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Sample records for early times post

  1. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch and Early Coverage of Times Beach: Watchdog or Muted Trumpet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Pierre, Yvette

    Times Beach, Missouri, a small town close to the Meramec River and about 25 miles from St. Louis, is now deserted due to contamination from dioxin, a contaminant generated during the production of some cleansers, herbicides, and pesticides. From November 30, 1982, until the end of January 1983, the "St. Louis Post-Dispatch" ran 55…

  2. Studies on time of death estimation in the early post mortem period -- application of a method based on eyeball temperature measurement to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Michał

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1°C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4°C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24°C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was ±31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of ±1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MHC-driven HIV-1 control on the long run is not systematically determined at early times post-HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Guillemette; Guergnon, Julien; Meaudre, Céline; Samri, Assia; Boufassa, Faroudy; Goujard, Cécile; Lambotte, Olivier; Autran, Brigitte; Rouzioux, Christine; Costagliola, Dominique; Meyer, Laurence; Theodorou, Ioannis

    2013-07-17

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-driven long-term protection against HIV-1 is mainly associated with HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*57. This effect is observed early after infection. Clarification needs to be established concerning the moment of action for the other HLA-B or HLA-C alleles. HLA-B and HLA-C alleles from 111 individuals that control HIV-1 disease for over 8 years and from 747 seroconverters frequencies were compared. Also, HLA-B and HLA-C influence on early levels of plasma HIV-RNA, cellular HIV-DNA, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 ratio was evaluated among the seroconverters. We performed univariate, multivariate and haplotypic analyses in order to disentangle the respective contribution of the HLA-B and HLA-C genes. The haplotypes analysis shows three patterns of protective effects of HLA-B and HLA-C alleles or haplotypes. First, the HLA B*57, HLA-B*27, HLA-B*13 and HLA-C*14 alleles, which have a strong effect on long-term disease control, also influence at least one of the early infection phenotypes. Second, HLA-B*52 has a strong effect during early time points on HIV-RNA without significant effect on the long-term control of HIV-1. Finally, the HLA-B*14-C*08 haplotype has a strong effect on the long-term protection, without influencing early viral control. Our study highlighted independent effects of HLA-B and HLA-C alleles on HIV-disease progression. Furthermore, some alleles appeared to be specifically associated with either long-term control or early virological parameters, suggesting different immunological mechanisms according to the disease stages.

  4. Keratocyte Apoptosis and Not Myofibroblast Differentiation Mark the Graft/Host Interface at Early Time-Points Post-DSAEK in a Cat Model

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Adam J.; Huxlin, Krystel R.; Callan, Christine L.; DeMagistris, Margaret A.; Hindman, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate myofibroblast differentiation as an etiology of haze at the graft-host interface in a cat model of Descemet’s Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK). Methods DSAEK was performed on 10 eyes of 5 adult domestic short-hair cats. In vivo corneal imaging with slit lamp, confocal, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed twice weekly. Cats were sacrificed and corneas harvested 4 hours, and 2, 4, 6, and 9 days post-DSAEK. Corneal sections were stained with the TUNEL method and immunohistochemistry was performed for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin with DAPI counterstain. Results At all in vivo imaging time-points, corneal OCT revealed an increase in backscatter of light and confocal imaging revealed an acellular zone at the graft-host interface. At all post-mortem time-points, immunohistochemistry revealed a complete absence of α-SMA staining at the graft-host interface. At 4 hours, extracellular fibronectin staining was identified along the graft-host interface and both fibronectin and TUNEL assay were positive within adjacent cells extending into the host stroma. By day 2, fibronectin and TUNEL staining diminished and a distinct acellular zone was present in the region of previously TUNEL-positive cells. Conclusions OCT imaging consistently showed increased reflectivity at the graft-host interface in cat corneas in the days post-DSAEK. This was not associated with myofibroblast differentiation at the graft-host interface, but rather with apoptosis and the development of a subsequent acellular zone. The roles of extracellular matrix changes and keratocyte cell death and repopulation should be investigated further as potential contributors to the interface optical changes. PMID:24098706

  5. Conservation importance of early post-disturbance temperate forests

    Treesearch

    Charles Kwit; David I. King; Beverly Collins; Mark E. Swanson

    2014-01-01

    The early post-disturbance stage of temperate forest succession (also referred to as 'early-seral' or 'early-successional' forest) has been the subject of interest and debate. Often thought of as an ephemeral (and often disorganized) state of eventual closed-canopy systems, its direct and immediate role in conservation traditionally has been ignored...

  6. Comparative effects of in ovo versus subcutaneous administration of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time on the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Barbosa, T M; Cummings, T S; Dickson, J; Womack, S K

    2016-09-01

    Effects of method of administration [moa; in ovo (i.o.) or s.c.] of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time (pht) on early post-hatch male broiler chick quality was investigated. Sixty-five Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were randomly set in each of 15 replicate trays (blocks) belonging to each of 4 pre-assigned moa and pht treatment combinations (3,900 total eggs) in a single stage Jamesway incubator. Eggs that were i.o.-vaccinated received injections at 18 d of incubation and male chicks from eggs that were not i.o.-injected were vaccinated by s.c. injection at hatch. The i.o. injections (50 μL) were delivered by a commercial multi-egg injector and the s.c. injections (200 μL) were delivered by an automatic pneumatic s.c. injector. Male chicks from each moa group also were subjected to either a 4 or 18 h pht. At hatch and placement total and yolk-free BW; body length; body mass index; yolk sac weight; yolk-free body and yolk sac weights as percentages of total BW; and yolk-free body and yolk moisture concentrations were determined. Chick BW also was determined at 7 d of age. Hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected by i.o. injection. However, at hatch, body length was increased and body mass index was decreased in response to i.o. injection. No main effect of moa or an interactive effect with pht was observed for the above variables at placement. However, body length was longer and body mass was lower in the 18 h than in the 4 h pht chicks. Placement yolk sac and body weights, and the 7 d BW of 18 h pht chicks was also lower than that of 4 h pht chicks. In conclusion, prolonging pht for 14 h adversely affected early chick quality, whereas i.o. injection did not negatively affect the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks whether or not they were held for 4 or 18 h prior to placement. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Elongator promotes germination and early post-germination growth.

    PubMed

    Woloszynska, Magdalena; Gagliardi, Olimpia; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2018-01-02

    The Elongator complex interacts with RNA polymerase II and via histone acetylation and DNA demethylation facilitates epigenetically the transcription of genes involved in diverse processes in plants, including growth, development, and immune response. Recently, we have shown that the Elongator complex promotes hypocotyl elongation and photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating the photomorphogenesis and growth-related gene network that converges on genes implicated in cell wall biogenesis and hormone signaling. Here, we report that germination in the elo mutant was delayed by 6 h in the dark when compared to the wild type in a time lapse and germination assay. A number of germination-correlated genes were down-regulated in the elo transcriptome, suggesting a transcriptional regulation by Elongator. We also show that the hypocotyl elongation defect observed in the elo mutants in darkness originates very early in the post-germination development and is independent from the germination delay.

  8. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    the study for the presence or absence of ectopic bone formation at the indicated time points post injury (Table 1.). 8 Table 1. Incidence of HO at...7, 10, 14, and 21 days post injury 42 Palovarotene Suppresses Early Chondrogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation In this set of studies we...using MicroCT imaging to quantitate total new bone and ectopic bone (non-associated with cortical margins) volume. In a second study arm, serum was

  9. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    the study for the presence or absence of ectopic bone formation at the indicated time points post injury (Table 1.). 8 Table 1. Incidence of HO...1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0119 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

  10. Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... left the Congress and starting working as a healthcare consultant, when I finally decided to have a ...

  11. A measure of early physical functioning (EPF) post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Finch, Lois E; Higgins, Johanne; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Mayo, Nancy E

    2008-07-01

    To develop a comprehensive measure of Early Physical Functioning (EPF) post-stroke quantified through Rasch analysis and conceptualized using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). An observational cohort study. A cohort of 262 subjects (mean age 71.6 (standard deviation 12.5) years) hospitalized post-acute stroke. Functional assessments were made within 3 days of stroke with items from valid and reliable indices commonly utilized to evaluate stroke survivors. Information on important variables was also collected. Principal component and Rasch analysis confirmed the factor structure, and dimensionality of the measure. Rasch analysis combined items across ICF components to develop the measure. Items were deleted iteratively, those retained fit the model and were related to the construct; reliability and validity were assessed. A 38-item unidimensional measure of the EPF met all Rasch model requirements. The item difficulty matched the person ability (mean person measure: -0.31; standard error 0.37 logits), reliability of the person-item-hierarchy was excellent at 0.97. Initial validity was adequate. The 38-item EPF measure was developed. It expands the range of assessment post acute stroke; it covers a broad spectrum of difficulty with good initial psychometric properties that, once revalidated, can assist in planning and evaluating early interventions.

  12. Assessment of early post-operative pain following septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Szychta, P; Antoszewski, B

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate pain incidence and intensity in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty, and to assess analgesic treatment effectiveness, in the first 7 days after surgery. Prospective outcomes analysis using visual analogue scale assessment of pain intensity in the first 7 post-operative days. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, 29 women and 28 men, aged 18 to 51 years. All were treated for post-traumatic deformity of the external nose and/or nasal septum, with either septorhinoplasty or septoplasty. In the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, patients' mean visual analogue scale pain score exceeded the range denoting 'analgesic success', and showed considerable exacerbation in the evening. Patients' pain decreased to a mean score of 15.4 one hour after administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (metamizole). Analgesia is recommended for all patients in the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, especially in the early evening.

  13. Utility of Early Post-operative High Resolution Volumetric MR Imaging after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunal S.; Kazam, Jacob; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists over the utility of early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for macroadenomas. We investigate whether valuable information can be derived from current higher resolution scans. Methods Volumetric MRI scans were obtained in the early (<10 days) and late (>30 days) post-operative periods in a series of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The volume of the residual tumor, resection cavity, and corresponding visual field tests were recorded at each time point. Statistical analyses of changes in tumor volume and cavity size were calculated using the late MRI as the gold standard. Results 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pre-operative tumor volume averaged 8.8 cm3. Early postoperative assessment of average residual tumor volume (1.18 cm3) was quite accurate and did not differ statistically from late post-operative volume (1.23 cm3, p=.64), indicating the utility of early scans to measure residual tumor. Early scans were 100% sensitive and 91% specific for predicting ≥ 98% resection (p<.001, Fisher’s exact test). The average percent decrease in cavity volume from pre-operative MRI (tumor volume) to early post-operative imaging was 45% with decreases in all but 3 patients. There was no correlation between the size of the early cavity and the visual outcome. Conclusions Early high resolution volumetric MRI is valuable in determining the presence or absence of residual tumor. Cavity volume almost always decreases after surgery and a lack of decrease should alert the surgeon to possible persistent compression of the optic apparatus that may warrant re-operation. PMID:25045791

  14. Post retention: the effect of sequence of post-space preparation, cementation time, and different sealers.

    PubMed

    Boone, K J; Murchison, D F; Schindler, W G; Walker, W A

    2001-12-01

    Many endodontic sealers contain constituents that have been shown to inhibit the polymerization of resin cements. This may be important when prefabricated posts are cemented at the same appointment as root canal obturation. This study evaluated the effects of cementing posts with a resin cement immediately or at a delayed time period after obturation using Roth's 801 Elite Grade or AH26 sealer cements. The contribution of mechanical post-space preparation was also assessed as a critical variable. One hundred twenty extracted canines were randomly divided into eight experimental groups. The variables evaluated were the order of post preparation (either before or after obturation), the type of sealer used, and the time of post cementation. All teeth received a stainless steel #6 Parapost XP cemented with a resin cement, Panavia 21. Each experimental group underwent tensile testing for retention using an Instron universal testing machine. For both sealers posts cemented in teeth in which the canal was obturated before post-space preparation and thus had sealer-contaminated dentin removed by the space preparation procedure had significantly higher retentive values than those obturated after post-space preparation in which contaminated dentin might remain. Sealer used and time of cementation had no specific effect on retention. Achieving a clean, "freshened" dentinal surface during mechanical post-space preparation seems to be a critical variable for post retention when a resin cement is used.

  15. Early diagnosis of post-varicella necrotising fasciitis: A medical and surgical emergency

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Rose; Abraham, Bobby; Cherian, Vinod Jacob; Joseph, Jobin I.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is an extremely rare complication of a rather common paediatric viral exanthem varicella. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Laboratory risk indicator of NF score aids in early clinical diagnosis in suspected cases of post-varicella NF thus enabling timely intervention. Surgery delayed for more than 24 hours, is an independent risk factor for death. Surgical debridement with good antibiotic coverage is the definitive treatment for NF. PMID:27251524

  16. In first-time mothers, post-partum depressive symptom prospectively predict symptoms of post-traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Golan; Herishanu-Gilutz, Shirley; Holcberg, Gershon; Kofman, Ora

    2015-11-01

    Symptoms of both depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are prevalent among first-time mothers following birth. However, the direction of the association between the two types of symptoms is unclear. Ninety six first-time mothers giving birth via vaginal delivery (N=38), emergency C-Section (N=27) and planned C-Section (N=21) were assessed for depression and PTSD twice: Six weeks post-partum and six-weeks later. Cross-lagged Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses revealed a prospective effect of depressive symptoms on PTSD symptoms. No moderating factors were identified. A relatively modest sample size and only two assessment waves. An early detection and intervention with symptoms of post-partum depression might also prevent the development of PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictivity of Early Depressive Symptoms for Post-Stroke Depression.

    PubMed

    Lewin-Richter, A; Volz, M; Jöbges, M; Werheid, K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a frequent complication after stroke. However, little is known about the predictive value of early self-reported depressive symptoms (DS) for later development of post-stroke depression (PSD) 6 months after discharge. Using a prospective longitudinal design, we investigated the prevalence of DS and examined their predictive value for depressive disorders 6 months after stroke while statistically controlling major established PSD risk factors. During inpatient rehabilitation, 96 stroke patients were screened for DS. After 6 months, 71 patients were attainable for a follow-up. DS was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). At follow-up a telephone interview that included the Structured Clinical Interview for Psychiatric Disorders (SCID), which is based on DSM-IV criteria, and the GDS-15 was conducted. Patients with major depression (MD) at the follow-up were considered to have PSD. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of early DS on PSD after 6 months while controlling for age, premorbid depression, and functional and cognitive impairments. The percentage of patients who scored above the GDS-15 cut-off for clinically relevant DS increased significantly, from 37% to 44%, after 6 months. According to the SCID, 27% of stroke patients fulfilled the criteria for MD, and another 16% fulfilled those for minor depression. Logistic regression showed that DS at baseline significantly predicted PSD at follow-up (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.15-1.8). Self-reported DS during inpatient rehabilitation are predictive for PSD 6 months after discharge. Assessment of early DS contributes to identifying stroke patients at risk for PSD, thereby facilitating prevention and treatment.

  18. Heads from "Post" and "Times" on Three-Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Michael; Dan, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Reports that during the week of the 1979 crisis at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the "New York Post" gave less factual information than "The New York Times" in both its main headlines and subheadlines; also notes that the information the "Post" did give was more sensationalized. (GT)

  19. Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: changes in diversity, density, cover, and biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2001-01-01

    For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

  20. Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: Changes in diversity, density, cover and biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2001-01-01

    For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

  1. Early stage response problem for post-disaster incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Shin, Youngchul; Lee, Gyu M.; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2018-07-01

    Research on evacuation plans for reducing damages and casualties has been conducted to advise defenders against threats. However, despite the attention given to the research in the past, emergency response management, designed to neutralize hazards, has been undermined since planners frequently fail to apprehend the complexities and contexts of the emergency situation. Therefore, this study considers a response problem with unique characteristics for the duration of the emergency. An early stage response problem is identified to find the optimal routing and scheduling plan for responders to prevent further hazards. Due to the complexity of the proposed mathematical model, two algorithms are developed. Data from a high-rise building, called Central City in Seoul, Korea, are used to evaluate the algorithms. Results show that the proposed algorithms can procure near-optimal solutions within a reasonable time.

  2. Early intervention for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A

    2007-02-01

    The potentially debilitating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created much interest in early intervention strategies that can reduce PTSD. This review critiques the evidence for psychological debriefing approaches and alternate early intervention strategies. The review critiques the randomized controlled trials of psychological debriefing, and early provision of cognitive behavior therapy. The latter approach involves therapy attention on acutely traumatized individuals who are high risk for PTSD development, and particularly in people with acute stress disorder (ASD). Psychological debriefing does not prevent PTSD. Cognitive behaviour therapy strategies have proven efficacy in reducing subsequent PTSD in ASD populations. Despite the promising evidence for early provision of CBT, many people do not benefit from CBT. This review concludes with consideration of major challenges facing early intervention approaches in the context of terrorist attacks and mass disasters.

  3. Under-flap stromal bed CXL for early post-LASIK ectasia: a novel treatment technique.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Avi; Adiguzel, Eser; Gauvin, Mathieu; Mohammad-Shahi, Nima; Cohen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Collagen cross-linking (CXL) for post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia (PLE) is traditionally performed either epi-on or epi-off on the corneal surface. This study describes a novel technique in treating early PLE with under-flap CXL (ufCXL) to the stromal bed and reports on 6-month outcomes. Case series of seven patients (eight eyes) with topography-diagnosed early PLE treated with ufCXL. Inclusion criteria were early, mild PLE defined as new-onset postoperative manifest refraction cylinder ≤1.50 D, with new topographic inferior steepening consistent with ectasia, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 20/40 or better, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/25 or better. Existing LASIK flap was lifted, riboflavin was applied directly to the stromal bed, flap was repositioned, and 18 mW/cm 2 ultraviolet light was applied for 3 minutes to the corneal surface. Post-ufCXL manifest refraction, UDVA and CDVA, corneal cylinder, K max , and corneal irregularity index were compared with pre-ufCXL measurements. Patients had a pre-ufCXL sphere of 0.09±0.48 D and cylinder of -0.78±0.49 D. At 6 months, post-ufCXL sphere (0.06±0.8 D; P =0.89) and cylinder (-1.09±0.76 D, P =0.26) were unchanged. Cumulative post-ufCXL UDVA was unchanged, achieving 20/20, 20/30, and 20/40 in 25%, 88%, and 88%, respectively, compared with 13%, 63%, and 88% pre-ufCXL ( P =0.68). Post-ufCXL CDVA was unchanged ( P =0.93) with a gain of one line in two eyes, a loss of one line in one eye, and five eyes unchanged. The efficacy index ( P =0.76), safety index ( P =0.89), K max ( P =0.94), and corneal irregularity index ( P =0.73) were also unchanged. Preliminary results with ufCXL for early PLE are promising, demonstrating maintenance of visual accuracy, efficacy, safety, K max , and cylinder, with much quicker recovery times than surface CXL.

  4. Under-flap stromal bed CXL for early post-LASIK ectasia: a novel treatment technique

    PubMed Central

    Wallerstein, Avi; Adiguzel, Eser; Gauvin, Mathieu; Mohammad-Shahi, Nima; Cohen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Collagen cross-linking (CXL) for post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia (PLE) is traditionally performed either epi-on or epi-off on the corneal surface. This study describes a novel technique in treating early PLE with under-flap CXL (ufCXL) to the stromal bed and reports on 6-month outcomes. Patients and methods Case series of seven patients (eight eyes) with topography-diagnosed early PLE treated with ufCXL. Inclusion criteria were early, mild PLE defined as new-onset postoperative manifest refraction cylinder ≤1.50 D, with new topographic inferior steepening consistent with ectasia, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 20/40 or better, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/25 or better. Existing LASIK flap was lifted, riboflavin was applied directly to the stromal bed, flap was repositioned, and 18 mW/cm2 ultraviolet light was applied for 3 minutes to the corneal surface. Post-ufCXL manifest refraction, UDVA and CDVA, corneal cylinder, Kmax, and corneal irregularity index were compared with pre-ufCXL measurements. Results Patients had a pre-ufCXL sphere of 0.09±0.48 D and cylinder of −0.78±0.49 D. At 6 months, post-ufCXL sphere (0.06±0.8 D; P=0.89) and cylinder (−1.09±0.76 D, P=0.26) were unchanged. Cumulative post-ufCXL UDVA was unchanged, achieving 20/20, 20/30, and 20/40 in 25%, 88%, and 88%, respectively, compared with 13%, 63%, and 88% pre-ufCXL (P=0.68). Post-ufCXL CDVA was unchanged (P=0.93) with a gain of one line in two eyes, a loss of one line in one eye, and five eyes unchanged. The efficacy index (P=0.76), safety index (P=0.89), Kmax (P=0.94), and corneal irregularity index (P=0.73) were also unchanged. Conclusion Preliminary results with ufCXL for early PLE are promising, demonstrating maintenance of visual accuracy, efficacy, safety, Kmax, and cylinder, with much quicker recovery times than surface CXL. PMID:28031696

  5. Early endoscopic realignment of post-traumatic posterior urethral disruption.

    PubMed

    Moudouni, S M; Patard, J J; Manunta, A; Guiraud, P; Lobel, B; Guillé, F

    2001-04-01

    The management of complete or partial urethral disruption is controversial, and much debate continues regarding immediate versus delayed definitive therapy. We further analyze our experience and long-term results using early endoscopic realignment. Between April 1987 and January 1999, 29 men with posterior urethral disruption (23 complete and 6 partial) underwent primary urethral realignment 0 to 8 days after injury. Pelvic fractures were present in 23 patients. In all patients, the actual operating time for realignment was 75 minutes or less. All patients were evaluated postoperatively for incontinence, impotence, and strictures. After a mean follow-up of 68 months (range 18 to 155), all patients were continent. Four patients (13.7%) required conversion to an open perineal urethroplasty. At the last follow-up visit, 25 (86%) of the 29 patients were potent and 4 achieved adequate erections for intercourse using intracorporeal injections (prostaglandin E(1)). Twelve patients (41%) developed short secondary strictures and were successfully treated with internal urethrotomy. The mean follow-up of these 12 patients was 83 months (range 34 to 120). Urinary flow rate measurement at the last follow-up visit revealed satisfactory voiding parameters in all patients. Primary endoscopic realignment offers an effective method for treating traumatic urethral injuries. Our long-term follow-up provides additional support for the use of this technique by demonstrating that urethral continuity can be established without an increased incidence of impotence, stricture formation, or incontinence. In case of failure, endoscopic realignment does not compromise the result of secondary urethroplasty.

  6. The significance of early post-exercise ST segment normalization.

    PubMed

    Chow, Rudy; Fordyce, Christopher B; Gao, Min; Chan, Sammy; Gin, Kenneth; Bennett, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of ST segment depression in recovery signifies a strongly positive exercise treadmill test (ETT). However, it is unclear if early recovery of ST segments portends a similar prognosis. We sought to determine if persistence of ST depression into recovery correlates with ischemic burden based on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). This was a retrospective analysis of 853 consecutive patients referred for exercise MPI at a tertiary academic center over a 24-month period. Patients were stratified into three groups based on the results of the ETT: normal (negative ETT), persistence (positive ETT with >1mm ST segment depression at 1minute in recovery) and early normalization (positive ETT with <1mm ST segment depression at 1minute in recovery). Summed stress scores (SSSs) were calculated then for each patient, while the coronary anatomy was reported for the subset of patients who received coronary angiograms. A total of 513 patients had a negative ETT, 235 patients met criteria for early normalization, while 105 patients met criteria for persistence. The persistence group had a significantly greater SSS (8.48±7.77) than both the early normalization (4.34±4.98, p<0.001) and normal (4.47±5.31, p<0.001) groups. The SSSs of the early normalization and normal groups were not statistically different and met the prespecified non-inferiority margin (mean difference 0.12, -0.66=lower 95% CI, p<0.001). Among the 87 patients who underwent an angiogram, significant three-vessel or left main disease was seen in 39.3% of the persistence group compared with 5.9% of normal and 7.4% of early normalization groups. Among patients with an electrically positive ETT, recovery of ST segment depression within 1minute was associated with a lower SSS than patients with persistence of ST depression beyond 1minute. Furthermore, early ST segment recovery conferred a similar SSS to patients with a negative ETT. These results suggest that among patients evaluated for chest pain with

  7. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0118 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...December 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION...COVERED 30Sep2012 - 29Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic

  8. Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a ‘time bomb’ that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221

  9. Essential Elements of Early Post Discharge Care of Patients with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Soucier, Richard J; Miller, P Elliott; Ingrassia, Joseph J; Riello, Ralph; Desai, Nihar R; Ahmad, Tariq

    2018-06-01

    Heart failure is associated with an enormous burden on both patients and health care systems in the USA. Several national policy initiatives have focused on improving the quality of heart failure care, including reducing readmissions following hospitalization, which are common, costly, and, at least in part, preventable. The transition from inpatient to ambulatory care setting and the immediate post-hospitalization period present an opportunity to further optimize guideline concordant medical therapy, identify reversible issues related to worsening heart failure, and evaluate prognosis. It can also provide opportunities for medication reconciliation and optimization, consideration of device-based therapies, appropriate management of comorbidities, identification of individual barriers to care, and a discussion of goals of care based on prognosis. Recent studies suggest that attention to detail regarding patient comorbidities, barriers to care, optimization of both diuretic and neurohormonal therapies, and assessment of prognosis improve patient outcomes. Despite the fact that the transition period appears to be an optimal time to address these issues in a comprehensive manner, most patients are not referred to programs specializing in this approach post hospital discharge. The objective of this review is to provide an outline for early post discharge care that allows clinicians and other health care providers to care for these heart failure patients in a manner that is both firmly rooted in the guidelines and patient-centered. Data regarding which intervention is most likely to confer benefit to which subset of patients with this disease is lacking and warrants further study.

  10. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2013-10-12

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register;The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of their wounds

  11. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2015-07-23

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (30th June 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of

  12. Impact of pretransplant rifaximin therapy on early post-liver transplant infections.

    PubMed

    Esfeh, Jamak Modaresi; Hanouneh, Ibrahim A; Koval, Christine E; Kovacs, Christopher; Dalal, Deepan S; Ansari-Gilani, Kianoush; Confer, Bradley D; Eghtesad, Bijan; Zein, Nizar N; Menon, K V Narayanan

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). The role of intestinal decontamination in the prevention of post-LT infections is controversial. Rifaximin is widely used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. The effect of rifaximin on post-LT infections is unknown. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of rifaximin therapy in the pretransplant period on early bacterial infections (EBIs) and fungal infections within the first 30 days after LT. All adult patients who underwent LT at our institution (January 2009 to July 2011) were included in this retrospective cohort study. Patients receiving antibiotics other than pretransplant protocol antibiotics were excluded. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of rifaximin therapy for at least 2 days before LT. Infections were defined by the isolation of any bacterial or fungal organisms within 30 days of LT. Multivariate regression analysis, Student t tests, and Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare the 2 groups. Two hundred sixty-eight patients were included, and 71 of these patients (26.5%) were on rifaximin at the time of LT. The 2 groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, race, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. There were no significant differences in the rates of EBIs (30% for the non-rifaximin group and 25% for the rifaximin group, P = 0.48) or fungal infections between the 2 groups. There was no increase in antimicrobial resistance among the infecting organisms. There was no difference in survival between the rifaximin and non-rifaximin groups (98% versus 97%, P = 0.36). In conclusion, the use of rifaximin in the pre-LT period was not associated with an increased risk of bacterial or fungal infections in the early post-LT period. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Early post-operative cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia: Report of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kun; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Xianfeng; Suo, Shihuan; Zhao, Jinchuan; Li, Guichen

    2018-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is a common neurosurgical condition, which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. At our institution, a substantial number of the reported cases of early post-operative CSF hypovolemia were identified to have unintentional or unrecognized post-operative continuous excessive CSF leakage. Cases who presented with post-operative CSF hypovolemia several days after uneventful intracranial surgeries without continuous CSF leakage were rarely reported. A retrospective review of the medical records of these patients was performed to identify those patients who developed early post-operative CSF hypovolemia without the presence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. A total of 7 patients, 5 of which were males, were identified in this retrospective study. They experienced CSF hypovolemia between days 1 and 7 after emergency or scheduled intracranial surgeries. Ventricular collapse, cisternal effacement and midline shift are the most common radiological observations. With early diagnosis and management, 4 of the patients achieved a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5, 1 achieved a GOS score of 4 and the remaining 2 had a GOS score of 3. No mortality was noted in this series. Although rare in incidence, early post-operative CSF hypovolemia may occur without the existence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. When the diagnosis of CSF hypovolemia is reached, factors that may exacerbate CSF compensation should be promptly terminated. Trendelenburg position and sufficient intravenous hydration are practical and effective managements, and CSF hypovolemia may thereby be reversed in a substantial number of patients.

  14. Early Post-Operative Outcomes and Blood Product Utilization in Adult Cardiac Surgery- The Post Aprotinin Era

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia; Toole, J. Matthew; Kratz, John M.; Uber, Walter E.; Wheat, Margaret J.; Stroud, Martha R.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Aprotinin was a commonly utilized pharmacological agent for homeostasis in cardiac surgery but was discontinued resulting in the extensive use of lysine analogues. This study tested the hypothesis that early post-operative adverse events and blood product utilization would affected in this post-aprotinin era. Methods/Results Adult patients (n=781) undergoing coronary artery bypass (CABG), valve replacement, or both from November 1, 2005-October 31, 2008 at a single institution were included. Multiple logistic regression modeling and propensity scoring were performed on 29 pre-operative and intra-operative variables in patients receiving aprotinin (n=325) or lysine analogues (n=456). The propensity adjusted relative risk (RR;95% confidence interval;CI) for the intra-operative use of packed red blood cells (RR:0.75;CI:0.57–0.99), fresh frozen plasma (RR:0.37;0.21–0.64), and cryoprecipitate (RR:0.06;CI:0.02–0.22) were lower in the aprotinin versus lysine analogue group (all p<0.05). The risk for mortality (RR:0.53;CI:0.16–1.79) and neurological events (RR:0.87;CI:0.35–2.18) remained similar between groups, whereas a trend for reduced risk for renal dysfunction was observed in the aprotinin group. Conclusions In the post-aprotinin era with the exclusive use of lysine analogues, the relative risk of early post-operative outcomes such as mortality and renal dysfunction have not improved, but the risk for the intra-operative use of blood products has increased. Thus, improvements in early post-operative outcomes have not been realized with the discontinued use of aprotinin, but rather increased blood product utilization has occurred with the attendant costs and risks inherent with this strategy. PMID:21911820

  15. A post-processing algorithm for time domain pitch trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specker, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a powerful post-processing algorithm for time-domain pitch trackers. On two successive passes, the post-processing algorithm eliminates errors produced during a first pass by a time-domain pitch tracker. During the second pass, incorrect pitch values are detected as outliers by computing the distribution of values over a sliding 80 msec window. During the third pass (based on artificial intelligence techniques), remaining pitch pulses are used as anchor points to reconstruct the pitch train from the original waveform. The algorithm produced a decrease in the error rate from 21% obtained with the original time domain pitch tracker to 2% for isolated words and sentences produced in an office environment by 3 male and 3 female talkers. In a noisy computer room errors decreased from 52% to 2.9% for the same stimuli produced by 2 male talkers. The algorithm is efficient, accurate, and resistant to noise. The fundamental frequency micro-structure is tracked sufficiently well to be used in extracting phonetic features in a feature-based recognition system.

  16. [Early versus delayed physiotherapy in the treatment of post-prostatectomy male urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Tarcía Kahihara, Carina; Ferreira, Ubirajora; Nardi Pedro, Renato; Matheus, Wagner Eduardo; Rodrigues Netto, Nelson

    2006-10-01

    To analyze the importance of the starting time for pelvic floor physiotherapy in patients with post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Between May 2003 and February 2004 18 patients with the diagnosis of post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence underwent physiotherapy of the pelvic floor. Each patient received 12 sessions using kinesotherapy and electric stimulation on a weekly basis. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included eight patients that started therapy within the first six months after surgery; Group 2 included 10 patients starting therapy after the sixth post operative month. All patients were evaluated by the pad test and number of incontinence pads per day. Evaluating pad tests before and after treatment, six patients in group 1 had a reduction of the amount of urine leak in comparison to seven patients in group 2. The statistical analysis showed significant differences before and after treatment for both groups (group 1: p = 0.028; group 2: p = 0.018). The evaluation of the number of pads showed: Group 1: all eight patients using pods had a reduction in the number of pads. Group 2: 5 of the eight patients using pads had a reduction and the other three continued using the same number. Statistical analysis comparing the number of pads per day before and after treatment showed a significant difference in group 1 (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of pads per day before and after physiotherapy in group 2, although half of the patients showed a diminishment in the number of pads required after treatment. Results demonstrate that early indication of physiotherapy for the treatment of post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence is better than delayed treatment. New works may be developed in the future to confirm our results.

  17. Early post-splenectomy sepsis after missile injury in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Ellias, Y. A.; Elias, M. A.; Gorey, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Early septic complications were studied in 292 patients operated on for penetrating missile injury of the abdomen with involvement of either the spleen or the liver, at Basrah Teaching Hospital between January 1983 and April 1986. Depending on associated injuries, patients with splenectomy were divided into three groups, the first with isolated splenic injury, the second with splenic and associated extra-intestinal organ injury, and the third with splenic and intestinal injuries with or without extra-intestinal organ injury. Patients with hepatic injury were classified similarly. Splenectomy was carried out for any degree of splenic injury. Grade I hepatic injuries were managed by débridement and suturing while major grades II-IV underwent segmentectomy or lobectomy. Patients were considered septic if they had any three of four clinical criteria: temperature higher than 39 degrees C; significant haemodynamic deterioration; respiratory alkalosis, or oliguria. Of the total, 79 were excluded due to: early transfer 51, incomplete records 8, perioperative death 11, and having combined splenic and hepatic injuries 9 (excluded by definition), leaving 104 (74.8%) patients with splenectomy and 109 (71.1%) with hepatic injury available for study. Sepsis developed in 48 (46.1%) of patients after splenectomy and in 28 (25.7%) with hepatic injury. This difference was significant (P greater than 0.005). In patients with isolated splenic injury, eight (25.8%) were septic while three (13.6%) of those with isolated hepatic injury developed sepsis. This was not significant (P = 0.32, Fisher's exact test). When either was associated with an injury to an extra-intestinal organ, 15 (50%) of the splenectomy group developed sepsis compared to five (23.8%) of the hepatic injury group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2042899

  18. Very Early Colorectal Anastomotic Leakage within 5 Post-operative Days: a More Severe Subtype Needs Relaparatomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Wei; Lian, Peng; Huang, Ben; Zheng, Hong-Tu; Wang, Ming-He; Gu, Wei-Lie; Li, Xin-Xiang; Xu, Ye; Cai, San-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Early anastomotic leakage (AL), usually defined as leakage within 30 post-operative days, represents a severe entity. However, mounting evidence has indicated that majorities of leakage occur within one week after surgery, making late AL rarity. Here we analyzed 101 consecutive colorectal AL, all of which occurred within 30 post-operative days, during Jan 2013 and Dec 2015 in cancer hospital of Fudan University. AL occurring within 5 post-operative days was defined as very early AL (vE-AL). We evaluated risk factors of vE-AL compared with non-vEAL and correlated with post-leakage peritonitis and need of relaparatomy. We found that AL occurred at median time of 7 days after surgery. 23 cases were vE-AL. Reconstruction of post-peritoneum for mid-low rectal carcinoma significantly reduced incidence of vE-AL compared with non-vE-AL (p = 0.042). Patients with vE-AL was associated with presence of peritonitis (p = 0.031), the latter significantly correlated with increased re-operation rate (p = 6.8E-13). Besides, patients with vE-AL trended to correlate with increased re-operation rate after leakage (p = 0.088). In concludsion, vE-AL occurring within 5 post-operative days represents a severe subtype associated with general peritonitis and need of relaparatomy. PMID:28084305

  19. Interpretable Early Classification of Multivariate Time Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghalwash, Mohamed F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have led to an explosion in data collection over time rather than in a single snapshot. For example, microarray technology allows us to measure gene expression levels in different conditions over time. Such temporal data grants the opportunity for data miners to develop algorithms to address domain-related problems,…

  20. Sexual functioning among early post-treatment breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Avis, Nancy E; Johnson, Aimee; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Levine, Beverly J

    2018-02-17

    This study aims (1) to estimate percentages of partnered women who are sexually active over the first 2 years post-breast cancer diagnosis; (2) to identify factors related to sexual inactivity; and (3) to evaluate separately, among both sexually active and inactive survivors, the relation between sexual problems and treatment-related variables, symptoms, and psychosocial factors. Longitudinal observational study of breast cancer survivors recruited within 8 months of cancer diagnosis and followed for 18 months. The main outcome measures were (1) being sexually active/inactive in the past month and (2) sexual problems assessed with the four-item sexual problem domain of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale. At baseline, 52.4% of women reported being sexually active in the past month. This percentage increased to 60.7% 18 months later. In multivariable repeated-measures analyses, age, past chemotherapy, depressive symptoms, and lower perceived attractiveness were related to inactivity. Sexually inactive women reported more problems on the QLACS than sexually active women. In stratified multivariable analyses, depressive symptoms were related to greater sexual problems for both sexually active and inactive women, as was vaginal dryness. Among the sexually active women, younger age at diagnosis, less illness intrusiveness, and lower perceived attractiveness were related to more problems. Research has shown that sexual functioning/sexual health are key aspects of quality of life for many cancer survivors, and are often not addressed by health care providers. Future studies should examine how such topics are handled by clinicians in their interactions with survivors.

  1. Post-conditioning preserves glycolytic ATP during early reperfusion: a survival mechanism for the reperfused heart.

    PubMed

    Correa, Francisco; García, Noemí; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan; Carreno-Fuentes, Liliana; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Zazueta, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Glycolytic activity during the transition period from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism has been demonstrated to be critical for heart recovery in isolated reperfused hearts. The purpose of this work was to investigate the relevance of the glycolytic pathway in preserving the cardiac function of post-conditioned hearts. The activation of the glycolytic pathway in post-conditioned hearts was evaluated by measuring GLUT-4 insertion, glucose consumption and lactate production. Iodoacetic acid and 2-deoxy-D-glucose were administrated to the working hearts to evaluate the effect of glycolytic inhibition in the post-conditioning protective effect. Post-conditioning maneuvers applied to isolated rat hearts, after prolonged ischemia and before reperfusion, promoted recovery of cardiac mechanical function with sustained increase of GLUT-4 translocation and activation of the glycolytic pathway during ischemia and early reperfusion. Iodoacetate inhibited the protective effect of post-conditioning, without affecting the mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Glycolysis contribution to maintain mechanical function at early reperfusion was observed in post-conditioned hearts perfused with 2-deoxy-D-glucose and in hearts in which iodoacetate was administered only during reperfusion. It is concluded that in the post-conditioned heart, a functional compartmentation of anaerobic energy metabolism, at early reperfusion, plays a significant role in cardiac protection against reperfusion damage. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Comparison Of Efficacy Of Phenytoin And Levetiracetam For Prevention Of Early Post Traumatic Seizures.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Bhatti, Sajid Nazir; Khan, Aftab Alam; Khan Afridi, Ehtisham Ahmed; Muhammad, Gul; Gul, Nasim; Zadran, Khalid Khan; Alam, Sudhair; Aurangzeb, Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of early post-traumatic seizures after civilian traumatic brain injury ranges 4-25%. The control of early post-traumatic seizure is mandatory because these acute insults may add secondary damage to the already damaged brain with poor outcome. Prophylactic use of anti-epileptic drugs have been found to be have variable efficacy against early post-traumatic seizures. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of Phenytion and Levetiracetam in prevention of early post-traumatic seizures in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from March, 2012 to March 2013. The patients with moderate to severe head injury were randomly allocated in two groups. Patients in group A were given phenytoin and patients in group B were given Levetiracetam. Patients were followed for one week to detect efficacy of drug in terms of early post traumatic seizures. The 154 patients included in the study were equally divided into two groups. Out of 154 patients 115 (74.7%) were male while 29 (25.3%) were females. Age of patients ranges from 7-48 (24.15±9.56) years. Ninety one (59.1%) patients had moderate head injury while 63 (40.9%) patients had severe head injury. Phenytoin was effective in preventing early post traumatic seizures in 73 (94.8%) patients whereas Levetiracetam effectively controlled seizures in 70 (90.95%) cases (p-value of .348). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of Phenytoin and Levetiracetam in prophylaxis of early posttraumatic seizures in cases of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

  3. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Peter W; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn't differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic.

  4. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Peter W.; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H.; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn’t differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic. PMID:29338022

  5. How Do Early Career Agriculture Teachers Talk about Their Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Misty D.; Henry, Anna L.; Tummons, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study of early career agriculture teachers sought to determine the meaning early career agriculture teachers ascribe to their time. Seven teachers with a range of experience from mid-first year to beginning of sixth year were chosen. Interviews were used to make meaning of their time. Five themes were found in the…

  6. Diatom diet selectivity by early post-larval abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta under hatchery conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuyu; Gao, Yahui; Liang, Junrong; Chen, Changping; Zhao, Donghai; Li, Xuesong; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenzhong

    2010-11-01

    Benthic diatoms constitute the primary diet of abalone during their early stages of development. To evaluate the dietary preferences of early post-larval abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, we analyzed the gut contents of post-larvae that settled on diatom films. We compared the abundance and species diversity of diatom assemblages in the gut to those of the epiphytic diatom assemblages on the attachment films, and identified 40 benthic diatom species in the gut contents of post-larvae 12 to 24 d after settlement. The most abundant taxa in the gut contents were Navicula spp., Amphora copulate, and Amphora coffeaeformis. Navicula spp. accounted for 64.0% of the cell density. In the attachment films, we identified 110 diatom species belonging to 38 genera. Pennate diatoms were the dominant members including the species Amphiprora alata, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Cylindrotheca closterium, Navicula sp. 2, and A. coffeaeformis. Nano-diatoms (<20 μm in length) accounted for a considerable proportion of the total species number and cell density of the diatom assemblages in the gut contents and on the films. This suggests that nano-diatoms are important to the efficient production of abalone seed. The difference of the composition and abundance of diatoms between in the guts and on the biofilms suggests that early post-larval grazing was selective. An early post-larval abalone preferred nano-diatoms and the genera Navicula and Amphora during the month after settlement.

  7. Slowing extrusion tectonics: Lowered estimate of post-Early Miocene slip rate for the Altyn Tagh fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yue, Y.; Ritts, B.D.; Graham, S.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.; Zhang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Determination of long-term slip rate for the Altyn Tagh fault is essential for testing whether Asian tectonics is dominated by lateral extrusion or distributed crustal shortening. Previous slip-history studies focused on either Quaternary slip-rate measurements or pre-Early Miocene total-offset estimates and do not allow a clear distinction between rates based on the two. The magmatic and metamorphic history revealed by SHRIMP zircon dating of clasts from Miocene conglomerate in the Xorkol basin north of the Altyn Tagh fault strikingly matches that of basement in the southern Qilian Shan and northern Qaidam regions south of the fault. This match requires that the post-Early Miocene long-term slip rate along the Altyn Tagh fault cannot exceed 10 mm/year, supporting the hypothesis of distributed crustal thickening for post-Early Miocene times. This low long-term slip rate and recently documented large pre-Early Miocene cumulative offset across the fault support a two-stage evolution, wherein Asian tectonics was dominated by lateral extrusion before the end of Early Miocene, and since then has been dominated by distributed crustal thickening and rapid plateau uplift. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Do mature forest birds prefer early-successional habitat during the post-fledging period?

    Treesearch

    Carlin C. Chandler; David I. King; Richard B. Chandler

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the post-fledging period to bird populations, suggesting that the importance of this portion of the life cycle is equal to or greater than the nesting period. Nevertheless, few studies have compared abundance of forest nesting species between mature forest and early-successional habitats while controlling for...

  9. Collaborative Leadership Practices among Ohio's Early College High School Principals and Their Post-Secondary Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Allia L.

    2012-01-01

    This constructivist multiple-case study examined the collaborative leadership practices of seven secondary and seven post-secondary leaders who participate in Ohio's Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI). The 14 educational leaders in this study partnered in an effort to respond to the access and success of traditionally underrepresented…

  10. High-frequency spectral ultrasound imaging (SUSI) visualizes early post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (HO) in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Kavitha; Hong, Xiaowei; Cholok, David; Habbouche, Joe; Priest, Caitlin; Breuler, Christopher; Chung, Michael; Li, John; Kaura, Arminder; Hsieh, Hsiao Hsin Sung; Butts, Jonathan; Ucer, Serra; Schwartz, Ean; Buchman, Steven R; Stegemann, Jan P; Deng, Cheri X; Levi, Benjamin

    2018-04-01

    Early treatment of heterotopic ossification (HO) is currently limited by delayed diagnosis due to limited visualization at early time points. In this study, we validate the use of spectral ultrasound imaging (SUSI) in an animal model to detect HO as early as one week after burn tenotomy. Concurrent SUSI, micro CT, and histology at 1, 2, 4, and 9weeks post-injury were used to follow the progression of HO after an Achilles tenotomy and 30% total body surface area burn (n=3-5 limbs per time point). To compare the use of SUSI in different types of injury models, mice (n=5 per group) underwent either burn/tenotomy or skin incision injury and were imaged using a 55MHz probe on VisualSonics VEVO 770 system at one week post injury to evaluate the ability of SUSI to distinguish between edema and HO. Average acoustic concentration (AAC) and average scatterer diameter (ASD) were calculated for each ultrasound image frame. Micro CT was used to calculate the total volume of HO. Histology was used to confirm bone formation. Using SUSI, HO was visualized as early as 1week after injury. HO was visualized earliest by 4weeks after injury by micro CT. The average acoustic concentration of HO was 33% more than that of the control limb (n=5). Spectroscopic foci of HO present at 1week that persisted throughout all time points correlated with the HO present at 9weeks on micro CT imaging. SUSI visualizes HO as early as one week after injury in an animal model. SUSI represents a new imaging modality with promise for early diagnosis of HO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Group Time in Early Childhood Centers: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Oralie

    To investigate the current status of group time in early childhood centers, a small-scale exploratory study was designed and executed. Results of interviews with 35 teachers and observations in five classrooms serving children ages 2 1/2 through kindergarten revealed that all classrooms had at least one group time or circle time, usually in the…

  12. Time-resolved influences of functional DAT1 and COMT variants on visual perception and post-processing.

    PubMed

    Bender, Stephan; Rellum, Thomas; Freitag, Christine; Resch, Franz; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in orienting and the regulation of selective attention to relevant stimulus characteristics. Thus, we examined the influences of functional variants related to dopamine inactivation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes (COMT) on the time-course of visual processing in a contingent negative variation (CNV) task. 64-channel EEG recordings were obtained from 195 healthy adolescents of a community-based sample during a continuous performance task (A-X version). Early and late CNV as well as preceding visual evoked potential components were assessed. Significant additive main effects of DAT1 and COMT on the occipito-temporal early CNV were observed. In addition, there was a trend towards an interaction between the two polymorphisms. Source analysis showed early CNV generators in the ventral visual stream and in frontal regions. There was a strong negative correlation between occipito-temporal visual post-processing and the frontal early CNV component. The early CNV time interval 500-1000 ms after the visual cue was specifically affected while the preceding visual perception stages were not influenced. Late visual potentials allow the genomic imaging of dopamine inactivation effects on visual post-processing. The same specific time-interval has been found to be affected by DAT1 and COMT during motor post-processing but not motor preparation. We propose the hypothesis that similar dopaminergic mechanisms modulate working memory encoding in both the visual and motor and perhaps other systems.

  13. Relationship between time post-ovulation and progesterone on oocyte maturation and pregnancy in canine cloning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung Joo; Park, Kang Bae; Choi, Eun Ji; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2017-10-01

    Canine oocytes ovulated at prophase complete meiosis and continue to develop in presence of a high progesterone concentration in the oviduct. Considering that meiotic competence of canine oocyte is accomplished in the oviductal environment, we postulate that hormonal milieu resulting from the circulating progesterone concentration may affect oocyte maturation and early development of embryos. From 237 oocyte donors, 2620 oocytes were collected and their meiotic status and morphology were determined. To determine optimal characteristics of the mature oocytes subjected to nuclear transfer, a proportion of the meiotic status of the oocytes were classified in reference to time post-ovulation as well as progesterone (P4) level. A high proportion of matured oocytes were collected from >126h (55.5%) post-ovulation or 40-50ngmL -1 (46.4%) group compared to the other groups. Of the oocyte donors that provided mature oocytes in vivo, there was no correlation between serum progesterone of donors and time post ovulation, however, time post-ovulation were significantly shorter for <30ng/mL group (P<0.05). Using mature oocytes, 1161 cloned embryos were reconstructed and transferred into 77 surrogates. In order to determine the relationship between pregnancy performance and serum progesterone level, embryos were transferred into surrogates showing various P4 serum levels. The highest pregnancy (31.8%) and live birth cloning efficacy (2.2%) rates were observed when the embryos were transferred into surrogates with circulating P4 levels were from 40 to 50ngmL -1 . In conclusion, measurement of circulating progesterone of female dog could be a suitable an indicator of the optimal time to collect quality oocyte and to select surrogates for cloning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Time in Early Childhood: Creative Possibilities with Different Conceptions of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Time is an important driver of pedagogy which is often overlooked in the busy atmosphere of an early childhood centre. Engaging philosophically with three different concepts of time, and drawing examples from literature and art to focus attention on how time is constituted in early childhood centres, this article argues that we inhabit the…

  15. Early effect of fractional CO2 laser treatment in Post-menopausal women with vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Eder, Scott Evan

    2018-03-31

    Fractional CO 2 lasers have been shown to provide improvement of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). The aim of the current study was to assess the early effect of a fractional CO 2 laser system in treating postmenopausal women with clinical symptoms of VVA. 28 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age 60.1 ± 5.55 years) with VVA-related symptoms were treated with fractional CO 2 laser 3 times, in 4-week intervals. At each study visit, VHIS score and VVA symptom severity were recorded. Sexual function was assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). One month following the first laser treatment, the mean VHIS score was significantly improved (13.89 ± 4.25 vs. baseline 11.93 ± 3.82; p < 0.05), and improved further at 3 and 6 months following all three laser treatments (16.43 ± 4.20 and 17.46 ± 4.07, respectively). Almost all VVA symptoms were significantly improved at one month following the first treatment. A further significant improvement in VVA symptoms was noted at 3 and 6 months following the third laser treatment. Following treatments, the FSFI score increased significantly (22.36 ± 10.40 vs. baseline 13.78 ± 7.70; p < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than baseline at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. CO 2 laser therapy for post-menopausal women can be considered an effective therapeutic option providing relief of symptoms already noted after one laser treatment.

  16. How they see it: young women's views on early marriage in a post-conflict setting.

    PubMed

    Knox, Sonya Em

    2017-10-01

    Current understandings of early marriage in conflict and post-conflict settings are incomplete and under-researched, and do not sufficiently take into consideration the views and experiences of adolescent girls. While much of the literature, development reports and mainstream media emphasise the poverty, health risks and lack of agency of young women married early, they seldom provide these teenagers an open platform from which to speak. In 2007, a Palestinian refugee camp in North Lebanon was destroyed and its residents forced to flee. Returning families experienced extreme hardships and a military cordon. Through ethnographic research undertaken in the camp a year later with adolescent girls in or en route to an early marriage, their mothers and NGO community workers, I explored decision-making processes leading to an early marriage and adolescent brides' assessments of married life. The decision to enter an early marriage, neither unilateral nor imposed, was instead described as an assessment of numerous factors, including economic hardships, insecurity and loneliness, many arising as a result of the conflict. Findings of this study challenge common understandings of early marriage - both the decision and its consequences - and call for greater nuance in designing interventions. These findings are particularly pertinent amid sensationalised media reports of early marriage in Syrian refugee communities; presenting girls in early marriages as victims garners international attention, but is not necessarily an accurate reflection of these girls' own understandings of their situation.

  17. High uptake of exclusive breastfeeding and reduced early post-natal HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Louise; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Kasonde, Prisca; Scott, Nancy; Mwiya, Mwiya; Vwalika, Cheswa; Walter, Jan; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Thea, Donald M

    2007-12-26

    Empirical data showing the clear benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for HIV prevention are needed to encourage implementation of lactation support programs for HIV-infected women in low resource settings among whom replacement feeding is unsafe. We conducted a prospective, observational study in Lusaka, Zambia, to test the hypothesis that EBF is associated with a lower risk of postnatal HIV transmission than non-EBF. As part of a randomized trial of early weaning, 958 HIV-infected women and their infants were recruited and all were encouraged to breastfeed exclusively to 4 months. Single-dose nevirapine was provided to prevent transmission. Regular samples were collected from infants to 24 months of age and tested by PCR. Detailed measurements of actual feeding behaviors were collected to examine, in an observational analysis, associations between feeding practices and postnatal HIV transmission. Uptake of EBF was high with 84% of women reporting only EBF cumulatively to 4 months. Post-natal HIV transmission before 4 months was significantly lower (p = 0.004) among EBF (0.040 95% CI: 0.024-0.055) than non-EBF infants (0.102 95% CI: 0.047-0.157); time-dependent Relative Hazard (RH) of transmission due to non-EBF = 3.48 (95% CI: 1.71-7.08). There were no significant differences in the severity of disease between EBF and non-EBF mothers and the association remained significant (RH = 2.68 95% CI: 1.28-5.62) after adjusting for maternal CD4 count, plasma viral load, syphilis screening results and low birth weight. Non-EBF more than doubles the risk of early postnatal HIV transmission. Programs to support EBF should be expanded universally in low resource settings. EBF is an affordable, feasible, acceptable, safe and sustainable practice that also reduces HIV transmission providing HIV-infected women with a means to protect their children's lives. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00310726.

  18. Comparison of Quantitative Characteristics of Early Post-resuscitation EEG Between Asphyxial and Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bihua; Chen, Gang; Dai, Chenxi; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yongqin

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis has shown promising results in studying brain injury and functional recovery after cardiac arrest (CA). However, whether the quantitative characteristics of EEG, as potential indicators of neurological prognosis, are influenced by CA causes is unknown. The purpose of this study was designed to compare the quantitative characteristics of early post-resuscitation EEG between asphyxial CA (ACA) and ventricular fibrillation CA (VFCA) in rats. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were randomized into either ACA or VFCA group. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5-min untreated CA. Characteristics of early post-resuscitation EEG were compared, and the relationships between quantitative EEG features and neurological outcomes were investigated. Compared with VFCA, serum level of S100B, neurological deficit score and brain histopathologic damage score were dramatically higher in the ACA group. Quantitative measures of EEG, including onset time of EEG burst, time to normal trace, burst suppression ratio, and information quantity, were significantly lower for CA caused by asphyxia and correlated with the 96-h neurological outcome and survival. Characteristics of earlier post-resuscitation EEG differed between cardiac and respiratory causes. Quantitative measures of EEG not only predicted neurological outcome and survival, but also have the potential to stratify CA with different causes.

  19. Deficits in adult prefrontal cortex neurons and behavior following early post-natal NMDA antagonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Leon G; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Moy, Sheryl S; Crews, Fulton T

    2009-09-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with higher cognitive functions including attention and working memory and has been implicated in the regulation of impulsivity as well as the pathology of complex mental illnesses. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist treatment with dizocilpine induces cell death which is greatest in the frontal cortex on post-natal day seven (P7), however the long-term structural and behavioral effects of this treatment are unknown. This study investigates both the acute neurotoxicity of P7 dizocilpine and the persistent effects of this treatment on pyramidal cells and parvalbumin interneurons in the adult PFC, a brain region involved in the regulation of impulsivity. Dizocilpine treatment on P7 increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity (IR) in the PFC on P8. In adult mice (P82), P7 dizocilpine treatment resulted in 50% fewer parvalbumin-positive interneurons (p<0.01) and 42% fewer layer V pyramidal neurons (p<0.01) in the PFC. Double immunohistochemistry revealed cleaved caspase-3 IR in both GAD67 IR interneurons and GAD67 (-) neurons. Following dizocilpine treatment at P7, adults showed reduced time in the center of the open field suggesting increased anxiety-like behavior. These findings indicate that early brain insults affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission lead to persistent brain pathology that could contribute to impulsivity and cognitive dysfunction.

  20. NKCC1 up-regulation contributes to early post-traumatic seizures and increased post-traumatic seizure susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fushun; Wang, Xiaowei; Shapiro, Lee A; Cotrina, Maria L; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Ernest W; Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; He, Xiaosheng; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not only a leading cause for morbidity and mortality in young adults (Bruns and Hauser, Epilepsia 44(Suppl 10):210, 2003), but also a leading cause of seizures. Understanding the seizure-inducing mechanisms of TBI is of the utmost importance, because these seizures are often resistant to traditional first- and second-line anti-seizure treatments. The early post-traumatic seizures, in turn, are a contributing factor to ongoing neuropathology, and it is critically important to control these seizures. Many of the available anti-seizure drugs target gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA A ) receptors. The inhibitory activity of GABA A receptor activation depends on low intracellular Cl - , which is achieved by the opposing regulation of Na + -K + -Cl - cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and K + -Cl - -cotransporter 2 (KCC2). Up-regulation of NKCC1 in neurons has been shown to be involved in neonatal seizures and in ammonia toxicity-induced seizures. Here, we report that TBI-induced up-regulation of NKCC1 and increased intracellular Cl - concentration. Genetic deletion of NKCC1 or pharmacological inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide suppresses TBI-induced seizures. TGFβ expression was also increased after TBI and competitive antagonism of TGFβ reduced NKKC1 expression, ameliorated reactive astrocytosis, and inhibited seizures. Thus, TGFβ might be an important pathway involved in NKCC1 up-regulation after TBI. Our findings identify neuronal up-regulation of NKCC1 and its mediation by TGFβ, as a potential and important mechanism in the early post-traumatic seizures, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of blocking this pathway.

  1. Early prediction of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia by early parathyroid hormone measurement.

    PubMed

    Yetkin, Gurkan; Citgez, Bulent; Yazici, Pinar; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Sit, Erhan; Uludag, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is the most common complication of total thyroidectomy (TT). Postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia occurs 24 to 48 hours after the operation. It prolongs the length of hospital stay, even though transient in most cases. The aim of this study was to predetermine the patients who may develop postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia by using early postoperative serum intact parathormone (iPTH) and calcium (Ca2+) measurements, and to investigate the effects of early initiated oral calcium and vitamin D treatments on the development of transient hypocalcemia. Patients who underwent TT after initiation of the early iPTH measurement protocol in January 2013 were included into the study group (Group 1, n=202). The control group (Group 2) was composed of 72 patients who underwent TT before the protocol. Prior to the initiation of the protocol, Ca2+ was measured instead of iPTH. In the study group, the serum Ca2+ and iPTH levels were measured before surgery, and 1 and 24-hours after. A calcium level below 8 mg/dL was accepted as biochemical hypocalcaemia, and a iPTH level under 15pg/mL was accepted as hypoparathyroidism. In the study group, patients with below normal iPTH levels were treated with prophylactic oral calcium and vitamin D. In Group 1, 15.8% (n=32) of the patients had hypoparathyroidism on the 1h and 24 h iPTH measurements. There was no statistically difference with regard to PTH levels measured in the postoperative 1st hour and at the 24th hour (p= 0.078). Biochemical hypocalcaemia developed in 16 (7.9%) and 13 (18%) patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, 24 hours after thyroidectomy (p<0.05). Mean length of hospital stay was 2.17 and 3.26 days in the study and control groups (p<0.001). We believe that the measurement of iPTH levels one hour after thyroidectomy, when compared to levels at 24 hours after procedure, is a safe, reliable, and adequate method for the effective management of plausible postthyroidectomic hypocalcemia. It yields significantly

  2. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Rohrbach, Louise A; Milam, Joel E; Unger, Jennifer B; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools ( n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs.

  3. Timing of Orphanhood, Early Sexual Debut, and Early Marriage in Four Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    According to a growing body of literature, some orphans are at heightened risk of early sexual debut and early marriage. This study examines a rarely explored aspect of orphanhood: the timing and type of parental death and their relationship to these outcomes. The study also explores whether education mediates orphans’ risk of early sexual initiation and early marriage. The data are drawn from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents, which includes interviews with 12–19-year-old adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Results from discrete-time event history analysis indicate that female double orphans, regardless of timing of orphanhood, have greater odds of early sexual debut than do nonorphans. Education explains little of their increased risk. In contrast, male orphans of any type reveal no increased vulnerability to early sexual debut. Uganda is the only country where female orphans, specifically double orphans and those who are paternal orphans before age 10, have greater odds of early marriage, with education accounting for a small portion of the risk. PMID:23719999

  4. Music therapy for early cognitive rehabilitation post-childhood TBI: an intrinsic mixed methods case study.

    PubMed

    Bower, Janeen; Catroppa, Cathy; Grocke, Denise; Shoemark, Helen

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this case study was to explore the behavioural changes of a paediatric patient in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) during a music therapy session. A secondary objective was to measure the effect of the music therapy intervention on agitation. Video data from pre, during and post-music therapy sessions were collected and analysed using video micro-analysis and the Agitated Behaviour Scale. The participant displayed four discrete categories of behaviours: Neutral, Acceptance, Recruitment and Rejection. Further analysis revealed brief but consistent and repeated periods of awareness and responsiveness to the live singing of familiar songs, which were classified as Islands of Awareness. Song offered an Environment of Potential to maximise these periods of emerging consciousness. The quantitative data analysis yielded inconclusive results in determining if music therapy was effective in reducing agitation during and immediately post the music therapy sessions. The process of micro-analysis illuminated four discrete participant behaviours not apparent in the immediate clinical setting. The results of this case suggest that the use of familiar song as a music therapy intervention may harness early patient responsiveness to foster cognitive rehabilitation in the early acute phase post-TBI.

  5. 5 CFR 1601.32 - Timing and posting dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heavy transaction volume, and acts of God. These factors also could affect the availability of the TSP... circumstances according to the following rules: (1) A transaction request entered into the TSP record keeping... business day, will ordinarily be posted that business day. A transaction request entered into the system...

  6. Precambrian Time - The Story of the Early Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Precambrian is the least-understood part of Earth history, yet it is arguably the most important. Precambrian time spans almost nine-tenths of Earth history, from the formation of the Earth to the dawn of the Cambrian Period. It represents time so vast and long ago that it challenges all comprehension. The Precambrian is the time of big questions. How old is the Earth? How old are the oldest rocks and continents? What was the early Earth like? What was the early atmosphere like? When did life appear, and what did it look like? And, how do we know this? In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in understanding the early evolution of the Earth and life itself. Yet, the scientific story of the early Earth is still a work in progress, humankind's latest attempt to understand the planet. Like previous attempts, it too will change as we learn more about the Earth. Read on to discover what we know now, in the early 21st century.

  7. Time constraints for post-LGM landscape response to deglaciation in Val Viola, Central Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Brardinoni, Francesco; Crosta, Giovanni Battista; Cola, Giuseppe; Mair, Volkmar

    2017-12-01

    Across the northern European Alps, a long tradition of Quaternary studies has constrained post-LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) landscape history. The same picture remains largely unknown for the southern portion of the orogen. In this work, starting from existing 10Be exposure dating of three boulders in Val Viola, Central Italian Alps, we present the first detailed, post-LGM reconstruction of landscape (i.e., glacial, periglacial and paraglacial) response south of the Alpine divide. We pursue this task through Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) at 34 sites including moraines, rock glaciers, protalus ramparts, rock avalanche deposits and talus cones. In addition, based on the mapping of preserved moraines and on the numerical SHD ages, we reconstruct the glacier extent of four different stadials, including Egesen I (13.1 ± 1.1 ka), Egesen II (12.3 ± 0.6 ka), Kartell (11.0 ± 1.4 ka) and Kromer (9.7 ± 1.4 ka), whose chronologies agree with available counterparts from north of the Alpine divide. Results show that Equilibrium Line Altitude depressions (ΔELAs) associated to Younger Dryas and Early Holocene stadials are smaller than documented at most available sites in the northern Alps. These findings not only support the hypothesis of a dominant north westerly atmospheric circulation during the Younger Dryas, but also suggest that this pattern could have lasted until the Early Holocene. SHD ages on rock glaciers and protalus ramparts indicate that favourable conditions to periglacial landform development occurred during the Younger Dryas (12.7 ± 1.1 ka), on the valley slopes above the glacier, as well as in newly de-glaciated areas, during the Early Holocene (10.7 ± 1.3 and 8.8 ± 1.8 ka). The currently active rock glacier started to develop before 3.7 ± 0.8 ka and can be associated to the Löbben oscillation. Four of the five rock avalanches dated in Val Viola cluster within the Early Holocene, in correspondence of an atmospheric warming phase. By contrast

  8. Early experimental and clinical experience with a focal implant for lower extremity post-angioplasty dissection.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter A; Giasolli, Robert; Ebner, Adrian; Virmani, Renu; Granada, Juan F

    2015-02-01

    This study provides preliminary data on the safety and feasibility of the use of a novel focal implant for managing post-percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (post-PTA) dissection. Post-PTA dissection of the lower extremity arteries is managed with stent placement. This provides an acceptable post-intervention result but has long-term disadvantages, such as in-stent restenosis. Focal treatment of post-PTA dissection and avoidance of stents are the objectives of the Tack-It (Intact Vascular, Inc., Wayne, Pennsylvania) device. A preclinical study and first-in-human data are presented. Seven swine underwent superficial femoral artery device placement, with a self-expanding nitinol stent on 1 side and a series of 4 Tack-It devices on the other side. Specimens were harvested at 28 days. The clinical study included 15 limbs that underwent revascularization for critical limb ischemia (n = 9) or claudication (n = 6). Twenty-five lesions were treated in the superficial femoral (n = 8), popliteal (n = 7), and tibial (n = 10) arteries. The preclinical study demonstrated a reduction in stenosis with the Tack-It (16.8 ± 2.6%) compared with stents (46.4 ± 9.8%). Neointimal thickness and injury score decreased with the Tack-It. Clinically, Tack-It placement resulted in acute technical success with resolution of the post-PTA dissection in 100% of lesions. There were no device-related complications or major amputations. Eighteen of the 25 lesions were available for angiographic follow-up at 1-year, and patency was 83.3%. Preclinical data suggest that the Tack-It device causes minimal vessel injury. Clinical use of the Tack-It to manage post-PTA dissection was safe and feasible in this early study and resulted in apposition of dissection flaps without stent placement. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early post-stroke cognition in stroke rehabilitation patients predicts functional outcome at 13 months.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Jørgen; Farner, Lasse; Flekkøy, Kjell; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir; Sandvik, Leiv; Fure, Brynjar; Stensrød, Brynhild; Engedal, Knut

    2011-01-01

    To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2-3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13 months later with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as outcome measure. Three predictive models were built using linear regression analyses: a biological model (sociodemographics, apolipoprotein E genotype, prestroke vascular factors, lesion characteristics and neurological stroke-related impairment); a functional model (pre- and early post-stroke cognitive functioning, personal and instrumental activities of daily living, ADL, and depressive symptoms), and a combined model (including significant variables, with p value <0.05, from the biological and functional models). A combined model of 4 variables best predicted long-term functional outcome with explained variance of 49%: neurological impairment (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; β = 0.402, p < 0.001), age (β = 0.233, p = 0.001), post-stroke cognitive functioning (Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status, RBANS; β = -0.248, p = 0.001) and prestroke personal ADL (Barthel Index; β = -0.217, p = 0.002). Further linear regression analyses of which RBANS indexes and subtests best predicted long-term functional outcome showed that Coding (β = -0.484, p < 0.001) and Figure Copy (β = -0.233, p = 0.002) raw scores at baseline explained 42% of the variance in mRS scores at follow-up. Early post-stroke cognitive functioning as measured by the RBANS is a significant and independent predictor of long-term functional post-stroke outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Time and Temporality in Early Childhood Educators' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the persistence and significance of notions of time and temporality in interviews with early childhood educators in Victoria and Queensland, Australia, in two studies designed to explore the concept of "pedagogical leadership". Interpretive analysis of the interview transcripts of the 19 participants identified…

  11. Identification of ICF categories relevant for nursing in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Martin; Boldt, Christine; Grill, Eva; Strobl, Ralf; Stucki, Gerold

    2008-01-01

    Background The recovery of patients after an acute episode of illness or injury depends both on adequate medical treatment and on the early identification of needs for rehabilitation care. The process of early beginning rehabilitation requires efficient communication both between health professionals and the patient in order to effectively address all rehabilitation goals. The currently used nursing taxonomies, however, are not intended for interdisciplinary use and thus may not contribute to efficient rehabilitation management and an optimal patient outcome. The ICF might be the missing link in this communication process. The objective of this study was to identify the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant for nursing care in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation. Methods First, in a consensus process, "Leistungserfassung in der Pflege" (LEP) nursing interventions relevant for the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation were selected. Second, in an integrated two-step linking process, two nursing experts derived goals of LEP nursing interventions from their practical knowledge and selected corresponding ICF categories most relevant for patients in acute and post-acute rehabilitation (ICF Core Sets). Results Eighty-seven percent of ICF Core Set categories could be linked to goals of at least one nursing intervention variable of LEP. The ICF categories most frequently linked with LEP nursing interventions were respiration functions, experience of self and time functions and focusing attention. Thirteen percent of ICF Core Set categories could not be linked with LEP nursing interventions. The LEP nursing interventions which were linked with the highest number of different ICF-categories of all were "therapeutic intervention", "patient-nurse communication/information giving" and "mobilising". Conclusion The ICF Core Sets for the acute hospital and early post

  12. Social media posts and online search behaviour as early-warning system for MRSA outbreaks.

    PubMed

    van de Belt, Tom H; van Stockum, Pieter T; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Lancee, Jules; Schrijver, Remco; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Tacconelli, Evelina; Saris, Katja; van Gelder, Marleen M H J; Voss, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Despite many preventive measures, outbreaks with multi-drug resistant micro-organisms (MDROs) still occur. Moreover, current alert systems from healthcare organizations have shortcomings due to delayed or incomplete notifications, which may amplify the spread of MDROs by introducing infected patients into a new healthcare setting and institutions. Additional sources of information about upcoming and current outbreaks, may help to prevent further spread of MDROs.The study objective was to evaluate whether methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks could be detected via social media posts or online search behaviour; if so, this might allow earlier detection than the official notifications by healthcare organizations. We conducted an exploratory study in which we compared information about MRSA outbreaks in the Netherlands derived from two online sources, Coosto for Social Media, and Google Trends for search behaviour, to the mandatory Dutch outbreak notification system (SO-ZI/AMR). The latter provides information on MDRO outbreaks including the date of the outbreak, micro-organism involved, the region/location, and the type of health care organization. During the research period of 15 months (455 days), 49 notifications of outbreaks were recorded in SO-ZI/AMR. For Coosto, the number of unique potential outbreaks was 37 and for Google Trends 24. The use of social media and online search behaviour missed many of the hospital outbreaks that were reported to SO-ZI/AMR, but detected additional outbreaks in long-term care facilities. Despite several limitations, using information from social media and online search behaviour allows rapid identification of potential MRSA outbreaks, especially in healthcare settings with a low notification compliance. When combined in an automated system with real-time updates, this approach might increase early discovery and subsequent implementation of preventive measures.

  13. Time scale controversy: Accurate orbital calibration of the early Paleogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Laskar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Timing is crucial to understanding the causes and consequences of events in Earth history. The calibration of geological time relies heavily on the accuracy of radioisotopic and astronomical dating. Uncertainties in the computations of Earth's orbital parameters and in radioisotopic dating have hampered the construction of a reliable astronomically calibrated time scale beyond 40 Ma. Attempts to construct a robust astronomically tuned time scale for the early Paleogene by integrating radioisotopic and astronomical dating are only partially consistent. Here, using the new La2010 and La2011 orbital solutions, we present the first accurate astronomically calibrated time scale for the early Paleogene (47-65 Ma) uniquely based on astronomical tuning and thus independent of the radioisotopic determination of the Fish Canyon standard. Comparison with geological data confirms the stability of the new La2011 solution back to 54 Ma. Subsequent anchoring of floating chronologies to the La2011 solution using the very long eccentricity nodes provides an absolute age of 55.530 ± 0.05 Ma for the onset of the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), 54.850 ± 0.05 Ma for the early Eocene ash -17, and 65.250 ± 0.06 Ma for the K/Pg boundary. The new astrochronology presented here indicates that the intercalibration and synchronization of U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic geochronology is much more challenging than previously thought.

  14. Time scale controversy: Accurate orbital calibration of the early Paleogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhold, Thomas; RöHl, Ursula; Laskar, Jacques

    2012-06-01

    Timing is crucial to understanding the causes and consequences of events in Earth history. The calibration of geological time relies heavily on the accuracy of radioisotopic and astronomical dating. Uncertainties in the computations of Earth's orbital parameters and in radioisotopic dating have hampered the construction of a reliable astronomically calibrated time scale beyond 40 Ma. Attempts to construct a robust astronomically tuned time scale for the early Paleogene by integrating radioisotopic and astronomical dating are only partially consistent. Here, using the new La2010 and La2011 orbital solutions, we present the first accurate astronomically calibrated time scale for the early Paleogene (47-65 Ma) uniquely based on astronomical tuning and thus independent of the radioisotopic determination of the Fish Canyon standard. Comparison with geological data confirms the stability of the new La2011 solution back to ˜54 Ma. Subsequent anchoring of floating chronologies to the La2011 solution using the very long eccentricity nodes provides an absolute age of 55.530 ± 0.05 Ma for the onset of the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), 54.850 ± 0.05 Ma for the early Eocene ash -17, and 65.250 ± 0.06 Ma for the K/Pg boundary. The new astrochronology presented here indicates that the intercalibration and synchronization of U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic geochronology is much more challenging than previously thought.

  15. Prediction of acute renal allograft rejection in early post-transplantation period by soluble CD30.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wang; Shunliang, Yang; Weizhen, Wu; Qinghua, Wang; Zhangxin, Zeng; Jianming, Tan; He, Wang

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of serum sCD30 for prediction of acute graft rejection, we analyzed clinical data of 231 patients, whose serum levels of sCD30 were detected by ELISA before and after transplantation. They were divided into three groups: acute rejection group (AR, n = 49), uncomplicated course group (UC, n = 171) and delayed graft function group (DGF, n = 11). Preoperative sCD30 levels of three groups were 183 +/- 74, 177 +/- 82 and 168 +/- 53 U/ml, respectively (P = 0.82). Significant decrease of sCD30 was detected in three groups on day 5 and 10 post-transplantation respectively (52 +/- 30 and 9 +/- 5 U/ml respectively, P < 0.001). Compared with Group UC and DGF, patients of Group AR had higher sCD30 values on day 5 post-transplantation (92 +/- 27 U/ml vs. 41 +/- 20 U/ml and 48 +/- 18 U/ml, P < 0.001). However, sCD30 levels on day 10 post-transplantation were virtually similar in patients of three groups (P = 0.43). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that sCD30 level on day 5 post-transplantation could differentiate patients who subsequently suffered acute allograft rejection from others (area under ROC curve 0.95). According to ROC curve, 65 U/ml may be the optimal operational cut-off level to predict impending graft rejection (specificity 91.8%, sensitivity 87.1%). Measurement of soluble CD30 on day 5 post-transplantation might offer a noninvasive means to recognize patients at risk of impending acute graft rejection during early post-transplantation period.

  16. Phenotypic plasticity of nest timing in a post-glacial landscape: how do reptiles adapt to seasonal time constraints?

    PubMed

    Edge, Christopher B; Rollinson, Njal; Brooks, Ronald J; Congdon, Justin D; Iverson, John B; Janzen, Fredric J; Litzgus, Jacqueline D

    2017-02-01

    Life histories evolve in response to constraints on the time available for growth and development. Nesting date and its plasticity in response to spring temperature may therefore be important components of fitness in oviparous ectotherms near their northern range limit, as reproducing early provides more time for embryos to complete development before winter. We used data collected over several decades to compare air temperature and nest date plasticity in populations of painted turtles and snapping turtles from a relatively warm environment (southeastern Michigan) near the southern extent of the last glacial maximum to a relatively cool environment (central Ontario) near the northern extent of post-glacial recolonization. For painted turtles, population-level differences in reaction norm elevation for two phenological traits were consistent with adaptation to time constraints, but no differences in reaction norm slopes were observed. For snapping turtle populations, the difference in reaction norm elevation for a single phenological trait was in the opposite direction of what was expected under adaptation to time constraints, and no difference in reaction norm slope was observed. Finally, among-individual variation in individual plasticity for nesting date was detected only in the northern population of snapping turtles, suggesting that reaction norms are less canalized in this northern population. Overall, we observed evidence of phenological adaptation, and possibly maladaptation, to time constraints in long-lived reptiles. Where present, (mal)adaptation occurred by virtue of differences in reaction norm elevation, not reaction norm slope. Glacial history, generation time, and genetic constraint may all play an important role in the evolution of phenological timing and its plasticity in long-lived reptiles. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Visualization of early post-implantation mouse embryogenesis using 3D imaging modality (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Le, Henry H.; Li-Villarreal, Nanbing; Piazza, Victor G.; Kalaga, Sowmya; Dickinson, Mary E.

    2017-02-01

    Hemodynamic force is vital to cardiovascular remodeling in the early post-implantation mouse embryo. Here, we present work using microCT and lightsheet microscopy to establish the critical sequence of developmental events required for forming functional vasculature and circulation in the embryo, yolk sac, and placenta in the context of normal and impaired flow. A flow impaired model, Mlc2a+/- will be used to determine how hemodynamic force affects the specific events during embryonic development and vascular remodeling between the 4 and 29-somite stage using microCT. We have recently established high-resolution methods for the generation of 3D image volumes from the whole embryo within the deciduum (Hsu et al., in revision). This method enables the careful characterization of 3D images of vitelline and umbilical vessel remodeling to define how poor blood flow impacts both vitelline and umbilical vessel remodeling. Novel lightsheet live imaging techniques will be used to determine the consequence of impaired blood flow on yolk sac vasculature remodeling and formation of umbilical vessels using transgenic reporters: Flk-myr::mCherry, Flk1-H2B::YFP, or ɛGlobin-GFP. High-resolution 3D imaging of fixed and ScaleA2-cleared whole mount embryos labeled with Ki67 and Caspase3 will also be performed using lightsheet microscopy to quantify the proliferation and apoptotic indexes of early post-implanted embryos and yolk sac. This multi-modality approach is aimed at revealing further information about the cellular mechanisms required for proper vessel remodeling and the initial stages in placentation during early post-implantation development.

  18. Early post-interventional sonographic evaluation of prostatic artery embolization. A promising role for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS).

    PubMed

    Moschouris, Hippocrates; Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Kalokairinou Motogna, Mariana; Vrakas, Spyros; Kiltenis, Michail; Kladis-Kalentzis, Konstantinos; Tsavdaroglou, Avraam; Papadogeorgopoulos, Nikolaos; Marmaridou, Kyriaki; Malagari, Katerina

    2018-05-02

    To assess the feasibility, findings and potential value of early post-interventional, contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic (CEUS) study of prostate artery embolization (PAE). Fourteen patients treated with PAE for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia were prospectively included in the study. Sonographic evaluation of the prostate included: 1) baseline transabdominal and transrectal CEUS (ta-CEUS and tr-CEUS, respectively) 1-3 days prior to PAE; 2) early post PAE CEUS, with ta-CEUS immediately post PAE and tr-CEUS 3 days post PAE; and 3) follow-up with ta-CEUS and tr-CEUS 3 months post PAE. A brief unenhanced US study preceded each CEUS. Post-therapeutic changes in size, echogenicity and enhancement of the prostate were recorded and were correlated with clinical outcomes. PAE resulted in clinical success in 11/14 patients (78.5%). All sonographic studies were technically adequate, with the exception of ta-CEUS immediately post PAE in 2/14 (14.2%) patients. CEUS studies immediately post PAE and 3 days post PAE showed non-enhancing, welldefined infarctions of the prostate in 10/14 patients (71.4%). There was a strong correlation between ta-CEUS immediately post PAE and tr-CEUS 3 days post PAE regarding the measurements of prostatic infarctions (r =0.98, p< 0.01). The presence of infarctions on early post PAE CEUS was associated with clinical success (p=0.01) and their extent correlated with the degree of prostate shrinkage on 3-month follow-up (r=0.84, p<0.05). The 3 cases of failed PAE showed no infarctions and no prostate shrinkage. Early post-interventional CEUS of PAE is feasible and may have clinical and prognostic value.

  19. Risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration in dogs undergoing a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy: 100 cases (2002-2014).

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, F E; Cardy, T J A; Liebel, F X; Garosi, L; Kenny, P J; Volk, H A; De Decker, S

    2015-12-01

    Early post-operative neurological deterioration is a well-known complication following dorsal cervical laminectomies and hemilaminectomies in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate potential risk factors for early post-operative neurological deterioration following these surgical procedures. Medical records of 100 dogs that had undergone a cervical dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy between 2002 and 2014 were assessed retrospectively. Assessed variables included signalment, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs, neurological status before surgery, diagnosis, surgical site, type and extent of surgery and duration of procedure. Outcome measures were neurological status immediately following surgery and duration of hospitalisation. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify variables to be included in a multivariate model. Diagnoses included osseous associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (OACSM; n = 41), acute intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE; 31), meningioma (11), spinal arachnoid diverticulum (10) and vertebral arch anomalies (7). Overall 54% (95% CI 45.25-64.75) of dogs were neurologically worse 48 h post-operatively. Multivariate statistical analysis identified four factors significantly related to early post-operative neurological outcome. Diagnoses of OACSM or meningioma were considered the strongest variables to predict early post-operative neurological deterioration, followed by higher (more severely affected) neurological grade before surgery and longer surgery time. This information can aid in the management of expectations of clinical staff and owners with dogs undergoing these surgical procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fake news and post-truth pronouncements in general and in early human development.

    PubMed

    Grech, Victor

    2017-12-01

    Fake news and post-truth pronouncements are increasingly common, and are unfortunately also progressively being applied to the sciences, including the medical sciences. This editorial briefly reviews this unsavoury trend and highlights recent debunking of fake truths in early human development. Science is arguably the last metanarrative with any significant cachet in the postmodern period. We, as scientists, must strive to ensure that our work is transparent and of the highest possible standard so as to continue to uphold science's integrity and probity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact cratering calculations. Part 1: Early time results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, J. M.; Sauer, F. N.; Austin, M. G.; Ruhl, S. F.; Shultz, P. H.; Orphal, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Early time two dimensional finite difference calculations of laboratory scale hypervelocity impact of 0.3 g spherical 2024 aluminum projectiles into homogeneous plasticene clay targets were performed. Analysis of resulting material motions showed that energy and momentum were coupled quickly from the aluminum projectile to the target material. In the process of coupling, some of the plasticene clay target was vaporized while the projectile become severely deformed. The velocity flow field developed within the target was shown to have features similar to those found in calculations of near surface explosion cratering. Specific application of Maxwell's analytic Z-Model showed that this model can be used to describe the early time flow fields resulting from the impact cratering calculations as well, provided the flow field centers are located beneath the target surface and most of the projectile momentum is dissipated before the model is applied.

  2. Time-Resolved Influences of Functional DAT1 and COMT Variants on Visual Perception and Post-Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Stephan; Rellum, Thomas; Freitag, Christine; Resch, Franz; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Background Dopamine plays an important role in orienting and the regulation of selective attention to relevant stimulus characteristics. Thus, we examined the influences of functional variants related to dopamine inactivation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes (COMT) on the time-course of visual processing in a contingent negative variation (CNV) task. Methods 64-channel EEG recordings were obtained from 195 healthy adolescents of a community-based sample during a continuous performance task (A-X version). Early and late CNV as well as preceding visual evoked potential components were assessed. Results Significant additive main effects of DAT1 and COMT on the occipito-temporal early CNV were observed. In addition, there was a trend towards an interaction between the two polymorphisms. Source analysis showed early CNV generators in the ventral visual stream and in frontal regions. There was a strong negative correlation between occipito-temporal visual post-processing and the frontal early CNV component. The early CNV time interval 500–1000 ms after the visual cue was specifically affected while the preceding visual perception stages were not influenced. Conclusions Late visual potentials allow the genomic imaging of dopamine inactivation effects on visual post-processing. The same specific time-interval has been found to be affected by DAT1 and COMT during motor post-processing but not motor preparation. We propose the hypothesis that similar dopaminergic mechanisms modulate working memory encoding in both the visual and motor and perhaps other systems. PMID:22844499

  3. Early tracheostomy in trauma patients saves time and money.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Glendon A; Savage, Stephanie A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Hart-Hyde, Jensen E; Schaefer, Candace B; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering traumatic brain and chest wall injuries are often difficult to liberate from the ventilator yet best timing of tracheostomy remains ill-defined. While prior studies have addressed early versus late tracheostomy, they generally suffer from the use of historical controls, which cannot account for variations in management over time. Propensity scoring can be utilized to identify controls from the same patient population, minimizing impact of confounding variables. The purpose of this study was to determine outcomes associated with early versus late tracheostomy by application of propensity scoring. Patients requiring intubation within 48h and receiving tracheostomy from January 2010 to June 2012 were identified. Early tracheostomy (ET) was a tracheostomy performed by the fifth hospital day. ET patients were matched to late tracheostomy patients (LT, tracheostomy after day 5) using propensity scoring and compared for multiple outcomes. Cost for services was calculated using average daily billing rates at our institution. One hundred and six patients were included, 53 each in the ET (mean day tracheostomy=4) and the LT (mean day tracheostomy=10) cohorts. The average age was 47 years and 94% suffered blunt injury, with an average NISS of 23.7. Patients in the ET group had significantly shorter TICU LOS (21.4 days vs. 28.6 days, p<0.0001) and significantly fewer ventilator days (16.7 days vs. 21.9, p<0.0001) compared to the LT group. ET patients also had significantly less VAP (34% vs. 64.2%, p=0.0019). In the current era of increased health-care costs, early tracheostomy significantly decreased both pulmonary morbidity and critical care resource utilization. This translates to an appreciable cost savings, at minimum $52,173 per patient and a potential total savings of $2.8million/year for the entire LT cohort. For trauma patients requiring prolonged ventilator support, early tracheostomy should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Post-operative paediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome: time to move beyond structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Toescu, Sebastian M; Hettige, Samantha; Phipps, Kim; Smith, R J Paul; Haffenden, Verity; Clark, Chris; Hayward, Richard; Mankad, Kshitij; Aquilina, Kristian

    2018-06-20

    To determine the value of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting post-operative paediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome (pCMS) in children undergoing surgical treatment for medulloblastoma. Retrospective cohort study design. Electronic/paper case note review of all children with medulloblastoma presenting to Great Ormond Street Hospital between 2003 and 2013. The diagnosis of pCMS was established through a scoring system incorporating mutism, ataxia, behavioural disturbance and cranial nerve deficits. MRI scans performed at three time points were assessed by neuroradiologists blinded to the diagnosis of pCMS. Of 56 children included, 12 (21.4%) developed pCMS as judged by a core symptom of mutism. pCMS was more common in those aged 5 or younger. There was no statistically significant difference in pre-operative distortion or signal change of the dentate or red nuclei or superior cerebellar peduncles (SCPs) between those who did and did not develop pCMS. In both early (median 5 days) and late (median 31 months) post-operative scans, T2-weighted signal change in SCPs was more common in the pCMS group (p = 0.040 and 0.046 respectively). Late scans also showed statistically significant signal change in the dentate nuclei (p = 0.024). The development of pCMS could not be linked to any observable changes on pre-operative structural MRI scans. Post-operative T2-weighted signal change in the SCPs and dentate nuclei underlines the role of cerebellar efferent injury in pCMS. Further research using advanced quantitative MRI sequences is warranted given the inability of conventional pre-surgical MRI to predict pCMS.

  5. Preliminary Evidence for Reduced Post-Error Reaction Time Slowing in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Berwid, Olga G.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Johnson, Ray E.; Marks, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder has been associated with deficits in self-regulatory cognitive processes, some of which are thought to lie at the heart of the disorder. Slowing of reaction times (RTs) for correct responses following errors made during decision tasks has been interpreted as an indication of intact self-regulatory functioning and has been shown to be attenuated in school-aged children with ADHD. This study attempted to examine whether ADHD symptoms are associated with an early-emerging deficit in post-error slowing. Method A computerized two-choice RT task was administered to an ethnically diverse sample of preschool-aged children classified as either ‘control’ (n = 120) or ‘hyperactive/inattentive’ (HI; n = 148) using parent- and teacher-rated ADHD symptoms. Analyses were conducted to determine whether HI preschoolers exhibit a deficit in this self-regulatory ability. Results HI children exhibited reduced post-error slowing relative to controls on the trials selected for analysis. Supplementary analyses indicated that this may have been due to a reduced proportion of trials following errors on which HI children slowed rather than to a reduction in the absolute magnitude of slowing on all trials following errors. Conclusions High levels of ADHD symptoms in preschoolers may be associated with a deficit in error processing as indicated by post-error slowing. The results of supplementary analyses suggest that this deficit is perhaps more a result of failures to perceive errors than of difficulties with executive control. PMID:23387525

  6. Randomized controlled evaluation of an early intervention to prevent post-rape psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Waldrop, Angela E; King, Lynda; King, Daniel; Danielson, Carla; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-10-01

    A randomized between-group design was used to evaluate the efficacy of a video intervention to reduce post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems, implemented prior to the forensic medical examination conducted within 72 h post-sexual assault. Participants were 140 female victims of sexual assault (68 video/72 nonvideo) aged 15 years or older. Assessments were targeted for 6 weeks (Time 1) and 6 months (Time 2) post-assault. At Time 1, the intervention was associated with lower scores on measures of PTSD and depression among women with a prior rape history relative to scores among women with a prior rape history in the standard care condition. At Time 2, depression scores were also lower among those with a prior rape history who were in the video relative to the standard care condition. Small effects indicating higher PTSD and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores among women without a prior rape history in the video condition were observed at Time 1. Accelerated longitudinal growth curve analysis indicated a videoxprior rape history interaction for PTSD, yielding four patterns of symptom trajectory over time. Women with a prior rape history in the video condition generally maintained the lowest level of symptoms.

  7. Posted wait times an added advantage to multi-facility systems?

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare in Memphis, TN, is investigating whether posting ED wait times via the internet can positively impact patient flow in the six EDs the health system operates in the Memphis region. The health system began posting wait times in August 2010, resulting in increases in ED volume ranging from 6% to 10%. The health system is monitoring ED arrivals by zip code to assess any impact on load balancing between its busy EDs. One marketing challenge is that a competitor is posting ED wait times as well, but it is posting the time it takes for a patient to be placed in a bed as opposed to the door-to-provider time that Methodist Le Bonheur is posting. The approach has the most impact on lower-acuity patients, but experts worry that in the future, payers may not be reimbursed for ED care for these patients.

  8. Influence of first-time mothers' early employment on severe early childhood caries in their child.

    PubMed

    Plutzer, Kamila; Keirse, Marc J N C

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At 20 ± 2.5 months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (P < 0.04). However, there were no significant differences in children's reported general health. Conclusions. The data indicate a need to explore strategies that may assist single mothers and especially those in the workforce to prevent severe early childhood caries in their child.

  9. Sex Differences in Brain Thyroid Hormone Levels during Early Post-Hatching Development in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Hayase, Shin; Aoki, Naoya; Takehara, Akihiko; Ishigohoka, Jun; Matsushima, Toshiya; Wada, Kazuhiro; Homma, Koichi J

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds. Here, we determined the changes in serum and brain thyroid hormone levels of a passerine songbird species, the zebra finch using radioimmunoassay. In the serum, we found a gradual increase in thyroid hormone levels during post-hatching development, as well as differences between male and female finches. In the brain, there was clear surge in the hormone levels during development in males and females coinciding with the time of fledging, but the onset of the surge of thyroxine (T4) in males preceded that of females, whereas the onset of the surge of T3 in males succeeded that of females. These findings provide a basis for understanding the functions of thyroid hormones during early development and learning in altricial birds.

  10. Early seizures and temporal lobe trauma predict post-traumatic epilepsy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tubi, Meral A; Lutkenhoff, Evan; Blanco, Manuel Buitrago; McArthur, David; Villablanca, Pablo; Ellingson, Benjamin; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Van Ness, Paul; Real, Courtney; Shrestha, Vikesh; Engel, Jerome; Vespa, Paul M; Agoston, Denes; Au, Alicia; Bell, Michael J; Branch, Craig; Buitrago Blanco, Manuel; Bullock, Ross; Claassen, Jan; Clarke, Robert; Cloyd, James; Coles, Lisa; Crawford, Karen; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Duncan, Dominique; Ellingson, Benjamin; Engel, Jerome; Foreman, Brandon; Galanopoulou, Aristea; Gilmore, Emily; Olli, Grohn; Harris, Neil; Hartings, Jed; Lawrence, Hirsch; Hunn, Martin; Jette, Nathalie; Johnston, Leigh; Jones, Nigel; Kanner, Andres; McArthur, David; Monti, Martin; Morokoff, Andrew; Moshe, Solomon; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Naughton, Tomas; O'Brien, Terence; O'Phelan, Kristine; Pitkanen, Asla; Raman, Rema; Robertson, Courtney; Rosenthal, Eric; Shultz, Sandy; Snutch, Terrance; Staba, Richard; Toga, Arthur; Van Horn, Jack; Vespa, Paul; Willyerd, Frederick; Zimmermann, Lara

    2018-05-31

    Injury severity after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-established risk factor for the development of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). However, whether lesion location influences the susceptibility of seizures and development of PTE longitudinally has yet to be defined. We hypothesized that lesion location, specifically in the temporal lobe, would be associated with an increased incidence of both early seizures and PTE. As secondary analysis measures, we assessed the degree of brain atrophy and functional recovery, and performed a between-group analysis, comparing patients who developed PTE with those who did not develop PTE. We assessed early seizure incidence (n = 90) and longitudinal development of PTE (n = 46) in a prospective convenience sample of patients with moderate-severe TBI. Acutely, patients were monitored with prospective cEEG and a high-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan for lesion location classification. Chronically, patients underwent a high-resolution MRI, clinical assessment, and were longitudinally monitored for development of epilepsy for a minimum of 2 years post-injury. Early seizures, occurring within the first week post-injury, occurred in 26.7% of the patients (n = 90). Within the cohort of subjects who had evidence of early seizures (n = 24), 75% had a hemorrhagic temporal lobe injury on admission. For longitudinal analyses (n = 46), 45.7% of patients developed PTE within a minimum of 2 years post-injury. Within the cohort of subjects who developed PTE (n = 21), 85.7% had a hemorrhagic temporal lobe injury on admission and 38.1% had early (convulsive or non-convulsive) seizures on cEEG monitoring during their acute ICU stay. In a between-group analysis, patients with PTE (n = 21) were more likely than patients who did not develop PTE (n = 25) to have a hemorrhagic temporal lobe injury (p < 0.001), worse functional recovery (p = 0.003), and greater temporal lobe atrophy (p

  11. Standardized Symptom Measurement of Individuals with Early Lyme Disease Over Time.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Kathleen T; Rebman, Alison W; Crowder, Lauren A; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Aucott, John N

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the Lyme disease (LD) literature is challenging given the lack of consistent methodology and standardized measurement of symptoms and the impact on functioning. This prospective study incorporates well-validated measures to capture the symptom picture of individuals with early LD from time of diagnosis through 6-months post-treatment. One hundred seven patients with confirmed early LD and 26 healthy controls were evaluated using standardized instruments for pain, fatigue, depressive symptoms, functional impact, and cognitive functioning. Prior to antibiotic treatment, patients experience notable symptoms of fatigue and pain statistically higher than controls. After treatment, there are no group differences, suggesting that symptoms resolve and that there are no residual cognitive impairments at the level of group analysis. However, using subgroup analyses, some individuals experience persistent symptoms that lead to functional decline and these individuals can be identified immediately post-completion of standard antibiotic treatment using well-validated symptom measures. Overall, the findings suggest that ideally-treated early LD patients recover well and experience symptom resolution over time, though a small subgroup continue to suffer with symptoms that lead to functional decline. The authors discuss use of standardized instruments for identification of individuals who warrant further clinical follow-up. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Translocation and early post-release demography of endangered Laysan teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Seavy, N.E.; Vekasy, M.S.; Klavitter, J.L.; Laniawe, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the high extinction risk inherent to small island populations, we translocated wild Laysan teal Anas laysanensis to a portion of its presumed prehistoric range. Most avian translocations lack the strategic post-release monitoring needed to assess early population establishment or failure. Therefore, we monitored the survival and reproduction of all founders, and their first-generation offspring using radio telemetry for 2 years after the first release. Forty-two Laysan teal were sourced directly from the only extant population on Laysan Island and transported 2 days by ship to Midway Atoll. All birds survived the translocation with nutritional and veterinary support, and spent between 4 and 14 days in captivity. Post-release survival of 42 founders was 0.857 (95% CI 0.86-0.99) during 2004-2006 or annualized 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-0.98). Seventeen of 18 founding hens attempted nesting in the first two breeding seasons. Fledgling success was 0.57 (95% CI 0.55-0.60) in 2005 and 0.63 (95% CI 0.62-0.64) in 2006. The effective founding female population (Ne) was 13. We applied these initial demographic rates to model population growth. The nascent population size increased to >100 after only 2 years post-release (?? = 1.73). If this growth rate continues, the size of the Midway population could surpass the source population before 2010. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 The Zoological Society of London.

  13. Early Earth(s) Across Time and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojzsis, S.

    2014-04-01

    The geochemical and cosmochemical record of our solar system is the baseline for exploring the question: "when could life appear on a world similar to our own?" Data arising from direct analysis of the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals from the first 500 Myr of Earth history - termed the Hadean Eon - inform us about the timing for the establishment of a habitable silicate world. Liquid water is the key medium for life. The origin of water, and its interaction with the crust as revealed in the geologic record, guides our exploration for a cosmochemically Earth-like planets. From the time of primary planetary accretion to the start of the continuous rock record on Earth at ca. 3850 million years ago, our planet experienced a waning bolide flux that partially or entirely wiped out surface rocks, vaporized oceans, and created transient serpentinizing atmospheres. Arguably, "Early Earths" across the galaxy may start off as ice planets due to feeble insolation from their young stars, occasionally punctuated by steam atmospheres generated by cataclysmic impacts. Alternatively, early global environments conducive to life spanned from a benign surface zone to deep into crustal rocks and sediments. In some scenarios, nascent biospheres benefit from the exogenous delivery of essential bio-elements via leftovers of accretion, and the subsequent establishment of planetary-scale hydrothermal systems. If what is now known about the early dynamical regime of the Earth serves as any measure of the potential habitability of worlds across space and time, several key boundary conditions emerge. These are: (i) availability and long-term stability of liquid water; (ii) presence of energy resources; (iii) accessibility of organic raw materials; (iv) adequate inventory of radioisotopes to drive internal heating; (v) gross compositional parameters such as mantle/core mass ratio, and (vi) P-T conditions at or near the surface suitable for sustaining biological activity. Life could

  14. Early prediction of oral calcium and vitamin D requirements in post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhahri, Saleh F; Mubasher, Mohamed; Al-Muhawas, Fida; Alessa, Mohammed; Terkawi, Rayan S; Terkawi, Abdullah S

    2014-09-01

    To optimize and individualize post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia management. A multicenter prospective cohort study. Two tertiary care hospitals. parathyroid hormone (PTH) was measured preoperatively, then at 1 and 6 hours after surgery. The required doses of calcium and vitamin D were defined as those maintaining the patients asymptomatic and their cCa ≥ 2 mmol/L. They were used as an endpoint in a generalized linear mixed effect model (GLIMMEX) aiming to identify the best predictors of these optimal required doses. Models were evaluated by goodness of fit and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were analyzed; 85.1% were female, 49.3% had BMI > 30, and 64% had vitamin D deficiency. Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia was found in 25.6%, of whom 18 (41.9%) were symptomatic and received intravenous calcium. First hour percentage of drop in PTH correlated positively with the severity of hypocalcemia (P < .0001). The GLIMMIX prediction model for oral calcium requirement was based on first-hour percentage change from preoperative PTH level, preoperative actual PTH, BMI, and thyroid function. The same predictors were identified for vitamin D, except that thyroid function was replaced with vitamin D status. These factors were used to build predictive equations for calcium and vitamin D doses. Our findings help to optimize management of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia by assisting in the early identification of those who are not at risk of hypocalcaemia and by guiding early effective management of those at risk. This may reduce complications and medical cost. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  15. Early relapse after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation remains a poor prognostic factor in multiple myeloma but outcomes have improved over time.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S K; Dispenzieri, A; Fraser, R; Mingwei, F; Akpek, G; Cornell, R; Kharfan-Dabaja, M; Freytes, C; Hashmi, S; Hildebrandt, G; Holmberg, L; Kyle, R; Lazarus, H; Lee, C; Mikhael, J; Nishihori, T; Tay, J; Usmani, S; Vesole, D; Vij, R; Wirk, B; Krishnan, A; Gasparetto, C; Mark, T; Nieto, Y; Hari, P; D'Souza, A

    2018-04-01

    Duration of initial disease response remains a strong prognostic factor in multiple myeloma (MM) particularly for upfront autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) recipients. We hypothesized that new drug classes and combinations employed prior to AHCT as well as after post-AHCT relapse may have changed the natural history of MM in this population. We analyzed the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database to track overall survival (OS) of MM patients receiving single AHCT within 12 months after diagnosis (N=3256) and relapsing early post-AHCT (<24 months), and to identify factors predicting for early vs late relapses (24-48 months post-AHCT). Over three periods (2001-2004, 2005-2008, 2009-2013), patient characteristics were balanced except for lower proportion of Stage III, higher likelihood of one induction therapy with novel triplets and higher rates of planned post-AHCT maintenance over time. The proportion of patients relapsing early was stable over time at 35-38%. Factors reducing risk of early relapse included lower stage, chemosensitivity, transplant after 2008 and post-AHCT maintenance. Shorter post-relapse OS was associated with early relapse, IgA MM, Karnofsky <90, stage III, >1 line of induction and lack of maintenance. Post-AHCT early relapse remains a poor prognostic factor, even though outcomes have improved over time.

  16. Efficacy of Early Rehabilitation After Surgical Repair of Acute Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Outcomes After Verticalization on Days 2-5 Versus Day 12 Post-Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Andjela; Grujicic, Danica; Bogosavljevic, Vojislav; Jokovic, Milos; Mujovic, Natasa; Markovic, Ivana Petronic

    2017-01-01

    To develop a specific rehabilitation protocol for patients who have undergone surgical repair of acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), and to determine the time at which verticalization should be initiated after aSAH. Sixty-five patients who underwent acute-term surgery for aSAH and early rehabilitation were evaluated in groups: Group 1 (n=34) started verticalization on days 2-5 post-bleeding whereas Group 2 (n=31) started verticalization approximately day 12 post-bleeding. All patients were monitored for early complications, vasospasm and ischemia. Assessments of motor status, depression and anxiety (using Zung scales), and cognitive status (using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)) were conducted at discharge and at 1 and 3 months post-surgery. At discharge, Group 1 had a significantly higher proportion of patients with ischemia than Group 2 (p=0.004). Group 1 had a higher proportion of patients with hemiparesis than Group 2 three months post-surgery (p=0.015). Group 1 patients scored significantly higher on the Zung depression scale than Group 2 patients at 1 month (p=0.005) and 3 months post-surgery (p=0.001; the same applies to the Zung anxiety scale (p=0.006 and p=0.000, respectively). Group 2 patients scored significantly higher on the MMSE than those in Group 1 at discharge (p=0.040) and 1 month post-surgery (p=0.025). Early verticalization had no effect with respect to preventing early postoperative complications in this patient group. Once a patient has undergone acute surgical repair of aSAH, it is safe and preferred that rehabilitation be initiated immediately postsurgery. However, verticalization should not start prior to day 12 post-bleeding.

  17. Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy: early post-operative parathyroid hormone assay as a risk stratification and management tool.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Al Maqbali, T; Howe, D; Campbell, J

    2014-03-01

    To develop a practical, efficient and predictive algorithm to manage potential or actual post-operative hypocalcaemia after complete thyroidectomy, using a single post-operative parathyroid hormone assay. This paper reports a prospective study of 59 patients who underwent total or completion thyroidectomy over a period of 24 months. Parathyroid hormone levels were checked post-operatively on the day of surgery, and all patients were evaluated for hypocalcaemia both clinically and biochemically with serial corrected calcium measurements. No patient with an early post-operative parathyroid hormone level of 23 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately twice the lower limit of the normal range) developed hypocalcaemia. All the patients who initially had post-operative hypocalcaemia but had an early parathyroid hormone level of 8 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately two-thirds of the lower limit of the normal range) had complete resolution of their hypocalcaemia within three months. Early post-operative parathyroid hormone measurement can reliably predict patients at risk of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia, and predict those patients expected to recover from temporary hypocalcaemia. A suggested post-operative management algorithm is presented.

  18. Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Timothy J; Bleckert, Adam; Turner, Maxwell H; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2015-06-21

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate circadian light entrainment and the pupillary light response in adult mice. In early development these cells mediate different processes, including negative phototaxis and the timing of retinal vascular development. To determine if ipRGC physiologic properties also change with development, we measured ipRGC cell density and light responses in wild-type mouse retinas at post-natal days 8, 15 and 30. Melanopsin-positive cell density decreases by 17% between post-natal days 8 and 15 and by 25% between days 8 and 30. This decrease is due specifically to a decrease in cells co-labeled with a SMI-32, a marker for alpha-on ganglion cells (corresponding to adult morphologic type M4 ipRGCs). On multi-electrode array recordings, post-natal day 8 (P8) ipRGC light responses show more robust firing, reduced adaptation and more rapid recovery from short and extended light pulses than do the light responses of P15 and P30 ipRGCs. Three ipRGC subtypes - Types I-III - have been defined in early development based on sensitivity and latency on multielectrode array recordings. We find that Type I cells largely account for the unique physiologic properties of P8 ipRGCs. Type I cells have previously been shown to have relatively short latencies and high sensitivity. We now show that Type I cells show have rapid and robust recovery from long and short bright light exposures compared with Type II and III cells, suggesting differential light adaptation mechanisms between cell types. By P15, Type I ipRGCs are no longer detectable. Loose patch recordings of P8 M4 ipRGCs demonstrate Type I physiology. Type I ipRGCs are found only in early development. In addition to their previously described high sensitivity and rapid kinetics, these cells are uniquely resistant to adaptation and recover quickly and fully to short and prolonged light exposure. Type I ipRGCs correspond to the SMI-32 positive, M4 subtype and largely lose

  19. Developmental Timing of Childhood Physical and Sexual Maltreatment Predicts Adult Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jaye Capretto, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Child physical and sexual maltreatment have emerged as documented risk factors for a wide range of health problems in adulthood, including depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Prior research focuses on generalized childhood adversities without accounting for how different critical details about the maltreatment may affect outcomes in adulthood. The present study examines the impact of two critical details, timing and type of child maltreatment, on depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms in adulthood. Participants ( N = 104) completed the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure scale (MACE) and the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Scale-Second Version (IDAS-II). Hierarchical multiple regressions compared three different models of child maltreatment predictors and their differential utility for predicting depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms in adulthood: (a) number of child maltreatment experiences, (b) severity of child maltreatment, and (c) timing of child maltreatment. Results indicate that severity of child maltreatment and timing of child maltreatment are greater predictors for adult depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms than number of child maltreatment experiences. Compared with other developmental periods, early childhood sexual maltreatment experiences (5 years of age and below) and late childhood physical maltreatment experiences (13 years of age and above) were stronger predictors of adult depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Children maltreated during these age groups may be prioritized for prevention and intervention efforts, particularly when there are limited resources. Clinical interviews with maltreated children should also be expanded to include information about developmental timing and severity of maltreatment, which have ramifications for later health problems. Implications for assessment of maltreated children, prevention of adult depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms, and future

  20. Uganda: Perfection of Post-Conflict Stability or Ticking Time Bomb

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    1 UGANDA: PERFECTION OF POST-CONFLICT STABILITY OR TICKING TIME BOMB ? By Kristin M. Pearson and Alex S. Pedersen, United States Air...Force Academy 2015 INSS RESEARCH PAPER 2016 2 UGANDA: PERFECTION OF POST-CONFLICT STABILITY OR TICKING TIME BOMB ? By Kristin M. Pearson and Alex...likely. “The area is a ticking time bomb without ongoing efforts. There’s an entire group of young men trained in military tactics that have said

  1. Dose-time relationships for post-irradiation cutaneous telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.; Ubaldi, S.E.

    1977-01-01

    Seventy-five patients who had received electron beam radiation a year or more previously were studied. The irradiated skin portals were photographed and late reactions graded in terms of the number and severity of telangiectatic lesions observed. The skin dose, number of fractions, overall treatment time and irradiated volume were recorded in each case. A Strandqvist-type iso-effect line was derived for this response. A multi-probit search program also was used to derive best-fitting cell population kinetic parameters for the same data. From these parameters a comprehensive iso-effect table could be computed for a wide range of treatment schedules including daily treatmentmore » as well as fractionation at shorter and longer intervals; this provided a useful set of normal tissue tolerance limits for late effects.« less

  2. Early mechanical stimulation only permits timely bone healing in sheep.

    PubMed

    Tufekci, Pelin; Tavakoli, Aramesh; Dlaska, Constantin; Neumann, Mirjam; Shanker, Mihir; Saifzadeh, Siamak; Steck, Roland; Schuetz, Michael; Epari, Devakar

    2018-06-01

    Bone fracture healing is sensitive to the fixation stability. However, it is unclear which phases of healing are mechano-sensitive and if mechanical stimulation is required throughout repair. In this study, a novel bone defect model, which isolates an experimental fracture from functional loading, was applied in sheep to investigate if stimulation limited to the early proliferative phase is sufficient for bone healing. An active fixator controlled motion in the fracture. Animals of the control group were unstimulated. In the physiological-like group, 1 mm axial compressive movements were applied between day 5 and 21, thereafter the movements were decreased in weekly increments and stopped after 6 weeks. In the early stimulatory group, the movements were stopped after 3 weeks. The experimental fractures were evaluated with mechanical and micro-computed tomography methods after 9 weeks healing. The callus strength of the stimulated fractures (physiological-like and early stimulatory) was greater than the unstimulated control group. The control group was characterized by minimal external callus formation and a lack of bone bridging at 9 weeks. In contrast, the stimulated groups exhibited advanced healing with solid bone formation across the defect. This was confirmed quantitatively by a lower bone volume in the control group compared to the stimulated groups.The novel experimental model permits the application of a well-defined load history to an experimental bone fracture. The poor healing observed in the control group is consistent with under-stimulation. This study has shown early mechanical stimulation only is sufficient for a timely healing outcome. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:1790-1796, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Alterations in Error-Related Brain Activity and Post-Error Behavior over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Themanson, Jason R.; Rosen, Peter J.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Hillman, Charles H.; McAuley, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relation between the error-related negativity (ERN) and post-error behavior over time in healthy young adults (N = 61). Event-related brain potentials were collected during two sessions of an identical flanker task. Results indicated changes in ERN and post-error accuracy were related across task sessions, with more…

  4. Pre-Service Post Graduate Teachers' First Time Experience with Constructivist Learning Environment (CLE) Using MOODLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boopathiraj, C.; Chellamani, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to enlighten and discuss Post Graduate student teachers' first time experiences and their level of satisfaction with the use of Moodle Learning Management System (LMS) during their "Research Methods in Education" course offered online. This study investigated 30 pre-service Post Graduate student teachers' to…

  5. Anatomy in Cologne--Institutional development and body supply from the Weimar Republic to the early post-war period.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik

    2015-07-01

    The Anatomical Institute of the University of Cologne was founded in 1925. This paper highlights its institutional development and the sources from which it procured bodies for dissection. A comparison is drawn between the first years of the institute's existence during the Weimar Republic (1925-1932) and its rebuilding after war damage in the early post-war period (1947-1954). The institute and its procurement of bodies have not previously been investigated for these two time periods. The Third Reich, for which a detailed study already exists, will be mentioned as well to allow better evaluation of the periods before and after National Socialism. Based on newly evaluated archival material and body journals which will be examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes apparent that the Cologne institute experienced a chronic shortage of bodies both during the Weimar Republic and the first post-war decade (even though the delivery facilities were mostly the same). However, the situation of the institute in terms of structure, organization and personnel as well as body supply in the aftermath of World War II proved much more challenging than during the time of the Weimar Republic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomized Controlled Evaluation of an Early Intervention to Prevent Post-Rape Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Waldrop, Angela E.; King, Lynda; King, Daniel; Danielson, Carla; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-01-01

    A randomized between-group design was used to evaluate efficacy of a video intervention to reduce PTSD and other mental health problems, implemented prior to the forensic medical exam conducted within 72 hours post-sexual assault. Participants were 140 female victims of sexual assault (68 video/72 nonvideo) ages 15 or older. Assessments were targeted for 6 weeks (Time 1) and 6 months (Time 2) post-assault. At Time 1, the intervention was associated with lower scores on measures of PTSD and depression among women with prior rape history relative to scores among women with prior rape history in the standard care condition. At Time 2, depression scores were also lower among those with a prior history who were in the video relative to standard care condition. Small effects indicating higher PTSD and BAI scores among women without a prior history in the video condition were observed at Time 1. Accelerated longitudinal growth curve analysis indicated a video x prior rape history interaction for PTSD, yielding four patterns of symptom trajectory over time. Women with a prior rape history in the video condition generally maintained the lowest level of symptoms. PMID:17585872

  7. Fiber post etching with hydrogen peroxide: effect of concentration and application time.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Menezes, Murilo; Queiroz, Ellyne Cavalcanti; Soares, Paulo Vinícius; Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Soares, Carlos José; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes

    2011-03-01

    Etching is necessary to expose the fibers and enable both mechanical and chemical bonding of the resin core to the fiber post. This study evaluated the effect of concentration and application time of hydrogen peroxide on the surface topography and bond strength of glass fiber posts to resin cores. Fiber posts were etched with 24% or 50% hydrogen peroxide for 1, 5, or 10 min (n = 10). Posts without any treatment were used as a control. After etching, the posts were silanated and adhesive resin was applied. The posts were positioned into a mold to allow a self-cured resin core to be inserted. The post/resin assembly was serially sectioned into five beams that were subjected to a tensile bond strength test. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). The surface topography was analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy. Non-etched post presents a relatively smooth surface without fiber exposure. Application of hydrogen peroxide increased the surface roughness and exposed the fibers. All experimental conditions yielded similar bond strength values that were higher than those obtained in the control group. Both 24% and 50% hydrogen peroxide exposure increased the bond strength of resin to the posts, irrespective of the application time. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calculational investigation of impact cratering dynamics - Early time material motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, J. M.; Austin, M. G.; Ruhl, S. F.; Schultz, P. H.; Orphal, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Early time two-dimensional finite difference calculations of laboratory-scale hypervelocity (6 km/sec) impact of 0.3 g spherical 2024 aluminum projectiles into homogeneous plasticene clay targets were performed and the resulting material motions analyzed. Results show that the initial jetting of vaporized target material is qualitatively similar to experimental observation. The velocity flow field developed within the target is shown to have features quite similar to those found in calculations of near-surface explosion cratering. Specific application of Maxwell's analytic Z-Model (developed to interpret the flow fields of near-surface explosion cratering calculations), shows that this model can be used to describe the flow fields resulting from the impact cratering calculations, provided that the flow field center is located beneath the target surface, and that application of the model is made late enough in time that most of the projectile momentum has been dissipated.

  9. Early time evolution of a chemically produced electron depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.

    1995-01-01

    The early time evolution of an ionospheric electron depletion produced by a radially expanding electron attachment chemical release is studied with a two-dimensional simulation model. The model includes electron attachment chemistry, incorporates fluid electrons, particle ions and neutrals, and considers the evolution in a plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field for a low beta plasma. Timescales considered are of the order of or less than the cyclotron period of the negative ions that result as a by-product of the electron attacment reaction. This corresponds to time periods of tenths of seconds during recent experiemts. Simulation results show that a highly sheared azimuthal electron flow velocity develops in the radially expanding depletion boundary. This sheared electron flow velocity and the steep density gradients in the boundary give rise to small-scale irregulatities in the form of electron density cavities and spikes. The nonlinear evolution of these irregularities results in trapping and ultimately turbulent heating of the negative ions.

  10. Adiposity, post-diagnosis weight change, and risk of cardiovascular events among early-stage breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J

    2017-04-01

    Little research examines whether adiposity or post-diagnosis weight changes influence Cardiovascular disease (CVD) among breast cancer patients for whom effects may differ due to treatment and recovery. We studied Stage I-III breast cancer survivors 18 to  <80 years, without pre-existing CVD, diagnosed from 1997 to 2013 at Kaiser Permanente. Women reported weight at diagnosis and weight and waist circumference (WC) around 24 months post diagnosis. Using Cox models for time to incident coronary artery disease, heart failure, valve abnormality, arrhythmia, stroke, or CVD death, we examined at-diagnosis body mass index (BMI, n = 3109) and post-diagnosis WC (n = 1898) and weight change (n = 1903, stable, ±5 to  <10-lbs or ±≥10-lbs). Mean (SD) age was 57 (11) years, and BMI was 28 (6) kg-m 2 . Post diagnosis, 25% of women gained and 14% lost ≥10-lbs; mean (SD) WC was 90 (15) cm. Over a median of 8.28 years, 915 women developed CVD. BMI 25-30-kg/m 2 (vs. BMI < 25-kg/m 2 ) was not associated with CVD, while BMI ≥ 35-kg/m 2 increased risk by 33% (HR: 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.65), independent of lifestyle and tumor/treatment factors. The increased risk at BMI ≥ 35-kg/m 2 attenuated with adjustment for pre-existing CVD risk factors to HR: 1.20; 95%CI 0.97-1.50. By contrast, even moderate elevations in WC increased risk of CVD, independent of pre-existing risk factors (HR: 1.93; 95%CI 1.31-2.84 comparing ≥100-cm vs. ≤80-cm). Post-diagnosis weight change had no association with CVD. Extreme adiposity and any elevation in WC increased risk of CVD among breast cancer survivors; however, changes in weight in the early post-diagnosis period were not associated with CVD. Survivors with high WC and existing CVD risk factors should be monitored.

  11. Adverse effects of meglumine diatrizoate on renal function in the early post-transplant period.

    PubMed

    Light, J A; Perloff, L J; Etheredge, E E; Hill, G; Spees, E K

    1975-11-01

    Thirty-four renal transplant recipients received drip infusion urograms from 2-24 days post-transplantation. Twenty-two patients exhibited changes in renal function within 1-4 days of the urogram that were indistinguishable from allograft rejection: a tender, swollen kidney, elevation of serum creatinine, oliguria, decreased urine sodium concentration, weight gain, and hypertension. Two patients developed acute tubular necrosis and required hemodialysis, but renal function in the remaining 20 patients improved after therapy for "graft rejection" with i.v. methyprednisolone sodium succinnate. Kidneys from older-age donors that were functioning suboptimally and kidneys which exhibited subsequent clinical allograft rejection were more at risk for contrast media toxicity. This suggests that occult vascular lesions may have been present in the allograft which were exacerbated when exposed to the irritant vascular effects of contrast media, producing a mild, reversible toxic nephritis. However, several kidneys with normal function and several kidneys which never exhibited rejection activity were also adversely affected by exposure to contrast media. It appears these agents should be used cautiously, if at all, in the early post-transplant period.

  12. Effect of post cure time and temperature on the properties of two phenolic-fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, M. H.; Price, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    Some effects of post-cure time and temperature on the physicomechanical properties of a phenolic-asbestos and a phenolic-glass composite are studied. The molding and post-curing procedures are discussed along with physical and mechanical test results. It is found that the specific gravity of the panels tested decreased slightly but the hardness always increased with post cure, and that the mechanical properties had different patterns of response to increasing post-cure time and temperature. For tensile properties, strength decreased, modulus increased, and elongation at break exhibited little change. In general, the phenolic-asbestos showed more positive response to post cure than did the phenolic-glass. Mold venting is found to impart better properties to the composites concerned.

  13. Renal impairment and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction early post-myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jorapur, Vinod; Lamas, Gervasio A; Sadowski, Zygmunt P; Reynolds, Harmony R; Carvalho, Antonio C; Buller, Christopher E; Rankin, James M; Renkin, Jean; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; White, Harvey D; Vozzi, Carlos; Balcells, Eduardo; Ragosta, Michael; Martin, C Edwin; Srinivas, Vankeepuram S; Wharton III, William W; Abramsky, Staci; Mon, Ana C; Kronsberg, Shari S; Hochman, Judith S

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study if impaired renal function is associated with increased risk of peri-infarct heart failure (HF) in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: Patients with occluded infarct-related arteries (IRAs) between 1 to 28 d after myocardial infarction (MI) were grouped into chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Rates of early post-MI HF were compared among eGFR groups. Logistic regression was used to explore independent predictors of HF. RESULTS: Reduced eGFR was present in 71.1% of 2160 patients, with significant renal impairment (eGFR < 60 mL/min every 1.73 m2) in 14.8%. The prevalence of HF was higher with worsening renal function: 15.5%, 17.8% and 29.4% in patients with CKD stages 1, 2 and 3 or 4, respectively (P < 0.0001), despite a small absolute difference in mean EF across eGFR groups: 48.2 ± 10.0, 47.9 ± 11.3 and 46.2 ± 12.1, respectively (P = 0.02). The prevalence of HF was again higher with worsening renal function among patients with preserved EF: 10.1%, 13.6% and 23.6% (P < 0.0001), but this relationship was not significant among patients with depressed EF: 27.1%, 26.2% and 37.9% (P = 0.071). Moreover, eGFR was an independent correlate of HF in patients with preserved EF (P = 0.003) but not in patients with depressed EF (P = 0.181). CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of post-MI patients with occluded IRAs have impaired renal function. Impaired renal function was associated with an increased rate of early post-MI HF, the association being strongest in patients with preserved EF. These findings have implications for management of peri-infarct HF. PMID:20885993

  14. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Strawderman, Myla S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = −0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = −0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. PMID:25244078

  15. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = -0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = -0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in first-time myocardial infarction patients: roles of attachment and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yang; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2015-11-01

    To explore the roles of attachment and alexithymia in the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and to specify the relationship between sub-dimensions of attachment, alexithymia and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients with first-time myocardial infarction in mainland China. Patients experiencing myocardial infarction have a risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. However, there have been few studies on the roles of attachment and alexithymia. A cross-sectional survey design. Ninety-seven patients participated in the assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, attachment and alexithymia from June-December in 2012. To assess post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and their correlates, we administered the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale 5-17 days after the remission of first myocardial infarction attack. Twenty-five (25·77%) patients met the criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Greater attachment anxiety and avoidance were associated with more severe posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Except for externally oriented thinking, all dimensions of alexithymia were significantly correlated with post-traumatic stress symptoms. In the regression model, attachment anxiety and difficulties identifying feelings were found to be predictive and the total regression equation explained 24·2% variance of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among myocardial infarction patients. First-time myocardial infarction patients were at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Attachment anxiety and difficulties identifying feelings were positively associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the early stage of myocardial infarction rehabilitation. It is essential to evaluate the causal relationship between attachment, alexithymia and posttraumatic stress disorder

  17. The course of early disinhibited social engagement among post-institutionalized adopted children

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Jamie M.; Koss, Kalsea J.; Doyle, Colleen M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 20% of post-institutionalized (PI) children exhibit disinhibited social engagement (DSE) or the propensity to approach and engage strangers. There is little longitudinal research examining changes in DSE after adoption, or methods of identifying children with persistent behaviors. Methods DSE was assessed observationally four times during the first two years post-adoption in PI children 16-36 months at adoption (n=68) relative to same-age non-adopted children (n=52). At age 5, a validated interview determined which PI children met criteria for Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED). Results DSE trajectories initially increased and then stabilized. PIs had higher DSE levels initially and a steeper increase rate than NAs. When separated into physical and non-physical DSE components, group differences arose in initial physical DSE and the rate of change of non-physical DSE. DSE rate of increase predicted DSED diagnosis, as did longer institutional duration and poorer institutional care. Conclusions The rate of increase in DSE post-adoption, rather than the level observed at adoption, is predictive of disordered social engagement by age 5 years. PMID:27460336

  18. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Time-resolved neuroimaging of visual short term memory consolidation by post-perceptual attention shifts.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Marcus; Thiemann, Ulf; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    Post-perceptual cues can enhance visual short term memory encoding even after the offset of the visual stimulus. However, both the mechanisms by which the sensory stimulus characteristics are buffered as well as the mechanisms by which post-perceptual selective attention enhances short term memory encoding remain unclear. We analyzed late post-perceptual event-related potentials (ERPs) in visual change detection tasks (100ms stimulus duration) by high-resolution ERP analysis to elucidate these mechanisms. The effects of early and late auditory post-cues (300ms or 850ms after visual stimulus onset) as well as the effects of a visual interference stimulus were examined in 27 healthy right-handed adults. Focusing attention with post-perceptual cues at both latencies significantly improved memory performance, i.e. sensory stimulus characteristics were available for up to 850ms after stimulus presentation. Passive watching of the visual stimuli without auditory cue presentation evoked a slow negative wave (N700) over occipito-temporal visual areas. N700 was strongly reduced by a visual interference stimulus which impeded memory maintenance. In contrast, contralateral delay activity (CDA) still developed in this condition after the application of auditory post-cues and was thereby dissociated from N700. CDA and N700 seem to represent two different processes involved in short term memory encoding. While N700 could reflect visual post processing by automatic attention attraction, CDA may reflect the top-down process of searching selectively for the required information through post-perceptual attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases. PMID:28158192

  1. Viscous cosmology for early- and late-time universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Iver; Grøn, Øyvind; de Haro, Jaume; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    From a hydrodynamicist’s point of view the inclusion of viscosity concepts in the macroscopic theory of the cosmic fluid would appear most natural, as an ideal fluid is after all an abstraction (exluding special cases such as superconductivity). Making use of modern observational results for the Hubble parameter plus standard Friedmann formalism, we may extrapolate the description of the universe back in time up to the inflationary era, or we may go to the opposite extreme and analyze the probable ultimate fate of the universe. In this review, we discuss a variety of topics in cosmology when it is enlarged in order to contain a bulk viscosity. Various forms of this viscosity, when expressed in terms of the fluid density or the Hubble parameter, are discussed. Furthermore, we consider homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous equations of state. We investigate viscous cosmology in the early universe, examining the viscosity effects on the various inflationary observables. Additionally, we study viscous cosmology in the late universe, containing current acceleration and the possible future singularities, and we investigate how one may even unify inflationary and late-time acceleration. Finally, we analyze the viscosity-induced crossing through the quintessence-phantom divide, we examine the realization of viscosity-driven cosmological bounces, and we briefly discuss how the Cardy-Verlinde formula is affected by viscosity.

  2. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.

  3. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the “city-like” test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans. PMID:29352277

  4. Optimal timing of early versus delayed adjuvant radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Keith J; Gu, Xiangmei; Nguyen, Paul L; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P; Hu, Jim C

    2014-04-01

    Although post-radical prostatectomy (RP) adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) benefits disease that is staged as pT3 or higher, the optimal ART timing remains unknown. Our objective is to characterize the outcomes and optimal timing of early vs. delayed ART. From the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data from 1995 to 2007, we identified 963 men with pT3N0 disease receiving early (<4 mo after RP, n = 419) vs. delayed (4-12 mo after RP, n = 544) ART after RP. Utilizing propensity score methods, we compared overall mortality, prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), bone-related events (BRE), salvage hormonal therapy utilization, and intervention for urethral stricture. We then used the maximal statistic approach to determine at what time post-RP ART had the most significant effect on outcomes of interest in men with pT3N0 disease. When compared with delayed ART in men with pT3 disease, early ART was associated with improved PCSM (0.47 vs. 1.02 events per 100 person-years; P = 0.038) and less salvage hormonal therapy (2.88 vs. 4.59 events per 100 person-years; P = 0.001). Delaying ART beyond 5 months is associated with worse PCSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.3; P = 0.020), beyond 3 months is associated with more BRE (HR 1.6; P = 0.025), and beyond 4 months is associated higher rates of salvage hormonal therapy (HR 1.6; P = 0.002). ART performed after 9 months was associated with fewer urethral strictures (HR 0.6; P = 0.042). Initiating ART less than 5 months after RP for pT3 is associated with improved PCSM. Early ART is also associated with fewer BRE and less use of salvage hormonal therapy if administered earlier than 3 and 4 months after RP, respectively. However, ART administered later than 9 months after RP is associated with fewer urethral strictures. Our population-based findings complement randomized trials designed with fixed ART timing. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A More-than-Social Movement: The Post-Human Condition of Quality in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Sonja; Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This article explores quality in early childhood education by de-elevating the importance of the human subject and experience, and heightening instead a focus on and tensions with the post-human. The argument traces the intricate web of "qualities" woven throughout entanglements of subjects, objects and things that constitute what is…

  6. Post-fire tree establishment and early cohort development in conifer forests of the western Cascades of Oregon, USA

    Treesearch

    Alan J. Tepley; Frederick J. Swanson; Thomas A. Spies

    2014-01-01

    Early-seral ecosystems make important contributions to regional biodiversity by supporting high abundance and diversity of many plant and animal species that are otherwise rare or absent from closed-canopy forests. Therefore, the period of post-fire tree establishment is a key stage in forest stand and ecosystem development that can be viewed in the context of...

  7. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low.

  8. Early post-partum hematological changes in Holstein dairy cows with retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Morandi, Nicola; Trevisi, Erminio; Ferrari, Annarita; Minuti, Andrea; Venturini, Monica; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta (RP) occurs frequently in dairy cattle but little is known about the pathogenic or prognostic role of the hematological changes in this disease. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the hematological changes associated with RP in the immediate post-partum period and to assess whether these changes are associated with an acute phase reaction. Data concerning hematology, acute phase proteins, markers of inflammation and serum biochemistry performed on cows at 3±1 days in milk (DIM) from two intensive farms were extracted from the database of the ProZoo project, a research project aimed to investigate the relationship between genomic traits and bovine health and production. After application of restrictive inclusion criteria, data from 45 cows, 22 with RP and 23 controls, were statistically compared. RBC count, d-ROMs concentration, and AST activity were significantly higher in the RP group than controls. Conversely, neutrophils, thiol groups, and serum zinc concentration were significantly lower in the RP group than controls. In conclusion, although retained placenta has to be considered as a syndrome with multifactorial causes, neutropenia may be a co-factor involved in its pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to clarify whether neutropenia acts as a contributor in the pathogenesis of RP or if it is a very early consequence of the syndrome, preceding any other inflammatory changes in blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidence, etiology, and significance of acute kidney injury in the early post-kidney transplant period.

    PubMed

    Panek, Romuald; Tennankore, Karthik K; Kiberd, Bryce A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the incidence, causes, and significance of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the early transplant period. This study used a definition as >26 μmol/L increase in creatinine within 48 h or >50% increase over a period >48 h. In 326 adult consecutive recipients of a solitary kidney transplant from 2006 to 2014 followed at this center, 21% developed AKI within the first six months. Most etiologies were CNI toxicity (33%) or unknown (26%), whereas acute rejection accounted for 17% and urinary tract obstruction for 10%. Those with AKI had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at one-yr post-transplant (adjusted beta coefficient -5.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95% CI: -10.4, -0.7, p = 0.025) in a multivariable linear regression model. However, the AKI definition missed 6 of 19 episodes of acute rejection and 4 of 10 episodes of urinary tract obstruction. When acute rejection (including those that did not satisfy AKI criteria) was included in the model, other causes of AKI were not significantly associated with GFR at year 1. Although AKI, using current criteria, is likely to be a significant predictor of later outcomes, important causes are missed and the criteria are not sensitive for clinical decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dynamics and early post-tsunami evolution of floating marine debris near Fukushima Daiichi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John Philip; Ostrovsky, Lev; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Komori, Satoru; Tamura, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    The devastating tsunami triggered by the Tōhoku-Oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused a crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station where it overtopped the seawall defences. On retreating, the tsunami carried loose debris and wreckage seaward and marshalled buoyant material into extensive plumes. Widespread concern over the fate of these and numerous other Tōhoku tsunami depositions prompted attempts to simulate debris dispersion throughout the wider Pacific. However, the effects of locally perturbed wind and wave fields, active Langmuir circulation and current-induced attrition determine a complex and poorly understood morphology for large floating agglomerations. Here we show that the early post-tsunami evolution of marine-debris plumes near Fukushima Daiichi was also shaped by near-surface wind modifications that took place above relatively calm (lower surface roughness) waters covered by surface films derived from oil and other contaminants. High-spatial-resolution satellite tracking reveals faster-than-expected floating-debris motions and invigorated plume evolution within these regions, while numerical modelling of turbulent air flow over the low-drag, film-covered surface predicts typically metre-per-second wind strengthening at centimetric heights, sufficient to explain the observed debris-speed increases. Wind restructuring probably stimulates the dispersion of flotsam from both biological and anthropogenic sources throughout a global ocean of highly variable surface roughness.

  11. Early relationships and marriage in conflict and post-conflict settings: vulnerability of youth in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Jennifer; Rowley, Elizabeth; Babirye, Juliet

    2013-05-01

    While there is increased attention to child marriage, defined as marriage before 18 years of age, in countries where the practice is especially prevalent, less attention has been directed at understanding the factors affecting relationships, marriage and cohabitation among adolescents affected by conflict and displacement. This article presents factors which contribute to early relationships and informal marriages in conflict and post-conflict settings, based on qualitative research undertaken among two distinct populations in Uganda: internally displaced persons in Mucwini transit camp in northern Uganda and Congolese refugees in the Nakivale refugee settlement in southwestern Uganda. Themes were examined through a social-ecological framework. Findings indicate that fundamental shifts in economies, family relationships, and communication combined with structural changes encountered in settlements resulted in changed relationships and marriage patterns. Participants reported that poverty, splintering of family, and lack of education - which they believed to be exacerbated by conflict in both settings - had profoundly affected the views, perceptions and behaviours of youth around relationships and marriage. We identify interventions applicable to humanitarian settings that would offer refugee and internally displaced adolescents greater and more meaningful opportunities for development. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Total donor ischemic time: relationship to early hemodynamics and intensive care morbidity in pediatric cardiac transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Warren; Carr, Michelle; Ridout, Deborah; Carter, Katherine; Hulme, Sara Louise; Simmonds, Jacob; Elliott, Martin; Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael; Brown, Kate L

    2011-11-01

    Single-center studies have failed to link modest increases in total donor ischemic time to mortality after pediatric orthotopic heart transplant. We aimed to investigate whether prolonged total donor ischemic time is linked to pediatric intensive care morbidity after orthotopic heart transplant. Retrospective cohort review. Tertiary pediatric transplant center in the United Kingdom. Ninety-three pediatric orthotopic heart transplants between 2002 and 2006. Total donor ischemic time was investigated for association with early post-orthotopic heart transplant hemodynamics and intensive care unit morbidities. Of 43 males and 50 females with median age 7.2 (interquartile range 2.2, 13.0) yrs, 62 (68%) had dilated cardiomyopathy, 20 (22%) had congenital heart disease, and nine (10%) had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The mean total donor ischemic time was 225.9 (sd 65.6) mins. In the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, age-adjusted mean arterial blood pressure increased (p < .001), mean pulmonary arterial pressure fell (p = .012), but central venous pressure (p = .58) and left atrial pressure (p = .20) were unchanged. After adjustment for age, primary diagnosis, pre-orthotopic heart transplant mechanical support, and marginal donor factors, longer total donor ischemic time was significantly associated with lower mean arterial blood pressure (p < .001) in the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, longer post-orthotopic heart transplant mechanical ventilation (p = .03), longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in the intensive care unit (p = .004), and longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in hospital (p = .02). Total donor ischemic time was not related to levels of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = .62), left atrial pressure (p = .38), or central venous pressure (p = .76) early after orthotopic heart transplant. Prolonged total donor ischemic time has an adverse effect on the donor organ, contributing to lower mean arterial blood

  13. Detection of early postseismic deformation from high-rate GNSS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twardzik, C.; Vergnolle, M.; Avallone, A.; Sladen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Postseismic processes after an earthquake contribute to the redistribution of stresses in addition to that induced by the coseismic rupture. With the exception of very few studies (e.g., Miyazaki and Larson, 2008), most postseismic analyses only start one or two days following the mainshock. This leaves a critical part of postseismic phase unexplored, from a few minutes up to a few hours after the earthquake. In this study, we use kinematic precise point positioning (K-PPP) to analyze continuous GNSS data in order to obtain 30s position time series. These time series provide information on the surface displacements a soon as the dynamic response of the earthquake is over. Our first analysis focuses on the 2016 Pedernales, Ecuador, earthquake (Mw7.8). Using spectral analysis, we show that the typical logarithmic postseismic displacement trend can be detected as early as one to six hours after the earthquake depending on the station location and the level of noise. This analysis also allows to estimate the bias on the coseismic offsets usually based on daily pre- and post- earthquake positions. We use the early postseismic time series to test whether rate-and-state friction laws, traditionally used to explain postseismic processes days after the earthquake, still hold right after the mainshock. This study is being extended to two other subduction earthquakes: the 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake (Mw8.8) and the 2015 Illapel, Chile, earthquake (Mw8.2).

  14. Analyzing the posting behaviors in news forums with incremental inter-event time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi; Peng, Qinke; Lv, Jia; Zhong, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Online human behaviors are widely discussed in various fields. Three key factors, named priority, interest and memory are found crucial in human behaviors. Existing research mainly focuses on the identified and active users. However, the anonymous users and the inactive ones exist widely in news forums, whose behaviors do not receive enough attention. They cannot offer abundant postings like the others. It requires us to study posting behaviors of all the users including anonymous ones, identified ones, active ones and inactive ones in news forums only at the collective level. In this paper, the memory effects of the posting behaviors in news forums are investigated at the collective level. On the basis of the incremental inter-event time, a new model is proposed to describe the posting behaviors at the collective level. The results on twelve actual news events demonstrate the good performance of our model to describe the posting behaviors at the collective level in news forums. In addition, we find the symmetric incremental inter-event time distribution and the similar posting patterns in different durations.

  15. Error analysis of real time and post processed or bit determination of GFO using GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, William S.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) mission is to map the topography of the world's oceans in both real time (operational) and post processed modes. Currently, the best candidate for supplying the required orbit accuracy is the Global Positioning System (GPS). The purpose of this fellowship was to determine the expected orbit accuracy for GFO in both the real time and post-processed modes when using GPS tracking. This report presents the work completed through the ending date of the fellowship.

  16. Effects of spring post-planting flooding on early soybean production systems in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    April planting of early-maturing soybean to avoid late-summer drought and to allow early harvest has become a common management practice in Mississippi. However, most of the early-planted soybeans on Sharkey clay soils in Mississippi are often exposed to waterlogged conditions during the early sprin...

  17. Post-exercise heart rate variability recovery: a time-frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Peçanha, Tiago; de Paula-Ribeiro, Marcelle; Nasario-Junior, Olivassé; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout

    2013-12-01

    Most studies investigating the effects of non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical training (PT), on cardiac autonomic control, assessed the HRV only in resting conditions. Recently, a new time-frequency mathematical approach based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) method has been validated for the assessment of HRV in non-stationary conditions such as the immediate post-exercise period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the PT on post-exercise cardiac autonomic control using the time-frequency STFT analysis of the HRV. Twenty-one healthy male volunteers participated in this study. The subjects were initially evaluated for their physical exercise/sport practice and allocated to groups of low physical training ((Low)PT, n = 13) or high physical training (H(igh)PT, n = 8). The post-exercise HRV was assessed by the STFT method, which provides the analysis of dynamic changes in the power of the low- and high-frequency spectral components (LF and HF, respectively) of the HRV during the whole recovery period. Greater LF (from the min 5 to 10) and HF (from the min 6 to 10) in the post-exercise period in the H(igh)PT compared to the (Low)PT group (P < 0.05) was observed. These results indicate that exercise training exerts beneficial effects on post-exercise cardiac autonomic control.

  18. Revisiting the applicability of adult early post-operative nausea and vomiting risk factors for the paediatric patient: A prospective study using cotinine levels in children undergoing adenotonsillectomies

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Destiny F; Reddy, Arundathi; Breheny, Patrick; Young, Anna Rebecca; Ashford, Eric; Song, Megan; Zhang, Christina; Taylor, Tammy; Younes, Abbas; Vazifedan, Turaj

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative vomiting (POV) in children remains a significant clinical problem. This prospective study aims to investigate the applicability of well-established adult early post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk factors on paediatric POV after adenotonsillectomies under regulated anaesthetic conditions. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, 213 children aged 3–10-year-old were enrolled. The participants had pre-operative questionnaires completed, followed protocolised anaesthetic plans and had saliva analysed for cotinine. The primary outcomes were POV as correlated with age, gender, family or personal history of PONV, motion sickness history, opioid use, surgical time, anaesthetic time and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, as assessed by cotinine levels and questionnaire reports. Data on analgesics, antiemetics and POV incidence before post-anaesthesia care unit discharge were collected. Statistical analysis was done through multiple logistic regression. Results: A total of 200 patients finalised the study. Early POV occurred in 32%. Family history of PONV (odds ratio [OR] = 5.3, P < 0.01) and motion sickness history (OR = 4.4, P = 0.02) were highly significant risk factors. Age reached borderline statistical significance (OR = 1.4, P = 0.05). None of the other factors reached statistical significance. Conclusion: Early POV occurs frequently in paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomies. In this paediatric-aged group, the incidence of POV was affected by the family history of PONV, and history of motion sickness. Age, female gender, opioid use, surgical and anaesthetic times did not affect the incidence of POV. ETS exposure, as assessed by cotinine levels and questionnaire reports, had no protective effect on early paediatric POV. PMID:29307901

  19. Post-treatment plasma EBV-DNA positivity predicts early relapse and poor prognosis for patients with extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma in the era of asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Jing-hua; Xia, Zhong-jun; Lu, Yue; Huang, Hui-qiang; Jiang, Wen-qi; Zhang, Yu-jing

    2015-10-06

    Circulating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is a biomarker of EBV-associated malignancies. Its prognostic value in early stage NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) in the era of asparaginase was investigated. 68 patients were treated with a median of 4 cycles of asparaginase-based chemotherapy followed by a median of 54.6 Gy (range 50-60 Gy) radiation. The amount of EBV-DNA was prospectively measured in both pretreatment and post-treatment plasma samples by real-time quantitative PCR. At the end of treatment, complete response (CR) rate was 79.4%, and overall response rate (ORR) was 88.2%. Patients with negative pretreatment EBV-DNA had a higher CR rate (96.0% vs. 69.8%, p = 0.023). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate was 71% and 83%, respectively. In multivariate survival analysis, post-treatment EBV-DNA positivity and treatment response (non-CR) were prognostic factors for both worse PFS and OS (p < 0.05). Local tumor invasion was also a prognostic factor for worse OS (p = 0.010). In patients with CR, post-treatment EBV-DNA positivity correlated with inferior PFS and OS (both p < 0.0001). In patients with positive pretreatment EBV-DNA, negative post-treatment EBV-DNA correlated with better PFS and OS (both p < 0.0001). These findings indicate that post-treatment EBV-DNA positivity can predict early relapse and poor prognosis for patients with early stage NKTCL in the era of asparaginase, and may be used as an indicator of minimal residual disease.

  20. [EARLY RATHER THAN IMMEDIATE PCI IN NSTEMI; IS TIME EQUAL TO MUSCLE ONCE AGAIN?

    PubMed

    Carasso, Shemy; Nassar, Ali; Kuzniec, Fabio; Hazanov, Yevgeni; Salman, Nabeeh; Halhla, Yussra; Amir, Offer; Ghanem, Diab

    2017-10-01

    Current guidelines advocate immediate vs. non-immediate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy in ST elevation vs. non ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, NSTEMI). There is however increasing concern that "next-day PCI" in NSTEMI may adversely affect LV systolic and/or diastolic function and a more urgent aggressive approach should be taken in NSTEMI, similar to that in STEMI. In the current study we compared echocardiographic data between patients with STEMI and NSTEMI who had either primary or early PCI respectively. Prospective data of 165 consecutive patients with an acute MI were analyzed. Patients had primary PCI if they had STEMI and non-emergent PCI if they had NSTEMI. Demographic information, laboratory test results, procedure time and post-PCI echocardiographic assessment were compared between the two groups. Patients with STEMI were younger compared to patients with NSTEMI. Time to intervention was significantly longer in NSTEMI, reflecting guideline derived intervention strategy (1.9±1.7days, (median 1day) vs. 30±15min, for NSTEMI and STEMI, respectively, p<0.00001). Post-interventional LV systolic ejection fraction was better in NSTEMI compared to STEMI (53±14 vs. 48±13, respectively, p<0.05). Left atrial diameter, mitral inflow parameters and pulmonary arterial pressure were similar between the two groups. Adherence to practice guidelines delaying PCI up to 72 hours in patients with NSTEMI did not adversely affect left ventricular systolic and/or diastolic function compared to immediate PCI in patients with STEMI. Based on current data, we conclude that early PCI intervention rather than an immediate one is appropriate in NSTEMI patients.

  1. Spectral models for early time SN 2011fe observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Friesen, Brian; Sullivan, M.; Hsiao, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Howell, D. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Dominguez, I.; Krisciunas, K.; Phillips, M. M.; Suntzeff, N.; Wang, L.; Thomas, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    We use observed UV through near-IR spectra to examine whether SN 2011fe can be understood in the framework of Branch-normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and to examine its individual peculiarities. As a benchmark, we use a delayed-detonation model with a progenitor metallicity of Z⊙/20. We study the sensitivity of features to variations in progenitor metallicity, the outer density profile, and the distribution of radioactive nickel. The effect of metallicity variations in the progenitor have a relatively small effect on the synthetic spectra. We also find that the abundance stratification of SN 2011fe resembles closely that of a delayed-detonation model with a transition density that has been fit to other Branch-normal SNe Ia. At early times, the model photosphere is formed in material with velocities that are too high, indicating that the photosphere recedes too slowly or that SN 2011fe has a lower specific energy in the outer ≈0.1 M⊙ than does the model. We discuss several explanations for the discrepancies. Finally, we examine variations in both the spectral energy distribution and in the colours due to variations in the progenitor metallicity, which suggests that colours are only weak indicators for the progenitor metallicity, in the particular explosion model that we have studied. We do find that the flux in the U band is significantly higher at maximum light in the solar metallicity model than in the lower metallicity model and the lower metallicity model much better matches the observed spectrum.

  2. Spectral models for early time SN 2011fe observations

    DOE PAGES

    Baron, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Friesen, Brian; ...

    2015-10-13

    We use observed UV through near-IR spectra to examine whether SN 2011fe can be understood in the framework of Branch-normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and to examine its individual peculiarities. As a benchmark, we use a delayed-detonationmodel with a progenitormetallicity of Z ⊙/20. We study the sensitivity of features to variations in progenitor metallicity, the outer density profile, and the distribution of radioactive nickel. The effect of metallicity variations in the progenitor have a relatively small effect on the synthetic spectra. We also find that the abundance stratification of SN 2011fe resembles closely that of a delayed-detonation model withmore » a transition density that has been fit to other Branch-normal SNe Ia. At early times, the model photosphere is formed in material with velocities that are too high, indicating that the photosphere recedes too slowly or that SN 2011fe has a lower specific energy in the outer ≈0.1 M ⊙ than does the model. We discuss several explanations for the discrepancies. Lastly, we examine variations in both the spectral energy distribution and in the colours due to variations in the progenitor metallicity, which suggests that colours are only weak indicators for the progenitor metallicity, in the particular explosion model that we have studied. Here we do find that the flux in the U band is significantly higher at maximum light in the solar metallicity model than in the lower metallicity model and the lower metallicity model much better matches the observed spectrum.« less

  3. Timing and Completeness of Trial Results Posted at ClinicalTrials.gov and Published in Journals

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Carolina; Dechartres, Agnes; Perrodeau, Elodie; Haneef, Romana; Boutron, Isabelle; Ravaud, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background The US Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act requires results from clinical trials of Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs to be posted at ClinicalTrials.gov within 1 y after trial completion. We compared the timing and completeness of results of drug trials posted at ClinicalTrials.gov and published in journals. Methods and Findings We searched ClinicalTrials.gov on March 27, 2012, for randomized controlled trials of drugs with posted results. For a random sample of these trials, we searched PubMed for corresponding publications. Data were extracted independently from ClinicalTrials.gov and from the published articles for trials with results both posted and published. We assessed the time to first public posting or publishing of results and compared the completeness of results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov versus published in journal articles. Completeness was defined as the reporting of all key elements, according to three experts, for the flow of participants, efficacy results, adverse events, and serious adverse events (e.g., for adverse events, reporting of the number of adverse events per arm, without restriction to statistically significant differences between arms for all randomized patients or for those who received at least one treatment dose). From the 600 trials with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov, we randomly sampled 50% (n = 297) had no corresponding published article. For trials with both posted and published results (n = 202), the median time between primary completion date and first results publicly posted was 19 mo (first quartile = 14, third quartile = 30 mo), and the median time between primary completion date and journal publication was 21 mo (first quartile = 14, third quartile = 28 mo). Reporting was significantly more complete at ClinicalTrials.gov than in the published article for the flow of participants (64% versus 48% of trials, p<0.001), efficacy results (79% versus 69%, p = 0

  4. Timing and completeness of trial results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov and published in journals.

    PubMed

    Riveros, Carolina; Dechartres, Agnes; Perrodeau, Elodie; Haneef, Romana; Boutron, Isabelle; Ravaud, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act requires results from clinical trials of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to be posted at ClinicalTrials.gov within 1 y after trial completion. We compared the timing and completeness of results of drug trials posted at ClinicalTrials.gov and published in journals. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov on March 27, 2012, for randomized controlled trials of drugs with posted results. For a random sample of these trials, we searched PubMed for corresponding publications. Data were extracted independently from ClinicalTrials.gov and from the published articles for trials with results both posted and published. We assessed the time to first public posting or publishing of results and compared the completeness of results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov versus published in journal articles. Completeness was defined as the reporting of all key elements, according to three experts, for the flow of participants, efficacy results, adverse events, and serious adverse events (e.g., for adverse events, reporting of the number of adverse events per arm, without restriction to statistically significant differences between arms for all randomized patients or for those who received at least one treatment dose). From the 600 trials with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov, we randomly sampled 50% (n = 297) had no corresponding published article. For trials with both posted and published results (n = 202), the median time between primary completion date and first results publicly posted was 19 mo (first quartile = 14, third quartile = 30 mo), and the median time between primary completion date and journal publication was 21 mo (first quartile = 14, third quartile = 28 mo). Reporting was significantly more complete at ClinicalTrials.gov than in the published article for the flow of participants (64% versus 48% of trials, p<0.001), efficacy results (79% versus 69%, p = 0.02), adverse events (73% versus 45

  5. Characterisation of Early-Life Fecal Microbiota in Susceptible and Healthy Pigs to Post-Weaning Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Samir; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Rome, Véronique; Hamoudi, Dounia; Rhazi, Larbi; Lakhal, Lyes; Larcher, Thibaut; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Pinon-Quintana, Arturo; Guyonvarch, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Two weeks after weaning, 13 pigs exhibited liquid faeces during 2 or 3 days and were defined as diarrhoeic (D) pigs. The other 7 pigs did not have diarrhea during the whole post-weaning experimental periodand were defined as healthy (H) pigs. Using a molecular characterisation of fecal microbiota with CE-SSCP fingerprint, Next Generation Sequencing and qPCR, we show that D and H pigs were mainly discriminated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7, i.e. 4 weeks before post-weaning diarrhoea occurence. At PND 7 H pigs displayed a lower evenness and a higher abundance of Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminocacaceae and Lactobacillaceae compared to D pigs. The sPLS regression method indicates that these bacterial families were strongly correlated to a higher Bacteroidetes abundance observed in PND 30 H pigs one week before diarrhoea. These results emphasize the potential of early microbiota diversity and composition as being an indicator of susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Furthermore, they support the health promoting strategies of pig herds through gut microbiota engineering. PMID:28072880

  6. Tillage system and time post-liquid dairy manure: Effects on runoff, sediment and nutrients losses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liquid manure applied in agricultural lands improves soil quality. However, incorrect management of manure may cause environmental problems due to sediments and nutrients losses associated to runoff. The aims of this work were to: (i) evaluate the time effect of post-liquid dairy manure (LDM) applic...

  7. Testing the Efficacy of a Scholarship Program for Single Parent, Post-Freshmen, Full Time Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Kaka, Sarah J.; Tygret, Jennifer A.; Cathcart, Katy

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of a scholarship program designed to assist single parent, post-freshmen, full time undergraduate students and predictors of success among a sample of said students, where success is defined as progress toward completion, academic achievement, and degree completion. Results of fixed effects regression and…

  8. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient timing is a popular nutritional strategy that involves the consumption of combinations of nutrients--primarily protein and carbohydrate--in and around an exercise session. Some have claimed that this approach can produce dramatic improvements in body composition. It has even been postulated that the timing of nutritional consumption may be more important than the absolute daily intake of nutrients. The post-exercise period is widely considered the most critical part of nutrient timing. Theoretically, consuming the proper ratio of nutrients during this time not only initiates the rebuilding of damaged muscle tissue and restoration of energy reserves, but it does so in a supercompensated fashion that enhances both body composition and exercise performance. Several researchers have made reference to an anabolic “window of opportunity” whereby a limited time exists after training to optimize training-related muscular adaptations. However, the importance - and even the existence - of a post-exercise ‘window’ can vary according to a number of factors. Not only is nutrient timing research open to question in terms of applicability, but recent evidence has directly challenged the classical view of the relevance of post-exercise nutritional intake with respect to anabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be twofold: 1) to review the existing literature on the effects of nutrient timing with respect to post-exercise muscular adaptations, and; 2) to draw relevant conclusions that allow practical, evidence-based nutritional recommendations to be made for maximizing the anabolic response to exercise. PMID:23360586

  9. Post-early cretaceous landform evolution along the western margin of the banca~nnia trough, western nsw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Previously undated post-Devonian sediments outcropping north of Fowlers Gap station near the western margin of the Bancannia Trough are shown by plant macro- and microfossil determinations to be of Early Cretaceous (most likely Neocomian and/or Aptian) age, and thus part of the Eromanga Basin. They are assigned to the previously defined Telephone Creek Formation. Study of the structural configuration of this unit and the unconformably underlying Devonian rocks suggests that the gross landscape architecture of the area results from post-Early Cretaceous monoclinal folding along blind faults at the western margin of the trough, combined with the effects of differential erosion. This study shows that, while landscape evolution in the area has been dynamic, the major changes that have occurred are on a geological rather than human timescale.

  10. Early Childhood Professionals' Experience of Time to Facilitate Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…

  11. Early Childhood Education in Neoliberal, Religiously Conservative Times in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Naciye; Eren Deniz, Ebru

    2018-01-01

    This article provides an analysis and discussion of the impacts of neoliberal, religiously conservative educational policies on early childhood education (ECE) in Turkey. After an introduction, the article is presented in four sections. The first section provides an overview of neoliberal, religiously conservative policies in the Turkish…

  12. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels as a cause of early post-renal transplantation hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Han, S Y; Hwang, E A; Park, S B; Kim, H C; Kim, H T

    2012-04-01

    Hypophosphatemia is a common complication after renal transplantation. Hyperparathyroidism has long been thought to be the cause, but hypophosphatemia can persist after high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels normalize. Furthermore, calcitriol levels remain inappropriately low after transplantation, suggesting that mechanisms other than PTH contribute. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) induces phosphaturia, inhibits calcitriol synthesis, and accumulates in chronic kidney disease. We performed prospective study to investigate if FGF-23 early after renal transplantation contributes to hypophosphatemia. We measured FGF-23 levels before and at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after transplantation in 20 renal transplant recipients. Serum creatinine, calcium (Ca), phosphate (Pi), intact PTH (PTH), and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)VitD) were measured at the same time. FGF-23 levels decreased by 97% at 4 weeks after renal transplantation (PRT) (7,471 ± 11,746 vs 225 ± 295 pg/mL; P < .05) but were still above normal. PTH and Pi levels also decreased significantly after renal transplantation, and Ca and 1,25(OH)(2)VitD slightly increased. PRT hypophosphatemia of <2.5 mg/dL developed in 15 (75%) and 12 (60%) patients at 4 weeks and 12 weeks respectively. Compared with nonhypophosphatemic patients, the levels of FGF-23 of hypophosphatemic patients were higher (303 ± 311 vs 10 ± 6.9 pg/mL; P = .02) at 4 weeks PRT. FGF-23 levels were inversely correlated with Pi (r(2) = 0.406; P = .011); PTH was not independently associated with Pi (r(2) = 0.132; P = .151). FGF-23 levels decrease dramatically after renal transplantation. During the early PRT period, Pi rapidly decreased, suggesting that FGF-23 is cleared by the kidney, but residual FGF-23 may contribute to the PRT hypophosphatemia. FGF-23, but not PTH levels, was independently associated with PRT hypophosphatemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Subclinical Early Post-Traumatic Seizures Detected by Continuous EEG Monitoring in a Consecutive Pediatric Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Daniel H; Lerner, Jason T; Matsumoto, Joyce H; Madikians, Andranik; Yudovin, Sue; Valino, Heather; McArthur, David L; Wu, Joyce Y; Leung, Michelle; Buxley, Farzad; Szeliga, Conrad; Van Hirtum-Das, Michele; Sankar, Raman; Brooks-Kayal, Amy; Giza, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children and early post-traumatic seizures (EPTS) are a contributing factor to ongoing acute damage. Continuous video EEG monitoring (cEEG) was utilized to assess the burden of clinical and electrographic EPTS. Methods Eighty-seven consecutive, unselected (mild – severe), acute TBI patients requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission at 2 academic centers were prospectively monitored with cEEG per established clinical TBI protocols. Clinical and subclinical seizures and status epilepticus (SE, clinical and subclinical) were assessed for their relation to clinical risk factors and short-term outcome measures. Key findings Of all patients, 42.5% (37/87) had seizures. Younger age (p=0.002) and mechanism (abusive head trauma - AHT, p<0.001) were significant risk factors. Subclinical seizures occurred in 16.1% (14/87), 6 of whom had only subclinical seizures. Risk factors for subclinical seizures included: younger age (p<0.001), AHT (p<0.001) and intraaxial bleed (p<0.001). Status Epilepticus (SE) occurred in 18.4% (16/87) with risk factors including: younger age (p<0.001), AHT (p<0.001), and intraaxial bleed (p=0.002). Subclinical SE was detected in 13.8% (12/87) with significant risk factors including: younger age (p<0.001), AHT (p=0.001), and intraaxial bleed (p=0.004). Subclinical seizures were associated with lower discharge KOSCHI score (p=0.002). SE and subclinical SE were associated with increased hospital length of stay (p=0.017 and p=0.041 respectively) and lower hospital discharge KOSCHI (p=0.007 and p=0.040 respectively). Significance cEEG monitoring significantly improves detection of seizures/SE and is the only way to detect subclinical seizures/SE. cEEG may be indicated after pediatric TBI, particularly in younger children, AHT cases, and those with intraaxial blood on CT. PMID:24032982

  14. Low pretransplant IgA level is associated with early post-lung transplant seromucous infection.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sudish C; Avery, Robin K; Budev, Marie; Gupta, Sandeep; Pettersson, Gösta B; Nowicki, Edward R; Mehta, Atul; Chapman, Jeffrey T; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2018-04-13

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Immunoglobulins are part of both seromucous (IgA) and serum (IgG) infection defense mechanisms. We therefore hypothesized that lower pretransplant IgA levels would be associated with more early post-lung transplant seromucous infections and greater mortality independent of IgG. From January 2000 to July 2010, 538 patients undergoing primary lung transplantation had pretransplant IgA (n = 429) and IgG (n = 488) measured as a clinical routine. Median IgA was 200 mg·dL -1 (2% < 70 mg·dL -1 , lower limit of normal); median IgG was 970 mg·dL -1 (5% < 600 mg·dL -1 ). Intensive microbiology review was used to categorize infections and their causative organisms within the first posttransplant year. In total, 397 seromucous infections were observed in 247 patients, most bacterial. Although IgA and IgG were moderately correlated (r = 0.5, P < .0001), low pretransplant IgA was a strong risk factor (P = .01) for seromucous infections, but pretransplant IgG was not (P ≥ .6). As pretransplant IgA levels fell below 200 mg·dL -1 , the risk of these posttransplant infections rose nearly linearly. Lower pretransplant levels of IgA were associated with greater posttransplant mortality to end of follow-up (P = .004), but pretransplant IgG was not (P ≥ .3). Low levels of preoperative IgA, an important immunoglobulin involved in mucosal immunologic defense, but not IgG, are associated with seromucous infections in the year after lung transplantation and increased follow-up mortality. It would appear prudent to identify patients with relative IgA deficiency at listing and to increase vigilance of monitoring for, and prophylaxis against, seromucous infection in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Early harvest increases post-harvest physiological quality of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Marília; Medeiros Coelho, Cileide Maria

    2016-06-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is a conifer native to Brazil and is an endangered species. Since this species seeds have a short period of viability, its vulnerability is higher. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of A. angustifolia seeds during the development and post-storage periods. For this, cones of A. angustifolia were collected from a natural population in Curitibanos, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in March, April, May and June 2012. The collected seeds were classified into developmental stages of cotyledonary, I, II and III according to the month of collection; a total of 10 cones were collected for each stage. Seeds were stored in a refrigerator for 60 and 120 days, and were submitted to a chamber germination test (25 °C-photoperiod 12 h). Additionally, seeds were tested for moisture content (105 °C for 24 hours), tetrazolium (0.1 % for 1 hour) and vigor (electric conductivity [75 mL distilled water at 25 °C], germination speed index, and shoot and root length). Our results showed that during seed development, moisture content decreased from the cotyledonary stage (66.54 %) to stage III (49.69 %), and vigor increased in the last stage. During storage, moisture content at cotyledonary stage and stage I was stable. On the other hand, stored seeds exhibited a decrease in moisture content after 120 days at stages II and III. Physiological quality at the cotyledonary stage resulted in an increased germination rate of 86 % and 93 % after 60 and 120 days of storage, respectively; unlike stages II and III exhibited a decrease in seed viability and vigor after storage. Electrical conductivity was higher for fresh seeds at the cotyledonary stage, than for those stored for 60 and 120 days. However, in other stages, released leachate content after 120 days of storage, increased with the advance of the collection period. Germination speed index and shoot and root lengths after storage were highest for seeds at the cotyledonary stage and stage I

  16. Time to hospitalization for suicide attempt by the timing of parental suicide during offspring early development

    PubMed Central

    Kuramoto, S. Janet; Runeson, Bo; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wilcox, Holly C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Previous studies have suggested that children who experience parental suicide at earlier ages are at higher risk of future hospitalization for suicide attempt. However, how the trajectories of risk differ by offspring age at the time of parental suicide is currently unknown. Objective To study time at risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt among offspring after experiencing parental suicide or accidental death by offspring developmental period at the time of parental death. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study Setting Sweden Participants 26,096 offspring who experienced parental suicide and 32,395 offspring of accident decedents prior to age 25 from 1973-2003. Main Outcome Measures Hospitalization for suicide attempt. Parametric survival analysis was used to model the time to hospitalization for suicide attempt across offspring who lost a parent during early childhood (0-5 years old), later childhood (6-12), adolescence (13-17) and young adulthood (18-24). Results The risk in offspring who lost a parent during early or late childhood surpassed the other two age groups’ hazards approximately 5 years after the origin and, for the youngest group, continued to rise over the course of decades. Offspring who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood were at greatest risk within 1 to 2 years after parental suicide, and risk declined over time. The shape of hospitalization risk was similar among those who experienced parental fatal accident. When the shape of hospitalization for suicide attempt at each developmental period was fixed to be the same between the two groups, offspring who lost a parent to suicide had earlier risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt hospitalization than offspring who lost a parent to an accident. Conclusion The hospitalization risk for suicide attempt in offspring who lost a parent during their childhood is different from those who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood. The results suggest

  17. Spike Train Auto-Structure Impacts Post-Synaptic Firing and Timing-Based Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Scheller, Bertram; Castellano, Marta; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Cortical neurons are typically driven by several thousand synapses. The precise spatiotemporal pattern formed by these inputs can modulate the response of a post-synaptic cell. In this work, we explore how the temporal structure of pre-synaptic inhibitory and excitatory inputs impact the post-synaptic firing of a conductance-based integrate and fire neuron. Both the excitatory and inhibitory input was modeled by renewal gamma processes with varying shape factors for modeling regular and temporally random Poisson activity. We demonstrate that the temporal structure of mutually independent inputs affects the post-synaptic firing, while the strength of the effect depends on the firing rates of both the excitatory and inhibitory inputs. In a second step, we explore the effect of temporal structure of mutually independent inputs on a simple version of Hebbian learning, i.e., hard bound spike-timing-dependent plasticity. We explore both the equilibrium weight distribution and the speed of the transient weight dynamics for different mutually independent gamma processes. We find that both the equilibrium distribution of the synaptic weights and the speed of synaptic changes are modulated by the temporal structure of the input. Finally, we highlight that the sensitivity of both the post-synaptic firing as well as the spike-timing-dependent plasticity on the auto-structure of the input of a neuron could be used to modulate the learning rate of synaptic modification. PMID:22203800

  18. Post-adoption Depression: Parental Classes of Depressive Symptoms Across Time

    PubMed Central

    Foli, Karen J.; South, Susan C.; Lim, Eunjung; Jarnecke, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 10%-15% of birth mothers and fathers experience postpartum depression, but reports of depressive symptoms in adoptive parents are more variable. Findings from investigators range from 10%-32%, which may mask the experiences of distinct groups of adoptive parents from pre-to post-placement of a child. Methods We performed latent class growth analysis using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scores of 129 primarily heterosexual, adoptive parents (50% females) for three time points: 4-6 weeks pre-placement of the child, 4-6 weeks post-placement, and 5-6 months post-placement. Mixed effects models by parent depressive trajectories were also conducted for three types of variables: interpersonal, psychological symptoms, and life orientation. Results Five classes of depressive symptom trajectories were found. The majority of parents (71%) belonged to a class with low levels of depressive symptoms across time. However, two classes of parents were above the threshold for depressive symptoms at placement, and three classes of parents were above the threshold at 6 months post-placement. The majority of interpersonal, psychological symptom, and life orientation variables were significant across classes and by time. Limitations The homogeneity of the sample calls for replication of study findings. Conclusions An explanation for inconsistencies in the range of adoptive parent depressive symptoms may be explained by different subgroups of parents who vary by their trajectory of depressive symptoms before and after placement of the child. Adoption and mental health professionals should be aware that select adoptive parents may struggle pre-and post-placement of a child. PMID:27155072

  19. Post-adoption depression: Parental classes of depressive symptoms across time.

    PubMed

    Foli, Karen J; South, Susan C; Lim, Eunjung; Jarnecke, Amber M

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 10-15% of birth mothers and fathers experience postpartum depression, but reports of depressive symptoms in adoptive parents are more variable. Findings from investigators range from 10% to 32%, which may mask the experiences of distinct groups of adoptive parents from pre-to post-placement of a child. We performed latent class growth analysis using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scores of 129 primarily heterosexual, adoptive parents (50% females) for three time points: 4-6 weeks pre-placement of the child, 4-6 weeks post-placement, and 5-6 months post-placement. Mixed effects models by parent depressive trajectories were also conducted for three types of variables: interpersonal, psychological symptoms, and life orientation. Five classes of depressive symptom trajectories were found. The majority of parents (71%) belonged to a class with low levels of depressive symptoms across time. However, two classes of parents were above the threshold for depressive symptoms at placement, and three classes of parents were above the threshold at 6 months post-placement. The majority of interpersonal, psychological symptom, and life orientation variables were significant across classes and by time. The homogeneity of the sample calls for replication of study findings. An explanation for inconsistencies in the range of adoptive parent depressive symptoms may be explained by different subgroups of parents who vary by their trajectory of depressive symptoms before and after placement of the child. Adoption and mental health professionals should be aware that select adoptive parents may struggle pre-and post-placement of a child. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini; Georgiades, Pantelis, E-mail: pgeor@ucy.ac.cy

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledgemore » about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7

  1. Real-Time and Post-Processed Georeferencing for Hyperpspectral Drone Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, R. A.; Khoramshahi, E.; Suomalainen, J.; Hakala, T.; Viljanen, N.; Honkavaara, E.

    2018-05-01

    The use of drones and photogrammetric technologies are increasing rapidly in different applications. Currently, drone processing workflow is in most cases based on sequential image acquisition and post-processing, but there are great interests towards real-time solutions. Fast and reliable real-time drone data processing can benefit, for instance, environmental monitoring tasks in precision agriculture and in forest. Recent developments in miniaturized and low-cost inertial measurement systems and GNSS sensors, and Real-time kinematic (RTK) position data are offering new perspectives for the comprehensive remote sensing applications. The combination of these sensors and light-weight and low-cost multi- or hyperspectral frame sensors in drones provides the opportunity of creating near real-time or real-time remote sensing data of target object. We have developed a system with direct georeferencing onboard drone to be used combined with hyperspectral frame cameras in real-time remote sensing applications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the real-time georeferencing comparing with post-processing solutions. Experimental data sets were captured in agricultural and forested test sites using the system. The accuracy of onboard georeferencing data were better than 0.5 m. The results showed that the real-time remote sensing is promising and feasible in both test sites.

  2. On the determination of the post-irradiation time from the glow curve of TLD-100.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, M; German, U; Dubinsky, S; Alfassi, Z B

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of peak 3 to the sum of peaks 4 + 5 in TLD-100 was measured for various pre-irradiation and post-irradiation time periods, under conditions characteristic of routine personal dosimetry. It was confirmed that the value of this ratio depends only on the elapsed time between the prior readout and the present one, independent of the moment when the irradiation took place during the total time interval (storage time). This effect indicates that fading of peak 3 seems to be due mainly to changes in the unoccupied traps, and not to decay of trapped charges, being almost independent of the presence of electrons or holes in the traps. This observation leads to the conclusion that the suggestions in the past to use the decay of peak 3 in TLD-100 for the measurement of the elapsed time between irradiation and readout may have been wrong. On the other hand, the decay of peak 2 can be used to measure the elapsed time from irradiation, since the rate of decay is different when related to pre-irradiation and post-irradiation times, indicating a much higher decay rate of the trapped charges (Randall-Wilkins decay). However, because of the fast decay rate of peak 2, its use for determination of the elapsed time since irradiation is of little practical significance.

  3. Utility of circulating serum miRNAs as biomarkers of early cartilage degeneration in animal models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kung, L H W; Zaki, S; Ravi, V; Rowley, L; Smith, M M; Bell, K M; Bateman, J F; Little, C B

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if serum microRNA (miRNA) signatures were biomarkers of early cartilage degeneration in preclinical mouse models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory arthritis. Cartilage degeneration was induced in 10-12 week old male C57BL6 mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or intra-articular injection of methylated-bovine-serum-albumin (AIA), with sham-operated or saline-injected control animals (n = 6/treatment/time). Total serum RNA and knee joints were isolated at 1, 4 and 16 weeks post-induction. Cartilage degeneration was scored histologically. Serum miRNA expression profiling was performed using Agilent microarrays and validated by qPCR. DMM-operated and AIA mice had characteristic cartilage degeneration (proteoglycan loss, chondrocyte hypertrophy, structural damage), that increased significantly with time compared with controls, and with distinct temporal differences between arthritis models. However, expression profiling revealed no statistically significant dysregulation of serum miRNAs between AIA vs saline-injected or DMM vs sham-operated control mice at the critical early disease stages. The inability to detect DMM or AIA serum miRNA signatures compared with controls was not due to the insensitivity of the expression profiling approach since significant changes were observed in miRNA expression between the arthritis models and between time points. While distinct patterns of progressive cartilage degradation were induced in the arthritis models, we were unable to identify any serum miRNAs that were significantly dysregulated in early stages of disease compared with controls. This suggests circulating serum miRNAs may not be useful as cartilage biomarkers in distinguishing the early or progressive stages of arthritis cartilage degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of salivary cortisol, heart rate, and oxygen saturation between early skin-to-skin contact with different initiation and duration times in healthy, full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsushima, Miyoko; Kawabe, Tsutomu

    2011-03-01

    There are few studies that compare the physiological and biological efficacies between different early skin-to-skin contacts (SSC) post birth. To investigate physiologically and biochemically how early SSC with different initiation and duration time influence the stress post birth for full-term infants. Non-experimental study. Study I; Thirty-two infants who began SSC 5 min or less [birth SSC, mean initiation time (standard deviation): 1.6 (1.1) min] after birth and 36 infants who did so more than 5 min [very early SSC, 26.3 (5.0) min] in heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) analysis. Study II; Eighteen infants who underwent SSC for 60 min or less [mean initiation time: 7.5 (12.2) min] and 61 infants who did so for more than 60 min [15.3 (12.5) min] in salivary cortisol analysis. HR and SpO(2) measured for 30 min post birth. Salivary cortisol concentration measured at 1 min, 60 min, and 120 min post birth. Birth SSC group reached HR stability of 120-160 bpm significantly faster than very early SSC group by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P=0.001 by log-rank test). As for SpO(2) stability of 92% and 96%, no significantly between-group difference was found. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly lower between 60 and 120 min after birth in SSC group, continuing for more than 60 min compared with SSC group for 60 min or less after adjustment for salivary cortisol level at 1 min besides the infant stress factors (P=0.046). Earlier SSC beginning within 5 min post birth and longer SSC continuing for more than 60 min within 120 min post birth are beneficial for stability of cardiopulmonary dynamics and the reduction of infant stress during the early period post birth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of early neonatal development and delayed feeding immediately post-hatch on the hepatic lipogenic program in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark P; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, Monika; Rosebrough, Robert W; McMurtry, John P; Angel, Roselina

    2010-12-01

    The embryo to neonate transition is a critical period of development that has significant impact on broiler production. During this time important genetic programs governing metabolism and growth are established. The goal of this work was to study the effects of early post-hatch (PH) development and the time of initiation of feeding on activation of the genetic program regulating hepatic lipogenesis. A comparison of liver total RNA samples at hatch and 7 days PH was performed using oligonucleotide-based (Affymetrix GeneChip®) chicken genome microarrays. During the first week PH there was significant up-regulation of key lipogenic genes including: ATP citrate lyase (ACL), malic enzyme (ME), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACCα), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and thyroid hormone responsive spot 14α (Spot 14α) among others. These findings were confirmed using gene-specific RT-PCR assays. In a follow-up study, we investigated the effects of withholding feed for the first 48 h PH (delayed feeding, DF) on lipogenic gene expression through 8 days PH. Body weight gain was significantly depressed by DF. Plasma levels of the major metabolic hormones that regulate lipogenic gene expression (insulin, glucagon and T(3)) changed significantly during PH development, but were largely unaffected by DF. Plasma glucose was significantly lower in the DF group at 24h PH but recovered thereafter. In general, DF inhibited the up-regulation of lipogenic genes until feeding was initiated. Delayed up-regulation was also observed for the lipogenic transcription factor genes, SREBP-1, SREBP-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), but not for carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREB) or liver X receptor (LXR). Our results offer additional insight into the transcriptional programming of hepatic lipogenesis in response to the transition from high fat (yolk) to high

  6. Early post-tsunami disaster medical assistance to Banda Aceh: a personal account.

    PubMed

    Garner, Alan A; Harrison, Ken

    2006-02-01

    The south Asian tsunami on 26 December, 2004, saw Australia deploy civilian teams to an international disaster in large numbers for the first time. The logistics of supporting such teams in both a self sustainability capacity and medical equipment had not previously been planned for or tested. For the first Australian team deployed to Banda Aceh, which arrived on the fourth day after the tsunami, equipment sourced from the New South Wales Fire Brigades Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) cache supplied all food, water, tents, generators and sleeping equipment. The medical equipment was largely sourced from the CareFlight US&R medical cache. There were significant deficits in surgical equipment as the medical cache had not been designed to provide a stand alone surgical capability. This resulted in the need for substantial improvisation by the surgical teams during the deployment. Despite this, the team performed nearly 140 major procedures in austere circumstances and significantly contributed to the early international response to this major humanitarian disaster.

  7. Adjuvant (post-surgery) chemotherapy for early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Winter-Roach, Brett A; Kitchener, Henry C; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    trials were included in the meta-analyses and we considered them to be at a low risk of bias. Meta-analysis of five-year data from three trials indicated that women who received adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy had better overall survival (OS) than those who did not (1008 women; hazard ratio (HR) 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.93). Likewise, meta-analysis of five-year data from four trials indicated that women who received adjuvant chemotherapy had better progression-free survival (PFS) than those who did not (1170 women; HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.84). The trials included in these meta-analyses gave consistent estimates of the effects of chemotherapy. In addition, these findings were robust over time (10-year PFS: two trials, 925 women; HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.84). Subgroup analysis suggested that women who had optimal surgical staging of their disease were unlikely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (HR for OS 1.22; 95% CI 0.63 to 2.37; two trials, 234 women) whereas those who had sub-optimal staging did (HR for OS 0.63; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.85; two trials, 772 women). One trial showed a benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy among women at high risk (HR for OS 0.48; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.72) but not among those at low/medium risk (HR for OS 0.95; 95% CI 0.54 to 1.66). However, these subgroup findings could be due to chance and should be interpreted with caution. Authors’ conclusions Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy is effective in prolonging the survival of the majority of patients who are assessed as having early (FIGO stage I/IIa) epithelial ovarian cancer. However, it may be withheld from women in whom there is well-differentiated encapsulated unilateral disease (stage 1a grade 1) or those with comprehensively staged Ib, well or moderately differentiated (grade 1/2) disease. Others with unstaged early disease or those with poorly differentiated tumours should be offered chemotherapy. A pragmatic approach may be necessary in clinical settings where

  8. Post-Exposure Sleep Deprivation Facilitates Correctly Timed Interactions Between Glucocorticoid and Adrenergic Systems, which Attenuate Traumatic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shlomi; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Matar, Michael A; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2012-01-01

    compared with exposed-SD animals. Intentional prevention of sleep in the early aftermath of stress exposure may well be beneficial in attenuating traumatic stress-related sequelae. Post-exposure SD may disrupt the consolidation of aversive or fearful memories by facilitating correctly timed interactions between glucocorticoid and adrenergic systems. PMID:22713910

  9. Image Corruption Detection in Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Post-Processing and Real-Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called “corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity” (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies. PMID:24204551

  10. Beyond the Early Stage of Post-suburbanization: Evidence from Urban Spatial Transformation in Jabodetabek Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadewo, E.; Syabri, I.; Pradono

    2018-05-01

    In the theory of urban transformation, there has been growing attention to the development of metropolitan outskirts. While the debate of the post-suburbanization process has already settled, the knowledge on the development beyond is still questionable. This paper examines the urban spatial pattern transformation beyond the Jabodetabek Metropolitan Area post-suburbanization. We use the medium and large enterprise (MLE) data from the economic census (EC) and population data from village potential census (PODES) with two cross sectional times of reference. The 2005 and 2006 data are assumed to represent the post-suburbia situation, and the 2014 and 2016 data represents the situation beyond. We analyzed the extent of which post-suburban spatial pattern in JMA would develope by utilizing the Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) method. The result shows that the polycentric urban structure of JMA has strengthened. The low order service function which was previously clustered in suburban areas is recentralized in the urban core, leaving the manufacturing sector as the main function in the post-suburbia. It is implied that the post-suburban status has reached a steady state for a long term before its next transformation. Those transformations are followed by the shift in population dynamics, whereas workers tend to polarize based on the proximity to their job location. The findings recall further study regarding the post-suburban commuting pattern.

  11. Real-time analysis of Drosophila post-embryonic haemocyte behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Christopher J; Williams, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The larval stage of the model organism Drosophila is frequently used to study host-pathogen interactions. During embryogenesis the cellular arm of the immune response, consisting of macrophage-like cells known as plasmatocytes, is extremely motile and functions to phagocytise pathogens and apoptotic bodies, as well as produce extracellular matrix. The cellular branch of the larval (post-embryonic) innate immune system consists of three cell types--plasmatocytes, crystal cells and lamellocytes--which are involved in the phagocytosis, encapsulation and melanisation of invading pathogens. Post-embryonic haemocyte motility is poorly understood thus further characterisation is required, for the purpose of standardisation. In order to examine post-embryonic haemocyte cytoskeletal dynamics or migration, the most commonly used system is in vitro cell lines. The current study employs an ex vivo system (an adaptation of in vitro cell incubation using primary cells), in which primary larval or pre-pupal haemocytes are isolated for short term analysis, in order to discover various aspects of their behaviour during events requiring cytoskeleton dynamics. The ex vivo method allows for real-time analysis and manipulation of primary post-embryonic haemocytes. This technique was used to characterise, and potentially standardised, larval and pre-pupal haemocyte cytoskeleton dynamics, assayed on different extracellular matrices. Using this method it was determined that, while larval haemocytes are unable to migrate, haemocytes recovered from pre-pupae are capable of migration.

  12. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    PubMed

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  13. Early spring post-fire snow albedo dynamics in high latitude boreal forests using Landsat-8 OLI data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Román, Miguel O.

    2018-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (< 100m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high- burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will thus

  14. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (less than 100 m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high-burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500 m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will

  15. Early spring post-fire snow albedo dynamics in high latitude boreal forests using Landsat-8 OLI data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M; Schaaf, Crystal B; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A; Román, Miguel O

    2016-11-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (< 100m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high- burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will thus

  16. Predictable turn-around time for post tape-out flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Toshikazu; Park, Minyoung; Ghosh, Pradiptya

    2012-03-01

    A typical post-out flow data path at the IC Fabrication has following major components of software based processing - Boolean operations before the application of resolution enhancement techniques (RET) and optical proximity correctin (OPC), the RET and OPC step [etch retargeting, sub-resolution assist feature insertion (SRAF) and OPC], post-OPCRET Boolean operations and sometimes in the same flow simulation based verification. There are two objectives that an IC Fabrication tapeout flow manager wants to achieve with the flow - predictable completion time and fastest turn-around time (TAT). At times they may be competing. There have been studies in the literature modeling the turnaround time from historical data for runs with the same recipe and later using that to derive the resource allocation for subsequent runs. [3]. This approach is more feasible in predominantly simulation dominated tools but for edge operation dominated flow it may not be possible especially if some processing acceleration methods like pattern matching or hierarchical processing is involved. In this paper, we suggest an alternative method of providing target turnaround time and managing the priority of jobs while not doing any upfront resource modeling and resource planning. The methodology then systematically either meets the turnaround time need and potentially lets the user know if it will not as soon as possible. This builds on top of the Calibre Cluster Management (CalCM) resource management work previously published [1][2]. The paper describes the initial demonstration of the concept.

  17. Time allocated to mathematics in post-primary schools in Ireland: are we in double trouble?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Niamh; Prendergast, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Mathematics educators and legislators worldwide have begun placing a greater emphasis on teaching mathematics for understanding and through the use of real-life applications. Revised curricula have led to the time allocated to mathematics in effected countries being scrutinised. This has resulted in policy-makers and educationalists worldwide calling for the inclusion of double class periods on the mathematics timetable. Research from the United States suggests that the introduction of double or block periods allow for the objectives of revised curricula to be realized. The aim of this study, which is set in the school context, is first to ascertain if schools in Ireland are scheduling double periods for mathematics at both lower post-primary level (Junior Cycle) and upper post-primary level (Senior Cycle). It also seeks to determine if there is a link between teachers' levels of satisfaction with the time allocated to mathematics and the provision of double periods and to get insights from teachers in relation to their opinions on what can be achieved through the introduction of such classes. Questionnaires were sent to 400 post-primary schools (approximately 1600 teachers) which were selected using stratified sampling techniques. It was found that 8.7% of mathematics teachers reported the provision of double periods at Junior Cycle while 55% reported that double periods were included on their timetable at Senior Cycle. The study also identified a link between teachers' levels of satisfaction with the time allocated to mathematics and the provision of double periods. Finally, teachers felt that double periods allowed for new teaching methodologies, which were promoted by the revised curricula, to be implemented and teaching for understanding was also more feasible. In essence, it was found that double periods have an influence on the mathematical experience of post-primary students as well as the teaching approaches employed.

  18. Early warning by near-real time disturbance monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbesselt, J.; Zeileis, A.; Herold, M.

    2013-12-01

    Near real-time monitoring of ecosystem disturbances is critical for rapidly assessing and addressing impacts on carbon dynamics, biodiversity, and socio-ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing enables cost-effective and accurate monitoring at frequent time steps over large areas. Yet, generic methods to detect disturbances within newly captured satellite images are lacking. We propose a multi-purpose time-series-based disturbance detection approach that identifies and models stable historical variation to enable change detection within newly acquired data. Satellite image time series of vegetation greenness provide a global record of terrestrial vegetation productivity over the past decades. Here, we assess and demonstrate the method by applying it to (1) real-world satellite greenness image time series between February 2000 and July 2011 covering Somalia to detect drought-related vegetation disturbances (2) landsat image time series to detect forest disturbances. First, results illustrate that disturbances are successfully detected in near real-time while being robust to seasonality and noise. Second, major drought-related disturbance corresponding with most drought-stressed regions in Somalia are detected from mid-2010 onwards. Third, the method can be applied to landsat image time series having a lower temporal data density. Furthermore the method can analyze in-situ or satellite data time series of biophysical indicators from local to global scale since it is fast, does not depend on thresholds and does not require time series gap filling. While the data and methods used are appropriate for proof-of-concept development of global scale disturbance monitoring, specific applications (e.g., drought or deforestation monitoring) mandates integration within an operational monitoring framework. Furthermore, the real-time monitoring method is implemented in open-source environment and is freely available in the BFAST package for R software. Information

  19. Predicting Lactational and Early Post-Weaning Exposures in Rats Using Biologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk and safety assessments for early life exposures to environmental chemicals or pharmaceuticals based on cross-species extrapolation would greatly benefit from information on chemical dosimetry in the young.

  20. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  1. Early speech perception in Mandarin-speaking children at one-year post cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N; Zhu, Shufeng; Xi, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The aim in this study was to examine early speech perception outcomes in Mandarin-speaking children during the first year of cochlear implant (CI) use. A hierarchical early speech perception battery was administered to 80 children before and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. Demographic information was obtained to evaluate its relationship with these outcomes. Regardless of dialect exposure and whether a hearing aid was trialed before implantation, implant recipients were able to attain similar pre-lingual auditory skills after 12 months of CI use. Children speaking Mandarin developed early Mandarin speech perception faster than those with greater exposure to other Chinese dialects. In addition, children with better pre-implant hearing levels and younger age at implantation attained significantly better speech perception scores after 12 months of CI use. Better pre-implant hearing levels and higher maternal education level were also associated with a significantly steeper growth in early speech perception ability. Mandarin-speaking children with CIs are able to attain early speech perception results comparable to those of their English-speaking counterparts. In addition, consistent single language input via CI probably enhances early speech perception development at least during the first-year of CI use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of Early Post-Op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    the fracture stable while the bone heals. Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures fixed with internal fixation develop a deep wound infection during...effect of treatment of post-op wound infection in bones after fracture fixation or joint fusion and either: (Group 1) operative debridement and PO

  3. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found a small number of temporary effects of transition timing on problem behavior: Spending an additional year in elementary school was associated with higher levels of deviant behavior in the Fall of Grade 6 and higher levels of antisocial peer associations in Grade 8. However, transition effects were not consistent across waves and latent growth curve models found no effects of transition timing on the trajectory of problem behavior. We discuss policy implications and compare our findings with other research on transition timing. PMID:24089584

  4. Predicting early post-partum depressive symptoms among older primiparous Japanese mothers.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroko; Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Sakajo, Akiko; Maehara, Kunie; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Aoki, Kyoko; Makaya, Miyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2015-10-01

    The number of older primiparas is increasing in Japan. These women have been shown to be more vulnerable to post-partum depression. This study aimed to identify factors for predicting post-partum depressive symptoms during hospitalization after childbirth in Japanese primiparas aged 35 years and over. The present authors used the data of 479 primiparas aged 35 years and over from a prospective cohort study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires on the day before hospital discharge. The questionnaire consisted of: demographics and background information; depressive symptoms; fatigue; maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction; child-care values; physical symptoms; perceptions of daily life during hospitalization; concerns about child care and daily life; and infant feeding. Additionally, vital records data were obtained from the hospitals. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed on the binary outcome variable of depressive symptoms, measured by the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Women who scored 9 or more were considered to be at high risk for post-partum depression. The authors obtained informed consent from all participants and institutional ethics approvals before initiating the study. The following six variables reliably predicted the risk of post-partum depression: emergency cesarean section, lower satisfaction with birth experience, higher physical burden in daily life, long-term complications with the newborn, more concerns about newborn caretaking after discharge, and more concerns about one's own life after discharge. Recognition of women with these factors will help nurses to identify those at risk for developing post-partum depression and to provide appropriate care during hospitalization after childbirth. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  5. Causes and Timing of Unplanned Early Readmission After Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Blake E S; Youngerman, Brett E; Goldstein, Hannah; Kabat, Daniel H; Appelboom, Geoffrey; Gold, William E; Connolly, Edward Sander

    2016-09-01

    Reducing the rate of 30-day hospital readmission has become a priority in healthcare quality improvement policy, with a focus on better characterizing the reasons for unplanned readmission. In neurosurgery, however, peer-reviewed analyses describing the patterns of readmission have been limited in their number and generalizability. To determine the incidence, timing, and causes of 30-day readmission after neurosurgical procedures. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study from 2009 to 2012 using the Statewide Planning And Research Cooperative System, which collects patient-level details for all admissions and discharges within New York. We identified patients readmitted within 30 days of initial discharge. The rate of, reasons for, and time to readmission were determined overall and within 4 subgroups: craniotomies, cranial surgery without craniotomy, spine, and neuroendovascular procedures. There were 163 743 index admissions, of whom 14 791 (9.03%) were readmitted. The most common reasons for unplanned readmission were infection (29.52%) and medical complications (19.22%). Median time to readmission was 11 days, with hemorrhagic strokes and seizures occurring earlier, and medical complications and infections occurring later. Readmission rates were highest among patients undergoing cerebrospinal fluid shunt revision and malignant tumor resection (15.57%-22.60%). Spinal decompressions, however, accounted for the largest volume of readmissions (33.13%). Many readmissions may be preventable and occur at predictable time intervals. The causes and timing of readmission vary significantly across neurosurgical subgroups. Future studies should focus on detecting specific complications in select cohorts at predefined time points, which may allow for interventions to lower costs and reduce patient morbidity. CSF, cerebrospinal fluidIQR, interquartile rangeSPARCS, Statewide Planning And Research Cooperative System.

  6. Identifying MRI markers to evaluate early treatment-related changes post-laser ablation for cancer pain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has recently emerged as a new treatment modality for cancer pain management that targets the cingulum (pain center in the brain), and has shown promise over radio-frequency (RF) based ablation which is reported to provide temporary relief. One of the major advantages enjoyed by LITT is its compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allowing for high resolution in vivo imaging to be used in LITT procedures. Since laser ablation for pain management is currently exploratory and is only performed at a few centers worldwide, its short-, and long-term effects on the cingulum are currently unknown. Traditionally treatment effects are evaluated by monitoring changes in volume of the ablation zone post-treatment. However, this is sub-optimal since it involves evaluating a single global parameter (volume) to detect changes pre-, and post-MRI. Additionally, the qualitative observations of LITT-related changes on multi-parametric MRI (MPMRI) do not specifically address differentiation between the appearance of treatment related changes (edema, necrosis) from recurrence of the disease (pain recurrence). In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on MP-MRI to capture early treatment related changes on a per-voxel basis by extracting quantitative relationships that may allow for an in-depth understanding of tissue response to LITT on MRI, subtle changes that may not be appreciable on original MR intensities. The second objective of this work is to investigate the efficacy of different MRI protocols in accurately capturing treatment related changes within and outside the ablation zone post-LITT. A retrospective cohort of studies comprising pre- and 24-hour post-LITT 3 Tesla T1-weighted (T1w), T2w, T2-GRE, and T2-FLAIR acquisitions was considered. Our scheme involved (1) inter-protocol as well as inter-acquisition affine registration of pre- and post-LITT MRI, (2) quantitation of MRI parameters

  7. Matching incomplete time series with dynamic time warping: an algorithm and an application to post-stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tormene, Paolo; Giorgino, Toni; Quaglini, Silvana; Stefanelli, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of a real-time ("open-end") version of the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm for the recognition of motor exercises. Given a possibly incomplete input stream of data and a reference time series, the open-end DTW algorithm computes both the size of the prefix of reference which is best matched by the input, and the dissimilarity between the matched portions. The algorithm was used to provide real-time feedback to neurological patients undergoing motor rehabilitation. We acquired a dataset of multivariate time series from a sensorized long-sleeve shirt which contains 29 strain sensors distributed on the upper limb. Seven typical rehabilitation exercises were recorded in several variations, both correctly and incorrectly executed, and at various speeds, totaling a data set of 840 time series. Nearest-neighbour classifiers were built according to the outputs of open-end DTW alignments and their global counterparts on exercise pairs. The classifiers were also tested on well-known public datasets from heterogeneous domains. Nonparametric tests show that (1) on full time series the two algorithms achieve the same classification accuracy (p-value =0.32); (2) on partial time series, classifiers based on open-end DTW have a far higher accuracy (kappa=0.898 versus kappa=0.447;p<10(-5)); and (3) the prediction of the matched fraction follows closely the ground truth (root mean square <10%). The results hold for the motor rehabilitation and the other datasets tested, as well. The open-end variant of the DTW algorithm is suitable for the classification of truncated quantitative time series, even in the presence of noise. Early recognition and accurate class prediction can be achieved, provided that enough variance is available over the time span of the reference. Therefore, the proposed technique expands the use of DTW to a wider range of applications, such as real-time biofeedback systems.

  8. Early post-natal neuroactive steroid manipulation modulates ondansetron effects on initial periods of alcohol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, Iris; Llidó, Anna; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2018-06-21

    Neuroactive steroids (NS) such as allopregnanolone are crucial for brain development and adult behaviour. Early post-natal alterations of NS by administering finasteride induce a decrease in the sensitivity to stimulant effects of low alcohol doses, an increase in alcohol consumption, and a decrease in ventrostriatal dopamine and serotonin levels. The aim of the present study is to observe if the effects of the 5HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron on initial alcohol consumption are modulated by post-natal NS manipulation. For this purpose, allopregnanolone, finasteride, or vehicle was injected from day 5 to 9. In adulthood, a novel object preference test was carried out in order to detect a possible novelty-seeking pattern in our animals, which has been related to vulnerability to drug abuse. The subjects then had access to two bottles (alcohol or control solutions) one hour daily for two consecutive weeks. Ondansetron (0.01 mg/kg, 0.1 mg/kg or vehicle) was administered before the hour of consumption in the initial phase (days 1, 2, 3) of the procedure, and after prolonged alcohol intake (days 11, 12, 13). Results indicated that finasteride animals showed a higher preference to explore the new object, as well as a higher alcohol consumption than the rest of the groups. Moreover, 0.1 mg/kg of ondansetron decreased alcohol consumption, but only in the post-natal finasteride group, suggesting a possible increase in 5HT3 receptor sensitivity in these animals. In conclusion, NS manipulation in crucial stages of development, such as early post-natal periods, seems to play an important role on the effects of ondansetron on alcohol intake and in the vulnerability to develop drug use or abuse. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. On the use of satellite VEGETATION time series for monitoring post fire vegetation recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santis, F.; Didonna, I.

    2009-04-01

    Fire is one of the most critical factors of disturbance in worldwide ecosystems. The effects of fires on soil, plants, landscape and ecosystems depend on many factors, among them fire frequency, fire severity and plant resistance. The characterization of vegetation post-fire behaviour is a fundamental issue to model and evaluate the fire resilience, which the ability of vegetation to recover after fire. Recent changes in fire regime, due to abandonment of local land use practice and climate change, can induce significant variations in vegetation fire resilience. In the Mediterranean-type communities, post fire vegetation trends have been analysed in a wide range of habitats, although pre- and post-fire investigation has been widely performed at stand level. But, factors controlling regeneration at the landscape scale are less well known. In this study, a time series of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data derived from SPOT-VEGETATION was used to examine the recovery characteristics of fire affected vegetation in some test areas of the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1998 to 2005 were analyzed in order to evaluate the resilient effects in a some significant test sites of southern Italy. In particular, we considered: (i) one stable area site, one site affected by one fire during the investigated time window, (iii) one site affected by two consecutive fires during the investigated time window. In order to eliminate the phenological fluctuations, for each decadal composition of each pixel, we focused on the departure NDVId = [NDVI - ]/, where is the decadal mean and  is the decadal standard deviation. The decadal mean and the standard deviation were calculated for each decade, e.g. 1st

  10. In vivo intratumoral Epstein-Barr virus replication is associated with XBP1 activation and early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders with prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Farre, Blanca; Rovira, Jordina; Martinez, Daniel; Valera, Alexandra; Garcia-Herrera, Adriana; Marcos, Maria Angeles; Sole, Carla; Roue, Gael; Colomer, Dolors; Gonzalvo, Elena; Ribera-Cortada, Imma; Araya, Monica; Lloreta, Josep; Colomo, Luis; Campo, Elias; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Martinez, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are life-threatening complications following hematopoietic or solid organ transplantation. They represent a spectrum of mostly EBV-driven lymphoplasmacytic proliferations. While the oncogenic effect of EBV is related to latent infection, lytic infection also has a role in lymphomagenesis. In vitro, EBV replication is linked to plasma cell differentiation and XBP1 activation, although this phenomenon has never been addressed in vivo. We analyzed for the first time latent and lytic intratumoral EBV infection in a series of 35 adult patients with a diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (26M/9F, median age 54 years). A complete EBV study was performed including the analysis of the latent EBER, latent membrane protein-11, and EBV nuclear antigens as well as the immediate-early BZLF1/ZEBRA and early BMRF1/EADE31 lytic genes. XBP1 activation was assessed by nuclear protein expression. EBV infection was observed in 28 (80%) cases being latency II and III the most frequently observed 22 (79%). Intratumoral EBV replication was detected in 17 (60%) cases. Among these, XBP1 activation was observed in 11/12 evaluable cases associated with strong cytoplasmic immunoglobulin expression consistent with plasma cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the combination of latency III infection and EBV replication identified a high-risk subgroup of patients with significantly shorter survival (overall survival at 1 year 18% vs 48%) and early-onset (median of 7 vs 26 months) post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Moreover, these patients appear to be more heavily immunosuppressed, so they exhibit lower rates of rejection and graft vs host disease but higher rates of cytomegalovirus reactivation. In conclusion, EBV replication is associated with plasma cell differentiation and XBP1 activation with prognostic implications. Both latency III and lytic EBV infection are related to aggressive and early-onset post

  11. The Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Vincent X; Fielding-Singh, Vikram; Greene, John D; Baker, Jennifer M; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Bhattacharya, Jay; Escobar, Gabriel J

    2017-10-01

    Prior sepsis studies evaluating antibiotic timing have shown mixed results. To evaluate the association between antibiotic timing and mortality among patients with sepsis receiving antibiotics within 6 hours of emergency department registration. Retrospective study of 35,000 randomly selected inpatients with sepsis treated at 21 emergency departments between 2010 and 2013 in Northern California. The primary exposure was antibiotics given within 6 hours of emergency department registration. The primary outcome was adjusted in-hospital mortality. We used detailed physiologic data to quantify severity of illness within 1 hour of registration and logistic regression to estimate the odds of hospital mortality based on antibiotic timing and patient factors. The median time to antibiotic administration was 2.1 hours (interquartile range, 1.4-3.1 h). The adjusted odds ratio for hospital mortality based on each hour of delay in antibiotics after registration was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.13) for each elapsed hour between registration and antibiotic administration. The increase in absolute mortality associated with an hour's delay in antibiotic administration was 0.3% (95% CI, 0.01-0.6%; P = 0.04) for sepsis, 0.4% (95% CI, 0.1-0.8%; P = 0.02) for severe sepsis, and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.8-3.0%; P = 0.001) for shock. In a large, contemporary, and multicenter sample of patients with sepsis in the emergency department, hourly delays in antibiotic administration were associated with increased odds of hospital mortality even among patients who received antibiotics within 6 hours. The odds increased within each sepsis severity strata, and the increased odds of mortality were greatest in septic shock.

  12. Thoughts on Chemistry and Scientific Truth in Post-Factual Times.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Peter R

    2018-04-19

    "… The value and meaning of scientific truth has not been overcome by postmodernism or post-factual tendencies. Just because politics is mostly a representation of opinions, this does not imply that truth has become irrelevant. Quite the opposite, the value of truth is growing in turbulent times and for scientists it constitutes the currency of credibility and accountability …" Read more in the Guest Editorial by Peter R. Schreiner. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Incidence, predictors and early post-operative course of diabetes insipidus in paediatric craniopharygioma: a comparison with adults.

    PubMed

    Pratheesh, Ravindran; Swallow, Diane Margaret A; Rajaratnam, Simon; Jacob, K S; Chacko, Geeta; Joseph, Mathew; Chacko, Ari G

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to determine the incidence, predictors, early post-operative course of diabetes insipidus (DI) in paediatric craniopharyngiomas(CP) and compare the findings with adults. Retrospective analysis of clinical, biochemical, radiological and operative data for 102 consecutive CP surgeries (45 paediatric and 57 adult cases) was done. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to determine the predictors of DI. The incidence of the triphasic response and electrolyte abnormalities in the first post-operative week was compared between children and adults. Children had larger tumours and higher incidence of cystic tumours and hydrocephalus. Preoperative DI was close to 15 % in both the age groups. Radical/subtotal excision was achieved in 58 % of children and 53 % of adults. The incidence of post-operative DI was 80 % and 63 % in children and adults, respectively. Children had significantly higher incidence of permanent DI (55.6 %). Radical excision in children (p = 0.000); previous tumour surgery (p = 0.014) and new onset hypopituitarism (p = 0.019) in adults were associated with permanent DI. The triphasic response (23 %), wide intra-day serum sodium fluctuations and hyponatraemia were more common in children. Post-operative DI is a frequent and significant cause of morbidity in children undergoing surgery for CP. Children have a higher incidence of permanent DI. Radical excision is a predictor of permanent DI in children, whereas previous tumour excision and new onset hypopituitarism were predictors of permanent DI among adults. The management of post-operative DI is more difficult in children and the treating physician needs to be alert to detect the triphasic response.

  14. The Post-Piagetian Child: Early Mathematical Developments and a Role for Structured Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that the discourse currently regulating early years mathematical development in the UK and elsewhere is "producing its own truths" in an unhelpfully narrowing way, restricting the objects, imagery, and symbols involved to those arising within "everyday" or "realistic" situations, and producing an…

  15. "Old, Borrowed, and Renewed": A Review of Early Childhood Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Octarra, Harla Sara; Hendriati, Agustina

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) is not new in Indonesia. However, in the past decade, it has received more attention, as shown by the growing number of ECE centres in both urban and rural areas. This growth is accompanied by policy development that corresponds to the global agenda of ECE. Policy development is inevitably linked with the support of…

  16. Cognitive Vulnerabilities Amplify the Effect of Early Pubertal Timing on Interpersonal Stress Generation During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology. PMID:24061858

  17. Early-Time Observations of the GRB 050319 Optical Transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quimby, R. M.; Rykoff, E. S.; Yost, S. A.; Aharonian, F.; Akerlof, C. W.; Alatalo, K.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Göǧüş, E.; Güver, T.; Horns, D.; Kehoe, R. L.; Kιzιloǧlu, Ü.; Mckay, T. A.; Özel, M.; Phillips, A.; Schaefer, B. E.; Smith, D. A.; Swan, H. F.; Vestrand, W. T.; Wheeler, J. C.; Wren, J.

    2006-03-01

    We present the unfiltered ROTSE-III light curve of the optical transient associated with GRB 050319 beginning 4 s after the cessation of γ-ray activity. We fit a power-law function to the data using the revised trigger time given by Chincarini and coworkers, and a smoothly broken power-law to the data using the original trigger disseminated through the GCN notices. Including the RAPTOR data from Woźniak and coworkers, the best-fit power-law indices are α=-0.854+/-0.014 for the single power-law and α1=-0.364+0.020-0.019, α2=-0.881+0.030-0.031, with a break at tb=418+31-30 s for the smoothly broken fit. We discuss the fit results, with emphasis placed on the importance of knowing the true start time of the optical transient for this multipeaked burst. As Swift continues to provide prompt GRB locations, it becomes more important to answer the question, ``when does the afterglow begin?'' in order to correctly interpret the light curves.

  18. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy to prevent early post thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and evaluation of postoperative parathyroid hormone levels to detect hypocalcemia: A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Kus, Murat; Akkapulu, Nezih; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement is one of the methods to detect or prevent postoperative hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation is another method to prevent early postoperative hypocalcemia. The aim of this study is to detect the accurate timing of PTH and evaluate efficacy of routine oral calcium supplementation for postoperative hypocalcemia. A total of 106 patients were performed total thyroidectomy. Rotuine oral calcium supplementation was given to group 1 and no treatment to group 2 according to randomization. Serum calcium and PTH level of patients in group 2 at postoperative 6, 12 and 24 h and patients in both groups at postoperative day 7 were evaluated. Patients were compared according to age, sex, operation findings, serum calcium and PTH levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia. Half of the patients (50%) were in group 1. Most of the patients were female (83%). The most common etiology of thyroid disease was multinodular goiter (64.1%). Oral calcium supplementation was given to 18 (33.9%) patients in group 2. Symptomatic hypocalcemia for group 1 and 2 was found to be 1.9 and 33.9% respectively (p < 0.05). No statistical difference can be observed regarding the timing of serum biomarkers. Serum PTH levels at postoperative 12 and 24 h can predict early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy can prevent early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia with advantages of being cost effective and safe. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after

  20. The efficacy of direct anti-HCV drugs improves early post-liver transplant survival and induces significant changes in waiting list composition.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Gonzalo; Trota, Núria; Londoño, Maria-Carlota; Mauro, Ezequiel; Baliellas, Carme; Castells, Lluís; Castellote, Jose; Tort, Jaume; Forns, Xavier; Navasa, Miquel

    2018-07-01

    The efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has dramatically changed the prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis C. We aimed to evaluate the impact of DAA therapy on the composition of the liver transplant (LT) waiting list and the early post-transplant survival. We evaluated all patients admitted to the waiting list for a primary LT between 1st January 2008 and 31st of December 2016 in Catalonia, Spain. Time span was divided into two periods according to the availability of different antiviral therapies: 2008-2013 (interferon-based therapies) and 2014-2016 (DAA). Changes in the indications of LT and the aetiology of liver disease, as well as post-LT patient survival, were evaluated according to the year of inclusion and transplantation, respectively. We included 1,483 patients. Admissions in the waiting list for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease decreased significantly, from 47% in 2008-2013 to 35% in 2014-2016 (p <0.001), particularly because of a reduction in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In contrast, NASH-related inclusions increased from 4% to 7% (p = 0.003). Three-year post-LT patient survival increased significantly in the second period in the whole cohort (82% vs. 91%, p = 0.002), because of better survival in anti-HCV positive patients (76% vs. 91%, p = 0.001), but not in anti-HCV negative patients (88% vs. 91% p = 0.359). Anti-HCV positive serology, the time period of 2008-2013 and higher donor age were independently associated with post-LT mortality in the whole cohort; while time period and donor age were independently associated with post-LT mortality in anti-HCV positive recipients. The high efficacy of DAAs is associated with significant changes in the composition of the LT waiting list and, more importantly, results in improved post-transplant survival. The efficacy of the new direct-acting antivirals is associated with a significant improvement in survival of patients undergoing liver transplantation

  1. Mothers' Time with Infant and Time in Employment as Predictors of Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Rosenkrantz Aronson, Stacey

    2005-01-01

    This study tested predictions from economic and developmental theories that maternal time with an infant is important for mother-child relationships and children's development, using time-use diaries for mothers of 7- to 8-month-old infants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care (N=1,053).…

  2. Voluntary exercise in pregnant rats improves post-lactation maternal bone parameters but does not affect offspring outcomes in early life.

    PubMed

    Rosa, B V; Blair, H T; Vickers, M H; Morel, P C; Cockrem, J F; Firth, E C

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of voluntary exercise during pregnancy on maternal post-lactation bone parameters and offspring growth. Pregnant Wistar rats were housed in conventional cages (control), or were housed in raised cages requiring them to rise to an erect, bipedal stance to obtain food/water, throughout pregnancy. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were performed pre-mating and post-weaning. Maternal stress was assessed by fecal corticosterone measurement. Offspring weights were assessed at postnatal days 1 and 25 (weaning). Changes in bone mineral over the pregnancy/lactation period were site-specific. Exercise did not affect loss of bone mineral from the lumbar spine, but did attenuate the loss of trabecular bone mineral from the tibial metaphysis and enhance the strength strain index and cross-sectional moment of inertia at the tibial diaphysis (P≤0.05) in dams in the exercised group. Fecal corticosterone did not differ between dam groups. There were no significant differences in offspring weight between the exercised and control group at either time point. Voluntary exercise in the pregnant rat can improve some post-lactation bone parameters and does not adversely affect early postnatal outcomes of the offspring.

  3. Early perinatal diagnosis of mothers at risk of developing post-partum depression--a concise guide for obstetricians, midwives, neonatologists and paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Alessandra; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we tried to provide all those involved in perinatal medicine with a concise guide to detect mothers at risk of developing post-partum depression. Motherhood is a critical situation characterized by role conflicts because conflicts among the role of mother, worker and wife are the norm in the post-partum period and may jeopardize the mother's existence. We have described a kind of personality that is at great risk of developing post-partum depression because of the incapacity to creatively manage situations of role conflict. This personality structure is called typus melancholicus, and we operationally defined its main features: orderliness, conscientiousness, hypernomia/heteronomia and intolerance of ambiguity. We have shown how these mothers may typically behave during pregnancy and early motherhood: they cannot avoid behaving with feverish perfectionism, developing an exaggerated preoccupation towards the unborn child and hostility towards persons and events that are experienced as an obstacle to their search for perfection. They ultra-carefully follow all the steps concerning paediatric check-ups and feel all the responsibility relating to the care of the child, without being able to delegate to someone else or share their feelings. We hope to provide those clinicians who are engaged in the care of pregnant women and their children with a valuable and user-friendly instrument for understanding and making a timely diagnoses of at-risk psychopathological phenomena.

  4. Colour Changes in Meat of Foals as Affected by Slaughtering Age and Post-thawing Time

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, P.; Maggiolino, A.; Centoducati, P.; Tateo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate how colour changes of foal meat can vary after thawing out in relation to the slaughtering age of the horses and to the post-thawing time. Eighteen Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) foals were used for the trial. They were subdivided in three groups according to their slaughtering age (6, 11 and 18 months). Two different surfaces were investigated for each sample: a fresh cut surface (daily renewed cutting surface: DRCS), and not-renewed cutting surface (NRCS). The redness of both investigated surfaces increased with slaughtering age (p<0.01). Moreover, this parameter decreased during post-thawing time (p<0.01) only on the NRCS, probably due to the myoglobin oxidation processes. Colour is an important visual cue denoting perceived quality by consumers. So, by a chromatic perspective the thawed meat of IHDH foals slaughtered at 6 and 11 months proved to be that which best meets the market requirements. PMID:25049544

  5. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    study will recruit wounded warriors with severe extremity trauma, which places them at high risk for heterotopic ossification (HO); bone formation at...involved in HO; 2) to define accurate and practical methods to predict where HO will develop; and 3) to define potential therapies for prevention or...elicit HO. These tools also need to provide effective methods for early diagnosis or risk assessment (prediction) so that therapies for prevention or

  6. Method for Making Measurements of the Post-Combustion Residence Time in a Gas Turbine Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey H (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and method of measuring a residence time in a gas-turbine engine is provided, whereby the method includes placing pressure sensors at a combustor entrance and at a turbine exit of the gas-turbine engine and measuring a combustor pressure at the combustor entrance and a turbine exit pressure at the turbine exit. The method further includes computing cross-spectrum functions between a combustor pressure sensor signal from the measured combustor pressure and a turbine exit pressure sensor signal from the measured turbine exit pressure, applying a linear curve fit to the cross-spectrum functions, and computing a post-combustion residence time from the linear curve fit.

  7. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    collagen, type X, alpha 1 COL11A1 collagen, type XI, alpha 1 COL1A1 collagen, type I, alpha 1 COL2A1 collagen, type II, alpha 1 COL4A3 collagen, type IV...Symbol  Fold Regulation (8  days post injury)  Gene Symbol  Fold Regulation (15  days post injury)  Spp1  172.4535 Spp1  1105.6776 Col1a1   137.7958 Tac1...130.0625 ll1b  67.3332 Cxcl5  86.3414 ll10  49.9631 Col1a1   84.2834 Has1  45.5771 ll1b  74.488 Tac1  42.9908 Mmp9  69.8933 Cxcl1  25.259 ll10  40.5062

  8. Post-transplant soluble CD30 levels are associated with early subclinical rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Silva, Hélio T; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcelo F; Soares, Maria F; Medina-Pestana, José O; Gerbase-DeLima, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have shown association of high pre- or post-transplant levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) with acute rejection and poor late kidney transplant outcome. Our goal was to investigate whether sCD30 levels at month-3 post-transplant are associated with subclinical rejection, presence of CD30(+) cells within the graft, and expression of immune response genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The study comprised 118 adult first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, receiving tacrolimus in low concentration. All were submitted to a protocol biopsy at month-3. Subclinical rejection was identified in 10 biopsies and sCD30 levels ≥ 61.88 ng/mL (P = 0.004), younger recipient age (P = 0.030) and non-Caucasian ethnicity (P = 0.011) were independently associated with this outcome. Rare CD30(+) cells were present in only two biopsies. There was a correlation between sCD30 levels and CD30 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (r = 0.385, P = 0.043). These results show that high sCD30 levels are independent predictors of graft dysfunction and may contribute to patient selection protocols by indicating those who could benefit from a more thorough evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ureteric stent dwelling time: a risk factor for post-ureteroscopy sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Amihay; Mano, Roy; Baniel, Jack; Lifshitz, David A

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association between stent dwelling time and sepsis after ureteroscopy, and identify risk factors for sepsis in this setting. The prospectively collected database of a single institution was queried for all patients who underwent ureteroscopy for stone extraction between 2010 and 2016. Demographic, clinical, preoperative and operative data were collected. The primary study endpoint was sepsis within 48 h of ureteroscopy. Logistic regressions were performed to identify predictors of post-ureteroscopy sepsis in the ureteroscopy cohort and specifically in patients with prior stent insertion. Between October 2010 and April 2016, 1 256 patients underwent ureteroscopy for stone extraction. Risk factors for sepsis included prior stent placement, female gender and Charlson comorbidity index. A total of 601 patients had a ureteric stent inserted before the operation and were included in the study cohort, in which the median age was 56 years, 90 patients were women (30%), and 97 patients were treated for positive preoperative urine cultures (16.1%). Postoperative sepsis, <48 h after surgery, occurred in eight (1.2%) non-stented patients and in 28 patients (4.7%) with prior stent insertion. Sepsis rates after stent dwelling times of 1, 2, 3 and >3 months were 1, 4.9, 5.5 and 9.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, stent dwelling time, stent insertion because of sepsis, and female gender were significantly associated with post-ureteroscopy sepsis in patients with prior stent placement. Patients who undergo ureteroscopy after ureteric stent insertion have a higher risk of postoperative sepsis. Prolonged stent dwelling time, sepsis as an indication for stent insertion, and female gender are independent risk factors. Stent placement should be considered cautiously, and if inserted, ureteroscopy should be performed within 1 month. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  11. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53 first-time…

  12. Motor impairment factors related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis Part I: expression of upper extremity weakness

    PubMed Central

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J.; Dewald, Julius P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, but the time that a brain injury occurs during development has not been rigorously studied when quantifying motor impairments. Objective This study investigated the impact of timing of brain injury on magnitude and distribution of weakness in the paretic arm of individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. Methods Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into time periods of injury before birth (PRE-natal, n=8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n=8) or after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n=8). They, along with 8 typically developing peers, participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks using a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell to quantify torques in 10 directions. A mixed model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of group and task on a calculated relative weakness ratio between arms. Results There was a significant effect of both time of injury group (p<0.001) and joint torque direction (p<0.001) on the relative weakness of the paretic arm. Distal joints were more affected compared to proximal joints, especially in the POST-natal group. Conclusions The distribution of weakness provides evidence for the relative preservation of ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways to the paretic limb in those individuals injured earlier, while those who sustained later injury may rely more on indirect ipsilateral cortico-bulbospinal projections during the generation of torques with the paretic arm. PMID:24009182

  13. Motor impairment factors related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis. Part I: expression of upper-extremity weakness.

    PubMed

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Dewald, Julius P A

    2014-01-01

    Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, but the time that a brain injury occurs during development has not been rigorously studied when quantifying motor impairments. This study investigated the impact of timing of brain injury on the magnitude and distribution of weakness in the paretic arm of individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. A total of 24 individuals with hemiparesis were divided into time periods of injury before birth (PRE-natal, n = 8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n = 8), or after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n = 8). They, along with 8 typically developing peers, participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks using a multiple-degree-of-freedom load cell to quantify torques in 10 directions. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of group and task on a calculated relative weakness ratio between arms. There was a significant effect of both time of injury group (P < .001) and joint torque direction (P < .001) on the relative weakness of the paretic arm. Distal joints were more affected compared with proximal joints, especially in the POST-natal group. The distribution of weakness provides evidence for the relative preservation of ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways to the paretic limb in those individuals injured earlier, whereas those who sustained later injury may rely more on indirect ipsilateral corticobulbospinal projections during the generation of torques with the paretic arm.

  14. Does Post-task Declarative Learning Have an Influence on Early Motor Memory Consolidation Over Day? An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Rothkirch, Inken; Wolff, Stephan; Margraf, Nils G; Pedersen, Anya; Witt, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the influence of the post-learning period on procedural motor memory consolidation. In an early period after the acquisition, motor skills are vulnerable to modifications during wakefulness. Indeed, specific interventions such as world-list learning within this early phase of motor memory consolidation seem to enhance motor performance as an indicator for successful consolidation. This finding highlights the idea that manipulations of procedural and declarative memory systems during the early phase of memory consolidation over wakefulness may influence off-line consolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during initial motor sequence learning and motor sequence recall, we indirectly assess the influence of a secondary task taken place in the early phase of memory consolidation. All participants were scanned using fMRI during the learning phase of a serial reaction time task (SRTT) at 8 a.m. Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to one of five conditions. One group performed a declarative verbal, one a declarative nonverbal learning task. Two groups worked on attention tasks. A control group passed a resting condition. Participants stayed awake the whole day and performed the SRTT in the MRI scanner 12 h later at 8 p.m. At the behavioral level, the analysis of the reaction times failed to show a significant group difference. The primary analysis assessing fMRI data based on the contrast (sequence - random) between learning and retrieval also did not show any significant group differences. Therefore, our main analysis do not support the hypothesis that a secondary task influences the retrieval of the SRTT. In a more liberal fMRI analysis, we compared only the sequence blocks of the SRTT from learning to recall. BOLD signal decreased in the ipsilateral cerebellum and the supplementary motor area solely in the verbal learning group. Although our primary analysis failed to show significant changes between our groups

  15. Does Post-task Declarative Learning Have an Influence on Early Motor Memory Consolidation Over Day? An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Rothkirch, Inken; Wolff, Stephan; Margraf, Nils G.; Pedersen, Anya; Witt, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the influence of the post-learning period on procedural motor memory consolidation. In an early period after the acquisition, motor skills are vulnerable to modifications during wakefulness. Indeed, specific interventions such as world-list learning within this early phase of motor memory consolidation seem to enhance motor performance as an indicator for successful consolidation. This finding highlights the idea that manipulations of procedural and declarative memory systems during the early phase of memory consolidation over wakefulness may influence off-line consolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during initial motor sequence learning and motor sequence recall, we indirectly assess the influence of a secondary task taken place in the early phase of memory consolidation. All participants were scanned using fMRI during the learning phase of a serial reaction time task (SRTT) at 8 a.m. Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to one of five conditions. One group performed a declarative verbal, one a declarative nonverbal learning task. Two groups worked on attention tasks. A control group passed a resting condition. Participants stayed awake the whole day and performed the SRTT in the MRI scanner 12 h later at 8 p.m. At the behavioral level, the analysis of the reaction times failed to show a significant group difference. The primary analysis assessing fMRI data based on the contrast (sequence – random) between learning and retrieval also did not show any significant group differences. Therefore, our main analysis do not support the hypothesis that a secondary task influences the retrieval of the SRTT. In a more liberal fMRI analysis, we compared only the sequence blocks of the SRTT from learning to recall. BOLD signal decreased in the ipsilateral cerebellum and the supplementary motor area solely in the verbal learning group. Although our primary analysis failed to show significant changes between our

  16. Effects of post-discharge management on rates of early re-admission and death after hospitalisation for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Quan; Negishi, Kazuaki; De Pasquale, Carmine; Hare, James; Leung, Dominic; Stanton, Tony; Marwick, Thomas H

    2018-06-18

    To investigate whether enrolment of patients in management programs after hospitalisation for heart failure (HF) reduces the likelihood of post-hospital adverse outcomes. Cohort study in which associations between adverse outcomes at 30 and 90 days for people hospitalised for HF and baseline clinical, socio-demographic and blood pathology factors, and with post-discharge management strategies, were assessed. Setting, participants: 906 patients with HF were prospectively enrolled in five Australian states at cardiology departments with expertise in treating people with HF. All-cause re-admissions and deaths at 30 and 90 days after discharge from the index admission. 58% of patients were men; the mean age was 72.5 years (SD, 13.9 years). By hospital, 30-day re-admission rates ranged from 17% to 33%, and 90-day rates from 40% to 55%; 30-day mortality rates were 0-13%, 90-day rates 4-24%. Factors associated with increased odds of re-admission or death at 30 or 90 days included living alone, cognitive impairment, depression, NYHA classification, left atrial volume index, and Charlson index score. Nurse-led disease management programs and reviews within 7 days were associated with reduced odds of re-admission (but not of death) at 30 and 90 days; exercise programs were associated with reduced odds at 90 days. Significant between-hospital differences in re-admission rates were reduced after adjustment for post-discharge management programs, and abolished by further adjustment for echocardiography findings. Between-hospital differences in mortality were largely explained by differences in echocardiographic findings. Differences in early re-admission rates after hospitalisation for HF are primarily explained by differences in post-discharge management.

  17. Time matters - acute stress response and glucocorticoid sensitivity in early multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kern, Simone; Rohleder, Nicolas; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lange, Jan; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2014-10-01

    Psychosocial stress has frequently been associated with disease activity and acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite this well established finding, strikingly little is known about the acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) stress response in MS. Twenty-six early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (CS) took part in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a well validated psycho-social laboratory stress protocol. Repeated blood samples were analyzed for stress-related cortisol and catecholamine levels as well as for glucocorticoid sensitivity (GCS) of target immune cells. Chronic and acute stress appraisals were assessed by self-report measures. RRMS patients and CS did not differ in stress-related cortisol/catecholamine levels, GCS or stress appraisal in response to the TSST. However, cortisol release as well as GCS was strongly correlated with time since diagnosis but not with neurological disability. Patients with shorter disease duration (2-12 months) expressed a significantly higher cortisol stress response while MS patients with longer disease duration (14-36 months) showed a significantly diminished HPA response as well as lower post-stress GCS. There is evidence for a time-dependent variability in the HPA stress system with an increased cortisol stress response in the first year after diagnosis along with a more blunted HPA stress response and a diminished GCS in subsequent disease stages. Data underscore the highly dynamic nature of HPA axis regulation in the MS disease process, which could possibly relate to compensatory mechanisms within a cytokine-HPA axis feedback circuit model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. From Archimedean Hydrostatics to Post-Aristotelian Mechanics: Galileo's Early Manuscripts De motu antiquiora (ca. 1590)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvia, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    Galileo's early inquiries on motion and free fall in Pisa (1588-1592) can be regarded as a case study of multiple knowledge transfer at the very basic roots of modern mechanics. The treatise De motu, unpublished until 1890, is an original but unsuccessful attempt to go beyond Aristotelian physics by extending Archimedean hydrostatics to the dynamics of natural motion and reappraising the late-medieval impetus theory to account for violent motion and acceleration. I will discuss in particular why Galileo was forced to abandon his project before moving to Padua and how the manuscripts De motu provided him with a "research agenda" for further theoretical and experimental investigation.

  19. Rethinking the early history of post-Vygotskian psychology: the case of the Kharkov school.

    PubMed

    Yasnitsky, Anton; Ferrari, Michel

    2008-05-01

    Between the death of Vygotsky in 1934 and the discovery of Vygotsky's work in the West in 1962, Vygotskian psychology was developed through research done by the first generation of Vygotsky's students and their followers, primarily associated with the Kharkov School. Surprisingly, these studies carried out in the 1930s, of great importance for the development of virtually all subsequent Vygotskian psychology, still remain largely unknown; this represents a significant gap in understanding the history of Vygotskian psychology as an empirical study of consciousness. This paper provides a systematic overview of the research agenda of the Kharkov group between 1931 and 1941 and provides new insights into the early development of Vygotskian psychology.

  20. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of mycophenolic acid in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period.

    PubMed

    Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Cox, Shareen; de Vries, Marij T; Hooper, David K; Goebel, Jens; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period. A total of 214 MPA plasma concentrations-time data points from 24 patients were available for PK model development. In 17 out of a total of 24 patients, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme activity measurements (n = 97) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were available for PK-PD modelling. The PK-PD model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modelling sequentially by 1) developing a population PK model and 2) incorporating IMPDH activity into a PK-PD model using post hoc Bayesian PK parameter estimates. Covariate analysis included patient demographics, co-medication and clinical laboratory data. Non-parametric bootstrapping and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks were performed to evaluate the final models. A two compartment model with a transit compartment absorption best described MPA PK. A non-linear relationship between dose and MPA exposure was observed and was described by a power function in the model. The final population PK parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were CL/F, 22 (14.8, 25.2) l h(-1) 70 kg(-1) ; Vc /F, 45.4 (29.6, 55.6) l; Vp /F, 411 (152.6, 1472.6)l; Q/F, 22.4 (16.0, 32.5) l h(-1) ; Ka , 2.5 (1.45, 4.93) h(-1) . Covariate analysis in the PK study identified body weight to be significantly correlated with CL/F. A simplified inhibitory Emax model adequately described the relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity. The final population PK-PD parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were: E0 , 3.45 (2.61, 4.56) nmol h(-1)  mg(-1) protein and EC50 , 1.73 (1.16, 3.01) mg l(-1) . Emax was fixed to 0. There were two African-American patients in our study cohorts and both had low IMPDH baseline activities (E0 ) compared with Caucasian

  1. Time-dependent post-imperative negative variation indicates adaptation and problem solving in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Kropp, Peter; Brecht, Ines-Beatrice; Niederberger, Uwe; Kowalski, Jens; Schröder, Dietmar; Thome, Johannes; Meyer, Wolfgang; Wallasch, Thomas-Martin; Hilgendorf, Inken; Gerber, Wolf-Dieter

    2012-10-01

    According to the Seligman theory of learned helplessness, depression is caused by a repetitive experience of loss of control resulting in internal, stable and global attributional styles for negative events. In depressed patients and healthy controls experiencing such events, an increased amplitude of the post-imperative negative variation (PINV) has been described. The aim of the study was to investigate a possible correlation between migraine, depression, learned helplessness and PINV. 24 patients suffering from migraine without aura and 24 healthy controls were exposed to a situation of loss of control whilst the contingent negative variation (CNV) from C3, C4 and Cz were recorded. Before conducting the experiment, the subjects were asked to answer the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the German attributional style questionnaire (GASQ). Amplitudes of total CNV, early and late component and PINV were calculated in eight blocks of four recordings each. The results confirm findings of a pronounced PINV in situations of loss of control, though high amplitudes were not correlated with low values in the GASQ and therefore with learned helplessness. High PINV in migraine patients correlated with high scores in the BDI and the list of the complaints questionnaire. However, this was not the case in healthy controls. In this experimental situation, PINV in migraine patients can be interpreted as an expectancy potential in order to avoid failure and helplessness.

  2. Early post-metamorphic, Carboniferous blastoid reveals the evolution and development of the digestive system in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Imran A; Waters, Johnny A; Sumrall, Colin D; Astolfo, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Inferring the development of the earliest echinoderms is critical to uncovering the evolutionary assembly of the phylum-level body plan but has long proven problematic because early ontogenetic stages are rarely preserved as fossils. Here, we use synchrotron tomography to describe a new early post-metamorphic blastoid echinoderm from the Carboniferous (approx. 323 Ma) of China. The resulting three-dimensional reconstruction reveals a U-shaped tubular structure in the fossil interior, which is interpreted as the digestive tract. Comparisons with the developing gut of modern crinoids demonstrate that crinoids are an imperfect analogue for many extinct groups. Furthermore, consideration of our findings in a phylogenetic context allows us to reconstruct the evolution and development of the digestive system in echinoderms more broadly; there was a transition from a straight to a simple curved gut early in the phylum's evolution, but additional loops and coils of the digestive tract (as seen in crinoids) were not acquired until much later. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Post-weaning voluntary exercise exerts long-term moderation of adiposity in males but not in females in an animal model of early-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Mariana; Shbiro, Liat; Gelber, Vered; Weller, Aron

    2010-04-01

    Given the alarming increase in childhood, adolescent and adult obesity there is an imperative need for understanding the early factors affecting obesity and for treatments that may help prevent or at least moderate it. Exercise is frequently considered as an effective treatment for obesity however the empirical literature includes many conflicting findings. In the present study, we used the OLETF rat model of early-onset hyperphagia-induced obesity to examine the influence of early exercise on peripheral adiposity-related parameters in both males and females. Rats were provided voluntary access to running wheels from postnatal day (PND) 22 until PND45. We examined fat pad weight (brown, retroperitoneal, inguinal and epididymal); inguinal adipocyte size and number; and leptin, adiponectin, corticosterone and creatinine levels. We also examined body weight, feeding efficiency and spontaneous intake. Early voluntary exercise reduced intake, adiposity and leptin in the OLETF males following a sharp reduction in adipocyte size despite a significant increase in fat cell number. Exercising males from the lean LETO control strain presented stable intake, but reduced body fat, feeding efficiency and increased plasma creatinine, suggesting an increment in muscle mass. OLETF females showed reduced feeding efficiency and liver fat, and a significant increase in brown fat. Exercising LETO control females increased intake, body weight and creatinine, but no changes in body fat. Overall, OLETF rats presented higher adiponectin levels than controls in both basal and post-exercise conditions. The results suggest an effective early time frame, when OLETF males can be successfully "re-programmed" through voluntary exercise; in OLETF females the effect is much more moderate. Findings expose sex-dependent peripheral mechanisms in coping with energy challenges. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fertility of the early post-eruptive surfaces of Kasatochi Island volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michaelson, G. J.; Wang, Bronwen; Ping, C. L.

    2016-01-01

    In the four years after the 2008 eruption and burial of Kasatochi Island volcano, erosion and the return of bird activity have resulted in new and altered land surfaces and initiation of ecosystem recovery. We examined fertility characteristics of the recently deposited pyroclastic surfaces, patches of legacy pre-eruptive surface soil (LS), and a post-eruptive surface with recent bird roosting activity. Pyroclastic materials were found lacking in N, but P, K, and other macronutrients were in sufficient supply for plants. Erosion and leaching are moving mobile P and Fe downslope to deposition fan areas. Legacy soil patches that currently support plants have available-N at levels (10–22 mg N kg-1) similar to those added by birds in a recent bird roosting area. Roosting increased surface available N from <1 mg N kg-1 in the new pyroclastic surfaces to up to 42 mg N kg-1 and increased soil biological respiration of CO2 from essentially zero to a level about 40% that of the LS surface. Laboratory plant growth trials using Lupinus nootkatensis and Leymus mollis indicated that the influence of eroded and redeposited LS in amounts as little as 10% by volume mixed with new pyroclastic materials could aid plant recovery by supplying vital N and soil biota to plants as propagules are introduced to the new surface. Erosion-exposure of fertile pre-eruptive soils and erosion-mixing of pre-eruptive soils with newly erupted materials, along with inputs of nutrients from bird activities, each will exert significant influences on the surface fertility and recovery pattern of the new post-eruptive Kasatochi volcano. For this environment, these influences could help to speed recovery of a more diverse plant community by providing N (LS and bird inputs) as alternatives to relying most heavily on N-fixing plants to build soil fertility.

  5. Influence of post exposure bake time on EUV photoresist RLS trade-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesters, Yannick; De Simone, Danilo; De Gendt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    To achieve high volume manufacturing, EUV photoresists need to push back the "RLS trade-off" by simultaneously improving Resolution, Line-Width Roughness and Sensitivity (exposure dose). Acid diffusion in chemically amplified resist is known to impact these performances. This work studies the diffusion of acid in chemically amplified resist by varying the post exposure bake duration while monitoring the evolution of CD and LWR for 6 chemically amplified EUV photoresists (CAR). We observed a first regime where both CD and LWR quickly decrease during the first 30s of post exposure bake (PEB). This can be related to the deprotection reaction taking place in the exposed part of the resist. After 60s the decrease in CD and LWR slows down significantly, likely related to a regime of acid diffusion from exposed to unexposed region, and acid-quencher neutralization at the interface of these two regions. We tested two resists with different protecting group and the one having lower activation energy shows a faster CD change in the second regime, resulting in a worsening of LWR for longer PEB time. On the contrary, a resist with a high quencher loading shows reduced net diffusion of acid towards the unexposed region and controls the resist edge profile. In other words longer PEB does not degrade LWR, but as it reduces the line CD, sensitivity is impacted. With an appropriate ratio selection of quencher to PAG, an EUV dose reduction of up to 12% can be achieved with a change from a standard 60 second to a 240 second PEB time, while keeping LWR and resolution constant and therefore pushing the RLS performances. Finally, we confirmed that the observations on positive tone development (PTD) resist could be applied to negative tone development (NTD) resist: with a high quencher NTD resist we observed a dose reduction of 8% for longer PEB time, keeping LWR and resolution constant.

  6. Residence times of reef-island sediments constrained by post-mortem precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Thomas; Wizemann, André; Kench, Paul; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Westphal, Hildegard

    2017-04-01

    The precipitation of carbonate cements is a rapid process in tropical marine environments. Distinct from calcification, the onset of cementation coincides with the termination of 14C uptake within carbonate-sediment forming organisms. Here we show that this relationship presents new opportunities for examining the temporal lag between organism death and deposition in carbonate systems - the prerequisite for reliable depositional chronologies. We dated skeletal constituents collected from discretely stratified reef-island deposits in Indonesia. In each of the strata, internally least cemented segments of the calcifying green alga Halimeda yield the youngest ages. Complementary mesocosm experiments on cementation rates reveal that post-mortem cement growth initiates within months after transport commences. Continuous pore-filling cementation promptly stabilizes the initially fragile Halimeda skeleton. Furthermore, abrasion experiments show that such cementation significantly increases the durability of segments during transport. Implications of these findings are profound in two respects; first, evaluating residence times of skeletal carbonate constituents based on abrasion features is far from being adequate. Second, the absence of cements within sedimentary Halimeda segments signals that post-mortem transport through the intertidal zone occurred quasi-instantaneously. Radiometric ages from such specimens should minimize the temporal lag between organism death and deposition thus making them reliable indicators of sedimentation in supratidal environments.

  7. The effect of implant macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative period: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Jeffrey J; Klokkevold, Perry R

    2017-10-01

    Available literature suggests there is a transient drop in implant stability from approximately week 0 to week 3-4 as a result of peri-implant bone remodeling as it transitions from a primary, mechanical stability to a secondary, biological stability. Research investigating the influence of macro-thread design on this process is scant. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the role of macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative healing period using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Seven patients, each missing at least two posterior teeth in the same arch, were included in the study. Three patients qualified for four implants resulting in a total of 10 matched pairs. All sites were healed (>6 months), non-grafted sites with sufficient bone to place implants. Each site in a matched pair was randomly assigned to receive either a control (Megagen EZ Plus Internal; EZ) or test (Megagen AnyRidge; AR) implant. The test implant incorporates a novel thread design with a wide thread depth and increased thread pitch. RFA was used to determine implant stability quotient (ISQ) values for each implant at the time of placement and weekly for the first 8 weeks. Implants consistently achieved a relatively high insertion torque (30-45 N/cm) and high initial ISQ value (79.8 ± 1.49). Baseline ISQ values for test (AR; 79.55 ± 1.61) and control (EZ; 80.05 ± 1.37) implants were similar. A general pattern of stability from baseline through all eight follow-up evaluations was observed for the test implants. A pattern of decreasing ISQ values was observed for the control implants across the early follow-up evaluations up to week four, where the value plateaued. There was a statistically significant main effect due to implant type (P < 0.01) and a statistically significant interaction between implant type and time (P < 0.01), indicating that the test and control implants performed differently at certain time points. Within the limitations

  8. Post partum depression and the psychosocial predictors in first-time fathers from northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Wei, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Chun-Li; Porr, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    there is growing evidence that fathers also experience post partum depression (PPD). However, paternal PPD has been less studied than maternal PPD. Very few studies have investigated PPD in first-time fathers from northwestern China. the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and predictors of depressive symptoms in first-time fathers from northwestern China. a longitudinal study was conducted involving 180 couples who were assessed at three time periods: 3 days, 2 weeks and 6 weeks after childbirth. Self-reported questionnaires including Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC), and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (KMSS) were administered to all participants during each time period. after childbirth 35 (21.1%) of the fathers at 3 days, 32 (20.4%) at 2 weeks and 20 (13.6%) at 6 weeks, indicated that they suffered from PPD. Paternal parental sense of competence, paternal marital satisfaction, and maternal depressive symptoms were among the main predictors for paternal PPD. the study results suggest that paternal PPD is a significant public health concern. Health professionals should focus attention on the psychological health among new fathers during the postpartum period; and, the psychosocial predictors should be considered and incorporated into clinical assessment and intervention of paternal PPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lesions Responsible for Delayed Oral Transit Time in Post-stroke Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun Im; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Yi, Tae Im; Jeong, Yoon Jeong; Cho, Tae Hwan

    2018-06-01

    Some stroke patients show oral phase dysphagia, characterized by a markedly prolonged oral transit time that hinders oral feeding. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics and lesions responsible for delayed swallowing. We reviewed 90 patients with stroke. The oral processing time plus the postfaucial aggregation time required to swallow semisolid food was assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to oral transit time, and we analyzed the differences in characteristics such as demographic factors, lesion factors, and cognitive function. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the predictors of delayed oral transit time. Lesion location and volume were measured on brain magnetic resonance images. We generated statistic maps of lesions related to delayed oral phase in swallowing using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). The group of patients who showed delayed oral transit time had significantly low cognitive function. Also, in a regression model, delayed oral phase was predicted with low K-MMSE (Korean version of the Mini Mental Status Exam). Using VLSM, we found the lesion location to be associated with delayed oral phase after adjusting for K-MMSE score. Although these results did not reach statistical significance, they showed the lesion pattern with predominant distribution in the left frontal lobe. Delayed oral phase in post-stroke patients was not negligible clinically. Patients' cognitive impairments affect the oral transit time. When adjusting it, we found a trend that the lesion responsible for delayed oral phase was located in the left frontal lobe, though the association did not reach significance. The delay might be related to praxis function.

  10. Rotigotine in Combination with the MAO-B Inhibitor Selegiline in Early Parkinson's Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giladi, Nir; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Bauer, Lars; Grieger, Frank; Boroojerdi, Babak

    2016-04-02

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors and dopamine receptor agonists are common first-line treatment options in early Parkinson's disease (PD). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rotigotine transdermal patch as an add-on therapy to an MAO-B inhibitor in patients with early-PD. In two Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in early-PD (SP512, SP513), patients were randomized to rotigotine (titrated to optimal dose ≤8 mg/24 h) or placebo, and maintained for 24 (SP512) or 33 (SP513) weeks. Post hoc analyses were performed on pooled data for patients receiving an MAO-B inhibitor (selegiline) at a stable dose at randomization and throughout the studies, with groups defined as "Selegiline+Rotigotine" and "Selegiline+Placebo". Outcome measures included change from baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II (activities of daily living), III (motor), UPDRS II+III and responders (patients achieving ≥20%, ≥25% or ≥30% decrease in UPDRS II+III). As post hoc analyses, p-values are exploratory. 130 patients were evaluable for efficacy analyses ("Selegiline+Rotigotine": 84, "Selegiline+Placebo": 46). Combined treatment with rotigotine and selegiline improved UPDRS III and UPDRS II+III scores versus selegiline alone (LS-mean [95% CI] treatment difference for UPDRS III: -4.89 [-7.87 to -1.91], p = 0.0015; for UPDRS II+III: -5.76 [-9.71 to -1.82], p = 0.0045). Higher proportion of patients in the "Selegiline+Rotigotine" group were classified as ≥20%, ≥25% or ≥30% responders (all p < 0.001). Combined treatment appeared more effective in patients aged ≤65 years versus > 65 years (although patient numbers in the subgroups were low). Adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of rotigotine. In these post hoc analyses, adjunctive treatment with rotigotine in patients already receiving an MAO-B inhibitor improved UPDRS II+III score; this appeared to be largely driven by

  11. Rotigotine in Combination with the MAO-B Inhibitor Selegiline in Early Parkinson’s Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Nir; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Bauer, Lars; Grieger, Frank; Boroojerdi, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors and dopamine receptor agonists are common first-line treatment options in early Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rotigotine transdermal patch as an add-on therapy to an MAO-B inhibitor in patients with early-PD. Methods: In two Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in early-PD (SP512, SP513), patients were randomized to rotigotine (titrated to optimal dose ≤8 mg/24 h) or placebo, and maintained for 24 (SP512) or 33 (SP513) weeks. Post hoc analyses were performed on pooled data for patients receiving an MAO-B inhibitor (selegiline) at a stable dose at randomization and throughout the studies, with groups defined as “Selegiline+Rotigotine” and “Selegiline+Placebo”. Outcome measures included change from baseline in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II (activities of daily living), III (motor), UPDRS II+III and responders (patients achieving ≥20%, ≥25% or ≥30% decrease in UPDRS II+III). As post hoc analyses, p-values are exploratory. Results: 130 patients were evaluable for efficacy analyses (“Selegiline+Rotigotine”: 84, “Selegiline+Placebo”: 46). Combined treatment with rotigotine and selegiline improved UPDRS III and UPDRS II+III scores versus selegiline alone (LS-mean [95% CI] treatment difference for UPDRS III: –4.89 [–7.87 to –1.91], p = 0.0015; for UPDRS II+III: –5.76 [–9.71 to –1.82], p = 0.0045). Higher proportion of patients in the “Selegiline+Rotigotine” group were classified as ≥20%, ≥25% or ≥30% responders (all p < 0.001). Combined treatment appeared more effective in patients aged ≤65 years versus > 65 years (although patient numbers in the subgroups were low). Adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of rotigotine. Conclusions: In these post hoc analyses, adjunctive treatment with rotigotine in patients already receiving an

  12. The Early Intervention Readiness Program (EIRP): A Post-ASD Diagnosis Family Support Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolmie, Rhiannon S.; Bruck, Susan; Kerslake, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    A child's diagnosis with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an extremely stressful time for families. Researchers suggest that the period immediately following ASD diagnosis is a key time for professionals to guide families by providing appropriate information about support options. This article describes a family support program, developed by…

  13. EARLY DIAGNOSIS IN POST RENAL TRANSPLANT OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS: A FRESH LOOK.

    PubMed

    Chopra, G S; Narula, A S; Reddy, P S; Bhardwaj, J R

    1999-04-01

    A total of 86 renal transplant patients who were transplanted with live related donor (LRD) and live unrelated donor (LURD) kidneys were studied for opportunistic infections. Immune diagnosis of Toxoplasma, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes-simplex virus type II (HSV-2), Aspergillosis and Tuberculosis was carried out in these patients along with sputum examination, CSF studies and biopsy of lymphnode and other tissues in few cases. A high degree of Toxoplasma, CMV & HSV-2 positivity was seen in transplanted patients. However sensitivity of serological diagnosis of tuberculos was found to be low with standard criteria, which increased significantly when modified criteria were used. It is concluded that regular immunological monitoring should be carried out in transplanted patients so as to reach an early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections.

  14. [Relevant factors of early puberty timing in urban primary schools in Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Liu, Qin; Wen, Yi; Liu, Shudan; Lei, Xun; Wang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the status of puberty timing and relevant factors of early puberty timing in children from grade one to four in urban primary schools of Chongqing. According to the purposive sample method, four urban primary schools in Chongqing were selected and of which 1471 children from grade one to four who have obtained informed consent were recruited. Questionnaire survey on social-demographic characteristics and family environment (e.g., age, parents' relationship, diet and lifestyle, etc), and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) survey and physical examination (measurements of height, weight, pubertal development status, etc) were conducted. P25, P50, P75 ages of each important pubertal event were calculated by probit regression. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze relevant factors. The detection rate of early puberty timing was 17.7%, and the median ages of the onset of breast and testicular development were 10.77 and 11.48 years old, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that early puberty timing occurred more likely in girls than in boys (OR = 0.561, 95% CI 0.406-0.774), and bad relationship between parents (OR = 1.320, 95% CI 1.007-1.729) and hair-products-use (OR = 1.685, 95%, CI 1.028-2.762) were risk factors of early puberty timing. Early onset of puberty in urban Chongqing is still exist. Gender, parents' relationship, and hair-products-use have an essential impact on early puberty timing.

  15. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    alpha 1 COL1A1 collagen, type I, alpha 1 COL2A1 collagen, type II, alpha 1 COL4A3 collagen, type IV, alpha 3 COMP cartilage oligomeric matrix protein...Symbol  Fold Regulation (15  days post injury)  Spp1  172.4535 Spp1  1105.6776 Col1a1   137.7958 Tac1  130.0625 ll1b  67.3332 Cxcl5  86.3414 ll10  49.9631... Col1a1   84.2834 Has1  45.5771 ll1b  74.488 Tac1  42.9908 Mmp9  69.8933 Cxcl1  25.259 ll10  40.5062 Mmp9  24.4814 Col11a1  38.3554 Alpl  23.9021 Cxcl1

  16. Early central diabetes insipidus: An ominous sign in post-cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Chae, Minjung Kathy; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Tae Rim; Yoon, Hee; Hwang, Sung Yeon; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2016-04-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) after cardiac arrest is not well described. Thus, we aim to study the occurrences, outcomes, and risk factors of CDI of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We retrospectively analyzed post-OHCA patients treated at a single center. Central diabetes insipidus was retrospectively defined by diagnostic criteria. One-month cerebral performance category (CPC) scores were collected for outcomes. Of the 169 patients evaluated, 36 patients (21.3%) were diagnosed with CDI. All CDI patients had a poor neurologic outcome of either CPC 4 (13.9%) or CPC 5 (86.1%), and CDI was strongly associated with mortality. Age (odds ratio [OR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.99), respiratory arrest (OR, 6.62; 95% CI, 1.23-35.44), asphyxia (OR, 9.26; 95% CI, 2.17-34.61), and gray to white matter ratio on brain computed tomogram (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95) were associated with the development of CDI. The onset of CDI was earlier (P < .001) and the maximum 24-hour urine output was larger (P = .03) in patients with worst outcomes. All patients diagnosed with CDI had poor neurologic outcomes, and occurrence of CDI was associated with mortality. Central diabetes insipidus patients with death or brain death had earlier occurrence of CDI and more maximum urine output. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Motor impairments related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis. Part II: abnormal upper extremity joint torque synergies.

    PubMed

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Dewald, Julius P A

    2014-01-01

    Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, and the timing of brain injury may affect the resulting motor impairment. In Part I of this series, it was demonstrated that the distribution of weakness in the upper extremity depended on the timing of brain injury in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. The goal of this study was to characterize how timing of brain injury affects joint torque synergies, or losses of independent joint control. Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of their injury: before birth (PRE-natal, n = 8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n = 8), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n = 8). Individuals with hemiparesis and 8 typically developing peers participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks while their efforts were recorded by a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell. Motor output in 4 joints of the upper extremity was concurrently measured during 8 primary torque generation tasks to quantify joint torque synergies. There were a number of significant coupling patterns identified in individuals with hemiparesis that differed from the typically developing group. POST-natal differences were most noted in the coupling of shoulder abductors with elbow, wrist, and finger flexors, while the PRE-natal group demonstrated significant distal joint coupling with elbow flexion. The torque synergies measured provide indirect evidence for the use of bulbospinal pathways in the POST-natal group, while those with earlier injury may use relatively preserved ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways.

  18. The impact of early outcome events on the effect of tranexamic acid in post-partum haemorrhage: an exploratory subgroup analysis of the WOMAN trial.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Amy; Shakur-Still, Haleema; Chaudhri, Rizwana; Fawole, Bukola; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Roberts, Ian

    2018-06-07

    In severe post-partum haemorrhage, death can occur within hours of bleeding onset so interventions to control the bleeding must be given immediately. In clinical trials of treatments for life-threatening bleeding, established treatments are given priority and the trial treatment is usually given last. However, enrolling patients in whom severe maternal morbidity or death is imminent or inevitable at the time of randomisation may dilute the effects of a trial treatment. We conducted an exploratory analysis of data from the WOMAN trial, an international, randomised placebo-controlled trial of the effects of tranexamic acid on death and surgical intervention in 20,060 women with post-partum haemorrhage. We assessed the impact of early maternal death or hysterectomy due to exsanguination on the effect of tranexamic acid on each of these respective outcomes. We conducted repeated analyses excluding patients with these outcomes at increasing intervals from the time of randomisation. We quantified treatment effects using risk ratios (RR) and 99% confidence intervals (CI) and prepared cumulative failure plots. Among 14,923 women randomised within 3 h of delivery (7518 tranexamic acid and 7405 placebo), there were 216 bleeding deaths (1.5%) and 383 hysterectomies due to bleeding (2.8%). After excluding deaths from exsanguination at increasing time intervals following randomization, there was a significant reduction in the risk of death due to bleeding with tranexamic acid (RR = 0.41; 99% CI 0.19-0.89). However, after excluding hysterectomies at increasing time intervals post-randomization, there was no reduction in the risk of hysterectomy due to bleeding with tranexamic acid (RR = 0.79; 99% CI 0.33-1.86). Findings from this analysis provide further evidence that tranexamic acid reduces the risk of death from exsanguination in women who experience postpartum haemorrhage. It is uncertain whether tranexamic acid reduces the risk of hysterectomy for bleeding after

  19. Critical role of STIR MRI in early detection of post-streptococcal periostitis with dysproteinaemia (Goldbloom's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Papa, Riccardo; Consolaro, Alessandro; Minoia, Francesca; Caorsi, Roberta; Magnano, Gianmichele; Gattorno, Marco; Ravelli, Angelo; Picco, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In 1966, Goldbloom et al. described two children who developed a peculiar clinical picture characterized by intermittent daily bone pain in the lower limbs, fever spikes, increased acute phase reactants and dysproteinaemia. The syndrome occurred two weeks after a group A β-haemolytic streptococcus infection. So far, only a few cases have been reported in the medical literature in English. We report two further cases of Goldbloom's syndrome with a review of the literature in English. Our two patients lived in the same Italian region and presented their syndrome onset a week apart. Early use of STIR MRI revealed an atypical metaphyseal hyperintensity in the femurs and tibias. X-ray showed periosteal hyperostosis. A short cycle of corticosteroids led to rapid recovery of symptoms and disappearance of bone changes. The reported cases highlight a likely under-recognised post-streptococcal inflammatory periosteal reaction and emphasise the diagnostic utility of the newer imaging modalities.

  20. Post-coital burning pain and pain at micturition: early symptoms of partial vaginismus with or without vulvar vestibulitis?

    PubMed

    Engman, Maria; Wijma, Klaas; Wijma, Barbro

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four women with partial vaginismus with or without vulvar vestibulitis participated in a semi-structured telephone interview concerning early signs and development of their pain symptoms during/after intercourse. At the onset of the problem, pain after intercourse was more common than pain during penetration. Pain intensity during penetration increased from the onset of the problem to when the women ceased having intercourse. Pain during penetration lasted for 1 minute, and was most often described as sharp/incisive/bursting, while pain after intercourse had a duration of 2 hours and was described as burning and/or smarting. Post-coital pain during micturition was described by 70% of the women.

  1. Telomere length dynamics differ in foetal and early post-natal human leukocytes in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Denise K; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Walkinshaw, Steve A; Alfirevic, Zarko; Johnston, Tracey A; Subhedar, Nimish V; Chittick, Rachel; Swindell, Richard; Wynn, Robert F

    2009-06-01

    Haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) undergo a process of self renewal to constantly maintain blood cell turnover. However, it has become apparent that adult HSC lose their self-renewal ability with age. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood leukocytes has been seen to occur with age and it has been associated with loss of HSC proliferative capacity and cellular ageing. In contrast foetal HSC are known to have greater proliferative capacity than post-natal stem cells. However it is unknown whether they undergo a similar process of telomere shortening. In this study we show a more accentuated rate of telomere loss in leukocytes from pre term infants compared to human foetuses of comparable age followed longitudinally for 8-12 weeks in a longitudinal study. Our results point to a difference in HSC behaviour between foetal and early postnatal life which is independent of age but may be influenced by events at birth itself.

  2. Pubertal timing and early sexual intercourse in the offspring of teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    De Genna, Natacha M; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D

    2011-10-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10 and 14 years old (n = 318). Adolescents (50% male) compared the timing of their pubertal maturation to same-sex peers. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect of race, sex, and pubertal timing on sexual debut (n = 305). This effect remained significant in a model controlling for maternal age at first intercourse, substance use, exposure to trauma, authoritative parenting, and peer sexual activity (n = 255). Early maturation was associated with early sex in daughters, and may be one pathway for the inter-generational transfer of risk for teenage pregnancy among daughters of teenage mothers.

  3. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    PubMed Central

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12–18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10 and 14 years old (n = 318). Adolescents (50% male) compared the timing of their pubertal maturation to same-sex peers. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect of race, sex, and pubertal timing on sexual debut (n = 305). This effect remained significant in a model controlling for maternal age at first intercourse, substance use, exposure to trauma, authoritative parenting, and peer sexual activity (n = 255). Early maturation was associated with early sex in daughters, and may be one pathway for the inter-generational transfer of risk for teenage pregnancy among daughters of teenage mothers. PMID:21279428

  4. The feasibility of characterising the effects of dental post-operative discomfort and sensitivity over time.

    PubMed

    Sear, Rose; Rees, Jeremy; Buller, Zairah; Moore, Simon C

    2018-05-01

    To assess the feasibility of using short message service text messages to solicit dental patients' experiences of post-operative dental discomfort and sensitivity (PODDS) and whether responses characterise change in PODDS over time. Patients were recruited from clinics following routine dental procedures, such as simple restorations or root surface debridement. They completed a short questionnaire collecting information on socio-economic circumstances, their recent experience of PODDS, the acceptability of receiving text message questions and their telephone number. Participants received a short question by text to their telephone for five consecutive days that asked them to respond with an indication (on a 1 to 10 scale) of their experience of PODDS at that time. Questionnaires were completed by 34 participants, of whom text message responses were received from an average of 23.4 participants (min 20, max 26) across the five follow-up days. Regression analyses indicated that PODDS decreased over time (β = -0.24, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.12). Text messaging to solicit PODDS is feasible and can potentially be used to assess the efficacy of treatments designed to minimise or reduce PODDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Orion Post-Touchdown Parachute Release Time on Vehicle Rollover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Littell, Justin

    2008-01-01

    The effects that the Orion parachutes have on the vehicle response once the vehicle lands on the ground are examined in this report. A concern with the Orion landing is that structural accelerations will cause vehicle and/or crew injuries or that the vehicle may roll over. The parachute effects are thought to have the potential of pulling the vehicle over during conditions such as higher winds or in some cases stabilizing the vehicle by preventing its motions after touchdown. A collection of representative landing conditions is used to assess the post-touchdown parachute release effect, and it was determined that, in general, there is no significant advantage or disadvantage to releasing the parachutes past the time when the vehicle touches ground. For landing conditions when there is a high horizontal wind, retaining the parachutes has a detrimental effect on vehicle rollover because the drag force on the parachutes pulls the vehicle over. Under this condition, some form of automated parachute release should be a requirement given that an attached parachute may cause the vehicle to roll over. An automated system would ensure that the release occur within 0.50 sec of touchdown (time when parachute regains tension), which is not enough time for a crew-operated manual release.

  6. Deficits in episodic memory and mental time travel in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Woud, Marcella L; Machulska, Alla; Kleimt, Katharina; Dietrich, Lisa; Wolf, Oliver T; Assion, Hans-Joerg; Huston, Joseph P; De Souza Silva, Maria A; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-04-20

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by impairments in mnestic functions, especially in the domain of episodic memory. These alterations might affect different aspects of episodic memory functioning. Here we tested PTSD patients and healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education) in a newly developed virtual reality episodic memory test (VR-EMT), a test for mental time travel, episodic future thinking, and prospective memory (M3xT). In a cross-validation experiment, their performance was further evaluated in the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). PTSD patients demonstrated impairments in episodic memory formation and mental time travel and showed difficulties in utilizing information from episodic memory to solve problems. Diminished attention and concentration in PTSD did not account for performance deficits in these tasks but higher levels of negative arousal were found in PTSD patients. Furthermore, performance in the VR-EMT and RBMT in PTSD patients correlated negatively with self-reported measures of stress and depression. Our results suggest that deficits in episodic memory formation and mental time travel in PTSD lead to difficulties in utilizing the content of episodic memories for solving problems in the present or to plan future behavior. Clinical implications of these findings and suggestions for cognitive-behavioral treatment of PTSD are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Childhood Maltreatment and Girls' Sexual Behavior: The Mediating Role of Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Mendle, Jane; Markowitz, Anna J

    2015-09-01

    Although links between early childhood maltreatment and girls' sexual behavior in adolescence have been well established, it is unclear whether different forms of maltreatment are differentially associated with sexual outcomes and whether distinct mechanisms explain associations across maltreatment types. Using data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), the present study examines whether physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical neglect in early childhood differentially predict girls' age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners in early adulthood. The study also tests whether early pubertal timing mediates the link between early maltreatment and sexual behavior (N = 6,364). Findings indicate that early sexual and physical abuse were equally predictive of earlier age at first intercourse and a greater number of sexual partners, but that only the sexual abuse-age at first intercourse link was mediated by early puberty. These results suggest that sexual abuse and physical abuse are associated with earlier and riskier sexual behavior in girls relative to no maltreatment and to similar degrees. However, only the link between sexual abuse and sexual behavior involves a biological mechanism manifested in early pubertal timing. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining early post-resuscitation EEG and HRV features improves the prognostic performance in cardiac arrest model of rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chenxi; Wang, Zhi; Wei, Liang; Chen, Gang; Chen, Bihua; Zuo, Feng; Li, Yongqin

    2018-04-09

    Early and reliable prediction of neurological outcome remains a challenge for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest (CA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of EEG, heart rate variability (HRV) features and the combination of them for outcome prognostication in CA model of rats. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 groups (n=8 each) with different cause and duration of untreated arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5, 6 and 7min of ventricular fibrillation or 4, 6 and 8min of asphyxia. EEG and ECG were continuously recorded for 4h under normothermia after resuscitation. The relationships between features of early post-resuscitation EEG, HRV and 96-hour outcome were investigated. Prognostic performances were evaluated using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). All of the animals were successfully resuscitated and 27 of them survived to 96h. Weighted-permutation entropy (WPE) and normalized high frequency (nHF) outperformed other EEG and HRV features for the prediction of survival. The AUC of WPE was markedly higher than that of nHF (0.892 vs. 0.759, p<0.001). The AUC was 0.954 when WPE and nHF were combined using a logistic regression model, which was significantly higher than the individual EEG (p=0.018) and HRV (p<0.001) features. Earlier post-resuscitation HRV provided prognostic information complementary to quantitative EEG in the CA model of rats. The combination of EEG and HRV features leads to improving performance of outcome prognostication compared to either EEG or HRV based features alone. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Safety evaluation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate through analysis of adverse events reported during early post-marketing phase vigilance.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takashi; Okumura, Akihisa; Tanabe, Takuya; Niwa, Shimpei; Fukushima, Masato; Yonemochi, Rie; Eda, Hisano; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    Abnormal behavior and delirium are common in children with influenza. While abnormal behavior and delirium are considered to be associated with influenza encephalopathy, an increased risk of such neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients receiving neuraminidase inhibitor treatment is suspected. Laninamivir octanoate hydrate, recently approved in Japan, is a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor. It is important to establish a safety profile for laninamivir early, based on post-marketing experiences. Spontaneous safety reports collected in the early post-marketing phase vigilance were analyzed. Adverse events of interest such as abnormal behavior/delirium, dizziness/vertigo, respiratory disorders, shock/syncope, and any other serious events were intensively reviewed by the Safety Evaluation Committee. Abnormal behavior/delirium was a frequently reported event. Almost all the reported cases were considered to be due to influenza and not laninamivir. There were 32 cases of abnormal behavior/delirium that could lead to dangerous accidents, and these were observed more frequently in males and teenagers. Syncope probably related to the act of inhalation per se of laninamivir was reported during this survey. This safety review revealed that the safety profile of laninamivir for abnormal behavior/delirium and syncope was similar to that of other neuraminidase inhibitors. As stated in the labeling, teenage patients inhaling laninamivir should remain under constant parental supervision for at least 2 days and should be closely monitored for behavioral changes to prevent serious accidents associated with abnormal behavior/delirium. Furthermore, to avoid syncope because of inhalation, patients should be instructed to inhale in a relaxed sitting position.

  10. Background experiences, time allocation, time on teaching and perceived support of early-career college science faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagendorf, Kenneth S.

    The purposes of this research were to create an inventory of the research, teaching and service background experiences of and to document the time allocation and time spent on teaching by early-career college science faculty members. This project is presented as three distinct papers. Thirty early-career faculty in the science disciplines from sixteen different institutions in their first year of employment participated in this study. For the first two papers, a new survey was developed asking participants to choose which experiences they had acquired prior to taking their current faculty position and asking them to document their time allocation and time spent on teaching activities in an average work week. In addition, a third component documents the support early-career college faculty in the sciences are receiving from the perspective of faculty members and their respective department chairpersons and identifies areas of disagreement between these two different groups. Twenty early-career college science faculty and their respective department chairpersons completed a newly-designed survey regarding the support offered to new faculty. The survey addressed the areas of feedback on performance, clarity of tenure requirements, mentoring, support for teaching and scholarship and balancing faculty life. This dissertation presents the results from these surveys, accounting for different demographic variables such as science discipline, gender and institutional category.

  11. Organ-coordinated response of early post-germination mahogany seedlings to drought.

    PubMed

    Horta, Lívia P; Braga, Márcia R; Lemos-Filho, José P; Modolo, Luzia V

    2014-04-01

    Water deficit tolerance during post-germination stages is critical for seedling recruitment. In this work, we studied the effect of water deficit on morphological and biochemical responses in different organs of newly germinated mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seedlings, a woody species that occurs in the Amazon rainforest. The root : shoot ratio increased under water deficit. The leaf number and water potential were not altered, although reductions in leaf area and stomatal conductance were observed. Osmotic potential became more negative in leaves of seedlings under severe stress. Water deficit increased fructose, glucose, sucrose and myo-inositol levels in leaves. Stems accumulated fructose, glucose and l-proline. Nitric oxide (NO) levels increased in the vascular cylinder of roots under severe stress while superoxide anion levels decreased due to augmented superoxide dismutase activity in this organ. Water deficit induced glutathione reductase activity in both roots and stems. Upon moderate or severe stress, catalase activity decreased in leaves and remained unaffected in the other seedling organs, allowing for an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in leaves. Overall, the increase of signaling molecules in distinct organs-NO in roots, l-proline in stems and H2O2 and myo-inositol in leaves-contributed to the response of mahogany seedlings to water deficit by triggering biochemical processes that resulted in the attenuation of oxidative stress and the establishment of osmotic adjustment. Therefore, this body of evidence reveals that the development of newly germinated mahogany seedlings may occur in both natural habitats and crop fields even when water availability is greatly limited.

  12. Egg laying characteristics, egg weight, embryo development, hatching weight and post-hatch growth in relation to oviposition time of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Akil, R; Zakaria, A H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine egg laying characteristics and the effects of oviposition time on egg weight, embryo development and post-hatch growth in broiler breeders. In experiment 1, eggs collected for 3 consecutive days on hourly basis between 06:30 and 17:30h were categorized to early, middle and late oviposition times in the clutch. In experiment 2, eggs were incubated to study embryo development, remaining albumen, liver weight, heart weight and the tibia length of embryos at 12, 14, 16 and 18 days of incubation as well as the body weight of hatchlings and chickens at 7, 21 and 42 days of age in relation to oviposition time. About 76% of nest eggs were laid from 06:30 to 11:30h. A similar pattern was observed in floor eggs. Egg weight decreased (P<0.01) with advanced position in the clutch. Generally, oviposition time had no effect on embryo growth parameters. At hatch, body weight of chicks derived from eggs of late oviposition times was less (P<0.01) than that of chicks from eggs produced earlier in the clutch. From 3-week-old onwards, chickens of early oviposition time sustained heavier (P<0.05) weight than chickens of middle oviposition time whereas chickens of late oviposition time obtained a middle weight. Differences in egg weights, body weight at hatch and post-hatch growth due to time of oviposition suggest that oviposition time together with incubation conditions should be considered for obtaining greater uniformity and growth of chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with timing of early neurological improvement after thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Guettier, S; Cogez, J; Bonnet, A-L; Dean, P; Apoil, M; Tchoumi, T; Dubuc, L; Arzur, J; de la Sayette, V; Kouassi, L-K; Viader, F; Touzé, E

    2016-03-01

    Early neurological improvement (ENI) after fibrinolysis for ischaemic stroke is strongly associated with recanalization and favourable outcome. However, it remains unknown why some patients recover within the first hour after treatment (very ENI, VENI) whereas others recover later within 24 h. The factors associated with the timing of ENI were assessed. Consecutive stroke patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4.5 h after onset in four stroke centres of our geographical area were retrospectively studied. VENI assessed at 1 h and ENI assessed at 24 h post-treatment were defined by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) improvement by 40% from baseline. Of 421 patients, 65 (15%) had VENI and 110 (26%) had ENI. Patients with VENI had significantly lower serum creatinine level than patients with ENI (79 ± 19 vs. 91 ± 35 μmol/l; P = 0.01). After adjustment for age, sex, baseline NIHSS, hypertension and blood glucose level, patients with low serum creatinine level were more likely to have VENI (lowest tertile, odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.7; intermediate tertile, odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 0.8-4.3; P for trend <0.01). VENI patients were as likely as ENI patients to have a modified Rankin scale score ≤2 at 3 months. Low serum creatinine levels are associated with VENI, suggesting that swiftness of the efficacy of rt-PA or of neurological recovery may depend on renal function. © 2016 EAN.

  14. Emergent categorical representation of natural, complex sounds resulting from the early post-natal sound environment

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shaowen; Chang, Edward F.; Teng, Ching-Ling; Heiser, Marc A.; Merzenich, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical sensory representations can be reorganized by sensory exposure in an epoch of early development. The adaptive role of this type of plasticity for natural sounds in sensory development is, however, unclear. We have reared rats in a naturalistic, complex acoustic environment and examined their auditory representations. We found that cortical neurons became more selective to spectrotemporal features in the experienced sounds. At the neuronal population level, more neurons were involved in representing the whole set of complex sounds, but fewer neurons actually responded to each individual sound, but with greater magnitudes. A comparison of population-temporal responses to the experienced complex sounds revealed that cortical responses to different renderings of the same song motif were more similar, indicating that the cortical neurons became less sensitive to natural acoustic variations associated with stimulus context and sound renderings. By contrast, cortical responses to sounds of different motifs became more distinctive, suggesting that cortical neurons were tuned to the defining features of the experienced sounds. These effects lead to emergent “categorical” representations of the experienced sounds, which presumably facilitate their recognition. PMID:23747304

  15. Early Administration of Glutamine Protects Cardiomyocytes from Post-Cardiac Arrest Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Ren; Li, Chao-Jui; Syu, Shih-Han; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Wu, Han-Ping; Hsu Chen, Cheng; Lu, Huai-En; Chen, Wen-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2) were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, n = 20) and control (normal saline, n = 20) groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5) or to culture medium (control). Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group ( p < 0.05). In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53) and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL) markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR). L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5). More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells' beating function at a low pH level.

  16. Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia is related to parathyroid dysfunction even in patients with normal parathyroid hormone concentrations early after surgery.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marco; De Crea, Carmela; D'Amato, Gerardo; Moscato, Umberto; Bellantone, Chiara; Carrozza, Cinzia; Lombardi, Celestino Pio

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia may develop even in the presence of normal postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. We aimed to identify risk factors of hypocalcemia in patients with normal PTH concentration early after total thyroidectomy (TT). We included 1,504 consecutive patients who underwent TT between January 2012 and December 2013. Significant hypocalcemia was defined as serum calcium concentrations of <8.0 mg/dL. Overall, 333 patients had subnormal PTH 4 hours after surgery (4-hour PTH; <10 pg/mL) and received oral calcium (OC) and calcitriol supplementation. Among the 1,171 patients with normal 4-hour PTH (≥ 10 pg/mL; euparathyroid), 211 experienced hypocalcemia and required OC administration. Among the euparathyroid patients, no difference was found between normocalcemic and hypocalcemic patients in terms of age, hormonal status, preoperative PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OH-VD), magnesium, and phosphate concentrations. On univariate analysis, euparathyroid hypocalcemic patients were more frequently females, had significantly lower preoperative serum calcium and 4-hour PTH concentrations, and greater decreases in PTH. Independent risk factors for hypocalcemia with normal 4-hour PTH were preoperative serum calcium concentration and PTH decline of ≥ 50%. Female sex, toxic goiter, and 25OH-VD deficiency are not risk factors for post-TT hypocalcemia. Relative parathyroid insufficiency seems to be the principal mechanism of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia, even in patients with normal postoperative PTH concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Intervention for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Quality of Life in Mortuary Affairs Soldiers Postdeployment.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Quinn M; Fullerton, Carol S; McCarroll, James E; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Dacuyan, Nicole M; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ursano, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    U.S. Army mortuary affairs (MA) soldiers experience stressors of deployment and exposure to the dead, increasing risk for post-traumatic stress and depression. This study examines Troop Education for Army Morale, a postdeployment early intervention based on Psychological First Aid. MA soldiers (N = 126) were randomized to intervention or comparison groups 1-month postdeployment. Intervention sessions were held at 2, 3, 4, and 7 months. Assessments of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life (QOL) were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 months for both groups. At baseline, 25.0% of the total sample had probable PTSD (17-item PTSD Checklist M = 35.4, SD = 16.9) and 23.6% had probable depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale M = 7.8, SD = 6.9). Over 10 months, PTSD and depression symptoms decreased and QOL improved for the total sample. At study conclusion, intervention and comparison groups were not different. Intervention group males showed a transient symptom increase at 2 to 3 months. Males attended fewer intervention sessions than females. Lower attendance was associated with more symptoms and lower QOL. Higher attendance was associated with greater intervention benefits. Findings highlight the need for better understanding postdeployment interventions and facilitating attendance. Further intervention for MA soldiers is indicated. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. The early use of botulinum toxin in post-stroke spasticity: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Cameron; Simpson, Julie; Ispoglou, Sissi; Sturman, Steve G; Pandyan, Anand D

    2014-01-08

    Patients surviving stroke but who have significant impairment of function in the affected arm are at more risk of developing pain, stiffness and contractures. The abnormal muscle activity, associated with post-stroke spasticity, is thought to be causally associated with the development of these complications. Treatment of spasticity is currently delayed until a patient develops signs of these complications. This protocol is for a phase II study that aims to identify whether using OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) in combination with physiotherapy early post stroke when initial abnormal muscle activity is neurophysiologically identified can prevent loss of range at joints and improve functional outcomes.The trial uses a screening phase to identify which people are appropriate to be included in a double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. All patients admitted to Sandwell and West Birmingham NHS Trust Hospitals with a diagnosis of stroke will be screened to identify functional activity in the arm. Those who have no function will be appropriate for further screening. Patients who are screened and have abnormal muscle activity identified on EMG will be given electrical stimulation to forearm extensors for 3 months and randomised to have either injections of BoNT-A or normal saline. The primary outcome measure is the action research arm test - a measure of arm function. Further measures include spasticity, stiffness, muscle strength and fatigue as well as measures of quality of life, participation and caregiver strain. ISRCTN57435427, EudraCT2010-021257-39, NCT01882556.

  19. Characteristics of adverse drug reactions in a vemurafenib early post-marketing phase vigilance study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uhara, H; Kiyohara, Y; Tsuda, A; Takata, M; Yamazaki, N

    2018-02-01

    Post-approval research or monitoring is important to determine real-world safety of new products; however, evidence is scant for vemurafenib in Japanese patients. In Japan, a unique system is officially obligated to investigate post-approval safety. Here we report the first adverse drug reaction (ADR) data from vemurafenib-treated Japanese patients with metastatic melanoma. Data were collected in an early post-marketing phase vigilance (EPPV) study. ADRs were events for which a causal relationship with vemurafenib could not be ruled out or was unknown. ADR data were collected for patients treated with vemurafenib (960 mg bid) between 26 February and 25 August 2015. Among 95 patients, 46 patients had 118 ADRs (24 serious ADRs in 13 patients). The most common serious ADRs were hypersensitivity (n = 1; 3 events), arthralgia (n = 2; 2 events), pyrexia (n = 2; 2 events) and drug eruption (n = 2; 2 events). Seven patients had serious skin disorders or hypersensitivity, six of whom had prior anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies 5-35 days before starting vemurafenib. ADR reports of serious skin disorders appeared to be collected more rapidly than previously reported. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma developed in only one patient. EPPV in Japanese vemurafenib-treated patients identified no new safety signals. The most serious skin and hypersensitivity ADRs occurred in patients with prior anti-PD-1 exposure. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma appeared to be rare in Japanese patients. Further research is needed to clarify whether prior treatment with anti-PD-1 agents or racial differences affect the characteristic profile of cutaneous ADRs in Japanese patients.

  20. Impact of holding and equilibration time on post-thaw quality of shipped boar semen.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, J; Waberski, D; Jung, M; Schulze, M

    2017-12-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is of growing interest for breeding companies. Overnight-shipping of pre-diluted ejaculates to specialized laboratories offers a practicable method, but requires fine-tuned protocols. In this study, the impact of holding post shipping at 17°C for 2 or 24h (n=10 samples) and of equilibration in lactose-egg yolk extender without glycerol at 5°C for 2, 4, 24 or 48h (n=11 samples) before freezing was investigated. Sperm-rich fractions of ejaculates from 21 mature Pietrain boars were collected at a single boar stud. After pre-dilution (1+1, v:v) with Beltsville thawing solution, samples were sent to the laboratory. Temperature profiles during transport and initial equilibration time were recorded. Semen quality post-thaw (PT) was evaluated using CASA and flow cytometry. Holding of 2h after shipping resulted in higher sperm motility (P=0.013) and beat cross frequency (BCF; P=0.047) compared to 24h. Differences between both groups vanished with prolonged incubation at 38°C PT. Equilibration at 5°C for 4h yielded the highest motility and BCF, whereas the equilibration for 48h impaired sperm motility. Membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and DNA fragmentation index were not affected by any protocol modification. In conclusion, processing of pre-diluted boar semen shipped overnight within 2h after arrival at the laboratory is preferred to 24h of additional holding at 17°C. Extending the equilibration period in lactose-egg yolk extender without glycerol at 5°C from 2h to 4h before freezing is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying Early Paleozoic tectonic relations in a region affected by post-Taconian transcurrent faulting, an example from the PA-DE Piedmont

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, J.; Wagner, M.E.; Srogi, L.A.

    1993-03-01

    Post-Taconian transcurrent faulting in the Appalachian Piedmont presents a significant problem to workers attempting to reconstruct the Early Paleozoic tectonic history. One solution to the problem is to identify blocks that lie between zones of transcurrent faulting and that retain the Early Paleozoic arrangement of litho-tectonic units. The authors propose that a comparison of metamorphic histories of different units can be used to recognize blocks of this type. The Wilmington Complex (WC) arc terrane, the pre-Taconian Laurentian margin rocks (LM) exposed in basement-cored massifs, and the Wissahickon Group metapelites (WS) that lie between them are three litho-tectonic units in themore » PA-DE Piedmont that comprise a block assembled in the Early Paleozoic. Evidence supporting this interpretation includes: (1) Metamorphic and lithologic differences across the WC-WS contact and detailed geologic mapping of the contact that suggest thrusting of the WC onto the WS; (2) A metamorphic gradient in the WS with highest grade, including spinel-cordierite migmatites, adjacent to the WC indicating that peak metamorphism of the WS resulted from heating by the WC; (3) A metamorphic discontinuity at the WS-LM contact, evidence for emplacement of the WS onto the LM after WS peak metamorphism; (4) A correlation of mineral assemblage in the Cockeysville Marble of the LM with distance from the WS indicating that peak metamorphism of the LM occurred after emplacement of the WS; and (5) Early Paleozoic lower intercept zircon ages for the LM that are interpreted to date Taconian regional metamorphism. Analysis of metamorphism and its timing relative to thrusting suggest that the WS was associated with the WC before the WS was emplaced onto the LM during the Taconian. It follows that these units form a block that has not been significantly disrupted by later transcurrent shear.« less

  2. Post-recombination early Universe cooling by translation-internal inter-conversion: The role of minor constituents.

    PubMed

    McCaffery, Anthony J

    2015-09-14

    Little is known of the mechanism by which H and H2, the principal constituents of the post-re-combination early Universe, cooled sufficiently to permit cluster formation, nucleosynthesis, and, eventually, the formation of structured objects. Radiative decay primarily cools the internal modes of H2, as Δj = - 2 jumps accompany quadrupolar emission. This, however, would be a self-limiting mechanism. In this work, a translational energy cooling mechanism based on collision-induced, translation-to-internal mode conversion, is extended, following an earlier study [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] of ensembles comprising H2 in a H atom bath gas. Here, the possible influence of minor species, such as HD, on this cooling mechanism is investigated. Results suggest that the influence of HD is small but not insignificant. Conversion is very rapid and an overall translation-to-internal energy conversion efficiency of some 5% could be expected. This finding may be of use in the further development of models of this complex phase of early Universe evolution. An unexpected finding in this study was that H2 + HD ensembles are capable of very rapid translation-to-internal conversion with efficiencies of >40% and relaxation rates that appear to be relatively slow. This may have potential as an energy storage mechanism.

  3. Post-recombination early Universe cooling by translation–internal inter-conversion: The role of minor constituents

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffery, Anthony J., E-mail: A.J.McCaffery@sussex.ac.uk

    Little is known of the mechanism by which H and H{sub 2}, the principal constituents of the post-re-combination early Universe, cooled sufficiently to permit cluster formation, nucleosynthesis, and, eventually, the formation of structured objects. Radiative decay primarily cools the internal modes of H{sub 2}, as Δj = − 2 jumps accompany quadrupolar emission. This, however, would be a self-limiting mechanism. In this work, a translational energy cooling mechanism based on collision-induced, translation-to-internal mode conversion, is extended, following an earlier study [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] of ensembles comprising H{sub 2} in amore » H atom bath gas. Here, the possible influence of minor species, such as HD, on this cooling mechanism is investigated. Results suggest that the influence of HD is small but not insignificant. Conversion is very rapid and an overall translation-to-internal energy conversion efficiency of some 5% could be expected. This finding may be of use in the further development of models of this complex phase of early Universe evolution. An unexpected finding in this study was that H{sub 2} + HD ensembles are capable of very rapid translation-to-internal conversion with efficiencies of >40% and relaxation rates that appear to be relatively slow. This may have potential as an energy storage mechanism.« less

  4. PSD-95 is post-transcriptionally repressed during early neural development by PTBP1 and PTBP2.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sika; Gray, Erin E; Chawla, Geetanjali; Porse, Bo Torben; O'Dell, Thomas J; Black, Douglas L

    2012-01-15

    Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) is essential for synaptic maturation and plasticity. Although its synaptic regulation has been widely studied, the control of PSD-95 cellular expression is not understood. We found that Psd-95 was controlled post-transcriptionally during neural development. Psd-95 was transcribed early in mouse embryonic brain, but most of its product transcripts were degraded. The polypyrimidine tract binding proteins PTBP1 and PTBP2 repressed Psd-95 (also known as Dlg4) exon 18 splicing, leading to premature translation termination and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The loss of first PTBP1 and then of PTBP2 during embryonic development allowed splicing of exon 18 and expression of PSD-95 late in neuronal maturation. Re-expression of PTBP1 or PTBP2 in differentiated neurons inhibited PSD-95 expression and impaired the development of glutamatergic synapses. Thus, expression of PSD-95 during early neural development is controlled at the RNA level by two PTB proteins whose sequential downregulation is necessary for synapse maturation.

  5. Short post-infusion scalp cooling time in the prevention of docetaxel-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, C J G; Breed, W P M; Nortier, J W R

    2012-12-01

    The patient impact of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is high. Scalp cooling is applied to reduce CIA. The potential optimum post-infusion cooling times (PICTs) are currently unknown. Scalp cooling was applied in 53 patients receiving docetaxel chemotherapy with 90-min PICT (observational part). Also 15 non-scalp-cooled patients were included. If hair preservation was observed in >80 % of the patients, randomisation between 45 and 90-min PICT was planned. Patients reported tolerance of scalp cooling and use of head covering. Observational study: 81 % of scalp-cooled patients did not require head covering versus 27 % of non-scalp-cooled patients. Randomised study: 79 % of 38 patients with 90-min PICT did not need head covering versus 95 % of 38 patients with 45-min PICT (p = 0.04). Scalp cooling was very well tolerated (visual analogue scale = 79). A 45-min PICT can be recommended in 3-weekly docetaxel regimens with a dose of 75 or 100 mg/m(2), administered in 60 min. The shorter PICT is a major advantage in time investment for patients. Patients (women and men) who receive docetaxel, except combined with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (taxotere, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (TAC)) should be informed about the protective effect and high tolerability of scalp cooling in avoiding CIA.

  6. Re-establishment of rigor mortis: evidence for a considerably longer post-mortem time span.

    PubMed

    Crostack, Chiara; Sehner, Susanne; Raupach, Tobias; Anders, Sven

    2017-07-01

    Re-establishment of rigor mortis following mechanical loosening is used as part of the complex method for the forensic estimation of the time since death in human bodies and has formerly been reported to occur up to 8-12 h post-mortem (hpm). We recently described our observation of the phenomenon in up to 19 hpm in cases with in-hospital death. Due to the case selection (preceding illness, immobilisation), transfer of these results to forensic cases might be limited. We therefore examined 67 out-of-hospital cases of sudden death with known time points of death. Re-establishment of rigor mortis was positive in 52.2% of cases and was observed up to 20 hpm. In contrast to the current doctrine that a recurrence of rigor mortis is always of a lesser degree than its first manifestation in a given patient, muscular rigidity at re-establishment equalled or even exceeded the degree observed before dissolving in 21 joints. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe that the phenomenon appears to be independent of body or ambient temperature.

  7. Timing of silicone stent removal in patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Jung Seop; Kim, Hojoong; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O. Jung

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: In patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis (PTBS), the severity of bronchial stenosis affects the restenosis rate after the silicone stent is removed. In PTBS patients with incomplete bronchial obstruction, who had a favorable prognosis, the timing of stent removal to ensure airway patency is not clear. AIMS: We evaluated the time for silicone stent removal in patients with incomplete PTBS. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study examined PTBS patients who underwent stenting and removal of a silicone stent. METHODS: Incomplete bronchial stenosis was defined as PTBS other than total bronchial obstruction, which had a luminal opening at the stenotic segment on bronchoscopic intervention. The duration of stenting was defined as the interval from stent insertion to removal. The study included 44 PTBS patients and the patients were grouped at intervals of 6 months according to the duration of stenting. RESULTS: Patients stented for more than 12 months had a significantly lower restenosis rate than those stented for less than 12 months (4% vs. 35%, P = 0.009). Multiple logistic regression revealed an association between stenting for more than 12 months and a low restenosis rate (odds ratio 12.095; 95% confidence interval 1.097-133.377). Moreover, no restenosis was observed in PTBS patients when the stent was placed more than 14 months previously. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with incomplete PTBS, stent placement for longer than 12 months reduced restenosis after stent removal. PMID:24250736

  8. Timing of silicone stent removal in patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jung Seop; Kim, Hojoong; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-10-01

    In patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis (PTBS), the severity of bronchial stenosis affects the restenosis rate after the silicone stent is removed. In PTBS patients with incomplete bronchial obstruction, who had a favorable prognosis, the timing of stent removal to ensure airway patency is not clear. We evaluated the time for silicone stent removal in patients with incomplete PTBS. A retrospective study examined PTBS patients who underwent stenting and removal of a silicone stent. Incomplete bronchial stenosis was defined as PTBS other than total bronchial obstruction, which had a luminal opening at the stenotic segment on bronchoscopic intervention. The duration of stenting was defined as the interval from stent insertion to removal. The study included 44 PTBS patients and the patients were grouped at intervals of 6 months according to the duration of stenting. Patients stented for more than 12 months had a significantly lower restenosis rate than those stented for less than 12 months (4% vs. 35%, P = 0.009). Multiple logistic regression revealed an association between stenting for more than 12 months and a low restenosis rate (odds ratio 12.095; 95% confidence interval 1.097-133.377). Moreover, no restenosis was observed in PTBS patients when the stent was placed more than 14 months previously. In patients with incomplete PTBS, stent placement for longer than 12 months reduced restenosis after stent removal.

  9. Long-term Assessment of Post-Treatment Symptoms in Patients With Culture-Confirmed Early Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Weitzner, Erica; McKenna, Donna; Nowakowski, John; Scavarda, Carol; Dornbush, Rhea; Bittker, Susan; Cooper, Denise; Nadelman, Robert B; Visintainer, Paul; Schwartz, Ira; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-12-15

    Lyme disease patients with erythema migrans are said to have post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms (PTLDS) if there is persistence of subjective symptoms for at least 6 months following antibiotic treatment and resolution of the skin lesion. The purpose of this study was to characterize PTLDS in patients with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease followed for >10 years. Adult patients with erythema migrans with a positive skin or blood culture for Borrelia burgdorferi were enrolled in a prospective study beginning in 1991 and followed up at 6 months and annually thereafter to determine the long-term outcome of this infection. The genotype of the infecting strain of B. burgdorferi was evaluated in subjects with PTLDS. One hundred twenty-eight subjects with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease, of whom 55% were male, were followed for a mean ± SD of 14.98 ± 2.71 years (median = 15 years; range = 11-20 years). Fourteen (10.9%) were regarded as having possible PTLDS, but only 6 (4.7%) had PTLDS documented at their last study visit. Nine (64.3%) had only a single symptom. None of the 6 with PTLDS at their last visit was considered to be functionally impaired by the symptom(s). PTLDS was not associated with a particular genotype of B. burgdorferi. PTLDS may persist for >10 years in some patients with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease. Such long-standing symptoms were not associated with functional impairment or a particular strain of B. burgdorferi. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Safety and efficacy of Cerebrolysin in early post-stroke recovery: a meta-analysis of nine randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Natan M; Guekht, Alla; Vester, Johannes; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Gusev, Eugene; Hömberg, Volker; Rahlfs, Volker W; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Bogdan O; Muresanu, Dafin

    2018-04-01

    This meta-analysis combines the results of nine ischemic stroke trials, assessing efficacy of Cerebrolysin on global neurological improvement during early post-stroke period. Cerebrolysin is a parenterally administered neuropeptide preparation approved for treatment of stroke. All included studies had a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. The patients were treated with 30-50 ml Cerebrolysin once daily for 10-21 days, with treatment initiation within 72 h after onset of ischemic stroke. For five studies, original analysis data were available for meta-analysis (individual patient data analysis); for four studies, aggregate data were used. The combination by meta-analytic procedures was pre-planned and the methods of synthesis were pre-defined under blinded conditions. Search deadline for the present meta-analysis was December 31, 2016. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney (MW) effect size for National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on day 30 (or 21), combining the results of nine randomized, controlled trials by means of the robust Wei-Lachin pooling procedure (maximin-efficient robust test), indicated superiority of Cerebrolysin as compared with placebo (MW 0.60, P < 0.0001, N = 1879). The combined number needed to treat for clinically relevant changes in early NIHSS was 7.7 (95% CI 5.2 to 15.0). The additional full-scale ordinal analysis of modified Rankin Scale at day 90 in moderate to severe patients resulted in MW 0.61 with statistical significance in favor of Cerebrolysin (95% CI 0.52 to 0.69, P = 0.0118, N = 314). Safety aspects were comparable to placebo. Our meta-analysis confirms previous evidence that Cerebrolysin has a beneficial effect on early global neurological deficits in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  11. Influence of Iatrogenic Gaps, Cement Type, and Time on Microleakage of Cast Posts Using Spectrophotometer and Glucose Filtration Measurements.

    PubMed

    Al-Madi, Ebtissam M; Al-Saleh, Samar A; Al-Khudairy, Reem I; Aba-Hussein, Taibah W

    2018-04-06

    To determine the influence of iatrogenic gaps, type of cement, and time on microleakage of cast posts using spectrophotometer and glucose filtration measurements. Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were divided into eight groups of six teeth each. Teeth were instrumented and obturated, and a cast post was fabricated. In addition to two control groups (positive and negative), a total of six groups were prepared: In four groups, an artificial 2- to 3-mm gap was created between post and residual gutta percha (GP), and two groups were prepared with intimate contact between post and residual GP. Posts were cemented with either zinc phosphate cement or resin cement. Leakage through the post after 1, 8, 14, and 20 days was measured using a glucose penetration model with two different reading methods. Mixed analysis of variance tests were performed to analyze the data. The presence of a gap between the apical end of the post and the most coronal portion of the GP remaining in the root canal after post space preparation increased microleakage significantly. However, microleakage was significantly less when the gap was refilled with GP compared to no gap. There was no difference in leakage between luting cements used. It was concluded that none of the cements were able to prevent microleakage. However, the addition of GP to residual GP did increase the sealing ability.

  12. Area/latency optimized early output asynchronous full adders and relative-timed ripple carry adders.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, P; Yamashita, S

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two area/latency optimized gate level asynchronous full adder designs which correspond to early output logic. The proposed full adders are constructed using the delay-insensitive dual-rail code and adhere to the four-phase return-to-zero handshaking. For an asynchronous ripple carry adder (RCA) constructed using the proposed early output full adders, the relative-timing assumption becomes necessary and the inherent advantages of the relative-timed RCA are: (1) computation with valid inputs, i.e., forward latency is data-dependent, and (2) computation with spacer inputs involves a bare minimum constant reverse latency of just one full adder delay, thus resulting in the optimal cycle time. With respect to different 32-bit RCA implementations, and in comparison with the optimized strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output full adder designs, one of the proposed early output full adders achieves respective reductions in latency by 67.8, 12.3 and 6.1 %, while the other proposed early output full adder achieves corresponding reductions in area by 32.6, 24.6 and 6.9 %, with practically no power penalty. Further, the proposed early output full adders based asynchronous RCAs enable minimum reductions in cycle time by 83.4, 15, and 8.8 % when considering carry-propagation over the entire RCA width of 32-bits, and maximum reductions in cycle time by 97.5, 27.4, and 22.4 % for the consideration of a typical carry chain length of 4 full adder stages, when compared to the least of the cycle time estimates of various strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output asynchronous RCAs of similar size. All the asynchronous full adders and RCAs were realized using standard cells in a semi-custom design fashion based on a 32/28 nm CMOS process technology.

  13. Listening to Students: Studying for a Part-Time Degree in Early Childhood Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Elizabeth

    For this study, 12 part-time students in an early childhood studies program were interviewed and videotaped concerning their personal stories as students. Initial analysis of their responses revealed main themes: (1) economic barriers to full-time degree study; (2) domestic responsibilities/gender issues (for example, the stress of juggling…

  14. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  15. Early initiation of post-sternotomy cardiac rehabilitation exercise training (SCAR): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lobley, Grace; Worrall, Sandra; Powell, Richard; Kimani, Peter K; Banerjee, Prithwish; Barker, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines recommend abstinence from supervised cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise training for 6 weeks post-sternotomy. This practice is not based on empirical evidence, thus imposing potentially unnecessary activity restrictions. Delayed participation in CR exercise training promotes muscle atrophy, reduces cardiovascular fitness and prolongs recovery. Limited data suggest no detrimental effect of beginning CR exercise training as early as 2 weeks post-surgery, but randomised controlled trials are yet to confirm this. The purpose of this trial is to compare CR exercise training commenced early (2 weeks post-surgery) with current usual care (6 weeks post-surgery) with a view to informing future CR guidelines for patients recovering from sternotomy. Methods and analysis In this assessor-blind randomised controlled trial, 140 cardiac surgery patients, recovering from sternotomy, will be assigned to 8 weeks of twice-weekly supervised CR exercise training commencing at either 2 weeks (early CR) or 6 weeks (usual care CR) post-surgery. Usual care exercise training will adhere to current UK recommendations. Participants in the early CR group will undertake a highly individualised 2–3 week programme of functional mobility, strength and cardiovascular exercise before progressing to a usual care CR programme. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline (inpatient), pre-CR (2 or 6 weeks post-surgery), post-CR (10 or 14 weeks post-surgery) and 12 months. The primary outcome will be change in 6 min walk distance. Secondary outcomes will include measures of functional fitness, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination Recruitment commenced on July 2017 and will complete by December 2019. Results will be disseminated via national governing bodies, scientific meetings and peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT03223558; Pre-results. PMID:29574443

  16. Improving Post-Hurricane Katrina Forest Management with MODIS Time Series Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Mark David; Spruce, Joseph; Evans, David; Anderson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane damage to forests can be severe, causing millions of dollars of timber damage and loss. To help mitigate loss, state agencies require information on location, intensity, and extent of damaged forests. NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data products offers a potential means for state agencies to monitor hurricane-induced forest damage and recovery across a broad region. In response, a project was conducted to produce and assess 250 meter forest disturbance and recovery maps for areas in southern Mississippi impacted by Hurricane Katrina. The products and capabilities from the project were compiled to aid work of the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory (MIFI). A series of NDVI change detection products were computed to assess hurricane induced damage and recovery. Hurricane-induced forest damage maps were derived by computing percent change between MODIS MOD13 16-day composited NDVI pre-hurricane "baseline" products (2003 and 2004) and post-hurricane NDVI products (2005). Recovery products were then computed in which post storm 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 NDVI data was each singularly compared to the historical baseline NDVI. All percent NDVI change considered the 16-day composite period of August 29 to September 13 for each year in the study. This provided percent change in the maximum NDVI for the 2 week period just after the hurricane event and for each subsequent anniversary through 2009, resulting in forest disturbance products for 2005 and recovery products for the following 4 years. These disturbance and recovery products were produced for the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory's (MIFI) Southeast Inventory District and also for the entire hurricane impact zone. MIFI forest inventory products were used as ground truth information for the project. Each NDVI percent change product was classified into 6 categories of forest disturbance intensity. Stand age

  17. Estimation of abbreviated mycophenolic acid area under the concentration-time curve during early posttransplant period by limited sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, A-H; Nazemian, F; Abtahi, B; Naghibi, M; Gholami, K; Rezaee, S; Nazari, M-R A; Rajabi, O

    2008-12-01

    Area under the concentration curve (AUC) of mycophenolic acid (MPA) could help to optimize therapeutic drug monitoring during the early post-renal transplant period. The aim of this study was to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate an abbreviated MPA AUC within the first month after renal transplantation. In this study we selected 19 patients in the early posttransplant period with normal renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate > 70 mL/min). Plasma MPA concentrations were measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MPA AUC(0-12h) was calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the minimal and convenient time points of MPA levels that could be used to derive model equations best fitted to MPA AUC(0-12h). The regression equation for AUC estimation that gave the best performance was AUC = 14.46 C(10) + 15.547 (r(2) = .882). The validation of the method was performed using the jackknife method. Mean prediction error of this model was not different from zero (P > .05) and had a high root mean square prediction error (8.06). In conclusion, this limited sampling strategy provided an effective approach for therapeutic drug monitoring during the early posttransplant period.

  18. Impact of 6-month earlier versus postponed initiation of rotigotine on long-term outcome: post hoc analysis of patients with early Parkinson's disease with mild symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Lars; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Boroojerdi, Babak; Dohin, Elisabeth; Woltering, Franz; Elmer, Lawrence W

    2015-01-01

    Investigate impact of 6-month earlier versus postponed initiation of rotigotine in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild symptom severity. Long-term benefit of rotigotine in early-PD has been demonstrated: SP702 (NCT00594165) and SP716 (NCT00599196) were long-term, open-label extensions of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 6-month maintenance; rotigotine was well tolerated for up to 6 years, and demonstrated efficacy (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] II + III below baseline) for ∼ 2 years (SP702) and ∼ 4 years (SP716). Post hoc analysis of patients at Hoehn and Yahr 1-2; groups defined by treatment received in 6-month double-blind studies: 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine' received rotigotine (n = 221), 'Placebo-Rotigotine' received placebo (n = 125). At the start of open-label rotigotine maintenance, UPDRS II + III mean ± SD change from double-blind baseline was: -8.5 ± 10.6 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine', -7.7 ± 9.0 'Placebo-Rotigotine.' After this initial improvement scores gradually increased: It took ∼ 45 months for mean scores to cross baseline in 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine', and ∼ 21 months in 'Placebo-Rotigotine.' At the time mean UPDRS II + III had crossed baseline in 'Placebo-Rotigotine' (open-label week 84; ∼ 21 months), treatment difference (LS-mean) to 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine' change from baseline was -3.89 (95% CI -6.94, -0.84); p = 0.013. In this post hoc analysis, 6-month earlier initiation of rotigotine resulted in slower return to baseline mean UPDRS II + III; initiation of rotigotine in patients with minimal/no functional disability or impairment may lead to an extended benefit.

  19. 75 FR 38603 - State Responsibility for the Timely Reporting and Posting of Certain Convictions and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... report, OIG evaluated several factors related to CDLIS, including the timeliness of convictions received...). Whenever a SDLA receives notification of a conviction or disqualification from another State, it must post... SDLA receives notification of a conviction occurring within the same State, it must post the...

  20. Waiting time for coronal preparation and the influence of different cements on tensile strength of metal posts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ilione Kruschewsky Costa Sousa; Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira Lima; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of post-cementation waiting time for core preparation of cemented cast posts and cores had on retention in the root canal, using two different luting materials. Sixty extracted human canines were sectioned 16 mm from the root apex. After cast nickel-chromium metal posts and cores were fabricated and luted with zinc phosphate (ZP) cement or resin cement (RC), the specimens were divided into 3 groups (n = 10) according to the waiting time for core preparation: no preparation (control), 15 minutes, or 1 week after the core cementation. At the appropriate time, the specimens were subjected to a tensile load test (0.5 mm/min) until failure. Two-way ANOVA (time versus cement) and the Tukey tests (P < 0.05) showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) tensile strength values for the ZP cement groups than for the RC groups. Core preparation and post-cementation waiting time for core recontouring did not influence the retention strength. ZP was the best material for intraradicular metal post cementation.

  1. Results of 20- versus 45-min post-infusion scalp cooling time in the prevention of docetaxel-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Komen, Manon M C; Breed, Wim P M; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Goey, S H; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M; Nortier, Johan W R; van den Hurk, Corina J G

    2016-06-01

    For patients, chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of treatment. Scalp cooling can prevent or minimise CIA; the results may depend on the duration of cooling. Since a previous study on post-infusion cooling time in patients treated with docetaxel chemotherapy found no difference between 90 and 45 min, we investigated whether hair-preserving results could be maintained with a shorter post-infusion cooling time. In this prospective, multi-centre randomised study, 134 patients who started treatment with docetaxel 75-100 mg/m(2) in a 3-weekly schedule were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a post-infusion cooling time of 45 or 20 min. The primary end point was the need for a wig or other head covering as assessed by the patient. A visual analogue scale (VAS) with a range from 0 (not tolerable) to 10 (very tolerable) was used to measure tolerance. Scalp cooling results were similar for 45- and 20-min post-infusion cooling times. Thirty-three out of 45 patients (73 %) treated with 20 min of post-infusion cooling did not need a form of head covering, compared with 41 out of 52 patients (79 %) treated with 45 min of post-infusion cooling (p = 0.5). The procedure was well tolerated (mean visual analogue score 8.3). Six patients stopped due to intolerance during the first treatment cycle. A 20-min post-infusion cooling time is effective and tolerable for patients treated with scalp cooling to prevent docetaxel-induced alopecia. Trialregister.nl Identifier, NTR 1856.

  2. Influence of side-effects on early therapy persistence with letrozole in post-menopausal patients with early breast cancer: Results of the prospective EvAluate-TM study.

    PubMed

    Nabieva, N; Fehm, T; Häberle, L; de Waal, J; Rezai, M; Baier, B; Baake, G; Kolberg, H-C; Guggenberger, M; Warm, M; Harbeck, N; Wuerstlein, R; Deuker, J-U; Dall, P; Richter, B; Wachsmann, G; Brucker, C; Siebers, J W; Popovic, M; Kuhn, T; Wolf, C; Vollert, H-W; Breitbach, G-P; Janni, W; Landthaler, R; Kohls, A; Rezek, D; Noesselt, T; Fischer, G; Henschen, S; Praetz, T; Heyl, V; Kühn, T; Krauss, T; Thomssen, C; Hohn, A; Tesch, H; Mundhenke, C; Hein, A; Hack, C C; Schmidt, K; Belleville, E; Brucker, S Y; Kümmel, S; Beckmann, M W; Wallwiener, D; Hadji, P; Fasching, P A

    2018-06-01

    Endocrine treatment (ET) with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) is the treatment of choice in post-menopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer (EBC). However, adverse events (AEs) often lead to treatment discontinuation. This analysis aimed to identify side-effects that lead to patients failing to persist with letrozole treatment. Post-menopausal hormone receptor-positive EBC patients starting ET with letrozole were enroled in EvAluate-TM, a non-interventional study. Information regarding treatment compliance and persistence was gathered in months 6 and 12. Persistence was defined as the time from 30 d after the start to the end of treatment. The influence on persistence of musculoskeletal syndrome, menopausal disorder, sleep disorder and other AEs within the first 30 d was analysed using Cox regression analyses. Among 3887 patients analysed, the persistence rate after 12 months was >85%. In all, 568 patients (14.6%) discontinued the treatment, 358 of whom (63.0%) did so only because of side-effects. The main AEs influencing persistence were musculoskeletal symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90-3.42), sleep disorders (HR 1.95; 95% CI, 1.41-2.70) and other AEs (HR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.51-2.73). Menopausal disorder was not associated with non-persistence (HR 1.17; 95% CI, 0.74-1.84). These results suggest that side-effects of AIs such as musculoskeletal syndrome and sleep disorder lead to ET discontinuation within the first treatment year in significant numbers of EBC patients. Compliance programmes adapted for subgroups that are at risk for early non-persistence might help to ensure the recommended therapy duration. CFEM345DDE19. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CHANGES IN SERUM HOMOCYSTEINE LEVEL FOLLOW TWO DIFFERENT TRENDS IN PATIENTS DURING EARLY POST MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PERIOD

    PubMed Central

    Valjevac, Amina; Džubur, Alen; Nakaš-Ićindić, Emina; Hadžović-Džuvo, Almira; Zaćiragić, Asija; Lepara, Orhan; Arslanagić, Amila

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of homocysteine (Hcy) changes after acute myocardial infarction is still not elucidated. Serum Hcy concentration has been shown to increase between acute and convalescent period after myocardial infarction and stroke, Also a decrease in serum Hcy during acute phase was observed, It is still not clear whether the Hcy is a culprit or an innocent bystander in cardiovascular diseases, Addressing the discrepancies in Hcy changes in patients with acute myocardial infarction might give insight in Hcy role in cardiovascular diseases and offer implications both for the clinical interpretation and patients risk stratification, The aim of the study was to evaluate serum Hcy concentration changes during early post myocardial infarction, The study included 55 patients with AMI from the Clinics for Heart Diseases and Rheumatism at University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre, For Hcy analysis blood was collected on day 2 and 5 after the AMI onset, Serum Hcy concentration was determined quantitatively with fluorescent polarisation immunoassay on AxSYM system, Cluster analysis revealed two groups ofAMI patients with different trends of serum Hcy changes, Increase in serum Hcy concentration was observed in 33 (60,0%) patients (AMI 1 group), while in 22 (40,0%) patients a decrease was observed (AMI 2 group), On day 2, patients in AMI 2 group had significantly higher mean Hcy concentration compared to AMI 1 group of patients (15,27±0,96 and 11,59±0,61 μmol/L p<0,05), On day 5, no significant difference in mean Hcy level between AMI 1 and AMI 2 group of patients was observed (14,86±1,1 vs, 12,75±0,74 μmol/L respectively), Significant differences between AMI 1 and AMI 2 patients were observed in VLDLC levels and CK-MB activity on day 2, Patients in AMI 1 group had significant increase in platelets count from day 2 to day 5 (230,1±11,6 vs. 244,2±11,0; p<0,05). Our study of serial Hcy changes in patients with AMI revealed two different patterns of Hcy changes in early post

  4. Optimal timing for early surgery in infective endocarditis: a meta-analysis†

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fuxiang; Song, Bing; Liu, Ruisheng; Yang, Liu; Tang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review early surgery and the optimal timing of surgery in patients with infective endocarditis (IE), a search for foreign and domestic articles on cohort studies about the association between early surgery and infective endocarditis published from inception to January 2015 was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM), Wanfang and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The studies were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the data were extracted and the quality of the method of the included studies was assessed. Then, the meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Sixteen cohort studies, including 8141 participants were finally included. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that, compared with non-early surgery, early surgery in IE lowers the incidence of in-hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.42, 0.77); P = 0.000, I2 = 73.1%] and long-term mortality [OR = 0.57, 95% CI (0.43, 0.77); P = 0.001, I2 = 67.4%]. Further, performing operation within 2 weeks had a more favourable effect on long-term mortality [OR = 0.63, 95% CI (0.41, 0.97); P = 0.192, I2 = 39.4%] than non-early surgery. In different kinds of IE, we found that early surgery for native valve endocarditis (NVE) had a lower in-hospital [OR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.31, 0.69); P = 0.001, I2 = 73.0%] and long-term [OR = 0.57, 95% CI (0.40, 0.81); P = 0.001, I2 = 68.9%] mortality than the non-early surgery group. However, for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), in-hospital mortality did not differ significantly [OR = 0.83, 95% CI (0.65, 1.06); P = 0.413, I2 = 0.0%] between early and non-early surgery. We concluded that early surgery was associated with lower in-hospital and long-term mortality compared with non-early surgical treatment for IE, especially in NVE. However, the optimal timing of surgery remains unclear. Additional larger prospective clinical trials will be

  5. Optimal timing for early surgery in infective endocarditis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fuxiang; Song, Bing; Liu, Ruisheng; Yang, Liu; Tang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanming

    2016-03-01

    To systematically review early surgery and the optimal timing of surgery in patients with infective endocarditis (IE), a search for foreign and domestic articles on cohort studies about the association between early surgery and infective endocarditis published from inception to January 2015 was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM), Wanfang and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The studies were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the data were extracted and the quality of the method of the included studies was assessed. Then, the meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Sixteen cohort studies, including 8141 participants were finally included. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that, compared with non-early surgery, early surgery in IE lowers the incidence of in-hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.42, 0.77); P = 0.000, I(2) = 73.1%] and long-term mortality [OR = 0.57, 95% CI (0.43, 0.77); P = 0.001, I(2) = 67.4%]. Further, performing operation within 2 weeks had a more favourable effect on long-term mortality [OR = 0.63, 95% CI (0.41, 0.97); P = 0.192, I(2) = 39.4%] than non-early surgery. In different kinds of IE, we found that early surgery for native valve endocarditis (NVE) had a lower in-hospital [OR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.31, 0.69); P = 0.001, I(2) = 73.0%] and long-term [OR = 0.57, 95% CI (0.40, 0.81); P = 0.001, I(2) = 68.9%] mortality than the non-early surgery group. However, for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), in-hospital mortality did not differ significantly [OR = 0.83, 95% CI (0.65, 1.06); P = 0.413, I(2) = 0.0%] between early and non-early surgery. We concluded that early surgery was associated with lower in-hospital and long-term mortality compared with non-early surgical treatment for IE, especially in NVE. However, the optimal timing of surgery remains unclear. Additional larger prospective clinical

  6. Relationship between Engagement Indicators and the Persistence of First Time, Full-Time Post-Secondary Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano-Wong, Shaila

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic students have long been an underrepresented group in post-secondary institutions. With the current and upcoming demographic changes in the United States, more Hispanic students are likely to enroll in college. Understanding if a relationship exists between engagement indicators and students' decision to persist or withdraw from college…

  7. [The application of the prospective space-time statistic in early warning of infectious disease].

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Li, Xiao-Song; Feng, Zi-Jian; Ma, Jia-Qi

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the application of prospective space-time scan statistic in the early stage of detecting infectious disease outbreaks. The prospective space-time scan statistic was tested by mimicking daily prospective analyses of bacillary dysentery data of Chengdu city in 2005 (3212 cases in 102 towns and villages). And the results were compared with that of purely temporal scan statistic. The prospective space-time scan statistic could give specific messages both in spatial and temporal. The results of June indicated that the prospective space-time scan statistic could timely detect the outbreaks that started from the local site, and the early warning message was powerful (P = 0.007). When the merely temporal scan statistic for detecting the outbreak was sent two days later, and the signal was less powerful (P = 0.039). The prospective space-time scan statistic could make full use of the spatial and temporal information in infectious disease data and could timely and effectively detect the outbreaks that start from the local sites. The prospective space-time scan statistic could be an important tool for local and national CDC to set up early detection surveillance systems.

  8. Timing of The First Zygotic Cleavage Affects Post-Vitrification Viability of Murine Embryos Produced In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jusof, Wan-Hafizah Wan; Khan, Nor-Ashikin Mohamed Noor; Rajikin, Mohd Hamim; Satar, Nuraliza Abdul; Mustafa, Mohd-Fazirul; Jusoh, Norhazlin; Dasiman, Razif

    2015-01-01

    Background Timing of the first zygotic cleavage is an accurate predictor of embryo quality. Embryos that cleaved early (EC) have been shown to exhibit higher develop- mental viability compared to those that cleaved at a later period (LC). However, the vi- ability of EC embryos in comparison to LC embryos after vitrification is unknown. The present study aims to investigate the post-vitrification developmental viability of murine EC versus LC embryos. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, female ICR mice (6-8 weeks old) were superovulated and cohabited with fertile males for 24 hours. Afterwards, their ovi- ducts were excised and embryos harvested. Embryos at the 2-cell stage were catego- rized as EC embryos, while zygotes with two pronuclei were categorized as LC embryos. Embryos were cultured in M16 medium supplemented with 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a humidified 5% CO2atmosphere. Control embryos were cultured until the blastocyst stage without vitrification. Experimental embryos at the 2-cell stage were vitri- fied for one hour using 40% v/v ethylene glycol, 18% w/v Ficoll-70 and 0.5 M sucrose as the cryoprotectant. We recorded the numbers of surviving embryos from the control and experimental groups and their development until the blastocyst stage. Results were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results A significantly higher proportion of EC embryos (96.7%) from the control group developed to the blastocyst stage compared with LC embryos (57.5%, P<0.0001). Similarly, in the experimental group, a significantly higher percentage of vitrified EC embryos (69.4%) reached the blastocyst stage compared to vitrified LC embryos (27.1%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Vitrified EC embryos are more vitrification tolerant than LC embryos. Prese- lection of EC embryos may be used as a tool for selection of embryos that exhibit higher developmental competence after vitrification. PMID:26246881

  9. Symptomatic efficacy of rasagiline monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease: post-hoc analyses from the ADAGIO trial.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Joseph; Berkovich, Elijahu; Eyal, Eli; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    The ADAGIO study included a large cohort of patients with early PD (baseline total-UPDRS = 20) who were initially randomized to rasagiline and placebo, thereby allowing analyses of symptomatic efficacy. Post-hoc analyses comparing the efficacy of rasagiline 1 mg/day (n = 288) versus placebo (n = 588) on key symptoms at 36 weeks, and on total-UPDRS scores over 72 weeks (completer population: rasagiline 1 mg/day n = 221, placebo n = 392) were performed. Treatment with rasagiline resulted in significantly better tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural-instability-gait-difficulty scores at week 36 versus placebo. Whereas the placebo group experienced progressive deterioration from baseline (2.6 UPDRS points at week 36), patients in the rasagiline group were maintained at baseline values at week 60 (UPDRS-change of 0.3 points). At week 72, patients who had received continuous monotherapy with rasagiline experienced a worsening of only 1.6 points. Treatment with rasagiline maintained motor function to baseline values for at least a year with significant benefits observed in all key PD motor symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of early post-hatching changes of imprinting object on the pattern of monocular/unihemispheric sleep of domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Bobbo, Daniela; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2006-06-03

    The pattern of monocular/unihemispheric sleep (Mo-Un sleep) was studied behaviourally in male and female chicks after early post-hatching changes of the imprinting object. Chicks were reared with an imprinting object on day 1 post-hatching which was removed or changed on day 2. On day 1, time spent in binocular sleep (both eyes closed) was similar in male and female chicks, though the number of episodes was lower in females than in males. There was no eye-closure bias in the pattern of Mo-Un sleep (one eye shut and the other open) in chicks of both sexes. On day 2, chicks subjected to the removal of imprinting object showed less time and number of episodes of binocular sleep than control chicks and chicks subjected to changes of imprinting object. There was no eye-closure bias in control chicks whilst a significant bias for more right Mo-Un sleep was recorded in chicks after removal and changes of imprinting object of both sexes. It is suggested that the removal or changes of imprinting object would cause a decrease of binocular sleep and trigger processes associated to secondary imprinting involving the left hemisphere. The bias for more right Mo-Un sleep (right eye-closure) could be the by-product of consolidation processes of secondary imprinting memories in the left hemisphere and/or of more left eye-opening as a result of periodical awakening of right hemisphere to control the environment after a stressful condition such as the removal or change of imprinting object.

  11. Early adolescence behavior problems and timing of poverty during childhood: A comparison of lifecourse models.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Julia Rachel S E; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M

    2017-03-01

    Poverty is a well-established risk factor for the development of behavior problems, yet little is known about how timing of exposure to childhood poverty relates to behavior problems in early adolescence. To examine the differential effects of the timing of poverty between birth and late childhood on behavior problems in early adolescence by modeling lifecourse models, corresponding to sensitive periods, accumulation of risk and social mobility models. We used the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 2120). Poverty was defined as living below the low-income thresholds defined by Statistics Canada and grouped into three time periods: between ages 0-3 years, 5-7 years, and 8-12 years. Main outcomes were teacher's report of hyperactivity, opposition and physical aggression at age 13 years. Structured linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate the contribution of poverty during the three selected time periods to behavior problems. Partial F-tests were used to compare nested lifecourse models to a full saturated model (all poverty main effects and possible interactions). Families who experienced poverty at all time periods were 9.3% of the original sample. Those who were poor at least one time period were 39.2%. The accumulation of risk model was the best fitting model for hyperactivity and opposition. The risk for physical aggression problems was associated only to poverty between 0 and 3 years supporting the sensitive period. Early and prolonged exposure to childhood poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems in early adolescence. Antipoverty policies targeting the first years of life and long term support to pregnant women living in poverty are likely to reduce behavior problems in early adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  13. Religion in the National Historical Narrative of the Early Modern Times in Contemporary Ukrainian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevchenko, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with religious discourse in modern history school textbooks in Ukraine that cover early modern times in Ukrainian history. It analyzes the place of religious discourse within national discourse, the correlation between local Ukrainian religious and more general discourse, and the representation of the relationships between…

  14. Investigation of Times of Minima of Selected Early-Type Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Pavel; Wolf, Marek; Niarchos, P. G.; Gazeas, K. D.; Manimanis, V. N.; Chochol, Drahomír

    2006-08-01

    New precise times of minimum light for several early-type eclipsing binaries were obtained at three observatories. The changes of period of the following measured binaries are discussed: V1182 Aql, LY Aur, SZ Cam, FZ CMa, QZ Car, LZ Cen, V606 Cen, AH Cep and TU~Mus.

  15. Parental Monitoring during Early Adolescence Deters Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Discrete-Time Survival Mixture Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    We used discrete-time survival mixture modeling to examine 5,305 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth regarding the impact of parental monitoring during early adolescence (ages 14-16) on initiation of sexual intercourse and problem behavior engagement (ages 14-23). Four distinctive parental-monitoring groups were…

  16. Moving beyond Screen Time: Redefining Developmentally Appropriate Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about what constitutes "developmentally appropriate" use of technology in early childhood education have, to date, focused largely on a single, blunt measure--screen time--that fails to capture important nuances, such as what type of media a child is accessing and whether technology use is taking place solo or with peers.…

  17. Between Charity and Education: Orphans and Orphanages in Early Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    In early modern times orphans have been children who could not expect sufficient support from their family because of lack of at least one parent, in most cases the father. This article will clarify of whom we are talking if we talk about orphans and what have been the conditions of living in a society which was organised by a high variety of…

  18. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  19. A comparison of the immune response between early exposed and 1 year post exposure to Bacillus anthracis in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhono, D.; Kusumawardani, A.; Dirgahayu, P.

    2018-03-01

    Anthrax is one of the zoonotic diseases that usually affects animals and can be transmitted to humans. Immune response of the body during an infection is the presence of antibodies as an effort to defend the body and it will survive for some time in the blood. The aim study is to find out how the initial response to the formation of antibodies and how these antibodies survive after one year. This study is cohort to people exposed to anthrax and found 130 people exposed to anthrax. The most risk factor was direct contact and consumed infected animal meat, which was 34.6%. Clinical manifestations of the skin were 12.3% and all respondents showed positive IgG. While 87.7% did not show any anthrax symptoms. IgG serum examination after 1 year of exposure to anthrax obtained 3.8% still detected antibodies in the body. The relationship between IgG titers with clinical manifestations of anthrax at one year post-outbreak is highly significant p 0.028. In conclusion a significant association between the clinical manifestation with antibody serum anthrax and it still detected after one-year post outbreaks of anthrax.

  20. Outcomes associated with early post-traumatic osteoarthritis and other negative health consequences 3-10 years following knee joint injury in youth sport.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, J L; Woodhouse, L J; Nettel-Aguirre, A; Emery, C A

    2015-07-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) commonly affects the knee joint. Although the risk of PTOA substantially increases post-joint injury, there is little research examining PTOA outcomes early in the period between joint injury and disease onset. Improved understanding of this interval would inform secondary prevention strategies aimed at preventing and/or delaying PTOA progression. This study examines the association between sport-related knee injury and outcomes related to development of PTOA, 3-10 years post-injury. This preliminary analysis of the first year of a historical cohort study includes 100 (15-26 years) individuals. Fifty with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10 years previously and 50 uninjured age, sex and sport matched controls. The primary outcome was the 'Symptoms' sub-scale of the Knee Osteoarthritis and Injury Outcome Score (KOOS). Secondary outcomes included; the remaining KOOS subscales, body mass index (BMI), hip abductor/adductor and knee extensor/flexor strength, estimated aerobic capacity (VO2max) and performance scores on three dynamic balance tests. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% Confidence interval (CI) and conditional odds ratio (OR, 95% CI; BMI) were used to compare study groups. Injured participants demonstrated poorer KOOS outcomes [symptoms -9.4 (-13.6, -5.2), pain -4.0 (-6.8, -1.2), quality-of-life -8.0 (-11.0, -5.1), daily living -3.0 (-5.0, -1.1) and sport/recreation -6.9 (-9.9, -3.8)], were 3.75 times (95% CI 1.24, 11.3) more likely to be overweight/obese and had lower triple single leg hop scores compared to controls. No significant group differences existed for remaining balance scores, estimated VO2max, hip or knee strength ratios or side-to-side difference in hip abductor/adductor or quadricep/hamstring strength. This study provides preliminary evidence that youth/young adults following sport-related knee injury report more symptoms and poorer function, and are at

  1. Design and characterization of a dead-time regime enhanced early photon projection imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, L.; Fogarty, M.; Zhou, W.; Giudice, A.; Brankov, J. G.; Tichauer, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    Scattering of visible and near-infrared light in biological tissue reduces spatial resolution for imaging of tissues thicker than 100 μm. In this study, an optical projection imaging system is presented and characterized that exploits the dead-time characteristics typical of photon counting modules based on single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). With this system, it is possible to attenuate the detection of more scattered late-arriving photons, such that detection of less scattered early-arriving photons can be enhanced with increased light intensity, without being impeded by the maximum count rate of the SPADs. The system has the potential to provide transmittance-based anatomical information or fluorescence-based functional information (with slight modification in the instrumentation) of biological samples with improved resolution in the mesoscopic domain (0.1-2 cm). The system design, calibration, stability, and performance were evaluated using simulation and experimental phantom studies. The proposed system allows for the detection of very-rare early-photons at a higher frequency and with a better signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results demonstrated over a 3.4-fold improvement in the spatial resolution using early photon detection vs. conventional detection, and a 1000-fold improvement in imaging time using enhanced early detection vs. conventional early photon detection in a 4-mm thick phantom with a tissue-equivalent absorption coefficient of μa = 0.05 mm-1 and a reduced scattering coefficient of μs' = 5 mm-1.

  2. What makes people read an online review? The relative effects of posting time and helpfulness on review readership.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the factors that make online customers select which reviews to read among the various ones on the Web. While most of literature on online consumer reviews has conveniently assumed that more helpful reviews would be read by more customers, no empirical study has tested whether the helpfulness assessment actually increases readership. Hence, this study explores various factors affecting consumer review readership and proposes that although helpfulness assessment promotes the readership of a review, the most dominant factor contributing to readership is the time of posting. A review posted late loses a significant chance of being read by consumers even if it is assessed as helpful by other readers. The hypotheses are tested using the data collected from Amazon.com , and the result of the study advises practitioners to display reviews in a manner that lessens the impact of posting time while enhancing the helpfulness voting systems.

  3. The Time Course of Knee Swelling Post Total Knee Arthroplasty and Its Associations with Quadriceps Strength and Gait Speed.

    PubMed

    Pua, Yong-Hao

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the time course of knee swelling post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and its associations with quadriceps strength and gait speed. Eighty-five patients with unilateral TKA participated. Preoperatively and on post-operative days (PODs) 1, 4, 14, and 90, knee swelling was measured using bioimpedance spectrometry. Preoperatively and on PODs 14 and 90, quadriceps strength was measured using isokinetic dynamometry while fast gait speed was measured using the timed 10-meter walk. On POD1, knee swelling increased ~35% from preoperative levels after which, knee swelling reduced but remained at ~11% above preoperative levels on POD90. In longitudinal, multivariable analyses, knee swelling was associated with quadriceps weakness (P<0.01) and slower gait speed (P=0.03). Interventions to reduce post-TKA knee swelling may be indicated to improve quadriceps strength and gait speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. First-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Giulia; Nespoli, Antonella; Fumagalli, Simona; Borrelli, Sara E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore first-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services when admitted to hospital or advised to return home after maternity triage assessment. The study was conducted in a second-level maternity hospital in northern Italy with an obstetric unit for both low- and high-risk women. The participants included 15 first-time mothers in good general health with spontaneous labour at term of a low-risk pregnancy who accessed maternity triage during early labour, and were either admitted to hospital or advised to return home. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. A face-to-face recorded semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant 48-72h after birth. Four key themes emerged from the interviews: (a) recognising signs of early labour; (b) coping with pain at home; (c) seeking reassurance from healthcare professionals; and (d) being admitted to hospital versus returning home. Uncertainty about the progression of labour and the need for reassurance were cited by women as the main reasons for hospital visit in early labour. An ambivalent feeling was reported by the participants when admitted to hospital in early labour. In fact, while the women felt reassured in the first instance, some women subsequently felt dissatisfied due to the absence of one-to-one dedicated care during early labour. When advised to return home, a number of women reported feelings of disappointment, anger, fear, discouragement and anxiety about not being admitted to hospital; however, some of these women reported a subsequent feeling of comfort due to being at home and putting in place the suggestions made by the midwives during the maternity triage assessment. The guidance provided by midwives during triage assessment seemed to be the key factor influencing women׳s satisfaction when advised either to return home or to stay at the hospital during early labour. During antenatal classes and clinics

  5. The Developmental Pathway From Pubertal Timing to Delinquency and Sexual Activity From Early to Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  6. The developmental pathway from pubertal timing to delinquency and sexual activity from early to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Susman, Elizabeth J; Trickett, Penelope K

    2011-10-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9-13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency.

  7. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Timing of First Antenatal Care (ANC) and Inequalities in Early Initiation of ANC in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Yuba Raj; Jha, Trishna; Mehata, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The provision and uptake of quality and timely antenatal care (ANC) is an essential element of efforts to improve health outcomes for women and newborn babies. Antenatal consultations assist in early identification and treatment of complications during pregnancy. This study aimed to provide an information on distribution and inequalities in early initiation of ANC in Nepal. The distribution and inequalities in the early initiation of ANC were examined using Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess inequalities. Overall, 70% of the women had started their first ANC at 4 month or earlier. Among participants who had never attended school, just more than half (52%) received first ANC at 4 months or earlier, while majority of participants (97%) who had received higher education received first ANC at recommended time. Similarly, 89% of those from richest quintile and 48% of those from poorest quintile received first ANC at recommended time. In adjusted analysis, women from richest wealth quintile were significantly more likely to initiate ANC early (AOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 2.31-6.05) compared to the poorest. Similarly, women with higher level education were significantly more likely (AOR: 11.40, 95% CI: 5.05-25.73) to initiate ANC early compared to women who had never attended school. A significantly lower odds of early ANC take up was observed among madhesi other caste (AOR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35-0.90) compared to brahmin/chhetri women. Women whose pregnancy was unwanted were significantly less likely to attend first ANC at 4 months or early (AOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.93) in comparison to women whose pregnancy was wanted. The differences in the recommended timing of initiation of ANC were evident among women with different educational, economic levels, and caste/ethnic groups. Rural women were less likely to have checkups as per guidelines. The findings suggest to a need of interventions to raise female

  9. Novel Algorithms Enabling Rapid, Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

    2012-12-01

    We have introduced recently new methods to determine rapidly the tsunami potential and magnitude of large earthquakes (e.g., Lomax and Michelini, 2009ab, 2011, 2012). To validate these methods we have implemented them along with other new algorithms within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it, http://early-est.alomax.net). Early-est is a lightweight software package for real-time earthquake monitoring (including phase picking, phase association and event detection, location, magnitude determination, first-motion mechanism determination, ...), and for tsunami early warning based on discriminants for earthquake tsunami potential. In a simulation using archived broadband seismograms for the devastating M9, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Early-est determines: the epicenter within 3 min after the event origin time, discriminants showing very high tsunami potential within 5-7 min, and magnitude Mwpd(RT) 9.0-9.2 and a correct shallow-thrusting mechanism within 8 min. Real-time monitoring with Early-est givess similar results for most large earthquakes using currently available, real-time seismogram data. Here we summarize some of the key algorithms within Early-est that enable rapid, real-time earthquake monitoring and tsunami early warning worldwide: >>> FilterPicker - a general purpose, broad-band, phase detector and picker (http://alomax.net/FilterPicker); >>> Robust, simultaneous association and location using a probabilistic, global-search; >>> Period-duration discriminants TdT0 and TdT50Ex for tsunami potential available within 5 min; >>> Mwpd(RT) magnitude for very large earthquakes available within 10 min; >>> Waveform P polarities determined on broad-band displacement traces, focal mechanisms obtained with the HASH program (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002); >>> SeisGramWeb - a portable-device ready seismogram viewer using web-services in a browser (http://alomax.net/webtools/sgweb/info.html). References (see also: http

  10. Palaeoredox indicators from the organic-rich Messinian early post-evaporitic deposits of the Apennines (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampalmieri, G.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Cosentino, D.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2009-04-01

    Bottom redox conditions in marine and lacustrine ancient basins are often inferred by the occurrence of peculiar sedimentological structures and microfaunal assemblages. The co-occurrence, in such environments, of authigenic uranium, framboidal pyrite, barite and Fe-Mn nodules and encrustations, provides a good constraint for palaeo reconstructions. Authigenic uranium is a common constituent of hydrocarbon source rocks: it forms at the sediment-water interface under oxygen-deficient conditions and accumulates together with organic matter (OM). Its precipitation is triggered by the reduction of the soluble U6+ion in seawater to insoluble U4+. With respect to black shales, uranium content has even been used to estimate the TOC. Also authigenic pyrite forms under anoxic conditions and replaces organic matter: 1) the increase in pyrite content and in organic matter are directly correlated; 2) the size distribution of framboidal pyrite (consistent with sulphate-reducing bacterial activity) is considered a measure of redox conditions within the sediment. Barite is an authigenic mineral related to Corg content, since its organic precipitation is triggered by sulphate-reduction processes occurring in decaying OM-bearing microenvironments. Finally, also Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide are typical indicators of redox conditions. About 6 My ago the Mediterranean Sea underwent a giant event of concentration referred to as Messinian Salinity Crisis, which can be roughly subdivided into an evaporitic and a post evaporitic phase. The post evaporitic phase (p-ev; 5.61-5.33 Ma) developed in a context of humid conditions and can be further distinguished into two steps: p-ev1 (early post evaporitic phase) and p-ev2 (late post evaporitic phase). Previous works focused on pev2, which is interpreted to represent the establishment of brackish water conditions (Lago-Mare biofacies). In other respects, the palaeoenvironment of p-ev1 deposits, mostly represented by resedimented evaporitic deposits or

  11. HEART Pathway Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol Implementation: Prospective Pre-Post Interrupted Time Series Design and Methods.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Simon A; Burke, Gregory L; Duncan, Pamela W; Case, Larry D; Herrington, David M; Riley, Robert F; Wells, Brian J; Hiestand, Brian C; Miller, Chadwick D

    2016-01-22

    Most patients presenting to US Emergency Departments (ED) with chest pain are hospitalized for comprehensive testing. These evaluations cost the US health system >$10 billion annually, but have a diagnostic yield for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) of <10%. The history/ECG/age/risk factors/troponin (HEART) Pathway is an accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP), designed to improve care for patients with acute chest pain by identifying patients for early ED discharge. Prior efficacy studies demonstrate that the HEART Pathway safely reduces cardiac testing, while maintaining an acceptably low adverse event rate. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of HEART Pathway ADP implementation within a health system. This controlled before-after study will accrue adult patients with acute chest pain, but without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram for two years and is expected to include approximately 10,000 patients. Outcomes measures include hospitalization rate, objective cardiac testing rates (stress testing and angiography), length of stay, and rates of recurrent cardiac care for participants. In pilot data, the HEART Pathway decreased hospitalizations by 21%, decreased hospital length (median of 12 hour reduction), without increasing adverse events or recurrent care. At the writing of this paper, data has been collected on >5000 patient encounters. The HEART Pathway has been fully integrated into health system electronic medical records, providing real-time decision support to our providers. We hypothesize that the HEART Pathway will safely reduce healthcare utilization. This study could provide a model for delivering high-value care to the 8-10 million US ED patients with acute chest pain each year. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02056964; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02056964 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ccajsgyu).

  12. Investigation of Post-mortem Tissue Effects Using Long-time Decorrelation Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csány, Gergely; Balogh, Lajos; Gyöngy, Miklós

    Decorrelation ultrasound is being increasingly used to investigate long-term biological phenomena. In the current work, ultrasound image sequences of mice who did not survive anesthesia (in a separate investigation) were analyzed and post-mortem tissue effects were observed via decorrelation calculation. A method was developed to obtain a quantitative parameter characterizing the rate of decorrelation. The results show that ultrasound decorrelation imaging is an effective method of observing post-mortem tissue effects and point to further studies elucidating the mechanism behind these effects.

  13. Early Pubertal Timing as a Vulnerability to Depression Symptoms: Differential Effects of Race and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Robust evidence supports that girls and boys who experience early pubertal timing, maturing earlier than one’s peers, are vulnerable to developing symptoms of depression. However, it has yet to be clarified whether early pubertal timing confers vulnerability to African American as well as to Caucasian adolescents and whether this vulnerability is specific to depressive symptoms or can be generalized to symptoms of social anxiety. In previous studies, one race or one sex was examined in isolation or sample sizes were too small to examine racial differences. Our longitudinal study consisted of a sample of 223 adolescents (Mean age = 12.42, 54.3% female, 50.2% African American, and 49.8% Caucasian). At baseline, depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and pubertal timing were assessed by self-report. Nine months later, we assessed depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, body esteem, and stressful life events that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that early pubertal timing interacted with stressful life events to predict increased symptoms of depression, but only for Caucasian girls and African American boys. Results were found to be specific to depressive symptoms and did not generalize to symptoms of social anxiety. Additionally, there was a significant positive indirect effect of pubertal timing on symptoms of depression through body esteem for Caucasian females. PMID:24014162

  14. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  15. Early Sexual Intercourse: Prospective Associations with Adolescents Physical Activity and Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Wijtzes, Anne; van de Bongardt, Daphne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Bannink, Rienke; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands. The analysis sample consisted of 2,141 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years (mean age at baseline = 12.2 years, SD = 0.43). Physical activity (e.g., sports outside school), screen time (e.g., computer use), and early sexual intercourse initiation were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models were tested to assess the associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time (separately and simultaneously) with early sexual intercourse initiation, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographics and substance use). Interaction effects with gender were tested to assess whether these associations differed significantly between boys and girls. Results The only physical activity behavior that was a significant predictor of early sexual intercourse initiation was sports club membership. Adolescent boys and girls who were members of a sports club) were more likely to have had early sex (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.33, 3.56. Significant gender interaction effects indicated that boys who watched TV ≥2 hours/day (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.08, 3.68) and girls who used the computer ≥2 hours/day (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.76, 8.69) were also significantly more likely to have engaged in early sex. Conclusion These findings have implications for professionals in general pediatric healthcare, sexual health educators, policy makers, and parents, who should be aware of these possible prospective links between sports club membership, TV watching (for boys), and computer use (for girls), and early sexual intercourse initiation. However, continued research on determinants of adolescents’ early sexual initiation is needed to further contribute to

  16. Association between oxidative stress index and post-CPR early mortality in cardiac arrest patients: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Hasan; Türkdoğan, Kenan Ahmet; Zorlu, Ali; Aydın, Hüseyin; Kurt, Recep; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of lifesaving actions that improve the chance of survival following cardiac arrest (CA). Many clinical and laboratory parameters, such as the presence of asystole, out-of-hospital CPR, and duration of cardiac arrest, are associated with failed CPR in patients with CA. Asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, along with the absence of contractions of the myocardium and absence of cardiac output. Oxidative stress index (OSI), which is the ratio of total oxidative status to total antioxidant status, increases by ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated whether OSI levels in patients with CA could predict early mortality after CPR. This study has a prospective observational cohort design. Five patients with a history of cancer, four patients who developed hemolysis in their blood, six patients who were transferred to our hospital from other hospitals, and six patients in whom blood samples for OSI could not be stored properly were excluded. Finally, a total of 90 in-hospital or out-of-hospital CA patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as the control group were evaluated prospectively. The patients were classified according to the CPR response into a successful group (n=46) and a failed group (n=44). Comparisons between groups were performed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis by Tukey's HSD or independent samples t-test and the Kruskal-Wallis tests or Mann- Whitney U test for normally and abnormally distributed data, respectively. Also, we used chi-square test, Spearman's correlation test, univariate and multible logistic regression analyses, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. OSI was 3.0±4.0, 5.6±4.3, and 8.7±3.8 in the control group, the successful CPR group, and the failed CPR group, respectively (p<0.001 for the 2 comparisons). OSI on admission, ischemia-modified albumin, presence of asystole, mean duration of cardiac arrest, out-of-hospital CPR, pH, and

  17. Perceptions of Graduate Supervision: Relationships with Time of Reflection and Post-Secondary Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Elizabeth; Gadbois, Shannon A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the similarities and differences between Canadian doctoral students and new faculty members regarding their experiences with and perceptions of their graduate supervisors and mentoring. Participants' responses were considered in light of the current post-secondary culture that emphasizes increased productivity and…

  18. Early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging in glioblastoma: correlation among radiological findings and overall survival in 60 patients.

    PubMed

    Majós, Carles; Cos, Mònica; Castañer, Sara; Gil, Miguel; Plans, Gerard; Lucas, Anna; Bruna, Jordi; Aguilera, Carles

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate early post-operative magnetic resonance (EPMR) as a prognostic tool after resection of glioblastoma. Sixty EPMR examinations were evaluated for perioperative infarct, tumour growth between diagnosis and EPMR, contrast enhancement pattern, and extent of resection (EOR). The EOR was approached with the subjective evaluation of radiologists and by quantifying volumes. These parameters were tested as predictors of survival using the Kaplan-Meier method. Contrast enhancement was found in 59 patients (59/60; 98 %). Showing a thin-linear pattern of enhancement was the most favourable finding. Patients with this pattern survived longer than patients with thick-linear (median overall survival (OS) thin-linear=609 days; thick-linear=432 days; P = .023) or nodular (median OS = 318 days; P = .001) enhancements. The subjective evaluation of the EOR performed better than its quantification. Patients survived longer when resection was total (median OS total resection=609 days; subtotal=371 days; P = .001). When resection was subtotal, patients survived longer if it was superior to 95 % (median OS resection superior to 95 %=559 days; inferior to 95 %=256 days; P = .034). EPMR provides valuable prognostic information after surgical resection of glioblastomas. A thin-linear pattern of contrast enhancement is the most favourable finding. Further prognostic stratification may be obtained by assessing the EOR. • Some kind of contrast enhancement may be found in most EPMR examinations. • Thin-linear enhancements in the EPMR may be considered benign findings. • The EOR evaluated in the EPMR may stratify prognostic groups of patients. • The subjective evaluation of the EOR performs slightly better than its quantification.

  19. Post-mortem chemical excitability of the iris should not be used for forensic death time diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Katja; Sehner, Susanne; Riemer, Martin; Gehl, Axel; Raupach, Tobias; Anders, Sven

    2018-04-18

    Post-mortem chemical excitability of the iris is one of the non-temperature-based methods in forensic diagnosis of the time since death. Although several authors reported on their findings, using different measurement methods, currently used time limits are based on a single dissertation which has recently been doubted to be applicable for forensic purpose. We investigated changes in pupil-iris ratio after application of acetylcholine (n = 79) or tropicamide (n = 58) and in controls at upper and lower time limits that are suggested in the current literature, using a digital photography-based measurement method with excellent reliability. We observed "positive," "negative," and "paradox" reactions in both intervention and control conditions at all investigated post-mortem time points, suggesting spontaneous changes in pupil size to be causative for the finding. According to our observations, post-mortem chemical excitability of the iris should not be used in forensic death time estimation, as results may cause false conclusions regarding the correct time point of death and might therefore be strongly misleading.

  20. Linking time-Temperature history of the Aquitaine basin with post-orogenic evolution of the Pyrenees : new insights from borehole thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Calassou, Sylvain; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Pik, Raphaël; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Gautheron, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Within their sedimentary record, foreland basins document vertical movements of the lithosphere, climatic changes, paleogeograhic evolution but also history of exhumation of the adjacent mountain belt. Comparing vertical movements in a range and in its foreland is key to identify processes involved in growth and destruction of mountain belts. The Aquitaine basin, geomorphologically stable since the early Pyrenean orogenesis has the potential to help understanding the driving mechanisms during the late to post-orogenic phases, but the lack of outcrops makes the studies particularly difficult to achieve. To bring a new point of vue on the processes involved in the Cenozoic exhumation of this range, we present new low-Temperature thermochronology data from boreholes of the Aquitaine basin. With the objectives to study rift-related to post-orogenic processes, numerous low-T thermochronological ages ( 300 across the range) have been published, documenting pre-, syn- , and post-orogenic exhumation in the Pyrenees. Using thermal modeling of a new low-T database in the western Axial Zone, we show that a late Miocene (around 10 Ma) uplift occured in the western Pyrenees, which generalizes the post-orogenic signal already detected in the south central Pyrenees. In previous studies, we linked the post-orogenic exhumation in the Southern Pyrenees to the excavation of the foreland valleys caused by the opening of the endorheic Ebro basin towards the Mediterranean Sea. To the West, the tectonic out-of sequence reactivation of the Gavarnie thrust has been invoked to explain the late Miocene AHe ages in the Bielsa massif. These new data might lead us to re-think the causes for such an exhumation signal during "post-orogenic" times. We thus summarize all evidences for the post-orogenic phase and attempt to provide explanation for it: is exhumation driven by Aquitaine foreland basin evolution? Does it reflect a tectonic reactivation of the Pyrenees? or is the signature of a regional

  1. Objective evaluation of female feet and leg joint conformation at time of selection and post first parity in swine.

    PubMed

    Stock, J D; Calderón Díaz, J A; Rothschild, M F; Mote, B E; Stalder, K J

    2018-06-09

    Feet and legs of replacement females were objectively evaluated at selection, i.e. approximately 150 days of age (n=319) and post first parity, i.e. any time after weaning of first litter and before 2nd parturition (n=277) to 1) compare feet and leg joint angle ranges between selection and post first parity; 2) identify feet and leg joint angle differences between selection and first three weeks of second gestation; 3) identify feet and leg join angle differences between farms and gestation days during second gestation; and 4) obtain genetic variance components for conformation angles for the two time points measured. Angles for carpal joint (knee), metacarpophalangeal joint (front pastern), metatarsophalangeal joint (rear pastern), tarsal joint (hock), and rear stance were measured using image analysis software. Between selection and post first parity significant differences were observed for all joints measured (P < 0.05). Knee, front and rear pastern angles were less (more flexion), and hock angles were greater (less flexion) as age progressed (P < 0.05), while the rear stance pattern was less (feet further under center) at selection than post first parity (only including measures during first three weeks of second gestation). Only using post first parity leg conformation information, farm was a significant source of variation for front and rear pasterns and rear stance angle measurements (P < 0.05). Knee angle was less (more flexion) (P < 0.05) as gestation age progressed. Heritability estimates were low to moderate (0.04 - 0.35) for all traits measured across time points. Genetic correlations between the same joints at different time points were high (> 0.8) between the front leg joints and low (<0.2) between the rear leg joints. High genetic correlations between time points indicate that the trait can be considered the same at either time point, and low genetic correlations indicate that the trait at different time points should be considered as two separate

  2. Early years neurosurgical training in the era of the European Working Time Directive.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Watkins, Laurence D; Kitchen, Neil D; Sethi, Huma

    2013-10-01

    The past decade has seen significant changes to the face of neurosurgical training in the United Kingdom, driven in part by an increasing focus on patient safety and the introduction of Modernising Medical Careers and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Recent reforms to neurosurgical training over the past few years have resulted in creation of an 8-year 'run-through' training programme. In this programme, early years (ST1 and ST2) trainees often lack dedicated time for elective theatre lists and outpatient clinics. Further, any time spent in theatre and clinics is often with different teams. Here we describe a training model for early years trainees at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, who are given the responsibilities traditionally associated with a more senior trainee including dedicated weekly theatre and clinic time under the supervision of a single consultant, in addition to out of hours experience. The advantages and considerations for implementing this model are discussed, including the benefit of guidance under a single consultant in the early stages of training, along with key educational concepts necessary for understanding its utility. We feel that this is an effective model for junior neurosurgical training in the EWTD era, expediting the trainee's development of key technical and non-technical skills, with potentially significant rewards for patient, trainee and trainer. National implementation of this model should be considered.

  3. The gga-let-7 family post-transcriptionally regulates TGFBR1 and LIN28B during the differentiation process in early chick development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang In; Jeon, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Jeom Sun; Jeon, Ik-Soo; Byun, Sung June

    2015-12-01

    Early chick embryogenesis is governed by a complex mechanism involving transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, although how post-transcriptional processes influence the balance between pluripotency and differentiation during early chick development have not been previously investigated. Here, we characterized the microRNA (miRNA) signature associated with differentiation in the chick embryo, and found that as expression of the gga-let-7 family increases through early development, expression of their direct targets, TGFBR1 and LIN28B, decreases; indeed, gga-let-7a-5p and gga-let-7b miRNAs directly bind to TGFBR1 and LIN28B transcripts. Our data further indicate that TGFBR1 and LIN28B maintain pluripotency by regulating POUV, NANOG, and CRIPTO. Therefore, gga-let-7 miRNAs act as post-transcriptional regulators of differentiation in blastodermal cells by repressing the expression of the TGFBR1 and LIN28B, which intrinsically controls blastodermal cell differentiation in early chick development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Eccentricity and obliquity paced carbon cycling in the Early Triassic and implications for post-extinction ecosystem recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wanlu; Jiang, Da-yong; Montañez, Isabel P.; Meyers, Stephen R.; Motani, Ryosuke; Tintori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The timing of marine ecosystem recovery following the End Permian Mass Extinction (EPME) remains poorly constrained given the lack of radiometric ages. Here we develop a high-resolution carbonate carbon isotope (δ13Ccarb) record for 3.20 million years of the Olenekian in South China that defines the astronomical time-scale for the critical interval of major evolutionary and oceanic events in the Spathian. δ13Ccarb documents eccentricity modulation of carbon cycling through the period and a strong obliquity signal. A shift in phasing between short and long eccentricity modulation, and amplification of obliquity, is nearly coincident with a 2% decrease in seawater δ13CDIC, the last of a longer-term stepped decrease through the Spathian. The mid-Spathian shift in seawater δ13CDIC to typical thermocline values is interpreted to record a major oceanic reorganization with global climate amelioration. Coincidence of the phasing shift with the first occurrence of marine reptiles (248.81 Ma), suggests that their invasion into the sea and the onset of a complex ecosystem were facilitated by restoration of deep ocean ventilation linked mechanistically to a change in the response of the oceanic carbon reservoir to astronomical forcing. Together these records place the first constraints on the duration of the post-extinction recovery to 3.35 myr. PMID:27292969

  5. Eccentricity and obliquity paced carbon cycling in the Early Triassic and implications for post-extinction ecosystem recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wanlu; Jiang, Da-Yong; Montañez, Isabel P.; Meyers, Stephen R.; Motani, Ryosuke; Tintori, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The timing of marine ecosystem recovery following the End Permian Mass Extinction (EPME) remains poorly constrained given the lack of radiometric ages. Here we develop a high-resolution carbonate carbon isotope (δ13Ccarb) record for 3.20 million years of the Olenekian in South China that defines the astronomical time-scale for the critical interval of major evolutionary and oceanic events in the Spathian. δ13Ccarb documents eccentricity modulation of carbon cycling through the period and a strong obliquity signal. A shift in phasing between short and long eccentricity modulation, and amplification of obliquity, is nearly coincident with a 2% decrease in seawater δ13CDIC, the last of a longer-term stepped decrease through the Spathian. The mid-Spathian shift in seawater δ13CDIC to typical thermocline values is interpreted to record a major oceanic reorganization with global climate amelioration. Coincidence of the phasing shift with the first occurrence of marine reptiles (248.81 Ma), suggests that their invasion into the sea and the onset of a complex ecosystem were facilitated by restoration of deep ocean ventilation linked mechanistically to a change in the response of the oceanic carbon reservoir to astronomical forcing. Together these records place the first constraints on the duration of the post-extinction recovery to 3.35 myr.

  6. Eccentricity and obliquity paced carbon cycling in the Early Triassic and implications for post-extinction ecosystem recovery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wanlu; Jiang, Da-Yong; Montañez, Isabel P; Meyers, Stephen R; Motani, Ryosuke; Tintori, Andrea

    2016-06-13

    The timing of marine ecosystem recovery following the End Permian Mass Extinction (EPME) remains poorly constrained given the lack of radiometric ages. Here we develop a high-resolution carbonate carbon isotope (δ(13)Ccarb) record for 3.20 million years of the Olenekian in South China that defines the astronomical time-scale for the critical interval of major evolutionary and oceanic events in the Spathian. δ(13)Ccarb documents eccentricity modulation of carbon cycling through the period and a strong obliquity signal. A shift in phasing between short and long eccentricity modulation, and amplification of obliquity, is nearly coincident with a 2% decrease in seawater δ(13)CDIC, the last of a longer-term stepped decrease through the Spathian. The mid-Spathian shift in seawater δ(13)CDIC to typical thermocline values is interpreted to record a major oceanic reorganization with global climate amelioration. Coincidence of the phasing shift with the first occurrence of marine reptiles (248.81 Ma), suggests that their invasion into the sea and the onset of a complex ecosystem were facilitated by restoration of deep ocean ventilation linked mechanistically to a change in the response of the oceanic carbon reservoir to astronomical forcing. Together these records place the first constraints on the duration of the post-extinction recovery to 3.35 myr.

  7. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Kausto, Johanna; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Ketola, Ritva; Riihimäki, Hilkka; Luukkonen, Ritva; Karppinen, Jaro; Miranda, Helena; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2008-02-25

    The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40-60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary results on the feasibility of part-time sick leave will be available

  8. Effect of pre- and post-marination aging on meat quality attributes of early deboned (2 h postmortem) broiler breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Kuttappan, V A; Gunsaulis, V B; Mauromoustakos, A; Meullenet, J F; Owens, C M

    2016-11-01

    Marination is an effective method that can be used to improve the tenderness of early deboned breast fillets. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of pre- and post-marination aging of 2 h postmortem (PM) deboned chicken fillets to get optimum meat quality. In this study, a total of 300 broilers (43 to 46 d of age) were processed using an in-line system and deboned at 2 h PM. Fillets were marinated, at either 2.5, 4, 6, 8 or 24 h PM, using vacuum tumbling (20 min) with a 15% marinade (final concentration of 0.5% salt and 0.45% phosphate). A non-marinated control (CON) was included. The left (HOLD) fillets were aged (held at 4°C for 24 h) prior to freezing post-marination while the right (NO HOLD) fillets were frozen immediately after marination to simulate various commercial practices. Marination pickup (MPU), total marinade retained after thawing (TMR), total purge loss after thawing (TPL), cook loss (CL), and Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear energy (MORSE) values were measured. Both in HOLD and NO HOLD fillets, there was an increase (P < 0.05) in MPU and TMR as the time of marination increased from 2.5 to 24 h PM. Furthermore, the HOLD fillets had a higher (P < 0.05) TPL when compared to the NO HOLD group. There was a higher (P < 0.05) CL for the CON fillets when compared to all marinated fillets suggesting that marination resulted in better water holding capacity. However, both in HOLD and NO HOLD groups, the MORSE values for the marinated fillets decreased (P < 0.05) from 4 h PM onwards, with 8 and 24 h PM having lower (P < 0.05) values than all other treatments. The results of this study suggest that pre-marination aging (aging after deboning prior to marination) of early (2 h PM) deboned fillets to 8 h PM can provide better tumble marination pickup and retention as well as tenderness (or lower shear values). © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Meeting the Basic Learning Needs of the Newly Literate: China's Post-literacy Education for the Early 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guodong, Xie; Zhupeng, Zhang

    2003-11-01

    While China has achieved considerable success in its efforts to raise literacy levels, it has been faced with the relapse of many newly literate adults into illiteracy. The consolidation of literacy skills through post-literacy programs is therefore of key importance to the country. This study examines the reasons why adult literates relapse and discusses the problems and modalities of post-literacy education, concluding with recommendations for future post-literacy policy.

  10. Time gradient for post-test vulnerability to scopolamine-induced amnesia following the initial acquisition session of a spatial reference memory task in mice.

    PubMed

    Toumane, A; Durkin, T P

    1993-09-01

    The time course for vulnerability to the amnestic effects of the cholinergic antagonist, scopolamine, during the postacquisition period has been investigated. We have examined the effects of post-test injections of scopolamine (1 mg/kg ip) given at different times from 30 s for up to 6 h following the end of the first acquisition session of a concurrent spatial discrimination (reference memory) protocol in an 8-arm radial maze on subsequent long-term (24 h) retention performance in C57BL/6 mice. Results show that the immediate (30 s) post-test injection of scopolamine-HCl on Day 1 produces marked perturbation (amnesia) of long-term retention as attested to by significant deficits in various indices of spatial discrimination performance gain on Day 2 as compared to control subjects injected either with scopolamine-MBr or saline. The severity of this scopolamine-induced amnesia declines only slightly as a function of the treatment period 30 s-3 h post-test. However, no evidence for amnesia is observed if scopolamine-HCl injections are delayed for 6 h postsession. This important latter observation attests to the absence of any significant proactive effects of scopolamine on the ability of mice to perform the retention test via possible long-term effects on attention, motivation, or locomotor performance. These results thus constitute evidence for the existence of a limited (30 s-3 h) time gradient for vulnerability of the early memory trace to disruption by scopolamine. The present results are discussed in relation to our previous direct neurochemical observations describing the differential time courses of intervention of the ascending septohippocampal and nBM-cortical cholinergic pathways in the postlearning period. In particular, the presently observed time window concerning post-test vulnerability to scopolamine-induced amnesia corresponds more closely to the time course of the acute activation of the nBM-cortical cholinergic pathway, induced by testing with the

  11. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case–control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time <3 hours were more prone to have GC (P < 0.001), and the shorter the dinner-to-bed time was, the higher was the risk for GC (Ptrend < 0.001). Post-dinner nonwalk was associated with a 2.9-fold increased risk for GC compared with post-dinner walk (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.942, 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs] = 2.072–4.179). The interaction effect of dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on GC risk was detected (AOR = 1.862, 95% CIs = 1.584–3.885, synergy index [SI] = 2.654, 95% CIs = 2.27–3.912). Participants with dinner-to-bed time <3 hours who did not walk after dinner were 7.4 times likely to suffer from GC (AOR = 7.401, 95% CIs = 4.523–13.16) than those with dinner-to-bed time ≥4 hours who took such walk. The risk of GC due to dinner-to-bed time <3 hours, post-dinner nonwalk and their interaction was positively correlated with age. The strongest risk was observed among people ≥70 years old, but the effects were not significant for people ≤55 years old. Dinner-to-bed time <3 hours and post-dinner nonwalk are

  12. On the Early-Time Excess Emission in Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa; Perley, Daniel A.; Quimby, Robert M.; Waldman, Roni; Sullivan, Mark; Yan, Lin; Ofek, Eran O.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (approximately 10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (23 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration (greater than 30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. We construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of 56Ni and 56Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations. However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.

  13. On The Early-Time Excess Emission In Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae

    DOE PAGES

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; ...

    2017-01-18

    Here, we present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (~10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (2-3 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration ( > 30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of amore » different nature. We construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of 56Ni and 56Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations. However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.« less

  14. ON THE EARLY-TIME EXCESS EMISSION IN HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2017-01-20

    We present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (∼10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (2–3 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration (>30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. Wemore » construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of {sup 56}Ni and {sup 56}Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations. However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.« less

  15. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests: Reducing test time by early parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, C; Astals, S; Peces, M; Campos, J L; Guerrero, L

    2018-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test is a key analytical technique to assess the implementation and optimisation of anaerobic biotechnologies. However, this technique is characterised by long testing times (from 20 to >100days), which is not suitable for waste utilities, consulting companies or plants operators whose decision-making processes cannot be held for such a long time. This study develops a statistically robust mathematical strategy using sensitivity functions for early prediction of BMP first-order model parameters, i.e. methane yield (B 0 ) and kinetic constant rate (k). The minimum testing time for early parameter estimation showed a potential correlation with the k value, where (i) slowly biodegradable substrates (k≤0.1d -1 ) have a minimum testing times of ≥15days, (ii) moderately biodegradable substrates (0.1times between 8 and 15 days, and (iii) rapidly biodegradable substrates (k≥0.2d -1 ) have testing times lower than 7days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-processing method to reduce noise while preserving high time resolution in aethalometer real-time black carbon data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time aerosol black carbon (BC) data, presented at time resolutions on the order of seconds to minutes, is desirable in field and source characterization studies measuring rapidly varying concentrations of BC. The Optimized Noise-reduction Averaging (ONA) algorithm has been d...

  18. Myocardial imaging with 99mTc-Tetrofosmin: Influence of post-stress acquisition time, regional radiotracer uptake, and wall motion abnormalities on the clinical result.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Assuero; Kusch, Annette; Casagranda, Mirta; Tagliavia, Irene D'Aragona; Marzullo, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that early (15', T1) post-stress myocardial imaging with Tetrofosmin could be more accurate than standard acquisitions (45', T2) in identifying coronary artery disease. To clarify this phenomenon, 120 subjects (age 61 +/- 10 years) with both T1 and T2 scans were divided into Group 1 (53/120 pts) with more ischemia at T1 vs T2 imaging (T1-T2SDS > or = 3); Group 2 (67/120 pts) with similar results (T1-T2SDS < or = 2). Myocardial areas were categorized as control nonischemic, ischemic, and scarred on the basis of perfusion/contraction properties and coronary anatomy. In each area, regional myocardial count statistic and semiquantitative wall motion/thickening values were obtained. Analysis of T1 and T2 post-stress myocardial counts demonstrated a significant Tetrofosmin wash-out rate that was higher in Group 1 control nonischemic regions (15 +/- 8% vs 13.6 +/- 9.6%, P < .02), significantly lower in Group 1 ischemic regions (7 +/- 10% vs 12.2 +/- 9.5%, P < .0001), and comparable between scarred areas of the two groups (P = NS). Delta post-stress wall thickening (T1-T2) was lower in Group 1 ischemic regions (-4.5 +/- 9.15% vs -1.90 +/- 7.0%, P < .001) and comparable in both control nonischemic and scarred areas of the two groups (P = NS). The clinical result of Tetrofosmin gated-SPECT can be influenced by the post-stress acquisition time because of ischemic-induced regional wall thickening abnormalities and the existence of a differential radiotracer myocardial wash-out.

  19. Methods for Detecting Early Warnings of Critical Transitions in Time Series Illustrated Using Simulated Ecological Data

    PubMed Central

    Dakos, Vasilis; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brock, William A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Guttal, Vishwesha; Ives, Anthony R.; Kéfi, Sonia; Livina, Valerie; Seekell, David A.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Many dynamical systems, including lakes, organisms, ocean circulation patterns, or financial markets, are now thought to have tipping points where critical transitions to a contrasting state can happen. Because critical transitions can occur unexpectedly and are difficult to manage, there is a need for methods that can be used to identify when a critical transition is approaching. Recent theory shows that we can identify the proximity of a system to a critical transition using a variety of so-called ‘early warning signals’, and successful empirical examples suggest a potential for practical applicability. However, while the range of proposed methods for predicting critical transitions is rapidly expanding, opinions on their practical use differ widely, and there is no comparative study that tests the limitations of the different methods to identify approaching critical transitions using time-series data. Here, we summarize a range of currently available early warning methods and apply them to two simulated time series that are typical of systems undergoing a critical transition. In addition to a methodological guide, our work offers a practical toolbox that may be used in a wide range of fields to help detect early warning signals of critical transitions in time series data. PMID:22815897

  20. Exploring the utility of real-time hydrologic data for landslide early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirus, B. B.; Smith, J. B.; Becker, R.; Baum, R. L.; Koss, E.

    2017-12-01

    Early warning systems can provide critical information for operations managers, emergency planners, and the public to help reduce fatalities, injuries, and economic losses due to landsliding. For shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides early warning systems typically use empirical rainfall thresholds, whereas the actual triggering mechanism involves the non-linear hydrological processes of infiltration, evapotranspiration, and hillslope drainage that are more difficult to quantify. Because hydrologic monitoring has demonstrated that shallow landslides are often preceded by a rise in soil moisture and pore-water pressures, some researchers have developed early warning criteria that attempt to account for these antecedent wetness conditions through relatively simplistic storage metrics or soil-water balance modeling. Here we explore the potential for directly incorporating antecedent wetness into landslide early warning criteria using recent landslide inventories and in-situ hydrologic monitoring near Seattle, WA, and Portland, OR. We use continuous, near-real-time telemetered soil moisture and pore-water pressure data measured within a few landslide-prone hillslopes in combination with measured and forecasted rainfall totals to inform easy-to-interpret landslide initiation thresholds. Objective evaluation using somewhat limited landslide inventories suggests that our new thresholds based on subsurface hydrologic monitoring and rainfall data compare favorably to the capabilities of existing rainfall-only thresholds for the Seattle area, whereas there are no established rainfall thresholds for the Portland area. This preliminary investigation provides a proof-of-concept for the utility of developing landslide early warning criteria in two different geologic settings using real-time subsurface hydrologic measurements from in-situ instrumentation.

  1. Online social and professional support for smokers trying to quit: an exploration of first time posts from 2562 members.

    PubMed

    Selby, Peter; van Mierlo, Trevor; Voci, Sabrina C; Parent, Danielle; Cunningham, John A

    2010-08-18

    Both intratreatment and extratreatment social support are associated with increased rates of smoking cessation. Internet-based social support groups have the capability of connecting widely dispersed groups of people trying to quit smoking, making social support available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, at minimal cost. However, to date there has been little research to guide development of this particular feature of Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATIs). Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of smokers who post in an online smoking cessation support group with smokers who do not post, conduct a qualitative analysis of discussion board content, and determine the time it takes for new users to receive feedback from existing members or moderators. Data were collected from StopSmokingCenter.net version 5.0, a WATI equipped with an online social support network moderated by trained program health educators that was operational from November 6, 2004, to May 15, 2007. Demographic and smoking characteristics for both users and nonusers of the online social support network were analyzed, and qualitative analyses were conducted to explore themes in message content. Posting patterns and their frequency were also analyzed. During the study period, 16,764 individuals registered; of these, 70% (11,723) reported being American. The mean age of registrants was 38.9 years and 65% (10,965) were female. The mean number of cigarettes smoked was 20.6 per day. The mean score for the 41% (6849) of users who completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence was 5.6. Of all registered members, 15% (2562) made at least one post in the online social support network; 25% of first posts received a response from another member within 12 minutes, 50% within 29 minutes. The most frequent first posts were from recent quitters who were struggling with their quit attempts, and most responses were from members who had quit for a month or more. Differences in demographic and

  2. Time Outdoors at Specific Ages During Early Childhood and the Risk of Incident Myopia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupal L; Huang, Yu; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Williams, Cathy

    2017-02-01

    Time outdoors during childhood is negatively associated with incident myopia. Consequently, additional time outdoors has been suggested as a public health intervention to reduce the prevalence of myopia. We investigated whether there were specific ages during early childhood when the time outdoors versus incident myopia association was strongest. Children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied from age 2 to 15 years. Parentally reported time outdoors and time spent reading were assessed longitudinally in early childhood (ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 years). Noncycloplegic autorefraction was carried out longitudinally in later childhood (ages 10, 11, 12, and 15 years). Information was available for 2833 participants. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for association between time outdoors and incident myopia. From 3 years of age onward, greater time outdoors was associated with a reduced risk of incident myopia. The hazard ratio for myopia changed progressively from 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98, P = 0.012) at age 3 years, to 0.86 (95% CI 0.78-0.93, P = 0.001) at age 9 years, for each additional SD of time spent outdoors per day. These associations were independent of two major risk factors for myopia: time reading and number of myopic parents. Additional time spent outdoors across the 3 to 9 years age range was associated with a reduced incidence of myopia between ages 10 and 15 years. There was a trend for the association to increase toward the older end of the 3 to 9 years range.

  3. Time Outdoors at Specific Ages During Early Childhood and the Risk of Incident Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rupal L.; Huang, Yu; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Williams, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Time outdoors during childhood is negatively associated with incident myopia. Consequently, additional time outdoors has been suggested as a public health intervention to reduce the prevalence of myopia. We investigated whether there were specific ages during early childhood when the time outdoors versus incident myopia association was strongest. Methods Children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied from age 2 to 15 years. Parentally reported time outdoors and time spent reading were assessed longitudinally in early childhood (ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 years). Noncycloplegic autorefraction was carried out longitudinally in later childhood (ages 10, 11, 12, and 15 years). Information was available for 2833 participants. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for association between time outdoors and incident myopia. Results From 3 years of age onward, greater time outdoors was associated with a reduced risk of incident myopia. The hazard ratio for myopia changed progressively from 0.90 (95% CI 0.83–0.98, P = 0.012) at age 3 years, to 0.86 (95% CI 0.78–0.93, P = 0.001) at age 9 years, for each additional SD of time spent outdoors per day. These associations were independent of two major risk factors for myopia: time reading and number of myopic parents. Conclusions Additional time spent outdoors across the 3 to 9 years age range was associated with a reduced incidence of myopia between ages 10 and 15 years. There was a trend for the association to increase toward the older end of the 3 to 9 years range. PMID:28245296

  4. Reaction Time Is Negatively Associated with Corpus Callosum Area in the Early Stages of CADASIL.

    PubMed

    Delorme, S; De Guio, F; Reyes, S; Jabouley, A; Chabriat, H; Jouvent, E

    2017-11-01

    Reaction time was recently recognized as a marker of subtle cognitive and behavioral alterations in the early clinical stages of CADASIL, a monogenic cerebral small-vessel disease. In unselected patients with CADASIL, brain atrophy and lacunes are the main imaging correlates of disease severity, but MR imaging correlates of reaction time in mildly affected patients are unknown. We hypothesized that reaction time is independently associated with the corpus callosum area in the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Twenty-six patients with CADASIL without dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score > 24 and no cognitive symptoms) and without disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 1) were compared with 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Corpus callosum area was determined on 3D-T1 MR imaging sequences with validated methodology. Between-group comparisons were performed with t tests or χ 2 tests when appropriate. Relationships between reaction time and corpus callosum area were tested using linear regression modeling. Reaction time was significantly related to corpus callosum area in patients (estimate = -7.4 × 10 3 , standard error = 3.3 × 10 3 , P = .03) even after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, and scores of depression and apathy (estimate = -12.2 × 10 3 , standard error = 3.8 × 10 3 , P = .005). No significant relationship was observed in controls. Corpus callosum area, a simple and robust imaging parameter, appears to be an independent correlate of reaction time at the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Further studies will determine whether corpus callosum area can be used as an outcome in future clinical trials in CADASIL or in more prevalent small-vessel diseases. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. The Timing of Middle-Childhood Peer Rejection and Friendship: Linking Early Behavior to Early-Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2007-01-01

    This study used a sample of 551 children surveyed yearly from ages 6 to 13 to examine the longitudinal associations among early behavior, middle-childhood peer rejection and friendedness, and early-adolescent depressive symptoms, loneliness, and delinquency. The study tested a sequential mediation hypothesis in which (a) behavior problems in the…

  6. The Legacy of Early Experiences in Development: Formalizing Alternative Models of How Early Experiences Are Carried Forward over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists have long debated the role of early experience in social and cognitive development. However, traditional approaches to studying this issue are not well positioned to address this debate. The authors present simulations that indicate that the associations between early experiences and later outcomes should approach different…

  7. Effect of Photoactivation Timing on the Mechanical Properties of Resin Cements and Bond Strength of Fiberglass Post to Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R D; Valdívia, A D C M; Bicalho, A A; Franco, S D; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A; Soares, C J

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that photoactivation timing and resin cement affect mechanical properties and bond strength of fiberglass posts to root dentin at different depths. Fiberglass posts (Exacto, Angelus) were luted with RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE), Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray), or RelyX ARC (3M ESPE) using three photoactivation timings: light curing immediately, after three minutes, or after five minutes. Push-out bonding strength, PBS (n=10) was measured on each root region (coronal, middle, apical). The elastic modulus (E) and Vickers hardness (VHN) of the cement layer along the root canal were determined using dynamic indentation (n=5). A strain-gauge test was used to measure post-gel shrinkage of each cement (n=10). Residual shrinkage stress was assessed with finite element analysis. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance in a split-plot arrangement and a Tukey test (α=0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the influence of study factors. The five-minute delay photoactivation timing significantly increased the PBS for all resin cements evaluated. The PBS decreased significantly from coronal to apical root canal regions. The mean values for E and VHN increased significantly with the delayed photoactivation for RelyX Unicem and decreased from coronal to apical root regions for all resin cements with the immediate-curing timing. The PBS of fiber posts to root dentin, E, and VHN values were affected by the root canal region, photoactivation timing, and resin cement type. Shrinkage stress values decreased gradually with delayed photoactivation for all the cements.

  8. Gastrografin may reduce time to oral diet in prolonged post-operative ileus: a pooled analysis of two randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Milne, Tony G E; Vather, Ryash; O'Grady, Gregory; Miquel, Jordi; Biondo, Sebastiano; Bissett, Ian

    2018-03-06

    Gastrografin has been suggested as a rescue therapy for prolonged post-operative ileus (PPOI) but trial data has been inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the benefit of gastrografin use in patients with PPOI by pooling the results of two recent randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of gastrografin compared to placebo given at time of PPOI diagnosis. Anonymized, individual patient data from patients undergoing elective bowel resection for any indication were included, stoma closure was excluded. The primary outcome was duration of PPOI. Secondary outcomes were time to tolerate oral diet, passage of flatus/stool, requirement and duration of nasogastric tube, length of post-operative stay and rate of post-operative complications. Individual patient data were pooled for analysis (53 gastrografin, 55 placebo). Gastrografin trended towards a reduction in PPOI duration compared to placebo, respectively, median 96 h (interquartile range, IQR, 78 h) versus median 120 h (IQR, 84 h), however, this result was non-significant (P = 0.11). In addition, no significant difference was detected between the two groups for time to passage of flatus/stool (P = 0.36) and overall length of stay (P = 0.35). Gastrografin conferred a significantly faster time to tolerate an oral diet compared to placebo (median 84 h versus median 107 h, P = 0.04). There was no difference in post-operative complications between the two interventions (P > 0.05). Gastrografin did not significantly reduce PPOI duration or length of stay after abdominal surgery, but did reduce time to tolerate a solid diet. Further studies are required to clarify the role of gastrografin in PPOI. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Though often discussed as though it were a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The present review synthesizes the research on negative psychological sequelae of early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Emphasis is on three theoretical perspectives by which precocious development is believed to affect the emergence of adverse outcomes: biological, psychosocial, and selection effects. PMID:20740062

  10. The influence of time and cement type on push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Leme, A A; Coutinho, M; Insaurralde, A F; Scaffa, P M C; da Silva, L M

    2011-01-01

    The bond strength of fiber posts luted with resin cements was evaluated after two storage times in different regions of a post space. A total of 40 single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated and prepared for cementation of fiber posts (White Post DC). In groups 1 and 3 (G1 and G3, respectively), posts were luted with RelyX ARC, whereas the posts in groups 2 and 4 (G2 and G4, respectively) were luted with RelyX Unicem. After one month of storage at 100% humidity, G1 and G2 were transversally sectioned in 1.7-mm slices of the cervical (C), middle (M), and apical (A) thirds of the post space and submitted to push-out testing at 1 mm/min. After nine months of storage, the roots of G3 and G4 underwent the same process. Mean values were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=0.05). The bond strengths in G2 (C=4.26±2.29; M=4.67±3.54; A=7.27±4.30) were statistically higher than in G1 (C=3.81±1.07; M=1.57±1.62; A=1.99±1.60) in the middle and apical thirds (p=0.001). Bond strengths in G4 (C=3.36±1.39; M=4.49±2.17; A=3.83±1.92) were higher than in G3 (C=2.13±0.47; M=0.94±1.05; A=0.95±1.02) in all evaluated regions (p=0.02, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). When comparing the root regions for each group, G1 had higher values in the cervical third than the middle third (p=0.02). The self-adhesive resin cement showed better results than the conventional resin cement at both storage times. For both materials a similar performance among the three root regions was found. Storage time did not influence the shear bond strength.

  11. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  12. Early diagenesis of recently deposited organic matter: A 9-yr time-series study of a flood deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesi, T.; Langone, L.; Goñi, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Miserocchi, S.; Bertotti, L.

    2012-04-01

    In Fall 2000, the Po River (Italy) experienced a 100-yr return period flood that resulted in a 1-25 cm-thick deposit in the adjacent prodelta (10-25 m water depth). In the following years, numerous post-depositional perturbations occurred including bioturbation, reworking by waves with heights exceeding 5 m, as well as periods of extremely high and low sediment supply. Cores collected in the central prodelta after the Fall 2000 flood and over the following 9 yr, allowed characterization of the event-strata in their initial state and documentation of their subsequent evolution. Sedimentological characteristics were investigated using X-radiographs and sediment texture analyses, whereas the composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) was studied via bulk and biomarker analyses, including organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), carbon stable isotope composition (δ13C), lignin phenols, cutin-products, p-hydroxy benzenes, benzoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and fatty acids. The 9-yr time-series analysis indicated that roughly the lower half of the original event bed was preserved in the sediment record. Conversely, the upper half of the deposit experienced significant alterations including bioturbation, addition of new material, as well as coarsening. Comparison of the recently deposited material with 9-yr old preserved strata represented a unique natural laboratory to investigate the diagenesis of sedimentary OM in a non-steady system. Bulk data indicated that OC and TN were degraded at similar rates (loss ∼17%) whereas biomarkers exhibited a broad spectrum of reactivities (loss from ∼6% to ∼60%) indicating selective preservation during early diagenesis. Given the relevance of episodic sedimentation in several margins, this study has demonstrated the utility of event-response and time-series sampling of the seabed for understanding the early diagenesis in non-steady conditions.

  13. Imbalances in serum angiopoietin concentrations are early predictors of septic shock development in patients with post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Febrile neutropenia carries a high risk of sepsis complications, and the identification of biomarkers capable to identify high risk patients is a great challenge. Angiopoietins (Ang -) are cytokines involved in the control microvascular permeability. It is accepted that Ang-1 expression maintains endothelial barrier integrity, and that Ang-2 acts as an antagonizing cytokine with barrier-disrupting functions in inflammatory situations. Ang-2 levels have been recently correlated with sepsis mortality in intensive care units. Methods We prospectively evaluated concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 at different time-points during febrile neutropenia, and explored the diagnostic accuracy of these mediators as potential predictors of poor outcome in this clinical setting before the development of sepsis complications. Results Patients that evolved with septic shock (n = 10) presented higher levels of Ang-2 measured 48 hours after fever onset, and of the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio at the time of fever onset compared to patients with non-complicated sepsis (n = 31). These levels correlated with sepsis severity scores. Conclusions Our data suggest that imbalances in the concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 are independent and early markers of the risk of developing septic shock and of sepsis mortality in febrile neutropenia, and larger studies are warranted to validate their clinical usefulness. Therapeutic strategies that manipulate this Ang-2/Ang-1 imbalance can potentially offer new and promising treatments for sepsis in febrile neutropenia. PMID:20509945

  14. Risk-adjusted outcome prediction with initial post-cardiac arrest illness severity: implications for cardiac arrest survivors being considered for early invasive strategy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Joshua C; Rittenberger, Jon C; Toma, Catalin; Callaway, Clifton W

    2014-09-01

    Early CATH is recommended for cardiac arrest survivors with STEMI or suspicion for coronary ischemia. Comatose patients are at risk of death from neurologic injury irrespective of CATH, but post-procedural mortality data do not distinguish between causes of death. Pittsburgh Post Cardiac Arrest Category (PCAC) is a validated, early post-cardiac arrest illness severity score based on initial cardiopulmonary dysfunction and neurologic examination. We evaluated the association between early coronary angiography (CATH) and patient outcome after adjusting for initial post-cardiac arrest illness severity. Retrospective study of a prospective cardiac arrest database at a single site. We included 1011 adult survivors of non-traumatic in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from 2005 to 2012, then stratified by PCAC and immediate CATH. Logistic regression tested the association between immediate CATH and patient outcomes, adjusting for PCAC. Overall, 273 (27%) received immediate CATH. Patients with immediate CATH had higher proportions of good outcome in all but the most severe stratum of illness severity (11% vs. 6%; p=0.11). The primary mode of death was neurologic for all but the least severe stratum. Adjusting for PCAC, immediate CATH was associated with favorable discharge disposition (OR 1.92; 95%CI 1.20, 3.07; p=0.006) and modified Rankin scale (OR 1.95; 95%CI 1.12, 3.38; p=0.02). The benefit of CATH is less clear in the most severe stratum of illness, in which the high risk of mortality is primarily from neurologic causes. PCAC is a risk-stratification tool that provides pre-procedural risk-adjusted outcome prediction for post-cardiac arrest patients being evaluated for immediate CATH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Premarital first births: The influence of the timing of sexual onset versus post-onset risks in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Martin, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by long-standing debates between abstinence proponents and skeptics, we examine how socioeconomic factors influence premarital first births via: (1) age at first sexual intercourse and (2) the risk of a premarital first birth following onset. Factors associated with an earlier age at first intercourse will imply more premarital first births due to increased exposure to risk, but many of these same factors will also be associated with higher risks of a premarital first birth following onset. Our analyses confirm previous findings that women from disadvantaged backgrounds are younger at first intercourse and have higher premarital first birth risks relative to those from more advantaged backgrounds. However, differences in onset timing have a strikingly smaller influence on premarital first birth probabilities than do differences in post-onset risks. Our findings thus suggest that premarital first births result primarily from differences in post-onset risk behaviors as opposed to differences in onset timing. PMID:26585183

  16. Premarital first births: The influence of the timing of sexual onset versus post-onset risks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lawrence L; Martin, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by long-standing debates between abstinence proponents and sceptics, we examine how socio-economic factors influence premarital first births via: (i) age at first sexual intercourse and (ii) the risk of a premarital first birth following the onset of sexual activity. Factors associated with an earlier age at first intercourse will imply more premarital first births owing to increased exposure to risk, but many of these same factors will also be associated with higher risks of a premarital first birth following onset. Our analyses confirm previous findings that women from disadvantaged backgrounds are younger at first intercourse and have higher premarital first-birth risks than women from more advantaged backgrounds. However, differences in onset timing have a strikingly smaller influence on premarital first-birth probabilities than do differences in post-onset risks. Our findings thus suggest that premarital first births result primarily from differences in post-onset risk behaviours as opposed to differences in onset timing.

  17. The Role of Present Time Perspective in Predicting Early Adolescent Violence.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Carrothers, Jessica; Franzen, Susan P; Miller, Alison L; Reischl, Thomas M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the role of present and future time perspectives, and their relationships with subjective norms and beliefs regarding violence, in predicting violent behaviors among urban middle school students in the Midwestern United States. Although present time perspective covaried with subjective norms and beliefs, each made a unique prediction of self-reported violent behaviors. Future time perspective was not a significant predictor when accounting for these relationships. In addition, present orientation moderated the relationship between subjective norms and beliefs and rates of violent behaviors; those with higher present orientations exhibited stronger associations. We replicated this pattern of results in data from new participants in a subsequent wave of the study. Interventions that explicitly address issues related to time perspective may be effective in reducing early adolescent violence.

  18. Occipital MEG Activity in the Early Time Range (<300 ms) Predicts Graded Changes in Perceptual Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lau M; Pedersen, Michael N; Sandberg, Kristian; Overgaard, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Two electrophysiological components have been extensively investigated as candidate neural correlates of perceptual consciousness: An early, occipitally realized component occurring 130-320 ms after stimulus onset and a late, frontally realized component occurring 320-510 ms after stimulus onset. Recent studies have suggested that the late component may not be uniquely related to perceptual consciousness, but also to sensory expectations, task associations, and selective attention. We conducted a magnetoencephalographic study; using multivariate analysis, we compared classification accuracies when decoding perceptual consciousness from the 2 components using sources from occipital and frontal lobes. We found that occipital sources during the early time range were significantly more accurate in decoding perceptual consciousness than frontal sources during both the early and late time ranges. These results are the first of its kind where the predictive values of the 2 components are quantitatively compared, and they provide further evidence for the primary importance of occipital sources in realizing perceptual consciousness. The results have important consequences for current theories of perceptual consciousness, especially theories emphasizing the role of frontal sources. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Early post-stressor intervention with minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, attenuates post-traumatic stress response in an animal model of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Levkovitz, Yechiel; Fenchel, Daphna; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of minocycline, a tetracycline with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective capacities, in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Rats were exposed to psychogenic stress and treated 1h later with minocycline or saline. Behavioral measures included the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and acoustic startle response (ASR) 7 days post stress-exposure. One day after behavioral testing, animals were exposed to a trauma cue and freezing response was assessed. Local levels of cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the hippocampus, frontal cortex (FC) and hypothalamus were then examined. Minocycline attenuated anxious-like behaviors in stress-exposed rats. In addition, decreased levels of cytokines were measured in exposed rats treated with minocycline compared to their counterparts treated with saline. This study suggests a potential use of minocycline in preventing physiological and behavioral alternations resulting from acute exposure to psychological stress. As this is the first study to report beneficial outcomes for minocycline treatment in an animal model of PTSD, further investigations of the use of minocycline in stress-related conditions with emphasis on PTSD is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Histologic evaluation of post-implantation immediate C4d deposition in 13 intestinal grafts: correlation with cell-based crossmatching, cold ischemia time, and preservation injury.

    PubMed

    López-García, P; Calvo Pulido, J; Colina, F; Ballestin Carcavilla, C; Jiménez-Romero, C; Martinez González, M A; Ibarrola de Andrés, C; López-Alonso, G; Cambra Molero, F; Justo Alonso, I; Moreno-González, E

    2014-01-01

    C4d deposits are predictive of humoral rejection in kidney and heart transplantation. The aim of this study was to identify C4d deposit patterns in intestinal mucosa of the grafts on biopsy specimens obtained immediately after implantation and to detect if it could be a valuable tool to predict humoral or acute rejection. A second objective was to search for a statistically significant relationship between positive C4d deposition and other collected variables. Thirteen immediately post-transplantation mucosal graft biopsy specimens, formalin fixed, underwent immunohistochemical stain for C4d deposits. Diffuse intense staining of capillary endothelium was considered positive and absent, focal or weak stains as negative. Preservation injury grade and cold ischemia times were registered for each case. Donor-specific preformed antibodies were detected by complement dependent cytotoxicity serologic technique (crossmatching). Another 19 endoscopic follow-up biopsy specimens from days 2 to 6 were also evaluated. Statistical studies were made using the index of correlation ρ (Spearman's test). Diffuse intense C4d deposits were observed in 2 grafts, focal and weak in 5, and completely negative in 6. The mean cold ischemia time was 327 ± 101 minutes. Two cases showed diffuse positive deposits, 1 had a positive crossmatch and the cold ischemia time was 360 minutes whereas the other had not preformed antibodies and its cold ischemia time was 475 minutes. Humoral or acute rejection was not observed in follow-up mucosal biopsy specimens. There was no statistically significant relationship between the C4d deposition, cold ischemia time, crossmatching results, and preservation injury degree. In conclusion, C4d deposition was not a helpful tool for diagnosis of humoral rejection and prediction of acute rejection during the early post-transplantation period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Benefits of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of labeled islets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Man; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Bae Jun; Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    While a few studies have demonstrated the benefit of PEGylation in islet transplantation, most have employed renal subcapsular models and none have performed direct comparisons of islet mass in intraportal islet transplantation using islet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, our aim was to demonstrate the benefit of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation with a novel algorithm for islet MRI. Islets were PEGylated after ferucarbotran labeling in a rat syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation model followed by comparisons of post-transplant glycemic levels in recipient rats infused with PEGylated (n = 12) and non-PEGylated (n = 13) islets. The total area of hypointense spots and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) of PEGylated and non-PEGylated islets were quantitatively compared. The total area of hypointense spots (P < 0.05) and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) (P < 0.05) were higher in the PEGylated islet group 7 and 14 days post translation (DPT). These results translated into better post-transplant outcomes in the PEGylated islet group 28 DPT. In validation experiments, MRI parameters obtained 1, 7, and 14 DPT predicted normoglycemia 4 wk post-transplantation. We directly demonstrated the benefit of islet PEGylation in protection against nonspecific islet destruction in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation using a novel algorithm for islet MRI. This novel algorithm could serve as a useful tool to demonstrate such benefit in future clinical trials of islet transplantation using PEGylated islets.

  2. Evaluation of the influence of time and concentration of sodium hypochlorite on the bond strength of glass fibre post.

    PubMed

    Knight, Beau; Love, Robert M; George, Roy

    2017-10-24

    This study evaluated the effect of time and concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on the bond strength of a glass fibre post cemented in a root canal with resin cement. A total of 45 single-rooted extracted human teeth were prepared with Protaper ® universal files, randomly allocated into nine groups and then subjected to 1% or 4% NaOCl for a period of 1 min or 2 min. Fibre posts were then bonded into the root canal, sectioned and the bond strength tested using a push-out test. A longer irrigation time resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in bond strength, while a final additional irrigation with distilled water significantly reduced bond strength. The concentration of NaOCl did not significantly affect bond strength. Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that regardless of the concentration of NaOCl used, shorter irrigation times favoured better fibre post bonding. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  3. Timing of abortion among adolescent and young women presenting for post-abortion care in Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis of nationally-representative data.

    PubMed

    Ushie, Boniface A; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Mutua, Michael M; Kabiru, Caroline W

    2018-02-17

    Complications of unsafe abortion are a leading cause of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Adolescents and young women are disproportionately represented among those at risk of these complications. Currently, we know little about the factors associated with young women's timing of abortion. This study examined the timing of abortion as well as factors influencing it among adolescents and young women aged 12-24 years who sought post-abortion care (PAC) in health facilities in Kenya. We draw on data from a cross-sectional study on the magnitude and incidence of induced abortion in Kenya conducted in 2012. The study surveyed women presenting with a diagnosis of incomplete, inevitable, missed, complete, or septic abortion over a one-month data collection period in 328 health facilities (levels 2-6). Survey data, specifically, from adolescents and young women were analyzed to examine their characteristics, the timing of abortion, and the factors associated with the timing of abortion. One thousand one hundred forty-five adolescents and young women presented for PAC during the data collection period. Eight percent of the women reported a previous induced abortion and 78% were not using a modern method of contraception about the time of conception. Thirty-nine percent of the index abortions occurred after 12 weeks of gestation. A greater proportion of women presenting with late abortions (more than 12 weeks gestational age) (46%) than those presenting with early abortions (33%) presented with severe complications. Controlling for socio-demographic and reproductive history, timing of abortion was significantly associated with place of residence (marginal), education, parity, clinical stage of abortion and level of severity. Late-term abortions were substantial, and may have contributed substantially to the high proportion of women with post-abortion complications. Efforts to reduce the severity of abortion-related morbidities and mortality must target young women

  4. Continuous-Time Random Walk Models of DNA Electrophoresis in a Post Array: II. Mobility and Sources of Band Broadening

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Daniel W.; Dutta, Sarit; Laachi, Nabil; Tian, Mingwei; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Using the two-state, continuous-time random walk model, we develop expressions for the mobility and the plate height during DNA electrophoresis in an ordered post array that delineate the contributions due to (i) the random distance between collisions and (ii) the random duration of a collision. These contributions are expressed in terms of the means and variances of the underlying stochastic processes, which we evaluate from a large ensemble of Brownian dynamics simulations performed using different electric fields and molecular weights in a hexagonal array of 1 μm posts with a 3 μm center-to-center distance. If we fix the molecular weight, we find that the collision frequency governs the mobility. In contrast, the average collision duration is the most important factor for predicting the mobility as a function of DNA size at constant Péclet number. The plate height is reasonably well-described by a single post rope-over-pulley model, provided that the extension of the molecule is small. Our results only account for dispersion inside the post array and thus represent a theoretical lower bound on the plate height in an actual device. PMID:21290387

  5. Irregular oscillatory patterns in the early-time region of coherent phonon generation in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Hino, Ken-ichi; Hase, Muneaki; Maeshima, Nobuya

    2017-09-01

    Coherent phonon (CP) generation in an undoped Si crystal is theoretically investigated to shed light on unexplored quantum-mechanical effects in the early-time region immediately after the irradiation of ultrashort laser pulses. We examine time signals attributed to an induced charge density of an ionic core, placing the focus on the effects of the Rabi frequency Ω0 c v on the signals; this frequency corresponds to the peak electric-field of the pulse. It is found that at specific Ω0 c v's, where the energy of plasmon caused by photoexcited carriers coincides with the longitudinal-optical phonon energy, the energetically resonant interaction between these two modes leads to striking anticrossings, revealing irregular oscillations with anomalously enhanced amplitudes in the observed time signals. Also, the oscillatory pattern is subject to the Rabi flopping of the excited carrier density that is controlled by Ω0 c v. These findings show that the early-time region is enriched with quantum-mechanical effects inherent in the CP generation, though experimental signals are more or less masked by the so-called coherent artifact due to nonlinear optical effects.

  6. Inside stories: maternal representations of first time mothers from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Julia; Clarke, David; Cross, Wendy

    2014-03-01

    According to the psychoanalytical literature, it is during pregnancy that maternal representations of the mother-infant relationship become activated. Midwives who are engaged with the mother and the baby have not drawn upon this concept in their practice. In order for this to happen, it is important to understand better the nature of maternal representations and when they are activated from empirical studies. The research question is: what are the maternal representations of a group of first time mothers from pre-pregnancy, early pregnancy and to the first ultrasound. A narrative approach was used to gain insight into the maternal representations of first time pregnant womens' account of their representations. The analysis method was based on thematic approach. Fifteen women aged between 23 and 38 years. A midwives clinic attached to a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia. First-time pregnant women's maternal representations were activated when a woman begins to plan her pregnancy ('the time is right'), again at the onset of physical changes to her body as a result of conception ('my body is changing'), and at the first early ultrasound at around twelve weeks ('it' is a real baby). Maternal representations are important for the midwife and pregnant women because this concept provides another understanding in relation to the psychological dimension of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-02-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether these associations are mediated through the respondent's own education. Young adults aged 18-29 were used from the Health 2000 Study of the Finnish. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires including retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The analyses were carried out on 68% of the original sample (N = 1894). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical inactivity. Only a few of the 11 childhood adversities were related with physical activity in early adulthood. Having been bullied at school was associated with physical inactivity independently of the other childhood circumstances and the respondent's own education. Low parental education predicted leisure-time physical inactivity in men and the association was mediated by the respondent's own education. Respondents with only primary or vocational education were more likely to be physically inactive during leisure-time compared with those with secondary or higher education. There is some evidence that few specific childhood adversities, especially bullying at school, have long-lasting effects on physical activity levels.

  8. Ultrasonic RF time series for early assessment of the tumor response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingguang; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Qing; Lin, Chunyi; Guo, Zhixing; Zheng, Wei; Yan, Cuiju; Li, Anhua; Zhou, Jianhua

    2018-01-05

    Ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) time series have been shown to carry tissue typing information. To evaluate the potential of RF time series for early prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy, 50MCF-7 breast cancer-bearing nude mice were randomized to receive cisplatin and paclitaxel (treatment group; n = 26) or sterile saline (control group; n = 24). Sequential ultrasound imaging was performed on days 0, 3, 6, and 8 of treatment to simultaneously collect B-mode images and RF data. Six RF time series features, slope, intercept, S1, S2, S3 , and S4 , were extracted during RF data analysis and contrasted with microstructural tumor changes on histopathology. Chemotherapy administration reduced tumor growth relative to control on days 6 and 8. Compared with day 0, intercept, S1 , and S2 were increased while slope was decreased on days 3, 6, and 8 in the treatment group. Compared with the control group, intercept, S1, S2, S3 , and S4 were increased, and slope was decreased, on days 3, 6, and 8 in the treatment group. Tumor cell density decreased significantly in the latter on day 3. We conclude that ultrasonic RF time series analysis provides a simple way to noninvasively assess the early tumor response to chemotherapy.

  9. Integrating real-time subsurface hydrologic monitoring with empirical rainfall thresholds to improve landslide early warning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Becker, Rachel E.; Baum, Rex L.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Early warning for rainfall-induced shallow landsliding can help reduce fatalities and economic losses. Although these commonly occurring landslides are typically triggered by subsurface hydrological processes, most early warning criteria rely exclusively on empirical rainfall thresholds and other indirect proxies for subsurface wetness. We explore the utility of explicitly accounting for antecedent wetness by integrating real-time subsurface hydrologic measurements into landslide early warning criteria. Our efforts build on previous progress with rainfall thresholds, monitoring, and numerical modeling along the landslide-prone railway corridor between Everett and Seattle, Washington, USA. We propose a modification to a previously established recent versus antecedent (RA) cumulative rainfall thresholds by replacing the antecedent 15-day rainfall component with an average saturation observed over the same timeframe. We calculate this antecedent saturation with real-time telemetered measurements from five volumetric water content probes installed in the shallow subsurface within a steep vegetated hillslope. Our hybrid rainfall versus saturation (RS) threshold still relies on the same recent 3-day rainfall component as the existing RA thresholds, to facilitate ready integration with quantitative precipitation forecasts. During the 2015–2017 monitoring period, this RS hybrid approach has an increase of true positives and a decrease of false positives and false negatives relative to the previous RA rainfall-only thresholds. We also demonstrate that alternative hybrid threshold formats could be even more accurate, which suggests that further development and testing during future landslide seasons is needed. The positive results confirm that accounting for antecedent wetness conditions with direct subsurface hydrologic measurements can improve thresholds for alert systems and early warning of rainfall-induced shallow landsliding.

  10. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  11. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  12. Interest of waiting time for spontaneous early reconnection after cavotricuspid isthmus ablation: A monocentric randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Marchandise, Sébastien; Scavée, Christophe; Barbraud, Cynthia; de Meester de Ravenstein, Christophe; Balola Bagalwa, Mittérand; Goesaert, Cédric; Reis-Pinheiro, Ivone; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoit

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of recurrent atrial flutter (AFl) after isolated cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation and to evaluate the impact of a waiting period with the search for early resumption of the CTI block on the long-term outcome. Three hundred and nineteen consecutive patients referred for typical AFl ablation were randomly assigned to CTI ablation with continuous reevaluation of the CTI block during 30 minutes and early reablation if needed (waiting time [WT] + group, n  =  155) or to CTI ablation with no waiting period after proven bidirectional CTI block (WT - group, n  =  164). All patients were regularly followed-up. In the WT+ group, 10 patients (6%) presented a recovery across the CTI (time to recovery: 17 ± 7') and were reablated at the end of the waiting period. After a median follow-up of 21 months, the rate of recurrent AFl was significantly higher in the WT - group as compared to the WT+ group (11.6% [19/164] vs 2.5% [4/155], respectively; P  =  0.007). However, no significant differences in the subsequent rate of AF were observed between the two groups (29% [WT -] vs 32% [WT+], P  =  0.66). During the follow-up, 28 patients from the WT - group underwent a second ablation procedure (16 AFl redo and 12 AF ablation) versus 10 patients form the WT+ group (three AFl redo and seven AF ablation). Waiting 30 minutes after CTI ablation to check for early resumption and early reablation allows for decreasing significantly the rate of recurrent atrial flutter. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Turnaround Time for Early Infant HIV Diagnosis in Rural Zambia: A Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; van Dijk, Janneke H.; Hamangaba, Francis; Mayani, Felix; Moss, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early infant HIV diagnosis is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas where laboratory capacity is limited. Specimens must be transported to central laboratories for testing, leading to delays in diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy. This study was undertaken in rural Zambia to measure the turnaround time for confirmation of HIV infection and identify delays in diagnosis. Methods Chart reviews were conducted from 2010–2012 for children undergoing early infant HIV diagnosis at Macha Hospital in Zambia. Relevant dates, receipt of drugs by mother and child for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and test results were abstracted. Results 403 infants provided 476 samples for early infant diagnosis. The median age at the “6-week” and “6-month” assessments was 8.1 weeks and 7.0 months, respectively. The majority of mothers (80%) and infants (67%) received PMTCT. The median time between sample collection and arrival at the central laboratory in Lusaka was 17 days (IQR: 10, 28); arrival at the central laboratory to testing was 6 days (IQR: 5, 11); testing to return of results to the clinic was 29 days (IQR: 17, 36); arrival of results at the clinic to return of results to the caregiver was 45 days (IQR: 24, 79). The total median time from sample collection to return of results to the caregiver was 92 days (IQR: 84, 145). The proportion of HIV PCR positive samples was 12%. The total median turnaround time was shorter for HIV PCR positive as compared to negative or invalid samples (85 vs. 92 days; p = 0.08). Conclusions Delays in processing and communicating test results were identified, particularly in returning results from the central laboratory to the clinic and from the clinic to the caregiver. A more efficient process is needed so that caregivers can be provided test results more rapidly, potentially resulting in earlier treatment initiation and better outcomes for HIV-infected infants

  14. Improved systemic treatment for early breast cancer improves cure rates, modifies metastatic pattern and shortens post-metastatic survival: 35-year results from the Munich Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Hölzel, Dieter; Eckel, Renate; Bauerfeind, Ingo; Baier, Bernd; Beck, Thomas; Braun, Michael; Ettl, Johannes; Hamann, Ulrich; Kiechle, Marion; Mahner, Sven; Schindlbeck, Christian; de Waal, Johann; Harbeck, Nadia; Engel, Jutta

    2017-09-01

    Systemic therapies (ATHs) in early breast cancer have improved the survival of breast cancer (BC) patients in recent decades. The magnitude of the changes in overall, metastasis-free (MFS) and post-metastatic (PMS) survival and in the metastasis (MET) pattern will be described. We analysed 60,227 patients with a diagnosis of T-N-M0 BC between 1978 and 2013 and 11,983 patients with metastases (MET) in the Munich Cancer Registry. Patients will be divided into four time periods to identify relationships between BC and METs. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore the impact of the BC subtype and MET status on survival with the time periods as surrogate markers for ATH evolution. During the observation period, 5-year relative survival has improved from 80.3 to 93.6% with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.54 (P < 0.0001). Successful implementation of ATH has changed the MET pattern. The percentage of liver and CNS METs has more than doubled, the rate of lung METs remains stable, and the rate of bone METs has been reduced by approximately 50%. MFS has been prolonged with a hazard ratio 0.75 (P < 0.0001), but PMS has declined (hazard ratio 1.36; P < 0.0001); however, effects of adjuvant and palliative treatments cannot be separated. These results do not contradict improvements in advanced BC and do not suggest alterations of MET tumour biology by ATH. Over the past three decades, ATHs have dramatically improved patient survival after BC diagnosis-most likely, by eradicating prevalent micro-METs; as a result, the MET pattern has changed. Eradicating only a portion of the first METs results in delaying the onset of subsequent MET, which leads to an apparently paradoxical effect: an extension of the MET-free interval and a reduction in PMS.

  15. Separating Direct and Indirect Turbofan Engine Combustion Noise While Estimating Post-Combustion (Post-Flame) Residence Time Using the Correlation Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2011-01-01

    A previous investigation on the presence of direct and indirect combustion noise for a full-scale turbofan engine using a far-field microphone at 130 is extended by also examining signals obtained at two additional downstream directions using far-field microphones at 110 deg and 160 deg. A generalized cross-correlation function technique is used to study the change in propagation time to the far field of the combined direct and indirect combustion noise signal as a sequence of low-pass filters are applied. The filtering procedure used produces no phase distortion. As the low-pass filter frequency is decreased, the travel time increases because the relative amount of direct combustion noise is reduced. The indirect combustion noise signal travels more slowly because in the combustor entropy fluctuations move with the flow velocity, which is slow compared to the local speed of sound. The indirect combustion noise signal travels at acoustic velocities after reaching the turbine and being converted into an acoustic signal. The direct combustion noise is always propagating at acoustic velocities. The results show that the estimated indirect combustion noise time delay values (post-combustion residence times) measured at each angle are fairly consistent with one another for a relevant range of operating conditions and demonstrate source separation of a mixture of direct and indirect combustion noise. The results may lead to a better idea about the acoustics in the combustor and may help develop and validate improved reduced-order physics-based methods for predicting turbofan engine core noise.

  16. Universal post-arrival screening for child refugees in Australia: isn't it time?

    PubMed

    Patradoon-Ho, Patrick S; Ambler, Rosemary W

    2012-02-01

    It is known that the refugee population in Australia is at risk of tuberculosis (TB) and children with TB infection can develop active disease with devastating consequence. Currently, in New South Wales (NSW) and possibly other Australian States and Territories, there are different and complex health-screening pathways for newly arrived refugees. This is compounded by various factors, such as social and language difficulties for refugees to access healthcare and limited pre-embarkation screening. In this Viewpoint article, we present a child refugee in Australia with TB and use this case to reason why a universal post-arrival health screening programme should be established. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. The Relationship Between Cardiac Conduction Times, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Inflammation in Patients with Early Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Turk, Samina A; Heslinga, Sjoerd C; Dekker, Jill; Britsemmer, Linda; van der Lugt, Véronique; Lems, Willem F; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Nurmohamed, Michael T

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of conduction disorders in patients with early arthritis and the relationship with inflammation and traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a 2-fold higher risk of sudden cardiac death, possibly owing to conduction disorders. This increased risk might already be present at the clinical onset of arthritis. Therefore, we assessed electrocardiography, blood pressure, 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), lipid profile, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in 480 patients with early arthritis at baseline and after 1 year. The prevalence of conduction disorders was 12.5%. Conduction times at baseline were not associated with DAS28, ESR, or CRP levels and did not change during antirheumatic treatment. Baseline and the improvement in DAS28 (European League Against Rheumatism response), ESR, and CRP were significantly associated with heart rate, lipid profile, and blood pressure. Elevated total cholesterol and blood pressure were associated with an increased QRS time. The change in heart rate differed 7.3 bpm between patients with the least versus largest DAS improvement. The prevalence of conduction disorders in patients with early arthritis was 12.5%, which is similar to the general population and was not associated with changes in inflammation markers. However, a high cholesterol was associated with a prolonged QRS time. Therefore, the emphasis of CV risk management in arthritis should not be only on treatment of disease activity but also on traditional CV risk factors. The relationship between the improvement in disease activity and heart rate is remarkable because this could imply a 10-year CV mortality risk difference of 24%.

  18. Hypothermic machine perfusion permits extended cold ischemia times with improved early graft function.

    PubMed

    Guy, Alison; McGrogan, Damian; Inston, Nicholas; Ready, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The logistics of deceased-donor renal transplants are largely affected by cold ischemia time. However, to attain successful outcomes, other issues must be considered. Extending cold ischemia time to accommodate these issues would be valuable. We investigated the role of hypothermic machine perfusion to extend cold ischaemia time. Deceased-donor kidneys were allocated to a storage method, depending on predicted time to operation. Kidneys to be transplanted from 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM in the transplant room remained in static cold storage. If predicted operating time was out of hours, the kidney was transferred to hypothermic machine perfusion and transplanted at the earliest opportunity on the dedicated transplant list. There were 74 kidneys transplanted from hypothermic machine perfusion and 101 kidneys from static cold storage. Median cold ischemia time was 23.85 hours in the hypothermic machine perfusion group, compared with 13 hours in the static cold storage group (P ≤ .0001). There were 20 kidneys (27%) from hypothermic machine perfusion that had delayed graft function, compared with 47 kidneys (47%) in the static cold storage group (P = .012). There were no other significant differences in graft or postoperative complications. This study demonstrated that improved early graft outcomes can be achieved following longer cold ischemia time by using hypothermic machine perfusion rather than static cold storage. This effect is likely multifactorial including the inherent effects of hypothermic machine perfusion, improved recipient preparation, and possibly better perioperative conditions.

  19. Addendum to `numerical modeling of an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Two numerical models to simulate an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system that is used for buried-object detection and environmental problems are presented. In the first model, the transmitting and receiving loop antennas accurately analyzed using the method of moments (MoM), and then conjugate gradient (CG) methods with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are utilized to investigate the scattering from buried conducting plates. In the second model, two magnetic dipoles are used to replace the transmitter and receiver. Both the theory and formulation are correct and the simulation results for the primary magnetic field and the reflected magnetic field are accurate.

  20. Elucidating the mechanisms linking early pubertal timing, sexual activity, and substance use for maltreated versus nonmaltreated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-06-01

    To test models linking pubertal timing, peer substance use, sexual behavior, and substance use for maltreated versus comparison adolescents. Three theoretical mechanisms were tested: (1) peer influence links early pubertal timing to later sexual behavior and substance use; (2) early maturers engage in substance use on their own and then select substance-using friends; or (3) early maturers initiate sexual behaviors which lead them to substance-using peers. The data came from a longitudinal study of the effects of child maltreatment on adolescent development (303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents; age, 9-13 years at initial wave). Multiple-group structural equation models tested the hypotheses across three time points including variables of pubertal timing, perception of peer substance use, sexual behavior, and self-reported substance use. Early pubertal timing was associated with substance-using peers only for maltreated adolescents, indicating the mediation path from early pubertal timing through substance-using peers to subsequent adolescent substance use and sexual behavior only holds for maltreated adolescents. Mediation via sexual behavior was significant for both maltreated and comparison adolescents. This indicates that sexual behavior may be a more universal mechanism linking early maturation with risky friends regardless of adverse life experiences. The findings are a step toward elucidating the developmental pathways from early puberty to risk behavior and identifying early experiences that may alter mediation effects. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wormholes versus black holes: quasinormal ringing at early and late times

    SciTech Connect

    Konoplya, R.A.; Zhidenko, A., E-mail: roman.konoplya@uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: olexandr.zhydenko@ufabc.edu.br

    Recently it has been argued that the phantom thin-shell wormholes matched with the Schwarzschild space-time near the Schwarzschild radius ring like Schwarzschild black holes at early times, but differently at late times [1]. Here we consider perturbations of the wormhole which was constructed without thin-shells: the Bronnikov-Ellis wormhole supported by the phantom matter and electromagnetic field. This wormhole solution is known to be stable under specific equation of state of the phantom matter. We show that if one does not use the above thin-shell matching, the wormhole, depending on the values of its parameters, either rings as the black holemore » at all times or rings differently also at all times . The wormhole's spectrum, investigated here, posses a number of distinctive features. In the final part we have considered general properties of scattering around arbitrary rotating traversable wormholes. We have found that symmetric and non-symmetric (with respect to the throat) wormholes are qualitatively different in this respect: first, superradiance is allowed only if for those non-symmetric wormholes for which the asymptotic values of the rotation parameters are different on both sides from the throat. Second, the symmetric wormholes cannot mimic effectively the ringing of a black hole at a few various dominant multipoles at the same time, so that the future observations of various events should easily tell the symmetric wormhole from a black hole.« less

  2. New Modular Ultrasonic Signal Processing Building Blocks for Real-Time Data Acquisition and Post Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion

    2003-03-01

    A suite of basic signal processors has been developed. These basic building blocks can be cascaded together to form more complex processors without the need for programming. The data structures between each of the processors are handled automatically. This allows a processor built for one purpose to be applied to any type of data such as images, waveform arrays and single values. The processors are part of Winspect Data Acquisition software. The new processors are fast enough to work on A-scan signals live while scanning. Their primary use is to extract features, reduce noise or to calculate material properties. The cascaded processors work equally well on live A-scan displays, live gated data or as a post-processing engine on saved data. Researchers are able to call their own MATLAB or C-code from anywhere within the processor structure. A built-in formula node processor that uses a simple algebraic editor may make external user programs unnecessary. This paper also discusses the problems associated with ad hoc software development and how graphical programming languages can tie up researchers writing software rather than designing experiments.

  3. Geologically Controlled Isotope-Time Patterns Reveal Early Differentiation and Crust Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, V. C.; Nutman, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms of continental crust production and evolution in the early Earth remain controversial, as are questions of the relative roles of early differentiation versus subsequent tectonic procssing in creating Earth's chemical signatures. Here we present geologic observations integrated with whole rock major, trace element and Sm-Nd isotopic signatures and combined with U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of zircon populations from the same rocks, from the most extensive early rock record comprising the 3.9 Ga to 3.6 Ga terranes of southwest Greenland. These data reveal repeated patterns of formation of juvenile TTG crust and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in convergent margin settings followed by formation of more evolved granites [1]. Our new zircon Lu-Hf data from rare 3.6-3.7 Ga tonalites within the Itsaq Gneiss Complex, obtained from single component, non-migmatitic gneisses with simple zircon populations, limited within sample Hf isotopic variability and accurate U-Pb ages, now document extraction of juvenile tonalites from a near chondritic mantle source between 3.9 Ga and 3.6 Ga. The more evolved, granitic rocks in each area show slightly negative initial ɛHf in accord with crustal reworking of the older (3.8-3.9 Ga) gniesses. There is no evidence for Hadean material in the sources of the granitoids. The Hf isotope-time patterns are consistent with juvenile crust production from a mantle source that experienced only modest amounts of prior crustal extraction. They are distinct from those predicted by reprocessing of an enriched Hadean mafic crust, as has been proposed for this region [2] and for the source of the Hadean Jack Hills zircons [3]. The well-documented, time decreasing, positive 142Nd anomalies [e.g., 4] from these rocks are further evidence of crustal derivation from a convecting mantle source, rather than reworking of an enriched mafic lithosphere. The 143Nd isotopic -time patterns are more complex, reflecting the interplay

  4. Time development in the early history of social networks: link stabilization, group dynamics, and segregation.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work), but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is immediately

  5. "Early Psychosis" as a mirror of biologist controversies in post-war German, Anglo-Saxon, and Soviet Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The English term "early psychosis" was coined in the 1930s to refer to feelings of irritability, loss of concentration, hypochondriac ideas, moodiness, and lassitude that were seen to precede the onset of clear-cut hallucinations and delusions. The history of thinking about "early psychosis" under names such as "latent," "masked," "mild," "simple" or "sluggish" schizophrenia before World War II and afterwards on the different sides of the Wall and the Iron Curtain reveals "early psychosis" as a mirror of quite aged international biologist controversies that are still alive today and to the same extent as they are misunderstood, are influential in their implications in today's psychiatry.

  6. Cognitive therapy as an early treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial addressing preliminary efficacy and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; McKinnon, Anna; Dixon, Clare; Trickey, David; Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M; Boyle, Adrian; Watson, Peter; Goodyer, Ian; Dalgleish, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Few efficacious early treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents exist. Previous trials have intervened within the first month post-trauma and focused on secondary prevention of later post-traumatic stress; however, considerable natural recovery may still occur up to 6-months post-trauma. No trials have addressed the early treatment of established PTSD (i.e. 2- to 6-months post-trauma). Twenty-nine youth (8-17 years) with PTSD (according to age-appropriate DSM-IV or ICD-10 diagnostic criteria) after a single-event trauma in the previous 2-6 months were randomly allocated to Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD; n = 14) or waiting list (WL; n = 15) for 10 weeks. Significantly more participants were free of PTSD after CT-PTSD (71%) than WL (27%) at posttreatment (intent-to-treat, 95% CI for difference .04-.71). CT-PTSD yielded greater improvement on child-report questionnaire measures of PTSD, depression and anxiety; clinician-rated functioning; and parent-reported outcomes. Recovery after CT-PTSD was maintained at 6- and 12-month posttreatment. Beneficial effects of CT-PTSD were mediated through changes in appraisals and safety-seeking behaviours, as predicted by cognitive models of PTSD. CT-PTSD was considered acceptable on the basis of low dropout and high treatment credibility and therapist alliance ratings. This trial provides preliminary support for the efficacy and acceptability of CT-PTSD as an early treatment for PTSD in youth. Moreover, the trial did not support the extension of 'watchful waiting' into the 2- to 6-month post-trauma window, as significant improvements in the WL arm (particularly in terms of functioning and depression) were not observed. Replication in larger samples is needed, but attention to recruitment issues will be required. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Early-Time Solution of the Horizontal Unconfined Aquifer in the Buildup Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-10-01

    We derive the early-time solution of the Boussinesq equation for the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the buildup phase under constant recharge and zero inflow. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turns out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by resummation techniques that are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  8. Real-Time Detection of Rupture Development: Earthquake Early Warning Using P Waves From Growing Ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Large earthquakes with long rupture durations emit P wave energy throughout the rupture period. Incorporating late-onset P waves into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms could contribute to robust predictions of strong ground motion. Here I describe a technique to detect in real time P waves from growing ruptures to improve the timeliness of an EEW algorithm based on seismic wavefield estimation. The proposed P wave detector, which employs a simple polarization analysis, successfully detected P waves from strong motion generation areas of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture. An analysis using 23 large (M ≥ 7) events from Japan confirmed that seismic intensity predictions based on the P wave detector significantly increased lead times without appreciably decreasing the prediction accuracy. P waves from growing ruptures, being one of the fastest carriers of information on ongoing rupture development, have the potential to improve the performance of EEW systems.

  9. [Part time work instead of early retirement: successful breakthrough for flexible and later retirement?].

    PubMed

    Bäcker, G; Naegele, G

    1996-01-01

    In order to stop the trend towards early retirement in Germany a law to promote partial retirement recently has been passed by parliament. Concerning the impact on the labour market the raising of the pension age for older unemployed which is fixed in this law has to be seen as contraproductive and it will deteriorate the financial situation of unemployed older workers. Concerning the implementation of partial-retirement as such, there are momentous obstacles to realize part-time working arrangements in practice: the insufficient financial compensation for older workers and the obligation for employers to hire unemployed workers. Supplementary collective agreements are seen to be necessary to establish part-time work for older workers.

  10. Poverty and Awakening Cortisol in Adolescence: The Importance of Timing in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Michael J.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of poverty on mental and physical health are routinely argued to operate, at least in part, via dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, although empirical examinations connecting poverty with HPA axis functioning are rare. Research on the effects of timing of poverty is a particularly neglected aspect of this relationship. This study uses 15 years of prospective data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to assess how exposure to poverty during infancy, childhood, and adolescence is related to awakening cortisol (n = 826), a marker of HPA axis functioning. Among female participants, poverty exposure in infancy and adolescence, but not childhood, was negatively associated with awakening cortisol. Poverty exposure was unrelated to cortisol among male participants. The importance of timing and gender differences are discussed along with directions for future research. PMID:26140229

  11. Revision of Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) Total Hip Arthroplasty: Correlation of Perioperative Data and Early Post-Revision Outcome Results.

    PubMed

    Cip, Johannes; Bach, Christian; Widemschek, Mark; Luegmair, Matthias; Martin, Arno

    2015-09-01

    The articular surface replacement (ASR) total hip arthroplasty (THA) showed accelerated failure rates due to adverse-reaction to metal debris (ARMD). Literature correlating preoperative with intraoperative revision findings respectively post-revision outcome results are rare. 30 of 99 available ASR THA were revised due to ARMD. Mean post-revision follow-up term was 2.3 years. In part, preoperative data did not correlate with intraoperative revision findings. ARMD was even found in asymptomatic patients with non-elevated ion levels. Postoperative pain and metal ions decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.016). Cobalt decreased faster than chrome. Patients with intraoperative pseudotumors, osteolysis or bilateral THA did not have higher pre- or postoperative ion values (P ≥ 0.053). Females showed higher postoperative chrome levels (P=0.031). One major post-revision complication (femoral nerve palsy) and one re-revision (late onset infection) occurred. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Elucidating the mechanisms linking early pubertal timing, sexual activity, and substance use for maltreated versus nonmaltreated adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test models linking pubertal timing, peer substance use, sexual behavior, and substance use for maltreated versus comparison adolescents. Three theoretical mechanisms were tested: 1) peer influence links early pubertal timing to later sexual behavior and substance use, 2) early maturers engage in substance use on their own and then select substance-using friends, or 3) early maturers initiate sexual behaviors which leads them to substance-using peers. Methods The data came from a longitudinal study of the effects of child maltreatment on adolescent development (303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents; age: 9–13 years at initial wave). Multiple-group structural equation models tested the hypotheses across three timepoints including variables of pubertal timing, perception of peer substance use, sexual behavior, and self-reported substance use. Results Early pubertal timing was associated with substance-using peers only for maltreated adolescents, indicating the mediation path from early pubertal timing through substance-using peers to subsequent adolescent substance use and sexual behavior only holds for maltreated adolescents. Mediation via sexual behavior was significant for both maltreated and comparison adolescents. This indicates that sexual behavior may be a more universal mechanism linking early maturation with risky friends regardless of adverse life experiences. Conclusions The findings are a step toward elucidating the developmental pathways from early puberty to risk behavior and identifying early experiences that may alter mediation effects. PMID:26003577

  13. Predicting Adult Criminal Behavior from Juvenile Delinquency: Ex-Ante vs. Ex-Post Benefits of Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    White, Barry A. B.; Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent analyses of the long-term societal benefits from early intervention (prenatal care, home visitation, and high quality preschool) for at-risk children commonly include significant savings to society in the form of reduced juvenile delinquency and adult criminal behavior. However, a nontrivial proportion of the reported benefits of several early intervention programs are based on forecasts of criminal behavior throughout adulthood conditional on intervention effects on delinquency in adolescence. Data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an investigation of the life course of 1,539 children from low-income families born in 1979–1980, are used to investigate the bias resulting from predicting the effect of early intervention on adult criminal behavior from the effect on delinquency in adolescence. The investigation concludes that the general method used to predict adult criminal behavior results in a conservative estimate of the reduction in the cost of adult criminal behavior attributed to early intervention. PMID:27867324

  14. Predicting Adult Criminal Behavior from Juvenile Delinquency: Ex-Ante vs. Ex-Post Benefits of Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    White, Barry A B; Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-12-01

    Recent analyses of the long-term societal benefits from early intervention (prenatal care, home visitation, and high quality preschool) for at-risk children commonly include significant savings to society in the form of reduced juvenile delinquency and adult criminal behavior. However, a nontrivial proportion of the reported benefits of several early intervention programs are based on forecasts of criminal behavior throughout adulthood conditional on intervention effects on delinquency in adolescence. Data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an investigation of the life course of 1,539 children from low-income families born in 1979-1980, are used to investigate the bias resulting from predicting the effect of early intervention on adult criminal behavior from the effect on delinquency in adolescence. The investigation concludes that the general method used to predict adult criminal behavior results in a conservative estimate of the reduction in the cost of adult criminal behavior attributed to early intervention.

  15. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lutaif, N.A.; Palazzo, R.; Gontijo, J.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile. PMID:24519093

  16. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis.

    PubMed

    Lutaif, N A; Palazzo, R; Gontijo, J A R

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile.

  17. Post-outburst timing of the magnetically active pulsar J1846-0258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, Margaret A.; Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2011-08-01

    The ~800 yr-old pulsar PSR J1846-0258 in the supernova remnant Kes 75 is a unique transition object between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars. While it typically behaves as a rotation-powered pulsar, in 2006 it exhibited a distinctly magnetar-like outburst accompanied by a large glitch with an unusual over-recovery. We present X-ray timing observations taken with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer after the X-ray outburst and accompanying glitch had recovered. We observe that the braking index of the pulsar, previously measured to be n = 2.65+/-0.01 has decreased by 18+/-5%. We also note a persistent increase in the timing noise relative to the pre-outburst level, reminiscent of behavior previously observed from some magnetars.

  18. Post-irradiation somatic mutation and clonal stabilisation time in the human colon.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, F; Williams, G T; Appleton, M A; Dixon, M F; Harris, M; Williams, E D

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal crypts are clonal units in which somatic mutation of marker genes in stem cells leads to crypt restricted phenotypic conversion initially involving part of the crypt, later the whole crypt. Studies in mice show that the time taken for the great majority of mutated crypts to be completely converted, the clonal stabilisation time, is four weeks in the colon and 21 weeks in the ileum. Differences in the clonal stabilisation time between tissues and species are thought to reflect differences in stem cell organisation and crypt kinetics. AIM: To study the clonal stabilisation time in the human colorectum. METHODS: Stem cell mutation can lead to crypt restricted loss of O-acetylation of sialomucins in subjects heterozygous for O-acetyltransferase gene activity. mPAS histochemistry was used to visualise and quantify crypts partially or wholly involved by the mutant phenotype in 21 informative cases who had undergone colectomy up to 34 years after radiotherapy. RESULTS: Radiotherapy was followed by a considerable increase in the discordant crypt frequency that remained significantly increased for many years. The proportion of discordant crypts showing partial involvement was initially high but fell to normal levels about 12 months after irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: Crypts wholly involved by a mutant phenotype are stable and persistent while partially involved crypts are transient. The clonal stabilisation time is approximately one year in the human colon compared with four weeks in the mouse. The most likely reason for this is a difference in the number of stem cells in a crypt stem cell niche, although differences in stem cell cycle time and crypt fission may also contribute. These findings are of relevance to colorectal gene therapy and carcinogenesis in stem cell systems. PMID:8944567

  19. Method for Making Measurements of the Post-Combustion Residence Time in a Gas Turbine Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method of measuring a residence time in a gas-turbine engine is disclosed that includes measuring a combustor pressure signal at a combustor entrance and a turbine exit pressure signal at a turbine exit. The method further includes computing a cross-spectrum function between the combustor pressure signal and the turbine exit pressure signal, calculating a slope of the cross-spectrum function, shifting the turbine exit pressure signal an amount corresponding to a time delay between the measurement of the combustor pressure signal and the turbine exit pressure signal, and recalculating the slope of the cross-spectrum function until the slope reaches zero.

  20. Early Serum Gut Hormone Concentrations Associated with Time to Full Enteral Feedings in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Kristen H; Yu, Xinting; Miller, Laura G; Freedman, Steven D; Martin, Camilia R

    2018-04-03

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate early postnatal serum gut hormone concentrations in preterm infants as predictors of time to full enteral feedings. The secondary objective was to identify infant characteristics and nutritional factors that modulate serum gut hormone concentrations and time to full enteral feedings. Sixty-four preterm infants less than 30 weeks of gestation were included in this retrospective cohort study. Serum gut hormone concentrations at postnatal days 0 and 7 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Linear regression and mediation analyses were performed. Median (IQR) serum concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) on postnatal day 7 were 31.3 pg/mL (18.2, 52.3) and 1181.7 pg/mL (859.0, 1650.2), respectively. GIP and PYY concentrations on day 7 were associated with days to full enteral feedings after adjustment for confounders (β = -1.1, p = 0.03; and β = -0.002, p = 0.02, respectively). Nutritional intake was correlated with serum concentrations of GIP and PYY on postnatal day 7 and time to full enteral feedings. Mediation analysis revealed that the effect of serum gut hormone concentrations on time to full enteral feedings was not fully explained by nutritional intake. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), mechanical ventilation on postnatal day 7, and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) treated with indomethacin were associated with longer time to full enteral feedings. Serum concentrations of GIP and PYY on postnatal 7 are independently associated with time to full enteral feedings. The link between serum gut hormone concentrations and time to full enteral feedings is not fully mediated by nutritional factors, suggesting an independent mechanism underlying the influence of gut hormones on feeding tolerance and time to full enteral feedings.

  1. Effect of light-curing units, post-cured time and shade of resin cement on knoop hardness.

    PubMed

    Reges, Rogério Vieira; Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Piva, Evandro; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness after 15 min and 24 h of different shades of a dual-cured resin-based cement after indirect photoactivation (ceramic restoration) with 2 light-curing units (LCUs). The resin cement Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) shade XL, A2, A3 and opaque were mixed with the catalyst paste and inserted into a black Teflon mold (5 mm diameter x 1 mm high). A transparent strip was placed over the mold and a ceramic disc (Duceram Plus, shade A3) was positioned over the resin cement. Light-activation was performed through the ceramic for 40 s using quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) (XL 2500; 3M ESPE) or light-emitting diode (LED) (Ultrablue Is, DMC) LCUs with power density of 615 and 610 mW/cm(2), respectively. The Koop hardness was measured using a microhardness tester HMV 2 (Shimadzu) after 15 min or 24 h. Four indentations were made in each specimen. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The QTH LCU provided significantly higher (p<0.05) KHN values than the LED LCU. When the post-cure times were compared for the same shade, QTH and LED at 24 h provided significantly higher (p<0.05) KHN values than at 15 min. It may be concluded that the Knoop hardness was generally dependent on the LCU and post-cure time. The opaque shade of the resin cement showed lower Knoop hardness than the other shades for both LCUs and post-cure times.

  2. Real-time GPS integration for prototype earthquake early warning and near-field imaging of the earthquake rupture process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Given, D.; King, N. E.; Lisowski, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past several years, USGS has developed the infrastructure for integrating real-time GPS with seismic data in order to improve our ability to respond to earthquakes and volcanic activity. As part of this effort, we have tested real-time GPS processing software components , and identified the most robust and scalable options. Simultaneously, additional near-field monitoring stations have been built using a new station design that combines dual-frequency GPS with high quality strong-motion sensors and dataloggers. Several existing stations have been upgraded in this way, using USGS Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project and American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds in southern California. In particular, existing seismic stations have been augmented by the addition of GPS and vice versa. The focus of new instrumentation as well as datalogger and telemetry upgrades to date has been along the southern San Andreas fault in hopes of 1) capturing a large and potentially damaging rupture in progress and augmenting inputs to earthquake early warning systems, and 2) recovering high quality recordings on scale of large dynamic displacement waveforms, static displacements and immediate and long-term post-seismic transient deformation. Obtaining definitive records of large ground motions close to a large San Andreas or Cascadia rupture (or volcanic activity) would be a fundamentally important contribution to understanding near-source large ground motions and the physics of earthquakes, including the rupture process and friction associated with crack propagation and healing. Soon, telemetry upgrades will be completed in Cascadia and throughout the Plate Boundary Observatory as well. By collaborating with other groups on open-source automation system development, we will be ready to process the newly available real-time GPS data streams and to fold these data in with existing strong-motion and other seismic data. Data from these same stations will also serve the very

  3. Simple Predictive Model of Early Failure among Patients Undergoing First-Time Arteriovenous Fistula Creation.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Zhu, Clara K; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Farber, Alik

    2016-08-01

    Native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) have a high 1 year failure rate leading to a need for secondary procedures. We set out to create a predictive model of early failure in patients undergoing first-time AVF creation, to identify failure-associated factors and stratify initial failure risk. The Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) (2010-2014) was queried to identify patients undergoing first-time AVF creation. Patients with early (within 3 months postoperation) AVF failure (EF) or no failure (NF) were compared, failure being defined as any AVF that could not be used for dialysis. A multivariate logistic regression predictive model of EF based on perioperative clinical variables was created. Backward elimination with alpha level of 0.2 was used to create a parsimonious model. We identified 376 first-time AVF patients with follow-up data available in VSGNE. EF rate was 17.5%. Patients in the EF group had lower rates of hypertension (80.3% vs. 93.2%, P = 0.003) and diabetes (47.0% vs. 61.3%, P = 0.039). EF patients were also more likely to have radial artery inflow (57.6% vs. 38.4%, P = 0.011) and have forearm cephalic vein outflow (57.6% vs. 36.5%, P = 0.008). Additionally, the EF group was noted to have significantly smaller mean diameters of target artery (3.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.6 ± 1.1, P = 0.002) and vein (3.1 ± 0.7 vs. 3.6 ± 0.9, P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and vein larger than 3 mm were protective of EF (P < 0.05). The discriminating ability of this model was good (C-statistic = 0.731) and the model fits the data well (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.149). β-estimates of significant factors were used to create a point system and assign probabilities of EF. We developed a simple model that robustly predicts first-time AVF EF and suggests that anatomical and clinical factors directly affect early AVF outcomes. The risk score has the potential to be used in clinical settings to stratify risk and make

  4. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Feng R.; Meng, Ran; Huang, Chengquan; ...

    2016-10-29

    Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type) derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT) algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest) has yet to be assessed. Here in this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24more » years) post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. Lastly, with the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.« less

  5. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Feng R.; Meng, Ran; Huang, Chengquan

    Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type) derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT) algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest) has yet to be assessed. Here in this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24more » years) post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. Lastly, with the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.« less

  6. Influence of lactic acid and post-treatment recovery time on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasuo; Miake, Kiyotaka; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lactic acid (LA) with and without organic material at various post-treatment recovery times on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). LA decreased Lm numbers; however, the effect was remarkably attenuated by the presence of organic matter. Five strains of Lm were treated with LA and the listericidal effects were compared. The effect of LA varied depending on the strain, with ≥3.0% (w/w) LA required to kill the Lm strains in a short time. The heat resistance of Lm treated with LA was examined with respect to the time interval between the acid treatment and the subsequent manufacturing step. The heat resistance of Lm was shown to significantly increase during the post-treatment period. Heat tolerance (D value) increased up to 3.4-fold compared with the non-treated control bacteria. RNA sequencing and RT-PCR analyses suggested that several stress chaperones, proteins controlled by RecA and associated with high-temperature survival, were involved in the mechanism of enhanced heat resistance. These results are applicable to manufacturers when LA and heat treatment methods are utilized for the effective control of Lm in foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Time Allocated to Mathematics in Post-Primary Schools in Ireland: Are We in Double Trouble?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Niamh; Prendergast, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics educators and legislators worldwide have begun placing a greater emphasis on teaching mathematics for understanding and through the use of real-life applications. Revised curricula have led to the time allocated to mathematics in effected countries being scrutinised. This has resulted in policy-makers and educationalists worldwide…

  8. Orchestrating Organizational Change in One Traditional Post-Secondary Institution in the Midst of Trying Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    American higher education finds itself in a veritable upheaval as it attempts to respond to shifting social, economic, and political times. Raising tuition, cutting or consolidating programs, furloughing staff and faculty, drawing down endowments, and capping enrollments are common responses by public and private institutions. This qualitative…

  9. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); hide

    2015-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  10. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  11. The Best of Times, the Worst of Times: Rising Standards and Declining Staff Qualifications in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Low pay, meager benefits, poor morale, and high turnover impact the daily experience of many early childhood educators in the United States. While public spending in early childhood education has substantially increased in recent years, it has mainly fueled expansion, not quality enhancement to help programs attract, compensate, and retain…

  12. Towards a High-resolution Time Scale for the Early Devonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekkers, M. J.; da Silva, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution time scales are crucial to understand Earth's history in detail. The construction of a robust geological time scale, however, inevitably becomes increasingly harder further back in time. Uncertainties associated with anchor radiometric ages increase in size, not speaking of the mere presence of suitable datable strata. However, durations of stages can be tightly constrained by making use of cyclic expressions in sediments, an approach that revolutionized the Cenozoic time scale. When precisely determined durations are stitched together, ultimately, a very precise time scale is the result. For the Mesozoic and Paleozoic an astronomical solution as a tuning target is not available but the dominant periods of eccentricity, obliquity and precession are reasonably well constrained for the entire Phanerozoic which enables their detection by means of spectral analysis. Eccentricity is time-invariant and is used as the prime building block. Here we focus on the Early Devonian, on its lowermost three stages: the Lochkovian, Pragian and Emsian. The uncertainties on the Devonian stage boundaries are currently in the order of several millions of years. The preservation of climatic cycles in diagenetically or even anchimetamorphically affected successions, however, is essential. The fit of spectral peak ratios with those calculated for orbital cycles, is classically used as a strong argument for a preserved climatic signal. Here we use primarily the low field magnetic susceptibility (MS) as proxy parameter, supported by gamma-ray spectrometry to test for consistency. Continuous Wavelet Transform, Evolutive Harmonic Analysis, Multitaper Method, and Average Spectral Misfit are used to reach an optimal astronomical interpretation. We report on classic Early Devonian sections from the Czech Republic: the Pozar-CS (Lochkovian and Pragian), Pod Barrandovem (Pragian and Lower Emsian), and Zlichov (Middle-Upper Emsian). Also a Middle-Upper Emsian section from the US

  13. Evaluating the Real-time and Offline Performance of the Virtual Seismologist Earthquake Early Warning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, G.; Fischer, M.; Heaton, T.; Wiemer, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) algorithm is a Bayesian approach to regional, network-based earthquake early warning (EEW). Bayes' theorem as applied in the VS algorithm states that the most probable source estimates at any given time is a combination of contributions from relatively static prior information that does not change over the timescale of earthquake rupture and a likelihood function that evolves with time to take into account incoming pick and amplitude observations from the on-going earthquake. Potentially useful types of prior information include network topology or station health status, regional hazard maps, earthquake forecasts, and the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship. The VS codes provide magnitude and location estimates once picks are available at 4 stations; these source estimates are subsequently updated each second. The algorithm predicts the geographical distribution of peak ground acceleration and velocity using the estimated magnitude and location and appropriate ground motion prediction equations; the peak ground motion estimates are also updated each second. Implementation of the VS algorithm in California and Switzerland is funded by the Seismic Early Warning for Europe (SAFER) project. The VS method is one of three EEW algorithms whose real-time performance is being evaluated and tested by the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) EEW project. A crucial component of operational EEW algorithms is the ability to distinguish between noise and earthquake-related signals in real-time. We discuss various empirical approaches that allow the VS algorithm to operate in the presence of noise. Real-time operation of the VS codes at the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) began in July 2008. On average, the VS algorithm provides initial magnitude, location, origin time, and ground motion distribution estimates within 17 seconds of the earthquake origin time. These initial estimate times are dominated by the time for 4

  14. Statistical process control: A feasibility study of the application of time-series measurement in early neurorehabilitation after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Gabriela; Schult, Marie-Louise; Bartfai, Aniko; Elg, Mattias

    2017-01-31

    Progress in early cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury is uneven and unpredictable, and thus the evaluation of rehabilitation is complex. The use of time-series measurements is susceptible to statistical change due to process variation. To evaluate the feasibility of using a time-series method, statistical process control, in early cognitive rehabilitation. Participants were 27 patients with acquired brain injury undergoing interdisciplinary rehabilitation of attention within 4 months post-injury. The outcome measure, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, was analysed using statistical process control. Statistical process control identifies if and when change occurs in the process according to 3 patterns: rapid, steady or stationary performers. The statistical process control method was adjusted, in terms of constructing the baseline and the total number of measurement points, in order to measure a process in change. Statistical process control methodology is feasible for use in early cognitive rehabilitation, since it provides information about change in a process, thus enabling adjustment of the individual treatment response. Together with the results indicating discernible subgroups that respond differently to rehabilitation, statistical process control could be a valid tool in clinical decision-making. This study is a starting-point in understanding the rehabilitation process using a real-time-measurements approach.

  15. Group-Based Modeling of Time Spent in Structured Activity Trajectories from Middle Childhood into Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated trajectories of time spent in structured activities from middle childhood to early adolescence by using data from the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care. We used latent class growth analyses and identified five trajectories (stable low, increasing high, decreasing low,…

  16. Deep brain stimulation effects in dystonia: time course of electrophysiological changes in early treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruge, Diane; Tisch, Stephen; Hariz, Marwan I; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Bhatia, Kailash P; Quinn, Niall P; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Limousin, Patricia; Rothwell, John C

    2011-08-15

    Deep brain stimulation to the internal globus pallidus is an effective treatment for primary dystonia. The optimal clinical effect often occurs only weeks to months after starting stimulation. To better understand the underlying electrophysiological changes in this period, we assessed longitudinally 2 pathophysiological markers of dystonia in patients prior to and in the early treatment period (1, 3, 6 months) after deep brain stimulation surgery. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to track changes in short-latency intracortical inhibition, a measure of excitability of GABA(A) -ergic corticocortical connections and long-term potentiation-like synaptic plasticity (as a response to paired associative stimulation). Deep brain stimulation remained on for the duration of the study. Prior to surgery, inhibition was reduced and plasticity increased in patients compared with healthy controls. Following surgery and commencement of deep brain stimulation, short-latency intracortical inhibition increased toward normal levels over the following months with the same monotonic time course as the patients' clinical benefit. In contrast, synaptic plasticity changed rapidly, following a nonmonotonic time course: it was absent early (1 month) after surgery, and then over the following months increased toward levels observed in healthy individuals. We postulate that before surgery preexisting high levels of plasticity form strong memories of dystonic movement patterns. When deep brain stimulation is turned on, it disrupts abnormal basal ganglia signals, resulting in the absent response to paired associative stimulation at 1 month. Clinical benefit is delayed because engrams of abnormal movement persist and take time to normalize. Our observations suggest that plasticity may be a driver of long-term therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation in dystonia. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. A real-time prediction model for post-irradiation malignant cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Lo, W-C; Cheng, P-W; Shueng, P-W; Hsieh, C-H; Chang, Y-L; Liao, L-J

    2018-04-01

    To establish a real-time predictive scoring model based on sonographic characteristics for identifying malignant cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in cancer patients after neck irradiation. One-hundred forty-four irradiation-treated patients underwent ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirations (USgFNAs), and the resultant data were used to construct a real-time and computerised predictive scoring model. This scoring system was further compared with our previously proposed prediction model. A predictive scoring model, 1.35 × (L axis) + 2.03 × (S axis) + 2.27 × (margin) + 1.48 × (echogenic hilum) + 3.7, was generated by stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis. Neck LNs were considered to be malignant when the score was ≥ 7, corresponding to a sensitivity of 85.5%, specificity of 79.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 82.3%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 83.1%, and overall accuracy of 82.6%. When this new model and the original model were compared, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (c-statistic) were 0.89 and 0.81, respectively (P < .05). A real-time sonographic predictive scoring model was constructed to provide prompt and reliable guidance for USgFNA biopsies to manage cervical LNs after neck irradiation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Understanding time use, stress and recovery practices among early career physicians: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Cranley, Nicole M; Cunningham, Christopher J L; Panda, Mukta

    2016-01-01

    Early career physicians (ECPs) work an average of 80 h per week, and at times may approach 24 continuous hours working. These hours, combined with a stressful work environment, and an inability to physically and psychologically detach from work make ECPs likely to experience burnout and other negative health-related consequences. This study provides insight into the stress and recovery challenges faced by ECPs in a typical hospital environment. Rich qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from participants regarding daily time usage, and recovery practices and needs. ECPs report longer working hours, less leisure time and shorter amounts of sleep than average working adults. ECPs do not participate in many resource-replenishing activities while at work, and when out of work, they tend to participate in more passive than active forms of recovery. Resource-draining activities were identified as requiring much of ECP's nonwork time, further limiting recovery. The prevention of burnout and other negative health consequences among ECPs requires the building of a workplace and educational culture that supports regular resource replenishment. This includes the need for a curriculum of medical education that teaches ECPs to identify the signs of stress and recovery needs, and how to effectively address these needs.

  19. [Timing and effectiveness of Brenner's IPT cognitive training in early psychosis. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Borriello, Adriana; Balbi, Andrea; Menichincheri, Renato Maria; Mirabella, Fiorino

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the outcome of cognitive training as part of Brenner's Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT) in two groups of individuals with a schizophrenic spectrum disorder (F20-F24 ICD-10). 28 participants were divided into either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group was composed of 13 individuals (46%) with a mean age of 21.2 years and a mean duration of illness (since their first episode of psychosis FEP) of 15.6 months. The control group included 15 individuals (54%) with a mean age of 25.6 years and a mean duration of illness of 74.4 months (beyond the critical period). Participants underwent an assessment of cognitive functioning which focused on attention, memory, executive functioning and cognitive flexibility as measured by the WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Each individual was tested pre- and 6-month post-intervention. The original IPT method was altered by reducing the frequency of sessions to once a week and by limiting our sessions to 2-3 individuals per group. Cognitive flexibility (p<0.01) and long-term memory (p<0.01) improved only in the experimental group. These former skills worsened in the control group (p<0.01). Selective attention, short-term memory and verbal fluency improved in both groups (from p<0.05 to p<0.01). IPT cognitive training, when delivered in the early stages of psychosis (within 18 months from FEP), seems to be particularly effective in improving cognitive flexibility and long-term memory. We did not see improvements in those who had a longer duration of illness who also underwent the same treatment. Cognitive flexibility is linked to clinical insight and social cognition. Therefore, improving this function may lead to a better outcome for patients.

  20. Evaluation of a protocol-based intervention to promote timely switching from intravenous to oral paracetamol for post-operative pain management: an interrupted time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Nirmeen; Dawoud, Dalia; Alansary, Adel; Hounsome, Natalia; Baines, Darrin

    2015-12-01

    Timely switching from intravenous to oral therapy ensures optimized treatment and efficient use of health care resources. Intravenous (IV) paracetamol is widely used for post-operative pain management but not always switched to the oral form in a timely manner, leading to unnecessary increase in expenditure. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted intervention to promote timely switching from the IV to oral form in the post-operative setting. An evidence-based prescribing protocol was designed and implemented by the clinical pharmacy team in a single district general hospital in Egypt. The protocol specified the criteria for appropriate prescribing of IV paracetamol. Doctors were provided with information and educational sessions prior to implementation. A prospective, quasi-experimental study was undertaken to evaluate its impact on IV paracetamol utilization and costs. Data on monthly utilization and costs were recorded for 12 months before and after implementation (January 2012 to December 2013). Data were analysed using interrupted time series analysis. Prior to implementation, in 2012, total spending on IV paracetamol was 674 154.00 Egyptian Pounds (L.E.) ($23,668.00). There was a non-significant (P > 0.05) downward trend in utilization (-32 ampoules per month) and costs [reduction of 632 L.E. ($222) per month]. Following implementation, immediate decrease in utilization and costs (P < 0.05) and a trend change over the follow-up period were observed. Average monthly reduction was 26% (95% CI: 24% to 28%, P < 0.001). A multifaceted, protocol-based intervention to ensure timely switching from IV-to-oral paracetamol achieved significant reduction in utilization and cost of IV paracetamol in the first 5 months of its implementation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Developing the musical brain to boost early pre-verbal, communication and listening skills: The implications for musicality development pre- and post-cochlear implantation. It is not just about Nursery Rhymes!

    PubMed

    Rocca, Christine

    2015-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that musical activities can enhance the listening brain and develop higher cognitive functions, including linguistic abilities. The BabyBeats™ early intervention resource, a musical habilitation resource, was designed to improve early parent interaction, early listening behaviour, early communication skills, and social and emotional development, pre- and post-implantation. A feasibility study was conducted on families from the UK. There were two groups: seven babies <12 months old, with a varying degree of severe to profound hearing loss and eight infants who had been implanted with a cochlear implant and were now >12 months old. Audit data were collected based on a simple parental and professional feedback questionnaire, completed at the end of an 8-month trial. Parental feedback was positive and ideas from the resource were carried over into the family's everyday routines. Parents and professionals observed increased vocalisation, attention, and anticipation of the activities in their babies. Parents also reported increased confidence in singing, moving, and playing with their baby. These preliminary outcomes suggest that this type of intervention may lead to earlier development of communication and listening skills when used in combination with appropriate amplification. The next steps will be to include more infants, match the groups regarding age and developmental stage, to observe the infants for a longer period and to compare outcomes over time.

  2. A pilot randomised clinical trial of physiotherapy (manual therapy, exercise, and education) for early-onset hip osteoarthritis post-hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Joanne; Moore, Kate; Fransen, Marlene; Russell, Trevor; Freke, Matthew; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of hip arthroscopy for hip pain, there is no level 1 evidence to support physiotherapy rehabilitation programs following this procedure. The aims of this study were to determine (i) what is the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating a targeted physiotherapy intervention for early-onset hip osteoarthritis (OA) post-hip arthroscopy? and (ii) what are the within-group treatment effects of the physiotherapy intervention and a health-education control group? This study was a pilot single-blind RCT conducted in a private physiotherapy clinic in Hobart, Australia. Patients included 17 volunteers (nine women; age 32 ± 8 years; body mass index = 25.6 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 ) who were recruited 4-14 months post-hip arthroscopy, with chondropathy and/or labral pathology at the time of surgery. Interventions included a physiotherapy treatment program that was semi-standardised and consisted of (i) manual therapy; (ii) hip strengthening and functional retraining; and (iii) health education. Control treatment encompassed individualised health education sessions. The primary outcome measure was feasibility, which was reported as percentage of eligible participants enrolled, adherence with the intervention, and losses to follow-up. The research process was evaluated using interviews, and an estimated sample size for a definitive study is offered. Secondary outcomes included the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and the International Hip Outcome Tool (IHOT-33) patient-reported outcomes. Seventeen out of 48 eligible patients (35%) were randomised. Adherence to the intervention was 100%, with no losses to follow-up. The estimated sample size for a full-scale RCT was 142 patients. The within-group (95% confidence intervals) change scores for the physiotherapy group were HOOS-Symptoms 6 points (-4 to 16); HOOS-Pain 10 points (-2 to 22); HOOS-Activity of Daily Living 8 points (0 to 16); HOOS-Sport 3 points

  3. Behavioral Problems and Emotional Difficulties at Children and Early Adolescents of the Veterans of War with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Selimbasic, Zihnet; Sinanovic, Osman; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Hamidovic, Jasmin

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral problems and emotional difficulties at children of the veterans of war with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been researched entirely. In our country, which has a lot of persons suffering from some psychological traumas, this trauma seems to continue. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure, manifestations of behavioral problems and emotional difficulties at children and early adolescents, whose fathers were the veterans of war demonstrating post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The analyzed group comprised 120 school age children (10-15 years of age), whose parents/fathers were the veterans of war. The children were divided into two groups, and each group into the following two age sub-groups: 10-12 (children) and 13-15 (early adolescents) according to PTSD presence at their fathers - veterans of war. PTSD symptoms at fathers, veterans of war, were assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Bosnia and Herzegovina version and MKB-10 - audit of criteria. To assess the behavioral problems of children, the Child Behavior Checklist for parents was used, and to evaluate the neuroticism at children Hanes-Scale of neuroticism-extraversion was used while the depression level was evaluated using the Depression self-rating scale (DSRS). To analyze the obtained results, SPSS 17 program was used. The value p <0. 05 is considered significant. Children of fathers, the veterans of war, demonstrating the PTSD symptoms show more problems in activity, social and school conduct as well as in symptoms of behavioral problems compared to the children whose fathers do not demonstrate the PTSD symptoms (p<0. 001). Children of the war veterans demonstrating the symptoms of the post-traumatic stress disorder show significant difference at neuroticism sub-scales (p<0.001). Negative correlation between PTSD and activity, social and school conduct has been determined (p <0. 01), while positive correlation was determined between PTSD of war veterans

  4. Early intervention services for psychosis and time until application for disability income support: a survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Terry; Oyewumi, Kola; Archie, Suzanne; Lawson, J Stuart; Nandlal, Joan; Conrad, Gretchen

    2012-10-01

    Ensuring the financial security of individuals recovering from first episode psychosis is imperative, but disability income programs can be powerful disincentives to employment, compromising the social and occupational aspects of recovery. Survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to examine the rate at which individuals served by early intervention for psychosis (EIP) services apply for government disability income benefits and factors that predict rate of application. Health records for 558 individuals served by EIP programs were reviewed. Within the first year of receiving services 30% will make application for disability income; 60% will do so by 5 years. Rate of application is predicted by rate of hospital admission, financial status and engagement in productivity roles at the time of entry to EIP service. The findings suggest the need to examine the extent to which the recovery goals of EI services are undermined by early application for government income support. They also suggest the need to develop best practice guidelines related to ensuring the economic security of individuals served.

  5. The Identification of Hail Storms in the Early Stage Using Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Shi, Jinyu; Hou, Jinyi; Hu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of hail storms and cumulonimbus storms in China from 2005 to 2016. Ten features are proposed to identify storm cells that can produce hail, especially in the early stage of hail formation. These features describe hail storms based on three factors: the height and thickness of the cell core, the radar echo intensity, and the overhang structure and the horizontal reflectivity gradient. The 10 features are transformed into two-dimensional comprehensive features by principal component analysis (PCA). The two comprehensive features are named the volume measurement comprehensive feature (VMCF) and the height-gradient comprehensive feature (HGCF). Through an analysis of 49 hail cases and 35 heavy rainfall cases with S-band radar data, the time series exhibit a distinct increase in VMCF or HGCF values in the early stage of a hail storm. However, the VMCF and HGCF values of heavy rainfall events remain relatively stable throughout the storm life cycle. An experiment involving real-storm events, including 31 hail cases and 33 heavy rainfall cases, indicated that the probability of detection of hail storms was 93.33% and the false alarm ratio was 15.66%. In the cases that could be successfully identified as hail storms, 80.00% were detected within 18 min of reaching a hail storm reflectivity of 40 dBZ.

  6. Assessing Very Early Infant Diagnosis Turnaround Times: Findings from a Birth Testing Pilot in Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Heather J.; Mokone, Majoalane; Tukei, Vincent J.; Nchephe, Matsepeli; Phalatse, Mamakhetha; Tiam, Appolinaire; Guay, Laura; Mofenson, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Very early infant diagnosis (VEID) (testing within two weeks of life), combined with rapid treatment initiation, could reduce early infant mortality. Our study evaluated turnaround time (TAT) to receipt of infants' HIV test results and ART initiation if HIV-infected, with and without birth testing availability. Data from facility records and national databases were collected for 12 facilities offering VEID, as part of an observational prospective cohort study, and 10 noncohort facilities. HIV-exposed infants born in January–June 2016 and any cohort infant diagnosed as HIV-infected at birth or six weeks were included. The median TAT from blood draw to caregiver result receipt was 76.5 days at birth and 63 and 70 days at six weeks at cohort and noncohort facilities, respectively. HIV-exposed infants tested at birth were approximately one month younger when their caregivers received results versus those tested at six weeks. Infants diagnosed at birth initiated ART about two months earlier (median 6.4 weeks old) than those identified at six weeks (median 14.8 weeks). However, the long TAT for testing at both birth and six weeks illustrates the prolonged process for specimen transport and result return that could compromise the effectiveness of adding VEID to existing overburdened EID systems. PMID:29410914

  7. Poor sleep quality predicts deficient emotion information processing over time in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2011-11-01

    There is deepening understanding of the effects of sleep on emotional information processing. Emotion information processing is a key aspect of social competence, which undergoes important maturational and developmental changes in adolescence; however, most research in this area has focused on adults. Our aim was to test the links between sleep and emotion information processing during early adolescence. Sleep and facial information processing were assessed objectively during 3 assessment waves, separated by 1-year lags. Data were obtained in natural environments-sleep was assessed in home settings, and facial information processing was assessed at school. 94 healthy children (53 girls, 41 boys), aged 10 years at Time 1. N/A. Facial information processing was tested under neutral (gender identification) and emotional (emotional expression identification) conditions. Sleep was assessed in home settings using actigraphy for 7 nights at each assessment wave. Waking > 5 min was considered a night awakening. Using multilevel modeling, elevated night awakenings and decreased sleep efficiency significantly predicted poor performance only in the emotional information processing condition (e.g., b = -1.79, SD = 0.52, confidence interval: lower boundary = -2.82, upper boundary = -0.076, t(416.94) = -3.42, P = 0.001). Poor sleep quality is associated with compromised emotional information processing during early adolescence, a sensitive period in socio-emotional development.

  8. Factors associated with changes in leisure time physical activity during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José J

    2013-05-01

    To identify key factors involved in modifying leisure time physical activity (LTPA) during early pregnancy. A prospective study was conducted of 1175 pregnant women who attended a scheduled visit at Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain, at 20-22 weeks of pregnancy. The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect data regarding participation in any LTPA or physical activity performed according to society recommendations during early pregnancy and in the year before pregnancy. A polytomous regression model was used to identify factors associated with LTPA. Approximately 20.0% of the women did not engage in any LTPA, and 68.0% did not achieve the recommendations for exercise, either before or during pregnancy. Desirable changes related to performing any LTPA or the society recommendations for LTPA during pregnancy were associated with university level of education (aOR, 3.64 [95% CI, 1.54-8.56] and aOR, 1.75 [95% CI, 0.67-4.57], respectively) and smoking cessation at pregnancy (aOR, 2.05 [95% CI, 0.97-4.35] and aOR, 4.83 [95% CI, 1.31-17.83], respectively). Few women achieved the minimum recommendations for exercise before or during pregnancy. Nevertheless, adoption of healthy lifestyle choices during pregnancy seemed to promote other healthy habits, such as participation in LTPA. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Timing of susceptibility to post-fire debris flows in the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraff, Jerome V.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Watersheds recently burned by wildfires can have an increased susceptibility to debris flow, although little is known about how long this susceptibility persists, and how it changes over time. We here use a compilation of 75 debris-flow response and fire-ignition dates, vegetation and bedrock class, rainfall regime, and initiation process from throughout the western U.S. to address these issues. The great majority (85 percent) of debris flows occurred within the first 12 months following wildfire, with 71 percent within the first six months. Seven percent of the debris flows occurred between 1 and 1.5 years after a fire, or during the second rainy season to impact an area. Within the first 1.5 years following fires, all but one of the debris flows initiated through runoff-dominated processes, and debris flows occurred in similar proportions in forested and non-forested landscapes. Geologic materials affected how long debris-flow activity persisted, and the timing of debris flows varied within different rainfall regimes. A second, later period of increased debris flow susceptibility between 2.2 and 10 years after fires is indicated by the remaining 8 percent of events, which occurred primarily in forested terrains and initiated largely through landslide processes. The short time period between fire and debris-flow response within the first 1.5 years after ignition, and the longer-term response between 2.2 and 10 years after fire, demonstrate the necessity of both rapid and long-term reactions by land managers and emergency-response agencies to mitigate hazards from debris flows from recently burned areas in the western U.S.

  10. Bayesian estimation of post-Messinian divergence times in Balearic Island lizards.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P; Terrasa, B; Pérez-Mellado, V; Castro, J A; Hoskisson, P A; Picornell, A; Ramon, M M

    2008-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and timings of major cladogenesis events are investigated in the Balearic Island lizards Podarcislilfordi and P.pityusensis using 2675bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Partitioned Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analyses provided a well-resolved phylogeny with high node-support values. Bayesian MCMC estimation of node dates was investigated by comparing means of posterior distributions from different subsets of the sequence against the most robust analysis which used multiple partitions and allowed for rate heterogeneity among branches under a rate-drift model. Evolutionary rates were systematically underestimated and thus divergence times overestimated when sequences containing lower numbers of variable sites were used (based on ingroup node constraints). The following analyses allowed the best recovery of node times under the constant-rate (i.e., perfect clock) model: (i) all cytochrome b sequence (partitioned by codon position), (ii) cytochrome b (codon position 3 alone), (iii) NADH dehydrogenase (subunits 1 and 2; partitioned by codon position), (iv) cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase sequence together (six gene-codon partitions), (v) all unpartitioned sequence, (vi) a full multipartition analysis (nine partitions). Of these, only (iv) and (vi) performed well under the rate-drift model. These findings have significant implications for dating of recent divergence times in other taxa. The earliest P.lilfordi cladogenesis event (divergence of Menorcan populations), occurred before the end of the Pliocene, some 2.6Ma. Subsequent events led to a West Mallorcan lineage (2.0Ma ago), followed 1.2Ma ago by divergence of populations from the southern part of the Cabrera archipelago from a widely-distributed group from north Cabrera, northern and southern Mallorcan islets. Divergence within P.pityusensis is more recent with the main Ibiza and Formentera clades sharing a common ancestor at about 1.0Ma ago. Climatic and sea level

  11. Optimal Timing for Early Excision in a Deep Partial Thickness Porcine Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Mc Clain, Steve; Raut, Vivek; Singer, Adam J

    Many deep partial thickness burns require more than 3 weeks to heal resulting in disfiguring and dysfunctional scarring. Early excision of the eschar has been shown to improve outcomes in deep burns; however, the optimal timing of the excision remains controversial. We compared wound healing and scarring of deep partial thickness burns that were excised at different time points in a porcine model. Deep partial thickness burns (2.5 by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of six anesthetized pigs using a previously validated model. The burns were randomly assigned to excision at days 2, 4, or 7 using an electric dermatome. Full thickness 4-mm punch biopsies were obtained at several time points for determination of re-epithelialization and at day 28 for determination of scar depth. Digital imaging was used to calculate percentage wound contraction at day 28. There were no statistically significant differences in wound re-epithelialization at any of the studied time points. Scar depth and percentage wound contraction were also similar among the wounds excised at 2, 4, and 7 days (4.4 ± 1.1 mm vs 3.9 ± 1.1 mm vs 4.1 ± 1.2 mm and 52.9 ± 17.9% vs 52.6 ± 15.6% vs 52.5 ± 13.8%, respectively). Timing of eschar excision (at 2, 4, or 7 days) does not affect the rates of re-epithelialization and scarring in a deep partial thickness porcine burn model. Timing of eschar excision may not change outcomes if performed within the first 2 to 7 days after injury.

  12. Near Real-Time Georeference of Umanned Aerial Vehicle Images for Post-Earthquake Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Wang, X.; Dou, A.; Yuan, X.; Ding, L.; Ding, X.

    2018-04-01

    The rapid collection of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing images plays an important role in the fast submitting disaster information and the monitored serious damaged objects after the earthquake. However, for hundreds of UAV images collected in one flight sortie, the traditional data processing methods are image stitching and three-dimensional reconstruction, which take one to several hours, and affect the speed of disaster response. If the manual searching method is employed, we will spend much more time to select the images and the find images do not have spatial reference. Therefore, a near-real-time rapid georeference method for UAV remote sensing disaster data is proposed in this paper. The UAV images are achieved georeference combined with the position and attitude data collected by UAV flight control system, and the georeferenced data is organized by means of world file which is developed by ESRI. The C # language is adopted to compile the UAV images rapid georeference software, combined with Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). The result shows that it can realize rapid georeference of remote sensing disaster images for up to one thousand UAV images within one minute, and meets the demand of rapid disaster response, which is of great value in disaster emergency application.

  13. Time-resolved optical measurements of the post-detonation combustion of aluminized explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Joel R.; Miller, J. Scott; Gump, Jared C.; Pangilinan, G. I.

    2006-06-01

    The dynamic observation and characterization of light emission following the detonation and subsequent combustion of an aluminized explosive is described. The temporal, spatial, and spectral specificity of the light emission are achieved using a combination of optical diagnostics. Aluminum and aluminum monoxide emission peaks are monitored as a function of time and space using streak camera based spectroscopy in a number of light collection configurations. Peak areas of selected aluminum containing species are tracked as a function of time to ascertain the relative kinetics (growth and decay of emitting species) during the energetic event. At the chosen streak camera sensitivity, aluminum emission is observed for 10μs following the detonation of a confined 20g charge of PBXN-113, while aluminum monoxide emission persists longer than 20μs. A broadband optical emission gauge, shock velocity gauge, and fast digital framing camera are used as supplemental optical diagnostics. In-line, collimated detection is determined to be the optimum light collection geometry because it is independent of distance between the optics and the explosive charge. The chosen optical configuration also promotes a constant cylindrical collection volume that should facilitate future modeling efforts.

  14. Performance Analysis of a Citywide Real-time Landslide Early Warning System in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Young; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kang, Sinhang; Lee, Deuk-hwan; Nedumpallile Vasu, Nikhil

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall-induced landslide has been one of the major disasters in Korea since the beginning of 21st century when the global climate change started to give rise to the growth of the magnitude and frequency of extreme precipitation events. In order to mitigate the increasing damage to properties and loss of lives and to provide an effective tool for public officials to manage the landslide disasters, a real-time landslide early warning system with an advanced concept has been developed by taking into account for Busan, the second largest metropolitan city in Korea, as an operational test-bed. The system provides with warning information based on a five-level alert scheme (Normal, Attention, Watch, Alert, and Emergency) using the forecasted/observed rainfall data or the data obtained from ground monitoring (volumetric water content and matric suction). The alert levels are determined by applying seven different thresholds in a step-wise manner following a decision tree. In the pursuit of improved reliability of an early warning level assigned to a specific area, the system makes assessments repetitively using the thresholds of different theoretical backgrounds including statistical(empirical), physically-based, and mathematical analyses as well as direct measurement-based approaches. By mapping the distribution of the five early warning levels determined independently for each of tens of millions grids covering the entire mountainous area of Busan, the regional-scale system can also provide with the early warning information for a specific local area. The fact that the highest warning level is determined by using a concept of a numerically-modelled potential debris-flow risk is another distinctive feature of the system. This study tested the system performance by applying it for four previous rainy seasons in order to validate the operational applicability. During the rainy seasons of 2009, 2011, and 2014, the number of landslides recorded throughout Busan's territory

  15. Effect of post-prandial posture on orocecal transit time and digestion of milk lactose in humans.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Naoko; Sone, Yoshiaki; Tokura, Hiromi

    2004-05-01

    We examined the effect of post-prandial body posture on orocecal transit time and absorption of milk lactose using the breath hydrogen test. In this experiment, subjects ingested a cup of commercially available milk to which we had added a small amount of lactosucrose (an indigestible trisaccharide), and then they lay on their backs or sat on a chair for the first 4 hr (from 08:00 to 12:00). After four hours lying or sitting, they remained sedentary on a sofa for the second six hr (from 12:00 to 18:00). Participants' end alveolar breath samples were collected every 15 min from 08:00 to 12:30, then every 30 min from 13:00 to 18:00. The experiment was conducted on two consecutive days using a randomized, crossover study design. Examination showed that the orocecal transit time of the oligosaccharides (lactosucrose and milk lactose) under the post-prandial supine condition was significantly longer than that under the sitting condition. In addition, the amount of breath hydrogen excretion under the supine condition was significantly lower than under the sitting condition, indicating that the unabsorbed milk lactose moved into cecum under the supine condition is smaller than that under the sitting condition. These findings provide evidence that postprandial supine posture works more beneficially to digest and absorb milk lactose when compared to the sitting posture.

  16. Links between sex-typed time use in middle childhood and gender development in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    McHale, Susan M; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Whiteman, Shawn; Crouter, Ann C

    2004-09-01

    The authors studied sex-typing in the kinds (e.g., sports, handicrafts) and social contexts (same- vs. other-sex companions) of children's free time activities, and the links between sex-typed activities and gender development over 2 years. Participants were 200 White, working- and middle-class children (103 girls, 97 boys; mean age = 10.86 years). In annual home interviews, children rated their self-esteem, gender role attitudes and sex-typed personality qualities, academic interests, and school grades. During 7 nightly phone interviews each year, children reported on their activities. Boys were more sex-typed than girls in their peer activities, and children were least sex-typed in their activities with siblings. Sex-typed activities in middle childhood predicted individual differences in gender development in early adolescence. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  17. Novel scenarios of early animal evolution--is it time to rewrite textbooks?

    PubMed

    Dohrmann, Martin; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-09-01

    Understanding how important phenotypic, developmental, and genomic features of animals originated and evolved is essential for many fields of biological research, but such understanding depends on robust hypotheses about the phylogenetic interrelationships of the higher taxa to which the studied species belong. Molecular approaches to phylogenetics have proven able to revolutionize our knowledge of organismal evolution. However, with respect to the deepest splits in the metazoan Tree of Life-the relationships between Bilateria and the four non-bilaterian phyla (Porifera, Placozoa, Ctenophora, and Cnidaria)-no consensus has been reached yet, since a number of different, often contradictory, hypotheses with sometimes spectacular implications have been proposed in recent years. Here, we review the recent literature on the topic and contrast it with more classical perceptions based on analyses of morphological characters. We conclude that the time is not yet ripe to rewrite zoological textbooks and advocate a conservative approach when it comes to developing scenarios of the early evolution of animals.

  18. Hip Dislocation and Dystocia in Early Medieval Times: Possible Evidence of Labor Maneuver.

    PubMed

    Malgosa, Assumpció; Carrascal, Susana; Piga, Giampaolo; Isidro, Albert

    2016-12-01

    In ancient times, maternal mortality would occur frequently, particularly during labor. Evidence of dystocia resulting in the death of a pregnant woman is very infrequent in paleopathologic literature, with only a few cases being demonstrated. In the early medieval site of Casserres, the skeleton of a young woman with a fetus in the pelvic region was found. Some abnormal findings of the maternal skeleton were evaluated, including a sacral anomaly, femoral head wound, the rare position of the lower left limb with the femoral head dislodged anteriorly and cephalad from the socket, and a fibular fracture. Examining the anomalies all together, a case of anterior hip dislocation related to a McRoberts-like maneuver performed during labor is a plausible explanation of the findings.

  19. Non-stationary time series modeling on caterpillars pest of palm oil for early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyowati, Susi; Nugraha, Rida F.; Mukhaiyar, Utriweni

    2015-12-01

    The oil palm production has an important role for the plantation and economic sector in Indonesia. One of the important problems in the cultivation of oil palm plantation is pests which causes damage to the quality of fruits. The caterpillar pest which feed palm tree's leaves will cause decline in quality of palm oil production. Early warning system is needed to minimize losses due to this pest. Here, we applied non-stationary time series modeling, especially the family of autoregressive models to predict the number of pests based on its historical data. We realized that there is some uniqueness of these pests data, i.e. the spike value that occur almost periodically. Through some simulations and case study, we obtain that the selection of constant factor has a significance influence to the model so that it can shoot the spikes value precisely.

  20. Prospective evaluation of intra-operative quick parathyroid hormone assay as an early predictor of post thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ashwini C; Chand, Gyan; Sabaretnam, M; Mishra, Anjali; Agarwal, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amit; Verma, A K; Mishra, S K

    2016-10-01

    Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy is a major contributing factor in delayed hospital discharge and dissuading surgeons from day care thyroidectomy. We prospectively evaluated the utility of Intra-operative serum quick parathyroid hormone level measurement twenty minutes after total thyroidectomy in predicting post-operative hypocalcemia. Prospective longitudinal study which included patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for benign or malignant thyroid disorders at SGPGIMS, Lucknow, India from November 2013 to February 2015. Patients who received calcium prophylaxis were excluded from the study. Intraoperative serum quick PTH level measurements were done twenty minutes after resection of thyroid. Serum calcium levels were estimated preoperatively and on three consecutive post operative days. Calcium supplementation was started in patients with symptomatic hypocalcemia. The study included 100 patients with a mean age of 41 years, range 17-72 years. 48 patients had Euthyroid multinodular goitre, 10 patients grave's disease and 42 patients had differentiated thyroid cancer. Total thyroidectomy was performed in 88 patients, total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection in 12 patients. Post-operatively 23% patients experienced symptomatic hypocalcemia. The IOPTH level of 9 pmol/L, twenty minutes after total thyroidectomy, had the highest sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 83% respectively in predicting post-operative hypocalcemia. Parathyroid hormone assay twenty minutes after thyroidectomy is an accurate and reliable means of predicting clinically relevant hypocalcemia. Patients with PTH values greater than 9 pmol/L twenty minutes after thyroidectomy, can be safely discharged on the same postoperative day as the probability of life threatening hypocalcemia is unlikely. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Post-translational control of nitrate reductase activity responding to light and photosynthesis evolved already in the early vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Nemie-Feyissa, Dugassa; Królicka, Adriana; Førland, Nina; Hansen, Margarita; Heidari, Behzad; Lillo, Cathrine

    2013-05-01

    Regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) by reversible phosphorylation at a conserved motif is well established in higher plants, and enables regulation of NR in response to rapid fluctuations in light intensity. This regulation is not conserved in algae NR, and we wished to test the evolutionary origin of the regulatory mechanism by physiological examination of ancient land plants. Especially a member of the lycophytes is of interest since their NR is candidate for regulation by reversible phosphorylation based on sequence analysis. We compared Selaginella kraussiana, a member of the lycophytes and earliest vascular plants, with the angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana, and also tested the moss Physcomitrella patens. Interestingly, optimization of assay conditions revealed that S. kraussiana NR used NADH as an electron donor like A. thaliana, whereas P. patens NR activity depended on NADPH. Examination of light/darkness effects showed that S. kraussiana NR was rapidly regulated similar to A. thaliana NR when a differential (Mg(2+) contra EDTA) assay was used to reveal activity state of NR. This implies that already existing NR enzyme was post-translationally activated by light in both species. Light had a positive effect also on de novo synthesis of NR in S. kraussiana, which could be shown after the plants had been exposed to a prolonged dark period (7 days). Daily variations in NR activity were mainly caused by post-translational modifications. As for angiosperms, the post-translational light activation of NR in S. kraussiana was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1*1-dimethylurea (DCMU), an inhibitor of photosynthesis and stomata opening. Evolutionary, a post-translational control mechanism for NR have occurred before or in parallel with development of vascular tissue in land plants, and appears to be part of a complex mechanisms for coordination of CO2 and nitrogen metabolism in these plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimating time since infection in early homogeneous HIV-1 samples using a poisson model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The occurrence of a genetic bottleneck in HIV sexual or mother-to-infant transmission has been well documented. This results in a majority of new infections being homogeneous, i.e., initiated by a single genetic strain. Early after infection, prior to the onset of the host immune response, the viral population grows exponentially. In this simple setting, an approach for estimating evolutionary and demographic parameters based on comparison of diversity measures is a feasible alternative to the existing Bayesian methods (e.g., BEAST), which are instead based on the simulation of genealogies. Results We have devised a web tool that analyzes genetic diversity in acutely infected HIV-1 patients by comparing it to a model of neutral growth. More specifically, we consider a homogeneous infection (i.e., initiated by a unique genetic strain) prior to the onset of host-induced selection, where we can assume a random accumulation of mutations. Previously, we have shown that such a model successfully describes about 80% of sexual HIV-1 transmissions provided the samples are drawn early enough in the infection. Violation of the model is an indicator of either heterogeneous infections or the initiation of selection. Conclusions When the underlying assumptions of our model (homogeneous infection prior to selection and fast exponential growth) are met, we are under a very particular scenario for which we can use a forward approach (instead of backwards in time as provided by coalescent methods). This allows for more computationally efficient methods to derive the time since the most recent common ancestor. Furthermore, the tool performs statistical tests on the Hamming distance frequency distribution, and outputs summary statistics (mean of the best fitting Poisson distribution, goodness of fit p-value, etc). The tool runs within minutes and can readily accommodate the tens of thousands of sequences generated through new ultradeep pyrosequencing technologies. The tool

  3. Effects of post exposure bake temperature and exposure time on SU-8 nanopattern obtained by electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)<