term "deferred melting". Subsurface mass loss through melting of the buried ice sheets is predicted to cause substantial subsidence in the superposed lavas, leading to the formation of associated collapse features including fracture systems, depressions, surface faulting and folding, wrinkle-ridge formation, and chaos terrain. In addition, if meltwater generated from the lava heating and loading process becomes trapped at the lava flow margins due to the presence of impermeable confining units, large highly pressurized episodic flooding events could occur. Examination of the study area reveals geological features which are generally consistent with those predicted to form as a result of the ice sheet lava heating and loading process, suggesting the presence of surface snow and ice during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian period.

  8. The long term immunological response of swine after two exposures to a salmon thrombin and fibrinogen hemostatic bandage

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Stephen W.; Settle, Timothy; Wallace, Shannon; Dorsey, Jennifer; Simpson, David; Bowman, James R.; Janmey, Paul; Sawyer, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Experimental salmon thrombin/fibrinogen dressings have been shown to provide effective hemostasis in severe hemorrhage situations. The hypothesis for this study was that swine would still remain healthy without coagulopathy six months after exposure to salmon thrombin/fibrinogen dressings. Initial exposure was by insertion of the salmon dressing into the peritoneal cavity. Three months after the initial exposure, the same animals were subjected to two full thickness dermal wounds on the dorsal surface. One wound was bandaged with the salmon thrombin/fibrinogen bandage and the other wound was dressed with a standard bandage. The animals were monitored for an additional three months. Blood was drawn every 14 days over the six months for immunological and coagulation function analysis. All of the animals (8 pigs) remained healthy during the six month period and the dermal wounds healed without incidence. Lymph nodes and spleen showed signs of normal immune response and Western blots showed development of antibodies against salmon fibrinogen, but none of the animals made antibodies that recognized any species of thrombin. Coagulation parameters (fibrinogen concentration, thrombin time, PT and aPTT) and hematological parameters remained normal over the course of the study when compared to initial values of the subject swine. PMID:20705479

  9. Detection of Thrombin Based on Fluorescence Energy Transfer between Semiconducting Polymer Dots and BHQ-Labelled Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhang; Jiang, Xuekai; Cao, Wenfeng; Sun, Junyong; Gao, Feng

    2018-02-14

    Carboxyl-functionalized semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) were synthesized as an energy donor by the nanoprecipitation method. A black hole quenching dye (BHQ-labelled thrombin aptamers) was used as the energy acceptor, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the aptamers and Pdots was used for fluorescence quenching of the Pdots. The addition of thrombin restored the fluorescence intensity. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the fluorescence of the system was restored to the maximum when the concentration of thrombin reached 130 nM, with a linear range of 0-50 nM (R² = 0.990) and a detection limit of 0.33 nM. This sensor was less disturbed by impurities, showing good specificity and signal response to thrombin, with good application in actual samples. The detection of human serum showed good linearity in the range of 0-30 nM (R² = 0.997), with a detection limit of 0.56 nM and a recovery rate of 96.2-104.1%, indicating that this fluorescence sensor can be used for the detection of thrombin content in human serum.

  10. Preparation of chondroitin sulfate libraries containing disulfated disaccharide units and inhibition of thrombin by these chondroitin sulfates.

    PubMed

    Numakura, Mario; Kusakabe, Noriko; Ishige, Kazuya; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Habuchi, Hiroko; Habuchi, Osami

    2010-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-SO(4)) (E unit) and CS containing GlcA(2SO(4))-GalNAc(6SO(4)) (D unit) have been implicated in various physiological functions. However, it has been poorly understood how the structure and contents of disulfated disaccharide units in CS contribute to these functions. We prepared CS libraries containing E unit or D unit in various proportions by in vitro enzymatic reactions using recombinant GalNAc 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase and uronosyl 2-O-sulfotransferase, and examined their inhibitory activity toward thrombin. The in vitro sulfated CSs containing disulfated disaccharide units showed concentration-dependent direct inhibition of thrombin when the proportion of E unit or D unit in the CSs was above 15-17%. The CSs containing both E unit and D unit exhibited higher inhibitory activity toward thrombin than the CSs containing either E unit or D unit alone, if the proportion of the total disulfated disaccharide units of these CSs was comparable. The thrombin-catalyzed degradation of fibrinogen, a physiological substrate for thrombin, was also inhibited by the CS containing both E unit and D unit. These observations indicate that the enzymatically prepared CS libraries containing various amounts of disulfated disaccharide units appear to be useful for elucidating the physiological function of disulfated disaccharide units in CS.

  11. Protocol for obtaining platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and thrombin for autologous use.

    PubMed

    Franco, Diogo; Franco, Talita; Schettino, Angélica Maria; Filho, João Medeiros Tavares; Vendramin, Fabiel Spani

    2012-10-01

    Plasma has been widely studied and used in many different situations to speed up healing with better tissue adherence and hemostasis. Research projects are now attempting to isolate platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP), making better use of their properties, particularly during operations and for wounds that are slow to heal. In view of the wide diversity of industrial machines and extraction protocols, together with the variety of industrially produced biologic glues, this article suggests an option for obtaining PRP, PPP, and human thrombin for autologous use. A way of obtaining PRP, PPP, and thrombin is reproduced through a protocol defined and established by the authors. Autologous thrombin and plasma were obtained through the collection and successive centrifugation of ten whole blood samples, until the desired hemocomponents were isolated, followed by quantitative and qualitative analyses of the elements obtained. The mean platelet concentration obtained was 6.03 × 10(8) platelets/ml, with a mean thrombin concentration of 33.54 nM, both values compatible with reports in the literature when different protocols are applied. The protocol described is a good option for the preparation and application of PRP, PPP, and autologous thrombin, particularly as they can be obtained simultaneously, eliminating the possibilities of viral contamination and allergic reactions. Moreover, the cost of this procedure is low, it is easy to perform, and replicable. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article.

  12. Development of an Efficient G-Quadruplex-Stabilised Thrombin-Binding Aptamer Containing a Three-Carbon Spacer Molecule.

    PubMed

    Aaldering, Lukas J; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Langkjaer, Niels; Murugan, N Arul; Jørgensen, Per Trolle; Wengel, Jesper; Veedu, Rakesh N

    2017-04-18

    The thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), which shows anticoagulant properties, is one of the most studied G-quadruplex-forming aptamers. In this study, we investigated the impact of different chemical modifications such as a three-carbon spacer (spacer-C 3 ), unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) and 3'-amino-modified UNA (amino-UNA) on the structural dynamics and stability of TBA. All three modifications were incorporated at three different loop positions (T3, T7, T12) of the TBA G-quadruplex structure to result in a series of TBA variants and their stability was studied by thermal denaturation; folding was studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy and thrombin clotting time. The results showed that spacer-C 3 introduction at the T7 loop position (TBA-SP7) significantly improved stability and thrombin clotting time while maintaining a similar binding affinity as TBA to thrombin. Detailed molecular modelling experiments provided novel insights into the experimental observations, further supporting the efficacy of TBA-SP7. The results of this study could provide valuable information for future designs of TBA analogues with superior thrombin inhibition properties. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. The protease thrombin is an endogenous mediator of hippocampal neuroprotection against ischemia at low concentrations but causes degeneration at high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striggow, Frank; Riek, Monika; Breder, Jörg; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Reymann, Klaus G.; Reiser, Georg

    2000-02-01

    We have considered the extracellular serine protease thrombin and its receptor as endogenous mediators of neuronal protection against brain ischemia. Exposure of gerbils to prior mild ischemic insults, here two relatively short-lasting occlusions (2 min) of both common carotid arteries applied at 1-day intervals 2 days before a severe occlusion (6 min), caused a robust ischemic tolerance of hippocampal CA1 neurons. This resistance was impaired if the specific thrombin inhibitor hirudin was injected intracerebroventricularly before each short-lasting insult. Thus, efficient native neuroprotective mechanisms exist and endogenous thrombin seems to be involved therein. In vitro experiments using organotypic slice cultures of rat hippocampus revealed that thrombin can have protective but also deleterious effects on hippocampal CA1 neurons. Low concentrations of thrombin (50 pM, 0.01 unit/ml) or of a synthetic thrombin receptor agonist (10 μM) induced significant neuroprotection against experimental ischemia. In contrast, 50 nM (10 units/ml) thrombin decreased further the reduced neuronal survival that follows the deprivation of oxygen and glucose, and 500 nM even caused neuronal cell death by itself. Degenerative thrombin actions also might be relevant in vivo, because hirudin increased the number of surviving neurons when applied before a 6-min occlusion. Among the thrombin concentrations tested, 50 pM induced intracellular Ca2+ spikes in fura-2-loaded CA1 neurons whereas higher concentrations caused a sustained Ca2+ elevation. Thus, distinct Ca2+ signals may define whether or not thrombin initiates protection. Taken together, in vivo and in vitro data suggest that thrombin can determine neuronal cell death or survival after brain ischemia.

  14. The TRIDEC Virtual Tsunami Atlas - customized value-added simulation data products for Tsunami Early Warning generated on compute clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, P.; Hammitzsch, M.; Babeyko, A.; Wächter, J.

    2012-04-01

    The development of new Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) requires the modelling of spatio-temporal spreading of tsunami waves both recorded from past events and hypothetical future cases. The model results are maintained in digital repositories for use in TEWS command and control units for situation assessment once a real tsunami occurs. Thus the simulation results must be absolutely trustworthy, in a sense that the quality of these datasets is assured. This is a prerequisite as solid decision making during a crisis event and the dissemination of dependable warning messages to communities under risk will be based on them. This requires data format validity, but even more the integrity and information value of the content, being a derived value-added product derived from raw tsunami model output. Quality checking of simulation result products can be done in multiple ways, yet the visual verification of both temporal and spatial spreading characteristics for each simulation remains important. The eye of the human observer still remains an unmatched tool for the detection of irregularities. This requires the availability of convenient, human-accessible mappings of each simulation. The improvement of tsunami models necessitates the changes in many variables, including simulation end-parameters. Whenever new improved iterations of the general models or underlying spatial data are evaluated, hundreds to thousands of tsunami model results must be generated for each model iteration, each one having distinct initial parameter settings. The use of a Compute Cluster Environment (CCE) of sufficient size allows the automated generation of all tsunami-results within model iterations in little time. This is a significant improvement to linear processing on dedicated desktop machines or servers. This allows for accelerated/improved visual quality checking iterations, which in turn can provide a positive feedback into the overall model improvement iteratively. An approach to set

  15. Oral thrombin inhibitor aggravates platelet adhesion and aggregation during arterial thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Tobias; Thienel, Manuela; Konrad, Ildiko; Schubert, Irene; Regenauer, Ron; Hoppe, Boj; Lorenz, Michael; Eckart, Annekathrin; Chandraratne, Sue; Lennerz, Carsten; Kolb, Christof; Braun, Daniel; Jamasbi, Janina; Brandl, Richard; Braun, Siegmund; Siess, Wolfgang; Schulz, Christian; Massberg, Steffen

    2016-11-30

    In patients with atrial fibrillation, oral anticoagulation with oral thrombin inhibitors (OTIs), in contrast to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), associates with a modest increase in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). Whether this observation is causatively linked to OTI treatment and, if so, whether OTI action is the result of a lower antithrombotic efficacy of OTI compared to VKA or reflects a yet undefined prothrombotic activity of OTI remain unclear. We analyzed platelet function in patients receiving OTI or dose-adapted VKA under static and flow conditions. In vivo, we studied arterial thrombosis in OTI-, VKA-, and vehicle-treated mice using carotid ligation and wire injury models. Further, we examined thrombus formation on human atherosclerotic plaque homogenates under arterial shear to address the relevance to human pathology. Under static conditions, aggregation in the presence of ristocetin was increased in OTI-treated blood, whereas platelet reactivity and aggregation to other agonists were only marginally affected. Under flow conditions, firm platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on von Willebrand factor, collagen, and human atherosclerotic plaque were increased in the presence of OTI in comparison to VKA. OTI treatment was associated with increased thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries of mice. Inhibition or ablation of GPIbα-thrombin interactions abolished the effect of OTI on thrombus formation, suggesting a mechanistic role of the platelet receptor GPIbα and its thrombin-binding site. The effect of OTI was also abrogated in the presence of aspirin. In summary, OTI treatment has prothrombotic activity that might contribute to the increase in ACS observed clinically in patients. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Minimally invasive therapy of pseudoaneurysms of the trunk: application of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Schellhammer, Frank; Steinhaus, Daniele; Cohnen, Mathias; Hoppe, Jonas; Mödder, Ulrich; Fürst, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Thrombin injection has been proven to be successful in postcatheterization pseudoaneurysms. However, there are only a few reports on the treatment of pseudoaneurysms of the trunk. We report our first experiences using a percutaneous as well as an endovascular access. Eight iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the trunk (aorta, n = 4; pulmonary artery, n = 1; gastroduodenal artery, n = 1; left gastric artery, n = 1, renal artery, n = 1) were treated either percutaneously using CT guidance (n = 3) or via an endovascular access (n = 5). Noninvasive control angiograms were performed at day 1 and weeks 1 and 3 by either CT or MR angiography. The total volume of the pseudoaneurysms was 31.2 +/- 23.1 ml on average, with a mean volume of the perfused aneurysmal lumen of 12.9 +/- 7.2 ml. The maximum diameter was 4.1 +/- 1.39 cm on average. In each case, the aneurysmal neck was not wider than 2 mm. One pseudoaneurysm occluded spontaneously following selective catheterization. The remaining pseudoaneurysms were successfully treated by injection of 765 +/- 438.1 IU thrombin. In one individual, a nontarget embolization occurred, as well as an intervention-associated rupture of a pseudoaneurysm. High-grade stenoses of the donor artery were found in a different case. Only once was the endoluminal access converted to a percutaneous one. Thrombin injection might be a future first-line treatment of vascular lesions such as pseudoaneurysms of the trunk. In our experience both percutanous and endoluminal access are technically feasible and safe. However, further experiences are mandatory, especially concerning the question of dosage and long-term results.

  17. Rapid Detection of Thrombin and Other Protease Activity Directly in Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Johnson Chung Sing

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in the clotting cascade to promote hemostasis following injury to the endothelium. From a clinical diagnostic perspective, in-vivo thrombin activity is linked to various blood clotting disorders, as well as cardiovascular disease (DVT, arteriosclerosis, etc). Thus, the ability to rapidly measure protease activity directly in whole blood will provide important new diagnostics, and clinical researchers with a powerful tool to further elucidate the relationship between circulating protease levels and disease. The ultimate goal is to design novel point of care (POC) diagnostic devices that are capable of monitoring protease activities directly in whole blood and biological sample. A charge-changing substrate specific to the thrombin enzyme was engineered and its functionality was confirmed by a series of experiments. This led to the preliminary design, construction, and testing of two device platforms deemed fully functional for the electrophoretic separation and focusing of charged peptide fragments. The concept of using the existing charge-changing substrate platform for bacterial protease detection was also investigated. Certain strains of E coli are associated with severe symptoms such as abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. The OmpT protease is expressed on the outer membrane of E coli and plays a role in the cleavage of antimicrobial peptides, the degradation of recombinant heterologous proteins, and the activation of plasminogen in the host. Thus, a synthetic peptide substrate specific to the OmpT protease was designed and modeled for the purpose of detecting E coli in biological sample.

  18. Mutant N143P Reveals How Na[superscript +] Activates Thrombin

    SciT

    Niu, Weiling; Chen, Zhiwei; Bush-Pelc, Leslie A.

    2010-01-12

    The molecular mechanism of thrombin activation by Na{sup +} remains elusive. Its kinetic formulation requires extension of the classical Botts-Morales theory for the action of a modifier on an enzyme to correctly account for the contribution of the E*, E, and E:Na{sup +} forms. The extended scheme establishes that analysis of k{sub cat} unequivocally identifies allosteric transduction of Na{sup +} binding into enhanced catalytic activity. The thrombin mutant N143P features no Na{sup +}-dependent enhancement of k{sub cat} yet binds Na{sup +} with an affinity comparable to that of wild type. Crystal structures of the mutant in the presence and absencemore » of Na{sup +} confirm that Pro{sup 143} abrogates the important H-bond between the backbone N atom of residue 143 and the carbonyl O atom of Glu{sup 192}, which in turn controls the orientation of the Glu{sup 192}-Gly{sup 193} peptide bond and the correct architecture of the oxyanion hole. We conclude that Na{sup +} activates thrombin by securing the correct orientation of the Glu{sup 192}-Gly{sup 193} peptide bond, which is likely flipped in the absence of cation. Absolute conservation of the 143-192 H-bond in trypsin-like proteases and the importance of the oxyanion hole in protease function suggest that this mechanism of Na{sup +} activation is present in all Na{sup +}-activated trypsin-like proteases.« less

  19. BjussuSP-I: a new thrombin-like enzyme isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

    PubMed

    Sant' Ana, Carolina D; Ticli, Fabio K; Oliveira, Leandro L; Giglio, Jose R; Rechia, Carem G V; Fuly, André L; Selistre de Araújo, Heloisa S; Franco, João J; Stabeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M; Sampaio, Suely V

    2008-11-01

    A thrombin-like enzyme named BjussuSP-I, isolated from B. jararacussu snake venom, is an acidic single chain glycoprotein with approximately 6% sugar, Mr=61,000 under reducing conditions and pI approximately 3.8, representing 1.09% of the chromatographic A(280) recovery. BjussuSP-I is a glycosylated serine protease containing both N-linked carbohydrates and sialic acid in its structure. BjussuSP-I showed a high clotting activity upon human plasma, which was inhibited by PMSF, leupeptin, heparin and 1,10-phenantroline. This enzyme showed high stability regarding coagulant activity when analyzed at different temperatures (-70 to 37 degrees C), pHs (4.5 to 8.0), and presence of two divalent metal ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). It also displayed TAME esterase and proteolytic activities toward natural (fibrinogen and fibrin) and synthetic (BAPNA) substrates, respectively, being also inhibited by PMSF and leupeptin. BjussuSP-I can induce production of polyclonal antibodies able to inhibit its clotting activity, but unable to inhibit its proteolytic activity on fibrinogen. The enzyme also showed crossed immunoreactivity against 11 venom samples of Bothrops, 1 of Crotalus, and 1 of Calloselasma snakes, in addition of LAAO isolated from B. moojeni venom. It displayed neither hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-inducing profiles nor proteolytic activity on casein. BjussuSP-I showed an N-terminal sequence (VLGGDECDINEHPFLA FLYS) similar to other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. Based on its biochemical, enzymatic and pharmacological characteristics, BjussuSP-I was identified as a new thrombin-like enzyme isoform from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

  20. Constitutive production and thrombin-induced release of vascular endothelial growth factor by human megakaryocytes and platelets

    PubMed Central

    Möhle, Robert; Green, David; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Nachman, Ralph L.; Rafii, Shahin

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that coculture of bone marrow microvascular endothelial cells with hematopoietic progenitor cells results in proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes. In these long-term cultures, bone marrow microvascular endothelial cell monolayers maintain their cellular integrity in the absence of exogenous endothelial growth factors. Because this interaction may involve paracrine secretion of cytokines, we evaluated megakaryocytic cells for secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Megakaryocytes (CD41a+) were generated by ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells with kit-ligand and thrombopoietin for 10 days and further purified with immunomagnetic microbeads. Using reverse transcription–PCR, we showed that megakaryocytic cell lines (Dami, HEL) and purified megakaryocytes expressed mRNA of the three VEGF isoforms (121, 165, and 189 amino acids). Large quantities of VEGF (>1 ng/106 cells/3 days) were detected in the supernatant of Dami cells, ex vivo-generated megakaryocytes, and CD41a+ cells isolated from bone marrow. The constitutive secretion of VEGF by CD41a+ cells was stimulated by growth factors of the megakaryocytic lineage (interleukin 3, thrombopoietin). Western blotting of heparin–Sepharose-enriched supernatant mainly detected the isoform VEGF165. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed intracytoplasmic VEGF in polyploid megakaryocytes. Thrombin stimulation of megakaryocytes and platelets resulted in rapid release of VEGF within 30 min. We conclude that human megakaryocytes produce and secrete VEGF in an inducible manner. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, VEGF secreted by megakaryocytes may contribute to the proliferation of endothelial cells. VEGF delivered to sites of vascular injury by activated platelets may initiate angiogenesis. PMID:9012841

  1. Adaptive Changes in Early and Late Blind: A fMRI Study of Verb Generation to Heard Nouns

    PubMed Central

    BURTON, H.; SNYDER, A. Z.; DIAMOND, J. B.; RAICHLE, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Literacy for blind people requires learning Braille. Along with others, we have shown that reading Braille activates visual cortex. This includes striate cortex (V1), i.e., banks of calcarine sulcus, and several higher visual areas in lingual, fusiform, cuneus, lateral occipital, inferior temporal, and middle temporal gyri. The spatial extent and magnitude of magnetic resonance (MR) signals in visual cortex is greatest for those who became blind early in life. Individuals who lost sight as adults, and subsequently learned Braille, still exhibited activity in some of the same visual cortex regions, especially V1. These findings suggest these visual cortex regions become adapted to processing tactile information and that this cross-modal neural change might support Braille literacy. Here we tested the alternative hypothesis that these regions directly respond to linguistic aspects of a task. Accordingly, language task performance by blind persons should activate the same visual cortex regions regardless of input modality. Specifically, visual cortex activity in blind people ought to arise during a language task involving heard words. Eight early blind, six late blind, and eight sighted subjects were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during covert generation of verbs to heard nouns. The control task was passive listening to indecipherable sounds (reverse words) matched to the nouns in sound intensity, duration, and spectral content. Functional responses were analyzed at the level of individual subjects using methods based on the general linear model and at the group level, using voxel based ANOVA and t-test analyses. Blind and sighted subjects showed comparable activation of language areas in left inferior frontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and left posterior superior temporal gyri. The main distinction was bilateral, left dominant activation of the same visual cortex regions previously noted with Braille reading in all blind subjects. The

  2. Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder: findings from the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS) study.

    PubMed

    Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A; McClellan, Jon; Findling, Robert L; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Ambler, Denisse; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E; Michael, Emily; De Jong, Sandra; Slifka, Karen; Noyes, Nancy; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; McNamara, Nora K; Delporto-Bedoya, Denise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2008-11-01

    Atypical (second-generation) antipsychotics are considered standard treatment for children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. However, the superiority of second-generation antipsychotics over first-generation antipsychotics has not been demonstrated. This study compared the efficacy and safety of two second-generation antipsychotics (olanzapine and risperidone) with a first-generation antipsychotic (molindone) in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This double-blind multisite trial randomly assigned pediatric patients with early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to treatment with either olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), risperidone (0.5-6 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day, plus 1 mg/day of benztropine) for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was response to treatment, defined as a Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement score of 1 or 2 and >or=20% reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score after 8 weeks of treatment. In total, 119 youth were randomly assigned to treatment. Of these subjects, 116 received at least one dose of treatment and thus were available for analysis. No significant differences were found among treatment groups in response rates (molindone: 50%; olanzapine: 34%; risperidone: 46%) or magnitude of symptom reduction. Olanzapine and risperidone were associated with significantly greater weight gain. Olanzapine showed the greatest risk of weight gain and significant increases in fasting cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, insulin, and liver transaminase levels. Molindone led to more self-reports of akathisia. Risperidone and olanzapine did not demonstrate superior efficacy over molindone for treating early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Adverse effects were frequent but differed among medications. The results question the nearly exclusive use of second-generation antipsychotics to treat early-onset schizophrenia

  3. Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm treated with endovascular embolization and thrombin injection.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Lloret Estañ; Asunción, López Conesa; Antonio, Capel Alemán; Ricardo, Robles Campos; Manuel, Reus Pintado; Caridad, Marín Hernández

    2010-02-27

    Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is uncommon, appearing in approximately 1% of hepatic trauma cases. Most are extrahepatic (80%) and have a late onset. Although they are usually asymptomatic, they should always be treated becasue of the high risk of complications, especially breakage. Currently the treatment of choice is endovascular embolization with coils or the exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm using other intravascular devices. Recently there have been accounts of a treatment that combines embolization with coils and image-guided percutaneous human thrombin injection. We present a case of post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm that was successfully treated using this combined technique.

  4. Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm treated with endovascular embolization and thrombin injection

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Lloret Estañ; Asunción, López Conesa; Antonio, Capel Alemán; Ricardo, Robles Campos; Manuel, Reus Pintado; Caridad, Marín Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is uncommon, appearing in approximately 1% of hepatic trauma cases. Most are extrahepatic (80%) and have a late onset. Although they are usually asymptomatic, they should always be treated becasue of the high risk of complications, especially breakage. Currently the treatment of choice is endovascular embolization with coils or the exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm using other intravascular devices. Recently there have been accounts of a treatment that combines embolization with coils and image-guided percutaneous human thrombin injection. We present a case of post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm that was successfully treated using this combined technique. PMID:21160978

  5. A fluorescent radioiodinated oligonucleotidic photoaffinity probe for protein labeling: synthesis and photolabeling of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Berens, C; Courtoy, P J; Sonveaux, E

    1999-01-01

    To study the interactions between oligonucleotides and proteins, an original photoaffinity radiolabeling probe has been synthesized. Starting with a 5'-pyridyldithio-3'-amino-oligonucleotide, the photophore benzophenone was first coupled to the 3' end, through acylation by an activated ester of benzoylbenzoic acid. A fluorescein molecule was grafted by alkylation of the free 5'-SH. This compound was finally radiolabeled with 125I using IodoBeads. The selective photolabeling of thrombin in a complex protein mixture by the radioiodinated probe validates this strategy to identify oligonucleotide-binding proteins.

  6. Spirostanol saponins and esculin from Rusci rhizoma reduce the thrombin-induced hyperpermeability of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Barbič, M; Willer, E A; Rothenhöfer, M; Heilmann, J; Fürst, R; Jürgenliemk, G

    2013-06-01

    Rusci rhizoma extracts are traditionally used against chronic venous disorders (CVD). To determine the effect of its secondary plant metabolites on the endothelium, phenolic compounds and saponins from Butcher's broom were isolated from a methanolic extract, and their activity on the thrombin-induced hyperpermeability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) was investigated in vitro. In addition to the six known spirostanol saponins deglucoruscin (5), 22-O-methyl-deglucoruscoside (6), deglucoruscoside (7), ruscin (8), ruscogenin-1-O-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (9) and 1-O-sulpho-ruscogenin (10), three new spirostanol derivatives were isolated and identified: 3'-O-acetyl-4'-O-sulphodeglucoruscin (1), 4'-O-(2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoyl)-deglucoruscin (2) and 4'-O-acetyl-deglucoruscin (3). Furthermore, the coumarin esculin (4), which is also prominently present in other medicinal plants used in the treatment of CVD, was isolated for the first time from Rusci rhizoma. Five of the isolated steroid derivatives (2, 5, 8, 9 and 10) and esculin (4) were tested for their ability to reduce the thrombin-induced hyperpermeability of endothelial cells in vitro, and the results were compared to those of the aglycone neoruscogenin (11). The latter compound showed a slight but concentration-dependent reduction in hyperpermeability to 71.8% at 100μM. The highest activities were observed for the spirostanol saponins 5 and 8 and for esculin (4) at 10μM, and these compounds resulted in a reduction of the thrombin-induced hyperpermeability to 41.9%, 42.6% and 53.3%, respectively. For 2, 5 and 8, the highest concentration tested (100μM) resulted in a drastic increase of the thrombin effect. The effect of esculin observed at a concentration of 10μM was diminished at 100μM. These in vitro data provide insight into the pharmacological mechanism by which the genuine spirostanol saponins and esculin can contribute to the efficacy of Butcher's broom

  7. Mechanism of Na+ binding to thrombin resolved by ultra-rapid kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gianni, Stefano; Ivarsson, Ylva; Bah, Alaji; Bush-Pelc, Leslie A.; Di Cera, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of Na+ and K+ with proteins is at the basis of numerous processes of biological importance. However, measurement of the kinetic components of the interaction has eluded experimentalists for decades because the rate constants are too fast to resolve with conventional stopped-flow methods. Using a continuous-flow apparatus with a dead time of 50 μs we have been able to resolve the kinetic rate constants and entire mechanism of Na+ binding to thrombin, an interaction that is at the basis of the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in the blood. PMID:17935858

  8. Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy treated with percutaneous thrombin injection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Sheikh, Ahmed; Partyka, Luke; Contractor, Sohail

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman status post laparoscopic cholecystectomy 3years ago presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy revealed hemobilia. Computed tomographic abdomen demonstrated a 2-cm aneurysm in the gall bladder fossa, consistent with a pseudoaneurysm. Initially, transcatheter coil embolization was attempted but recanalization of the aneurysm with recurrent bleeding in 2 days ensued. The aneurysm was then accessed percutaneously under ultrasound guidance and thrombin was injected into the aneurysm with subsequent complete thrombosis of the aneurysm and cessation of bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of the dynamic behaviour of lipid droplets in the early mouse embryo using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Thayil, Anisha; Jesacher, Alexander; Grieve, Kate; Debarre, Delphine; Wilson, Tony; Booth, Martin; Srinivas, Shankar

    2010-06-03

    Lipid droplets (LD) are organelles with an important role in normal metabolism and disease. The lipid content of embryos has a major impact on viability and development. LD in Drosophila embryos and cultured cell lines have been shown to move and fuse in a microtubule dependent manner. Due to limitations in current imaging technology, little is known about the behaviour of LD in the mammalian embryo. Harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) allows one to image LD without the use of exogenous labels. Adaptive optics can be used to correct aberrations that would otherwise degrade the quality and information content of images. We have built a harmonic generation microscope with adaptive optics to characterise early mouse embryogenesis. At fertilization, LD are small and uniformly distributed, but in the implanting blastocyst, LD are larger and enriched in the invading giant cells of the trophectoderm. Time-lapse studies reveal that LD move continuously and collide but do not fuse, instead forming aggregates that subsequently behave as single units. Using specific inhibitors, we show that the velocity and dynamic behaviour of LD is dependent not only on microtubules as in other systems, but also on microfilaments. We explore the limits within which HGM can be used to study living embryos without compromising viability and make the counterintuitive finding that 16 J of energy delivered continuously over a period of minutes can be less deleterious than an order of magnitude lower energy delivered dis-continuously over a period of hours. LD in pre-implantation mouse embryos show a previously unappreciated complexity of behaviour that is dependent not only on microtubules, but also microfilaments. Unlike LD in other systems, LD in the mouse embryo do not fuse but form aggregates. This study establishes HGM with adaptive optics as a powerful tool for the study of LD biology and provides insights into the photo-toxic effects of imaging embryos.

  10. Inhibition of thrombin by functionalized C60 nanoparticles revealed via in vitro assays and in silico studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanyan; Fu, Jianjie; Pan, Wenxiao; Xue, Qiao; Liu, Xian; Zhang, Aiqian

    2018-01-01

    The studies on the human toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) are far behind the rapid development of engineered functionalized NPs. Fullerene has been widely used as drug carrier skeleton due to its reported low risk. However, different from other kinds of NPs, fullerene-based NPs (C 60 NPs) have been found to have an anticoagulation effect, although the potential target is still unknown. In the study, both experimental and computational methods were adopted to gain mechanistic insight into the modulation of thrombin activity by nine kinds of C 60 NPs with diverse surface chemistry properties. In vitro enzyme activity assays showed that all tested surface-modified C 60 NPs exhibited thrombin inhibition ability. Kinetic studies coupled with competitive testing using 3 known inhibitors indicated that six of the C 60 NPs, of greater hydrophobicity and hydrogen bond (HB) donor acidity or acceptor basicity, acted as competitive inhibitors of thrombin by directly interacting with the active site of thrombin. A simple quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship model relating the surface substituent properties to the inhibition potential was then established for the six competitive inhibitors. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the intermolecular HB interactions were important for the specific binding of C 60 NPs to the active site canyon, while the additional stability provided by the surface groups through van der Waals interaction also play a key role in the thrombin binding affinity of the NPs. Our results suggest that thrombin is a possible target of the surface-functionalized C 60 NPs relevant to their anticoagulation effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Incidence of thromboembolic events after use of gelatin-thrombin-based hemostatic matrix during intracranial tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Conti, Carlo; De Bonis, Costanzo

    2018-01-01

    Association between the use of hemostatic agents made from collagen/gelatin mixed with thrombin and thromboembolic events in patients undergoing tumor resection has been suggested. This study evaluates the relationship between flowable hemostatic matrix and deep vein thrombosis in a large cohort of patients treated for brain tumor removal. The authors conducted a retrospective, multicenter, clinical review of all craniotomies for tumor removal performed between 2013 and 2014. Patients were classified in three groups: group I (flowable gelatin hemostatic matrix with thrombin), group II (gelatin hemostatic without thrombin), and group III (classical hemostatic). A total of 932 patients were selected: tumor pathology included 441 gliomas, 296 meningiomas, and 195 metastases. Thromboembolic events were identified in 4.7% of patients in which gelatin matrix with thrombin was applied, in 8.4% of patients with gelatin matrix without thrombin, and in 3.6% of cases with classical methods of hemostasis. Patients with venous thromboembolism had an increased proportion of high-grade gliomas (7.2%). Patients receiving a greater dose than 10 ml gelatin hemostatic had a higher rate of thromboembolic events. Intracranial hematoma requiring reintervention occurred in 19 cases: 4.5% of cases of group III, while reoperation was performed in 1.3 and 1.6% of patients in which gelatin matrix with or without thrombin was applied. Gelatin matrix hemostat is an efficacious tool for neurosurgeons in cases of difficult intraoperative bleeding during cranial tumor surgery. This study may help to identify those patients at high risk for developing thromboembolism and to treat them accordingly.

  12. Diagnostic Yield of Next-Generation Sequencing in Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Charbit-Henrion, Fabienne; Parlato, Marianna; Hanein, Sylvain; Duclaux-Loras, Rémi; Nowak, Jan; Begue, Bernadette; Rakotobe, Sabine; Bruneau, Julie; Fourrage, Cécile; Alibeu, Olivier; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Lévy, Eva; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Mazerolles, Fabienne; Latour, Sylvain; Lenoir, Christelle; Fischer, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Aloi, Marina; Amil Dias, Jorge; Ben Hariz, Mongi; Bourrier, Anne; Breuer, Christian; Breton, Anne; Bronski, Jiri; Buderus, Stephan; Cananzi, Mara; Coopman, Stéphanie; Crémilleux, Clara; Dabadie, Alain; Dumant-Forest, Clémentine; Egritas Gurkan, Odul; Fabre, Alexandre; Fischer, Aude; German Diaz, Marta; Gonzalez-Lama, Yago; Goulet, Olivier; Guariso, Graziella; Gurcan, Neslihan; Homan, Matjaz; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Jeziorski, Eric; Karanika, Evi; Lachaux, Alain; Lewindon, Peter; Lima, Rosa; Magro, Fernando; Major, Janos; Malamut, Georgia; Mas, Emmanuel; Mattyus, Istvan; Mearin, Luisa M; Melek, Jan; Navas-Lopez, Victor Manuel; Paerregaard, Anders; Pelatan, Cecile; Pigneur, Bénédicte; Pinto Pais, Isabel; Rebeuh, Julie; Romano, Claudio; Siala, Nadia; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Tempia-Caliera, Michela; Tounian, Patrick; Turner, Dan; Urbonas, Vaidotas; Willot, Stéphanie; Ruemmele, Frank M; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine

    2018-05-18

    An expanding number of monogenic defects have been identified as causative of severe forms of very early-onset inflammatory bowel diseases (VEO-IBD). The present study aimed at defining how next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods can be used to improve identification of known molecular diagnosis and adapt treatment. 207 children were recruited in 45 Paediatric centres through an international collaborative network (ESPGHAN GENIUS working group) with a clinical presentation of severe VEO-IBD (n=185) or an anamnesis suggestive of a monogenic disorder (n=22). Patients were divided at inclusion into three phenotypic subsets: predominantly small bowel inflammation, colitis with perianal lesions, and colitis only. Methods to obtain molecular diagnosis included functional tests followed by specific Sanger sequencing, custom-made targeted NGS, and in selected cases whole exome sequencing (WES) of parents-child trios. Genetic findings were validated clinically and/or functionally. Molecular diagnosis was achieved in 66/207 children (32%): 61% with small bowel inflammation, 39% with colitis and perianal lesions and 18% with colitis only. Targeted NGS pinpointed gene mutations causative of atypical presentations and identified large exonic copy number variations previously missed by WES. Our results lead us to propose an optimised diagnostic strategy to identify known monogenic causes of severe IBD.

  13. Rethinking evidence-based practice and two-generation programs to create the future of early childhood policy

    PubMed Central

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Half a century of research and program evaluation has fueled a diverse landscape of early childhood policies and practices that produce a range of positive effects on the life prospects of children who face the burdens of significant adversity. Drawing on advances in neurobiology, developmental psychology, developmental psychopathology, and prevention science, this paper presents a framework for elucidating underlying causal mechanisms that explain differences in outcomes, formulating enhanced theories of change about how to shift developmental trajectories, designing creative interventions and rethinking the concept of a two-generation strategy to produce breakthrough impacts, and launching a new era of investment in young children and their families that will achieve greater reductions in intergenerational disparities in learning, behavior, and health than those produced by current best practices. Particular attention is focused on the hypothesis that substantially better outcomes for vulnerable, young children could be achieved by greater attention to strengthening the resources and capabilities of the adults who care for them rather than by continuing to focus primarily on the provision of child-focused enrichment, parenting education, and informal support. Central to achieving this goal is the need to establish an innovation-friendly environment that embraces fast-cycle sharing, supports risk taking, and celebrates learning from failure. PMID:24342860

  14. Anticoagulation beyond direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors: indications for targeting the intrinsic pathway?

    PubMed

    van Montfoort, Maurits L; Meijers, Joost C M

    2013-08-01

    Antithrombotic drugs like vitamin K antagonists and heparin have been the gold standard for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disease for many years. Unfortunately, there are several disadvantages of these antithrombotic drugs: they are accompanied by serious bleeding problems, it is necessary to monitor the therapeutic window, and there are various interactions with food and other drugs. This has led to the development of new oral anticoagulants, specifically inhibiting either thrombin or factor Xa. In terms of effectiveness, these drugs are comparable to the currently available anticoagulants; however, they are still associated with issues such as bleeding, reversal of the drug and complicated laboratory monitoring. Vitamin K antagonists, heparin, direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors have in common that they target key proteins of the haemostatic system. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties we investigated whether the intrinsic coagulation factors (VIII, IX, XI, XII, prekallikrein and high-molecular-weight kininogen) are superior targets for anticoagulation. We analysed epidemiological data concerning thrombosis and bleeding in patients deficient in one of the intrinsic pathway proteins. Furthermore, we discuss several thrombotic models in intrinsic coagulation factor-deficient animals. The combined results suggest that intrinsic coagulation factors could be suitable targets for anticoagulant drugs.

  15. A systems approach to hemostasis: 3. Thrombus consolidation regulates intrathrombus solute transport and local thrombin activity

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, John D.; Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Wu, Jie; Colace, Thomas V.; Diamond, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Hemostatic thrombi formed after a penetrating injury have a distinctive structure in which a core of highly activated, closely packed platelets is covered by a shell of less-activated, loosely packed platelets. We have shown that differences in intrathrombus molecular transport emerge in parallel with regional differences in platelet packing density and predicted that these differences affect thrombus growth and stability. Here we test that prediction in a mouse vascular injury model. The studies use a novel method for measuring thrombus contraction in vivo and a previously characterized mouse line with a defect in integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling that affects clot retraction ex vivo. The results show that the mutant mice have a defect in thrombus consolidation following vascular injury, resulting in an increase in intrathrombus transport rates and, as predicted by computational modeling, a decrease in thrombin activity and platelet activation in the thrombus core. Collectively, these data (1) demonstrate that in addition to the activation state of individual platelets, the physical properties of the accumulated mass of adherent platelets is critical in determining intrathrombus agonist distribution and platelet activation and (2) define a novel role for integrin signaling in the regulation of intrathrombus transport rates and localization of thrombin activity. PMID:24951426

  16. Correlation between Interleukin-6 and Thrombin-Antithrombin III Complex Levels in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Rita; Zahavi, Alon; Axer-Siegel, Ruth; Budnik, Ivan; Dreznik, Ayelet; Dahbash, Mor; Nisgav, Yael; Megiddo, Elinor; Kenet, Gili; Weinberger, Dov; Livnat, Tami

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate and correlate the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) in the vitreous of patients with different vitreoretinal pathologies. Vitreous samples were collected from 78 patients scheduled for pars plana vitrectomy at a tertiary medical center. Patients were divided by the underlying vitreoretinal pathophysiology, as follows: macular hole (MH)/epiretinal membrane (ERM) (n = 26); rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) (n = 32); and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 20). Levels of IL-6 and TAT were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared among the groups. A significant difference was found in the vitreal IL-6 and TAT levels between the MH/ERM group and both the PDR and RRD groups (P < 0.001 for all). Diabetes was associated with higher IL-6 levels in the RRD group. Different relationships between the IL-6 and TAT levels were revealed in patients with different ocular pathologies. Our results imply that variations in vitreal TAT level may be attributable not only to an inflammatory reaction or blood-retinal barrier breakdown, but also to intraocular tissue-dependent regulation of thrombin.

  17. FVIIa-sTF and Thrombin Inhibitory Activities of Compounds Isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa K-139.

    PubMed

    Anas, Andrea Roxanne J; Mori, Akane; Tone, Mineka; Naruse, Chiaki; Nakajima, Anna; Asukabe, Hirohiko; Takaya, Yoshiaki; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Shirai, Makoto; Harada, Ken-Ichi

    2017-08-30

    The rise of bleeding and bleeding complications caused by oral anticoagulant use are serious problems nowadays. Strategies that block the initiation step in blood coagulation involving activated factor VII-tissue factor (fVIIa-TF) have been considered. This study explores toxic Microcystis aeruginosa K-139, from Lake Kasumigaura, Ibaraki, Japan, as a promising cyanobacterium for isolation of fVIIa-sTF inhibitors. M. aeruginosa K-139 underwent reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (ODS-SPE) from 20% MeOH to MeOH elution with 40%-MeOH increments, which afforded aeruginosin K-139 in the 60% MeOH fraction; micropeptin K-139 and microviridin B in the MeOH fraction. Aeruginosin K-139 displayed an fVIIa-sTF inhibitory activity of ~166 µM, within a 95% confidence interval. Micropeptin K-139 inhibited fVIIa-sTF with EC 50 10.62 µM, which was more efficient than thrombin inhibition of EC 50 26.94 µM. The thrombin/fVIIa-sTF ratio of 2.54 in micropeptin K-139 is higher than those in 4-amidinophenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride (APMSF) and leupeptin, when used as positive controls. This study proves that M. aeruginosa K-139 is a new source of fVIIa-sTF inhibitors. It also opens a new avenue for micropeptin K-139 and related depsipeptides as fVIIa-sTF inhibitors.

  18. A sensitive HIV-1 envelope induced fusion assay identifies fusion enhancement of thrombin

    SciT

    Cheng, De-Chun; Zhong, Guo-Cai; Su, Ju-Xiang

    2010-01-22

    To evaluate the interaction between HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and target cell receptors, various cell-cell-fusion assays have been developed. In the present study, we established a novel fusion system. In this system, the expression of the sensitive reporter gene, firefly luciferase (FL) gene, in the target cells was used to evaluate cell fusion event. Simultaneously, constitutively expressed Renilla luciferase (RL) gene was used to monitor effector cell number and viability. FL gave a wider dynamic range than other known reporters and the introduction of RL made the assay accurate and reproducible. This system is especially beneficial for investigation of potentialmore » entry-influencing agents, for its power of ruling out the false inhibition or enhancement caused by the artificial cell-number variation. As a case study, we applied this fusion system to observe the effect of a serine protease, thrombin, on HIV Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and have found the fusion enhancement activity of thrombin over two R5-tropic HIV strains.« less

  19. EMBOLIC MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY OCCLUSION MODEL USING THROMBIN AND FIBRINOGEN COMPOSED CLOTS IN RAT

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ming; Lin, Zi-Jing; Qian, Hai; Gourav, Choudhury Roy; liu, Ran; Liu, Hanli; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic stroke accounts for over 80% in total human stroke which mostly affect middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Embolic stroke models induced by injection of homologous clots into the internal carotid artery and MCA closely mimic human stroke and have been commonly used in stroke research. Studies indicate that the size and composition of clots are critical for the reproducibility of the stroke model. In the present study, we modified the homologous clots formation by addition of thrombin and fibrinogen which produced even distribution of fibrin with tight cross linkage of red blood cells. We optimized the embolic MCA occlusion model in rats using different size of the mixed clots. A precise lodgment of the clots at the MCA bifurcation and highly reproducible ischemic lesion in the MCA territory were demonstrated in the embolic MCA occlusion model induced by injection of 10 pieces of 1-mm long mixed clots made in PE-60 catheter. We further tested the effect of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in this embolic MCA occlusion model. rtPA induced thrombolysis, improved neurological outcome, and significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume when administered at 1 hour after embolism as compared with control. In summary, we have established a reproducible embolic MCA occlusion model using clots made of homologous blood, thrombin and fibrinogen. The mixed clots enable precise lodgment at the MCA bifurcation which is responsive to thrombolytic therapy of rtPA. PMID:22985597

  20. Embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion model using thrombin and fibrinogen composed clots in rat.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ming; Lin, Zi-Jing; Qian, Hai; Choudhury, Gourav Roy; Liu, Ran; Liu, Hanli; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2012-11-15

    Ischemic stroke accounts for over 80% in total human stroke which mostly affect middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Embolic stroke models induced by injection of homologous clots into the internal carotid artery and MCA closely mimic human stroke and have been commonly used in stroke research. Studies indicate that the size and composition of clots are critical for the reproducibility of the stroke model. In the present study, we modified the homologous clots formation by addition of thrombin and fibrinogen which produced even distribution of fibrin with tight cross linkage of red blood cells. We optimized the embolic MCA occlusion model in rats using different size of the mixed clots. A precise lodgment of the clots at the MCA bifurcation and highly reproducible ischemic lesion in the MCA territory were demonstrated in the embolic MCA occlusion model induced by injection of 10 pieces of 1-mm long mixed clots made in PE-60 catheter. We further tested the effect of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in this embolic MCA occlusion model. rtPA induced thrombolysis, improved neurological outcome, and significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume when administered at 1h after embolism as compared with control. In summary, we have established a reproducible embolic MCA occlusion model using clots made of homologous blood, thrombin and fibrinogen. The mixed clots enable precise lodgment at the MCA bifurcation which is responsive to thrombolytic therapy of rtPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanism of the Anticoagulant Activity of Thrombin Mutant W215A/E217A

    SciT

    Gandhi, Prafull S.; Page, Michael J.; Chen, Zhiwei

    2009-09-15

    The thrombin mutant W215A/E217A (WE) is a potent anticoagulant both in vitro and in vivo. Previous x-ray structural studies have shown that WE assumes a partially collapsed conformation that is similar to the inactive E* form, which explains its drastically reduced activity toward substrate. Whether this collapsed conformation is genuine, rather than the result of crystal packing or the mutation introduced in the critical 215-217 {beta}-strand, and whether binding of thrombomodulin to exosite I can allosterically shift the E* form to the active E form to restore activity toward protein C are issues of considerable mechanistic importance to improve themore » design of an anticoagulant thrombin mutant for therapeutic applications. Here we present four crystal structures of WE in the human and murine forms that confirm the collapsed conformation reported previously under different experimental conditions and crystal packing. We also present structures of human and murine WE bound to exosite I with a fragment of the platelet receptor PAR1, which is unable to shift WE to the E form. These structural findings, along with kinetic and calorimetry data, indicate that WE is strongly stabilized in the E* form and explain why binding of ligands to exosite I has only a modest effect on the E*-E equilibrium for this mutant. The E* {yields} E transition requires the combined binding of thrombomodulin and protein C and restores activity of the mutant WE in the anticoagulant pathway.« less

  2. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor is degraded by Salmonella enterica and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Valls Serón, M; Haiko, J; DE Groot, P G; Korhonen, T K; Meijers, J C M

    2010-10-01

     Pathogenic bacteria modulate the host coagulation system to evade immune responses or to facilitate dissemination through extravascular tissues. In particular, the important bacterial pathogens Salmonella enterica and Yersinia pestis intervene with the plasminogen/fibrinolytic system. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) has anti-fibrinolytic properties as the active enzyme (TAFIa) removes C-terminal lysine residues from fibrin, thereby attenuating accelerated plasmin formation.  Here, we demonstrate inactivation and cleavage of TAFI by homologous surface proteases, the omptins Pla of Y. pestis and PgtE of S. enterica. We show that omptin-expressing bacteria decrease TAFI activatability by thrombin-thrombomodulin and that the anti-fibrinolytic potential of TAFIa was reduced by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Pla or PgtE. The functional impairment resulted from C-terminal cleavage of TAFI by the omptins.  Our results indicate that TAFI is degraded directly by the omptins PgtE of S. enterica and Pla of Y. pestis. This may contribute to the ability of PgtE and Pla to damage tissue barriers, such as fibrin, and thereby to enhance spread of S. enterica and Y. pestis during infection. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. The Effect of Curriculum-Generated Play Instruction on the Mathematics Teaching Efficacies of Early Childhood Education Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sancar-Tokmak, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of curriculum-generated play instruction on the mathematics teaching efficacy of early childhood education pre-service teachers. The study used a one group pre-test/post-test experimental research design, supported by a qualitative approach. The participants of the study consisted of 35 pre-service…

  4. The abridged patient-generated subjective global assessment is a useful tool for early detection and characterization of cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Vigano, Antonio L; di Tomasso, Jonathan; Kilgour, Robert D; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Lucar, Enriqueta; Morais, José A; Borod, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Cancer cachexia (CC) is a syndrome characterized by wasting of lean body mass and fat, often driven by decreased food intake, hypermetabolism, and inflammation resulting in decreased lifespan and quality of life. Classification of cancer cachexia has improved, but few clinically relevant diagnostic tools exist for its early identification and characterization. The abridged Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (aPG-SGA) is a modification of the original Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, and consists of a four-part questionnaire that scores patients' weight history, food intake, appetite, and performance status. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the aPG-SGA is associated with both features and clinical sequelae of cancer cachexia. In this prospective cohort study, 207 advanced lung and gastrointestinal cancer patients completed the following tests: aPG-SGA, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, handgrip strength, a complete blood count, albumin, apolipoprotein A and B, and C-reactive protein. Ninety-four participants with good performance status as assessed by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status completed additional questionnaires and underwent body composition testing. Of these, 68 patients tested for quadriceps strength and completed a 3-day food recall. Multivariable regression models revealed that higher aPG-SGA scores (≥9 vs 0 to 1) are significantly associated (P<0.05) with the following: unfavorable biological markers of cancer cachexia, such as higher white blood cell counts (10.0 vs 6.7×10(9)/L; lower hemoglobin (115.6 vs 127.7 g/L), elevated C-reactive protein (42.7 vs 18.2 mg/L [406.7 vs 173.3 nmol/L]); decreased anthropometric and physical measures, such as body mass index (22.5 vs 27.1); fat mass (14.4 vs 26.0 kg), handgrip (24.7 vs 34.9 kg) and leg strength; an average 12% greater length of hospital stay; a dose reduction in chemotherapy; and increased mortality. Given its association with

  5. Mission Study for Generation-X: A Large Area and High Angular Observatory to Study the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roger

    2005-01-01

    In this report we provide a summary of the technical progress achieved during the last year Generation-X Vision Mission Study. In addition, we provide a brief programmatic status. The Generation-X (Gen-X) Vision Mission Study investigates the science requirements, mission concepts and technology drivers for an X-ray telescope designed to study the new frontier of astrophysics: the birth and evolution of the first stars, galaxies and black holes in the early Universe. X-ray astronomy offers an opportunity to detect these via the activity of the black holes, and the supernova explosions and gamma-ray burst afterglows of the massive stars. However, such objects are beyond the grasp of current missions which are operating or even under development. Our team has conceived a Gen-X Vision Mission based on an X-ray observatory with 100 m2 collecting area at 1 keV (1000 times larger than Chandra) and 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution (several times better than Chandra and 50 times better than the Constellation-X resolution goal). Such a high energy observatory will be capable of detecting the earliest black holes and galaxies in the Universe, and will also study extremes of density, gravity, magnetic fields, and kinetic energy which cannot be created in laboratories. In our study we develop the mission concept and define candidate technologies and performance requirements for Gen-X. The baseline Gen-X mission involves four 8 m diameter X-ray telescopes operating at Sun-Earth L2. We trade against an alternate concept of a single 26 m diameter telescope with focal plane instruments on a separate spacecraft. A telescope of this size will require either robotic or human-assisted in-flight assembly. The required effective area implies that extremely lightweight grazing incidence X-ray optics must be developed. To achieve the required areal density of at least 100 times lower than for Chandra, we study 0.2 mm thick mirrors which have active on-orbit figure control. We also study

  6. Fluorescence detection of thrombin using autocatalytic strand displacement cycle reaction and a dual-aptamer DNA sandwich assay.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuyan; Qu, Lijing; Zhang, Qing; Lin, Jiehua

    2012-02-15

    A sensitive and specific sandwich assay for the detection of thrombin is described. Two affiliative aptamers were used to increase the assay specificity through sandwich recognition. Recognition DNA loaded on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) partially hybridized with the initiator DNA, which was displaced by surviving DNA. After the initiator DNA was released into the solution, one hairpin structure was opened, which in turn opened another hairpin structure. The initiator DNA was displaced and released into the solution again by another hairpin structure because of the hybridized reaction. Then the released initiator DNA initiated another autocatalytic strand displacement reaction. A sophisticated network of three such duplex formation cycles was designed to amplify the fluorescence signal. Other proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and lysozyme, did not interfere with the detection of thrombin. This approach enables rapid and specific thrombin detection with reduced costs and minimized material consumption compared with traditional assay processes. The detection limit of thrombin was as low as 4.3 × 10⁻¹³ M based on the AuNP amplification and the autocatalytic strand displacement cycle reaction. This method could be used in biological samples with excellent selectivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The possible involvement of protein phosphatase 1 in thrombin-induced Ca2+ influx of human platelets.

    PubMed

    Murata, K; Sakon, M; Kambayashi, J; Yukawa, M; Yano, Y; Fujitani, K; Kawasaki, T; Shiba, E; Mori, T

    1993-04-01

    Protein phosphatase 1 is considered to be involved in thrombin-induced platelet activation (Murata et al., Biochem Int 26:327-334, 1992). To clarify the mechanism, we examined the effects of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitors (calyculin A, tautomycin, okadaic acid) on Ca2+ influx. In the presence of 1 mM Ca2+, thrombin- (0.1 U/ml) induced platelet aggregation and ATP release were inhibited by calyculin A, while this inhibitory effect was abolished in the absence of Ca2+ (EGTA 1 mM). Furthermore, thrombin-induced Mn2+ influx but not intracellular Ca2+ mobilization was inhibited by calyculin A in a dose-related manner. Calyculin A also blocked the ongoing Ca2+ influx when added 3 min after thrombin stimulation. Similar inhibitory effects were observed with okadaic acid and tautomycin in the same potency sequence as the reported one for protein phosphatase 1 (calyculin A > tautomycin > okadaic acid). These results suggest that the anti-platelet effects of phosphatase inhibitors are due to the inhibition of Ca2+ influx and that protein phosphatase 1 plays a key role in the regulation of receptor operated Ca2+ channel of human platelets.

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of 17β-Estradiol against Thrombin-Induced Apoptosis in Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Zhou, Su; Zhao, Hui; Zu, Jie; He, Qianqian; Ye, Xinchun; Cui, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) is a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system; however, little is known about its effects on intracerebral hemorrhage. This study examined the effects of E2 on thrombin-induced apoptosis in vitro and investigated the potential mechanisms. Primary cultured cortical neurons were treated with E2 or vehicle and then the cells were exposed to thrombin. Neuronal apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The phosphorylated c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were assayed by western blot. Consequently, we found that E2 has significantly reduced the apoptosis in thrombin-treated neurons. E2 also exhibited a downregulation in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3 and p-JNK. However, E2 had little effect on p-ERK1/2 proteins activation. Taken together, E2 has shown neuroprotective effects on thrombin-induced neuronal apoptosis, and the molecular mechanisms may correlate with the inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effect of Locked-Nucleic Acid on a Biologically Active G-Quadruplex. A Structure-Activity Relationship of the Thrombin Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacio, Laura; Church, Frank C.; Jarstfer, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Here we tested the ability to augment the biological activity of the thrombin aptamer, d(GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG), by using locked nucleic acid (LNA) to influence its G-quadruplex structure. Compared to un-substituted control aptamer, LNA-containing aptamers displayed varying degrees of thrombin inhibition. Aptamers with LNA substituted in either positions G5, T7, or G8 showed decreased thrombin inhibition, whereas LNA at position G2 displayed activity comparable to un-substituted control aptamer. Interestingly, the thermal stability of the substituted aptamers does not correlate to activity – the more stable aptamers with LNA in position G5, T7, or G8 showed the least thrombin inhibition, while a less stable aptamer with LNA at G2 was as active as the un-substituted aptamer. These results suggest that LNA substitution at sites G5, T7, and G8 directly perturbs aptamer-thrombin affinity. This further implies that for the thrombin aptamer, activity is not dictated solely by the stability of the G-quadruplex structure, but by specific interactions between the central TGT loop and thrombin and that LNA can be tolerated in a biologically active nucleic acid structure albeit in a position dependent fashion. PMID:19325759

  10. GDP beta S enhances the activation of phospholipase C caused by thrombin in human platelets: evidence for involvement of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein

    SciT

    Oberdisse, E.; Lapetina, E.G.

    1987-05-14

    Guanosine 5'-O-thiotriphosphate (GTP gamma S) and thrombin stimulate the activity of phospholipase C in platelets that have been permeabilized with saponin and whose inositol phospholipids have been prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol. Ca/sup 2 +/ has opposite effects on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates induced by thrombin or GTP gamma S. While the action of GTP gamma S on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates is inhibited by Ca/sup 2 +/, action of thrombin is stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/. Guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S), which inhibits the function of GTP-binding proteins, also inhibits the effect of GTP gamma Smore » on phospholipase C stimulation but, surprisingly, increases the effect of thrombin. Ca/sup 2 +/ increases the inhibitory effect of GDP beta S on GTP gamma S activation of phospholipase C, but Ca/sup 2 +/ further enhances the stimulatory effect of GDP beta S on the thrombin activation of phospholipase C. This indicates that two mechanisms are responsible for the activation of phospholipase C in platelets. A GTP-binding protein is responsible for regulation of phospholipase C induced by GTP gamma S, while the effect of thrombin on the stimulation of phospholipase C is independent of GTP-binding proteins. However, the effect of thrombin may be modulated by the action of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein.« less

  11. Sequence and structure insights of kazal type thrombin inhibitor protein: Studied with phylogeny, homology modeling and dynamic MM/GBSA studies.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Aparna; Dash, RadhaCharan; Hirwani, Raj; Abdin, Malik

    2018-03-01

    Despite the wide medical importance of serine protease inhibitors, many of kazal type proteins are still to be explored. These thrombin inhibiting proteins are found in the digestive system of hematophagous organisms mainly Arthropods. We studied one of such protein i.e. Kazal type-1 protein from sand-fly Phlebotomus papatasi as its structure and interaction with thrombin is unclear. Initially, Dipetalin a kazal-follistasin domain protein was run through PSI-BLAST to retrieve related sequences. Using this set of sequence a phylogenetic tree was constructed, which identified a distantly related kazal type-1 protein. A three-dimensional structure was predicted for this protein and was aligned with Rhodniin for further evaluation. To have a comparative understanding of it's binding at the thrombin active site, the aligned kazal model-thrombin and rhodniin-thrombin complexes were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations. Dynamics analysis with reference to main chain RMSD, H-chain residue RMSF and total energy showed rhodniin-thrombin complex as a more stable system. Further, the MM/GBSA method was applied that calculated the binding free energy (ΔG binding ) for rhodniin and kazal model as -220.32kcal/Mol and -90.70kcal/Mol, respectively. Thus, it shows that kazal model has weaker bonding with thrombin, unlike rhodniin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Two heads are better than one: crystal structure of the insect derived double domain Kazal inhibitor rhodniin in complex with thrombin.

    PubMed

    van de Locht, A; Lamba, D; Bauer, M; Huber, R; Friedrich, T; Kröger, B; Höffken, W; Bode, W

    1995-11-01

    Rhodniin is a highly specific inhibitor of thrombin isolated from the assassin bug Rhodnius prolixus. The 2.6 Angstrum crystal structure of the non-covalent complex between recombinant rhodniin and bovine alpha-thrombin reveals that the two Kazal-type domains of rhodniin bind to different sites of thrombin. The amino-terminal domain binds in a substrate-like manner to the narrow active-site cleft of thrombin; the imidazole group of the P1 His residue extends into the S1 pocket to form favourable hydrogen/ionic bonds with Asp189 at its bottom, and additionally with Glu192 at its entrance. The carboxy-terminal domain, whose distorted reactive-site loop cannot adopt the canonical conformation, docks to the fibrinogen recognition exosite via extensive electrostatic interactions. The rather acidic polypeptide linking the two domains is displaced from the thrombin surface, with none of its residues involved in direct salt bridges with thrombin. The tight (Ki = 2 x 10(-13) M) binding of rhodniin to thrombin is the result of the sum of steric and charge complementarity of the amino-terminal domain towards the active-site cleft, and of the electrostatic interactions between the carboxy-terminal domain and the exosite.

  13. Preparing the Next Generation of Early Childhood Teachers: The Emerging Role of Interprofessional Education and Collaboration in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Effective collaboration between early childhood teachers and social workers is now considered critical to providing children with adequate psycho-social supports and services in early childhood settings. In order for this interdisciplinary collaboration to be more effective, opportunities for each discipline to learn about each other's knowledge,…

  14. Anticoagulant Activity of a Unique Sulfated Pyranosic (1→3)-β-l-Arabinan through Direct Interaction with Thrombin*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Paula V.; Quintana, Irene; Cerezo, Alberto S.; Caramelo, Julio J.; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Verli, Hugo; Estevez, José M.; Ciancia, Marina

    2013-01-01

    A highly sulfated 3-linked β-arabinan (Ab1) with arabinose in the pyranose form was obtained from green seaweed Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales). It comprised major amounts of units sulfated on C-2 and C-4 and constitutes the first polysaccharide of this type isolated in the pure form and fully characterized. Ab1 showed anticoagulant activity by global coagulation tests. Less sulfated arabinans obtained from the same seaweed have less or no activity. Ab1 exerts its activity through direct and indirect (antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-mediated) inhibition of thrombin. Direct thrombin inhibition was studied in detail. By native PAGE, it was possible to detect formation of a complex between Ab1 and human thrombin (HT). Ab1 binding to HT was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra of the Ab1 complex suggested that ligand binding induced a small conformational change on HT. Ab1-thrombin interactions were studied by molecular dynamic simulations using the persulfated octasaccharide as model compound. Most carbohydrate-protein contacts would occur by interaction of sulfate groups with basic amino acid residues on the surface of the enzyme, more than 60% of them being performed by the exosite 2-composing residues. In these interactions, the sulfate groups on C-2 were shown to interact more intensely with the thrombin structure. In contrast, the disulfated oligosaccharide does not promote major conformational modifications at the catalytic site when complexed to exosite 1. These results show that this novel pyranosic sulfated arabinan Ab1 exerts its anticoagulant activity by a mechanism different from those found previously for other sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23161548

  15. Enhancement of aptamer immobilization using egg shell-derived nano-sized spherical hydroxyapatite for thrombin detection in neuroclinic.

    PubMed

    Derkus, Burak; Arslan, Yavuz Emre; Emregul, Kaan C; Emregul, Emel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we describe the sonochemical isolation of nano-sized spherical hydroxyapatite (nHA) from egg shell and application towards thrombin aptasensing. In addition to the sonochemical method, two conventional methods present in literature were carried out to perform a comparative study. Various analysis methods including Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy-Dispersive Analysis of X-Rays (EDAX), and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) have been applied for the characterization of nHA and its nanocomposite with marine-derived collagen isolated from Rhizostoma pulmo jellyfish. TEM micrographs revealed the sonochemically synthesized nHA nanoparticles to have a unique porous spherical shape with a diameter of approximately 60-80nm when compared to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized using the other two methods which had a typical needle shaped morphology. EDAX, XRD and FTIR results demonstrated that the obtained patterns belonged to hydroxyapatite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is the main analyzing technique of the developed thrombin aptasensor. The proposed aptasensor has a detection limit of 0.25nM thrombin. For clinical application of the developed aptasensor, thrombin levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from patients with Multiple Sclerosis, Myastenia Gravis, Epilepsy, Parkinson, polyneuropathy and healthy donors were analyzed using both the aptasensor and commercial ELISA kit. The results showed that the proposed system is a promising candidate for clinical analysis of thrombin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical Role for CD38-mediated Ca2+ Signaling in Thrombin-induced Procoagulant Activity of Mouse Platelets and Hemostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Mazhar; Nam, Tae-Sik; Kim, Uh-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    CD38, a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of intracellular Ca2+ messengers, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), is known to be expressed on platelets. However, the role of CD38 in platelets remains unclear. Our present results show that treatment of platelets with thrombin results in a rapid and sustained Ca2+ signal, resulting from a coordinated interplay of Ca2+-mobilizing messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, cADPR, and NAADP. By dissecting the signaling pathway using various agents, we delineated that cADPR and NAADP are sequentially produced through CD38 internalization by protein kinase C via myosin heavy chain IIA following phospholipase C activation in thrombin-induced platelets. An inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist blocked the thrombin-induced formation of cADPR and NAADP as well as Ca2+ signals. An indispensable response of platelets relying on cytosolic calcium is the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), which implicates platelet procoagulant activity. Scrutinizing this parameter reveals that CD38+/+ platelets fully express PS on the surface when stimulated with thrombin, whereas this response was decreased on CD38−/− platelets. Similarly, PS exposure and Ca2+ signals were attenuated when platelets were incubated with 8-bromo-cADPR, bafilomycin A1, and a PKC inhibitor. Furthermore, in vivo, CD38-deficient mice exhibited longer bleeding times and unstable formation of thrombus than wild type mice. These results demonstrate that CD38 plays an essential role in thrombin-induced procoagulant activity of platelets and hemostasis via Ca2+ signaling mediated by its products, cADPR and NAADP. PMID:21339289

  17. Formation of PI 3-kinase products in platelets by thrombin, but not collagen, is dependent on synergistic autocrine stimulation, particularly through secreted ADP.

    PubMed

    Selheim, F; Idsøe, R; Fukami, M H; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    1999-10-05

    Platelet activation by thrombin or collagen results in secretion and synthesis of several platelet agonists that enhance the responses to the primary agonists (autocrine stimulation). To disclose the effects of thrombin and collagen on the phosphorylation of 3-phosphoinositides per se we incubated platelets with five inhibitors of platelet autocrine stimulation (IAS) that act extracellularly. We found that IAS almost totally blocked thrombin-induced production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4)P(2)] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)]. In contrast, collagen induced massive production of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) in the presence of IAS. When testing the effect of each inhibitor individually we found the strongest inhibition of thrombin-induced PtdIns(3,4)P(2) production with the ADP scavenger system CP/CPK. Furthermore, we found a strong synergistic effect between exogenously added ADP and thrombin on production of PtdIns(3,4)P(2). In contrast to the results from 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides, CP/CPK had little effect on thrombin-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Our results show the importance of autocrine stimulation in thrombin-induced accumulation of 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides and raise the question as to whether thrombin by itself is capable of inducing PI 3-K activation. In marked contrast to thrombin, collagen per se appears to be able to trigger increased production of PtdIns(3,4)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3). Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Diagnosing Early Ischemic Changes with the Latest-Generation Flat Detector CT: A Comparative Study with Multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Maier, I L; Leyhe, J R; Tsogkas, I; Behme, D; Schregel, K; Knauth, M; Schnieder, M; Liman, J; Psychogios, M-N

    2018-05-01

    One-stop management of mechanical thrombectomy-eligible patients with large-vessel occlusion represents an innovative approach in acute stroke treatment. This approach reduces door-to-reperfusion times by omitting multidetector CT, using flat detector CT as pre-mechanical thrombectomy imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of the latest-generation flat detector CT with multidetector CT. Prospectively derived data from patients with ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion and mechanical thrombectomy were analyzed in this monocentric study. All included patients underwent multidetector CT before referral to our comprehensive stroke center and flat detector CT in the angiography suite before mechanical thrombectomy. Diagnosis of early ischemic signs, quantified by the ASPECTS, was compared between modalities using cross tables, the Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman plots. The predictive value of multidetector CT- and flat detector CT-derived ASPECTS for functional outcome was investigated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Of 25 patients, 24 (96%) had flat detector CT with sufficient diagnostic quality. Median multidetector CT and flat detector CT ASPECTSs were 7 (interquartile range, 5.5-9 and 4.25-8, respectively) with a mean period of 143.6 ± 49.5 minutes between both modalities. The overall sensitivity was 85.1% and specificity was 83.1% for flat detector CT ASPECTS compared with multidetector CT ASPECTS as the reference technique. Multidetector CT and flat detector CT ASPECTS were strongly correlated ( r = 0.849, P < .001) and moderately predicted functional outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.738; P = .007 and .715; P = .069, respectively). Determination of ASPECTS on flat detector CT is feasible, showing no significant difference compared with multidetector CT ASPECTS and a similar predictive value for functional outcome. Our findings support the

  19. Children of Low Socioeconomic Status Show Accelerated Linear Growth in Early Childhood; Results from the Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lindsay M.; van Rossem, Lenie; Jansen, Pauline W.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Objectives People of low socioeconomic status are shorter than those of high socioeconomic status. The first two years of life being critical for height development, we hypothesized that a low socioeconomic status is associated with a slower linear growth in early childhood. We studied maternal educational level (high, mid-high, mid-low, and low) as a measure of socioeconomic status and its association with repeatedly measured height in children aged 0–2 years, and also examined to what extent known determinants of postnatal growth contribute to this association. Methods This study was based on data from 2972 mothers with a Dutch ethnicity, and their children participating in The Generation R Study, a population-based cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (participation rate 61%). All children were born between April 2002 and January 2006. Height was measured at 2 months (mid-90% range 1.0–3.9), 6 months (mid-90% range 5.6–11.4), 14 months (mid-90% range 13.7–17.9) and 25 months of age (mid-90% range 23.6–29.6). Results At 2 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were shorter than those in the highest (difference: −0.87 cm; 95% CI: −1.16, −0.58). Between 1 and 18 months, they grew faster than their counterparts. By 14 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were taller than those in the highest (difference at 14 months: 0.40 cm; 95% CI: 0.08,0.72). Adjustment for other determinants of postnatal growth did not explain the taller height. On the contrary, the differences became even larger (difference at 14 months: 0.61 cm; 95% CI: 0.26,0.95; and at 25 months: 1.00 cm; 95% CI: 0.57,1.43) Conclusions Compared with children of high socioeconomic status, those of low socioeconomic status show an accelerated linear growth until the18th month of life, leading to an overcompensation of their initial height deficit. The long-term consequences of these findings remain unclear and require further study. PMID:22649522

  20. PAR-1 and thrombin: the ties that bind the microenvironment to melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Maya; Kamiya, Takafumi; Brantley, Emily C; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-11-01

    Progression of melanoma is dependent on cross-talk between tumor cells and the adjacent microenvironment. The thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), plays a key role in exerting this function during melanoma progression. PAR-1 and its activating factors, which are expressed on tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, induce not only coagulation but also cell signaling, which promotes the metastatic phenotype. Several adhesion molecules, cytokines, growth factors, and proteases have recently been identified as downstream targets of PAR-1 and have been shown to modulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment in the process of melanoma growth and metastasis. Inhibiting such interactions by targeting PAR-1 could potentially be a useful therapeutic modality for melanoma patients. ©2011 AACR.

  1. Historical perspective and contemporary management of acute coronary syndromes: from MONA to THROMBINS2.

    PubMed

    Kline, Kristopher P; Conti, C Richard; Winchester, David E

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major burden on morbidity and mortality in the United States. Medical professionals and students often use the mnemonic 'MONA' (morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin and aspirin) to recall treatments for ACS; however, this list of therapies is outdated. We provide a historical perspective on 'MONA,' attempt to uncover its origin in the medical literature, and demonstrate the myriad changes that have occurred over the last 50 years of ACS management. We have developed a novel mnemonic, 'THROMBINS2' (thienopyridines, heparin/enoxaparin, renin-angiotensin system blockers, oxygen, morphine, beta blocker, intervention, nitroglycerin, statin/salicylate) to help bedside clinicians recall all the elements of contemporary ACS management. We demonstrate the mortality benefit for each component of contemporary ACS management, correlating the continued improvement with historical data on mortality after myocardial infarction. We encourage providers to utilize this mnemonic to explore options and guide treatments in ACS patients.

  2. Dynamics Govern Specificity of a Protein-Protein Interface: Substrate Recognition by Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Julian E; Huber, Roland G; Waldner, Birgit J; Kahler, Ursula; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    Biomolecular recognition is crucial in cellular signal transduction. Signaling is mediated through molecular interactions at protein-protein interfaces. Still, specificity and promiscuity of protein-protein interfaces cannot be explained using simplistic static binding models. Our study rationalizes specificity of the prototypic protein-protein interface between thrombin and its peptide substrates relying solely on binding site dynamics derived from molecular dynamics simulations. We find conformational selection and thus dynamic contributions to be a key player in biomolecular recognition. Arising entropic contributions complement chemical intuition primarily reflecting enthalpic interaction patterns. The paradigm "dynamics govern specificity" might provide direct guidance for the identification of specific anchor points in biomolecular recognition processes and structure-based drug design.

  3. Dynamics Govern Specificity of a Protein-Protein Interface: Substrate Recognition by Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Julian E.; Huber, Roland G.; Waldner, Birgit J.; Kahler, Ursula; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    Biomolecular recognition is crucial in cellular signal transduction. Signaling is mediated through molecular interactions at protein-protein interfaces. Still, specificity and promiscuity of protein-protein interfaces cannot be explained using simplistic static binding models. Our study rationalizes specificity of the prototypic protein-protein interface between thrombin and its peptide substrates relying solely on binding site dynamics derived from molecular dynamics simulations. We find conformational selection and thus dynamic contributions to be a key player in biomolecular recognition. Arising entropic contributions complement chemical intuition primarily reflecting enthalpic interaction patterns. The paradigm “dynamics govern specificity” might provide direct guidance for the identification of specific anchor points in biomolecular recognition processes and structure-based drug design. PMID:26496636

  4. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generating excess early double-stranded RNA transiently activates protein kinase R and triggers enhanced innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Wolferstätter, Michael; Schweneker, Marc; Späth, Michaela; Lukassen, Susanne; Klingenberg, Marieken; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Lauterbach, Henning; Hochrein, Hubertus; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; Hausmann, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important molecular pattern associated with viral infection and is detected by various extra- and intracellular recognition molecules. Poxviruses have evolved to avoid producing dsRNA early in infection but generate significant amounts of dsRNA late in infection due to convergent transcription of late genes. Protein kinase R (PKR) is activated by dsRNA and triggers major cellular defenses against viral infection, including protein synthesis shutdown, apoptosis, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production. The poxviral E3 protein binds and sequesters viral dsRNA and is a major antagonist of the PKR pathway. We found that the highly replication-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) engineered to produce excess amounts of dsRNA early in infection showed enhanced induction of IFN-β in murine and human cells in the presence of an intact E3L gene. IFN-β induction required a minimum overlap length of 300 bp between early complementary transcripts and was strongly PKR dependent. Excess early dsRNA produced by MVA activated PKR early but transiently in murine cells and induced enhanced systemic levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, and other cytokines and chemokines in mice in a largely PKR-dependent manner. Replication-competent chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) generating excess early dsRNA also enhanced IFN-I production and was apathogenic in mice even at very high doses but showed no in vitro host range defect. Thus, genetically adjuvanting MVA and CVA to generate excess early dsRNA is an effective method to enhance innate immune stimulation by orthopoxvirus vectors and to attenuate replicating vaccinia virus in vivo. Efficient cellular sensing of pathogen-specific components, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is an important prerequisite of an effective antiviral immune response. The prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) and its derivative modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) produce dsRNA as a by-product of viral

  5. Management of major bleedings during anticoagulant treatment with the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran or warfarin.

    PubMed

    Fernlöf, Gunilla; Sjöström, Britta M; Lindell, Klas M; Wall, Ulrika E

    2009-12-01

    Several new oral anticoagulants are currently investigated in phase III programmes, mainly with inhibition of factor Xa or thrombin as their pharmacological target. Advantages are expected with these new drugs compared with vitamin K antagonists, but one potential drawback is the lack of specific antidotes. During the clinical studies with ximelagatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor withdrawn due to hepatic side effects, investigators were instructed to manage bleedings with routine measures. We have retrospectively tried to assess whether this was sufficient or whether there was a need for reversal strategies. The study population consisted of patients with major bleedings in three long-term studies (104 ximelagatran, 155 warfarin). All individual patient narratives were reviewed with respect to management of the bleeding. Complementary data were retrieved from the data-based case report forms. Approximately, two of three of the patients in both groups were subject to some kind of treatment. One-third (1/3) in both groups had transfusions documented and/or received specific medication. Vitamin K was given more often to warfarin patients. Two ximelagatran patients received prothrombin complex (four-factor concentrate), but one was a patient with a severe hepatopathy suspected to be drug-induced. Overall, the case descriptions did not reveal any apparent differences in the course of events between groups. We found no indications that the lack of an antidote posed a clinical problem in patients treated with ximelagatran as compared with warfarin. The relatively short half-life of melagatran, the active metabolite of ximelagatran, may have contributed to these results.

  6. Thrombin-like enzymes from snake venom: Structural characterization and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Anwar; Masood, Rehana; Ali, Ijaz; Ullah, Kifayat; Ali, Hamid; Akbar, Haji; Betzel, Christian

    2018-07-15

    Snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLEs) constitute the major portion (10-24%) of snake venom and these are the second most abundant enzymes present in the crude venom. During envenomation, these enzymes had shown prominently the various pathological effects, such as disturbance in hemostatic system, fibrinogenolysis, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation, thrombosis, neurologic disorders, activation of coagulation factors, coagulant, procoagulant etc. These enzymes also been used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of various diseases such as congestive heart failure, ischemic stroke, thrombotic disorders etc. Although the crystal structures of five SVTLEs are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), there is no single article present in the literature that has described all of them. The current work describes the structural aspects, structure-based mechanism of action, processing and inhibition of these enzymes. The sequence analysis indicates that these enzymes show a high sequence identity (57-85%) with each other and low sequence identity with trypsin (36-43%), human alpha-thrombin (29-36%) and other snake venom serine proteinases (57-85%). Three-dimensional structural analysis indicates that the loops surrounding the active site are variable both in amino acids composition and length that may convey variable substrate specificity to these enzymes. The surface charge distributions also vary in these enzymes. Docking analysis with suramin shows that this inhibitor preferably binds to the C-terminal region of these enzymes and causes the destabilization of their three-dimensional structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months), tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva), environmental (fluoride exposure) and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions). 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and progression of early

  8. An electrochemical aptasensor based on TiO2/MWCNT and a novel synthesized Schiff base nanocomposite for the ultrasensitive detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Amini, Maryam; Ardakani, Mehdi Hatefi

    2016-11-15

    A sensitive aptasensor based on a robust nanocomposite of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), chitosan and a novel synthesized Schiff base (SB) (TiO2/MWCNT/CHIT/SB) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for thrombin detection. The resultant nanocomposite can provide a large surface area, excellent electrocatalytic activity, and high stability, which would improve immobilization sites for biological molecules, allow remarkable amplification of the electrochemical signal and contribute to improved sensitivity. Thrombin aptamers were simply immobilized onto the TiO2-MWCNT/CHIT-SB nanocomposite matrix through simple π - π stacking and electrostatic interactions between CHIT/SB and aptamer strands. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to analyze the surface characterization of unmodified GCE and TiO2-MWCNT/CHIT-SB modified GCE, and also the interaction between aptamer and thrombin. In the presence of thrombin, the aptamer on the adsorbent layer captures the target on the electrode interface, which makes a barrier for electrons and inhibits electron transfer, thereby resulting in decreased DPV and increased impedance signals of the TiO2-MWCNT/CHIT-SB modified GCE. Furthermore, the proposed aptasensor has a very low LOD of 1.0fmolL(-1) thrombin within the detection range of 0.00005-10nmolL(-1). The aptasensor also presents high specificity and reproducibility for thrombin, which is unaffected by the coexistence of other proteins. Clinical application was performed with analysis of the thrombin levels in blood and CSF samples obtained from patients with MS, Parkinson, Epilepsy and Polyneuropathy using both the aptasensor and commercial ELISA kit. The results revealed the proposed system to be a promising candidate for clinical analysis of thrombin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular design and structure--activity relationships leading to the potent, selective, and orally active thrombin active site inhibitor BMS-189664.

    PubMed

    Das, Jagabandhu; Kimball, S David; Hall, Steven E; Han, Wen Ching; Iwanowicz, Edwin; Lin, James; Moquin, Robert V; Reid, Joyce A; Sack, John S; Malley, Mary F; Chang, Chiehying Y; Chong, Saeho; Wang-Iverson, David B; Roberts, Daniel G M; Seiler, Steven M; Schumacher, William A; Ogletree, Martin L

    2002-01-07

    A series of structurally novel small molecule inhibitors of human alpha-thrombin was prepared to elucidate their structure-activity relationships (SARs), selectivity and activity in vivo. BMS-189664 (3) is identified as a potent, selective, and orally active reversible inhibitor of human alpha-thrombin which is efficacious in vivo in a mouse lethality model, and at inhibiting both arterial and venous thrombosis in cynomolgus monkey models.

  10. Thrombin/Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Dependent SK-N-SH Cell Migration is Mediated Through a PLC/PKC/MAPKs/NF-κB Cascade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Chung; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chien, Peter Tzu-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-11-01

    Thrombin has been known to activate inflammatory genes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The elevated expression of MMP-9 has been observed in patients with neuroinflammatory diseases and may contribute to the pathology of brain diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression in SK-N-SH cells remain unknown. The effects of thrombin on MMP-9 expression were examined in SK-N-SH cells by gelatin zymography, Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity assay, and cell migration assay. The detailed mechanisms were analyzed by using pharmacological inhibitors and small intefering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Here, we demonstrated that thrombin induced the expression of proform MMP-9 and migration of SK-N-SH cells, which were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of thrombin (PPACK), Gq (GPA2A), PC-PLC (D609), PI-PLC (ET-18-OCH 3 ), nonselective protien kinase C (PKC, GF109203X), PKCα/βII (Gö6983), PKCδ (Rottlerin), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), or NF-κB (Bay11-7082 or Helenalin) and transfection with siRNA of Gq, PKCα, PKCβ, PKCδ, p38, JNK1/2, IKKα, IKKβ, or p65. Moreover, thrombin-stimulated PKCα/βII, PKCδ, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, or p65 phosphorylation was abrogated by their respective inhibitor of PPACK, GPA2A, D609, ET-18-OCH 3 , Gö6983, Rottlerin, SB202190, SP600125, Bay11-7082, or Helenalin. Pretreatment with these inhibitors or transfection with MMP-9 siRNA also blocked thrombin-induced SK-N-SH cell migration. Our results show that thrombin stimulates a Gq/PLC/PKCs/p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 cascade, which in turn triggers NF-κB activation and ultimately induces MMP-9 expression and cell migration in SK-N-SH cells.

  11. Dual-colored graphene quantum dots-labeled nanoprobes/graphene oxide: functional carbon materials for respective and simultaneous detection of DNA and thrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zhao Sheng; Shan, Xiao Yue; Chai, Lu Jing; Chen, Jian Rong; Feng, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Convenient and simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers such as DNA and proteins with biocompatible materials and good analytical performance still remains a challenge. Herein, we report the respective and simultaneous detection of DNA and bovine α-thrombin (thrombin) entirely based on biocompatible carbon materials through a specially designed fluorescence on-off-on process. Colorful fluorescence, high emission efficiency, good photostability and excellent compatibility enables graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as the best choice for fluorophores in bioprobes, and thus two-colored GQDs as labeling fluorophores were chemically bonded with specific oligonucleotide sequence and aptamer to prepare two probes targeting the DNA and thrombin, respectively. Each probe can be assembled on the graphene oxide (GO) platform spontaneously by π-π stacking and electrostatic attraction; as a result, fast electron transfer in the assembly efficiently quenches the fluorescence of probe. The presence of DNA or thrombin can trigger the self-recognition between capturing a nucleotide sequence and its target DNA or between thrombin and its aptamer due to their specific hybridization and duplex DNA structures or the formation of apatamer-substrate complex, which is taken advantage of in order to achieve a separate quantitative analysis of DNA and thrombin. A dual-functional biosensor for simultaneous detection of DNA and thrombin was also constructed by self-assembly of two probes with distinct colors and GO platform, and was further evaluated with the presence of various concentrations of DNA and thrombin. Both biosensors serving as a general detection model for multiple species exhibit outstanding analytical performance, and are expected to be applied in vivo because of the excellent biocompatibility of their used materials.

  12. Revenue Generation in the Wake of Welfare Reform: Summary of the Pilot Learning Cluster on Early Childhood Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finance Project, Washington, DC.

    Creating more comprehensive, community-based support systems and reforming early childhood financing systems are critical to advancing the goal of having all children enter school ready to learn. The Finance Project is a national initiative to improve effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of financing for education, children's services, and…

  13. Flow cytometry analysis reveals different activation profiles of thrombin- or TRAP-stimulated platelets in db/db mice. The regulatory role of PAR-3.

    PubMed

    Kassassir, Hassan; Siewiera, Karolina; Talar, Marcin; Przygodzki, Tomasz; Watala, Cezary

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that it may be the concentration of thrombin, which is discriminative in determining of the mechanism of platelet activation via protease activated receptors (PARs). Whether the observed phenomenon of differentiated responses of mouse platelets to various thrombin concentrations in non-diabetic db/+ and diabetic db/db mice depends upon the concerted action of various PARs, remains to be established. We found elevated reactivity of platelets, as well as the enhanced PAR-3 expression in response to both the used concentrations of AYPGKF in db/db mice, as compared to db/+ heterozygotes. At low concentration of thrombin platelets from diabetic mice demonstrated hyperreactivity, reflected by higher expression of PAR-3. For higher thrombin concentration, blood platelets from db/db mice appeared hyporeactive, compared to db/+ animals, while no significant differences in PAR-3 expression were observed between diabetic and non-diabetic mice. The novel and previously unreported finding resulting from our study is that the increased expression of PAR-3 in response to either TRAP for PAR-4 or low thrombin (when PAR-4 is not the efficient thrombin receptor) may be one of the key events contributing to higher reactivity of platelets in db/db mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low interleukin-2 concentration favors generation of early memory T cells over effector phenotypes during chimeric antigen receptor T-cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Tanja; Luostarinen, Annu; Maliniemi, Pilvi; Keto, Joni; Arvas, Mikko; Belt, Heini; Koponen, Jonna; Loskog, Angelica; Mustjoki, Satu; Porkka, Kimmo; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Korhonen, Matti

    2017-06-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy offers new options for cancer treatment. Clinical results suggest that T-cell persistence, depending on T-cell memory, improves efficacy. The use of interleukin (IL)-2 for in vitro T-cell expansion is not straightforward because it drives effector T-cell differentiation but does not promote the formation of T-cell memory. We have developed a cost-effective expansion protocol for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with an early memory phenotype. Lymphocytes were transduced with third-generation lentiviral vectors and expanded using CD3/CD28 microbeads. The effects of altering the IL-2 supplementation (0-300 IU/mL) and length of expansion (10-20 days) on the phenotype of the T-cell products were analyzed. High IL-2 levels led to a decrease in overall generation of early memory T cells by both decreasing central memory T cells and augmenting effectors. T memory stem cells (T SCM , CD95 + CD45RO - CD45RA + CD27 + ) were present variably during T-cell expansion. However, their presence was not IL-2 dependent but was linked to expansion kinetics. CD19-CAR T cells generated in these conditions displayed in vitro antileukemic activity. In summary, production of CAR T cells without any cytokine supplementation yielded the highest proportion of early memory T cells, provided a 10-fold cell expansion and the cells were functionally potent. The number of early memory T cells in a T-cell preparation can be increased by simply reducing the amount of IL-2 and limiting the length of T-cell expansion, providing cells with potentially higher in vivo performance. These findings are significant for robust and cost-effective T-cell manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection based on direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase using a functionalized graphene hybrid for amplification.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lijuan; Yan, Bin; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Yuan, Yali; Xie, Shunbi; Jiang, Liping; He, Ying

    2013-11-07

    In this work, we reported a new label-free electrochemical aptasensor for highly sensitive detection of thrombin using direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOD) as a redox probe and a gold nanoparticle-polyaniline-graphene (Au-PANI-Gra) hybrid for amplification. The Au-PANI-Gra hybrid with large surface area provided a biocompatible sensing platform for the immobilization of GOD. GOD was encapsulated into the three-dimensional netlike (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS) to form the MPTS-GOD biocomposite, which not only retained the native functions and properties, but also exhibited tunable porosity, high thermal stability, and chemical inertness. With abundant thiol tail groups on MPTS, MPTS-GOD was able to chemisorb onto the surface of the Au-PANI-Gra modified electrode through the strong affinity of the Au-S bond. The electrochemical signal originated from GOD, avoiding the addition or labeling of other redox mediators. After immobilizing the thiolated thrombin binding aptamer through gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), GOD as a blocking reagent was employed to block the remaining active sites of the AuNPs and avoid the nonspecific adsorption. The proposed method avoided the labeling process of redox probes and increased the amount of electroactive GOD. The concentration of thrombin was monitored based on the decrease of current response through cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.1 M PBS (pH 7.4). With the excellent direct electron transfer of double layer GOD membranes, the resulting aptasensor exhibited high sensitivity for detection of thrombin with a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10(-12) to 3.0 × 10(-8) M. The proposed aptasensor also showed good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and high specificity, which provided a promising strategy for electrochemical aptamer-based detection of other biomolecules.

  16. A polymeric sealant inhibits anastomotic suture hole bleeding more rapidly than gelfoam/thrombin: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Marc; Gheissari, Ali; Money, Samuel; Martin, John; Ballard, Jeffrey L

    2002-03-01

    An experimental polymeric sealant (CoSeal [Cohesion Technologies, Palo Alto, Calif]) provides equivalent anastomotic sealing to Gelfoam (Upjohn, Kalamazoo, Mich)/thrombin during surgical placement of prosthetic vascular grafts. Randomized controlled trial. Nine university-affiliated medical centers. One hundred forty-eight patients scheduled for implantation of polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, mainly for infrainguinal revascularization procedures or the creation of dialysis access shunts, who were treated randomly with either an experimental intervention (n = 74) or control (n = 74). Following polytetrafluoroethylene graft placement, anastomotic suture hole bleeding was treated intraoperatively in all control subjects with Gelfoam/thrombin. Subjects in the experimental group had the polymeric sealant applied directly to the suture lines without concomitant manual compression. Primary treatment success was defined as the proportion of subjects in each group that achieved complete anastomotic sealing within 10 minutes. The proportion of subjects that achieved immediate sealing and the time required to fully inhibit suture hole bleeding also were compared between treatment groups. Overall 10-minute sealing success was equivalent (86% vs 80%; P =.29) between experimental and control subjects, respectively. However, subjects treated with CoSeal achieved immediate anastomotic sealing at more than twice the rate of subjects treated with Gelfoam/thrombin (47% vs 20%; P<.001). Consequently, the median time needed to inhibit bleeding in control subjects was more than 10 times longer than for experimental subjects (16.5 seconds vs 189.0 seconds; P =.01). Strikingly similar findings for all comparisons were observed separately for subgroups of subjects having infrainguinal bypass grafting and for those undergoing placement of dialysis access shunts. The experimental sealant offers equivalent anastomotic sealing performance compared with Gelfoam/thrombin, but it provides this

  17. Discovery of potent peptide-mimetic antagonists for the human thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1).

    PubMed

    Maryanoff, Bruce E; Zhang, Han-Cheng; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Derian, Claudia K

    2003-03-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) represent a unique family of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, which are enzymatically cleaved to expose a new extracellular N-terminus that acts as a tethered activating ligand. PAR-1 is cleaved and activated by the serine protease alpha-thrombin, is expressed in various tissues (e.g. platelets and vascular cells), and is involved in cellular responses associated with hemostasis, proliferation, and tissue injury. By using a de novo design approach, we have discovered a series of potent heterocycle-based peptide-miimetic antagonists of PAR-1, exemplified by advanced leads RWJ-56110 (22) and RWJ-58259 (32). These compounds are potent, selective PAR-1 antagonists, devoid of PAR-1 agonist and thrombin inhibitory activity: they bind to PAR-1, interfere with calcium mobilization and cellular functions associated with PAR-1, and do not affect PAR-2, PAR-3, or PAR-4. RWJ-56110 was determined to be a direct inhibitor of PAR-1 activation and internalization, without affecting PAR-1 N-terminal cleavage. At high concentrations of alpha-thrombin, RWJ-56110 fully blocked activation responses in human vascular cells, but not in human platelets; whereas, at high concentrations of TRAP-6, RWJ-56110 blocked activation responses in both cell types. This result is consistent with the presence of another thrombin receptor on human platelets, namely PAR-4. RWJ-56110 and RWJ-58259 clearly interrupt the binding of a tethered ligand to its receptor. RWJ-58259 demonstrated antirestenotic activity in a rat balloon angioplasty model and antithrombotic activity in a cynomolgus monkey arterial injury model. Such PAR-1 antagonists should not only serve as useful tools to delineate the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PAR-1, but also may have therapeutic potential for treating thrombosis and restenosis in humans.

  18. Noncanonical RNA Nucleosides as Molecular Fossils of an Early Earth-Generation by Prebiotic Methylations and Carbamoylations.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christina; Becker, Sidney; Okamura, Hidenori; Crisp, Antony; Amatov, Tynchtyk; Stadlmeier, Michael; Carell, Thomas

    2018-05-14

    The RNA-world hypothesis assumes that life on Earth started with small RNA molecules that catalyzed their own formation. Vital to this hypothesis is the need for prebiotic routes towards RNA. Contemporary RNA, however, is not only constructed from the four canonical nucleobases (A, C, G, and U), it also contains many chemically modified (noncanonical) bases. A still open question is whether these noncanonical bases were formed in parallel to the canonical bases (chemical origin) or later, when life demanded higher functional diversity (biological origin). Here we show that isocyanates in combination with sodium nitrite establish methylating and carbamoylating reactivity compatible with early Earth conditions. These reactions lead to the formation of methylated and amino acid modified nucleosides that are still extant. Our data provide a plausible scenario for the chemical origin of certain noncanonical bases, which suggests that they are fossils of an early Earth. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Parental anthropometrics, early growth and the risk of overweight in pre-school children: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Durmuş, B; Arends, L R; Ay, L; Hokken-Koelega, A C; Raat, H; Hofman, A; Steegers, E A P; Jaddoe, V W V

    2013-10-01

    There are limited data regarding the associations of both maternal and paternal anthropometrics with longitudinally measured post-natal growth measures in early childhood. To assess the associations of maternal and paternal anthropometrics with growth characteristics and the risk of overweight in pre-school children. Population-based prospective cohort study from early foetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Maternal pre-pregnancy anthropometrics and gestational weight gain, and paternal anthropometrics were related to foetal and post-natal growth measures and the risk of overweight until the age of 4 years. Analyses were based on 5674 mothers, fathers and their children. Both pre-pregnancy maternal and paternal height, weight and body mass index were associated with corresponding foetal and post-natal anthropometric measures. Maternal body mass index had a significantly stronger effect on childhood body mass index than paternal body mass index. As compared to children from parents with normal body mass index, children from two obese parents had an increased risk of overweight at the age of 4 years (odds ratio 6.52 (95% confidence interval 3.44, 12.38). Maternal gestational weight gain was only among mothers with normal body mass index associated with body mass index and the risk of overweight in the children. Maternal and paternal anthropometrics affect early growth in pre-school children differently. Gestational weight gain in mothers without overweight and obesity is related to the risk of overweight in early childhood. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. A sensitive sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection based on platinum nanoparticles decorated carbon nanocages as signal labels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fenglei; Du, Lili; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Fuyi; Tang, Daoquan

    2016-12-15

    In this work, a novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor has been developed for thrombin detection based on platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) decorated carbon nanocages (CNCs) as signal tags. The morphological and compositional of the Pt NPs/CNCs were examined using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the Pt NPs with about 3-5nm in diameter were well dispersed on the surface of CNCs. The thiolated aptamer was firstly immobilized on the gold electrode to capture the thrombin molecules, and then aptamer functionalized Pt NPs/CNCs nanocomposites were used to fabricate a sandwich sensing platform. Then, the high-content Pt NPs on carbon nanocages acting as hydrogen peroxide-mimicking enzyme catalyzed the reduction of H2O2, resulting in significant electrochemical signal amplification. Differential pulse voltammetry is employed to detect thrombin with different concentrations. Under optimized conditions, the approach provided a good linear response range from 0.05 pM to 20nM with a low detection limit of 10fM. This Pt NPs/CNCs-based aptasensor shows good precision, acceptable stability and reproducibility, which provided a promising strategy for electrochemical aptamer-based detection of other biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel isoguanine derivative of unlocked nucleic acid-Investigations of thermodynamics and biological potential of modified thrombin binding aptamer.

    PubMed

    Kotkowiak, Weronika; Czapik, Tomasz; Pasternak, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA), is a short DNA 15-mer that forms G-quadruplex structure and possesses anticoagulant properties. Some chemical modifications, including unlocked nucleic acids (UNA), 2'-deoxy-isoguanosine and 2'-deoxy-4-thiouridine were previously found to enhance the biological activity of TBA. In this paper, we present thermodynamic and biological characteristics of TBA variants that have been modified with novel isoguanine derivative of UNA as well as isoguanosine. Additionally, UNA-4-thiouracil and 4-thiouridine were also introduced simultaneously with isoguanine derivatives. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that the presence of isoguanosine in UNA or RNA series significantly decreases the stability of G-quadruplex structure. The highest destabilization is observed for substitution at one of the G-tetrad position. Addition of 4-thiouridine in UNA or RNA series usually decreases the unfavorable energetic cost of the presence of UNA or RNA isoguanine. Circular dichroism and thermal denaturation spectra in connection with thrombin time assay indicate that the introduction of UNA-isoguanine or isoguanosine into TBA negatively affects G-quadruplex folding and TBA anticoagulant properties. These findings demonstrate that the highly-ordered structure of TBA is essential for inhibition of thrombin activity.

  2. New Insights in Thrombin Inhibition Structure-Activity Relationships by Characterization of Octadecasaccharides from Low Molecular Weight Heparin.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Pierre A J; Guichard, Olivier Y; Herman, Fréderic; Sizun, Philippe; Viskov, Christian

    2017-03-08

    Low Molecular Weight Heparins (LMWH) are complex anticoagulant drugs that mainly inhibit the blood coagulation cascade through indirect interaction with antithrombin. While inhibition of the factor Xa is well described, little is known about the polysaccharide structure inhibiting thrombin. In fact, a minimal chain length of 18 saccharides units, including an antithrombin (AT) binding pentasaccharide, is mandatory to form the active ternary complex for LMWH obtained by alkaline β-elimination (e.g., enoxaparin). However, the relationship between structure of octadecasaccharides and their thrombin inhibition has not been yet assessed on natural compounds due to technical hurdles to isolate sufficiently pure material. We report the preparation of five octadecasaccharides by using orthogonal separation methods including size exclusion, AT affinity, ion pairing and strong anion exchange chromatography. Each of these octadecasaccharides possesses two AT binding pentasaccharide sequences located at various positions. After structural elucidation using enzymatic sequencing and NMR, in vitro aFXa and aFIIa were determined. The biological activities reveal the critical role of each pentasaccharide sequence position within the octadecasaccharides and structural requirements to inhibit thrombin. Significant differences in potency, such as the twenty-fold magnitude difference observed between two regioisomers, further highlights the importance of depolymerisation process conditions on LMWH biological activity.

  3. More than a simple lipophilic contact: a detailed thermodynamic analysis of nonbasic residues in the s1 pocket of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Baum, Bernhard; Mohamed, Menshawy; Zayed, Mohamed; Gerlach, Christof; Heine, Andreas; Hangauer, David; Klebe, Gerhard

    2009-07-03

    The field of medicinal chemistry aims to design and optimize small molecule leads into drug candidates that may positively interfere with pathological disease situations in humans or combat the growth of infective pathogens. From the plethora of crystal structures of protein-inhibitor complexes we have learned how molecules recognize each other geometrically, but we still have rather superficial understanding of why they bind to each other. This contribution surveys a series of 26 thrombin inhibitors with small systematic structural differences to elucidate the rationale for their widely deviating binding affinity from 185 microM to 4 nM as recorded by enzyme kinetic measurements. Five well-resolved (resolution 2.30 - 1.47 A) crystal structures of thrombin-inhibitor complexes and an apo-structure of the uncomplexed enzyme (1.50 A) are correlated with thermodynamic data recorded by isothermal titration calorimetry with 12 selected inhibitors from the series. Taking solubility data into account, the variation in physicochemical properties allows conclusions to be reached about the relative importance of the enthalpic binding features as well as to estimate the importance of the parameters more difficult to capture, such as residual ligand entropy and desolvation properties. The collected data reveal a comprehensive picture of the thermodynamic signature that explains the so far poorly understood attractive force experienced by m-chloro-benzylamides to thrombin.

  4. Scientific Reasoning in Early and Middle Childhood: The Development of Domain-General Evidence Evaluation, Experimentation, and Hypothesis Generation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation,…

  5. Gelatin-thrombin hemostatic matrix in neurosurgical procedures: hemostasis effectiveness and economic value of clinical and surgical procedure-related benefits.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo; Angileri, Filippo F; Cavallo, Luigi M; Priola, Stefano M; Crimi, Salvatore; Solari, Domenico; Germanò, Antonino F; Tomasello, Francesco

    2016-07-26

    Gelatin-thrombin hemostatic matrix (FloSeal®) use is associated with shorter surgical times and less blood loss, parameters that are highly valued in neurosurgical procedures. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of gelatin-thrombin in neurosurgical procedures and estimate its economic value. In a 6-month retrospective evaluation at 2 hospitals, intraoperative and postoperative information were collected from patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures where bleeding was controlled with gelatin-thrombin matrix or according to local bleeding control guidelines (control group). Study endpoints were: length of surgery, estimated blood loss, hospitalization duration, blood units utilized, intensive care unit days, postoperative complications, and time-to-recovery. Statistical methods compared endpoints between the gelatin-thrombin and control groups and resource utilization costs were estimated. Seventy-eight patients (38 gelatin-thrombin; 40 control) were included. Gelatin-thrombin was associated with a shorter surgery duration than control 166±40 versus 185±55, p=0.0839); a