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Sample records for early training years

  1. Early years neurosurgical training in the era of the European Working Time Directive.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Watkins, Laurence D; Kitchen, Neil D; Sethi, Huma

    2013-10-01

    The past decade has seen significant changes to the face of neurosurgical training in the United Kingdom, driven in part by an increasing focus on patient safety and the introduction of Modernising Medical Careers and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Recent reforms to neurosurgical training over the past few years have resulted in creation of an 8-year 'run-through' training programme. In this programme, early years (ST1 and ST2) trainees often lack dedicated time for elective theatre lists and outpatient clinics. Further, any time spent in theatre and clinics is often with different teams. Here we describe a training model for early years trainees at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, who are given the responsibilities traditionally associated with a more senior trainee including dedicated weekly theatre and clinic time under the supervision of a single consultant, in addition to out of hours experience. The advantages and considerations for implementing this model are discussed, including the benefit of guidance under a single consultant in the early stages of training, along with key educational concepts necessary for understanding its utility. We feel that this is an effective model for junior neurosurgical training in the EWTD era, expediting the trainee's development of key technical and non-technical skills, with potentially significant rewards for patient, trainee and trainer. National implementation of this model should be considered.

  2. EARLY TRAINING PROJECT. INTERIM REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAY, SUSAN W.; KLAUS, RUPERT A.

    THE EARLY TRAINING PROJECT ATTEMPTED TO IMPROVE THE INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING AND PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN THROUGH SPECIAL EXPERIENCES IN THE 15- OR 24-MONTHS PRECEDING FIRST GRADE AND IN THE FIRST YEAR OF SCHOOL. THE PROCEDURES OF THE PROJECT CONSISTED OF TWO TRAINING SEQUENCES. THE FIRST SEQUENCE INVOLVED TWO…

  3. Creativity: The Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett

    2016-01-01

    There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…

  4. Understanding Early Years Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

  5. Evidence of the preferential use of disease prototypes over case exemplars among early year one medical students prior to and following diagnostic training.

    PubMed

    Papa, Frank J; Li, Feiming

    2015-12-01

    Two core dual processing theory (DPT) System I constructs (Exemplars and Prototypes) were used to: 1) formulate a training exercise designed to improve diagnostic performance in year one medical students, and 2) explore whether any observed performance improvements were associated with preferential use of exemplars or prototypes. With IRB approval, 117 year one medical students participated in an acute chest pain diagnostic training exercise. A pre- and post-training test containing the same 27 case vignettes was used to determine if the subjects' diagnostic performance improved via training in both exemplars and prototypes. Exemplar and Prototype theory was also used to generate a unique typicality estimate for each case vignette. Because these estimates produce different performance predictions, differences in the subjects' observed performance would make it possible to infer whether subjects were preferentially using Exemplars or Prototypes. Pre- vs. post-training comparison revealed a significant performance improvement; t=14.04, p<0.001, Cohen's d=1.32. Pre-training, paired t-testing demonstrated that performance against the most typical vignettes>mid typical vignettes: t=4.94, p<0.001; and mid typical>least typical: t=5.16, p<0.001. Post-training, paired t-testing again demonstrated that performance against the most typical vignettes>mid typical: t=2.94, p<0.01; and mid typical>least typical: t=6.64, p<0.001. These findings are more consistent with the performance predictions generated via Prototype theory than Exemplar theory. DPT is useful in designing and evaluating the utility of new approaches to diagnostic training, and, investigating the cognitive factors driving diagnostic capabilities among early medical students.

  6. Early Training Estimation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    first year efforts in CTES development were Cecil Wakelin, Gavin Livingstone, Ray Walsh« Peter Weddle, David Herlihy, Laurel Brown, Drs. Paul Ronco...and Society, 1980, pp. 1067-1974. David , J., Price, J. Successful communication in full scale engineering development statements of work. Air Force...1980, U.S. Army Engineering Laboratory. Shrier , S. Algorithms for system design. Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and

  7. Penn State's Comprehensive Bilingual Early Childhood Teacher Training Project. Results of Three Project Years, 1987-1990. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz; Negron, Lillian

    The results of a bilingual teacher training project developed to serve the needs of young limited-English-proficient children are presented. The report contains a program description, a rationale for program implementation, and program goals. Particular attention is focused on the following: demographic information, goal setting, course work,…

  8. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  9. The Early-Career Development of Science Teachers from Initial Training Onwards: The Advantages of a Multifaceted Five-Year Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Julian; Howarth, Sue; King, Chris; Perry, John; Tas, Maarten; Twidle, John; Warhurst, Adrian; Garrett, Caro

    2014-01-01

    If a programme were to be devised for the early-career development of science teachers, what might such a programme look like? This was the focus of a meeting of science educators interested in developing such a structure, from the start of initial teacher training onwards. The contributions, modified and written up here, include a suggested…

  10. Learning "from Europe" and "for Europe" with David Raffe--Insights into Early Years of European Cooperation in "Vocational Education and Training Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kämäräinen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a picture on the contribution of David Raffe to European cooperation in the field of vocational education and training (VET). It is based on the experiences of the author and his colleagues on European events and projects in which David participated from the early 1990s until 2009. The Section 2 gives impressions of David's…

  11. Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Handicapped Personnel Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stanley L.

    The report describes the Western Illinois University 0-6 Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Handicapped Personnel Training Project (WIU 0-6 Project)--a model project designed to demonstrate innovative methods to fill personnel needs for early childhood handicapped programs. The project is a 2 semester program to train professional educators in the…

  12. Early years postgraduate surgical training programmes in the UK are failing to meet national quality standards: An analysis from the ASiT/BOTA Lost Tribe prospective cohort study of 2,569 surgical trainees.

    PubMed

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess training of Senior House Officer-grade equivalent doctors in postgraduate surgical training or service (SHO-DIPST) in surgical specialties across the United Kingdom (UK), against nationally agreed Joint Committee on Surgical Training Quality Indicators (JCST QIs). Specific recommendations are made, with a view to improving quality of training, workforce retention and recruitment to Higher Surgical Training. Prospective, observational, multicentre study conducted by the Association of Surgeons in Training, using the UK National Research Collaborative model. Any centres in the UK providing acute surgical services were eligible. SHO-DIPST with a permanent contract, on out-of-hours 'on-call rota' were included across four, one-week data capture periods (September to October 2016, February to March 2017). Adherence to five quality indicators was reported using descriptive statistics. P-values were calculated using Student's t-test for continuous data, with a 5% level of significance. 2569 SHO-DIPST were included from all ten surgical specialties in 141 NHS trusts across all 16 Local Education and Training Boards in the UK. 960 SHO-DIPST were in registered 'training' posts (37.3%). The median number of SHO-DIPST per rota was 7.0 (IQR 5.0-9.0). Adherence to the five included JCST QIs ranged from 6.0 to 53.1%. Only four SHO-DIPST posts across the study population met all five JCST QIs (0.3%). The total number of training sessions was higher for those in registered training posts (p < 0.001), with significant specialty and regional variation. Only four early years postgraduate surgical training posts in the UK meet nationally approved minimum quality standards. Specific recommendations are made to improve training in this cohort and to bolster recruitment and retention into Higher Surgical Training. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Childhood Education: Training for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the future training of early childhood educators, focusing on techniques for teachers to build prosocial skills, develop aesthetic appreciation, inculcate acceptance and inclusion, and develop a curiosity for learning among children. Also discusses the political status of early childhood education. (MDM)

  14. Early Childhood Training Workbook [and Videos].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magna Systems, Inc., Barrington, IL.

    This early childhood training workbook and three accompanying video series provide instruction for early childhood caregivers and teachers in the areas of guidance and discipline, math, and diversity. The video series "Guidance and Discipline" demonstrates the ways in which teachers help children become self disciplined. The three videos…

  15. Early constipation and toilet training in children with encopresis.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Laurie; Rappaport, Leonard; Cousineau, Dominique; Nurko, Samuel

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the frequency of predisposing factors for encopresis before and during toilet training, comparing children with primary and secondary encopresis. In this retrospective study, questionnaires from the initial evaluation at an encopresis clinic at a tertiary care pediatric hospital were reviewed for the presence or absence of factors in the first 2 years of life, for toilet training practices, and for disruptive events during the training process. Children younger than 48 months or those with organic defecation disorders were excluded. In 411 children with encopresis, the reported frequency of predisposing factors included constipation in 35%, and previous treatment for constipation in 24%. Toilet training was initiated before age 2 years in 26% and after age 3 years in 14%. Interruption of toilet training and punishment were seen more in primary encopresis than in secondary encopresis (50% versus 23%; P < 0.05) and (52% versus 26%; P < 0.05) respectively. Constipation (30% versus 18%; P < 0.05) and abdominal pain (23% versus 9%; P <0.0:5) during toilet training were more common in primary encopresis as was fear of the toilet (47% versus 10%; P < 0.05). In children with encopresis, early difficult defecation, previous treatment for constipation, and early initiation of toilet training were less common than expected. Children with primary encopresis did not have an increased incidence of early constipation or invasive treatments compared with those with secondary encopresis. However, children with primary encopresis did have more difficult and disruptive toilet training experiences.

  16. Basic Microvascular Anastomosis Simulation Hub Microsurgery Course: An Innovative Competency-Based Approach to Microsurgical Training for Early Year's Plastic Surgery Trainees.

    PubMed

    Ali, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    Early year's plastic surgery trainees are faced with a large choice of microsurgery courses to select from. In the context of dwindling study budgets and busy on-call rotas, the pressure to select a high yield course that delivers value for money is of paramount importance.The Basic Microvascular Anastomosis Simulation Hub Microsurgery Course is a GBP £600 (US $790) 5-day 40-hour course based at Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry increasing in popularity among junior trainees to fit this brief.

  17. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  18. The Early Years: Integrating Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy; Nellor, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is such a common part of children's work in early childhood programs that teachers can simply look around the room to identify examples where students have engaged in engineering practices. This article presents a classroom activity that integrates engineering design by building on the everyday problems that young children encounter in…

  19. The Early Years: Mixing Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Engaging children's interest, inspiring active exploration of materials, and fostering cooperation between children and adults is the best way to promote the construction of knowledge. Some popular early childhood activities can be expanded to provide experiences and time for children to build on their prior knowledge. This column discusses…

  20. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  1. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  2. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  3. Short-Term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…

  4. Shedding Light: Private "For Profit" Training Providers and Young Early School Leavers. NCVER Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myconos, George; Clarke, Kira; te Riele, Kitty

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the oft-criticised segment of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia--private, for-profit registered training organisations (RTOs)--with the aim of gaining a clearer understanding of the approaches they adopt in training 15 to 19-year-olds who have left school early. Through a nationwide survey…

  5. [Early auditory training of children with auditory deficiencies].

    PubMed

    Herman, N

    1988-01-01

    The author insists on the importance of an early diagnosis and hearing training of the young deaf child. She shows some aspects of the new possibilities of technology in the approach of the deaf child by hearing- and speech training.

  6. 10-year evaluation of train accidents.

    PubMed

    Akkaş, Meltem; Ay, Didem; Metin Aksu, Nalan; Günalp, Müge

    2011-09-01

    Although less frequent than automobile accidents, train accidents have a major impact on victims' lives. Records of patients older than 16 years of age admitted to the Adult Emergency Department of Hacettepe University Medical Center due to train accidents were retrospectively evaluated. 44 patients (30 males, 14 females) with a mean age of 31.8±11.4 years were included in the study. The majority of the accidents occurred during commuting hours. 37 patients were discharged, 22 of them from the emergency department. The mortality rate was 7/44 (16%). Overall mean Revised Trauma Score (RTS) was 10.5 (3 in deaths and 11.9 in survivors). In 5 patients, the cause of death was pelvic trauma leading to major vascular injury and lower limb amputation. In 1 patient, thorax and abdomen trauma and in 1 patient head injury were the causes of mortality. Primary risk factors for mortality were alcohol intoxication (100%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation on admittance (100%), recurrent suicide attempt (75%), presence of psychiatric illness (60%), and low RTS. In this study, most train accidents causing minor injuries were due to falling from the train prior to acceleration. Nevertheless, train accidents led to a mortality rate of 16% and morbidity rate of 37%. These findings draw attention to the importance of developing preventive strategies.

  7. The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.

    Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…

  8. Geometry in the Early Years: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindyal, Jaguthsing

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to provide a commentary on the teaching and learning of geometry in the early years of schooling with the set of papers in this issue as a guiding factor. It is structured around issues about geometry education of young learners, such as: what should we teach in geometry and why; representation of geometrical…

  9. Short-term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo

    2014-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in 36 four- to six-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both groups showed enhanced late discriminative negativity (LDN) in their trained condition (music group–musical notes; French group–French vowels) and reduced LDN in the untrained condition. These changes reflect improved processing of relevant (trained) sounds, and an increased capacity to suppress irrelevant (untrained) sounds. After one year, training-induced brain changes persisted and new hemispheric changes appeared. Such results provide evidence for the lasting benefit of early intervention in young children. PMID:25346534

  10. Computer Training for Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Jacqueline; Wood, Eileen; Willoughby, Teena

    Recent research in early childhood education (ECE) centers suggests that some teacher characteristics are not at a level that would support computer learning opportunities for children. This study identified areas of support required by teachers to provide a smooth introduction of the computer into the early childhood education classroom.…

  11. Interpretations of Mentoring during Early Childhood Education Mentor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupila, Päivi; Ukkonen-Mikkola, Tuulikki; Rantala, Kyllikki

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how interpretations of mentoring by trainee mentors (TMs) changed over the course of a mentor training programme, and how this contributed to the TMs' professional development. The context of the study was a mentor training programme for preschool teachers who mentor early childhood teacher students during their practicums.…

  12. Training Early Literacy Related Skills: To Which Degree Does a Musical Training Contribute to Phonological Awareness Development?

    PubMed Central

    Kempert, Sebastian; Götz, Regina; Blatter, Kristine; Tibken, Catharina; Artelt, Cordula; Schneider, Wolfgang; Stanat, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Well-developed phonological awareness skills are a core prerequisite for early literacy development. Although effective phonological awareness training programs exist, children at risk often do not reach similar levels of phonological awareness after the intervention as children with normally developed skills. Based on theoretical considerations and first promising results the present study explores effects of an early musical training in combination with a conventional phonological training in children with weak phonological awareness skills. Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design and measurements across a period of 2 years, we tested the effects of two interventions: a consecutive combination of a musical and a phonological training and a phonological training alone. The design made it possible to disentangle effects of the musical training alone as well the effects of its combination with the phonological training. The outcome measures of these groups were compared with the control group with multivariate analyses, controlling for a number of background variables. The sample included N = 424 German-speaking children aged 4–5 years at the beginning of the study. We found a positive relationship between musical abilities and phonological awareness. Yet, whereas the well-established phonological training produced the expected effects, adding a musical training did not contribute significantly to phonological awareness development. Training effects were partly dependent on the initial level of phonological awareness. Possible reasons for the lack of training effects in the musical part of the combination condition as well as practical implications for early literacy education are discussed. PMID:27899906

  13. Engaging Young Early School Leavers in Vocational Training. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dommers, Eric; Myconos, George; Swain, Luke; Yung, Stephanie; Clarke, Kira

    2017-01-01

    With almost one-third of young people unemployed or underemployed, it is important for early school leavers to gain skills that improve their employment opportunities. The role that vocational education and training (VET) plays is critical, particularly for young early school leavers. Through interviews and focus groups with young people and those…

  14. Staff Training Tips: Focusing on Early Childhood Education and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document collects 15 brief guides to staff training in inclusive early childhood education settings. Guides offer examples of successful programs, research findings, and practical tips. Titles are: (1) "Giving Families Better Access to Early Intervention Services"; (2) "Creating Integrated Classrooms that Work"; (3) "Seamless Transition…

  15. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  16. Medical specialty preferences in early medical school training in Canada.

    PubMed

    Vo, Anthony; McLean, Laurie; McInnes, Matthew D F

    2017-11-14

    To understand what medical students consider when choosing their specialty, prior to significant clinical exposure to develop strategies to provide adequate career counseling. A cross-sectional study was performed by distributing optional questionnaires to 165 first-year medical students at the University of Ottawa in their first month of training with a sample yield of 54.5% (n=90).  Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Spearman's rank correlation, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure, and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the anonymized results. "Job satisfaction", "lifestyle following training" and, "impact on the patient" were the three highest rated considerations when choosing a specialty.  Fifty-two and seventeen percent (n=24) and 57.89% (n=22) of males and females ranked non-surgical specialties as their top choice. Student confidence in their specialty preferences was moderate, meaning their preference could likely change (mean=2.40/5.00, SD=1.23). ANOVA showed no significant differences between confidence and population size (F(2,86)=0.290, p=0.75) or marital status (F(2,85)=0.354, p=0.70) in both genders combined. Five underlying factors that explained 44.32% of the total variance were identified. Five themes were identified to enhance career counseling. Medical students in their first month of training have already considered their specialty preferences, despite limited exposure. However, students are not fixed in their specialty preference. Our findings further support previous results but expand what students consider when choosing their specialty early in their training. Medical educators and administrators who recognize and understand the importance of these considerations may further enhance career counseling and medical education curricula.

  17. A Rationale for Early Training in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Gene M.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of young children to learn music is commonly underestimated. There is a large amount of research and empirical evidence which indicates that (1) early childhood is the most critical period for learning fundamental concepts and skills in music and (2) children's potential for musical growth declines with age. (Author/NQ)

  18. Diarrhea Management Training in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)

  19. Dynamics of early planetary gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    August, R.; Kasuba, R.; Frater, J. L.; Pintz, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method to analyze the static and dynamic loads in a planetary gear train was developed. A variable-variable mesh stiffness (VVMS) model was used to simulate the external and internal spur gear mesh behavior, and an equivalent conventional gear train concept was adapted for the dynamic studies. The analysis can be applied either involute or noninvolute spur gearing. By utilizing the equivalent gear train concept, the developed method may be extended for use for all types of epicyclic gearing. The method is incorporated into a computer program so that the static and dynamic behavior of individual components can be examined. Items considered in the analysis are: (1) static and dynamic load sharing among the planets; (2) floating or fixed Sun gear; (3) actual tooth geometry, including errors and modifications; (4) positioning errors of the planet gears; (5) torque variations due to noninvolute gear action. A mathematical model comprised of power source, load, and planetary transmission is used to determine the instantaneous loads to which the components are subjected. It considers fluctuating output torque, elastic behavior in the system, and loss of contact between gear teeth. The dynamic model has nine degrees of freedom resulting in a set of simultaneous second order differential equations with time varying coefficients, which are solved numerically. The computer program was used to determine the effect of manufacturing errors, damping and component stiffness, and transmitted load on dynamic behavior. It is indicated that this methodology offers the designer/analyst a comprehensive tool with which planetary drives may be quickly and effectively evaluated.

  20. Astronomy Teacher Training: Towards Year 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddoli, Consuelo

    2008-05-01

    The Direccion General de Divulgacion de la Ciencia is part of Mexico's National University; its purpose is science outreach. Most of its activities are dedicated to school level audiences; nevertheless due to the speed of science development, courses are given for teachers. The astronomy curricula includes: new results in astronomy research, general astrophysics and tools to teach astronomy. The courses offer twelve two hour long sessions. An astronomy researcher delivers a lecture and teachers are trained to use hands on activity. Beginning last in 2007 it has focused on Galileo. It addressed the way he was modern scientist, he observed and made experiments and wrote his results in common language. Year 2009 is a perfect incentive to carry out activities with teachers and keep them busy organizing telescope construction and observations during and after Galileo's commemoration. A book was written specially for them on the experiments Galileo made. In this book they can find interesting hand-on activities with materials that are readily available. (Los experimentos de Galileo, Silvia Torres y Consuelo Doddoli, Correo del Maestro, 2008, in press.) The magazine Correo del Maestro holds many articles written by the author on astronomical activities aimed to teachers.

  1. Older Adults Benefit from Music Training Early in Life: Biological Evidence for Long-Term Training-Driven Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Carr, Kali Woodruff; Anderson, Samira; Strait, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Aging results in pervasive declines in nervous system function. In the auditory system, these declines include neural timing delays in response to fast-changing speech elements; this causes older adults to experience difficulty understanding speech, especially in challenging listening environments. These age-related declines are not inevitable, however: older adults with a lifetime of music training do not exhibit neural timing delays. Yet many people play an instrument for a few years without making a lifelong commitment. Here, we examined neural timing in a group of human older adults who had nominal amounts of music training early in life, but who had not played an instrument for decades. We found that a moderate amount (4–14 years) of music training early in life is associated with faster neural timing in response to speech later in life, long after training stopped (>40 years). We suggest that early music training sets the stage for subsequent interactions with sound. These experiences may interact over time to sustain sharpened neural processing in central auditory nuclei well into older age. PMID:24198359

  2. Older adults benefit from music training early in life: biological evidence for long-term training-driven plasticity.

    PubMed

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Anderson, Samira; Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2013-11-06

    Aging results in pervasive declines in nervous system function. In the auditory system, these declines include neural timing delays in response to fast-changing speech elements; this causes older adults to experience difficulty understanding speech, especially in challenging listening environments. These age-related declines are not inevitable, however: older adults with a lifetime of music training do not exhibit neural timing delays. Yet many people play an instrument for a few years without making a lifelong commitment. Here, we examined neural timing in a group of human older adults who had nominal amounts of music training early in life, but who had not played an instrument for decades. We found that a moderate amount (4-14 years) of music training early in life is associated with faster neural timing in response to speech later in life, long after training stopped (>40 years). We suggest that early music training sets the stage for subsequent interactions with sound. These experiences may interact over time to sustain sharpened neural processing in central auditory nuclei well into older age.

  3. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently offers…

  4. Medical specialty preferences in early medical school training in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Laurie; McInnes, Matthew D.F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To understand what medical students consider when choosing their specialty, prior to significant clinical exposure to develop strategies to provide adequate career counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed by distributing optional questionnaires to 165 first-year medical students at the University of Ottawa in their first month of training with a sample yield of 54.5% (n=90).  Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Spearman's rank correlation, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure, and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the anonymized results. Results “Job satisfaction”, “lifestyle following training” and, “impact on the patient” were the three highest rated considerations when choosing a specialty.  Fifty-two and seventeen percent (n=24) and 57.89% (n=22) of males and females ranked non-surgical specialties as their top choice. Student confidence in their specialty preferences was moderate, meaning their preference could likely change (mean=2.40/5.00, SD=1.23). ANOVA showed no significant differences between confidence and population size (F(2,86)=0.290, p=0.75) or marital status (F(2,85)=0.354, p=0.70) in both genders combined. Five underlying factors that explained 44.32% of the total variance were identified. Five themes were identified to enhance career counseling. Conclusions Medical students in their first month of training have already considered their specialty preferences, despite limited exposure. However, students are not fixed in their specialty preference. Our findings further support previous results but expand what students consider when choosing their specialty early in their training. Medical educators and administrators who recognize and understand the importance of these considerations may further enhance career counseling and medical education curricula.  PMID:29140793

  5. Early Career Experiences of Pediatricians Pursuing or Not Pursuing Fellowship Training.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Bobbi J; Katakam, Shesha K; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L

    2015-10-01

    Choosing career paths can be difficult decisions for residents contemplating fellowship training. This study compares the experiences of early career pediatricians who did and did not pursue fellowships. We analyzed national, weighted data from pediatricians 8 to 10 years after residency (n = 842). Work environment, work-life balance, and satisfaction were compared for pediatricians who had pursued fellowship training (fellowship trained) and those who did not pursue fellowship training (generalist trained). Logistic and linear regression examined the independent effects of fellowship training while controlling for demographic differences. A total of 39% of the pediatricians (328/842) pursued fellowship training. The fellowship-trained group was less likely than the generalist-trained group to spend time in direct patient care and more likely to report learning opportunities in their work environment. This group was also more likely to report an income of ≥$150,000, although no difference was found when only full-time pediatricians were examined. Generalist-trained pediatricians were more likely to work <50 hours per week, have flexibility with their schedules, and be satisfied with time spent with their own children. Pediatricians in both the fellowship-trained and generalist-trained groups generally found their work to be rewarding and were satisfied with their lives. Although residents need to consider important life and career differences when contemplating fellowship training and general care, pediatricians in both groups can achieve overall life and career satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Module Training: Experiences during the Pilot Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, P. H.

    1970-01-01

    At Colchester Lathe Company, Ltd., it has been found that introducing any new system, With good communications and flexibility, the system can be a vast improvement over the traditional approach to craft training. (NL)

  7. Sustaining Care: Cultivating Mindful Practice in Early Years Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…

  8. Informing Transitions in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Fabian, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    An increased emphasis on an early start in group day care and educational settings for young children means that by the time children enter statutory education, they may already have had several transitional experiences: each will have an impact. This book explores early transitions from a variety of international perspectives. Each chapter is…

  9. Professional Training in Early Intervention: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretis, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Professional training in early childhood intervention (ECI), particularly additional certificates, degrees, or continuing education, is currently a major topic within European working groups. The complexity of ECI, including medical, pedagogical, psychological, and social involvement, the need for both family- and child-centered work, and the…

  10. High School Biology: The Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy B.; Bybee, Rodger W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of the biology curriculum which replaced physiology, zoology, and botany in high school science courses and supplanted an early form of general science known as natural history. (RT)

  11. The Incredible Years Parent Training Programme in Tauranga: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Michelle; Litterick-Biggs, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The Incredible Years parent training programme is a research-based therapy which aims to help families improve the behaviour of children with conduct difficulties in the early years, while the behaviour is malleable (Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2003). The short-term goals of the programme are to reduce conduct problems in children by increasing…

  12. Does Chess Training Affect Conceptual Development of Six-Year-Old Children in Turkey?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigirtmac, Ayperi Dikici

    2012-01-01

    Many studies propose that chess is a game requiring cognitive skills and has positive effects on mental development. In recent years, chess training has also been emphasised as important during the early childhood period. However, no studies have been done with six-year-old children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not…

  13. Building a Model of Early Years Professionalism from Practitioners’ Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Avril

    2013-01-01

    Practitioner voice has been absent from debates regarding what constitutes professional behaviour and practice in the early years. This research identifies and uses the professional knowledge of a group of early years educators to create a typology of professionalism. The typology comprises seven inter-related dimensions of early years…

  14. Effects of Tennis Training on Personality Development in Children and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Erdal; Sahin, Gülsah; Sentürk, Ugur; Aydin, Halide; Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week basic tennis training program on the personality development of early adolescents aged between 9 and 11 years. The research methodology consisted of a single group pre-test/post-test design implemented with a total of eight volunteer children (three boys and five girls). The…

  15. Performance on a Surgical In-Training Examination Varies by Training Year and Pathway.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jason; Levin, L Scott; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Few studies in surgery have addressed medical knowledge competency training as defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. As in-training examinations are ubiquitous educational tools for surgical residents in the United States, insights into examination performance may help fill this void. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between In-Service Examination performance and training characteristics in plastic surgery. This retrospective cohort study reviewed performance data for the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination for the years 2012 to 2015. Comparisons were made both within and between training pathways by means of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Data were available for 1367 independent (37.9 percent) and 2240 integrated residents (62.1 percent). Among integrated residents, performance increased with additional years of training (p < 0.001), but no difference existed between postgraduate year-5 and postgraduate year-6 residents (p > 0.05). Similarly, independent resident examination performance increased by year of training (p < 0.001), with no difference between postgraduate year-2 and postgraduate year-3 residents (p > 0.05). At each level of training (postgraduate years 4 to 6), integrated residents outperformed their independent resident colleagues (postgraduate years 1 to 3) (p < 0.001). Performance on the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination increases during residency, with integrated residents outperforming independent residents. These findings may have implications for medical knowledge competency training as defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.

  16. Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…

  17. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  18. The Early Years: Integrating Digital Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue discusses how digital media and robotics fit into the early childhood curriculum, and how time on devices supports learning goals and developmentally appropriate practice.

  19. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  20. Effective Leadership and Management in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet

    2006-01-01

    There has recently been an unprecedented focus on early years care and education, particularly on the impact of the various adults who work and play with children in the birth to five/six-years age range. Staff in early years settings have had to adapt to many changes and demands, locally and nationally, from local authorities and national…

  1. Differential Training Facilitates Early Consolidation in Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.

    2016-01-01

    Current research demonstrates increased learning rates in differential learning (DL) compared to repetitive training. To date, little is known on the underlying neurophysiological processes in DL that contribute to superior performance over repetitive practice. In the present study, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activation patterns after DL and repetitive badminton serve training. Twenty-four semi-professional badminton players performed badminton serves in a DL and repetitive training schedule in a within-subjects design. EEG activity was recorded from 19 electrodes according to the 10–20 system before and immediately after each 20-min exercise. Increased theta activity was obtained in contralateral parieto-occipital regions after DL. Further, increased posterior alpha activity was obtained in DL compared to repetitive training. Results indicate different underlying neuronal processes in DL and repetitive training with a higher involvement of parieto-occipital areas in DL. We argue that DL facilitates early consolidation in motor learning indicated by post-training increases in theta and alpha activity. Further, brain activation patterns indicate somatosensory working memory processes where attentional resources are allocated in processing of somatosensory information in DL. Reinforcing a somatosensory memory trace might explain increased motor learning rates in DL. Finally, this memory trace is more stable against interference from internal and external disturbances that afford executively controlled processing such as attentional processes. PMID:27818627

  2. Early Years Education Resource Guide. Early Education Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy, Comp.

    The aim of this resource guide is to provide practitioners in preschool settings with information to help them plan, implement, augment with resources, and review practice based on the "Curriculum Framework for Children in Their Pre-School Year" issued by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department. The guide presents a…

  3. Robot-Assisted Training Early After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Schoenrath, Felix; Markendorf, Susanne; Brauchlin, Andreas E; Seifert, Burkhardt; Wilhelm, Markus J; Czerny, Martin; Riener, Robert; Falk, Volkmar; Schmied, Christian M

    2015-07-01

    To assess feasibility and safety of a robot-assisted gait therapy with the Lokomat® system in patients early after open heart surgery. Within days after open heart surgery 10 patients were subjected to postoperative Lokomat® training (Intervention group, IG) whereas 20 patients served as controls undergoing standard postoperative physiotherapy (Control group, CG). All patients underwent six-minute walk test and evaluation of the muscular strength of the lower limbs by measuring quadriceps peak force. The primary safety end-point was freedom from any device-related wound healing disturbance. Patients underwent clinical follow-up after one month. Both training methods resulted in an improvement of walking distance (IG [median, interquartile range, p-value]: +119 m, 70-201 m, p = 0.005; CG: 105 m, 57-152.5m, p < 0.001) and quadriceps peak force (IG left: +5 N, 3.8 7 N, p = 0.005; IG right: +3.5 N, 1.5-8.8 N, p = 0.011; CG left: +5.5 N, 4-9 N, p < 0.001; CG right: +6 N, 4.3-9.8 N, p < 0.001) in all participants. Results with robot-assisted training were comparable to early postoperative standard in hospital training (median changes in walking distance in percent, p = 0.81; median changes in quadriceps peak force in percent, left: p = 0.97, right p = 0.61). No deep sternal wound infection or any adverse event occurred in the robot-assisted training group. Robot-assisted gait therapy with the Lokomat® system is feasible and safe in patients early after median sternotomy. Results with robot-assisted training were comparable to standard in hospital training. An adapted and combined aerobic and resistance training intervention with augmented feedback may result in benefits in walking distance and lower limb muscle strength (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT 02146196). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. "Run-through" training at specialist training year 1 and uncoupled core surgical training for oral and maxillofacial surgery in the United Kingdom: a snapshot survey.

    PubMed

    Garg, M; Collyer, J; Dhariwal, D

    2018-05-01

    Training in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) in the UK has undergone considerable changes during the last 10years, and "core" surgical training has replaced "basic" surgical training. In 2014 a pilot "run-through" training programme from specialist training year one (ST1)-ST7 was introduced to facilitate early entry into the speciality. Run-through training guarantees that a trainee, after a single competitive selection process and satisfactory progress, will be given training that covers the entire curriculum of the speciality, whereas uncoupled training requires a second stage of competitive recruitment after the first one (for OMFS only) or two years of "core" training to progress to higher specialty training. The first two years of run-through training (ST1-ST2) are the same as for core surgical training. Dual-qualified maxillofacial aspirants and those in their second degree course are curious to know whether they should go for the uncoupled core surgical training or the run-through programme in OMFS. The General Medical Council (GMC) has now agreed that run-through training can be rolled out nationally in OMFS. To assess the two pathways we used an online questionnaire to gain feedback about the experience from all OMFS ST3 and run-through trainees (ST3/ST4) in 2016-2017. We identified and contacted 21 trainees, and 17 responded, including seven run-through trainees. Eleven, including five of the run-through trainees, recommended the run-through training programme in OMFS. Six of the seven run-through trainees had studied dentistry first. The overall mean quality of training was rated as 5.5 on a scale 0-10 by the 17 respondents. This survey gives valuable feedback from the current higher surgical trainees in OMFS, which will be useful to the GMC, Health Education England, OMFS Specialist Advisory Committee, and those seeking to enter higher surgical training in OMFS. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published

  5. BUILDING A WORKFORCE COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING PROGRAM IN INFANT/EARLY CHILDHOOD MENTAL HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Priddis, Lynn E; Matacz, Rochelle; Weatherston, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article describes findings from a project conducted in Western Australia (Mental Health Commission WA, 2015) that investigated the education and training needs of the Infant/Early Childhood Mental Health (I/ECMH) workforce. We examined international training programs and models of delivery in infant mental health, including a review of the current training available in Australia. Data collected from over 60 interviews were analyzed, and a staged delivery model for I/ECMH training and supervision that aligned with the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) Competency Guidelines was recommended. These findings led to the purchase of the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) for use in Western Australia. In a very short time, use of the Michigan Competency Framework by the Australian Association for Infant Mental Health West Australian Branch Incorporated has begun to change the training and education opportunities for upskilling the infant and early childhood workforce in Western Australia. It has resulted in a map to guide and develop training in the I/ECMH field for individual practitioners and professionals as well as for workplaces that will ultimately benefit Western Australian infants, young children, and their families during the perinatal period and in the early years. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.

    PubMed

    Wass, Sam V

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development.

  7. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

  8. Reflections on 50 Years of "Education + Training"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Liz

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a personal view of the changes that have occurred regarding the transition from education into the world of work during the past 50 years. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken is that of contrasting how this transition was made in the 1950s to how things happen now in a much more competitive world.…

  9. Resource Guide: Selected Early Childhood/Early Intervention Training Materials. 8th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catlett, Camille, Comp.; Winton, Pamela J., Comp.

    This resource guide is intended to identify both primary and supplementary resources for designing preservice and inservice training on early intervention programs for children with disabilities. The instructional materials are described and listed in three sections. The first section provides annotated descriptions of instructional materials in…

  10. First Year Specialist Anaesthesia Training in Ireland: A Logbook Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, S. M.; Skerritt, C. J.; Fitzgerald, C. W.; Irwin, R.; Walsh, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Acquisition of a new range of skills occurs during first year anaesthesia training. The first twelve months of specialist anaesthesia training represent the steepest part of the learning curve, and thus large differences in performance should be apparent between the first and last quarters of this period. At present, no published…

  11. Rhythm synchronization performance and auditory working memory in early- and late-trained musicians.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jennifer A; Penhune, Virginia B

    2010-07-01

    Behavioural and neuroimaging studies provide evidence for a possible "sensitive" period in childhood development during which musical training results in long-lasting changes in brain structure and auditory and motor performance. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 (early-trained; ET) perform better on a visuomotor task than those who begin after the age of 7 (late-trained; LT), even when matched on total years of musical training and experience. Two questions were raised regarding the findings from this experiment. First, would this group performance difference be observed using a more familiar, musically relevant task such as auditory rhythms? Second, would cognitive abilities mediate this difference in task performance? To address these questions, ET and LT musicians, matched on years of musical training, hours of current practice and experience, were tested on an auditory rhythm synchronization task. The task consisted of six woodblock rhythms of varying levels of metrical complexity. In addition, participants were tested on cognitive subtests measuring vocabulary, working memory and pattern recognition. The two groups of musicians differed in their performance of the rhythm task, such that the ET musicians were better at reproducing the temporal structure of the rhythms. There were no group differences on the cognitive measures. Interestingly, across both groups, individual task performance correlated with auditory working memory abilities and years of formal training. These results support the idea of a sensitive period during the early years of childhood for developing sensorimotor synchronization abilities via musical training.

  12. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low.

  13. Early Intervention and AAC: What a Difference 30 Years Makes.

    PubMed

    Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.

  14. Computer Use within a Play-Based Early Years Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Justine; Miles, Gareth E.; Rees-Davies, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Early years curricula promote learning through play and in addition emphasise the development of computer literacy. Previous research, however, has described that teachers feel unprepared to integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and play. Also, whereas research has suggested that effective computer use in the early years is…

  15. Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaise, Mindy; Nuttal, Joce

    2011-01-01

    "Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom" helps teacher education students understand the complexities of teaching in early years' classrooms. It integrates research and theory with practice through vignettes, based on authentic classroom case studies, in order to show students how educators make decisions and achieve expected outcomes.…

  16. Positioning in Relationships between Parents and Early Years Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims-Schouten, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Early years care and education have been high on British political agendas. This includes partnership working between early years practitioners and parents. Yet, more research is needed to examine how childcare staff engage with parents and vice versa. This study addresses the role of position and positioning in parent-practitioner relationships,…

  17. Early Years Education and the Value for Money Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Barr, Verity

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the role of human capital in determining value for money in early years education. The article explores how the idea that early years education offers value for money has become folklore amongst policymakers and more widely. However, drawing on both interview data and existing literature…

  18. Parent Partnership and "Quality" Early Years Services: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Michelle; Alexander, Elise

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by outlining the historical and political context of "parent partnership" within the UK. It locates the perspectives of early years' practitioners within this context, drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded study of eighteen English early years settings, including interviews and…

  19. 100 years of training and development research: What we know and where we should go.

    PubMed

    Bell, Bradford S; Tannenbaum, Scott I; Ford, J Kevin; Noe, Raymond A; Kraiger, Kurt

    2017-03-01

    Training and development research has a long tradition within applied psychology dating back to the early 1900s. Over the years, not only has interest in the topic grown but there have been dramatic changes in both the science and practice of training and development. In the current article, we examine the evolution of training and development research using articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology ( JAP ) as a primary lens to analyze what we have learned and to identify where future research is needed. We begin by reviewing the timeline of training and development research in JAP from 1918 to the present in order to elucidate the critical trends and advances that define each decade. These trends include the emergence of more theory-driven training research, greater consideration of the role of the trainee and training context, examination of learning that occurs outside the classroom, and understanding training's impact across different levels of analysis. We then examine in greater detail the evolution of 4 key research themes: training criteria, trainee characteristics, training design and delivery, and the training context. In each area, we describe how the focus of research has shifted over time and highlight important developments. We conclude by offering several ideas for future training and development research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Managed lanes handbook training : year 2 report of activities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the Year 2 activities under Implementation Project 5-4160-01, Managed Lanes : Handbook Training. The overall objective of the project is to develop a 12-hour workshop covering The : Managed Lanes Handbook, and teach the materia...

  1. "Who Do You Want Me to Be?" An Exploration of Female and Male Perceptions of "Imposed" Gender Roles in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, Simon; Oates, Ruby

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an exploratory discussion surrounding the views and experiences of women and men who work/train in the early years (0-8 years) by bringing together select findings from two independent doctoral research projects. In an effort to weave together the voices of females and males working/training in the early years sector, this…

  2. K-3 Policymakers' Guide to Action: Making the Early Years Count. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Bruce; Diffey, Louisa; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    High-quality early elementary years offer a critical opportunity for child development and academic learning for all children, regardless of their race, family-income level, or culture and home language. All students deserve access to high-quality teachers and leaders trained in how to effectively support their learning. They deserve to attend…

  3. The Academic Training of Two-Year College Mathematics Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Calvin T.

    The academic training needs of two-year college mathematics faculty are discussed in this paper and appropriate courses of study are proposed. After introductory comments on the diversity of two-year college students' needs for mathematics education, an undergraduate course of study appropriate for two-year college math faculty is proposed. This…

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a transfer (interhemispheric) training programme in the early stages of fencing training.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Mateusz; Bronikowski, Michał; Nowik, Agnieszka; Tomczak, Maciej; Strugarek, Jan

    2017-07-24

    A high level of motor coordination (with an emphasis on the accuracy of hand movements) is an important part of fencers' training. Research on motor coordination shows that both hemispheres of the brain are involved in controlling the action of each of the upper limbs. As the physical training of one hand is believed to significantly increase the performance of the other (untrained) hand [14], the authors attempt to verify the hypothesis that specialized training of the nondominant limb can improve the performance of the dominant hand in fencing. The study was carried out in Poznań, Poland, in 2015 and involved the experimental (N=8) and control (N=8) groups of cadets (12.7±0.5 years old); body mass 38.69±4.08; body height 153.47±6.17), who were randomly selected from fencers belonging to the Fencing Club "Warta" in Poznań, Poland. Participants in the study belonged to one training group with a similar training experience of about six years. All participants in the study (N = 16) declared righthandedness during trainings and duels. Their right lateralization was also confirmed in a survey, which was conducted using the Edinburgh Questionnaire [21]. The experimental training programme included six weeks of specialized training of the coordination skills of the nondominant side. It was carried out five times a week. Each session took 30 minutes. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of transfer (interhemispheric) training with the use of the nondominant hand in particular, on the performance of the dominant hand in fencing. The results indicate that the transfer (interhemispheric) training reduced test accomplishment time in tasks performed with the right upper limb during accuracy tests. The procedures applied in the study also reduced test accomplishment time in tasks performed with the left upper limb. The study demonstrates that an interhemispheric training programme can effectively improve the accuracy of fencing actions, at least in the early

  5. Training auscultatory skills: computer simulated heart sounds or additional bedside training? A randomized trial on third-year medical students

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study compares the value of additional use of computer simulated heart sounds, to conventional bedside auscultation training, on the cardiac auscultation skills of 3rd year medical students at Oslo University Medical School. Methods In addition to their usual curriculum courses, groups of seven students each were randomized to receive four hours of additional auscultation training either employing a computer simulator system or adding on more conventional bedside training. Cardiac auscultation skills were afterwards tested using live patients. Each student gave a written description of the auscultation findings in four selected patients, and was rewarded from 0-10 points for each patient. Differences between the two study groups were evaluated using student's t-test. Results At the auscultation test no significant difference in mean score was found between the students who had used additional computer based sound simulation compared to additional bedside training. Conclusions Students at an early stage of their cardiology training demonstrated equal performance of cardiac auscultation whether they had received an additional short auscultation course based on computer simulated training, or had had additional bedside training. PMID:20082701

  6. Push-pull training reduces foveal sensory eye dominance within the early visual channels

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingping P.; He, Zijiang J.; Ooi, Teng Leng

    2011-01-01

    A push-pull training protocol is applied to reduce sensory eye dominance in the foveal region. The training protocol consists of cueing the weak eye to force it to become dominant while the strong eye is suppressed when a pair of dichoptic orthogonal grating stimulus is subsequently presented to it (Ooi and He, 1999). We trained with four pairs of dichoptic orthogonal gratings (0°/90°, 90°/0°, 45°/135° and 135°/45° at 3 cpd) to affect the interocular inhibitory interaction tuned to the four trained orientations (0°, 45°, 90° and 135°). After a 10-day training session, we found a significant learning effect (reduced sensory eye dominance) at the trained orientations as well as at two other untrained orientations (22.5° and 67.5°). This suggests that the four pairs of oriented training stimuli are sufficient to produce a learning effect at any other orientation. The nearly complete transfer of the learning effect across orientation is attributed to the fact that the trained and untrained orientations are close enough to fall in the same orientation tuning function of the early visual cortical neurons (~37.5°). Applying the same notion of transfer of learning within the same feature channel, we also found a large transfer effect to an untrained spatial frequency (6 cpd), which is 1 octave higher than the trained spatial frequency (3 cpd). Furthermore, we found that stereopsis is improved, as is the competitive ability between the two eyes, after the push-pull training. Our data analysis suggests that these improvements are correlated with the reduced sensory eye dominance after the training, i.e., due to a more balanced interocular inhibition. We also found that the learning effect (reduced SED and stereo threshold) can be retained for more than a year after the termination of the push-pull training. PMID:21689673

  7. Training to Be an Early Childhood Professional: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions about Their Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carmen Sherry; Cheddie, Tracy N.; Horry, Lynell F.; Monk, Julia E.

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism in the context of early care and education has received considerable attention in recent years (Caulfield, 1997; Harte, 2011; Tigistu, 2013). According to the 2010 National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Standards for Initial & Advanced Early Childhood Professional Preparation Programs, teacher…

  8. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Training and Personnel in Early Childhood Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Four papers discuss training and personnel in early childhood education. The concepts developed by the Division of Training Programs in seeking to award a grant for planning inservice training programs are described by J. Gerald Minskoff as is the role of a training coordinator. An evaluation of a pilot program to train teacher aides is presented…

  9. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  10. Sweet-spot training for early esophageal cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, the imaging tools for endoscopists have improved drastically. This has enabled physicians to visually inspect the intestinal tissue for early signs of malignant lesions. Besides this, recent studies show the feasibility of supportive image analysis for endoscopists, but the analysis problem is typically approached as a segmentation task where binary ground truth is employed. In this study, we show that the detection of early cancerous tissue in the gastrointestinal tract cannot be approached as a binary segmentation problem and it is crucial and clinically relevant to involve multiple experts for annotating early lesions. By employing the so-called sweet spot for training purposes as a metric, a much better detection performance can be achieved. Furthermore, a multi-expert-based ground truth, i.e. a golden standard, enables an improved validation of the resulting delineations. For this purpose, besides the sweet spot we also propose another novel metric, the Jaccard Golden Standard (JIGS) that can handle multiple ground-truth annotations. Our experiments involving these new metrics and based on the golden standard show that the performance of a detection algorithm of early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus can be increased significantly, demonstrating a 10 percent point increase in the resulting F1 detection score.

  11. Gender, Families, and Science: Influences on Early Science Training and Career Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    This research examines the effects of gender and a number of family experiences on young people's chances of going into postsecondary science training and science occupations in the years immediately following high school. Data came from the nationally representative, longitudinal High School and Beyond survey. Results show that gender plays a significant role in choices involving early science training and occupations - especially training. Amongst young men and women with comparable resources and qualifications, young women are less likely to make the science choice. The family experiences and expectations examined here are not a major factor in understanding gender differences in access to science training and occupations. Although much of the literature describes the domains of science and of family as being at odds, results from this research suggest that family experiences play a rather minimal role in predicting who will enter science training or occupations in the early post-high school years. When family variables do have an effect, they are not always negative and the nature of the effect varies by the time in the life cycle that the family variable is measured, by type of family experience (orientation vs. procreation), by outcome (science major vs. science occupation), and by gender.

  12. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    PubMed

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H Charles; Russo, Frank A; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  13. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H. Charles; Russo, Frank A.; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants’ ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants’ ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception. PMID:27760134

  14. Perceived core competency achievements of fellowship and non-fellowship-trained early career pediatric hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Librizzi, Jamie; Winer, Jeffrey C; Banach, Laurie; Davis, Aisha

    2015-06-01

    The pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) core competencies were established in 2010 to identify the specific knowledge base and skill set needed to provide the highest quality of care for hospitalized children. The objectives of this study were to examine the perceived core competency achievements of fellowship-trained and non-fellowship-trained early career pediatric hospitalists and identify perceived gaps in our current training models. An anonymous Web-based survey was distributed in November 2013. Hospitalists within 5 years of their residency graduation reported their perceived competency in select PHM core competencies. χ(2) and multiprobit regression analyses were utilized. One hundred ninety-seven hospitalists completed the survey and were included; 147 were non-fellowship-trained and 50 were PHM fellowship graduates or current PHM fellows. Both groups reported feeling less than competent in sedation and aspects of business practice. Non-fellowship-trained hospitalists also reported mean scores in the less than competent range in intravenous access/phlebotomy, technology-dependent emergencies, performing Plan-Do-Study-Act process and root cause analysis, defining basic statistical terms, and identifying research resources. Non-fellowship-trained hospitalists reported mean competency scores greater than fellowship-trained hospitalists in pain management, newborn care, and transitions in care. Early career pediatric hospitalists report deficits in several of the PHM core competencies, which should be considered when designing PHM-specific training in the future. Fellowship-trained hospitalists report higher levels of perceived competency in many core areas. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  15. Dyslexia in the Early Years: A Handbook for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that early identification and intervention is crucial and can in fact minimise, and may even prevent, the challenges of dyslexia from becoming too detrimental at later stages of education. This book offers both research insights and practical guidance for teachers working in Early Years settings on how to create resource…

  16. Segments and Stutters: Early Years Teachers and Becoming-Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Nikki

    2017-01-01

    There has been extensive research and analysis of the professionalization of early childhood educators/teachers. The recent promotion of a teacher-led workforce in England has further focused discussions on the modelling of early years teachers as professionals. In this article, the author develops an alternative analysis using the concepts of…

  17. Early Adolescence: Understanding the 10 to 15 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissy, Gail A.

    Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…

  18. The Littlest Historians: Early Years Programming in History Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, Mariruth; Haywood, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Working with children under five years old and the adults that accompany them is a rapidly growing area within the museum and wider cultural sector, with important emphasis being placed on early learning in both the United Kingdom and United States. For history museums in particular, early learning offers a unique set of questions and challenges,…

  19. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  20. The First Three Years: Experiences of Early Career Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This study considers two discourses of current relevance to national and international educators--early professional learning (EPL) and curriculum change. Induction arrangements for early career teachers (ECTs), EPL and informal learning have received considerable attention in the past few years. Changes to induction inevitably have knock-on…

  1. Couples as Partners and Parents over Children's Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marcia J.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how couple relationship quality and parental engagement are linked over children's early years--when they are infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Our sample included 1,630 couples who were coresident over Years 1-3 and 1,376 couples who were coresident over Years 3-5…

  2. Children at Play: Learning Gender in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…

  3. Bacterial Chemotaxis: The Early Years of Molecular Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hazelbauer, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the early years of molecular studies of bacterial chemotaxis and motility, beginning in the 1960s with Julius Adler's pioneering work. It describes key observations that established the field and made bacterial chemotaxis a paradigm for the molecular understanding of biological signaling. Consideration of those early years includes aspects of science seldom described in journals: the accidental findings, personal interactions, and scientific culture that often drive scientific progress. PMID:22994495

  4. Fourth Year Status Report. Computerized Training Systems Project. Project ABACUS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    in 7 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADOMEN ,,, 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT , TASK US Army Tra ining Support Center A R E A S WORK UNIT NUMBERS...transp ired during the fourth year of Project ABACUS, the A rmy ’s program for the development of a Computerized Training System. It inc l udes a...have transpired durlnq the fourth year of Project ABACUS, the Army ’s program for the developmen t o~ aprototype Computer i zed Training System. It

  5. "I Think a Lot of It Is Common Sense. ..." Early Years Students, Professionalism and the Development of a "Vocational Habitus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Braun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on research from a small-scale project investigating the vocational training of students in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. We draw on data from interviews with 42 students and five tutors in order to explore the students' understandings of professionalism in early years. In the paper, we discuss first, the…

  6. Autism and Early Years Practice: A Guide for Early Years Professionals, Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kate

    2004-01-01

    In this book the author discusses the field of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) as one in which practitioners are highly committed, dedicated and willing to learn. Generally, they try to do their very best for the children with whom they work. However, the author also shows that the field has hitherto been neglected in the areas of…

  7. Early Years Swimming: A Way of Supporting School Transitions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…

  8. Practitioner Perspectives: Children's Use of Technology in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    This research, a collaboration between Pearson and the National Literacy Trust, was designed to explore the use of technology by children in the early years. In 2013 Pearson and the National Literacy Trust invited practitioners who work with three to five-year-olds to take part in an online survey to explore how they support children's language…

  9. Transfer over Time: Stories about Transfer Years after Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelon, Stephen L.; Ford, J. Kevin; Golden, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to form a grounded theory of the process of long-term transfer. Eight physicians were interviewed to discover if, years later, they had used what they were taught in a faculty development training program. We found that these autonomous professionals continued to apply the teaching ideas they learned. Each,…

  10. Michigan Day Care Provider Training Project, Year One: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Melissa G.; And Others

    A Title XX funded statewide training program offering 20 hours of instruction for 1,662 licensed center and home child care providers who served Title XX eligible children in Michigan was evaluated at the end of its first year of operation. The first three chapters of this evaluation report discuss (1) the history, philosophy, and goals of the…

  11. Early Wheel Train Damage Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazilah, A. F. M.; Azemi, S. N.; Azremi, A. A. H.; Soh, P. J.; Kamarudin, L. M.

    2018-03-01

    Antenna for a wireless sensor network for early wheel trains damage detection has successfully developed and fabricated with the aim to minimize the risk and increase the safety guaranty for train. Current antenna design is suffered in gain and big in size. For the sensor, current existing sensor only detect when the wheel malfunction. Thus, a compact microstrip patch antenna with operating frequency at 2.45GHz is design with high gain of 4.95dB will attach to the wireless sensor device. Simulation result shows that the antenna is working at frequency 2.45GHz and the return loss at -34.46dB are in a good agreement. The result also shows the good radiation pattern and almost ideal VSWR which is 1.04. The Arduino Nano, LM35DZ and ESP8266-07 Wi-Fi module is applied to the core system with capability to sense the temperature and send the data wirelessly to the cloud. An android application has been created to monitor the temperature reading based on the real time basis. The mainly focuses for the future improvement is by minimize the size of the antenna in order to make in more compact. In addition, upgrade an android application that can collect the raw data from cloud and make an alarm system to alert the loco pilot.

  12. Four years into the Indian ocean field epidemiology training programme.

    PubMed

    Halm, Ariane; Seyler, Thomas; Mohamed, Sainda; Ali Mbaé, Saindou Ben; Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugène; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Nundlall, Ram; Aboobakar, Shahina; Bibi, Jastin; Filleul, Laurent; Piola, Patrice; Razafimandimby, Harimahefa; Rasamoelina, Harena; Valenciano, Marta; Moren, Alain; Cardinale, Eric; Lepec, Richard; Flachet, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Following the 2005-6 chikungunya outbreak, a project to strengthen regional Public Health preparedness in the Indian Ocean was implemented. It includes the Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France) and Seychelles. A Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP-OI) was started in 2011 to develop a pool of well-trained intervention epidemiologists. The FETP-OI consists of two years of supervised, learning-by-doing, on-the-job training at national sites involved in disease surveillance and response. It includes work placements at the Madagascar Pasteur Institute and the French regional epidemiology unit in Reunion and up to three training courses per year. Training objectives include epidemiological surveillance, outbreak investigations, research studies, scientific communication and transfer of competencies. In four years, two cohorts of in total 15 fellows originating from four countries followed the FETP-OI. They led 42 surveillance projects (71% routine management, 14% evaluations, 12% setup, 3% other) and investigated 36 outbreak alerts, 58% of them in Madagascar; most investigations (72%) concerned foodborne pathogens, plague or malaria. Fellows performed 18 studies (44% descriptive analyses, 22% disease risk factors, and 34% on other subjects), and presented results during regional and international conferences through 26 oral and 15 poster presentations. Four articles were published in regional Public Health bulletins and several scientific manuscripts are in process. The FETP-OI has created a regional force of intervention consisting of field epidemiologists and trained supervisors using the same technical language and epidemiological methods. The third cohort is now ongoing. Technically and financially sustainable FETP-OI projects help addressing public health priorities of the Indian Ocean.

  13. Four years into the Indian ocean field epidemiology training programme

    PubMed Central

    Halm, Ariane; Seyler, Thomas; Mohamed, Sainda; Ali Mbaé, Saindou Ben; Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugène; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Nundlall, Ram; Aboobakar, Shahina; Bibi, Jastin; Filleul, Laurent; Piola, Patrice; Razafimandimby, Harimahefa; Rasamoelina, Harena; Valenciano, Marta; Moren, Alain; Cardinale, Eric; Lepec, Richard; Flachet, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Following the 2005-6 chikungunya outbreak, a project to strengthen regional Public Health preparedness in the Indian Ocean was implemented. It includes the Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France) and Seychelles. A Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP-OI) was started in 2011 to develop a pool of well-trained intervention epidemiologists. Methods The FETP-OI consists of two years of supervised, learning-by-doing, on-the-job training at national sites involved in disease surveillance and response. It includes work placements at the Madagascar Pasteur Institute and the French regional epidemiology unit in Reunion and up to three training courses per year. Training objectives include epidemiological surveillance, outbreak investigations, research studies, scientific communication and transfer of competencies. Results In four years, two cohorts of in total 15 fellows originating from four countries followed the FETP-OI. They led 42 surveillance projects (71% routine management, 14% evaluations, 12% setup, 3% other) and investigated 36 outbreak alerts, 58% of them in Madagascar; most investigations (72%) concerned foodborne pathogens, plague or malaria. Fellows performed 18 studies (44% descriptive analyses, 22% disease risk factors, and 34% on other subjects), and presented results during regional and international conferences through 26 oral and 15 poster presentations. Four articles were published in regional Public Health bulletins and several scientific manuscripts are in process. Conclusion The FETP-OI has created a regional force of intervention consisting of field epidemiologists and trained supervisors using the same technical language and epidemiological methods. The third cohort is now ongoing. Technically and financially sustainable FETP-OI projects help addressing public health priorities of the Indian Ocean. PMID:28674588

  14. Prevention of brachial plexus injury-12 years of shoulder dystocia training: an interrupted time-series study.

    PubMed

    Crofts, J F; Lenguerrand, E; Bentham, G L; Tawfik, S; Claireaux, H A; Odd, D; Fox, R; Draycott, T J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate management and outcomes of incidences of shoulder dystocia in the 12 years following the introduction of an obstetric emergencies training programme. Interrupted time-series study comparing management and neonatal outcome of births complicated by shoulder dystocia over three 4-year periods: (i) Pre-training (1996-99), (ii) Early training (2001-04), and (iii) Late training (2009-12). Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK, with approximately 6000 births per annum. Infants and their mothers who experienced shoulder dystocia. A bi-monthly multi-professional 1-day intrapartum emergencies training course, that included a 30-minute practical session on shoulder dystocia management, commenced in 2000. Neonatal morbidity (brachial plexus injury, humeral fracture, clavicular fracture, 5-minute Apgar score <7) and documented management of shoulder dystocia (resolution manoeuvres performed, traction applied, head-to-body delivery interval). Compliance with national guidance improved with continued training. At least one recognised resolution manoeuvre was used in 99.8% (561/562) of cases of shoulder dystocia in the late training period, demonstrating a continued improvement from 46.3% (150/324, P < 0.001) pre-training, and 92% (241/262, P < 0.001) in the early training period. In parallel there was reduction in the brachial plexus injury at birth (24/324 [7.4%, P < 0.01], pre-training, 6/262 [2.3%] early training, and 7/562 [1.3%] late training. There are significant benefits to long-term, embedded training programmes with improvements in both management and outcomes. A decade after the introduction of training there were no cases of brachial plexus injury lasting over 12 months in 562 cases of shoulder dystocia. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Five Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Lopez, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, is a federally-funded system of grants that focuses on preparing low-income students to enter and succeed in postsecondary educational programs. GEAR UP grants extend across 6 school years and require that funded districts begin providing grant services to students no…

  16. Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Three Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Katharine; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Year 3 evaluation of Texas' state-level Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, grant. GEAR UP grant requirements include an evaluation component designed to assess program effectiveness and to measure progress toward project goals. To this end, the evaluation considers…

  17. An Investigation into Teacher Wellbeing during the Teacher Training Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sarah; Zanker, Nigel; Braine, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    For those studying for the Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE), the teaching practice placement can be a daunting experience. Trainee teachers have to adjust into a new workplace and a complicated professional role which can be stressful; this can result in teachers leaving the profession in their early years if they do not equip…

  18. Neuro-critical care: a valuable placement during foundation and early neurosurgical training.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Edward W; Kolias, Angelos G; Burnstein, Rowan M; Hutchinson, Peter J A; Garnett, Matthew R; Menon, David K; Trivedi, Rikin A

    2014-10-01

    Neurosciences critical care units (NCCUs) present a unique opportunity to junior trainees in neurosurgery as well as foundation trainees looking to gain experience in the management of critically ill patients with neurological conditions. Placements in NCCUs are undertaken in the early years of neurosurgical training or during neurosciences themed foundation programmes. We sought to quantify the educational benefits of such placements from the trainee perspective. Thirty-two trainees who had undertaken placements at Foundation Year 2 (FY2) to Specialty Trainee Year 3 (ST3) level between August 2009 and April 2013 were invited to take part in an online questionnaire survey. Competence in individual skills was self-rated on a ranked scale from one (never observed) to five (performed unsupervised) both before and after the placement. Trainees were also asked a series of questions pertaining to their ability to manage common neurosurgical conditions, as well as the perceived educational rigour of their placement. Twenty-three responses were received. Eighteen responses were from FY2s and seven were from ST1-3 level trainees. Following their placements, 100% of respondents felt better equipped to deal with neurosurgical and neurological emergencies and cranial trauma. Most felt better equipped to manage hydrocephalus (95.7%), polytrauma patients (95.7%), spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage (91.3%) and spinal trauma (82.6%). Significant increases were seen in experience in all practical skills assessed. These included central venous catheterisation (p < 0.001), intracranial pressure (ICP) bolt insertion (p < 0.001), ICP bolt removal (p < 0.001), external ventricular drain (EVD) insertion (p = 0.001) and tapping of EVD for cerebrospinal fluid sample (p < 0.001). Our results clearly demonstrate the educational benefits of NCCU placements in the early stages of a neurosurgical training programme as well as in the Foundation Programme. This supports the incorporation of a

  19. Treating Children With Early-Onset Conduct Problems: Intervention Outcomes for Parent, Child, and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Hammond, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Families of 159, 4- to 8-year-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomly assigned to parent training (PT); parent plus teacher training (PT + TT); child training (CT); child plus teacher training (CT + TT); parent, child, plus teacher training (PT + CT + TT); or a waiting list control. Reports and independent observations…

  20. Surgical Training and the Early Specialization Program: Analysis of a National Program.

    PubMed

    Klingensmith, Mary E; Potts, John R; Merrill, Walter H; Eberlein, Timothy J; Rhodes, Robert S; Ashley, Stanley W; Valentine, R James; Hunter, John G; Stain, Steven C

    2016-04-01

    The Early Specialization Program (ESP) in surgery was designed by the American Board of Surgery, the American Board of Thoracic Surgery, and the Residency Review Committees for Surgery and Thoracic Surgery to allow surgical trainees dual certification in general surgery (GS) and either vascular surgery (VS) or cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) after 6 to 7 years of training. After more than 10 years' experience, this analysis was undertaken to evaluate efficacy. American Board of Surgery and American Board of Thoracic Surgery records of VS and CTS ESP trainees were queried to evaluate qualifying exam and certifying exam performance. Case logs were examined and compared with contemporaneous non-ESP trainees. Opinions of programs directors of GS, VS, and CTS and ESP participants were solicited via survey. Twenty-six CTS ESP residents have completed training at 10 programs and 16 VS ESP at 6 programs. First-time pass rates on American Board of Surgery qualifying and certifying exams were superior to time-matched peers; greater success in specialty specific examinations was also found. Trainees met required case minimums for GS despite shortened time in GS. By survey, 85% of programs directors endorsed satisfaction with ESP, and 90% endorsed graduate readiness for independent practice. Early Specialization Program participants report increased mentorship and independence, greater competence for practice, and overall satisfaction with ESP. Individuals in ESP programs in VS and CTS were successful in passing GS and specialty exams and achieving required operative cases, despite an accelerated training track. Programs directors and participants report satisfaction with the training and confidence that ESP graduates are prepared for independent practice. This documented success supports ESP training in any surgical subspecialty, including comprehensive GS. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sowing the Seeds of Science Understanding in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    For practitioners in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in English schools (ages 3-5), the ethos of learning by "investigating and doing" is a major component of the pleasure of teaching very young children. The "Knowledge and understanding of the world" area of the EYFS (where scientific learning is mainly anchored)…

  2. Efficacy of Language Intervention in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Silke; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Haley, Allyson J.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral language skills in the preschool and early school years are critical to educational success and provide the foundations for the later development of reading comprehension. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 180 children from 15 UK nursery schools ("n" = 12 from each setting; M[subscript age] = 4;0) were randomly…

  3. Computing Education in Children's Early Years: A Call for Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manches, Andrew; Plowman, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    International changes in policy and curricula (notably recent developments in England) have led to a focus on the role of computing education in the early years. As interest in the potential of computing education has increased, there has been a proliferation of programming tools designed for young children. While these changes are broadly to be…

  4. Building Language Throughout the Year: The Preschool Early Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybolt, John; Armstrong, Jennifer; Techmanski, Kristin Evans; Gottfred, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    For children from low-resource backgrounds, a literacy-rich preschool experience with a skilled and engaged teacher can offset risk factors and lay the groundwork for lifelong academic success. Now schools can ensure effective early literacy instruction with this field-tested, research-based curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. These 41…

  5. Multimodal Transcription of Video: Examining Interaction in Early Years Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Video is an increasingly popular data collection tool for those undertaking social research, offering a temporal, sequential, fine-grained record which is durable, malleable and sharable. These characteristics make video a valuable resource for researching Early Years classrooms, particularly with regard to the study of children's interaction in…

  6. Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Gardner, John

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of…

  7. Mathematics in Early Years Education. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague-Smith, Ann; Price, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This third edition of the best-selling "Mathematics in Nursery Education" provides an accessible introduction to the teaching of mathematics in the early years. Covering all areas of mathematics learning--number and counting, calculation, pattern, shape, measures and data handling--it summarises the research findings and underlying key concepts…

  8. Early Identification System: Year Two. Research Report 80-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stennett, R. G.; Earl, L. M.

    During the academic year 1978-79, school teams implemented a newly developed early identification system in all kindergarten and grade one classes in London, Ontario schools. After analysis and revision of the system, the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the process and a test of its short-term predictive validity were investigated.…

  9. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  10. Eliciting Systematic Rule Use in Covariation Judgment [the Early Years].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Paszek, Donald

    Related research suggests that children may show some simple understanding of event covariations by the early elementary school years. The present experiments use a rule analysis methodology to investigate covariation judgments of children in this age range. In Experiment 1, children in second, third and fourth grade judged covariations on 12…

  11. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  12. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  13. The Third Year of the Brookline Early Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Donald E.

    This is the third progress report of the Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) which is a program designed to provide diagnostic and educational services to the family through their child's preschool years. This document provides information on (1) the BEEP center, (2) playgroups: transition phase of the education program, (3) dental screening…

  14. Approaches to Developing Health in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…

  15. Barriers and Solutions to HE Progression for Early Years' Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Alexandra; Carey, Danielle; Cramp, Andy; Perkins, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in UK social and economic policy have focused on education and care in the Early Years as key to improving social inclusion, skills acquisition and longer term social and economic prosperity. The implications for practitioners in the sector have been significant as roles, functions and foci have been renegotiated through the processes of…

  16. Monsters under the Bed: Critically Investigating Early Years Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    "Monsters Under the Bed" is an essential text focussing on critical and contemporary issues surrounding writing for "early years" children. Containing a critically creative and a creatively critical investigation of the cult and culture of the child and childhood in fiction and non-fictional writing, it also contains a wealth of ideas and critical…

  17. Child Participation in the Early Years: Challenges for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Maryanne; Danby, Susan; Ailwood, Jo

    2011-01-01

    The view that children should have a say in and participate in the decision making of matters that affect them is now an accepted position when considering research and policy in the early years. This paper reviews the field of child participation in the Australian context to show that, despite growing evidence of support within policy and…

  18. Being a Manager in the English Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on interviews with 29 managers and deputy managers within 15 nurseries in the private sector in England. The author argues that, whilst there is a growing literature on management and professionalism within the Early Years (EY) sector, there is less known about the actual experiences of being a manager in this context. Many of…

  19. 34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE INN MUSICIANS SAT AND PLAYED FOR THE GUESTS IN THE LOBBY BELOW. THE EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 CAUSED SOME STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND NOW THE CROW'S NEST IS NOT ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  20. Investigating Early Years Teachers' Understanding and Response to Children's Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambouri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…

  1. Training Multidisciplinary Biomedical Informatics Students: Three Years of Experience

    PubMed Central

    van Mulligen, Erik M.; Cases, Montserrat; Hettne, Kristina; Molero, Eva; Weeber, Marc; Robertson, Kevin A.; Oliva, Baldomero; de la Calle, Guillermo; Maojo, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Objective The European INFOBIOMED Network of Excellence 1 recognized that a successful education program in biomedical informatics should include not only traditional teaching activities in the basic sciences but also the development of skills for working in multidisciplinary teams. Design A carefully developed 3-year training program for biomedical informatics students addressed these educational aspects through the following four activities: (1) an internet course database containing an overview of all Medical Informatics and BioInformatics courses, (2) a BioMedical Informatics Summer School, (3) a mobility program based on a ‘brokerage service’ which published demands and offers, including funding for research exchange projects, and (4) training challenges aimed at the development of multi-disciplinary skills. Measurements This paper focuses on experiences gained in the development of novel educational activities addressing work in multidisciplinary teams. The training challenges described here were evaluated by asking participants to fill out forms with Likert scale based questions. For the mobility program a needs assessment was carried out. Results The mobility program supported 20 exchanges which fostered new BMI research, resulted in a number of peer-reviewed publications and demonstrated the feasibility of this multidisciplinary BMI approach within the European Union. Students unanimously indicated that the training challenge experience had contributed to their understanding and appreciation of multidisciplinary teamwork. Conclusion The training activities undertaken in INFOBIOMED have contributed to a multi-disciplinary BMI approach. It is our hope that this work might provide an impetus for training efforts in Europe, and yield a new generation of biomedical informaticians. PMID:18096914

  2. A Comparison of Workshop Training versus Intensive, Experiential Training for Improving Behavior Support Skills in Early Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Mashtare, Terry; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Pelham, William E.; Parham, Brittany R.; Smalls, Kalima J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective behavior support is an important component of high-quality and nurturing early childhood classroom settings. At present, there are few studies that investigate the best way to train and support teachers in these strategies. The present study compared two different training approaches: (1) a workshop that included a one-day…

  3. Education, Language and Professionalism: Issues in the Professional Development of Early Years Practitioners in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, many efforts are currently under way to improve the quality of early childhood education. One starting point is the quality of the professional training of early childhood practitioners. However, discussions mainly refer to input factors, such as the training curricula or the formal level of training. Output…

  4. Making the Match: Culturally Relevant Coaching and Training for Early Childhood Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Tina P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the mechanisms for culturally relevant training and coaching for early child care providers, especially family, friend, or neighbor (FFN) caregivers. In particular, given the evidence that coaching early care practitioners may have more significant effects than traditional training programs, the main objective of this research…

  5. Early Career Hire Rapid Training and Development Program: Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Betsy N.; Solish, Benjamin S.; Halatek, Lauren; Rieber, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the industrialized workforce, particularly in the aerospace industry, has resulted in a very large generation gap in the workforce. The disproportionate size of Baby Boomers, increasing longevity and declining birth rates has made this phenomenon a reality that no organization can ignore. It is now critical that aerospace organizations prepare themselves for this watershed transformation in the workforce and take the initiative to prepare the incoming workforce with the skills and knowledge necessary to stay at the forefront. Last year the Jet Propulsion Laboratory launched a pioneering training program, known as Phaeton, to provide the knowledge, practice, experience, mentoring opportunities, and project life cycle exposure to our incoming generation of engineers. After 14 months of operation, now is the time to discuss the preliminary results of this new program.

  6. The Early Years: Embracing the Challenges. 1997 Early Years of Schooling Conference Proceedings (Melbourne, Australia, July 20-21, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    These conference proceedings comprise 19 papers and the plenary session presented at the Early Years Schooling Conference held in Melbourne, Australia. The plenary session was "A Developmental Approach to Teaching Young Children" conducted by Lilian Katz. The keynote addresses and breakout sessions were: (1) "Developmental Learning:…

  7. Impact of Early Numeracy Training on Kindergarteners from Middle-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Carla; Fanari, Rachele; Bertucci, Andrea; Berretti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of a supplemental early numeracy skills training program for typically developing middle-income pre-school and kindergarten children (age 4-5) enrolled in a standard educational program. Three conditions were compared: cooperative learning training; individual learning training; and no…

  8. By Design: Family-Centered, Interdisciplinary Preservice Training in Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Amy; Ulanski, Betty; Swedeen, Beth; Sprague, Rae; Yellen-Shiring, Gail; Fruchtman, Amy; Pomije, Carrie; Rosin, Peggy

    This training guide is a product of the Family-Centered Interdisciplinary Training Project in Early Intervention (Wisconsin), a project that is addressing the need for preservice training of professionals to serve infants, toddlers, and preschool children with disabilities and their families. The project is focused on students from the disciplines…

  9. Training of prescreening cytotechnicians. A report on 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Arva, P; Bodó, M; Sugár, J

    1984-01-01

    Institutional training of prescreening cytotechnicians started in 1972 in the Research Institute of Oncopathology, Budapest. Up to 1983 ten classes, i.e. 230 students have been trained. Authors acknowledge the good achievements of their students and state that the diagnostic reliability of the qualified cytotechnicians has been recognized by professionals. Their activity resulted in a considerably increased number of screenings and recognized cervical cancers. In 1964 merely 25 600 examinations, whereas in 1982 altogether 1 030 000 examinations were performed. Cervical cancers announced in 1978 were 597, but in 1982 this number rose to 1022, being 661 (66%) in stage 0. A so-called Cervix Program based on the activity of cytotechnicians has been initiated by the Hungarian Ministry of Health. In view of the authors' ten-year experience the execution of this enormous enterprise seems possible.

  10. Nationwide peritoneal dialysis nurse training in Thailand: 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Thaiyuenwong, Jutiporn; Mahatanan, Nanta; Jiravaranun, Somsong; Boonyakarn, Achara; Rodpai, Somrak; Eiam-Ong, Somchai; Tungsanga, Kriang; Dhanakijcharoen, Prateep; Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak

    2011-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) center is not possible to operate if there is no availability of dedicated PD nurse. Generally, the nurse has to play many roles, including educator coordinator, and sometimes leader. As professionalism, the PD nurses need to have both theoretical and practical skills. With the tremendous leap of PD population after the launch of "PD First" policy in Thailand, the shortage of skillful PD nurse is concerned. Hence, the nationwide PD nurse training course was established with the collaborations of many organizations and institutes. Until now, 3 generations of 225 PD nurses are the productions of the course. This number represents 80 percent of PD nurses distributed throughout the whole nation. The survey operated in the year 2010 demonstrated that the output of the course was acceptable in terms of quality since most of the trained PD nurses had a confidence in taking care of PD patients. The quality of patient care is good as indicated by KPIs.

  11. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa-contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development.

  12. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  13. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Tara L; Tomayko, Emily J; Meinen, Amy M; Hoiting, Jill; Saxler, Courtney; Cullen, Bridget

    2016-07-20

    Early childcare and education (ECE) is a prime setting for obesity prevention and the establishment of healthy behaviors. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the efficacy of the Active Early guide, which includes evidenced-based approaches, provider resources, and training, to improve physical activity opportunities through structured (i.e. teacher-led) activity and environmental changes thereby increasing physical activity among children, ages 2-5 years, in the ECE setting. Twenty ECE programs in Wisconsin, 7 family and 13 group, were included. An 80-page guide, Active Early, was developed by experts and statewide partners in the fields of ECE, public health, and physical activity and was revised by ECE providers prior to implementation. Over 12 months, ECE programs received on-site training and technical assistance to implement the strategies and resources provided in the Active Early guide. Main outcome measures included observed minutes of teacher-led physical activity, physical activity environment measured by the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument, and child physical activity levels via accelerometry. All measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and were analyzed for changes over time. Observed teacher-led physical activity significantly increased from 30.9 ± 22.7 min at baseline to 82.3 ± 41.3 min at 12 months. The change in percent time children spent in sedentary activity decreased significantly after 12 months (-4.4 ± 14.2 % time, -29.2 ± 2.6 min, p < 0.02). Additionally, as teacher led-activity increased, percent time children were sedentary decreased (r = -0.37, p < 0.05) and percent time spent in light physical activity increased (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Among all ECE programs, the physical activity environment improved significantly as indicated by multiple sub-scales of the EPAO; scores showing the greatest increases were the

  14. Learning from Children: Learning from Caroline Pratt (1867-1954). Early Progressives in Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…

  15. Early Childhood Development in the Montreal Study Area (Quebec). Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  16. Early Childhood Development in Abbotsford, British Columbia. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  17. Early Childhood Development in Niagara Falls, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilms, Douglas J.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  18. Early Childhood Development in the Dixie Bloor Community of Mississauga, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  19. Early Childhood Development in Hampton/Sussex, New Brunswick. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, J. Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  20. Turkish Early Childhood Teachers' Emotional Problems in Early Years of Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotaman, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elaborate on the emotional problems faced by Turkish early childhood teachers in their interaction with students, parents, administrators and colleagues in the first three years of their professional lives. Data for this research consists of in-depth interviews with Turkish kindergarten teachers, where these…

  1. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  2. Brain drain: final year medical students' intentions of training abroad.

    PubMed

    Bojanic, Ana; Bojanic, Katarina; Likic, Robert

    2015-06-01

    In Croatia, a new European Union (EU) member state since July 2013, there is already a shortage of around 3280 doctors to reach the European average. To investigate the emigration intentions of the current cohort of final year medical students at Zabreb School of Medicine. An electronic questionnaire was used in June 2013 to assess the attitudes of 232 final year medical students towards working conditions abroad and expectations for career opportunities in Croatia following accession to the EU. With an overall response rate of 87%, more than half of the surveyed students (106/202, 53%) intended to travel abroad, either for specialty (52/202, 26%) or subspecialty (54/202, 27%) training. More female students (58/135, 43%) than male students (17/62, 27%) indicated they would not emigrate. Most attractive emigration destinations were: Germany (34/121, 28%), USA (19/121, 16%), the UK (19/121, 16%), Switzerland (16/121, 13%) and Canada (11/121, 9%). The most important goals that respondents aimed to achieve through training abroad were to excel professionally (45/120, 38%), to prosper financially (20/120, 17%) and to acquire new experiences and international exposure (31/120, 26%). Students' motivating factors, goals for and positive beliefs about training abroad, as well as negative expectations regarding career opportunities in Croatia, may point towards actions that could be taken to help make Croatia a country that facilitates medical education and professional career development of young doctors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Evolution of cystic fibrosis lung function in the early years.

    PubMed

    Bush, Andrew; Sly, Peter D

    2015-11-01

    Most treatment of newborn screening-diagnosed cystic fibrosis is not evidence-based; there are very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, the advent of novel molecular therapies, which could be started at diagnosis, mandates performing RCTs in very young children. However, unless the natural history of early cystic fibrosis lung disease is known, RCTs are impossible. Here, we review the results of two large prospective cohorts of these infants - London Cystic Fibrosis Collaboration (LCFC) (London, UK) and Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST-CF) (Australia). Nutritional status remained excellent in both the cohorts. Both cohorts reported abnormal lung function aged at 3 months. AREST-CF, which previously reported rapidly declining preschool lung function, now report good conventional school-age spirometry. LCFC reported improvement between 3 months and 1 year, and stability in the second year. AREST-CF also reported a high prevalence of high resolution computed tomographic abnormalities related to free neutrophil elastase in bronchoalveolar lavage; LCFC reported high resolution computed tomographic changes at 1 year, which were too mild to be scored reproducibly. At least in the first 2 years of life, lung function is not a good end-point for RCTs; routine bronchoalveolar lavage and HRCT cannot be justified. Newborn screening has greatly improved outcomes, but we need better point-of-care biomarkers.

  4. Early Learning in Psychomotor Training of Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz Aparicio, Maria Teresa; Menendez Balana, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of modeling from a clinician to that of written instructions to train parents to use a motor stimulation program with their infants with Down syndrome. Obtained motor development quotients prior to the program and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Found that infants of parents trained by modeling obtained higher motor…

  5. Teacher Training in France in the Early 2010s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapostolle, Guy; Chevaillier, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The organisation of teacher training was thoroughly transformed in France in 2010. This transformation was the consequence of three interrelated reforms: the requirement of a Master's degree for all teachers, the new recruitment process for teachers and the integration of teacher training colleges (IUFM) into the universities. Universities are now…

  6. Predictors of Early Termination in a University Counseling Training Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Schneider, Mercedes K.; Spengler, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the existence of counseling dropout research, there are limited predictive data for counseling in training clinics. Potential predictor variables were investigated in this archival study of 380 client files in a university counseling training clinic. Multinomial logistic regression, predictive discriminant analysis, and classification and…

  7. Investigating teacher and student effects of the Incredible Years Classroom Management Program in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Murray, Desiree W; Rabiner, David L; Kuhn, Laura; Pan, Yi; Sabet, Raha Forooz

    2018-04-01

    The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY-TCM) and its effects on early elementary teachers' management strategies, classroom climate, and students' emotion regulation, attention, and academic competence. IY-TCM was implemented in 11 rural and semi-rural schools with K-2 teachers and a diverse student sample. Outcomes were compared for 45 teachers who participated in five full day training workshops and brief classroom consultation and 46 control teachers; these 91 teachers had a total of 1192 students. A high level of teacher satisfaction was found and specific aspects of the training considered most valuable for early elementary teachers were identified. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a statistically significant intervention effect on Positive Climate in the classroom (d=0.45) that did not sustain into the next school year. No main effects on student outcomes were observed, although a priori moderator analyses indicated that students with elevated social-behavioral difficulties benefitted with regard to prosocial behavior (d=0.54) and inattention (d=-0.34). Results highlight potential benefits and limitations of a universal teacher training program for elementary students, and suggest strategies for future delivery of the IY-TCM program and areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Five-Year Goal for Training Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Saul B.

    The training complex is conceived as a new kind of mechanism within which teachers will be trained with the assistance of protocol and training materials. It is to be operated by a consortium of universities, schools, and other agencies. Each training complex would be the core of an Educational Service District, which would be responsible for…

  9. Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. Review and Oversight. Part I: Background and First Year Results. Part II: Public Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report reviews the establishment and early performance of the comprehensive manpower system established by the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA). The report is divided into two major sections. Part 1 examines the background and first year results of the CETA program. The legislative and programmatic antecedents to CETA are…

  10. Resident Perceptions of 2-Year Versus 3-Year Cardiothoracic Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tom C; Terwelp, Matthew D; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Odell, David D; Loor, Gabriel; LaPar, Damien J; DeNino, Walter F; Wei, Benjamin; Aftab, Muhammad; Macke, Ryan A; Nelson, Jennifer S; Berfield, Kathleen S; Lazar, John F; Stein, William; Youssef, Samuel J; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang

    2015-06-01

    Resident perceptions of 2-year (2Y) vs 3-year (3Y) programs have never been characterized. The objective was to use the mandatory Thoracic Surgery Residents Association and Thoracic Surgery Directors Association In-Training Examination survey to compare perceptions of residents graduating from 2Y vs 3Y cardiothoracic programs. Each year Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education cardiothoracic residents are required to take a 30-question survey designed by the Thoracic Surgery Residents Association and the Thoracic Surgery Directors Association accompanying the In-Training Examination with a 100% response rate. The 2013 and 2014 survey responses of residents graduating from 2Y vs 3Y training programs were compared. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze ordinal and interval data. Graduating residents completed 167 surveys, including 96 from 2Y (56%) and 71 from 3Y (43%) programs. There was no difference in the perception of being prepared for the American Board of Thoracic Surgery examinations or amount of debt between 2Y and 3Y respondents. There was no difference in intended academic vs private practice. Graduating 3Y residents felt more prepared to meet case requirements and better trained, were more likely to pass their written American Board of Thoracic Surgery examinations, and were less likely to pursue additional training beyond their cardiothoracic residency. There was no difference in field of interest, practice type, and amount of debt between graduating 2Y vs 3Y residents. Respondents from 2Y programs expressed more difficulty in meeting case requirements, whereas residents from 3Y programs felt more prepared for independent practice and had higher American Board of Thoracic Surgery written pass rates. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How well does early-career investigators' cardiovascular outcomes research training align with funded outcomes research?

    PubMed

    Crowley, Matthew J; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Wang, Tracy Y; Khazanie, Prateeti; Kressin, Nancy R; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Wells, Barbara L; O'Brien, Sean M; Peterson, Eric D; Sanders, Gillian D

    2018-02-01

    Outcomes research training programs should prepare trainees to successfully compete for research funding. We examined how early-career investigators' prior and desired training aligns with recently funded cardiovascular (CV) outcomes research. We (1) reviewed literature to identify 13 core competency areas in CV outcomes research; (2) surveyed early-career investigators to understand their prior and desired training in each competency area; (3) examined recently funded grants commonly pursued by early-career outcomes researchers to ascertain available funding in competency areas; and (4) analyzed alignment between investigator training and funded research in each competency area. We evaluated 185 survey responses from early-career investigators (response rate 28%) and 521 funded grants from 2010 to 2014. Respondents' prior training aligned with funded grants in the areas of clinical epidemiology, observational research, randomized controlled trials, and implementation/dissemination research. Funding in community-engaged research and health informatics was more common than prior training in these areas. Respondents' prior training in biostatistics and systematic review was more common than funded grants focusing on these specific areas. Respondents' desired training aligned similarly with funded grants, with some exceptions; for example, desired training in health economics/cost-effectiveness research was more common than funded grants in these areas. Restricting to CV grants (n=132) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded grants (n=170) produced similar results. Identifying mismatch between funded grants in outcomes research and early-career investigators' prior/desired training may help efforts to harmonize investigator interests, training, and funding. Our findings suggest a need for further consideration of how to best prepare early-career investigators for funding success. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Replication of an Inter-Disciplinary Approach to Early Education of Handicapped Children 0-3 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Constance J.; And Others

    Presented is the guide to the Illinois project entitled "An Inter-Disciplinary Approach to Early Education of Handicapped Children Ages 0 - 3 Years" which includes information on funding and public awareness, diagnosis and evaluation, child development-home program, speech and language, structuring the day program, job descriptions and training,…

  13. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…

  14. Absolute pitch does not depend on early musical training.

    PubMed

    Ross, David A; Olson, Ingrid R; Gore, John C

    2003-11-01

    The etiology and defining characteristics of absolute pitch (AP) have been controversial. To test the importance of musical training in the development of this skill, we developed a new paradigm for identifying AP that is independent of a subject's musical experience. We confirm the efficacy of the paradigm using classically defined AP and non-AP musicians. We then present data from a nonmusician who nevertheless appears to possess AP. We conclude that musical training is not necessary for the development of AP.

  15. Early Formulation of Training Programs for Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    training approaches. viii Although the method and media variables aid training program selection de- cisions, a technique is also required to monitor...fact that personnel must still be taught certain prerequisite skills and knowledges before they can begin to use the actual equipment, this approach...often difficult to identify causal relations. Good summaries have been produced, e.g., Meister, 1976,4 however, and are a great aid in pull- ing

  16. Rational pharmacotherapy training for fourth-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Gelal, Ayse; Gumustekin, Mukaddes; Arici, M Aylin; Gidener, Sedef

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of Rational Pharmacotherapy (RPT) course program, reinforced by video footages, on the rational pharmacotherapy skills of the students. RPT course program has been conducted in Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine since 2008/9. The course has been organised in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) Good Prescribing Guide. The aim of the course was to improve the problem solving skills (methodology for selection of the (p)ersonel-drug, prescription writing and informing patient about his illness and drugs) and communication skills of students. The impact of the course has been measured by pre/post-test design by an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). In academic year 2010/11, to further improve OSCE score of the students we added doctor-patient communication video footages to the RPT course programme. During training, the students were asked to evaluate the doctor-patient communication and prescription on two video footages using a checklist followed by group discussions. Total post-test OSCE score was significantly higher for 2010/11 academic year students (n = 147) than it was for 2009/10 year students (n = 131). The 2010/11 academic year students performed significantly better than the 2009/10 academic year students on four steps of OSCE. These steps were "defining the patient's problem", "specifying the therapeutic objective", "specifying the non-pharmacological treatment" and "choosing a (drug) treatment, taking all relevant patient characteristics into account". The present study demonstrated that the implementation of video footages and group discussions to WHO/Good Prescribing Method improved the fourth-year medical students' performance in rational pharmacotherapy skills.

  17. Study on an advanced early rehabilitation training system for postural control using a tilting bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-Ho; Kim, Kyong; Kwon, Tae-Kyu; Hong, Chul-Un; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2005-12-01

    It proposed a new early rehabilitation training system for postural control using a tilting bed, a visual display and a force plate. The conventional rehabilitation systems for postural control can't be applied to the patients lying in bed because the rehabilitation training using those systems is only possible when the patient can stand up by himself or herself. Moreover, there did not exist any device that could provide the sense of balance or the sensation of walking to the patients in bed. The software for the system consists of the training program and the analysis program. The training program was designed to improve the ability of postural control of the subjects by repeated training of moving the center of pressure (COP) applied to the forceplate. The training program consists of the COP maintaining training and the COP movement training in horizontal, vertical, 45° and -45° directions. The analysis program consists of the COP moving time analysis modules, the COP maintaining time analysis module. Through the experiments with real people, it verified the effectiveness of the new early rehabilitation training system. The results showe that this system is an effective system for early rehabilitation training and that our system might be useful as clinical equipment.

  18. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  19. Effects of Essential Newborn Care Training on Fresh Stillbirths and Early Neonatal Deaths by Maternal Education.

    PubMed

    Chomba, Elwyn; Carlo, Wally A; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Jehan, Imtiaz; Tshefu, Antoinette; Garces, Ana; Parida, Sailajandan; Althabe, Fernando; McClure, Elizabeth M; Derman, Richard J; Goldenberg, Robert L; Bose, Carl; Krebs, Nancy F; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Buekens, Pierre; Wallace, Dennis; Moore, Janet; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Wright, Linda L

    2017-01-01

    Infants of women with lower education levels are at higher risk for perinatal mortality. We explored the impact of training birth attendants and pregnant women in the Essential Newborn Care (ENC) Program on fresh stillbirths (FSBs) and early (7-day) neonatal deaths (END) by maternal education level in developing countries. A train-the-trainer model was used with local instructors in rural communities in six countries (Argentina, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, India, Pakistan, and Zambia). Data were collected using a pre-/post-active baseline controlled study design. A total of 57,643 infants/mothers were enrolled. The follow-up rate at 7 days of age was 99.2%. The risk for FSB and END was higher for mothers with 0-7 years of education than for those with ≥8 years of education during both the pre- and post-ENC periods in unadjusted models and in models adjusted for confounding. The effect of ENC differed as a function of maternal education for FSB (interaction p = 0.041) without evidence that the effect of ENC differed as a function of maternal education for END. The model-based estimate of FSB risk was reduced among mothers with 0-7 years of education (19.7/1,000 live births pre-ENC, CI: 16.3, 23.0 vs. 12.2/1,000 live births post-ENC, CI: 16.3, 23.0, p < 0.001), but was not significantly different for mothers with ≥8 years of education, respectively. A low level of maternal education was associated with higher risk for FSB and END. ENC training was more effective in reducing FSB among mothers with low education levels. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Implementing the Early Childhood Development Teacher Training Framework in Uganda: Gains and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Training of quality early childhood development (ECD) teachers is paramount in ensuring quality ECD service provision. This exploratory study focuses on the gains and challenges met in the implementation of the Uganda ECD teacher training framework. Data were obtained using questionnaires and interviews from principals and tutors of ECD teacher…

  1. Early Childhood Workshops That Work! The Essential Guide to Successful Training and Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nancy P.

    Noting that good training results from the instructor's skill, knowledge, and ability to plan a session based on what participants need and want, this book is a comprehensive guide that illustrates how to design, organize, conduct, and evaluate early childhood workshops and training seminars. The book includes sections on troubleshooting problem…

  2. Organising, Providing and Evaluating Technical Training for Early Career Researchers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Besouw, Rachel M.; Rogers, Katrine S.; Powles, Christopher J.; Papadopoulos, Timos; Ku, Emery M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of providing technical training opportunities for Early Career Researchers (ECRs) worldwide through the case study of a MATLAB training programme, which was proposed, organised, managed and evaluated by a team of five ECRs at the University of Southampton. The effectiveness of the programme in terms of the…

  3. Training of Personnel for Programmes in Early Childhood Care and Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1992-01-01

    Describes the early childhood components of India's National Policy on Education (1986), focusing particularly on the training of grassroots level personnel or Anganwadi workers, preschool teachers, creche workers, middle-level personnel, and project officers. Reviews training innovations, including mobile creches, home-based programs,…

  4. Feedback Facilitated Relaxation Training as Primary Prevention of Drug Abuse in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Richard

    1977-01-01

    As a means of primary prevention this paper suggests the use of relaxation training to develop self-esteem and reduce drug abuse. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of relaxation training and electromyography and focus this approach on the needs of early adolescents. (Author)

  5. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  6. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  7. Early Training Estimation System (ETES). Appendix F. User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Related to Early Training Estimation 2-17 2-5 Organizations Interviewed During Task 1 2-17 2-6 Potential Problem Solving Aids 2-24 2-7 Task Deletion...tasks are available, only the training program elements must be estimated. Thus, by adding comparability analysis procedures to SDT data base management...data base manage- ment capabilities of the SDT, and (3) conduct trade-off studies of proposed solutions to identified training problems . 1-17

  8. Resource Guide: Selected Early Childhood/Early Intervention Training Materials. 9th Edition. Systems Change in Personnel Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catlett, Camille, Ed.; Winton, Pamela J., Ed.

    This resource guide identifies and describes early childhood education teaching, training, and staff development materials that meet three basic criteria: good, readily available, and inexpensive. It is designed to provide educators, trainers, supervisors, and other personnel preparation decision makers with resources for designing quality…

  9. Early childhood caries and infant oral health: Paediatricians’ and family physicians’ knowledge, practices and training

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Preeti; Lawrence, Herenia P; Harvey, Bart J; McIsaac, Warren J; Limeback, Hardy; Leake, James L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the knowledge of early childhood caries and to examine the current preventive oral health-related practices and training among Canadian paediatricians and family physicians who provide primary care to children younger than three years. METHODS A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 1928 paediatricians and family physicians. RESULTS A total of 1044 physicians met the study eligibility criteria, and of those, 537 returned completed surveys, resulting in an overall response rate of 51.4% (237 paediatricians and 300 family physicians). Six questions assessed knowledge of early childhood caries; only 1.8% of paediatricians and 0.7% of family physicians answered all of these questions correctly. In total, 73.9% of paediatricians and 52.4% of family physicians reported visually inspecting children’s teeth; 60.4% and 44.6%, respectively, reported counselling parents or caregivers regarding teething and dental care; 53.2% and 25.6%, respectively, reported assessing children’s risk of developing tooth decay; and 17.9% and 22.3%, respectively, reported receiving no oral health training in medical school or residency. Respondents who felt confident and knowledgeable and who considered their role in promoting oral health as “very important” were significantly more likely to carry out oral health-related practices. CONCLUSION Although the majority of paediatricians and family physicians reported including aspects of oral health in children’s well visits, a reported lack of dental knowledge and training appeared to pose barriers, limiting these physicians from playing a more active role in promoting the oral health of children in their practices. PMID:19030271

  10. Acute Responses to Resistance and High-Intensity Interval Training in Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nigel K; Dulson, Deborah K; Logan, Greig R M; Warbrick, Isaac B; Merien, Fabrice L R; Lubans, David R

    2017-05-01

    Harris, NK, Dulson, DK, Logan, GRM, Warbrick, IB, Merien, FLR, and Lubans, DR. Acute responses to resistance and high-intensity interval training in early adolescents. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1177-1186, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare the acute physiological responses within and between resistance training (RT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) matched for time and with comparable effort, in a school setting. Seventeen early adolescents (12.9 ± 0.3 years) performed both RT (2-5 repetitions perceived short of failure at the end of each set) and HIIT (90% of age-predicted maximum heart rate), equated for total work set and recovery period durations comprising of 12 "sets" of 30-second work followed by 30-second recovery (total session time 12 minutes). Variables of interest included oxygen consumption, set and session heart rate (HR), and rate of perceived exertion, and change in salivary cortisol (SC), salivary alpha amylase, and blood lactate (BL) from presession to postsession. Analyses were conducted to determine responses within and between the 2 different protocols. For both RT and HIIT, there were very large increases pretrial to posttrial for SC and BL, and only BL increased greater in HIIT (9.1 ± 2.6 mmol·L) than RT (6.8 ± 3.3 mmol·L). Mean set HR for both RT (170 ± 9.1 b·min) and HIIT (179 ± 5.6 b·min) was at least 85% of HRmax. V[Combining Dot Above]O2 over all 12 sets was greater for HIIT (33.8 ± 5.21 ml·kg·min) than RT (24.9 ± 3.23 ml·kg·min). Brief, repetitive, intermittent forays into high but not supramaximal intensity exercise using RT or HIIT seemed to be a potent physiological stimulus in adolescents.

  11. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  12. Teaching, Practice, Feedback: 15 years of COMPASS science communication training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeley, L.; Smith, B.; McLeod, K.; English, C. A.; Baron, N.

    2014-12-01

    COMPASS is focused on helping scientists build the skills and relationships they need to effectively participate in public discourse. Founded in 2001 with an emphasis on ocean science, and since expanding to a broader set of environmental sciences, we have advised, coached, and/or trained thousands of researchers of all career stages. Over the years, our primary work has notably shifted from needing to persuade scientists why communication matters to supporting them as they pursue the question of what their communication goals are and how best to achieve them. Since our earliest forays into media promotion, we have evolved with the state of the science communication field. In recent years, we have adapted our approach to one that facilitates dialogue and encourages engagement, helps scientists identify the most relevant people and times to engage, tests our own assumptions, and incorporates relevant social science as possible. In this case study, we will discuss more than a decade of experience in helping scientists find or initiate and engage in meaningful conversations with journalists and policymakers.

  13. SIFT-OUT: Training for Systems Change in Early Intervention. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pamela J.; Catlett, Camille

    This report summarizes the activities of the SIFT-OUT program, a federally funded project designed to prepare teams of university faculty, family members, practitioners, and agency representatives from six states, to serve as leaders in providing early intervention training in their states. A total of 166 state-level early intervention leaders…

  14. Developing a Home-Based Early Intervention Personnel Training Program in Southeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Huichao; Chen, Ching-I; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Squires, Jane; Li, Wenge; Liu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    China is expected to have a rapid growth in specialized early intervention (EI) services for young children ages birth to 6 and their families. A major barrier in the provision of EI services in China is the shortage of well-trained EI personnel. In 2013, a Home-Based Early Intervention Program (HBEIP) was started at South China Normal University…

  15. Training Early Childhood Teachers for Sustainability: Towards a "Learning Experience of a Different Kind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feriver, Sebnem; Teksöz, Gaye; Olgan, Refika; Reid, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we discuss findings from a small-scale project evaluating an in-service teacher training programme focused on "perspective transformation" in early childhood education and education for sustainability (EfS). A bespoke professional development programme was developed for Turkish early childhood teachers, based on a variety…

  16. Medical students' preparation for the transition to postgraduate training through final year elective rotations.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, W E Sjoukje; Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo; Ten Cate, Olle; van Dijk, Marijke

    2017-01-01

    preferences or resulted in a more clear insight. Conclusion: We conclude that students use the transitional year electives to focus on their future postgraduate training program, i.e. for orientation and to align their curriculum vitae with their preferred specialty, resulting in spontaneous early specialty streaming. To take advantages of this streaming, and to make sure students can transfer their experiences to other specialties if their career preferences change, individual elective Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs), next to the core EPAs for all medical students, may serve to prepare a smooth transition to a specialty of choice and should be fully documented.

  17. Links between Early Rhythm Skills, Musical Training, and Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Catherine; Yampolsky, Sasha; Papadelis, Georgios; Thomson, Jennifer; Wolf, Maryanne

    2013-01-01

    A small number of studies show that music training is associated with improvements in reading or in its component skills. A central question underlying this present research is whether musical activity can enhance the acquisition of reading skill, potentially before formal reading instruction begins. We explored two dimensions of this question: an…

  18. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early years of Radio Astronomy in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, B. F.

    Radio Astronomy in the U.S. went through two distinct phases, the pioneering phase before the Second World War, when Karl Jansky and Grote Reber were the only two radio astronomers in the world, and the post-WWII era, when the subject blossomed throughout the world, especially in England and Australia, while U.S. radio astronomy languished at a relatively low level, until its resurgence a decade later. Here in Budapest we are celebrating the 70th anniversary of Jansky's discovery, and I shall start with a review of his work, and the subsequent work of Grote Reber, who died, regrettably, in December 2002. Two historical references will be cited frequently: Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy (Kellermann & Sheets, eds. 1983, referred to as Paper 1) and the two historical collections edited by W.T. Sullivan, Classics in Radio Astronomy (1982, referred to as Paper 2) and The Early Years of Radio Astronomy (1984, Paper 3).

  20. Early American sunspot drawings from the "year without a summer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; McVaugh, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    A set of sunspot drawings from the early nineteenth century were discovered in the journals of the Reverend Jonathan Fisher. These drawings were made during a time when abnormally cold weather caused crops in New England to fail due to intermittent frost throughout the summer months of 1816, normally referred to as the "year without a summer." Global changes in weather patterns were the result of the Mount Tambora volcano eruption. Since this association was unknown at the time, there was speculation that the Sun was the cause inspiring the Reverend Fisher to monitor changes in sunspots during the summer of 1816 and continuing into 1817. These sunspot drawings for the summer of 1816 overlap the solar observations of Sir William Hershel.

  1. Furniture and Timber Training Board, Fourth Year's Scheme; Training Grants Scheme, 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Furniture and Timber Training Board, Wembly (England).

    This booklet explains what training grants are offered by the Furniture and Timber Training Board of Great Britain, indicates how to claim them, and outlines the Board's training philosophy. Foldouts present conditions which apply in whole or in part to the Training Grants Scheme, followed by guidelines for completing forms. The main section…

  2. Bridging Cultures in Early Care and Education: A Training Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Marlene; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie; Trumbull, Elise

    2006-01-01

    This book is a resource designed to help pre-service and in-service early childhood educators, including infant-toddler caregivers, understand the role of culture in their programs. It is also intended for professionals who work with children and their families in a variety of other roles, such as social workers, special educators, and early…

  3. Skills of novices early trained or traditionaly trained versus experienced drivers confronted to simulated urban accidents' scenarios.

    PubMed

    Berthelon, Catherine; Damm, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent the over-representation of young drivers in car crashes, France instated an early driver training from the age of 16, but the positive effects of this opportunity have not yet been proven. Three groups of male drivers (12 subjects each) were confronted with some prototypical accident scenarios introduced in a simulated urban circuit. The first and second groups were composed of young drivers having less than one month of driving licence; twelve have had a traditional learning course, and twelve had followed, in addition to the initial course, an early driver training under the supervision of an adult. The third group was composed of experienced drivers. Strategies of the three groups were analyzed through their response time, speed and maneuvers. No difference appeared across groups regarding obstacle detection. But traditionally-trained drivers' position control was more conservative than the two others groups, which were more likely to involve efficient evasive action. The exposure gained during early training could thus increase the development of visuo-motor coordination and involve better skills in case of difficult situations. Others accidents' scenarios could be used to confront young drivers with difficult situations not commonly encountered in natural driving.

  4. Teaching Scholarly Activity in Psychiatric Training: Years 6 and 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Boland, Robert; Cowley, Deborah; Cyr, Rebecca L.; Pato, Michele T.; Thrall, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To address nationally recognized needs for increased numbers of psychiatric clinician-scholars and physician-scientists, the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) has provided a series of full-day conferences of psychiatry residency training directors designed to increase their competence in…

  5. Invisible to Visible: Mapping the Continuum of Literacy Learning Experiences in an Early Years Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervin, Lisa; Turbill, Jan; Harden-Thew, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The face of early childhood education continues to change. In Australia, the national early childhood guidelines, "Early Years Learning Framework" (2009) and the "National Quality Framework" have articulated and defined the work of early years' educators in a range of areas, including literacy. Both frameworks state that their…

  6. Centro TORTUGA's Integrated Research and Professional Development Training for Early Stage Hispanic Students in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, F. C.; Allen, M. R.; Barberena-Arias, M.; Clark, J.; Harris, L.; Maldonado, P. M.; Olivo-Delgado, C.; Pierson, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last five years our multidisciplinary team explored different undergraduate research and professional development (PD) strategies to improve early stage Hispanic student retention in marine science with the objective of interesting them in pursuing degrees that may ultimately lead to geoscience careers. This research led to the 2016 launch of our current project, Centro TORTUGA (Tropical Oceanography Research Training for Undergraduate Academics). Our overarching goal is to increase the number of underrepresented students from minority serving institutions in geoscience-relevant disciplines and careers. Critical to success is building a program rich in both research and PD. Based on qualitative and quantitative evaluations we found students benefited from PD efforts to increase skills in areas such as: 1) speaking and writing English; 2) science communication; 3) teamwork; 4) project management; and 5) completing internship/graduate school applications. To build student self-confidence, networking, and science skills Centro Tortuga involves students' families, bridges cultural gaps across research and non-research institutions inside and outside of Puerto Rico, and provides a gathering place (Centro TORTUGA) for students. With our partners, Universidad del Turabo (UT), Universidad Metropolitana (UMET), and University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, we are now testing a 12-month integrated research and PD curriculum. Initial results suggest areas for improved student training include: 1) science communication (reports and graphs); 2) science ethics; and 3) poster and oral presentations. Students also identified specific preparation they would like included in the Centro TORTUGA curriculum.

  7. A comparison of strength-training, self-management and the combination for early osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Patrick E.; Kasle, Shelley; Going, Scott; Villaneuva, Isidro; Cornett, Michelle; Farr, Josh; Wright, Jill; Streeter, Clara; Zautra, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative effectiveness of combining self-management and strength-training for improving functional outcomes in early knee osteoarthritis patients. Methods A randomized intervention trial lasting 24 months conducted at an academic medical center. Community dwelling middle-aged adults (N=273), aged 34 to 65 with knee osteoarthritis, pain and self-reported physical disability completed a strength-training program, a self-management program, or a combined program. Outcomes included five physical function tests (leg press, range of motion, work capacity, balance, and stair climbing) and two self-reported measures of pain and disability. Results A total of 201 (73.6 %) participants completed the 2-year trial. Overall compliance was modest - strength-training (55.8 %), self-management (69.1 %), and combined (59.6 %) programs. The three groups showed a significant and large increase from pre- to post-treatment in all physical functioning measures including leg press (d =.85), range of motion (d=1.00), work capacity (d=.60), balance (d=.59), and stair climbing (d=.59). Additionally, all three groups showed decreased self-reported pain (d=-.51) and disability (d=-.55). There were no significant differences among groups. Conclusions Middle-aged, sedentary persons with mild early knee osteoarthritis benefited from strength-training, self-management, and the combination. These results suggest that both strength-training and self-management are suitable treatments for early onset of knee osteoarthritis in middle-aged adults. Self-management alone may offer the least burdensome treatment for early osteoarthritis. PMID:20191490

  8. Antenatal Training with Music and Maternal Talk Concurrently May Reduce Autistic-Like Behaviors at around 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zeng-Liang; Liu, Li; Strodl, Esben; Fan, Li-Jun; Yin, Xiao-Na; Wen, Guo-Min; Sun, Deng-Li; Xian, Dan-Xia; Jiang, Hui; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Wu, Chuan-An; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Antenatal training through music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus is a topic of general interest for parents-to-be in China, but we still lack a comprehensive assessment of their effects on the development of autistic-like behaviors during early childhood. During 2014–2016, 34,749 parents of children around the age of 3 years who were enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen participated in this study. Self-administered questionnaires regarding demographics, antenatal music training, and maternal talk to the fetus during pregnancy were completed by the children’s primary caregivers. Autistic-like behaviors were assessed using the Autism Behavioral Checklist. Tobit regression analyses revealed that antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus was associated with a reduction in autistic-like behaviors in children, with a dose-dependent relationship. Furthermore, factorial analysis of covariance indicated a significant interaction effect between antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus on the autistic-like behaviors and found that children who often experienced antenatal music training and maternal talk concurrently had the lowest risk of autistic-like behaviors, while children who were never exposed to maternal talk and only sometimes experienced antenatal music training had the highest risk. Our results suggest that antenatal training through both music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus might reduce the risk of children’s autistic-like behaviors at around 3 years of age. PMID:29375407

  9. Antenatal Training with Music and Maternal Talk Concurrently May Reduce Autistic-Like Behaviors at around 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zeng-Liang; Liu, Li; Strodl, Esben; Fan, Li-Jun; Yin, Xiao-Na; Wen, Guo-Min; Sun, Deng-Li; Xian, Dan-Xia; Jiang, Hui; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Wu, Chuan-An; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Antenatal training through music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus is a topic of general interest for parents-to-be in China, but we still lack a comprehensive assessment of their effects on the development of autistic-like behaviors during early childhood. During 2014-2016, 34,749 parents of children around the age of 3 years who were enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen participated in this study. Self-administered questionnaires regarding demographics, antenatal music training, and maternal talk to the fetus during pregnancy were completed by the children's primary caregivers. Autistic-like behaviors were assessed using the Autism Behavioral Checklist. Tobit regression analyses revealed that antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus was associated with a reduction in autistic-like behaviors in children, with a dose-dependent relationship. Furthermore, factorial analysis of covariance indicated a significant interaction effect between antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus on the autistic-like behaviors and found that children who often experienced antenatal music training and maternal talk concurrently had the lowest risk of autistic-like behaviors, while children who were never exposed to maternal talk and only sometimes experienced antenatal music training had the highest risk. Our results suggest that antenatal training through both music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus might reduce the risk of children's autistic-like behaviors at around 3 years of age.

  10. Making the best of the early years: the Tambellup way.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kim D; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beerenfels, Susan; Rowell, Anne-Marie C

    2010-01-01

    Tambellup is a small rural town in the Great Southern region of Western Australia (WA), approximately 300 km south-east of state capital Perth. Tambellup has a much higher Aboriginal population than the national average and achieved very positive results for year one children in 2007 regional Australian Early Development Index testing. In 2009 the Great Southern GP Network (which has a facilitating role in providing early intervention strategies to families with young children at risk of disadvantage) requested that public health staff at Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA undertake an exploratory study to discover the factors protective of children's development in Tambellup. This article describes the subsequent research and its findings. This 2009 qualitative study interviewed both adult members of the local Aboriginal community (Noongar people; n = 23), and non-Aboriginal leaders from a cross-section of organisations, services and the community (n = 14) to determine what made growing up in Tambellup a positive experience. Aboriginal participants were introduced to the researchers by a local cultural consultant. Non-Aboriginal participants were initially sourced from a list provided by the GSGPN and extended by asking those listed to identify other appropriate contacts. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with Aboriginal participants and telephone interviews were undertaken with non-Aboriginal participants. All interviews were conducted using a standard schedule of questions as a guide, supplemented by clarifying and broadening questions from research team members. Data were analysed in a multi-stage process of collation, extraction of common themes and verification of themes with study participants and other stakeholders. Findings were presented to local Aboriginal leaders at a community meeting and a final report was prepared and circulated to community members. There was substantial evidence of widespread trust and positive relationships in this close

  11. Effect of training pediatricians and family physicians in early childhood caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the effect of postresidency early childhood caries prevention training on physicians' oral health knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns and to identify variations by type of training. We conducted pre- and post-training surveys of pediatricians and family physicians in Florida. Paired t test and repeated-measures ANOVA analyses were used to compare physicians with no oral health training, those with applied in-office training, and those with another type of training on 5 composite measures: fluoride knowledge, nonfluoride oral health knowledge, confidence in advising parents, confidence in conducting oral health screening and caries risk assessment, and frequency in performing recommended oral health practices. The final sample included 229 physicians (162 pediatricians and 67 family physicians). The interaction in the repeated-measures ANOVA between group (training category) and time (pre- and post-training) was significant for the nonfluoride knowledge [F(2, 225) = 4.1, P = .02] and confidence in screening [F(2, 224) = 4.1, P = .02] composite measures, lending support for a positive treatment effect of training on these domains. Greater gains were observed among physicians with in-office training compared with those who received another type of training. A statistically significant treatment effect on oral health practices was not detected. Efforts to engage physicians in oral health training and to incorporate applied components in training curricula may improve physicians' oral health knowledge and increase their confidence in conducting oral health screenings and caries risk assessments. Additional research is needed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of different training modalities on specific oral health practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Datafication of Early Years Education and Its Impact upon Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy; Bradbury, Alice

    2016-01-01

    This article raises important questions about whether the increasing control of early years education through performance data is genuinely a means for school improvement. This composite article, examines the pervasiveness of attainment data in early years education professional activity, its impact on early years teachers' consciousness and…

  13. Children's Early Literacy Practices at Home and in Early Years Settings: Second Annual Survey of Parents and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines findings from Pearson and the National Literacy Trust's second annual early years literacy survey, conducted in May to July 2014. 1,012 parents of children aged 3 to 5 and 567 early years practitioners who work with this age group participated. Attainment data in the form of vocabulary abilities were available for a subsample…

  14. The Importance of Effective Behaviour Screening in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler-Merrick, Gaye; Church, John

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention for children with behavioural difficulties can be effective in terms of outcomes for both the children and their families. Early intervention can save a child from long-term outcomes such as school failure, peer rejection and later offending. However, in terms of accurate assessment of young children's behavioural difficulties,…

  15. Supporting Child Participation in the Early Years of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Marion

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to conversations around child participation within early childhood settings in Australia. Ethnographic approach was used for this study to explore child participatory workshops in Early Childhood Centers. The center in which this study took place was chosen as one of the sites of analysis for a broader PhD research…

  16. Does early training improve driving skills of young novice French drivers?

    PubMed

    Freydier, Chloé; Berthelon, Catherine; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research was to study drivers' performances and divided attention depending on their initial training. The performances of young novice drivers who received early training, traditionally trained drivers and more experienced drivers were compared during a dual task consisting of a simulated car-following task and a number' parity judgment task. It was expected that, due to their limited driving experience, the young novice drivers would have more difficulty in adequately distributing their attention between the two tasks. Poorer performances by novice drivers than experienced drivers were therefore expected. The results indicate that traditionally trained drivers had more difficulties in speed regulation and maintaining their position in the lane than drivers with early training and experienced drivers. Performance impairment linked to driving inexperience was also found in the secondary task. The results were interpreted regarding the attentional resources involved in driving with a secondary task and supported the positive effects of French early training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emergency Medical Technician Training for Medical Students: A Two-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Thomas H; Halsey, R Maglin; Reinovsky, Jennifer H

    2016-01-01

    New medical school educational curriculum encourages early clinical experiences along with clinical and biomedical integration. The University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, one of the new expansion schools, was established in 2011 with the first class matriculating in 2012. To promote clinical skills early in the curriculum, emergency medical technician (EMT) training was included and begins in the first semester. Along with the early clinical exposure, the program introduces interprofessional health and teams and provides the opportunity for students to personally see and appreciate the wide variety of environments from which their future patients emanate. This report describes the EMT program and changes that were made after the first class that were designed to integrate EMT training with the biomedical sciences and to assess the value of these integrative changes using objective criteria. A two-year retrospective study was conducted that involved the first two classes of medical students. Baseline student data and pass rates from the psychomotor skill and written components of the State examination were used to determine if students performed better in the integrated, prolonged course. There were 53 students in the first class and 54 in the second. Of the 51 students in the first class and 53 students in the second class completing the state psychomotor and written examination, 20 (39%) in the first class and 17 (32%) in the second passed on the initial psychomotor skill attempt; however, more students passed in the first three attempts in the second class than the first class, 51 (96%) versus 45 (88%) , respectively. All students passed by 5 attempts. For the written examination, 50 (98%) students in the first class and 51 (96%) in the second class passed on the first attempt. All students passed by the third attempt. Pass rates on both components of the State examination were not significantly different between classes. Medical students who

  18. Statistical mentoring at early training and career stages

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Hamada, Michael S.; Moore, Leslie M.; ...

    2016-06-27

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), statistical scientists develop solutions for a variety of national security challenges through scientific excellence, typically as members of interdisciplinary teams. At LANL, mentoring is actively encouraged and practiced to develop statistical skills and positive career-building behaviors. Mentoring activities targeted at different career phases from student to junior staff are an important catalyst for both short and long term career development. This article discusses mentoring strategies for undergraduate and graduate students through internships as well as for postdoctoral research associates and junior staff. Topics addressed include project selection, progress, and outcome; intellectual and social activitiesmore » that complement the student internship experience; key skills/knowledge not typically obtained in academic training; and the impact of such internships on students’ careers. Experiences and strategies from a number of successful mentorships are presented. Feedback from former mentees obtained via a questionnaire is incorporated. As a result, these responses address some of the benefits the respondents received from mentoring, helpful contributions and advice from their mentors, key skills learned, and how mentoring impacted their later careers.« less

  19. Statistical mentoring at early training and career stages

    SciT

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Hamada, Michael S.; Moore, Leslie M.

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), statistical scientists develop solutions for a variety of national security challenges through scientific excellence, typically as members of interdisciplinary teams. At LANL, mentoring is actively encouraged and practiced to develop statistical skills and positive career-building behaviors. Mentoring activities targeted at different career phases from student to junior staff are an important catalyst for both short and long term career development. This article discusses mentoring strategies for undergraduate and graduate students through internships as well as for postdoctoral research associates and junior staff. Topics addressed include project selection, progress, and outcome; intellectual and social activitiesmore » that complement the student internship experience; key skills/knowledge not typically obtained in academic training; and the impact of such internships on students’ careers. Experiences and strategies from a number of successful mentorships are presented. Feedback from former mentees obtained via a questionnaire is incorporated. As a result, these responses address some of the benefits the respondents received from mentoring, helpful contributions and advice from their mentors, key skills learned, and how mentoring impacted their later careers.« less

  20. The early years of retroviral protease crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Soon after its discovery, the attempts to develop anti-AIDS therapeutics focused on the retroviral protease (PR)-an enzyme used by lentiviruses to process the precursor polypeptide into mature viral proteins. An urgent need for the three-dimensional structure of PR to guide rational drug design prompted efforts to produce milligram quantities of this enzyme. However, only minute amounts of PR were present in the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses, and initial attempts to express this protein in bacteria were not successful. This review describes X-ray crystallographic studies of the retroviral proteases carried out at NCI-Frederick in the late 1980s and early 1990s and puts into perspective the crucial role that the total protein chemical synthesis played in unraveling the structure, mechanism of action, and inhibition of HIV-1 PR. Notably, the first fully correct structure of HIV-1 PR and the first cocrystal structure of its complex with an inhibitor (a substrate-derived, reduced isostere hexapeptide MVT-101) were determined using chemically synthesized protein. Most importantly, these sets of coordinates were made freely available to the research community and were used worldwide to solve X-ray structures of HIV-1 PR complexes with an array of inhibitors and set in motion a variety of theoretical studies. Publication of the structure of chemically synthesized HIV-1 PR complexed with MVT-101 preceded only by six years the approval of the first PR inhibitor as an anti-AIDS drug. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 77 FR 9664 - Funds for Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry's Current Grantees; One-Year Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry's Current Grantees; One-Year Extension AGENCY: Health Resources... Funds for Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry's (T17) Current Grantees. SUMMARY: The Health... for the Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry awards to Columbia University, The Regents of the...

  2. Seafood inclusion in commercial main meal early years' food products.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Marais, Debbi; Craig, Leone C A; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2016-10-01

    Seafood consumption is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Under-exposure to seafood during early years feeding, when taste and food acceptance is developed, may impact on the future development of a varied diet. This study aimed to investigate the availability and nutritional content of seafood in commercial infant meals compared to the other food types. A survey was conducted of all commercial infant main meal products available for purchase in supermarkets, high street retailers and online stores within the United Kingdom. The primary food type (seafood, poultry, meat and vegetables) within each product, nutritional composition per 100 g, and ingredient contribution were assessed. Of the original 341 main meal products seafood (n = 13; 3.8%) was underrepresented compared to poultry (103; 30.2%), meat (121; 35.5%) and vegetables (104; 30.5%). The number of the seafood meals increased three years later (n = 20; 6.3%) vegetable meals remained the largest contributor to the market (115; 36.4%) with meat (99; 31.3%) and poultry (82; 26.0%) both contributing slightly less than previously. Seafood-based meals provided significantly higher energy (83.0 kcal), protein (4.6 g), and total fat (3.2 g) than vegetable (68 kcal, 2.7 g, 1.9 g), meat (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and poultry-based meals (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and higher saturated fat (1.3 g) than poultry (0.4 g) and vegetable-based (0.6 g) meals (all per 100 g) which may be attributed to additional dairy ingredients. Parents who predominantly use commercial products to wean their infant may face challenges in sourcing a range of seafood products to enable the introduction of this food into the diet of their infant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  4. [Timing and effectiveness of Brenner's IPT cognitive training in early psychosis. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Borriello, Adriana; Balbi, Andrea; Menichincheri, Renato Maria; Mirabella, Fiorino

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the outcome of cognitive training as part of Brenner's Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT) in two groups of individuals with a schizophrenic spectrum disorder (F20-F24 ICD-10). 28 participants were divided into either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group was composed of 13 individuals (46%) with a mean age of 21.2 years and a mean duration of illness (since their first episode of psychosis FEP) of 15.6 months. The control group included 15 individuals (54%) with a mean age of 25.6 years and a mean duration of illness of 74.4 months (beyond the critical period). Participants underwent an assessment of cognitive functioning which focused on attention, memory, executive functioning and cognitive flexibility as measured by the WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Each individual was tested pre- and 6-month post-intervention. The original IPT method was altered by reducing the frequency of sessions to once a week and by limiting our sessions to 2-3 individuals per group. Cognitive flexibility (p<0.01) and long-term memory (p<0.01) improved only in the experimental group. These former skills worsened in the control group (p<0.01). Selective attention, short-term memory and verbal fluency improved in both groups (from p<0.05 to p<0.01). IPT cognitive training, when delivered in the early stages of psychosis (within 18 months from FEP), seems to be particularly effective in improving cognitive flexibility and long-term memory. We did not see improvements in those who had a longer duration of illness who also underwent the same treatment. Cognitive flexibility is linked to clinical insight and social cognition. Therefore, improving this function may lead to a better outcome for patients.

  5. Resource Guide: Selected Early Childhood/Early Intervention Training Materials. 10th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catlett, Camille, Comp.; Winton, Pamela J., Comp.

    The purpose of this resource guide is to identify and describe teaching, training, and staff development materials that meet three basic criteria: they are good, they are readily available, and they are inexpensive. These resources may assist educators, trainers, supervisors, and other personnel preparation decisionmakers in designing quality…

  6. Doctors' views about their work, education and training three years after graduation in the UK: questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Trevor; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Doctors who graduated in the UK after 2005 have followed a restructured postgraduate training programme (Modernising Medical Careers) and have experienced the introduction of the European Working Time Regulation and e-portfolios. In this paper, we report the views of doctors who graduated in 2008 three years after graduation and compare these views with those expressed in year 1. Questionnaires about career intentions, destinations and views sent in 2011 to all medical graduates of 2008. 3228 UK medical graduates. Comments on work, education and training. Response was 49% (3228/6538); 885 doctors wrote comments. Of these, 21.8% were unhappy with the standard of their training; 8.4% were positive. Doctors made positive comments about levels of supervision, support, morale and job satisfaction. Many doctors commented on poor arrangements for rotas, cover and leave, which had an adverse effect on work-life balance, relationships, morale and health. Some doctors felt pressured into choosing their future specialty too early, with inadequate career advice. Themes raised in year 3 that were seldom raised in year 1 included arrangements for flexible working and maternity leave, obtaining posts in desired locations and having to pay for courses, exams and conferences. Many doctors felt training was available, but that European Working Time Regulation, rotas and cover arrangements made it difficult to attend. Three years after graduation, doctors raised similar concerns to those they had raised two years earlier, but the pressures of career decision making, family life and job seeking were new issues.

  7. Train the Trainer. Final Report. Fiscal Year 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TIU Adult Education and Job Training Center, Lewistown, PA.

    A project designed an operational system and develop a skilled pool of trainers, in conjunction with Pennsylvania's Regional Professional Development Centers (PDCs), to deliver high-quality, uniform training modules in needed content areas to adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) staff throughout Pennsylvania. Procedures for identifying,…

  8. A Cataract Surgery Training Program: 2-Year Outcome After Launching.

    PubMed

    Yu, A-Yong; Wang, Qin-Mei; Li, Jin; Huang, Fang; Golnik, Karl

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether a short-term training program can produce competent cataract surgeons. This observational pilot study enrolled 12 trainees who could not perform phacoemulsification independently. The training consisted of 2 phases. During the first 3-month phase, trainees were taught phacoemulsification through wet laboratory exposure and deliberate practice in patients at the training center in the Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University in China. The second phase consisted of performing 50 cases at the trainees׳ home institution with supports from instructors of the first phase. Trainees׳ surgical results were followed-up. The surgical skill as measured by the Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric (OSCAR) and surgical outcomes were analyzed. During the first phase trainees performed 193.3 ± 95.4 wet laboratory cases and 557 eyes in patients. The complication rate was 0.54%. The OSCAR scores improved significantly (p < 0.01) in the first phase. At the second phase, all the trainees could carry out phacoemulsification at their home hospital and the complication rate was 1.87%. During the long-term follow-up, 4936 cases of phacoemulsification were performed and the complication rate was 0.87%. Trainees succeeded in performing phacoemulsification safely and skillfully through a limited short period of training by wet laboratory exposure, deliberate practice in patients, and frequent formative feedback provided by the OSCAR tool. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Agency Training Centers for Federal Employes, Fiscal Year 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Training.

    This publication provides up to date information on Federal agency operated training centers, including data on the number, variety, and general characteristics of program offerings for civilian employees. Locations, purposes, courses and other programs, eligibility for attendance, sources of further information, and other items of potential…

  10. Discipline, Governmentality and 25 Years of Competency-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Steven; Harris, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Among the many critiques of competency-based approaches to education and training (CBT) is a strain which draws on Foucault's analysis of "disciplinary" power and knowledge. Foucault offered an interpretation of modern institutions, such as prisons, armies and schools, which revealed subtle mechanisms of surveillance and systems of…

  11. Disaster Medicine Training Through Simulations for Fourth-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, Marc G.; Cowan, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a six-day multiple-simulation exercise in the military disaster medical services training program of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences is described. It is the second part of a clerkship that includes a classroom/laboratory phase using a disaster problem-solving board game. (MSE)

  12. Embers to Bonfires: An Analysis of Early Childhood Teacher Training in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Palmer, Teri E.; Shen, Mei-Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined a five-year project initiated by the Women's Global Connection (WGC) to train pre-primary teachers in schools serving HIV/AIDS orphans in Zambia. The researchers evaluated the contextual factors of the training initiative to clarify why some teachers possess high self-efficacy, while others do not. The article analyses the…

  13. Peer Deviancy Training and Peer Coercion: Dual Processes Associated with Early-Onset Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, James; Schrepferman, Lynn; McEachern, Amber; Barner, Stacy; Johnson, Kassy; Provines, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    The prospective relationships of conduct problems and peer coercion and deviancy training during kindergarten (mean age = 5.3 years) to overt and covert conduct problems in third-fourth grade were examined in a sample of 267 boys and girls. Coercion and deviancy training were distinct peer processes. Both were associated with earlier child conduct…

  14. The Effects of Training on Visual-Spatial Disembedding Skills in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Sherice Brake

    2017-01-01

    The overall goal of the present study was to develop, implement, and test the effectiveness of a curriculum designed to improve spatial thinking amongst preschool children. Specifically, the study explored the effects of shape-based training on 4-year-old children's ability to disembed and whether the training transferred to improvement in mental…

  15. Structural reorganization of the early visual cortex following Braille training in sighted adults.

    PubMed

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Zimmermann, Maria; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Szwed, Marcin

    2017-12-12

    Training can induce cross-modal plasticity in the human cortex. A well-known example of this phenomenon is the recruitment of visual areas for tactile and auditory processing. It remains unclear to what extent such plasticity is associated with changes in anatomy. Here we enrolled 29 sighted adults into a nine-month tactile Braille-reading training, and used voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to describe the resulting anatomical changes. In addition, we collected resting-state fMRI data to relate these changes to functional connectivity between visual and somatosensory-motor cortices. Following Braille-training, we observed substantial grey and white matter reorganization in the anterior part of early visual cortex (peripheral visual field). Moreover, relative to its posterior, foveal part, the peripheral representation of early visual cortex had stronger functional connections to somatosensory and motor cortices even before the onset of training. Previous studies show that the early visual cortex can be functionally recruited for tactile discrimination, including recognition of Braille characters. Our results demonstrate that reorganization in this region induced by tactile training can also be anatomical. This change most likely reflects a strengthening of existing connectivity between the peripheral visual cortex and somatosensory cortices, which suggests a putative mechanism for cross-modal recruitment of visual areas.

  16. Utilizing Field Experiences in an Early Childhood Center To Increase Competencies in Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Alfred L.

    The director of career education and coordinator of the department of human growth and development at a private college implemented a practicum designed to expand the knowledge level of early childhood students in teacher training by requiring that they participate in the college's day care center. The primary purpose of the practicum was to…

  17. Training and Psychosocial Patterns during the Early Development of Portuguese National Team Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Andre; Cote, Jean; Fonseca, Antonio Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early development of expert athletes compared to a group of athletes that did not achieve an expert level of performance despite being involved in youth events with their national squads. In particular, the activities, training patterns, and psychosocial influences that characterized their paths in competitive sports were…

  18. Cortical Reorganization in Dyslexic Children after Phonological Training: Evidence from Early Evoked Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Vio, Claudio; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Brain plasticity was investigated in 14 Italian children affected by developmental dyslexia after 6 months of phonological training. The means used to measure language reorganization was the recognition potential, an early wave, also called N150, elicited by automatic word recognition. This component peaks over the left temporo-occipital cortex…

  19. Early Career School Counselors' Training Perspectives: Implications for School Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaten, Christopher D.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Gutting, Krystle; Baskin, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined early career professional school counselors' experiences related to their work as mental health professionals in schools. Nine individuals participated in qualitative interviews that were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, 2012). All individuals were professional school counselors trained in…

  20. Training and Transfer in Combinatorial Problem Solving: The Development of Formal Reasoning During Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Barnaby B.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the emergence of combinatorial competence in early adolescence and the effectiveness of a programmed discovery training procedure. Significant increases in combinatorial skill with age were shown; it was found that the expression of this skill was significantly facilitated if problems involved concrete material of low…

  1. Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training in an Early Childhood Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Irvin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Problem behavior is common in early childhood special education classrooms. Functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) may reduce problem behavior but requires identification of its function. The trial-based functional analysis (FA) is a method that can be used to identify problem behavior function in schools. We conducted…

  2. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  3. Introducing Online Training in an Early Childhood Professional Development System: Lessons Learned in One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone-MacDonald, Angi; Douglass, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Online educational opportunities provide improved access to high quality professional development for the early education and care workforce. Online and technology mediated learning can create sustainable education and development opportunities for states when face-to-face training is financially prohibitive. This study examined one state's…

  4. Training Early Childhood Educators to Promote Peer Interactions: Effects on Children's Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the effects of educators' participation in an in-service training program on the aggressive and prosocial behaviors of preschool-age children. Seventeen early childhood educators were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. A total of 68 preschool children, 4 from each educator's classroom, also…

  5. Professional Development Needs and Training Interests: A Survey of Early Career School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Prerna G.; Brown, Jacqueline; Harris, Bryn; Sullivan, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Early career psychologists (ECPs) are considered a distinct professional group that faces unique career challenges. Despite recent organizational efforts to increase engagement of these individuals, little is known about the professional development needs and training interests of ECPs, particularly within psychology's subfields. As such, this…

  6. How an Early Childhood In-Service Training Succeeded within a Crisis Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitecki, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an in-service training for early childhood teachers in the context of a financial, administrative, and political crisis. Despite the crisis context of this case study, the professional development was considered successful by the participants and the facilitators. The key to overcoming the negativity and limitations of the…

  7. Starting them Early: Incorporating Communication Training into Undergraduate Research Internships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, B. A.; Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to truly broaden the impact of our scientific community, effective communication should be taught alongside research skills to developing scientists. In the summer of 2014, we incorporated an informal communications course into the 10th year of UNAVCO's Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), a year-long internship program centered around an 11-week intensive summer research experience. The goals of the newly designed course included giving students the tools they need to make a broader impact with their science, starting now; improving the students' confidence in public speaking and using social media for outreach; and giving students the tools they need to apply for jobs or graduate school. Specifically, the course included teaching of professional communication skills, such as e-mail and phone etiquette, resume and CV tailoring, and interview techniques, and public communications skills, such as crafting and simplifying messages, visual communication for the public, and public speaking. Student interns were encouraged to step back from the details of their research projects to put their work into a big-picture context relevant to the public and to policy makers. The course benefited from input and/or participation from UNAVCO Education and Community Engagement staff, engineering and managerial staff, and graduate student interns outside the RESESS program, and University of Colorado research and communications mentors already involved in RESESS. As the summer program is already packed with research and skill development, one major challenge was fitting in teaching these communications skills amongst many other obligations: a GRE course, a peer-focused scientific communications course, a computing course, and, of course, research. Can we do it all? This presentation will provide an overview of the course planning, articulation of course goals, and execution challenges and successes. We will present our lessons learned from

  8. Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Four Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Katharine; Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Lopez, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The federal Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, project strives to equalize low-income students' access to higher education by increasing their participation in rigorous coursework, providing expanded opportunities for low-income students and parents to learn about postsecondary educational opportunities…

  9. Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Two Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katie; Whipple, Allyson

    2008-01-01

    The federal Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, project strives to equalize low-income students' access to higher education by increasing their participation in rigorous coursework, providing expanded opportunities for low-income students and parents to learn about postsecondary educational opportunities…

  10. Analysis of 10-Year Training Results of Medical Students Using the Microvascular Research Center Training Program.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Satoshi; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Narushi; Tokuyama, Eijiro; Matsumoto, Kumiko; Ota, Tomoyuki; Thuzar, Moe

    2016-06-01

    Background In this article, we reviewed the training results of medical students using the Microvascular Research Center Training Program (MRCP), and proposed an ideal microsurgical training program for all individuals by analyzing the training results of medical students who did not have any surgical experience. Methods As of 2015, a total of 29 medical students completed the MRCP. In the most recent 12 medical students, the number of trials performed for each training stage and the number of rats needed to complete the training were recorded. Additionally, we measured the operating time upon finishing stage 5 for the recent six medical students after it became a current program. Results The average operating time upon finishing stage 5 for the recent six medical students was 120 minutes ± 11 minutes (standard deviation [SD]). The average vascular anastomosis time (for the artery and vein) was 52 minutes ± 2 minutes (SD). For the most recent 12 medical students, there was a negative correlation between the number of trials performed in the non-rat stages (stages 1-3) and the number of rats used in the rat stages (stages 4-5). Conclusion Analysis of the training results of medical students suggests that performing microsurgery first on silicon tubes and chicken wings saves animals' lives later during the training program. We believe that any person can learn the technique of microsurgery by performing 7 to 8 hours of training per day over a period of 15 days within this program setting. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Improvement of Early Antenatal Care Initiation: The Effects of Training Local Health Volunteers in the Community.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Armeeroh, Masuenah; Nima, Niamina; Duerahing, Nurosanah

    2018-01-01

    Although antenatal care (ANC) coverage has been increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the adherence to the ANC initiation standards at gestational age <12 weeks was inadequate including Thailand. The study aimed to improve the rate of early ANC initiation by training the existing local health volunteers (LHVs) in 3 southernmost provinces of Thailand. A clustered nonrandomized intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2014. One district of each province was selected to be the study intervention districts for that province. A total of 124 LHVs in the intervention districts participated in the knowledge-counseling intervention. It was organized as half-day workshop using 2 training modules each comprising a 30-minute lecture followed by counseling practice in pairs for 1 hour. Outcome was the rate of early ANC initiation among women giving birth, and its association with intervention, meeting an LHV, and months after training was analyzed. Of 6677 women, 3178 and 3499 women were in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Rates of early ANC were significantly improved after the intervention (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.43, P < .001) and meeting an LHV (adjusted OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.86-2.29, P < .001), but lower at 6 months after training (adjusted OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60-0.96, P = .002). Almost all women (99.7%) in the intervention group who met an LHV reported that they were encouraged to attend early ANC. Training LHVs in communities by knowledge-counseling intervention significantly improved early ANC initiation, but the magnitude of change was still limited.

  12. Project LEAP: Learning-English-for-Academic-Purposes. Training Manual--Year One and Training Manual--Year Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Marguerite Ann, Ed.

    The two training manuals provide activities and exercises intended for use in college-level study groups for students needing assistance with academic English. They were prepared as part of a larger project at California State University at Los Angeles to enhance curricula, instruction, and preparation of students with limited English. In each…

  13. Frequency of Six Early Childhood Education Approaches: A 10-Year Content Analysis of Early Childhood Education Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…

  14. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  15. Statistical Annex to Employee Training in the Federal Service, Fiscal Year 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Training.

    Tables in this statistical supplement are based on data submitted by Federal agencies in their annual training report to the Civil Service Commission for Fiscal Year 1968 (see document AC 004 019). The first table (Tab A) summarizes all training activity and expenditures for the year, with data arranged by occupational levels (GS01-04 through GS…

  16. Effect of Core Training on 16 Year-Old Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afyon, Yakup Akif

    2014-01-01

    Core trainings have been widely used by trainers recently in order to improve performance of soccer players. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of core training on some motoric capabilities of 16 years old soccer players. Thirty certified soccer players who were 16 years old from B.B. Bodrumspor Club in 2013-2014…

  17. Evaluation of a professional development training programme for mental health clinicians specializing in early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Macneil, Craig; Foster, Frances; Nicoll, Amanda; Osman, Helen; Monfries, Richard; Cotton, Sue

    2018-06-01

    The Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre Statewide Services (ESW) team provides training for multidisciplinary clinicians that specialise in early psychosis across the State of Victoria, Australia. The aim of this paper is to describe the 4-phase approach utilised by ESW to prepare for and deliver workshops, to report on participants' ratings of the ESW workshops, and to make recommendations for other trainers of early psychosis clinicians. Between March 2009 and September 2014, ESW provided 85 training workshops that had a strong focus on evidence-based approaches and international guidelines, and utilized clinical examples of early psychosis interventions. At the conclusion of each workshop, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that comprised qualitative and quantitative elements. These assessed perceived trainer knowledge, learning, interactivity and specific topic feedback. The focus of this paper will be on describing the quantitative data resulting from these questionnaires. A total of 1708 clinicians provided feedback on the 85 workshops. There was a high level of compliance, with 83.0% of workshop participants completing the questionnaires. Feedback was positive across all areas, with the 2 areas that were most highly endorsed being that presenters "appeared to know their subject matter well" (endorsed by 98.4% of participants) and that "topics were explained well" (endorsed by 96.8% of participants). Training for early psychosis clinicians that focusses on core clinical topics, is well planned, incorporates feedback from previous training, and is based on adult learning principles, is likely to be effective and well received by early psychosis clinicians. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Music in the Early Years: Pathways into the Social World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Two assumptions that underlie much research in early childhood music education are that music is a social endeavor and musical participation is beneficial to children's overall social development. As members of cultural and social groups, young children engage with music in a multitude of ways and with different companions. This article examines…

  19. Using Action Research to Support Quality Early Years Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of action research as a continuous professional development (CPD) tool. The aim of the CPD programme was to support 14 community-based Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centres in Ireland to improve quality in their settings through the implementation of the national quality and curriculum frameworks…

  20. iPads: Improving Numeracy Learning in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Peta

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…

  1. Introducing First-Year Medical Students to Early Diagnostic Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, P. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A method of instruction in gynecology is described that encouraged the formulation of early diagnostic hypotheses, an important part of clinical problem-solving. Students were given a set of clinical clues to help them make broad diagnostic hypotheses. Student ability, results, and student perceptions of the course are provided. (Author/LBH)

  2. Children's Use of Objects in an Early Years Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Amanda; Church, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood research has investigated children's use of objects largely focusing on cognitive and motor development. Yet members of a particular culture, such as young children's peer groups, use objects that have cultural relevance as "conversational" items, as a means to interacting with other members of the group. This article…

  3. Fostering a Sense of Wonder during the Early Childhood Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ruth A.

    This book is based on the understanding that fostering a sense of wonder and appreciation for the natural world is important to the development of young children and the preservation of planet Earth. It is also based on the belief that experiences children have early in life impact the attitudes and behaviors they carry with them throughout their…

  4. Early Numeracy Indicators: Examining Predictive Utility Across Years and States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conoyer, Sarah J.; Foegen, Anne; Lembke, Erica S.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies using similar methods in two states investigated the long-term predictive utility of two single-skill early numeracy Curriculum Based Measures (CBMs) and the degree to which they can adequately predict high-stakes test scores. Data were drawn from kindergarten and first-grade students. State standardized assessment data from the…

  5. Othered Voices: Asylum-Seeking Mothers and Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening the home-school partnership is a strategy to raise achievement levels and to engage "hard-to-reach" parents with education in the UK, however this political ideal has been critiqued as exclusive and based on a white, middle class model. This article explores how six asylum-seeking mothers manage their children's early years…

  6. SKIPing with Teachers: An Early Years Motor Skill Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Logan, Jessica A.; Sutherland, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fundamental motor skill (FMS) interventions when delivered by an expert can significantly improve the FMS of young children with and without developmental delays. However, there is a gap in the literature as few early childhood centers employ experts with the professional background to deliver FMS intervention. Purpose: The primary…

  7. Leaving Education Early: Putting Vocational Education and Training Centre Stage. Volume II: Evaluating Policy Impact. Cedefop Research Paper. No 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Cedefop study focuses on the contribution that vocational education and training (VET) can make to reducing early leaving from education and training (ELET). Published in two volumes, the first is dedicated to understanding better the learning pathways of young students, providing measurements of early leaving in VET, and understanding the…

  8. The Undergraduate Training in Genomics (UTRIG) Initiative: early & active training for physicians in the genomic medicine era.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rebecca L; Adem, Patricia V; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Atkinson, James B; Burke, Leah W; Cheung, Hoiwan; Dasgupta, Shoumita; DeLaGarza, Julia; Joseph, Loren; LeGallo, Robin; Lew, Madelyn; Lockwood, Christina M; Meiss, Alice; Norman, Jennifer; Markwood, Priscilla; Rizvi, Hasan; Shane-Carson, Kate P; Sobel, Mark E; Suarez, Eric; Tafe, Laura J; Wang, Jason; Haspel, Richard L

    2018-05-01

    Genomic medicine is transforming patient care. However, the speed of development has left a knowledge gap between discovery and effective implementation into clinical practice. Since 2010, the Training Residents in Genomics (TRIG) Working Group has found success in building a rigorous genomics curriculum with implementation tools aimed at pathology residents in postgraduate training years 1-4. Based on the TRIG model, the interprofessional Undergraduate Training in Genomics (UTRIG) Working Group was formed. Under the aegis of the Undergraduate Medical Educators Section of the Association of Pathology Chairs and representation from nine additional professional societies, UTRIG's collaborative goal is building medical student genomic literacy through development of a ready-to-use genomics curriculum. Key elements to the UTRIG curriculum are expert consensus-driven objectives, active learning methods, rigorous assessment and integration.

  9. Early intensive postural and movement training advances head control in very young infants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Min; Galloway, James Cole

    2012-07-01

    Daily experiences are thought to play an important role in motor development during infancy. There are limited studies on the effect of postural and movement experiences on head control. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of postural and movement experiences on head control through a comprehensive set of measurements beginning when infants were 1 month old. This was a prospective, longitudinal, 2-cohort study. Twenty-two full-term infants who were healthy were randomly assigned to either a training group or a control group. Infants were observed every other week from 1 to 4 months of age. Head control was assessed using a standardized developmental assessment tool, the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP), as well as behavioral coding and kinematics of infants' head postures and movements in a supported sitting position. Caregivers performed at least 20 minutes of daily postural and movement activities (training group), or social interaction (control group) for 4 weeks. The training group had higher TIMP scores on head control-related items during the training period and after training stopped compared with the control group. Starting from the during training phase, the training group infants had their heads in a vertical and midline position longer compared with the control group infants. After training stopped, the training group infants actively moved their heads forward more often and for larger distances. The experiences outside daily training were not monitored, and the results may be specific to the experimental setup for infants with typical development. Young infants are able to take advantage of postural and movement experiences to rapidly advance their head control as early as 4 to 6 weeks of postnatal life. Infant positioning, caregiver handling, and caregiver-infant interactions were likely contributing factors. This database of comprehensive measures may be useful in future trials focused on head control in infants with special

  10. Showing up Matters: Newark Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peter; Rice, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 180-day school year, any student who misses 18 days or more per year--or about two days per month--is considered chronically absent. An alarming 4,328 Newark students in grades kindergarten through 3rd grade were chronically absent during the 2013-14 school year. When young students miss too much school, they will likely struggle…

  11. Basic life support skills training in a first year medical curriculum: six years' experience with two cognitive-constructivist designs.

    PubMed

    Durak, Halil Ibrahim; Certuğ, Agah; Calişkan, Ayhan; van Dalen, Jan

    2006-03-01

    Although the Basic Life Support (BLS) ability of a medical student is a crucial competence, poor BLS training programs have been documented worldwide. Better training designs are needed. This study aims to share detailed descriptions and the test results of two cognitive-constructivist training models for the BLS skills in the first year of medical curriculum. A BLS skills training module was implemented in the first year curriculum in the course of 6 years (1997-2003). The content was derived from the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines. Initially, a competence-based model was used and was upgraded to a cognitive apprenticeship model in 2000. The main performance-content type that was expected at the end of the course was: competent application of BLS procedures on manikins and peers at an OSCE as well as 60% achievement in a test consisting of 25 MCQ items. A retrospective cohort survey design using exam results and a self-completed anonymous student ratings' questionnaire were used in order to test models. Training time for individual students varied from 21 to 29 hours. One thousand seven hundred and sixty students were trained. Fail rates were very low (1.0-2.2%). The students were highly satisfied with the module during the 6 years. In the first year of the medical curriculum, a competence-based or cognitive apprenticeship model using cognitive-constructivist designs of skills training with 9 hours theoretical and 12-20 hours long practical sessions took place in groups of 12-17 students; medical students reached a degree of competence to sufficiently perform BLS skills on the manikins and their peers. The cognitive-constructivist designs for skills training are associated with high student satisfaction. However, the lack of controls limits the extrapolation of this conclusion.

  12. Where Are the Early Years of School in Contemporary Early Childhood Education Reforms? An Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieg, Susan; Whitehead, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Although international definitions of early childhood repeatedly refer to a birth-8 age span, there are complex, institutional divides within this age range. This paper explores the divide between pre-compulsory and compulsory early childhood institutions. In countries such as Finland this divide is not such an issue because children do not begin…

  13. Randomized Clinical Trial of Online Parent Training for Behavior Problems After Early Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy E; Shultz, Emily L; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Kirkwood, Michael W; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith O; Taylor, H Gerry

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Internet-based Interacting Together Everyday: Recovery After Childhood TBI (I-InTERACT) versus abbreviated parent training (Express) or access to online resources (internet resources comparison [IRC]) in improving parenting skills and decreasing behavior problems after early traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this randomized, controlled, clinical trial, 113 children 3 to 9 years old previously hospitalized for moderate to severe TBI were randomly assigned to receive Express (n = 36), I-InTERACT (n = 39), or IRC (n = 38). Express included 7 online parent skills sessions, and I-InTERACT delivered 10 to 14 sessions addressing parenting skills, TBI education, stress, and anger management. The 2 interventions coupled online modules with therapist coaching through a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant Skype link. The IRC group received access to online TBI and parent skills resources. Co-primary outcomes were blinded ratings of parenting skills and parent report of behavior problems and problem intensity on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI). Outcomes were assessed before treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment, with the latter constituting the primary endpoint. The Express and I-InTERACT groups displayed higher levels of positive parenting at follow-up. Only the I-InTERACT group had lower levels of negative parenting at 6 months. The Express group had lower ECBI intensity scores than the IRC group. Baseline symptom levels moderated improvements; children in the Express and I-InTERACT groups with higher baseline symptoms demonstrated greater improvements than those in the IRC group. Changes in parenting skills mediated improvements in behavior in those with higher baseline symptoms. Brief online parent skills training can effectively decrease behavior problems after early TBI in children with existing behavioral symptoms. Clinical trial registration information-Internet-based Interacting Together

  14. The Early Risers Preventive Intervention: Testing for Six-year Outcomes and Mediational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct…

  15. Can Early Years Professionals Determine Which Preschoolers Have Comprehension Delays? A Comparison of Two Screening Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Emily; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension delays in pre-schoolers are predictive of difficulties in a range of developmental domains. In England, early years practitioners are required to assess the language comprehension of 2-year-olds in their care. Many use a format based on the Early Years Foundation Stage Unique Child Communication Sheet (EYFS:UCCS) in which…

  16. Carpentry: Apprentice Related Training. Instructor's Manual. First, Second, Third, Fourth Years of a Four-Year Series in Four Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    The course of related study in the carpentry trade is designed to meet the need for organized study in the various technical aspects necessary for an apprentice to become a well-trained journeyman. Divided into four one-year programs, the instructor's manual for the first year presents lessons on familiarizing the student with the trade and its…

  17. History and Outcomes of 50 Years of Physician-Scientist Training in Medical Scientist Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Harding, Clifford V; Akabas, Myles H; Andersen, Olaf S

    2017-10-01

    Physician-scientists are needed to continue the great pace of recent biomedical research and translate scientific findings to clinical applications. MD-PhD programs represent one approach to train physician-scientists. MD-PhD training started in the 1950s and expanded greatly with the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP), launched in 1964 by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the National Institutes of Health. MD-PhD training has been influenced by substantial changes in medical education, science, and clinical fields since its inception. In 2014, NIGMS held a 50th Anniversary MSTP Symposium highlighting the program and assessing its outcomes. In 2016, there were over 90 active MD-PhD programs in the United States, of which 45 were MSTP supported, with a total of 988 trainee slots. Over 10,000 students have received MSTP support since 1964. The authors present data for the demographic characteristics and outcomes for 9,683 MSTP trainees from 1975-2014. The integration of MD and PhD training has allowed trainees to develop a rigorous foundation in research in concert with clinical training. MSTP graduates have had relative success in obtaining research grants and have become prominent leaders in many biomedical research fields. Many challenges remain, however, including the need to maintain rigorous scientific components in evolving medical curricula, to enhance research-oriented residency and fellowship opportunities in a widening scope of fields targeted by MSTP graduates, to achieve greater racial diversity and gender balance in the physician-scientist workforce, and to sustain subsequent research activities of physician-scientists.

  18. Oestrogen status in relation to the early training responses in human thumb adductor muscles.

    PubMed

    Onambele, G N L; Bruce, S A; Woledge, R C

    2006-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the mechanisms for the early response to training in women of different oestrogen status and to determine whether any oestrogen and exercise effects on these would be additive. We monitored training (ten 5-s contractions per day for 12 weeks)-induced changes in the size, strength, voluntary activation capacity and index of crossbridge force state (i.e. rapid stretch to isometric torque ratio), in the thumb adductor muscles of postmenopausal [eight who had never used, and 14 who were using, hormone replacement therapy (HRT)] and seven premenopausal eumenorrhoeic women. The contralateral untrained muscle was used as a control. There was a significant effect of oestrogen status on the magnitude of training-induced strength increment, with the non-HRT postmenopausal group exhibiting the greatest benefits (28 +/- 6%, P = 0.024) from training. There were no significant or commensurate changes in either cross-sectional area or voluntary activation capacity. The index of crossbridge force state improved most in the no-HRT group (19 +/- 7%, P < 0.05). Presence, rather than absence of oestrogen, is associated with relatively higher muscle function which limits the potential for any further training-induced increments in muscle performance, as would be expected if the muscle strengthening actions of training and oestrogen share a common, partially saturable physiological pathway. The mechanism that is involved in the early training-induced strength increment in the three differing oestrogen groups cannot be due to increased size or recruitment. It would appear instead that increased motor unit firing frequency is involved.

  19. Opioid overdose prevention training with naloxone, an adjunct to basic life support training for first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Berland, Noah; Fox, Aaron; Tofighi, Babak; Hanley, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Opioid overdose deaths have reached epidemic proportions in the United States. This problem stems from both licit and illicit opioid use. Prescribing opioids, recognizing risky use, and initiating prevention, including opioid overdose prevention training (OOPT), are key roles physicians play. The American Heart Association (AHA) modified their basic life support (BLS) algorithms to consider naloxone in high-risk populations and when a pulse is appreciated; however, the AHA did not provide OOPT. The authors' intervention filled this training deficiency by teaching medical students opioid overdose resuscitation with a Train-the-Trainer model as part of mandatory BLS training. The authors introduced OOPT, following a Train-the-Trainer model, into the required basic life support (BLS) training for first-year medical students at a single medical school in a large urban area. The authors administered pre- and post-evaluations to assess the effects of the training on opioid overdose knowledge, self-reported preparedness to respond to opioid overdoses, and attitudes towards patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). In the fall 2014, 120 first-year medical students received OOPT. Seventy-three students completed both pre- and posttraining evaluations. Improvements in knowledge about and preparedness to respond to opioid overdoses were statistically significant (P < .01) and large (Cohen's D = 2.70 and Cohen's D = 2.10, respectively). There was no statistically significant change in attitudes toward patients with SUDs. The authors demonstrated the effectiveness of OOPT as an adjunct to BLS in increasing knowledge about and preparedness to respond to opioid overdoses; improving attitudes toward patients with SUDs likely requires additional intervention. The authors will characterize knowledge and preparedness durability, program sustainability, and long-term changes in attitudes in future evaluations. These results support dissemination of OOPT as a part of BLS training

  20. Scaling up specialist training in developing countries: lessons learned from the first 12 years of regional postgraduate training in Fiji – a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1997, regional specialist training was established in Fiji, consisting of one-year Postgraduate Diplomas followed by three-year master’s degree programs in anesthesia, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. The evolution of these programs during the first 12 years is presented. Case description A case study utilizing mixed methods was carried out, including a prospective collection of enrolment and employment data, supplemented by semi-structured interviews. Between 1997 and 2009, 207 doctors (113 from Fiji and 94 from 13 other countries or territories in the Pacific) trained to at least the Postgraduate Diploma level. For Fiji graduates, 29.2% migrated permanently to developed countries, compared to only 8.5% for regional graduates (P <0.001). Early years of the program were characterized by large intakes and enthusiasm, but also uncertainty. Many resignations took place following a coup d’etat in 2000. By 2005, interviews suggested a dynamic of political instability initially leading to resignations, leading to even heavier workloads, compounded by academic studies that seemed unlikely to lead to career benefit. This was associated with loss of hope and downward spirals of further resignations. After 2006, however, Master’s graduates generally returned from overseas placements, had variable success in career progression, and were able to engage in limited private practice. Enrolments and retention stabilized and increased. Discussion and evaluation Over time, all specialties have had years when the viability and future of the programs were in question, but all have recovered to varying degrees, and the programs continue to evolve and strengthen. Prospective clarification of expected career outcomes for graduates, establishment of career pathways for diploma-only graduates, and balancing desires for academic excellence with workloads that trainees were able to bear may have lessened ongoing losses of trainees and

  1. Safety of strength training in premenopausal women: musculoskeletal injuries from a two-year randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Warren, Meghan; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2009-01-01

    The health benefits of strength training must be weighed against risks, including injuries. A prior study observed 4.2 injuries that limited usual activities for a day per 1000 strength training sessions among men and women. The analysis herein explores the incidence rates of musculoskeletal injuries from strength training in women. Randomized controlled trial. SETTING; Free-living community. A total of 163 injury-free, overweight, sedentary, premenopausal women aged 25 to 44 years. Two years of strength training (n = 81) or standard care (n = 82). The intervention followed published guidelines (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) with hypothesized injury prevention strategies. An injury survey was administered at years 1 and 2. Injury was defined as physical activity or strength training associated injuries that limited daily activities for 1 week or more. Denominators for rate calculation were accelerometer-measured physical activity and strength training attendance (strength training only). The between-group probability of injuries was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Injury incidence rates were higher in strength training compared with standard care. In strength training, the injury rates were 3.6 per 1000 strength training sessions (95% confidence interval: 2.5-4.8 per 1000) for physical activity-related injuries, and 2.6 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.6 per 1000) for strength training-related injuries. Injury rates varied by definition and denominator. Strength training had lower injury rates than previously reported, providing preliminary support for the prevention strategies. The finding of strength training injuries underscores the need for balancing the benefits against the potential risks of this exercise modality.

  2. Science and Technology in the Early Years. An Equal Opportunities Approach. Gender and Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Naima, Ed.

    During the early 1980s there was a lack of research regarding gender issues for early childhood and elementary education. This document attempts to fill this chasm by addressing gender issues in science and technology for primary education schooling and early-years education. The following chapters are included: (1) "Science and Technology in the…

  3. Science in the Early Years. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 15, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests early math, science, and social studies knowledge may boost achievement for the nation's youngest students and provides a better chance at future reading success--more so even than early reading skills. This issue explores the benefits of including a strong science curriculum in the early years and includes recommendations…

  4. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  5. Job sharing in medical training: an evaluation of a 3-year project.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, I; Paice, E

    2000-02-01

    Job sharing has been introduced on a major scale in one deanery to help accommodate increasing demand for flexible (part-time) training. We arranged 37 job shares for 74 trainees between 1996 and 1999. Job shares lasted from 6 months to 2 years. Trainees in job shares were as satisfied with their training as those in supernumerary posts or in full-time training.

  6. The Development of Prostate Palpation Skills through Simulation Training May Impact Early Detection of Prostate Abnormalities and Early Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    students in their 3rd or 4th year. Th e overall procedure was a series o f pretests , training session, and posttest -2 always co nducted on the VPES...Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012...Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12

  7. The effects of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in airline maintenance: Results following three year's experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. C.; Robertson, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    An airline maintenance department undertook a CRM training program to change its safety and operating culture. In 2 1/2 years this airline trained 2200 management staff and salaried professionals. Participants completed attitude surveys immediately before and after the training, as well as two months, six months, and one year afterward. On-site interviews were conducted to test and confirm the survey results. Comparing managers' attitudes immediately after their training with their pretraining attitudes showed significant improvement for three attitudes. A fourth attitude, assertiveness, improved significantly above the pretraining levels two months after training. The expected effect of the training on all four attitude scales did not change significantly thereafter. Participants' self-reported behaviors and interview comments confirmed their shift from passive to more active behaviors over time. Safety, efficiency, and dependability performance were measured before the onset of the training and for some 30 months afterward. Associations with subsequent performance were strongest with positive attitudes about sharing command (participation), assertiveness, and stress management when those attitudes were measured 2 and 12 months after the training. The two month follow-up survey results were especially strong and indicate that active behaviors learned from the CRM training consolidate and strengthen in the months immediately following training.

  8. Children's early bilingualism and musical training influence prosodic discrimination of sentences in an unknown language.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Arthur; Pavlič, Matic; Stateva, Penka; Reboul, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether early bilingualism and early musical training positively influence the ability to discriminate between prosodic patterns corresponding to different syntactic structures in otherwise phonetically identical sentences in an unknown language. In a same-different discrimination task, participants (N = 108) divided into four groups (monolingual non-musicians, monolingual musicians, bilingual non-musicians, and bilingual musicians) listened to pairs of short sentences in a language unknown to them (French). In discriminating phonetically identical but prosodically different sentences, musicians, bilinguals, and bilingual musicians outperformed the controls. However, there was no interaction between bilingualism and musical training to suggest an additive effect. These results underscore the significant role of both types of experience in enhancing the listeners' sensitivity to prosodic information.

  9. The pediatric residency training on tobacco project: four-year parent outcome findings.

    PubMed

    Hymowitz, Norman; Pyle, Sara A; Haddock, C Keith; Schwab, Joseph V

    2008-08-01

    To assess parent behavioral change and perception of resident intervention on tobacco. In a long-term study of the efficacy of training pediatric residents to address tobacco conducted at the New Jersey Medical School, sixteen pediatric training programs were assigned randomly to either special or standard training conditions. Parent surveys were administered in the fall of 2001 and 2005 in order to assess the effects of resident intervention on parent behavior, as well as parent perceptions of resident intervention. The percent of parents who smoke at sites associated with the special training condition, but not of those at sites associated with standard training, who reported that residents advised them to stop smoking, offered to help them quit, and provided quit smoking materials increased significantly from baseline to year 4. The percent of parents in the special training condition who reported quitting smoking in the past year also increased, although the increase was not statistically significant. A majority of the parents associated with each training condition reported receiving intervention for second hand smoke (SHS). For each training condition, the level of intervention to prevent exposure of infants and children to SHS exposure was similar at baseline and year 4, as was the percent of parents who reported having a smoke-free household. The results support the efficacy of the special training program and underscore the importance of preparing pediatric residents to address tobacco.

  10. Personnel training experience in the radioactive waste management: 10 years of Moscow SIA 'RADON' international education training centre

    SciT

    Batyukhnova, Olga; Dmitriev, Sergey; Arustamov, Artur

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The education service for specialists dealing with radioactive waste was established in Russia (former USSR) in 1983 and was based on the capabilities of two organisations: the Moscow Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon') and the Chemical Department of Lomonosov's Moscow State University. These two organizations are able to offer training programs in the science fundamentals, applied research and in practical operational areas of the all pre-disposal activities of the radioactive waste management. Since 1997 this system was upgraded to the international level and now acts as International Educationmore » Training Centre (IETC) at SIA 'Radon' under the guidance of the IAEA. During 10 years more than 300 specialists from 26 European and Asian countries enhanced their knowledge and skills in radioactive waste management. The IAEA supported specialized regional training courses and workshops, fellowships, on-the-job training, and scientific visits are additional means to assure development of personnel capabilities. Efficiency of training was carefully analysed using the structural adaptation of educational process as well as factors, which have influence on education quality. Social-psychological aspects were also taken into account in assessing the overall efficiency. The analysis of the effect of individual factors and the efficiency of education activity were carried out based on attestation results and questioning attendees. A number of analytical methods were utilised such as Ishikawa's diagram method and Pareto's principle for improving of training programs and activities. (authors)« less

  11. One Year Program to Train Developers in Public Education Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. of Afro-American Affairs.

    The purpose of this program to train developers in public education systems was to construct and test a viable model that would fulfill its training goals in one year and which could also be replicated under similar conditions by comparable institutions. The model involved a part-time program which provided theoretical and experiential training…

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of Student Teachers' Behaviour Management Strategies throughout Their Training Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Stuart; Reupert, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of behaviour management, many student teachers report being inadequately trained in this area. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies, confidence and reported levels of success in regard to various behaviour management strategies, across 509 first, second, third and fourth year student teachers training to be…

  13. Professional Development: A Six-Year Data Evaluation of HIDTA Law Enforcement Task Force Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This is a nationwide six-year data study of law enforcement training and professional development in relationship to workplace productivity. Why do we care about law enforcement training and professional development? Because the law enforcement environment is not standing still. Unlawful activity, and in particular drug trafficking strategies,…

  14. Antigravity treadmill training during the early rehabilitation phase following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: A case series.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Schroeder, E Todd; Powers, Christopher

    2018-02-26

    Patients who have undergone unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been reported to exhibit altered gait 19-25 months post-surgery. The most common gait impairment in this population is inadequate knee flexion and a corresponding decrease in the knee extensor moment during loading response (i.e., quadriceps avoidance). The purpose of this case series was to determine whether incorporation of antigravity treadmill training into a standard physical therapy program can eliminate quadriceps avoidance gait during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA. Four females who underwent UKA were recruited for this study. Participants completed antigravity treadmill training three times per week for 12 weeks in addition to their standard physical therapy program. Instrumented gait analysis was performed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 6 (mid-intervention), and week 12 (post-intervention). We found that peak knee flexion and the peak knee extensor moment during the weight acceptance phase of gait increased to normal values following the 12-week intervention period (14.1 ± 6.5° to 20.6 ± 1.5° and 0.4 ± 0.3 to 0.7 ± 0.2 Nm/kg respectively). The findings of this case series suggest that a standard physical therapy program that incorporates early gait training using an antigravity treadmill may be beneficial in eliminating "quadriceps avoidance" during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA.

  15. How many employees receive safety training during their first year of a new job?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the provision of safety training to Canadian employees, specifically those in their first year of employment with a new employer. Design Three repeated national Canadian cross‐sectional surveys. Subjects 59 159 respondents from Statistics Canada's Workplace and Employee Surveys (1999, 2001 and 2003), 5671 who were in their first year of employment. Main outcome Receiving occupational health and safety training, orientation training or office or non‐office equipment training in either a classroom or on‐the‐job in the previous 12 months. Results Only 12% of women and 16% of men reported receiving safety training in the previous 12 months. Employees in their first 12 months of employment were more likely to receive safety training than employees with >5 years of job tenure. However, still only one in five new employees had received any safety training while with their current employer. In a fully adjusted regression model, employees who had access to family and support programs, women in medium‐sized workplaces and in manufacturing, and men in large workplaces and in part‐time employment all had an increased probability of receiving safety training. No increased likelihood of safety training was found in younger workers or those in jobs with higher physical demands, both of which are associated with increased injury risk. Conclusions From our results, it would appear that only one in five Canadian employees in their first year of a new job received safety training. Further, the provision of safety training does not appear to be more prevalent among workers or in occupations with increased risk of injuries. PMID:17296687

  16. How many employees receive safety training during their first year of a new job?

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A

    2007-02-01

    To describe the provision of safety training to Canadian employees, specifically those in their first year of employment with a new employer. Three repeated national Canadian cross-sectional surveys. 59 159 respondents from Statistics Canada's Workplace and Employee Surveys (1999, 2001 and 2003), 5671 who were in their first year of employment. Receiving occupational health and safety training, orientation training or office or non-office equipment training in either a classroom or on-the-job in the previous 12 months. Only 12% of women and 16% of men reported receiving safety training in the previous 12 months. Employees in their first 12 months of employment were more likely to receive safety training than employees with >5 years of job tenure. However, still only one in five new employees had received any safety training while with their current employer. In a fully adjusted regression model, employees who had access to family and support programs, women in medium-sized workplaces and in manufacturing, and men in large workplaces and in part-time employment all had an increased probability of receiving safety training. No increased likelihood of safety training was found in younger workers or those in jobs with higher physical demands, both of which are associated with increased injury risk. From our results, it would appear that only one in five Canadian employees in their first year of a new job received safety training. Further, the provision of safety training does not appear to be more prevalent among workers or in occupations with increased risk of injuries.

  17. Early Clinical Experiences for Second-Year Student Pharmacists at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Amerine, Lindsey B; Chen, Sheh-Li; Luter, David N; Arnall, Justin; Smith, Shayna; Roth, Mary T; Rodgers, Philip T; Williams, Dennis M; Pinelli, Nicole R

    2015-11-25

    To examine student outcomes associated with the Student Medication and Reconciliation Team (SMART) program, which was designed to provide second-year student pharmacists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy direct patient care experience at UNC Medical Center. Twenty-two second-year student pharmacists were randomly selected from volunteers, given program training, and scheduled for three 5-hour evening shifts in 2013-2014. Pre/post surveys and reflection statements were collected from 19 students. Data were analyzed with a mixed methods approach. Survey results revealed an increase in student self-efficacy (p<0.05) and positive perceptions of SMART. Qualitative findings suggest the program provided opportunities for students to develop strategies for practice, promoted an appreciation for the various roles pharmacists play in health care, and fostered an appreciation for the complexity of real-world practice. Early clinical experiences can enhance student learning and development while fostering an appreciation for pharmacy practice.

  18. Understanding Cognitive Development: Automaticity and the Early Years Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Colette

    2004-01-01

    In recent years a growing body of evidence has implicated deficits in the automaticity of fundamental facts such as word and number recognition in a range of disorders: including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, apraxia and autism. Variously described as habits, fluency, chunking and over learning, automatic processes are best…

  19. The Portraiture of Nick: Scene One, the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicehouse, Vaughn L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Autism Society of America (ASA) estimated that 1.5 million Americans and their families were affected by autism. As the current ASD prevalence rates continue to rise (10%-17% each year) so does the awareness that ASD is no respecter of persons. ASD touches children of every racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic background. Additionally,…

  20. Early Years Learning, Play Pedagogy and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Despite 50 years and more of "progressive education" in the United Kingdom, classed patterns of educational success and failure stubbornly prevail. So how, where and when does it all go wrong for the many children who continue to fail or underachieve? Drawing on the work of Basil Bernstein, this article centres processes within early…

  1. Changing the formula of residents' work hours in internal medicine: moving from "years in training" to "hours in training".

    PubMed

    Mansi, Ishak A

    2011-03-01

    In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from "years of residency" to "hours of residency." For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of "multipliers" based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the "final adjusted accredited hours" that count toward graduation. Substituting "years of training" with "hours of training" may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education.

  2. Signature Pedagogy in Early Years Education: A Role for COTS Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…

  3. Early-Years Swimming: Creating Opportunities for Adding Mathematical Capital to Under 5s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on survey data from over 2000 parents, this paper explores the possibility of early-years swimming to add mathematical capital to young children. Using developmental milestones as the basis, it was found that parents reported significantly earlier achievement on many of these milestones. Such data suggest that the early years swim…

  4. Leadership of Learning in Early Years Practice: A Professional Learning Resource [Includes DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallet, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses upon effective pedagogical leadership and practice in the leadership of learning within early years settings and children's centres. The book and accompanying DVD, containing real-life examples of early years leaders, provides a framework for reflective thinking and learning for those leading practice and working with children,…

  5. Becoming Professional? Exploring Early Years Professional Status and Its Implications for Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Across the "European learning space" (Lawn, 2006) professionalisation of early years workforces has become a key priority and there has been a flow of this policy between borders (Oberhuemer, 2005). Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) is central to these developments in England. Within what is regarded as a traditionally…

  6. Early Years Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching through Multiple Metaphors and Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildenhall, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Recent research findings indicate that using multiple metaphors in multimodal learning experiences are effective teaching approaches in early years mathematics. Using a social semiotic lens this paper reports on eight early years teachers' perceptions of this approach whilst engaging in a small collaborative professional learning group. This group…

  7. Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study--A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Presents concerns over the "Early Years Study" (McCain & Mustard). Focuses on diversity issues related to the readiness measure used, parenting styles, and the importance of first language development. Questions the report's definition of "developmentally-attuned." Concludes by expressing hope that the Early Years Study…

  8. How Can the Skills of Early Years Leaders Support Other Leaders in a Primary School Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes.…

  9. Strategies, Systems and Services: A Northern Ireland Early Years Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Dorothy J.; McConnell, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Following a lengthy consultation process across Northern Ireland (NI), 2013 saw the publication of Learning to Learn: A Framework for Early Years Education and Learning [DE (Department of Education). 2013. "Learning to Learn: A Framework for Early Years Education and Learning." Accessed July 15, 2014.…

  10. Science of Materials: A Case Study of Intentional Teaching in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackling, Mark; Barratt-Pugh, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Australia's Early Years Learning Framework and leading international researchers argue for more intentional and purposeful teaching of science in the early years. This case study of exemplary practice illustrates intentional teaching of science materials which opened-up learning opportunities in literacy and number. Student-led hands-on…

  11. Disrupting Communities of Practice? How "Reluctant" Practitioners View Early Years Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payler, Jane K.; Locke, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the views of early years practitioners in England from settings that were identified as "reluctant to engage" with one of the government's key policies, the introduction of Early Years Professional Status (EYPS), to drive forwards workforce reform. Focus groups, interviews and a survey were undertaken in 2009 with…

  12. Typical Didactical Activities in the Greek Early-Years Science Classroom: Do They Promote Science Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Psillos, Dimitris; Tselfes, Vassilis

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an epistemological analysis of typical didactical activities noted in early-years science lessons, which was carried out in an attempt to diagnose the extent to which the teaching practices adopted by early-years educators are successful in supporting young children's understanding in science. The analysis of didactical…

  13. Teachers' Voice, Power and Agency: (Un)Professionalisation of the Early Years Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesar, Marek; Pupala, Branislav; Kascak, Ondrej; Arndt, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    This article examines Slovak early years teachers' concerns with conceptions of teacher professionalism. It suggests that there is a mismatch between understandings of professionalism, policy aspirations and the attitudes of teachers to their own professionalism, and that this mismatch fuels early years teachers' sense of agency. These tensions…

  14. Effects of a 24 Week Multifaceted Sports Training Program on Some Physical Characteristics of 5 to 9 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagci, Emre

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a 24-week multifaceted sport training program on some physical and performance characteristics of 5-9 year old children. There are many researches about the necessities for children to start physical activity at an early age. According to the characteristics of different physical activities to…

  15. General practice--reflection on five years of multidisciplinary training at Medical Centre Gütersloh.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, H G J

    2011-12-01

    Medical Centre Gütersloh is a primary care setting which provides the full range of general practice care for British Forces Germany Health Service (BFG HS). The aim of this article is to evaluate the multidisciplinary training organised by the author there, to exchange information and to provide suggestions for improvement and development. Description of the training scheme and analysis of routinely collected management data. The training scheme is based on adult education principles with a focus on interactive learning. Over the period November 2005-July 2010 a total of 1201 members of staff from various disciplines participated in 86 documented training sessions. The majority of the attending staff considered the training to be relevant, interesting and well presented. A substantial proportion indicated that they would change their practice as a result of the training. These views remained stable over time. The majority of facilitators consisted of medical centre employees. This article provides an overview onfive years of multidisciplinary training in a general practice setting. Overall feedback from staff suggests that the training has been highly valued over those years. However, it is recognised that this evaluation has its limitations and suggestions are made regarding how these types of training schemes can be improved and developed further.

  16. Behavioral and anatomical consequences of early versus late symbol training in macaques.

    PubMed

    Srihasam, Krishna; Mandeville, Joseph B; Morocz, Istvan A; Sullivan, Kevin J; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2012-02-09

    Distinct brain regions, reproducible from one person to the next, are specialized for processing different kinds of human expertise, such as face recognition and reading. Here, we explore the relationship between age of learning, learning ability, and specialized brain structures. Specifically, we ask whether the existence of reproducible cortical domains necessarily means that certain abilities are innate, or innately easily learned, or whether reproducible domains can be formed, or refined, by interactions between genetic programs and common early experience. Functional MRI showed that intensive early, but not late, experience caused the formation of category-selective regions in macaque temporal lobe for stimuli never naturally encountered by monkeys. And behaviorally, early training produced more fluent processing of these stimuli than the same training in adults. One explanation for these results is that in higher cortical areas, as in early sensory areas, experience drives functional clustering and functional clustering determines how that information is processed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  18. Why Are There Still so Few Men within Early Years in Primary Schools: Views from Male Trainee Teachers and Male Leaders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges facing the Early Years (EY) sector is how to encourage more male practitioners to counterbalance a largely feminised workforce. Using case studies of male trainees at different stages of their primary undergraduate Initial Teacher Training course at one university, we attempt to consider data why there is under-representation…

  19. Language Training for Trainable Mentally Retarded; Annual Project Report: Second Year; ESEA Title III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiss, Robert H., Comp.; Proger, Barton B., Comp.

    During the 1973-74 school year, 230 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children (ages 7 to 14 years) were exposed to one of two language training conditions: Distar or Peabody. A population of 116 continuees from the first year of the project and 114 new entries were assigned in as random a fashion as possible to either Distar or Peabody. Ss were…

  20. Views of Practicing Dentists Regarding a Mandatory Fifth Year of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Karen H.; Atchison, Kathryn A.; McCauley, Kevin R.; Mito, Ronald D.; Engelhardt, Rita

    2003-01-01

    A survey of dentists found that 48 percent supported a mandatory fifth year of dental training. Main reasons for support were the need for more instructional time and need for a transition year. Individual choice, no value in a fifth year, mentoring available elsewhere, and cost were cited in opposition. Differences existed among respondents who…

  1. Doctors’ views about their work, education and training three years after graduation in the UK: questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Doctors who graduated in the UK after 2005 have followed a restructured postgraduate training programme (Modernising Medical Careers) and have experienced the introduction of the European Working Time Regulation and e-portfolios. In this paper, we report the views of doctors who graduated in 2008 three years after graduation and compare these views with those expressed in year 1. Design Questionnaires about career intentions, destinations and views sent in 2011 to all medical graduates of 2008. Participants 3228 UK medical graduates. Main outcome measures Comments on work, education and training. Results Response was 49% (3228/6538); 885 doctors wrote comments. Of these, 21.8% were unhappy with the standard of their training; 8.4% were positive. Doctors made positive comments about levels of supervision, support, morale and job satisfaction. Many doctors commented on poor arrangements for rotas, cover and leave, which had an adverse effect on work-life balance, relationships, morale and health. Some doctors felt pressured into choosing their future specialty too early, with inadequate career advice. Themes raised in year 3 that were seldom raised in year 1 included arrangements for flexible working and maternity leave, obtaining posts in desired locations and having to pay for courses, exams and conferences. Conclusions Many doctors felt training was available, but that European Working Time Regulation, rotas and cover arrangements made it difficult to attend. Three years after graduation, doctors raised similar concerns to those they had raised two years earlier, but the pressures of career decision making, family life and job seeking were new issues. PMID:26664735

  2. Early Dysphagia Screening by Trained Nurses Reduces Pneumonia Rate in Stroke Patients: A Clinical Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Palli, Christoph; Fandler, Simon; Doppelhofer, Kathrin; Niederkorn, Kurt; Enzinger, Christian; Vetta, Christian; Trampusch, Esther; Schmidt, Reinhold; Fazekas, Franz; Gattringer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is a common stroke symptom and leads to serious complications such as aspiration and pneumonia. Early dysphagia screening can reduce these complications. In many hospitals, dysphagia screening is performed by speech-language therapists who are often not available on weekends/holidays, which results in delayed dysphagia assessment. We trained the nurses of our neurological department to perform formal dysphagia screening in every acute stroke patient by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen. The impact of a 24/7 dysphagia screening (intervention) over swallowing assessment by speech-language therapists during regular working hours only was compared in two 5-month periods with time to dysphagia screening, pneumonia rate, and length of hospitalization as outcome variables. Overall, 384 patients (mean age, 72.3±13.7 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3) were included in the study. Both groups (pre-intervention, n=198 versus post-intervention, n=186) were comparable regarding age, sex, and stroke severity. Time to dysphagia screening was significantly reduced in the intervention group (median, 7 hours; range, 1-69 hours) compared with the control group (median, 20 hours; range, 1-183; P =0.001). Patients in the intervention group had a lower rate of pneumonia (3.8% versus 11.6%; P =0.004) and also a reduced length of hospital stay (median, 8 days; range, 2-40 versus median, 9 days; range, 1-61 days; P =0.033). 24/7 dysphagia screening can be effectively performed by nurses and leads to reduced pneumonia rates. Therefore, empowering nurses to do a formal bedside screening for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients timely after admission is warranted whenever speech-language therapists are not available. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Attachment change processes in the early years of marriage.

    PubMed

    Davila, J; Karney, B R; Bradbury, T N

    1999-05-01

    The authors examined 4 models of attachment change: a contextual model, a social-cognitive model, an individual-difference model, and a diathesis-stress model. Models were examined in a sample of newlyweds over the first 2 years of marriage, using growth curve analyses. Reciprocal processes, whereby attachment representations and interpersonal life circumstances affect one another over time, also were studied. On average, newlyweds became more secure over time. However, there was significant within-subject variability on attachment change that was predicted by intra- and interpersonal factors. Attachment representations changed in response to contextual, social-cognitive, and individual-difference factors. Reciprocal processes between attachment representations and marital variables emerged, suggesting that these factors influence one another in an ongoing way.

  4. A longitudinal evaluation of the preservice training and retention of kinship and nonkinship foster/adoptive families one and a half years after training.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Brian L; McMurtry, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Parent Resources for Information Development and Education (PRIDE) foster/adopt preservice training and resource family development program was conducted one and a half years after training. Results indicate PRIDE is an effective training, family development, and retention program whose lessons stay with the participants well after they have completed the program. Knowledge tests were administered to participants before PRIDE training, at graduation from training, and 18 months after the completion of training. This is the subsequent study to the Christenson and McMurtry (2007) publication titled "A Comparative Evaluation of Preservice Training of Kinship and Non-Kinship Foster/Adoptive Families."

  5. [The two-year post graduate training program for nurses: implementation status and personal perspectives].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yu-Chun

    2013-06-01

    The Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation (TJCHA) authorized the Teaching Quality Improvement Program for Teaching Hospitals as a way for the Department of Health to plan and implement improvements. The program assists medical and paramedical professionals to establish a postgraduate clinical training system. The two-year postgraduate training program for nurses is one of the program's regular activities, divided into three phases that include location-based curriculum training (3 months), core curriculum training (9 months), and professional courses training (12 months). This paper describes the origin, current implementation status, and efficacy / key problems of this two-year post graduate training program, Information regarding the opinions of new nurses, preceptors, and nursing managers on the three aspects is drawn from the author's relevant professional experience, interactions with nurses, and a review of the literature. Findings include: (1) nursing departments should operate in accordance with TJCHA guidelines; (2) department training should be adequate to promote the ability and willingness of nurses to train a new generation of clinical preceptors; and (3) participant opinions on project execution progress and difficulties. Findings may be referenced to better achieve Teaching Quality Improvement Program for Teaching Hospital objectives.

  6. Feasibility and Efficacy of Brief Computerized Training to Improve Emotion Recognition in Premanifest and Early-Symptomatic Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kempnich, Clare L; Wong, Dana; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Stout, Julie C

    2017-04-01

    Deficits in the recognition of negative emotions emerge before clinical diagnosis in Huntington's disease (HD). To address emotion recognition deficits, which have been shown in schizophrenia to be improved by computerized training, we conducted a study of the feasibility and efficacy of computerized training of emotion recognition in HD. We randomly assigned 22 individuals with premanifest or early symptomatic HD to the training or control group. The training group used a self-guided online training program, MicroExpression Training Tool (METT), twice weekly for 4 weeks. All participants completed measures of emotion recognition at baseline and post-training time-points. Participants in the training group also completed training adherence measures. Participants in the training group completed seven of the eight sessions on average. Results showed a significant group by time interaction, indicating that METT training was associated with improved accuracy in emotion recognition. Although sample size was small, our study demonstrates that emotion recognition remediation using the METT is feasible in terms of training adherence. The evidence also suggests METT may be effective in premanifest or early-symptomatic HD, opening up a potential new avenue for intervention. Further study with a larger sample size is needed to replicate these findings, and to characterize the durability and generalizability of these improvements, and their impact on functional outcomes in HD. (JINS, 2017, 23, 314-321).

  7. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos; Santos, Andreia; Santos, Manuela; Castro, São Luís; Besson, Mireille

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain.

  8. A year-long caregiver training program improves cognition in preschool Ugandan children with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Michael J; Bangirana, Paul; Nakasujja, Noeline; Page, Connie F; Shohet, Cilly; Givon, Deborah; Bass, Judith K; Opoka, Robert O; Klein, Pnina S

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate mediational intervention for sensitizing caregivers (MISC). MISC biweekly caregiver training significantly enhanced child development compared with biweekly training on health and nutrition (active control) and to evaluate whether MISC training improved the emotional well-being of the caregivers compared with controls. Sixty of 120 rural Ugandan preschool child/caregiver dyads with HIV were assigned by randomized clusters to biweekly MISC training, alternating between home and clinic for 1 year. Control dyads received a health and nutrition curriculum. Children were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year with the Mullen Early Learning Scales and the Color-Object Association Test for memory. Caldwell Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment and videotaped child/caregiver MISC interactions also were evaluated. Caregivers were evaluated for depression and anxiety with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. Between-group repeated-measures ANCOVA comparisons were made with age, sex, CD4 levels, viral load, material socioeconomic status, physical development, and highly active anti-retroviral therapy treatment status as covariates. The children given MISC had significantly greater gains compared with controls on the Mullen Visual Reception scale (visual-spatial memory) and on Color-Object Association Test memory. MISC caregivers significantly improved on Caldwell Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scale and total frequency of MISC videotaped interactions. MISC caregivers also were less depressed. Mortality was less for children given MISC compared with controls during the training year. MISC was effective in teaching Ugandan caregivers to enhance their children's cognitive development through practical and sustainable techniques applied during daily interactions in the home. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The National Resuscitation Council, Singapore, and 34 years of resuscitation training: 1983 to 2017.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Venkataraman

    2017-07-01

    Training in the modern form of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) started in Singapore in 1983. For the first 15 years, the expansion of training programmes was mainly owing to the interest of a few individuals. Public training in the skill was minimal. In an area of medical care where the greatest opportunity for benefit lies in employing core resuscitation skills in the prehospital environment, very little was being done to address such a need. In 1998, a group of physicians, working together with the Ministry of Health, set up the National Resuscitation Council (NRC). Over the years, the NRC has created national guidelines on resuscitation and reviewed them at five-yearly intervals. Provider training manuals are now available for most programmes. The NRC has set up an active accreditation system for monitoring and maintaining standards of life support training. This has led to a large increase in the number of training centres, as well as recognition and adoption of the council's guidelines in the country. The NRC has also actively promoted the use of bystander CPR through community-based programmes, resulting in a rise in the number of certified providers. Improving the chain of survival, through active community-based training programmes, will likely lead to more lives being saved from sudden cardiac arrest. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  10. The National Resuscitation Council, Singapore, and 34 years of resuscitation training: 1983 to 2017

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Venkataraman

    2017-01-01

    Training in the modern form of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) started in Singapore in 1983. For the first 15 years, the expansion of training programmes was mainly owing to the interest of a few individuals. Public training in the skill was minimal. In an area of medical care where the greatest opportunity for benefit lies in employing core resuscitation skills in the prehospital environment, very little was being done to address such a need. In 1998, a group of physicians, working together with the Ministry of Health, set up the National Resuscitation Council (NRC). Over the years, the NRC has created national guidelines on resuscitation and reviewed them at five-yearly intervals. Provider training manuals are now available for most programmes. The NRC has set up an active accreditation system for monitoring and maintaining standards of life support training. This has led to a large increase in the number of training centres, as well as recognition and adoption of the council’s guidelines in the country. The NRC has also actively promoted the use of bystander CPR through community-based programmes, resulting in a rise in the number of certified providers. Improving the chain of survival, through active community-based training programmes, will likely lead to more lives being saved from sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:28741008

  11. The effects of Crew Resource Mangement (CRM) training in airline maintenance: Results following three years' experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. C.; Robertson, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes three years' evaluation of the effects of one airline's Crew Resources Management (CRM) training operation for maintenance. This evaluation focuses on the post-training attitudes of maintenance managers' and technical support professionals, their reported behaviors, and the safety, efficiency and dependable maintenance performance of their units. The results reveal a strong positive effect of the training. The overall program represents the use of CRM training as a long-term commitment to improving performance through effective communication at all levels in airline maintenance operations. The initial findings described in our previous progress reports are reinforced and elaborated here. The current results benefit from the entire pre-post training survey, which now represents total attendance of all managers and staff professionals. Additionally there are now full results from the two-month, six-month, and 12-month follow-up questionnaires, together with as many as 33 months of post-training performance data, using several indicators. In this present report, we examine participants' attitudes, their reported behaviors following the training, the performance of their work units, and the relationships among these variables. Attitudes include those measured immediately before and after the training as well as participants' attitudes months after their training. Performance includes measures, by work units, of on-time flight departures, on-schedule maintenance releases, occupational and aircraft safety, and efficient labor costs. We report changes in these performance measures following training, as well their relationships with the training participants' attitudes. Highlights of results from this training program include increased safety and improved costs associated with positive attitudes about the use of more assertive communication, and the improved management of stress. Improved on-time performance is also related to those improved

  12. Effect of exercise training in 60- to 69-year-old persons with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, J M; Montain, S J; Martin, W H; Ehsani, A A

    1989-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether 9 months of low- or moderate-intensity exercise training could decrease blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive men and women (mean age 64 +/- 3 years). Patients underwent weekly BP evaluations for 1 month to ensure that they had persistently elevated BP and then completed a maximal treadmill exercise test to exclude those with overt coronary artery disease. The low- and moderate-intensity groups trained at 53 and 73% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), respectively; however, total caloric expenditure per week was similar in both groups. VO2 max did not increase in the low-intensity group with training, but increased 28% in the moderate-intensity group. Diastolic BP decreased 11 to 12 mm Hg in both training groups. Systolic BP decreased 20 mm Hg in the low-intensity group with training, which was significantly greater than the change in the control and the moderate-intensity groups. Although systolic BP decreased 8 mm Hg in the moderate-intensity training group, this reduction was not significant. Training resulted in a somewhat lower cardiac output at rest in the low-intensity group, whereas total peripheral resistance decreased slightly in the moderate-intensity training group. Plasma and blood volumes, plasma renin levels and urinary sodium excretion did not change in either group with training. Both groups manifested lower plasma norepinephrine levels after training during standing rest, but not while supine. Thus, low-intensity training may lower BP as much or more than moderate-intensity training in older persons with essential hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear.

  13. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  14. College Student Persistence in the Two-Year Setting: Identifying Risk Early to Guide Early Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Margo A.

    2013-01-01

    College student persistence is examined. The unique nature of the students and environment of the two-year college setting warrant concentrated research effort. The purpose of the study is to examine student variables associated with persistence and program completion to develop a pre-entrance risk assessment in the two-year college setting.…

  15. The English Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) and the "Split" Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2013-01-01

    In England, the overwhelming majority (78%) of under fives' nursery places, remains in the private, voluntary and independent (PVI) sector where there is no requirement to employ a qualified teacher. Compared to the maintained state sector early years workforce, this dominant PVI sector tends to be staffed by a poorly qualified workforce. From…

  16. Bridging the Generation Gap: A Rapid Early Career Hire Training Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieber, Richard R.; Coffee, Thomas; Dong, Shuonan; Infield, Samantha I.; Kilbride, Kendra B.; Seibert, Michael A.; Solish, Benjamin S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a training program to provide Early Career Hires (ECHs) in the aerospace industry with real, rapid, hands-on exposure to multiple phases and multiple disciplines of flight project development. Such a program has become necessary to close the Generation Gap and ensure that aerospace organizations maintain a highly skilled workforce as experienced personnel begin to retire. This paper discusses the specific motivations for and implementation of such a program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. However, the essential features are widely applicable to other NASA centers and organizations delivering large llight systems. This paper details the overall program concept, stages of participation by an ECH, oversight and mentoring, program assessment, training project selection, and facilities requirements.

  17. "Now I feel like a true parasitologist" -Concept-based training for early career scientists.

    PubMed

    Maier, Alexander G

    2018-03-15

    One of the allures of parasitology is its breadth of aspects spanning everything from molecules to ecosystems. Very few institutions have the capability to cover this breadth in educating parasitologists. As the national professional body, the Australian Society for Parasitology has developed a training course that aims to fill this gap. The course offers a comprehensive overview over the field, highlights the current research foci and introduces key methods. The program equips participants with an appreciation of parasites and with strategies to deal with the complexity of parasitological systems. The course provides an innovative model for training parasitological key concepts with a focus on professional development for early career researchers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing Early Childhood Educators' Use of Communication-Facilitating and Language-Modelling Strategies: Brief Speech and Language Therapy Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, David; Proctor, Penny; Gill, Wendy; Heaven, Sue; Marr, Jane; Young, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Intensive Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) training courses for Early Childhood Educators (ECEs) can have a positive effect on their use of interaction strategies that support children's communication skills. The impact of brief SLT training courses is not yet clearly understood. The aims of these two studies were to assess the impact of a brief…

  19. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage prevents water loss in the early stage of high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Kae; Ito, Osamu; Nagai, Satsuki; Onishi, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    To prevent water loss in the early stage of high altitude training, we focused on the effect of electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage (EC). Subjects were 16 male university students who belonged to a ski club. They had ski training at an altitude of 1,800 m. The water (WT) group drank only water, and the EC group drank only an electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage. They arrived at the training site in the late afternoon. The study started at 7 pm on the day of arrival and continued until noon of the 4(th) day. In the first 12 hours, 1 L of beverages were given. On the second and third days, 2.5 L of beverages were given. All subjects ate the same meals. Each morning while in fasting condition, subjects were weighed and blood was withdrawn for various parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium and aldosterone). Urine was collected at 12 hour intervals for a total 60 hours (5 times). The urine volume, gravity, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured. Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured during sleep with a pulse oximeter. Liquid intakes in both groups were similar, hence the electrolytes intake was higher in the EC group than in the WT group. The total urine volume was lower in the EC group than in the WT group, respectively (p<0.05). Plasma volume decreased in the WT group and increased in the EC group but a significant difference was not observed in the final value. Aldosterone concentration tended to be less in the EC group than in the WT group. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage in the early stage of high altitude training may be effective in decreasing urinary output and preventing loss of blood plasma volume.

  20. [Career satisfaction of German medical residents after four years of training].

    PubMed

    Römer, Farina; Ziegler, Stine; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate German residents' career satisfaction and its dependency on intrinsic and extrinsic factors after four years of postgraduate training. Gender, parental status, training conditions and specialty choice were of particular interest. Postal questionnaires were sent to medical graduates from seven different German faculties annually, starting in 2009. This paper presents cross-sectional data of domestic, working and training conditions four years after graduation. We used descriptive statistics and t-tests. In order to identify factors with an impact on career satisfaction, multiple regression analyses were calculated. Male residents who have children tended to be more satisfied with their career than residents without children. For female residents, however, having children was associated with lower career satisfaction. Those who chose training in general surgery or orthopedic surgery were less satisfied with their career progress. Residents with prolonged specialty training showed lower career satisfaction. Junior doctors who rated the quality of their residency training higher were more satisfied with their career. Those who perceived their job as particularly demanding were less satisfied. Concerning intrinsic factors, occupational self-efficacy and overall satisfaction with life were significantly associated with career satisfaction. Residents in general are quite satisfied with their career after four years of training. Opportunities to work part-time during residency as well as structured training programs should be implemented in order to overcome parenthood as a career obstacle for female residents. The quality of specialty training is particularly important for career satisfaction and has to be ensured across specialties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Incidence of admission to the Physical Training and Rehabilitation Programs in Initial Entry Training during fiscal year 2011.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Jevettra D; Knapik, Joseph J; Solomon, Zack; Hauret, Keith G; Morris, Krystal; Carter, Robert; McGill, Ryan; Paoli, Latondra

    2014-05-01

    The Physical Training and Rehabilitation Program (PTRP) is a recovery and reintegration program for recruits in Initial Entry Training (IET) who are unable to continue training because of serious injury. This investigation examined PTRP admission incidence among recruits in IET at Forts Jackson, Leonard Wood, Benning, and Sill during Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11). PTRP admission data were collected from a spreadsheet completed monthly by PTRP commanders. Total number of recruits was obtained from each post's Directorate of Programs, Training, and Management. In FY11, 368 men and 268 women were admitted into PTRPs at all installations. For Forts Jackson, Leonard Wood, Benning, and Sill, male admission incidences (cases/1,000 recruits) were 2.6, 3.0, 6.2, and 5.4, respectively; female admission incidences for Forts Jackson, Leonard Wood, and Sill, were 11.1, 10.1, and 22.6, respectively. Most injuries sent to PTRP were bone stress injuries (65%) or fractures (21%). 76% of recruits were returned to duty. Differences in admission incidence between posts appear primarily related to different local policies regarding convalescent leave and admission criteria. PTRP admission rates are lower than in the past, presumably related to policy changes and injury-reduction efforts. A cost-benefit analysis would assist in determining the value of the PTRP. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Early College High School Initiative. Evaluation Year End Report: 2003?2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea R.; Cole, Susan; Melton, Janet; Safran, Stephanie; Vogel, Tyler; Walton, Laura; Adelman, Nancy; Hall, Catherine; Keating, Kaelie Knowles; Murray, Samantha; Nielsen, Natalie; Schaffner, Monika

    2005-01-01

    This is the first year-end report produced as part of the on-going evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Early College High School Initiative. The program provides funding and support for the establishment of Early College High Schools, which are organized to allow all enrolled students the opportunity to earn a high school diploma…

  3. Children of Two to Three Years of Age in France: Early Childhood Settings and Age Divisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Pascale; Rayna, Sylvie; Brougère, Gilles; Rupin, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In a French early childhood care and education system that is strongly divided by age and institution, the current research studies the collective life of children at the pivotal age of two to three years of age in four different early childhood settings: (1) a group of "grands" (nursery) in a "crèche" (daycare centre), (2) a…

  4. Paths to Empowerment. Ten Years of Early Childhood Work in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Ruth

    In this book, Bernard van Leer Foundation programs in Israel that combined early childhood education and community development approaches across a 10-year period are described. Chapter (1) provide an introduction; (2) discuss the evolution of this combined approach, its theoretical roots in the separate disciplines of early childhood education and…

  5. Reframing Leadership as a Participative Pedagogy: The Working Theories of Early Years Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Janet; Clark, Rory McDowall

    2013-01-01

    Traditional notions of leadership are at odds with the pedagogy and ethos of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), prompting increasing international concern to develop new understandings which are better suited and create greater leadership capacity. The introduction of the Early Years Professional (EYP) in England, as a leader of practice…

  6. Formative Evaluation of the Understanding the Early Years Initiative. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the formative evaluation of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative. The evaluation was conducted to examine issues of implementation and design, early progress in achieving immediate objectives, and issues related to accountability. The evaluation team was also asked to provide preliminary guidance…

  7. My Body. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…

  8. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  9. Understanding the HighScope Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Monica

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the HighScope Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the HighScope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the HighScope Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice. Exploring…

  10. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  11. Schoolification or Early Years Democracy? A Cross-Curricular Perspective from Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogaard Clausen, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    International comparisons strongly influence national policy agendas in the early years. However, an appreciation of details and national context and differences is imperative to promote democracy. From the perspective of a Danish social pedagogue lecturing in Early Childhood Studies in England, the author presents a cross-national comparison to…

  12. Educational Disadvantage in the Early Years: How Do We Overcome It? Some Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws upon the findings of a body of recent research in early childhood education to explore the possibilities that may be available to overcome structural inequalities associated with socio-economic class, gender and ethnicity in the early years. Research has shown that preschool education makes a real difference for all children and…

  13. Early Childhood Education, The Year in Review: A Look at 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, James L., Jr.

    This is a report on the happenings in early childhood education in the United States in 1988. Contents focus on: (1) the week, the year, and the decade of the young child; (2) the proposed Act for Better Child Care Services; (3) other child care developments; (4) other early childhood programs; (5) growth of pre-kindergarten programs; (6) the need…

  14. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  15. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  16. Social Identity, Autism and Visual Impairment (VI) in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how visual impairment might impact on early social and emotional development including self-awareness and communication with others. Some children show a "developmental setback" and other worrying developmental trajectories in the early years, including autistic related behaviours and autistic spectrum disorders.…

  17. Integrated Practice in the Early Years in Australia: The Assumptions, Omissions and Contradictions of Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Kym; Nolan, Andrea; Cartmel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine current national early years' policy reform, which emphasises the importance of service integration, national quality standards and a quality knowledge base for educators concerning the provision of early childhood education and care. Using Queensland, Australia, as an example, a policy discourse analysis…

  18. An 8-Week Low-Intensity Progressive Cycling Training Improves Motor Functions in Patients with Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiu Chen; Lu, Chin Song; Chiou, Wei Da; Chen, Chiung Chu; Weng, Yi Hsin; Chang, Ya Ju

    2018-04-01

    The effects of high-intensity cycling as an adjuvant therapy for early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) were highlighted recently. However, patients experience difficulties in maintaining these cycling training programs. The present study investigated the efficacy of cycling at a mild-to-moderate intensity in early-stage PD. Thirteen PD patients were enrolled for 16 serial cycling sessions over a 2-month period. Motor function was assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS III) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test as primary outcomes. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), modified Hoehn and Yahr Stage (mHYS), total UPDRS, Falls Efficacy Scale, New Freezing of Gait Questionnaire, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living, 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, Patient Global Impression of Change, and gait performance were assessed as secondary outcomes. The age and the age at onset were 59.67±7.24 and 53.23±10.26 years (mean±SD), respectively. The cycling cadence was 53.27±8.92 revolutions per minute. The UPDRS III score improved significantly after 8 training sessions (p=0.011) and 16 training sessions (T2) (p=0.001) in the off-state, and at T2 (p=0.004) in the on-state compared to pretraining (T0). The TUG duration was significantly shorter at T2 than at T0 (p<0.05). The findings of MoCA, total UPDRS, double limb support time, and mHYS (in both the off- and on-states) also improved significantly at T2. Our pioneer study has demonstrated that a low-intensity progressive cycling exercise can improve motor function in PD, especially akinesia. The beneficial effects were similar to those of high-intensity rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2018 Korean Neurological Association.

  19. Fiscal Year 1970 Work Program for the Department of the Army; Research and Development in Training, Motivation, and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, VA.

    Activities (28 Work Units and six other research efforts) performed by the Human Resources Research Organization for the Department of the Army for Fiscal Year 1970 have been grouped by six major areas: individual training and performance; unit training and performance; training for leadership, command, and control; language and area training;…

  20. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p < 0.05) and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Nitric oxide production of EPCs was substantially increased after exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with

  1. Teaching Children with down Syndrome in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Amanda; Tangen, Donna; Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Mergler, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    We explored 3 general classroom teachers' experiences of including a child with Down syndrome in their early years classrooms. Located at 3 different Australian school settings, 1 teacher was the head of a Preparatory class, 1 was a Year 3 teacher, and the third was a teacher of a split Preparatory/Year 1 class. Interview data were drawn from a…

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHILD PERCEPTIONS TO ACHIEVEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN THE EARLY SCHOOL YEARS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COMBS, ARTHUR W.; SOPER, DANIEL W.

    THIS RESEARCH EXPLORED CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE PERCEPTIONS OF CHILDREN AND THEIR BEHAVIOR DURING EARLY SCHOOL YEARS. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE--(1) TO DETERMINE IF CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF SELF AND THE WORLD ARE ACCOMPANIED FROM YEAR TO YEAR BY CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR AND ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) TO SEE IF A KNOWLEDGE OF A CHILD'S PERCEPTIONS CAN…

  3. The history of the early years of metamaterials in USA and UK defense agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derov, John S.; Hammond, Richard; Youngs, Ian J.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the historical events that occurred in the early years of metamaterials leading to the current development of metamaterials in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense, and Ministry of Defence.

  4. Using Arrays to Build towards Multiplicative Thinking in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Lorraine; Mulligan, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Lorraine Jacob and Joanne Mulligan discuss how arrays can be used to promote students' early learning in relation to multiplication and division. They provide examples of activities that can be used from Foundation to Year 5.

  5. Early Intensive Leg Training to Enhance Walking in Children With Perinatal Stroke: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Caitlin; Livingstone, Donna; Brunton, Kelly; Teves, Michelle; Zewdie, Ephrem; Smith, Allison; Ciechanski, Patrick; Gorassini, Monica A; Kirton, Adam; Watt, Man-Joe; Andersen, John; Yager, Jerome; Yang, Jaynie F

    2017-08-01

    Development of motor pathways is modulated by activity in these pathways, when they are maturing (ie, critical period). Perinatal stroke injures motor pathways, including the corticospinal tracts, reducing their activity and impairing motor function. Current intervention for the lower limb emphasizes passive approaches (stretching, braces, botulinum toxin injections). The study hypothesis was that intensive, early, child-initiated activity during the critical period will enhance connectivity of motor pathways to the legs and improve motor function. The study objective was to determine whether early intervention with intensive activity is better than standard care, intervention delivered during the proposed critical period is better than after, and the outcomes are different when the intervention is delivered by a physical therapist in an institution vs. a parent at home. A prospective, delay-group, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a parallel, cohort study of children living beyond commuting distance and receiving an intervention delivered by their parent. The RCT intervention was provided in university laboratories, and parent training was provided in the childs home. Children 8 months to 3 years old with MRI-confirmed perinatal ischemic stroke and early signs of hemiparesis. Intensive, play-based leg activity with weights for the affected leg and foot, 1 hour/day, 4 days/week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 score. Secondary outcomes were motion analysis of walking, full-day step counts, motor evoked potentials from transcranial magnetic stimulation, and patellar tendon reflexes. Inter-individual heterogeneity in the severity of the stroke and behavioral differences are substantial but measurable. Differences in intervention delivery and assessment scoring are minimized by standardization and training. The intervention, contrary to current practice, could change physical therapy interventions for children

  6. Impact of Simulation Training on Time to Initiation of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for First-Year Pediatrics Residents

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joshua C.; Trainor, Jennifer L.; Eppich, Walter J.; Adler, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatrics residents have few opportunities to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Enhancing the quality of CPR is a key factor to improving outcomes for cardiopulmonary arrest in children and requires effective training strategies. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a simulation-based intervention to reduce first-year pediatrics residents' time for 3 critical actions in CPR: (1) call for help, (2) initiate bag-mask ventilation, and (3) initiate chest compressions. Methods A prospective study involving 31 first-year pediatrics residents at a children's hospital assigned to an early or late (control) intervention group. Residents underwent baseline assessment followed by repeat evaluations at 3 and 6 months. Time to critical actions was scored by video review. A 90-minute educational intervention focused on skill practice was conducted following baseline evaluation for the early-intervention group and following 3-month evaluation for the late-intervention group. Primary outcome was change in time to initiating the 3 critical actions. Change in time was analyzed by comparison of Kaplan-Meier curves, using the log-rank test. A 10% sample was timed by a second rater. Agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC). Results There was a statistically significant reduction in time for all 3 critical actions between baseline and 3-month evaluation in the early intervention group; this was not observed in the late (control) group. Rater agreement was excellent (ICC ≥ 0.99). Conclusions A simulation-based educational intervention significantly reduced time to initiation of CPR for first-year pediatrics residents. Simulation training facilitated acquisition of critical CPR skills that have the potential to impact patient outcome. PMID:24455010

  7. Cardiac Remodeling in Response to 1 Year of Intensive Endurance Training

    PubMed Central

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Perhonen, Merja; Howden, Erin; Peshock, Ronald M.; Zhang, Rong; Adams-Huet, Beverly; Haykowsky, Mark J.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2017-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether, and to what extent, the striking cardiac morphological manifestations of endurance athletes are a result of exercise training or a genetically determined characteristic of talented athletes. We hypothesized that prolonged and intensive endurance training in previously sedentary healthy young individuals could induce cardiac remodeling similar to that observed cross-sectionally in elite endurance athletes. Methods and Results Twelve previously sedentary subjects (aged 29±6 years; 7 men and 5 women) trained progressively and intensively for 12 months such that they could compete in a marathon. Magnetic resonance images for assessment of right and left ventricular mass and volumes were obtained at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of training. Maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) and cardiac output at rest and during exercise (C2H2 rebreathing) were measured at the same time periods. Pulmonary artery catheterization was performed before and after 1 year of training, and pressure-volume and Starling curves were constructed during decreases (lower body negative pressure) and increases (saline infusion) in cardiac volume. Mean V̇o2 max rose from 40.3±1.6 to 48.7±2.5 mL/kg per minute after 1 year (P<0.00001), associated with an increase in both maximal cardiac output and stroke volume. Left and right ventricular mass increased progressively with training duration and intensity and reached levels similar to those observed in elite endurance athletes. In contrast, left ventricular volume did not change significantly until 6 months of training, although right ventricular volume increased progressively from the outset; Starling and pressure-volume curves approached but did not match those of elite athletes. Conclusions One year of prolonged and intensive endurance training leads to cardiac morphological adaptations in previously sedentary young subjects similar to those observed in elite endurance athletes; however, it is not

  8. Improvements to executive function during exercise training predict maintenance of physical activity over the following year.

    PubMed

    Best, John R; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exercise training benefits cognitive, neural, and physical health markers in older adults. It is likely that these positive effects will diminish if participants return to sedentary lifestyles following training cessation. Theory posits that that the neurocognitive processes underlying self-regulation, namely executive function (EF), are important to maintaining positive health behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether better EF performance in older women would predict greater adherence to routine physical activity (PA) over 1 year following a 12-month resistance exercise training randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 125 community-dwelling women aged 65-75 years old. Our primary outcome measure was self-reported PA, as measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), assessed on a monthly basis from month 13 to month 25. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop Test at baseline (month 0) and post-training (month 12). Latent growth curve analyses showed that, on average, PA decreased during the follow-up period but at a decelerating rate. Women who made greater improvements to EF during the training period showed better adherence to PA during the 1-year follow-up period (β = -0.36, p < 0.05); this association was unmitigated by the addition of covariates (β = -0.44, p < 0.05). As expected, EF did not predict changes in PA during the training period (p > 0.10). Overall, these findings suggest that improving EF plays an important role in whether older women maintain higher levels of PA following exercise training and that this association is only apparent after training when environmental support for PA is low.

  9. Rational action selection in 1½- to 3-year-olds following an extended training experience.

    PubMed

    Klossek, Ulrike M H; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1½ and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen to obtain video clips as outcomes. Subsequently, a visual habituation procedure was employed to devalue one of the training outcomes. As in previous studies, 2- and 3-year-olds chose actions associated with an expected valued outcome significantly more often during a subsequent choice test. Moreover, analysis of children's first responses in the post-devaluation test revealed evidence of rational action selection even in the youngest age group (18-23 months). Consistent with dual-process accounts of action control, the findings support the view that the ability to make rational action choices develops gradually. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Musical training modulates the early but not the late stage of rhythmic syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Liu, Fang; Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei

    2018-02-01

    Syntactic processing is essential for musical understanding. Although the processing of harmonic syntax has been well studied, very little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying rhythmic syntactic processing. The present study investigated the neural processing of rhythmic syntax and whether and to what extent long-term musical training impacts such processing. Fourteen musicians and 14 nonmusicians listened to syntactic-regular or syntactic-irregular rhythmic sequences and judged the completeness of these sequences. Nonmusicians, as well as musicians, showed a P600 effect to syntactic-irregular endings, indicating that musical exposure and perceptual learning of music are sufficient to enable nonmusicians to process rhythmic syntax at the late stage. However, musicians, but not nonmusicians, also exhibited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) response to syntactic-irregular endings, which suggests that musical training only modulates the early but not the late stage of rhythmic syntactic processing. These findings revealed for the first time the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of rhythmic syntax in music, which has important implications for theories of hierarchically organized music cognition and comparative studies of syntactic processing in music and language. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Demonstration of Parent Training to Address Early Self-Injury in Young Children with Intellectual and Developmental Delays.

    PubMed

    Fodstad, Jill C; Kirsch, Alexandra; Faidley, Micah; Bauer, Nerissa

    2018-06-20

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at a high risk for engaging in self-injurious behavior (SIB). Prognosis is poor when SIB emerges early. Limited research exists on interventions teaching parents how to manage their young child's SIB. This investigation assessed the feasibility of adapting an applied behavior analytic parent training program with 11 parents of children 1-5 years of age with IDD and SIB. Quantitative and observational measures were used to assess outcomes; semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver satisfaction. Outcomes yielded preliminary data suggesting the adapted curriculum was feasible and acceptable to parents. Initial efficacy outcomes yielded decreases in SIB and observed negative parent-child interactions on pre- and post-measures. Qualitative data provided areas for further curriculum refinement.

  12. The Professional Identity of Early Years Educators in England: Implications for a Transformative Approach to Continuing Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Sarah; Frost, David

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the professional identity of nine early years educators currently working in the early years sector of education in England. These educators include teachers, teaching assistants, nursery practitioners and nursery nurses working with children three to five years old in the Early Years Foundation Stage in state-maintained…

  13. "We All Share a Common Vision and Passion": Early Years Professionals Reflect upon Their Leadership of Practice Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallet, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Early Years Professionals are graduate leaders working with children below 5 years of age, their families and practitioners in early years settings in the private, voluntary and independent sectors and children's centres in England. Their leadership of practice role is central to raising the quality of early years provision and practice. In this…

  14. Mentoring Early-Career Faculty Researchers Is Important-But First "Train the Trainer".

    PubMed

    Sood, Akshay; Tigges, Beth; Helitzer, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    It has long been known that mentoring is critical to the success of junior faculty researchers. The controlled intervention study by Libby et al published in this issue of Academic Medicine demonstrates that institutional investment in a mentored research career development program for early-career faculty investigators provided significant long-term gains in grant productivity. Academic institutions hoping to replicate this program's success by launching similar mentoring programs for their junior faculty investigators will, however, find that the Achilles' heel lies in the scarcity of skilled research mentors and the relative lack of attention to and recognition of the importance of a supportive institutional climate for mentoring. It is essential, therefore, to begin by developing programs to "train the trainer" as well as programs and policies to support mentors. As a recent trial at 16 Clinical and Translational Science Award institutions demonstrated, competency-based, structured research mentor training can improve mentors' skills.In this Commentary, the authors offer a comprehensive two-pronged framework for mentor development with elements that address both individual mentoring competencies and the institutional climate for mentoring. The framework depicts the gaps, activities, and outcomes that a mentor development program can address. Activities directed at changing the institutional climate related to mentor development should complement training activities for individual mentors. The authors propose that employing this framework's approach to mentor development will lead to the desired impact: to increase the competence, productivity, and retention of a diverse clinical and translational research workforce.

  15. The effect of a simple educational intervention on interest in early abortion training among family medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Justine P; Bennett, Ian; Levine, Jeffrey P; Aguirre, Abigail Calkins; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fleischman, Joan

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the interest in and support for abortion training among family medicine residents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey before and after an educational lecture on medical and surgical abortion in primary care among 89 residents in 10 New Jersey family medicine programs. Before the lecture, there was more interest in medical abortion training than surgical abortion. Resident interest in surgical abortion and overall support for abortion training increased after the educational intervention (p<.01). Efforts to develop educational programs on early abortion care may facilitate the integration of abortion training in family medicine.

  16. Interactive metronome training for a 9-year-old boy with attention and motor coordination difficulties.

    PubMed

    Bartscherer, Melinda L; Dole, Robin L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a new intervention, the Interactive Metronome, for improving timing and coordination. A nine-year-old boy, with difficulties in attention and developmental delay of unspecified origin underwent a seven-week training program with the Interactive Metronome. Before, during, and after training timing, accuracy was assessed with testing procedures consistent with the Interactive Metronome training protocol. Before and after training, his gross and fine motor skills were examined with the Bruininiks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The child exhibited marked change in scores on both timing accuracy and several BOTMP subtests. Additionally his mother relayed anecdotal reports of changes in behavior at home. This child's participation in a new intervention for improving timing and coordination was associated with changes in timing accuracy, gross and fine motor abilities, and parent reported behaviors. These findings warrant further study.

  17. Maturity-associated variation in change of direction and dribbling speed in early pubertal years and 5-year developmental changes in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Valente-Dos-Santos, J; Coelho-E-Silva, M J; Vaz, V; Figueiredo, A J; Capranica, L; Sherar, L B; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Malina, R M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the developmental changes in change of direction and dribbling speed in youth soccer players taking into account skeletal age (SA), maturity status, body size, estimated fat mass, aerobic endurance, lower limb explosive strength and annual volume of training. Eighty-three male soccer players aged 10-15 years (SA) at baseline were annually followed over 5 years, resulting in an average 4.4 observations per player. After testing for multicollinearity, multi-level regression modeling was used to examine the longitudinal developmental changes on change of direction and dribbling speed. Maturity-associated variability was significant in change of direction and also dribbling speed among young soccer players aged 12-14 years with better scores being performed by late maturers. Moreover, the predicted longitudinal scores for change of direction and dribbling speed improved with SA (P<0.01), SA2 (P<0.01) and skeletal maturity status entered as an additional developmental predictor (P<0.05). Estimated fat-free mass (P<0.01), aerobic endurance (P<0.01) and lower limb strength (P<0.01) were additional predictors in both models. The soccer-specific skill, dibbling speed, was also explained by annual volume of training (P<0.05). Skeletal maturity status explains inter-individual variability on maximal short-term run performances with and without the ball possession at early ages of participation in competitive soccer. The effects tend to persist across ages combined with longitudinal changes in body composition and functional fitness. In the particular case of the ball test, annual volume of training was also a longitudinal performance predictor.

  18. Practice patterns of family physicians with 2-year residency v. 1-year internship training: do both roads lead to Rome?

    PubMed Central

    Sheps, S B; Schechter, M T; Grantham, P; Finlayson, N; Sizto, R

    1989-01-01

    Are there differences in patterns of practice between actively practising physicians who have been certified after a 2-year family practice residency and matched physicians without certification who have completed the standard 1-year internship? With the use of billing files prepared by the British Columbia Medical Association a group of 65 family practice certificants in active practice in British Columbia was compared with a control group of 130 internship trainees matched by year and school of graduation, category of billing (i.e., solo or group) and region. A wide range of practice features was assessed for the fiscal years 1984-85, 1985-86 and 1986-87. No differences were detected between the groups in 1986-87 for the following practice variables: number of patients (1888 and 1842 respectively), number of personal services billed for (7265 and 7173), number of personal services per patient (3.9), amount of funding for personal services ($140,192 and $140,100) and amount per patient for personal services ($77 and $79). Age-adjusted costs for male and female patients were similar in the two groups. Of six services thought to be influenced by type of training, only maternity care generated a significantly higher number of billings in the study group (341 v. 249). These results suggest that there is no demonstrable effect of training on patterns of practice. However, the question of the effect of training on quality of care and whether the 2-year residency may have a longer effect on practice patterns should be the focus of future research. PMID:2702528

  19. Four years of training in family medicine: implications for residency redesign.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, J Lewis; McPherson, Vanessa; Little, John M

    2012-09-01

    In light of the ongoing consideration for extending the length of residency education in family medicine in the United States, this paper reports the findings from a retrospective, qualitative study of six family physicians that elected to extend their residency training from 3 to 4 years. Each participant completed a written questionnaire and a structured personal interview focusing on various aspects of career development resulting from the additional year of training. The authors independently evaluated these interviews to identify major themes. All the participants were found to have been involved in teaching medicine, valued a more flexible and expanded curriculum, and appreciated their individualized curricula-based on their respective career interests. Given the opportunity, each would opt again for a fourth year of training. There were mixed opinions as to whether the fourth year should be required of all family medicine residents. Other perceived benefits reported were: a better opportunity to find a personally satisfactory practice, additional time for gaining clarity about career plans, and a higher beginning salary as a result of the additional skills and experiences gained. This study of mid-career physicians supports that a fourth-year (PGY4) curriculum in family medicine may enhance subsequent career satisfaction. Further studies of residents in other PGY4 training programs are necessary to assess outcomes comparing our findings as well as guide the discipline's leaders in residency redesign.

  20. Outcomes of Fort Jackson's Physical Training and Rehabilitation Program in army basic combat training: return to training, graduation, and 2-year retention.

    PubMed

    Hauret, Keith G; Knapik, Joseph J; Lange, Jeffrey L; Heckel, Heidi A; Coval, Dana L; Duplessis, David H

    2004-07-01

    Basic trainees at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, who were unable to continue basic combat training (BCT) because of a serious injury were assigned to the Physical Training and Rehabilitation Program (PTRP). Between January 3, 1998 and July 24, 2001, 4258 trainees were assigned to the PTRP. Using a retrospective cohort study design, return to training and BCT graduation rates were evaluated. PTRP graduates were compared with matched non-PTRP graduates for 2-year retention in the Army. More PTRP women than men were discharged from the PTRP (60% and 48%, respectively, p < 0.01). Of PTRP trainees returning to BCT, 10% and 12% of men and women, respectively, were discharged from the Army compared with overall Fort Jackson discharge rates of 9% and 15% for men and women, respectively. Comparing PTRP graduates to matched non-PTRP graduates, there were no differences in 2-year retention for men (14.9% and 14.7%, respectively; p = 0.93) or women (26.6% and 30.1%, respectively; p = 0.19). Despite the high discharge rate in the PTRP, the BCT discharge rate for trainees who successfully rehabilitated was similar to the overall discharge rate at Fort Jackson. The 2-year retention in service for PTRP trainees who graduated from BCT was similar to that of non-PTRP trainees.

  1. Developing Peer Mentoring Support for TAFE Students Entering 1st-Year University Early Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heirdsfield, Ann; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann

    2005-01-01

    At Queensland University of Technology (QUT, Australia), in the Bachelor of Education (BEd) (Early Childhood) (EC), Technical and Further Education (TAFE) students with a diploma enroll with advanced standing (1 year's credit). These students share many challenges faced by 1st-year university students--workload, technology, academic orientation,…

  2. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  3. Language Development in the Early School Years: The Importance of Close Relationships with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children's receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral functioning. The sample included children and their…

  4. Early Cognitive and Linguistic Profiles of Different Types of 7- to 8-Year-Old Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the early characteristics of four profiles of readers established in second grade (7-8 years of age): good readers, specific poor decoders, specific poor comprehenders and general poor readers. These profiles were compared retrospectively on a range of measures administered 2 years earlier, in kindergarten.…

  5. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  6. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences.

    PubMed

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-07-07

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.

  7. REVIEW: The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-07-01

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.

  8. The Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Year Two Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The human brain develops rapidly in the first five years of life. High-quality early learning experiences can have a profound and lasting positive effect on young children during these years, setting the stage for success in kindergarten and beyond. This is especially true for young children with high needs who are from low-income families; who…

  9. Playful Structure: A Novel Image of Early Years Pedagogy for Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Sproule, Liz; McGuinness, Carol; Trew, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Playful structure is a new pedagogic image representing a more balanced and integrated perspective on early years pedagogy, aiming to blend apparent dichotomies and contradictions and to sustain and evolve play-based practice beyond Year 1. Playful structure invites teachers and children to initiate and maintain a degree of playfulness in the…

  10. Contributions of Early Work-Based Learning: A Case Study of First Year Pharmacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming

    2009-01-01

    Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…

  11. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  12. Under-Representation of Males in the Early Years: The Challenges Leaders Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates why there appears to be an under-representation of males in comparison to their female colleagues in the Early Years (EY) sector, and the perception of male teachers progressing more quickly to leadership positions when they do enter this context. Using case studies of final year male students on an Initial Teacher…

  13. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  14. Elevated pentraxin 3 level at the early stage of exercise training is associated with reduction of arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Zempo-Miyaki, A; Fujie, S; Sato, K; Hasegawa, N; Sanada, K; Maeda, S; Hamaoka, T; Iemitsu, M

    2016-09-01

    Regular exercise improves aging-induced deterioration of arterial stiffness, and is associated with elevated production of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and anti-inflammatory as well as anti-atherosclerotic effects. However, the time-dependent effect of exercise training on arterial stiffness and PTX3 production remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of the association between the effects of training on the circulating PTX3 level and arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-two healthy Japanese subjects (66.2±1.3 year) were randomly divided into two groups: training (exercise intervention) and sedentary controls. Subjects in the training group completed 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training (60-70% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 45 min, 3 days per week); during the training period, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) every 2 wk. cfPWV gradually declined over the 8-week training period, and was significantly reduced after 6 and 8 week of exercise intervention (P<0.05). Plasma PTX3 level was significantly increased after 4 weeks of the intervention (P<0.05). In addition, the exercise training-induced reduction in cfPWV was negatively correlated with the percent change in plasma PTX3 level after 6 week (r=-0.54, P<0.05) and 8 weeks (r=-0.51, P<0.05) of the intervention, but not correlated at 4 weeks. Plasma PTX3 level was elevated at the early stage of the exercise training intervention, and was subsequently associated with training-induced alteration of arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

  15. Evaluation of retention of knowledge and skills imparted to first-year medical students through basic life support training.

    PubMed

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-03-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which can be reenforced in succeeding years. Forty-two first-year medical students participated in this study. The entire procedure consisted of faculty training, assessment of knowledge of students by a pretest questionnaire, a lecture, a demonstration, and hands-on training using a mannequin (with special emphasis on the site, depth, rate, and sustainment of uninterrupted chest compressions). Posttest 1 was conducted to assess the knowledge gained. The retention of knowledge and skills in the second year was evaluated by posttest 2 and directly observed procedural skills, respectively. Student feedback was collected on five-point Likert scale. Analysis using a Freidman test indicated the mean rank for posttest 1 (2.81) to be significantly higher than the pretest (1.26), indicating a gain in knowledge. The mean rank for posttest 2 (1.93) was lower than for posttest 1 (2.81) but was significantly higher compared with the pretest (1.26), indicating a significant retention of knowledge during the second year. Directly observed procedural skill evaluation showed that 7% students could perform all the seven steps correctly and that 74% students could perform three or more steps correctly, signifying a good retention of skill. Two students taught BLS skills to their family members as well. The results of this study suggest that the program provides students with sound basic knowledge and adequate practical skills in BLS.

  16. Preclinical students’ experiences in early clerkships after skills training partly offered in primary health care centers: a qualitative study from Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Students may encounter difficulties when they have to apply clinical skills trained in their pre-clinical studies in clerkships. Early clinical exposure in the pre-clinical phase has been recommended to reduce these transition problems. The aim of this study is to explore differences in students' experiences during the first clerkships between students exclusively trained in a skills laboratory and peers for whom part of their skills training was substituted by early clinical experiences (ECE). Methods Thirty pre-clinical students trained clinical skills exclusively in a skills laboratory; 30 peers received part of their skills training in PHC centers. Within half a year after commencing their clerkships all 60 students shared their experiences in focus group discussions (FGDs). Verbatim transcripts of FGDs were analyzed using Atlas-Ti software. Results Clerkship students who had participated in ECE in PHC centers felt better prepared to perform their clinical skills during the first clerkships than peers who had only practiced in a skills laboratory. ECE in PHC centers impacted positively in particular on students’ confidence, clinical reasoning, and interpersonal communication. Conclusion In the Indonesian setting ECE in PHC centers reduce difficulties commonly encountered by medical students in the first clerkships. PMID:22640419

  17. Training for Quality: Improving Early Childhood Programs through Systematic Inservice Training. Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Number Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann S.

    The Training of Trainers (ToT) Evaluation investigated the efficacy of the High/Scope model for improving the quality of early childhood programs on a national scale. To address this question, the High/Scope Foundation undertook a multimethod evaluation that collected anecdotal records from the consultants and 793 participants in 40 ToT projects,…

  18. Usability of Videogame-Based Dexterity Training in the Early Rehabilitation Phase of Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vanbellingen, Tim; Filius, Suzanne J; Nyffeler, Thomas; van Wegen, Erwin E H

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 70-80% of stroke survivors have limited activities of daily living, mainly due to dexterous problems. Videogame-based training (VBT) along with virtual reality seems to be beneficial to train upper limb function. To evaluate the usability of VBT using the Leap Motion Controller (LMC) to train fine manual dexterity in the early rehabilitation phase of stroke patients as an add-on to conventional therapy. Additionally, this study aimed to estimate the feasibility and potential efficacy of the VBT. During 3 months, 64 stroke patients were screened for eligibility, 13 stroke patients were included (4 women and 9 men; age range: 24-91 years; mean time post stroke: 28.2 days). Nine sessions of 30 min VBT, three times per week as an add-on to conventional therapy with stroke inpatients. Primary outcome was the usability of the system measured with the System Usability Scale. Secondary outcomes concerning feasibility were the compliance rate calculated from the total time spent on the intervention (TT) compared to planned time, the opinion of participants via open-end questions, and the level of active participation measured with the Pittsburgh Rehabilitation Participation Scale. Regarding the potential efficacy secondary outcomes were: functional dexterity measured with the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT), subjective dexterity measured with the Dexterity Questionnaire 24, grip strength measured with the Jamar dynamometer, and motor impairment of the upper limb measured with the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity (FM-UE) scale. Primarily, the usability of the system was good to excellent. The patient's perception of usability remained stable over a mean period of 3 weeks of VBT. Secondly, the compliance rate was good, and the level of active participation varied between good and very good. The opinion of the participants revealed that despite individual differences, the overall impression of the therapy and device was good. Patients showed significant

  19. The deaf strong hospital program: a model of diversity and inclusion training for first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Thew, Denise; Smith, Scott R; Chang, Christopher; Starr, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Recent research indicates that the cultural competence training students receive during medical school might not adequately address the issues that arise when caring for patients of different cultures. Because of their unique communication, linguistic, and cultural issues, incorporating deaf people who use sign language into cultural competence education at medical schools might help to bridge this gap in cross-cultural education. The Deaf Strong Hospital (DSH) program at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, started in 1998, exposes first-year medical students to the issues that are relevant to providing effective patient care and to establishing multicultural sensitivity early in their medical education. Because medical students better acquire cross-cultural competence through hands-on experience rather than through lectures, the DSH program, which includes a role-reversal exercise in which medical students play the role of the patients, provides such a model for other medical schools and health care training centers to use in teaching future health care providers how to address the relevant cultural, linguistic, and communication needs of both their deaf patients and their non-English-speaking patients. This article describes the DSH program curriculum, shares findings from both medical students' short-term and long-term postprogram evaluations, and provides a framework for the implementation of a broader cultural and linguistic sensitivity training program specific to working with and improving the quality of health care among deaf people.

  20. Scoping the evidence for EarlyBird and EarlyBird Plus, two United Kingdom-developed parent education training programmes for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Squibb, John-Joe; Davids, Eugene Lee; de Vries, Petrus J

    2018-03-01

    EarlyBird and EarlyBird Plus are parent education and training programmes designed by the UK National Autistic Society in 1997 and 2003, having been delivered to more than 27,000 families in 14 countries. These group-based programmes aim to (1) support parents immediately after diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, (2) empower parents, encouraging a positive perception of their child's autism spectrum disorder and (3) help parents establish good practice. In the absence of any previous comprehensive review, we performed a scoping review of all peer-reviewed publications on EarlyBird/EarlyBird Plus. A search was conducted between February and June 2016 using EbscoHost, Sabinet, SAGE Journals, Directory of Open Access Journals, BioMed Central, Scopus, ScienceDirect and grey literature. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion. In total, 18 articles were identified: 16 from the United Kingdom and 2 from New Zealand. We reviewed the context, study populations, design, outcome measures, whether focus was on parental perception, parental change or child changes and programme feasibility. Strong parental support for the acceptability but lower level evidence of efficacy of EarlyBird/EarlyBird Plus was found. Future research should consider randomised controlled trials. There is no research on EarlyBird/EarlyBird Plus in low-resource settings; therefore, we recommend broader feasibility evaluation of EarlyBird/EarlyBird Plus including accessibility, cultural appropriateness and scalability.

  1. Graduate Student Teacher Training: Still Relevant (And Missing?) 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, David D.; Moss, Alison R.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Pescosolido and Milkie (1995) reported that 50 percent of U.S. and Canadian sociology graduate programs offered formal teacher training. Despite pronouncements that offerings have increased substantially, no similarly thorough and direct investigation has been published since. In this time of dramatic change and increasing…

  2. Head Start Teaching Center: Outcome Evaluation of 3 Years of Participatory Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, D. A.; Horm-Wingerd, D. M.; Golas, J. C.

    The New England Head Start Teaching Center (NEHSTC) is one of 14 federally funded programs created to test the efficacy of participatory, hands-on training for enhancing Head Start service delivery. An outcome evaluation of the program was conducted after 3 years of operation. The research design of the evaluation was a nonequivalent comparison…

  3. Opening the Window on Comprehensible Pronunciation after 19 Years: A Workplace Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Foote, Jennifer A.; Waugh, Erin; Fleming, Jason

    2014-01-01

    We present the outcomes of a pronunciation training program conducted in a workplace setting with second language speakers who had lived in an English-speaking environment for an average of 19 years. The research questions concerned whether improvement would occur in the learners' perception of certain segments and prosody; in the…

  4. Texas Nutrition Education and Training Program. Final Evaluation Report for Federal Fiscal Year 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Mahassen

    This report presents federally mandated evaluations and needs assessments conducted by the Texas Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program during Federal Fiscal Year 1994. General program performance of NET reflected an increase in the number of children in Texas and expansion in NET program activities. Needs assessment data collected from…

  5. Beyond Job Training: Rural Economic Development and the Two-Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that rural two-year colleges must go beyond traditional job training programs for business/industry to have a decisive impact on local economic development. Presents a comprehensive economic development model, including human capital development; economic development awareness; and business, special group, infrastructure, and agricultural…

  6. Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Technical Workforce Training at Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the outcomes of a workshop held at the National Science Foundation on August 15-16, 2005. Forty-six participants, representing academia, industry, government agencies, professional associations, and special projects met to: (1) discuss how geospatial technology training at two-year colleges can address workforce needs; and…

  7. The Effects of Mnemonic Training on Five- and Ten-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyakawa, Hiroko; Restaino, Lillian C. R.

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of mnemonic training upon 5- and 10-year-old children's learning and retention of patterns at varying intervals. Subjects were 172 middle class children evenly distributed across the two age groups. Experiment I investigated the effects of individual strategies (perceptual exploration, organization of…

  8. Mentoring Geropsychologists-in-Training during Internship and Postdoctoral Fellowship Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karel, Michele J.; Stead, Carolyn D.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology internship and fellowship years are exciting yet challenging times of professional development, as geropsychologists-in-training transition to independent practice and work to consolidate their identities as professional geropsychologists. Geropsychology supervisors help interns and fellows to develop and refine attitude, knowledge, and…

  9. Athletic Training Program Commitment: Four-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Changes in commitment and the predictors of commitment to an athletic training program (ATP) across the academic 4-year program is important for facilitating students' continued success in ATPs and on the Board of Certification (BOC) exam. Objective: The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) examine changes in 1 cohort's perceptions of…

  10. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of...

  11. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of...

  12. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of...

  13. The Effects of Folk Dance Training on 5-6 Years Children's Physical and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…

  14. New Doctors' Perceptions of Their Educational Development during Their First Year of Postgraduate Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, E. A.; Allan, M. S.; Harden, R. M.; MacPherson, S. G.

    2003-01-01

    Explores new doctors' perceptions of their educational development during the first year of postgraduate training. Uses semi-structured open interviews with pre-registration house officers and investigates their views on the importance of their experience to the General Medical Council's competencies. (Author/KHR)

  15. Four-Year Results of a Youth Smoking Prevention Program Using Assertiveness Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Greco, Linda; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Seventh graders (N=161) participated in health education classes consisting of either an innovative smoking education program, the program plus assertiveness training, or a traditional smoking education program. Data collected four years later revealed no significant differences in smoking behavior, changes in assertion, or sex differences among…

  16. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of...

  17. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of...

  18. Experience of 16 years and its associated challenges in the Field Epidemiology Training Program in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Sang-Won

    2017-01-01

    The field epidemiologist system of South Korea, which employs public health doctors who are relatively more readily available, was created in 1999 to ensure a ready supply of experts for epidemiological investigations and enable an effective response for new and reemerging infectious diseases. However, the 2015 outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome revealed limitations in the existing systems of management of field epidemiologists and communicable diseases. The present study aims to evaluate data on current states, administrative reports, and other literature on the field epidemiologist system that has been in place in South Korea for 16 years since 1999 and to suggest appropriate future improvements in this system. By suggesting methods to evaluate the field epidemiologist system and training programs and by suggesting ways for the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct evaluations on its own, the present study provides supporting evidence for improvement of systems for training of experts in epidemiological investigations. Moreover, based on the findings, this study also suggests methods to systematically train experts in communicable diseases management and a sustainable system to establish the basis of and develop strategies for a systematic and phased management of field epidemiologist training programs. The present study suggests the possibility of establishing dedicated training facilities, revising the guidelines on training and improvement of the competency of public health experts, while not limiting the scope of application to communicable diseases.

  19. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis: randomised, superiority, parallel group trial in Denmark (OPUS II).

    PubMed

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi; Emborg, Charlotte; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Mollegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-12

    To compare the effects of five years of specialised early intervention (SEI) treatment for first episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder with the standard two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual. Randomised, superiority, parallel group trial with blinded outcome assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site. Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in Denmark. 400 participants (51% women) with a mean age of 25.6 (standard deviation 4.3) were randomised to five years of SEI (experimental intervention; n=197) or to two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual (control; n=203). OPUS treatment consists of three core elements-modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training-with a patient-case manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group were mostly referred to community health centres after two years of SEI treatment. Follow-up assessments were conducted five years after start of OPUS treatment. Primary outcome was negative symptoms measured on the scale for assessment of negative symptoms (avolition-apathy, anhedonia, alogia, and affective blunting). Secondary outcomes were remission of both negative and psychotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, compliance with medical treatment, adherence with treatment, client satisfaction, days in hospital care, and labour market affiliation. Levels of negative symptoms did not differ between the intervention group and control group (1.72 v 1.81 points; estimated mean difference -0.10 (95% confidence interval -0.33 to 0.13), P=0.39). Participants receiving five years of OPUS treatment

  20. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Early treatment improves urodynamic prognosis in neurogenic voiding dysfunction: 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Costa Monteiro, Lucia M; Cruz, Glaura O; Fontes, Juliana M; Vieira, Eliane T R C; Santos, Eloá N; Araújo, Grace F; Ramos, Eloane G

    To evaluate the association between early treatment and urodynamic improvement in pediatric and adolescent patients with neurogenic bladder. Retrospective longitudinal and observational study (between 1990 and 2013) including patients with neurogenic bladder and myelomeningocele treated based on urodynamic results. The authors evaluated the urodynamic follow-up (bladder compliance and maximum bladder capacity and pressure) considering the first urodynamic improvement in two years as the outcome variable and early referral as the exposure variable, using a descriptive and multivariate analysis with logistic regression model. Among 230 patients included, 52% had an early referral. The majority were diagnosed as overactive bladder with high bladder pressure (≥40cm H 2 O) and low bladder compliance (3mL/cmH 2 O) and were treated with oxybutynin and intermittent catheterization. Urodynamic follow-up results showed 68% of improvement at the second urodynamic examination decreasing bladder pressure and increasing bladder capacity and compliance. The percentage of incontinence and urinary tract infections decreased over treatment. Early referral (one-year old or less) increased by 3.5 the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years (95% CI: 1.81-6.77). Treatment onset within the first year of life improves urodynamic prognosis in patients with neurogenic bladder and triplicates the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years. The role of neonatologists and pediatricians in early referral is extremely important. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaving Education Early: Putting Vocational Education and Training Centre Stage. Volume I: Investigating Causes and Extent. Cedefop Research Paper. No 57

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Cedefop study examines the contribution that vocational education and training (VET) can make to reducing early leaving from education and training (ELET). Published in two volumes, this first looks at quantitative data to understand better the extent of early leaving from VET (ELVET). It analyses mechanisms for monitoring early leaving (at…

  3. Young Persons' Education, Training and Employment Outcomes with Special Reference to Early School Leavers. A Report Prepared for the Business Council of Australia and Dusseldorp Skills Forum by Applied Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Australian researchers investigated the education training outcomes of young people (age 15-19 years), focusing on early school leavers. Data came from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the National Center for Vocational and Educational Research. About one-third of the 270,000 students who leave school each year leave before 12th grade. The…

  4. [Personal sports training in the management of obese boys aged 12 to 16 years].

    PubMed

    Dupuis, J M; Vivant, J F; Daudet, G; Bouvet, A; Clément, M; Dazord, A; Dumet, N; David, M; Bellon, G

    2000-11-01

    Estimation of both physical and psychological effects of an adapted physical training on children undergoing an obesity treatment. The survey was carried out on 36 obese boys (ages = 12-16 years) who stayed in the medical center for at least four months. Eighteen of them were trained with the SELF method (the SELF-training is global, progressive, adapted to each boy, controlled and takes place within a ten-week period with five sessions a fortnight, each session lasting 30 to 40 minutes). The parameters that were studied concerned auxology, breathing function exploration, aerobic and anaerobic capacities, muscle strength and psychomotor qualities; the subjective effects of the training were estimated with a questionnaire about life quality, and the hand test. At inclusion the results were reported to a standard kind of population. At the end of the training the results of the 18 boys that were trained were compared to those of the 18 controls. Compared to a standard population, the obese children' aerobic capacity is diminished for the maximum power but is identical in absolute value for the VO2 max; their anaerobic capacities, muscle strength and psychomotor capacities are lower and their psyche is affected by the disease. After a three-month training period and after comparison with the 'control' group, there can be noticed a significant improvement in the psychomotor capacities, a major tendency for the improvement of the aerobic capacities and very positive effects on the psyche. SELF-training in association with dietetics appears to be very useful in the therapeutic care of obese children. For the follow-up at home it would need to be registered within the domain of physiotherapy.

  5. Boot cAMP: educational outcomes after 4 successive years of preparatory simulation-based training at onset of internship.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Gladys L; Page, David W; Coe, Nicholas P; Lee, Patrick C; Patterson, Lisa A; Skylizard, Loki; St Louis, Myron; Amaral, Marisa H; Wait, Richard B; Seymour, Neal E

    2012-01-01

    Preparatory training for new trainees beginning residency has been used by a variety of programs across the country. To improve the clinical orientation process for our new postgraduate year (PGY)-1 residents, we developed an intensive preparatory training curriculum inclusive of cognitive and procedural skills, training activities considered essential for early PGY-1 clinical management. We define our surgical PGY-1 Boot Camp as preparatory simulation-based training implemented at the onset of internship for introduction of skills necessary for basic surgical patient problem assessment and management. This orientation process includes exposure to simulated patient care encounters and technical skills training essential to new resident education. We report educational results of 4 successive years of Boot Camp training. Results were analyzed to determine if performance evidenced at onset of training was predictive of later educational outcomes. Learners were PGY-1 residents, in both categorical and preliminary positions, at our medium-sized surgical residency program. Over a 4-year period, from July 2007 to July 2010, all 30 PGY-1 residents starting surgical residency at our institution underwent specific preparatory didactic and skills training over a 9-week period. This consisted of mandatory weekly 1-hour and 3-hour sessions in the Simulation Center, representing a 4-fold increase in time in simulation laboratory training compared with the remainder of the year. Training occurred in 8 procedural skills areas (instrument use, knot-tying, suturing, laparoscopic skills, airway management, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, central venous catheter, and chest tube insertion) and in simulated patient care (shock, surgical emergencies, and respiratory, cardiac, and trauma management) using a variety of high- and low-tech simulation platforms. Faculty and senior residents served as instructors. All educational activities were structured to include preparatory materials

  6. Early Years Educators' Perceptions of Professional Development in England: An Exploratory Study of Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the perceptions of professional development held by a selection of early years educators who have experience of working in statutory and private early years settings in the north of England. The research participants (n = 20) reflected on their experiences of professional development in early years. The research process is…

  7. Neuropsychology in Finland - over 30 years of systematically trained clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Hokkanen, Laura; Nybo, Taina; Poutiainen, Erja

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this invited paper for a special issue of international practice in The Clinical Neuropsychologist is to provide information on training models, clinical practice, and professional issues within neuropsychology in Finland. Relevant information was gathered via literature searches, a survey by the Neuropsychology Working Group of the Finnish Psychological Association, archives of the Finnish Neuropsychological Society, and personal communication with professionals in Finland. The roots of Finnish neuropsychology are linked to the early German tradition of experimental psychology. Since the 1970s, it has been strongly influenced by both the psychometric approach in the U.S. and the qualitative approach by Luria. Systematic specialization training program began in Finland in 1983. It was first organized by the Finnish Neuropsychological Society and since 1997 by Finnish universities. At present, around 260 neuropsychologists have completed this training. According to the survey by the Finnish Psychological Association in 2014, 67% of Finnish neuropsychologists work in the public sector, 36% in the private sector, and 28% reported that they had private practice. Work includes assessments for 90% of the respondents, rehabilitation for 74%, and many are involved in teaching and research. Of the respondents, 20% worked both with adults and children, 44% with adults only and 36% with children only. Within test development, pediatric neuropsychology is an especially prominent field. A unique blend of approaches and a solid systematic training tradition has led to a strong position of neuropsychologists as distinguished experts in the Finnish health care system.

  8. Choosing a career in paediatrics: do trainees’ views change over the first year of specialty training?

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayana, Indumathy; Wall, David; Bindal, Taruna

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To look at why a regional cohort of UK doctors chose a paediatric career and to ascertain views on their career near the end of training year one. Design A 20-item questionnaire was sent to all new regional paediatric specialty trainees. Three focus groups were held with trainees near the end of year one to elicit key themes. Setting West Midlands Deanery, UK Participants Twenty-nine new regional paediatric specialty trainees in year one completed the questionnaire. A total of 15 trainees participated in the focus groups near the end of year one training. Main outcome measures Reasons for choosing a paediatric career and factors which further influence career choice for trainees during their first specialty training year. Results Key influencing factors for choosing paediatrics were enjoying working with children and positive undergraduate experience of the specialty. All trainees had paediatrics as their first choice specialty and undertook a paediatric Foundation post. Near the end of year one, doubts were cast on career aspirations due to seeing middle grade colleagues struggling with work–life balance and a growing feeling that family came first. Conclusions Senior trainees need to be aware that they act as powerful role models for their more junior colleagues and therefore have an influential role on how juniors perceive a paediatric career. Family friendly flexible working patterns in paediatrics are vital to retain junior trainees. All paediatric staff are role models and need to be enthusiastic, keen to teach and to promote a positive working environment. PMID:25352989

  9. Choosing a career in paediatrics: do trainees' views change over the first year of specialty training?

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Helen M; Lakshminarayana, Indumathy; Wall, David; Bindal, Taruna

    2014-09-01

    To look at why a regional cohort of UK doctors chose a paediatric career and to ascertain views on their career near the end of training year one. A 20-item questionnaire was sent to all new regional paediatric specialty trainees. Three focus groups were held with trainees near the end of year one to elicit key themes. West Midlands Deanery, UK. Twenty-nine new regional paediatric specialty trainees in year one completed the questionnaire. A total of 15 trainees participated in the focus groups near the end of year one training. Reasons for choosing a paediatric career and factors which further influence career choice for trainees during their first specialty training year. Key influencing factors for choosing paediatrics were enjoying working with children and positive undergraduate experience of the specialty. All trainees had paediatrics as their first choice specialty and undertook a paediatric Foundation post. Near the end of year one, doubts were cast on career aspirations due to seeing middle grade colleagues struggling with work-life balance and a growing feeling that family came first. Senior trainees need to be aware that they act as powerful role models for their more junior colleagues and therefore have an influential role on how juniors perceive a paediatric career. Family friendly flexible working patterns in paediatrics are vital to retain junior trainees. All paediatric staff are role models and need to be enthusiastic, keen to teach and to promote a positive working environment.

  10. Musical training during early childhood enhances the neural encoding of speech in noise

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child’s access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians’ perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and subcortical processing of speech in noise and related cognitive abilities in musician and nonmusician children that were matched for a variety of overarching factors. Outcomes reveal that musicians’ advantages for processing speech in noise are present during pivotal developmental years. Supported by correlations between auditory working memory and attention and auditory brainstem response properties, we propose that musicians’ perceptual and neural enhancements are driven in a top-down manner by strengthened cognitive abilities with training. Our results may be considered by professionals involved in the remediation of language-based learning deficits, which are often characterized by poor speech perception in noise. PMID:23102977

  11. Effects of early support intervention on workplace ergonomics--a two-year followup study.

    PubMed

    Turja, Johanna; Kaleva, Simo; Kivistö, Marketta; Seitsamo, Jorma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the controlled longitudinal study was to determine the effect of a tailored early support intervention method on workers' workplace ergonomics. The main areas of the early support intervention were training, guidance and support for supervisors in finding weak signals of impaired ergonomics. Supervisors were also trained to bring up these weak signals in discussion with employees and to make necessary changes at the workplace. The data consisted of 301 intervention subjects and 235 control subjects working in the field of commerce. The questionnaires were carried out in 2008 and in 2010, and the response rates among both groups were 45%. We used multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) to test the difference in the groups at two points of time. The main result was that in the areas of work environment, the interaction between group and time was statistically significant (p=0.0004). The work environment improved in the intervention group, but deteriorated in the control. Working methods improved due to the interventions, but physical load factors increased over time in both groups. According to the study, tailored early support intervention has a generally beneficial impact on workers' workplace ergonomics in the areas of work methods, work environment and accident factors.

  12. Early pelvic floor muscle training after obstetrical anal sphincter injuries for the reduction of anal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mathé, Mélodie; Valancogne, Guy; Atallah, Anthony; Sciard, Clémentine; Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal; Beaufils, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    Between 0.5 and 5% of vaginal deliveries involve obstetrical anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). Thirty to forty percent of patients with OASIS will suffer from anal incontinence in the subacute postpartum period. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of early pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) combined with standard rehabilitation on anal incontinence after vaginal deliveries complicated by OASIS. The present work was a retrospective quantitative study performed in a tertiary-level maternity hospital. Women with 3rd or 4th degree obstetric tears were included. Women who gave birth between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2012 underwent standard pelvic-perineal rehabilitation within 6-8 weeks postpartum. Women who gave birth between January 1st, 2013 and July 1st, 2014 had early rehabilitation (within 30 days after delivery) followed by the same standard rehabilitation received by the other group. Rehabilitation was performed by physiotherapists specialized in perineology. No electrostimulation was done in early rehabilitation. An in-house-validated modification of the Jorge and Wexner questionnaire was sent by mail to the patients to assess symptoms. The main judgment criterion was anal incontinence to gas, loose stools and/or solid stool. Two hundred and thirty patients were diagnosed with OASIS. Nineteen women (8.3%) were lost to follow-up. The intention-to-treat analysis included 211 patients, 109 of whom underwent standard rehabilitation and 102 early rehabilitation plus standard rehabilitation. The two groups were comparable in terms of parity, birth weight, assisted delivery, epidural anesthesia and rates of mediolateral episiotomy. Multivariate analyses adjusted for type of perineal lesion were performed. Early rehabilitation significantly reduced gas leakage: OR 0.51 [0.29-0.90] (p=0.02), liquid stool leakage: OR 0.22 [0.08-0.58] (p=0.02) and urinary stress incontinence: OR 0.43 [0.24-0.77] (p=0.004). We recommend early (during the

  13. Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos.

  14. Modular ankle robotics training in early subacute stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Larry W; Roy, Anindo; Krywonis, Amanda; Kehs, Glenn; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F

    2014-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Modular lower extremity robotics may offer a valuable avenue for restoring neuromotor control after hemiparetic stroke. Prior studies show that visually guided and visually evoked practice with an ankle robot (anklebot) improves paretic ankle motor control that translates into improved overground walking. To assess the feasibility and efficacy of daily anklebot training during early subacute hospitalization poststroke. Thirty-four inpatients from a stroke unit were randomly assigned to anklebot (n = 18) or passive manual stretching (n = 16) treatments. All suffered a first stroke with residual hemiparesis (ankle manual muscle test grade 1/5 to 4/5), and at least trace muscle activation in plantar- or dorsiflexion. Anklebot training employed an "assist-as-needed" approach during >200 volitional targeted paretic ankle movements, with difficulty adjusted to active range of motion and success rate. Stretching included >200 daily mobilizations in these same ranges. All sessions lasted 1 hour and assessments were not blinded. Both groups walked faster at discharge; however, the robot group improved more in percentage change of temporal symmetry (P = .032) and also of step length symmetry (P = .038), with longer nonparetic step lengths in the robot (133%) versus stretching (31%) groups. Paretic ankle control improved in the robot group, with increased peak (P ≤ .001) and mean (P ≤ .01) angular speeds, and increased movement smoothness (P ≤ .01). There were no adverse events. Though limited by small sample size and restricted entry criteria, our findings suggest that modular lower extremity robotics during early subacute hospitalization is well tolerated and improves ankle motor control and gait patterning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Modular Ankle Robotics Training in Early Sub-Acute Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Larry W.; Roy, Anindo; Krywonis, Amanda; Kehs, Glenn; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Modular lower extremity (LE) robotics may offer a valuable avenue for restoring neuromotor control after hemiparetic stroke. Prior studies show that visually-guided and visually-evoked practice with an ankle robot (anklebot) improves paretic ankle motor control that translates into improved overground walking. Objective Assess the feasibility and efficacy of daily anklebot training during early sub-acute hospitalization post-stroke. Methods Thirty-four inpatients from a stroke unit were randomly assigned to anklebot (N=18) or passive manual stretching (N=16) treatments. All suffered a first stroke with residual hemiparesis (ankle manual muscle test grade 1/5 to 4/5), and at least trace muscle activation in plantar- or dorsiflexion. Anklebot training employed an “assist-as-needed” approach during > 200 volitional targeted paretic ankle movements, with difficulty adjusted to active range of motion and success rate. Stretching included >200 daily mobilizations in these same ranges. All sessions lasted 1 hour and assessments were not blinded. Results Both groups walked faster at discharge, however the robot group improved more in percent change of temporal symmetry (p=0.032) and also of step length symmetry (p=0.038), with longer nonparetic step lengths in the robot (133%) vs. stretching (31%) groups. Paretic ankle control improved in the robot group, with increased peak (p≤ 0.001) and mean (p≤ 0.01) angular speeds, and increased movement smoothness (p≤ 0.01). There were no adverse events. Conclusion Though limited by small sample size and restricted entry criteria, our findings suggest that modular lower extremity robotics during early sub-acute hospitalization is well tolerated and improves ankle motor control and gait patterning. PMID:24515923

  16. A German e-learning-training in the context of early preventive intervention and child protection: preliminary findings of a pre-post evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bressem, Kristina; Ziegenhain, Ute; Doelitzsch, Claudia; Hofer, Alexandra; Besier, Tanja; Fegert, Joerg M; Kuenster, Anne K

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of government-sponsored initiatives have been implemented in Germany that are focused on early preventive intervention in child protection. In response to the need for interdisciplinary training in this area, the internet-based e-learning program "Early Preventive Intervention and Child Protection" was developed for professionals in the child welfare and health care systems working with families with infants and toddlers. The program is currently undergoing evaluation for effectiveness and user satisfaction. In a pre-post design, users are requested to complete questionnaires that assess three measures of expertise: theoretical knowledge of relevant fields, the ability to correctly identify subtle signals of infant communication, and the ability to assess maternal sensitivity. This article presents the contents of the program and the pre-training results (N = 1.294 participants). Descriptive analyses as well as Pearson correlations and Bonferroni corrections of error were conducted using the statistical program SPSS v. 21.0. The findings show that a wide range of professionals are making use of the program, and that their existing theoretical knowledge about early preventive intervention, as well as their ability to identify subtle signals of infant communication, is relatively good. However, their ability to assess maternal sensitivity, which is considered a crucial indicator for the risk of child abuse, was low. The outcome of the pre-training results indicates that professionals working in the area of child protection need to develop more capability in recognizing maternal sensitivity, in order to ensure early detection of families who are at risk and thus in need of support. Finally, the number of years of professional experience did not correlate with the scores on any of the three measures, which emphasizes the importance of providing interdisciplinary training in this area for all those working in child and family services

  17. Evolutionary history of continental southeast Asians: "early train" hypothesis based on genetic analysis of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA data.

    PubMed

    Jinam, Timothy A; Hong, Lih-Chun; Phipps, Maude E; Stoneking, Mark; Ameen, Mahmood; Edo, Juli; Saitou, Naruya

    2012-11-01

    The population history of the indigenous populations in island Southeast Asia is generally accepted to have been shaped by two major migrations: the ancient "Out of Africa" migration ∼50,000 years before present (YBP) and the relatively recent "Out of Taiwan" expansion of Austronesian agriculturalists approximately 5,000 YBP. The Negritos are believed to have originated from the ancient migration, whereas the majority of island Southeast Asians are associated with the Austronesian expansion. We determined 86 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete genome sequences in four indigenous Malaysian populations, together with a reanalysis of published autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of Southeast Asians to test the plausibility and impact of those migration models. The three Austronesian groups (Bidayuh, Selatar, and Temuan) showed high frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups, which originated from the Asian mainland ∼30,000-10,000 YBP, but low frequencies of "Out of Taiwan" markers. Principal component analysis and phylogenetic analysis using autosomal SNP data indicate a dichotomy between continental and island Austronesian groups. We argue that both the mtDNA and autosomal data suggest an "Early Train" migration originating from Indochina or South China around the late-Pleistocene to early-Holocene period, which predates, but may not necessarily exclude, the Austronesian expansion.

  18. Fourteen years of progress testing in radiology residency training: experiences from The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rutgers, D R; van Raamt, F; van Lankeren, W; Ravesloot, C J; van der Gijp, A; Ten Cate, Th J; van Schaik, J P J

    2018-05-01

    To describe the development of the Dutch Radiology Progress Test (DRPT) for knowledge testing in radiology residency training in The Netherlands from its start in 2003 up to 2016. We reviewed all DRPTs conducted since 2003. We assessed key changes and events in the test throughout the years, as well as resident participation and dispensation for the DRPT, test reliability and discriminative power of test items. The DRPT has been conducted semi-annually since 2003, except for 2015 when one digital DRPT failed. Key changes in these years were improvements in test analysis and feedback, test digitalization (2013) and inclusion of test items on nuclear medicine (2016). From 2003 to 2016, resident dispensation rates increased (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.74, P-value <0.01) to maximally 16 %. Cronbach´s alpha for test reliability varied between 0.83 and 0.93. The percentage of DRPT test items with negative item-rest-correlations, indicating relatively poor discriminative power, varied between 4 % and 11 %. Progress testing has proven feasible and sustainable in Dutch radiology residency training, keeping up with innovations in the radiological profession. Test reliability and discriminative power of test items have remained fair over the years, while resident dispensation rates have increased. • Progress testing allows for monitoring knowledge development from novice to senior trainee. • In postgraduate medical training, progress testing is used infrequently. • Progress testing is feasible and sustainable in radiology residency training.

  19. Training to improve manual control in 7-8 and 10-12 year old children: Training eliminates performance differences between ages.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2015-10-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7-8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7-8 and 10-12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7-8 year olds was worse than that of the 10-12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7-8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10-12 year olds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender differences in response to a school-based mindfulness training intervention for early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoona; Rahrig, Hadley; Eichel, Kristina; Niles, Halsey F; Rocha, Tomas; Lepp, Nathaniel E; Gold, Jonathan; Britton, Willoughby B

    2018-06-01

    Mindfulness training has been used to improve emotional wellbeing in early adolescents. However, little is known about treatment outcome moderators, or individual differences that may differentially impact responses to treatment. The current study focused on gender as a potential moderator for affective outcomes in response to school-based mindfulness training. Sixth grade students (N = 100) were randomly assigned to either the six weeks of mindfulness meditation or the active control group as part of a history class curriculum. Participants in the mindfulness meditation group completed short mindfulness meditation sessions four to five times per week, in addition to didactic instruction (Asian history). The control group received matched experiential activity in addition to didactic instruction (African history) from the same teacher with no meditation component. Self-reported measures of emotional wellbeing/affect, mindfulness, and self-compassion were obtained at pre and post intervention. Meditators reported greater improvement in emotional wellbeing compared to those in the control group. Importantly, gender differences were detected, such that female meditators reported greater increases in positive affect compared to females in the control group, whereas male meditators and control males displayed equivalent gains. Uniquely among females but not males, increases in self-reported self-compassion were associated with improvements in affect. These findings support the efficacy of school-based mindfulness interventions, and interventions tailored to accommodate distinct developmental needs of female and male adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The association of 2-year-old training milestones with career length and racing success in a sample of Thoroughbred horses in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J C; Rogers, C W; Firth, E C

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that exercise early in life has a positive effect on musculoskeletal health. At present, there is little whole population research investigating the effect of racing as 2-year-olds on future racing career. To investigate the association between attaining training milestones as 2-year-olds with length of career and racing success in Thoroughbred horses in New Zealand. Retrospective data were obtained of the 2001/02-born Thoroughbred foal crop. The 3 training milestones were: registered with a trainer, trialled and raced. The association of the training milestones with career length was measured using the outcomes: number of race starts and number of years raced, in a Cox regression model. Logistic regression models analysed the association of the training milestones with the outcomes: won or placed in a race. Linear regression was performed to assess the association of training milestones with total career earnings. Of 4683 horses in the population; 3152 horses were registered with a trainer, 2661 horses trialled and 2109 horses raced. Horses that raced as 2-year-olds had significantly (P<0.001) more race starts than those first raced as 3-year-olds or older, this was also true when the 2-year-old year data were omitted. Horses that raced as 2-year-olds had significantly (P<0.001) more years racing. Horses registered with a trainer, trialled or raced as 2-year-olds were more likely to have won or been placed in a race than those that achieved the milestones as 3-year-olds or older. Horses that first trialled and raced as 2-year-olds had greater total earnings than those that first trialled or raced at a later age. Two-year-old training milestones had a strong association with positive racing career outcomes. Horses in training or racing as 2-year-olds may have better musculoskeletal health throughout life than horses that are first in training or racing at a later age. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  2. [Progress and Future of the Training Plan for Cancer Professionals - Looking Back for 10 Years].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Nariaki

    2017-06-01

    In order to increase cancer professionals in Japan, the first phase of training plan for cancer professionals was performed for 5 years from 2007t o 2011, and the second one was performed for 5 years from 2012 to 2016. 95 universities for 18 hubs in the first phase and 100 universities for 15 hubs in the second one participated in this project 2,590 graduate students in the first phase and 2,319 students for 3 years in the second phase learned. Although the number of cancer professionals increased after the start of this project, it is still half of the set points and more efforts are required for this project. From 2017, the new training plan for cancer professionals will start for the third phase, and various professionals such as genome medicine professionals, rare cancer professionals, pediatric cancer professionals and those for the life-stage problems in cancer patients will be educated.

  3. 11 Years of experience in vitreoretinal surgery training in Nairobi, Kenya, from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, Carl-Ludwig; Kollmann, Martin; Nyaga, Patrick; Onyango, Oskar; Klauss, Volker; Kampik, Anselm

    2013-08-01

    We aim to demonstrate that vitreoretinal surgery can be established in Nairobi, Kenya, by intermittent short visits of experienced surgeons combined with clinical/surgical observerships over a longer period of cooperation. This strategy might be a model for other developing countries. Time series over 11 years. 685 operations were performed over 11 years. After the 1998 al-Qaeda bomb assault on the U.S. embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University München (Germany) provided materials for surgery of 42 victims with eye injuries. From the year 2000 onward, this equipment has been used to establish a training unit at the Kenyatta Hospital in Nairobi. In 1 annual "project week," 1 author (C-L.S.) performed vitreoretinal surgery at the University of Nairobi in cooperation with the Kenyatta National Hospital and supervised resident eye surgeons. After 7 years of training in Nairobi, clinical/surgical observerships of vitreoretinal surgeons and operating theatre staff were commenced in Munich by 4- to 12-week visits. The project week in Nairobi was carried on. Number, indications, operating surgeons, kind, difficulty, duration of operations, and preparation were recorded and evaluated. The percentage of operations by resident surgeons increased from 29% (in 2000) via 80% (in 2009) to 73% (in 2010) with a partial failure of the laser device. The learning curve of local surgeons is also reflected by an increase of the operations' difficulty with only a moderate increase in operation time and marked decrease of preparation time. A vitreoretinal unit has been established in Nairobi using our training model. This unit has the potential to train colleagues from other sub-Saharan countries. This strategy has advantages over long-term aid deployment of foreign physicians such as avoiding financial burden for the surgeons to be trained and improving the home facility, but it requires commitment for long-term cooperation. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological

  4. A qualitative examination of the perceptions of parents on the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the early years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimizing sedentary behavior, in particular screen-based sedentary behavior, during the early years is important for healthy growth and development. Consequently, new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0–4 years) were recently released. Researchers are unclear what messages should supplement the guidelines when disseminating them to parents and when using the guidelines in behaviour-change interventions to increase adoption. The objective of this study was to qualitatively examine parents’ perceptions of the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years. Methods Parents with a child ≤4 years who attended a child care centre were purposefully recruited from child care centres. A total of 7 semi-structured focus groups with 2 to 5 parents were conducted from August to November, 2013 by a trained and experienced moderator. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions pertaining to the Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines information sheet. Initial themes were identified followed by further review and analysis. Results For the most part parents thought the guidelines were clear and did not disagree with the recommendations per se. However, some confusion arose around the value of some sedentary activities, such as reading and coloring, for social and cognitive development. Many parents described feeling guilty after reading the guidelines and perceived several barriers in meeting the daily recommendations. Common barriers included the need to balance multiple demands of family life, the prevalence and accessibility of screen technology, and the weather and built environment where families live. Parents expressed the importance of communicating the guidelines early enough for good habits to be established and the need for realistic strategies and ideas to help them meet the recommendations. Conclusions Overall the findings indicate that gain-framed messages around the role of screen-based and non

  5. A qualitative examination of the perceptions of parents on the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the early years.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Clark, Marianne; Berry, Tanya; Holt, Nicholas L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2014-05-17

    Minimizing sedentary behavior, in particular screen-based sedentary behavior, during the early years is important for healthy growth and development. Consequently, new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years) were recently released. Researchers are unclear what messages should supplement the guidelines when disseminating them to parents and when using the guidelines in behaviour-change interventions to increase adoption. The objective of this study was to qualitatively examine parents' perceptions of the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years. Parents with a child ≤4 years who attended a child care centre were purposefully recruited from child care centres. A total of 7 semi-structured focus groups with 2 to 5 parents were conducted from August to November, 2013 by a trained and experienced moderator. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions pertaining to the Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines information sheet. Initial themes were identified followed by further review and analysis. For the most part parents thought the guidelines were clear and did not disagree with the recommendations per se. However, some confusion arose around the value of some sedentary activities, such as reading and coloring, for social and cognitive development. Many parents described feeling guilty after reading the guidelines and perceived several barriers in meeting the daily recommendations. Common barriers included the need to balance multiple demands of family life, the prevalence and accessibility of screen technology, and the weather and built environment where families live. Parents expressed the importance of communicating the guidelines early enough for good habits to be established and the need for realistic strategies and ideas to help them meet the recommendations. Overall the findings indicate that gain-framed messages around the role of screen-based and non-screen-based sedentary behavior for children

  6. Early and late menarche are associated with oligomenorrhea and predict metabolic syndrome 26 years later.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Wang, Ping; Woo, Jessica G

    2013-11-01

    We determined whether simple, clinical information on late and early menarche could help identify adult women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and oligomenorrhea. We carried out a 26-year prospective follow-up of 272 suburban schoolgirls from ages 5-22 to 30-46. Early menarche (≤10 years, 5.2% of girls) and late menarche (≥16 years, 6.7% of girls) were both associated with oligomenorrhea (≥42 days) in adulthood, 29% and 11%, vs. 5% for normal menarche (11-15 years), p=.004. Early menarche was characterized by high childhood BMI (LS mean±SE: 21.2 ±1.0 kg/m2) and by high childhood and adult MetS (15%, 36%). Girls with late menarche had the lowest childhood BMI (18.1±1.0), no childhood MetS, and the highest adult MetS (47%). Increasing age at menarche was associated with uniformly decreasing childhood BMI and MetS, but with a U-shaped pattern of BMI (p = .05), MetS (p=.008), and oligomenorrhea (p=.02) in adulthood. Change to MetS from median ages 13 to 38 was associated with early-late menarche (OR=3.11, 95% CI 1.37-7.07, p=.007). MetS in adulthood was associated with childhood MetS (OR=8.03, 95% CI 2.57-25.08, p=.0003) and with early-late menarche (OR =3.43, 95% CI 1.44-8.15, p=.005). Menarche age had a curvilinear ('U' shaped) relationship with MetS and oligomenorrhea in adulthood. Late menarche and early menarche are risk factors for adult oligomenorrhea, MetS, and cardiometabolic abnormalities. Girls with early (≤ age 10) and with late menarche (≥ 16) represent a group at high risk for adult cardiometabolic abnormalities and oligomenorrhea that is easily identifiable by physicians. © 2013.

  7. Eradication of early P. aeruginosa infection in children <7 years of age with cystic fibrosis: The early study.

    PubMed

    Ratjen, Felix; Moeller, Alexander; McKinney, Martha L; Asherova, Irina; Alon, Nipa; Maykut, Robert; Angyalosi, Gerhild

    2018-04-20

    Antibiotic eradication treatment is the standard-of-care for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with early Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa)-infection; however, evidence from placebo-controlled trials is limited. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomised CF patients <7 years (N = 51) with early Pa-infection to tobramycin inhalation solution (TOBI 300 mg) or placebo (twice daily) for 28 days with an optional cross-over on Day 35. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients having throat swabs/sputum free of Pa on Day 29. On Day 29, 84.6% patients in the TOBI versus 24.0% in the placebo group were Pa-free (p < 0.001). At the end of the cross-over period, 76.0% patients receiving TOBI in the initial 28 days were Pa-free compared to 47.8% receiving placebo initially. Adverse events were consistent with the TOBI safety profile with no differences between TOBI and placebo. TOBI was effective in eradicating early Pa-infection with a favourable safety profile in young CF patients. NCT01082367. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 10 years of didactic training for novices in medical education at Charité

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Ulrike; Peters, Harm; Schnabel, Kai P.; Breckwoldt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Many medical faculties are introducing faculty development programmes to train their teaching staff with the aim of improving student learning performance. Frequently changing parameters within faculties pose a challenge for the sustainable establishment of such programmes. In this paper, we aim to describe facilitating and hindering parameters using the example of the basic teacher training (BTT) course at the Charité – Universtitätsmedizin Berlin (Charité). Project description: After sporadic pilot attempts for university education training, basic teacher training was finally established at the Charité in 2006 for all new teaching staff. An interdisciplinary taskforce at the office for student affairs designed the programme according to the Kern cycle of curriculum development, while the Charité advanced training academy provided the necessary resources. Within ten years more than 900 faculty members have completed the BTT (9% of current active teaching staff at the Charité). The BTT programme underwent several phases (piloting, evaluation, review, personnel and financial boosting), all of which were marked by changes in the staff and organizational framework. Evaluations by participants were very positive, sustainable effects on teaching could be proven to a limited extent. Discussion: Success factors for the establishment of the programme were the institutional framework set by the faculty directors, the commitment of those involved, the support of research grants and the thoroughly positive evaluation by participants. More challenging were frequent changes in parameters and the allocation of incentive resources for other, format-specific training courses (e.g. PBL) as part of the introduction of the new modular curriculum of the Charité. Conclusion: The sustainment of the programme was enabled through strategic institutional steps taken by the faculty heads. Thanks to the commitment and input by those at a working level as well as

  9. 10 years of didactic training for novices in medical education at Charité.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Ulrike; Peters, Harm; Schnabel, Kai P; Breckwoldt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Many medical faculties are introducing faculty development programmes to train their teaching staff with the aim of improving student learning performance. Frequently changing parameters within faculties pose a challenge for the sustainable establishment of such programmes. In this paper, we aim to describe facilitating and hindering parameters using the example of the basic teacher training (BTT) course at the Charité - Universtitätsmedizin Berlin (Charité). Project description: After sporadic pilot attempts for university education training, basic teacher training was finally established at the Charité in 2006 for all new teaching staff. An interdisciplinary taskforce at the office for student affairs designed the programme according to the Kern cycle of curriculum development, while the Charité advanced training academy provided the necessary resources. Within ten years more than 900 faculty members have completed the BTT (9% of current active teaching staff at the Charité). The BTT programme underwent several phases (piloting, evaluation, review, personnel and financial boosting), all of which were marked by changes in the staff and organizational framework. Evaluations by participants were very positive, sustainable effects on teaching could be proven to a limited extent. Discussion: Success factors for the establishment of the programme were the institutional framework set by the faculty directors, the commitment of those involved, the support of research grants and the thoroughly positive evaluation by participants. More challenging were frequent changes in parameters and the allocation of incentive resources for other, format-specific training courses (e.g. PBL) as part of the introduction of the new modular curriculum of the Charité. Conclusion: The sustainment of the programme was enabled through strategic institutional steps taken by the faculty heads. Thanks to the commitment and input by those at a working level as well as

  10. Views of practicing dentists regarding a mandatory fifth year of training.

    PubMed

    Lefever, Karen H; Atchison, Kathryn A; McCauley, Kevin R; Mito, Ronald D; Engelhardt, Rita

    2003-03-01

    As part of a U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration-funded evaluation of the impact of federal funding on postgraduate general dentistry programs, a random sample of 6,725 dentists graduating in 1989, 1993, and 1997 were surveyed regarding practice patterns, advanced training, populations served, services provided, and their position on a mandatory fifth year of training. Responses (1,965) showed 48 percent supporting a mandatory year and 52 percent not supportive. Open-ended comments were provided by 1,626 respondents. The main reasons for supporting a mandatory fifth year were the need for more instructional time and need for a transition year. Individual choice, no value in a fifth year of dental school, mentoring available elsewhere, and cost were cited in opposition. The following respondents were significantly more likely than other respondents to support a mandatory fifth year: individuals who had completed an AEGD, GPR, or specialty program; were Asian; held salaried positions in a community clinic, nursing home, or hospital; or described themselves as a consultant. Graduates in 1993 and 1997 were less supportive of a mandatory fifth year than were 1989 graduates. Significant differences in the reasons offered in support of respondents' positions on the issue were observed among AEGD, GPR, specialists, and nonspecialists and the three cohort years.

  11. Early speech perception in Mandarin-speaking children at one-year post cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N; Zhu, Shufeng; Xi, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The aim in this study was to examine early speech perception outcomes in Mandarin-speaking children during the first year of cochlear implant (CI) use. A hierarchical early speech perception battery was administered to 80 children before and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. Demographic information was obtained to evaluate its relationship with these outcomes. Regardless of dialect exposure and whether a hearing aid was trialed before implantation, implant recipients were able to attain similar pre-lingual auditory skills after 12 months of CI use. Children speaking Mandarin developed early Mandarin speech perception faster than those with greater exposure to other Chinese dialects. In addition, children with better pre-implant hearing levels and younger age at implantation attained significantly better speech perception scores after 12 months of CI use. Better pre-implant hearing levels and higher maternal education level were also associated with a significantly steeper growth in early speech perception ability. Mandarin-speaking children with CIs are able to attain early speech perception results comparable to those of their English-speaking counterparts. In addition, consistent single language input via CI probably enhances early speech perception development at least during the first-year of CI use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trauma teams and time to early management during in situ trauma team training

    PubMed Central

    Härgestam, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Jacobsson, Maritha; Brulin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the time taken to make a decision to go to surgery and gender, ethnicity, years in profession, experience of trauma team training, experience of structured trauma courses and trauma in the trauma team, as well as use of closed-loop communication and leadership styles during trauma team training. Design In situ trauma team training. The patient simulator was preprogrammed to represent a severely injured patient (injury severity score: 25) suffering from hypovolemia due to external trauma. Setting An emergency room in an urban Scandinavian level one trauma centre. Participants A total of 96 participants were divided into 16 trauma teams. Each team consisted of six team members: one surgeon/emergency physician (designated team leader), one anaesthesiologist, one registered nurse anaesthetist, one registered nurse from the emergency department, one enrolled nurse from the emergency department and one enrolled nurse from the operating theatre. Primary outcome HRs with CIs (95% CI) for the time taken to make a decision to go to surgery was computed from a Cox proportional hazards model. Results Three variables remained significant in the final model. Closed-loop communication initiated by the team leader increased the chance of a decision to go to surgery (HR: 3.88; CI 1.02 to 14.69). Only 8 of the 16 teams made the decision to go to surgery within the timeframe of the trauma team training. Conversely, call-outs and closed-loop communication initiated by the team members significantly decreased the chance of a decision to go to surgery, (HR: 0.82; CI 0.71 to 0.96, and HR: 0.23; CI 0.08 to 0.71, respectively). Conclusions Closed-loop communication initiated by the leader appears to be beneficial for teamwork. In contrast, a high number of call-outs and closed-loop communication initiated by team members might lead to a communication overload. PMID:26826152

  13. Feedback of final year ophthalmology postgraduates about their residency ophthalmology training in South India

    PubMed Central

    Ajay, K.; Krishnaprasad, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduate students on the subject of their residency training. A similar survey conducted 7 years ago published in IJO had concluded that the residency program was not up to expectations in many centers. Our study aimed to see if ophthalmology training and student perceptions differed since then. Materials and Methods: For our study, we added a few questions to the same questionnaire used in the article “which is the best method to learn ophthalmology? Resident doctors’ perspective of ophthalmology training” published in IJO, Vol. 56 (5). Results: Forty-nine students (62.02%) returned completed forms. Most students desired an orientation program on entering residency, and wished to undergo diagnostic training initially. Case-presentation with demonstration and Wet-lab learning were most preferred. There was a big difference between the number of surgeries students actually performed and the number they felt would have been ideal. Conclusion: On the whole, the students still felt the need for improved training across all aspects of ophthalmology. PMID:25116778

  14. The relationship of otitis media in early childhood to attention dimensions during the early elementary school years.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Ashley, Timothy A; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A; Poe, Michele D

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the impact of otitis media with effusion (OME) and associated hearing loss between 6 and 48 months of age on attention dimensions (i.e., selective/focus, sustained) during the elementary school years. A prospective cohort design in which 74 African American infants were recruited between ages 6 and 12 months. Ear examinations were done repeatedly using both otoscopy and tympanometry, and hearing was assessed using standard audiometric procedures between 6 and 48 months. Multiple measures of attention (i.e., direct assessment, behavioral observations, parent/teacher ratings) were administered from kindergarten through second grade to assess two theoretical dimensions of attention: selective/focused and sustained. The home environment was assessed annually. Results indicated that neither early childhood OME nor hearing loss showed significant correlations with any of the longitudinal or cross-sectional measures of selective/focused attention and sustained attention. In contrast, children with mothers who had fewer years of education and who lived in less responsive and supportive home environments scored higher on both parent and teacher ratings of sustained attention (i.e., hyperactivity) through the second grade of elementary school. For NEPSY Auditory Attention in second grade, a significant interaction between the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment and hearing loss was uncovered. This interaction showed that children with hearing loss from poor home environments experienced greater difficulties on the NEPSY Auditory Attention task than those with hearing loss from good home environments. These findings do not support a direct linkage of a history of OME and associated hearing loss to difficulties in selective/focused attention or sustained attention in early elementary school children. Relationships between sociodemographic variables and attention-related functions appear stronger and should be considered as mediators in any

  15. Dental caries and fluorosis experience of 8-12-year-old children by early-life exposure to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Do, Loc G; Miller, Jenifer; Phelan, Claire; Sivaneswaran, Shanti; Spencer, A John; Wright, Clive

    2014-12-01

    It is important to evaluate concurrently the benefit for dental caries and the risk for dental fluorosis from early exposure to fluoride among children. To evaluate associations of different levels of exposure to fluoride in early childhood with dental caries and dental fluorosis experience in school children. A Child Dental Health Survey (CDHS) was conducted among school children in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) in 2007. Trained and calibrated examination teams conducted oral epidemiologic examinations to assess caries experience as decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces of the primary and permanent dentitions (dmfs/DMFS) and fluorosis using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov (TF) index on the maxillary central incisors only. A parental questionnaire collected information on residential histories and tap water usage to enable calculation of percentage of 3-year lifetime exposure to fluoride in water. Use of dietary fluoride supplements was also collected. Dental caries and fluorosis experience were compared among groups by levels of exposure to fluoride from water and fluoride supplements in bivariate and multivariable analysis, controlling for socioeconomic factors. Exposure to different fluoride sources varied in the group of 2611 children aged 8-12 years. Lower household income was significantly associated in both bivariate and multivariable analyses with the greater prevalence and severity of primary tooth caries among 8-10-year-old children and permanent tooth caries among 8-12 year old. Exposure to fluoride in water during the first 3 years of life was associated with both caries and fluorosis experience observed at age 8-12 years. Having higher percentage of 3-year lifetime exposure to fluoride in water was associated with higher prevalence of mostly mild fluorosis, but significantly lower prevalence and severity of caries in the primary and permanent dentitions. There were significant associations of dental caries and fluorosis experience with

  16. Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Three Evaluation Report. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Center for Educational Research, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This executive summary presents findings from the Year 3 evaluation of Texas' state-level Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, grant. GEAR UP grant requirements include an evaluation component designed to assess program effectiveness and to measure progress toward project goals. To this end, the evaluation…

  17. Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Five Evaluation Report. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Center for Educational Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, is a federally-funded system of grants that focuses on preparing low-income students to enter and succeed in postsecondary educational programs. GEAR UP grants extend across 6 school years and require that funded districts begin providing grant services to students no…

  18. Reforming the 4th-Year Curriculum as a Springboard to Graduate Medical Training: One School's Experiences and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Wackett, Andrew; Daroowalla, Feroza; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha

    2016-01-01

    Concerns regarding the quality of training in the 4th year of medical school and preparation of graduates to enter residency education persist and are borne out in the literature. We reviewed the published literature regarding Year 4 concerns as well as institutional efforts to improve the 4th-year curriculum from several schools. Based on input from key stakeholders, we established 4 goals for our Year 4 curriculum reform: (a) standardize the curricular structure, (b) allow flexibility and individualization, (c) improve the preparation for residency, and (d) improve student satisfaction. After the reform, we evaluated the outcomes using results from the Association of American Medical Colleges Questionnaire, student focus groups, and program director surveys. This article describes the context, process, and outcomes of the reform of the Year 4 curriculum at Stony Brook University School of Medicine. We were able to achieve all four stated goals for the reform. The significant components of the change included a flexible adaptable curriculum based on individual needs and preferences, standardized learning objectives across the year, standardized competency-based evaluations regardless of discipline, reinforcement of clinical skills, and training for the transition to the workplace as an intern. The reform resulted in increased student satisfaction, increased elective time, and increased preparedness for residency training as perceived by the graduates. The Program Director survey showed significant changes in ability to perform a medical history and exam, management of common medical conditions and emergencies, clinical reasoning and problem-solving skills, working and communication with the healthcare team, and overall professionalism in meeting obligations inherent in the practice of medicine. Lessons learned from our 4th-year reform process are discussed. Listening to the needs of the stakeholders was an important step in ensuring buy-in, having an institutional

  19. Early Family Ties and Marital Stability Over 16 Years: The Context of Race and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Orbuch, Terri L.; Bauermeister, José A.; Brown, Edna; McKinley, Brandyn-Dior

    2016-01-01

    Spouses’ emotional ties to family early in marriage are linked to marital outcomes, but little is known about how these ties affect marital stability and whether these effects vary by race and gender. The present study examines the links between emotional ties to family of origin and in-laws in the first year of marriage and marital stability over the first 16 years of marriage. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study following Black American (n=199) and White American (n=174) married couples. Analyses revealed that perceptions of closeness to in-laws early in marriage were associated with odds of divorce over time, but the results varied by race and gender. Findings are discussed in terms of couples’ ties to family early in marriage and the role that in-law bonds play for marital stability. We also offer insights for practitioners who provide premarital and marital education and counseling services to couples. PMID:27594724

  20. Language Outcomes at 7 Years: Early Predictors and Co-Occurring Difficulties.

    PubMed

    McKean, Cristina; Reilly, Sheena; Bavin, Edith L; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen; Conway, Laura; Cook, Fallon; Eadie, Patricia; Prior, Margot; Wake, Melissa; Mensah, Fiona

    2017-03-01

    To examine at 7 years the language abilities of children, the salience of early life factors and language scores as predictors of language outcome, and co-occurring difficulties METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study of 1910 infants recruited at age 8 to 10 months. Exposures included early life factors (sex, prematurity, birth weight/order, twin birth, socioeconomic status, non-English speaking background,family history of speech/language difficulties); maternal factors (mental health, vocabulary, education, and age); and child language ability at 2 and 4 years. Outcomes were 7-year standardized receptive or expressive language scores (low language: ≥1.25 SD below the mean), and co-occurring difficulties (autism, literacy, social, emotional, and behavioral adjustment, and health-related quality of life). Almost 19% of children (22/1204;18.9%) met criteria for low language at 7 years. Early life factors explained 9-13% of variation in language scores, increasing to 39-58% when child language scores at ages 2 and 4 were included. Early life factors moderately discriminated between children with and without low language (area under the curve: 0.68-0.72), strengthening to good discrimination with language scores at ages 2 and 4 (area under the curve: 0.85-0.94). Low language at age 7 was associated with concurrent difficulties in literacy, social-emotional and behavioral difficulties, and limitations in school and psychosocial functioning. Child language ability at 4 years more accurately predicted low language at 7 than a range of early child, family, and environmental factors. Low language at 7 years was associated with a higher prevalence of co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Promoting Equity in an Early Years Context: The Role of Participatory Educational Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formosinho, João; Figueiredo, Irene

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an alternative participatory pedagogy in Early Years as a contribution to the promotion of equity and social justice for children, particularly those from ethnic minorities and low income families, enhancing their chances of educational success. The development of mass education was implemented in many countries by…

  2. Gender and Schooling in the Early Years. Research on Women and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Janice, Ed.; Irby, Beverly, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In this volume, gender and schooling in the early years addresses a broad range of issues including, but not limited, to gender equity in education. We explore, for example, the complex world of play in Fromberg's chapter and are reminded that for young children, play involves issues of power and hierarchy in ways that parallel the role of gender…

  3. Role of Early Family Configuration and Hours Worked on Student Success in Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Robert A.; Passmore, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence student success in two-year colleges, community colleges, or junior colleges. In determining the purpose of the study, a research framework is established to review the relationships between student success and biological children, marriage/co-habitation, early family configuration,…

  4. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  5. Gifted and Talented in the Early Years: Practical Activities for Children Aged 3 to 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    After a preface, the first chapter of this book sets out to explore the nature of intelligence. It considers the labels used to describe gifted and talented children and looks at how the adult's beliefs about intelligence will impact on what they do, say and look for in the early years setting. It challenges educators to think about the nature of…

  6. Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Childhood: 1. Outcome in Late Adolescence and Early Adult Years. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.

    Seventy-three patients, diagnosed in childhood as having either maturational lag or organic brain syndrome, were followed for an average of 12 years into late adolescence and early adult life for the purpose of discovering the outcome with respect to ultimate psychiatric status, educational attainment, social adjustment, and global adjustment. At…

  7. Improving Your Reflective Practice through Stories of Practitioner Research. Pen Green Books for Early Years Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Cath, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Improving Your Reflective Practice through Stories of Practitioner Research" shows how research has informed and created effective and valuable reflective practice in early years education, and offers depth to the arguments for a research-orientated stance to this vital field of study. This thought-provoking text explores and documents a variety…

  8. Superheroes v Demons: Constructing Identities of Male Student Teachers in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    This article presents research undertaken among male teachers and it explores their perceptions and experiences of working in early years contexts. It examines prevalent, contrary discourses and their impact on the construction of male teachers' identities. Public discourses in relation to male teachers reveal contradictions and ambiguities…

  9. Early-Years Teachers' Professional Upgrading in Science: A Long-Term Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a professional development/upgrading programme in science for early-years teachers and investigate its impact on the teachers' competencies in relation to their knowledge and teaching of science. The basic idea of the programme was to motivate the teachers by making them members of an action research group aimed at…

  10. "Intensive Mothering" in the Early Years: The Cultivation and Consolidation of (Physical) Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirrup, Julie; Duncombe, Rebecca; Sandford, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Growing pressure on parents to equip their children with the skills required for future success, coupled with an increased focus on providing quality learning experiences in the early years, has contributed to an upsurge in the enrolment of young children in formal (often privatised) activities. Moreover, in response to growing societal concerns…

  11. Early-Years Teachers' Concept Images and Concept Definitions: Triangles, Circles, and Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates practicing early-years teachers' concept images and concept definitions for triangles, circles, and cylinders. Teachers were requested to define each figure and then to identify various examples and non-examples of the figure. Teachers' use of correct and precise mathematical language and reference to critical and…

  12. Co-Producing Early Years Policy in England under the Coalition Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Eva

    2014-01-01

    During the first half of the current Coalition Government, co-production--a form of participatory governance--was implemented widely in the conceptualization, design and implementation of early years policies. Seen as a revolutionary approach to public service reform, resulting in more effective and more cost-effective public services, the joint…

  13. Making and Being Made: Wise Humanising Creativity in Interdisciplinary Early Years Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Kerry Anne; Pender, Tamsin; Swinford, Elizabeth; Ford, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on how wise humanising creativity (WHC) is manifested within early years interdisciplinary arts education. It draws on Arts Council-funded participatory research by Devon Carousel Project and University of Exeter's Graduate School of Education. It is grounded in previous AHRC-funded research, which conceptualised WHC in the face…

  14. Gender in the Early Years: Boys and Girls in an African Working Class Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Nzimakwe, Thokozani; Nzimakwe, Phumzile

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the ways in which young boys and girls give meaning to gender and sexuality is vital, and is especially significant in the light of South Africa's commitment to gender equality. Yet the, gendered cultures of young children in the early years of South African primary schools remains a, marginal concern in debate, research and…

  15. Watching, Creating and Achieving: Creative Technologies as a Conduit for Learning in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Susan; Howell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of robotics in an Early Years classroom as a tool to aid the development of technological skills in a creative environment rich with literacy and numeracy opportunities. The pilot project illustrates how a three-phase process can result in the development of: (1) emergent literacy and numeracy, (2) digital access for…

  16. Extending the Research on the Tests of Early Numeracy: Longitudinal Analyses over Two School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglici, Stephanie Petreshock; Codding, Robin; Tryon, Georgiana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the "Tests of Early Numeracy" (TEN) by following a cohort of 61 students from kindergarten through first grade. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between kindergarten and first-grade TEN measures built within and across school years and their predictive validity of a math…

  17. Using Strengths-Based Approaches in Early Years Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Angela; Walsh, Kerryann; Wong, Sandie; Cumming, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Strengths-based approaches draw upon frameworks and perspectives from social work and psychology but have not necessarily been consistently defined or well articulated across disciplines. Internationally, there are increasing calls for professionals in early years settings to work in strengths-based ways to support the access and participation of…

  18. The Genetic and Environmental Origins of Learning Abilities and Disabilities in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of learning abilities and disabilities in education and child development, little is known about their genetic and environmental origins in the early school years. We report results for English (which includes reading, writing, and speaking), mathematics, and science as well as general cognitive ability in a large and…

  19. Aistear vis-à-vis the Primary Curriculum: The Experiences of Early Years Teachers in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Colette; Ryan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Aistear early years curriculum framework sought to complement and extend the primary school curriculum (PSC) at infant class level in the Republic of Ireland. While Aistear focuses on the development of attitudes, values and learning dispositions and is neither statutory nor inspected, the PSC centres on the acquisition of…

  20. A Healthy Start: Promoting Mental Health and Well-Being in the Early Primary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cefai, Carmel; Camilleri, Liberato

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems in children represent a significant international health concern, with up to one in five children using mental health services during the course of any given year. Identifying the processes of what prevents social, emotional and behaviour difficulties (SEBD) and promotes healthy development from an early age can make a…

  1. Exploring Diversity: Reflections Ten Years On. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurch, Pam; Hopson, Elizabeth

    This booklet reflects the past 10 year's thoughts and experiences and presents the current debate concerning multicultural early childhood education, as experienced by the Lady Gowrie Child Centre, in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The booklet describes how the center experienced the satisfying process of change and growth with such a program…

  2. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  3. Early Recovery of an Eastern Sierra Nevada Riparian System After 40 Years of Stream Diversion

    Julie C. Stromberg; Duncan T. Patten

    1989-01-01

    Rush Creek, which feeds Mono Lake, has been diverted below Grant Lake, totally or in part, for over 40 years. In the early 1980's, because of above normal snow packs, runoff was released into the creek. Minimum flow releases have also been established. The riparian vegetation has responded to these releases. In a few areas, riparian trees and shrubs (e.g., black...

  4. Early Years Teachers and the Influence of Piaget: Evidence from Oral History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In studying the historical development of early years provision, a clear factor in raising its profile was the growth in scientific study of children, especially the reception and interpretation of Piaget's research. For an understanding of how the mediation of new thinking and new discoveries influenced students and teachers, textbooks provide an…

  5. Pedagogical Documentation and Its Relation to Everyday Activities in Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rintakorpi, Kati; Reunamo, Jyrki

    2017-01-01

    Documentation in early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions has been developed for decades in various contexts. Today, documentation is preferred as an inclusive method of evaluating, planning, and developing ECEC in the curricula of many countries. Qualitative research on documentation has increased in past years, but quantitative…

  6. Gender and Power: Male and Female Teachers' Interactions in Early Years Contexts. Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This article presents research on female teachers exploring their perceptions and experiences of male teachers in the early years and it also examines the views of male teachers in relation to this environment. It considers the dominant UK public discourse calling for more men in primary teaching and it shows how this affects both male and female…

  7. An Ecological Perspective on Early Years Workforce Competences in Italian ECEC Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorini, Laura; Rania, Nadia; Tassara, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Based on an ecological perspective on competence, this study analyzed the attitudes, skills, and knowledge of practitioners in educational services for 0-6-years-old children in Italy, examining competence profiles in the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) workforce. Our study considered three areas of competence, which previously have…

  8. Building a Stable Workforce: Recruitment and Retention in the Child Care and Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents findings from research aimed at identifying effective approaches to the recruitment and retention of child care workers, conducted to assist the UK Government's Childcare Strategy. The paper explores the practices and views of child care employers, Early Years Development and Childcare Partnerships (EYDCPs) and child care…

  9. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…

  10. Early Years Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Children's Moral Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, S.; Brownlee, J.; Whiteford, C.; Cobb-Moore, C.; Johansson, E.; Ailwood, J.; Boulton-Lewis, G.

    2012-01-01

    There is strong political and social interest in values education both internationally and across Australia. Investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society; however, little is known about early years teachers' beliefs about moral values teaching and learning. The aim of the…

  11. Governance, Accountability and the Datafication of Early Years Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy; Bradbury, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to critically "make visible the flow and circulation of data" through analysing the datafication of the early years education sector in England (children aged 2-5). The concept of datafication is used to understand the processes and impacts of burgeoning data-based governance and accountability regimes. This…

  12. Early Transition and Adjustment and Children's Adjustment after Six Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margetts, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have made convincing arguments for the benefits of a smooth transition to school. The passage through this significant social change may have a lasting influence on children's progress. For example, social, emotional and academic difficulties in the early years of schooling have been shown to persist through school and into…

  13. Symbolic Representation in Early Years Learning: The Acquisition of Complex Notions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraksa, Aleksander; Veraksa, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concepts related to symbolic and sign representations, cognition and learning in the early years. The first study experiment of teaching 33 preschool children (19 boys and 14 girls; M = 68, 5 months) the notion of rainbow phenomenon proved the equal effectiveness of the use of both sign and symbolic tools. The second study…

  14. Children under Five and Digital Technologies: Implications for Early Years Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to investigate the types of digital technologies children under the age of five are using at home and assess the possible implications for early years pedagogy. The research, carried out between 2010 and 2012, was based in four European countries: England, Greece, Malta and Luxemburg. A mixed methods approach was employed to…

  15. The Role of Computer Technology in Supporting Children's Learning in Jordanian Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Mustafa; Hyassat, Mizyed; Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The current research investigated early years teachers' perspectives regarding the role of computer technology in supporting children's learning in Jordanian kindergartens. Thirty semistructured interviews were conducted with preschool teachers. The sample of kindergartens in this study was purposefully selected from the targeted population of…

  16. The "Brave" Man in the Early Years (0-8): Defining the "Role Model"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The call for more "brave" male early years practitioners and primary classroom teachers remains prevalent as boys' underachievement continues to dominate education agendas. There is a recognised need, backed by government policy and public discourse in England, for more men to work in settings and schools (0-11) and act as "role…

  17. Giving Fathers a Voice: Towards Father Involvement in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely recognised that fathers can play a key role in the development and well-being of young children. In many cases, however, fathers still have limited involvement in the early years education of their children and their voices are as yet unheard. This study examined the beliefs and practices of Jordanian fathers of kindergarten…

  18. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  19. Investigating Key Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurie, Robert; Sloat, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates key psychometric properties of the French Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment measure designed to systematically assess kindergarten children across five social and academic developmental domains: awareness of self and environment, social skills and behaviour, cognitive abilities, language and communication, and…

  20. Geometry in Early Years: Sowing Seeds for a Mathematical Definition of Squares and Rectangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; Baccaglini-Frank, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In early years schooling it is becoming common to propose activities that involve moving along paths, or programming robots to do so. In order to promote continuity towards the introduction of geometry in primary school, we developed a long-term teaching experiment (with 15 sessions) carried out over 4 months in a first grade classroom in northern…