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Sample records for early treatment outcomes

  1. Virologic outcomes in early antiretroviral treatment: HPTN 052.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, Susan H; Wilson, Ethan A; Zhang, Xinyi C; Ou, San-San; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Eron, Joseph J; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Gallant, Joel E; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James G; Kalonga, Ben; Pilotto, Jose H; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Godbole, Sheela V; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Santos, Breno Riegel; Shava, Emily; Mills, Lisa A; Panchia, Ravindre; Mwelase, Noluthando; Mayer, Kenneth H; Chen, Ying Q; Cohen, Myron S; Fogel, Jessica M

    2017-05-01

    The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial demonstrated that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevented 93% of HIV transmission events in serodiscordant couples. Some linked infections were observed shortly after ART initiation or after virologic failure. To evaluate factors associated with time to viral suppression and virologic failure in participants who initiated ART in HPTN 052. 1566 participants who had a viral load (VL) > 400 copies/mL at enrollment were included in the analyses. This included 832 in the early ART arm (CD4 350-550 cells/mm 3 at ART initiation) and 734 in the delayed ART arm (204 with a CD4 < 250 cells/mm 3 at ART initiation; 530 with any CD4 at ART initiation). Viral suppression was defined as two consecutive VLs ≤ 400 copies/mL after ART initiation; virologic failure was defined as two consecutive VLs > 1000 copies/mL > 24 weeks after ART initiation. Overall, 93% of participants achieved viral suppression by 12 months. The annual incidence of virologic failure was 3.6%. Virologic outcomes were similar in the two study arms. Longer time to viral suppression was associated with younger age, higher VL at ART initiation, and region (Africa vs. Asia). Virologic failure was strongly associated with younger age, lower educational level, and lack of suppression by three months; lower VL and higher CD4 at ART initiation were also associated with virologic failure. Several clinical and demographic factors were identified that were associated with longer time to viral suppression and virologic failure. Recognition of these factors may help optimize ART for HIV treatment and prevention.

  2. Virologic outcomes in early antiretroviral treatment: HPTN 052

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, Susan H.; Wilson, Ethan A.; Zhang, Xinyi C.; Ou, San-San; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Eron, Joseph J.; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Gallant, Joel E.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James G.; Kalonga, Ben; Pilotto, Jose H.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Godbole, Sheela V.; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Santos, Breno Riegel; Shava, Emily; Mills, Lisa A.; Panchia, Ravindre; Mwelase, Noluthando; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Chen, Ying Q.; Cohen, Myron S.; Fogel, Jessica M.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The HPTN 052 trial demonstrated that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevented 93% of HIV transmission events in serodiscordant couples. Some linked infections were observed shortly after ART initiation or after virologic failure. OBJECTIVE To evaluate factors associated with time to viral suppression and virologic failure in participants who initiated ART in HPTN 052. METHODS 1,566 participants who had a viral load (VL) >400 copies/mL at enrollment were included in the analyses. This included 832 in the early ART arm (CD4 350–550 cells/mm3 at ART initiation) and 734 in the delayed ART arm (204 with a CD4 <250 cells/mm3 at ART initiation; 530 with any CD4 at ART initiation). Viral suppression was defined as two consecutive VLs ≤400 copies/mL after ART initiation; virologic failure was defined as two consecutive VLs >1,000 copies/mL >24 weeks after ART initiation. RESULTS Overall, 93% of participants achieved viral suppression by 12 months. The annual incidence of virologic failure was 3.6%. Virologic outcomes were similar in the two study arms. Longer time to viral suppression was associated with younger age, higher VL at ART initiation, and region (Africa vs. Asia). Virologic failure was strongly associated with younger age, lower educational level, and lack of suppression by 3 months; lower VL and higher CD4 at ART initiation were also associated with virologic failure. CONCLUSIONS Several clinical and demographic factors were identified that were associated with longer time to viral suppression and virologic failure. Recognition of these factors may help optimize ART for HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:28385131

  3. The Impact of Early Substance Use Disorder Treatment Response on Treatment Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Primary Opioid Use.

    PubMed

    Tuten, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Heather; Hochheimer, Martin; Jones, Hendree E; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2018-03-13

    This study examined the impact of early patient response on treatment utilization and substance use among pregnant participants enrolled in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Treatment responders (TRs) and treatment nonresponders (TNRs) were compared on pretreatment and treatment measures. Regression models predicted treatment utilization and substance use. TR participants attended more treatment and had lower rates of substance use relative to TNR participants. Regression models for treatment utilization and substance use were significant. Maternal estimated gestational age (EGA) and baseline cocaine use were negatively associated with treatment attendance. Medication-assisted treatment, early treatment response, and baseline SUD treatment were positively associated with treatment attendance. Maternal EGA was negatively associated with counseling attendance; early treatment response was positively associated with counseling attendance. Predictors of any substance use at 1 month were maternal education, EGA, early treatment nonresponse, and baseline cocaine use. The single predictor of any substance use at 2 months was early treatment nonresponse. Predictors of opioid use at 1 month were maternal education, EGA, early treatment nonresponse, and baseline SUD treatment. Predictors of opioid use at 2 months were early treatment nonresponse, and baseline cocaine and marijuana use. Predictors of cocaine use at 1 month were early treatment nonresponse, baseline cocaine use, and baseline SUD treatment. Predictors of cocaine use at 2 months were early treatment nonresponse and baseline cocaine use. Early treatment response predicts more favorable maternal treatment utilization and substance use outcomes. Treatment providers should implement interventions to maximize patient early response to treatment.

  4. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  5. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method: Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated…

  6. Treatment Moderators and Predictors of Outcome in the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Riddle, Mark A.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Axelson, David A.; Wagner, Karen D.; Joshi, Paramjit; Walkup, John T.; Luby, Joan; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal D.; Emslie, Graham; Robb, Adelaide; Tillman, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Both the diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youth remain the subject of debate. In the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study, risperidone was more effective than lithium or divalproex in children diagnosed with bipolar mania and highly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We searched for…

  7. Measuring patients' perceptions of the outcomes of treatment for early prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jack A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Inui, Thomas S; Silliman, Rebecca A; Talcott, James A

    2003-08-01

    Compared with careful attention to the physical (eg, urinary, bowel, sexual) dysfunction that may follow treatment, little attention has been given to the behavioral, emotional, and interpersonal changes that the diagnosis of early prostate cancer and subsequent physical dysfunction may bring. To construct patient-centered measures of the outcomes of treatment for early prostate cancer. Qualitative study followed by survey of early prostate cancer patients and group of comparable patients with no history of prostate cancer. Analysis of focus groups identified relevant domains of quality of life, which were represented by Likert scale items included in survey questionnaires. Psychometric analyses of survey data defined scales evaluated with respect to internal consistency and validity. Qualitative analysis identified three domains: urinary control, sexuality, and uncertainty about the cancer and its treatment. Psychometric analysis defined 11 scales. Seven were generically relevant to most older men: urinary control (eg, embarrassment with leakage), sexual intimacy (eg, anxiety about completing intercourse), sexual confidence (eg, comfort with sexuality), marital affection (eg, emotional distance from spouse/partner), masculine self esteem (eg, feeling oneself a whole man), health worry (eg, apprehensiveness about health changes), and PSA concern (eg, closely attending to one's PSA). Four scales were specific to the treatment experience: perceived cancer control, quality of treatment decision making, regret of treatment choice, and cancer-related outlook. The scales provide definition and metrics for patient-centered research in this area. They complement measures of physical dysfunction and bring into resolution outcomes of treatment that have gone unnoticed in previous studies.

  8. Early antihypertensive treatment and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke: subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure.

    PubMed

    He, William J; Zhong, Chongke; Xu, Tan; Wang, Dali; Sun, Yingxian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Wang, Jinchao; Ju, Zhong; Li, Qunwei; Zhang, Jintao; Geng, Deqin; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Dong; Li, Yongqiu; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yonghong; Kelly, Tanika N

    2018-06-01

    We studied the effect of early antihypertensive treatment on death, major disability, and vascular events among patients with acute ischemic stroke according to their baseline SBP. We randomly assigned 4071 acute ischemic stroke patients with SBP between 140 and less than 220 mmHg to receive antihypertensive treatment or to discontinue all antihypertensive medications during hospitalization. A composite primary outcome of death and major disability and secondary outcomes were compared between treatment and control stratified by baseline SBP levels of less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg. At 24 h after randomization, differences in SBP reductions were 8.8, 8.6 and 7.8 mmHg between the antihypertensive treatment and control groups among patients with baseline SBP less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001 among subgroups). At day 14 or hospital discharge, the primary and secondary outcomes were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups among subgroups. However, there was a significant interaction between antihypertensive treatment and baseline SBP subgroups on death (P = 0.02): odds ratio (95% CI) of 2.42 (0.74-7.89) in patients with baseline SBP less than 60 mmHg and 0.34 (0.11-1.09) in those with baseline SBP at least 180 mmHg. At the 3-month follow-up, the primary and secondary clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups by baseline SBP levels. Early antihypertensive treatment had a neutral effect on clinical outcomes among acute ischemic stroke patients with various baseline SBP levels. Future clinical trials are warranted to test BP-lowering effects in acute ischemic stroke patients by baseline SBP levels. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01840072.

  9. Survival outcome of early versus delayed bevacizumab treatment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Mohamed A.; Mandel, Jacob J.; Conrad, Charles A.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; DeGroot, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BEV) is widely used for treatment of patients with recurrent glioblastoma. It is not known if there are differences in outcome between early versus delayed BEV treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. We examined the relationship between the time of starting BEV treatment and outcomes in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. In this retrospective chart review, we identified patients with recurrent glioblastoma diagnosed between 2005 and 2011 who were treated with BEV alone or BEV-containing regimens. Data was analyzed to determine overall survival (OS) from time of diagnosis and progression free survival (PFS) from time of starting BEV. A total of 298 patients were identified, 112 patients received early BEV, 133 patients received delayed BEV, and 53 patients were excluded because they either progressed within 3 months of radiation or received BEV at the time of diagnosis. There was no significant difference in PFS between patients that received early BEV and those that received delayed BEV (5.2 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.2). Patients treated with delayed BEV had longer OS when compared to those treated with early BEV (25.9 vs. 20.8 months, p = 0.005). In patients with recurrent glioblastoma, there was no significant difference in PFS from the time of starting BEV between early and delayed BEV. Although patients treated with delayed BEV seemed to have longer OS, a conclusion regarding OS outcome requires further prospective trials. These results may indicate that delaying treatment with BEV is not detrimental for survival of patients with recurrent glioblastoma. PMID:24803001

  10. Neurocognitive outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders study.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Jean A; Giuliano, Anthony J; Johnson, Jacqueline L; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Hooper, Stephen R

    2012-05-01

    To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated in a four-site, randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing molindone, olanzapine, and risperidone. The primary outcomes were overall group change from baseline in neurocognitive composite and six domain scores after 8 weeks and continued treatment up to 52 weeks. Age and sex were included as covariates in all analyses. Of 116 TEOSS participants, 77 (66%) had post-baseline neurocognitive data. No significant differences emerged in the neurocognitive outcomes of the three medication groups. Therefore, the three treatment groups were combined into one group to assess overall neurocognitive outcomes. Significant modest improvements were observed in the composite score and in three of six domain scores in the acute phase, and in four of six domain scores in the combined acute and maintenance phases. Partial correlation analyses revealed very few relationships among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) baseline or change scores and neurocognition change scores. Antipsychotic intervention in youth with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOSS) led to modest improvement in measures of neurocognitive function. The changes in cognition were largely unrelated to baseline symptoms or symptom change. Small treatment effect sizes, easily accounted for by practice effects, highlight the critical need for the development of more efficacious interventions for the enduring neurocognitive deficits seen in EOSS. Clinical trial registry information-Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00053703. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-04-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 10 [5] colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn.

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 105 colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. Results: ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Interpretation & conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn. PMID:23703344

  13. Treatment of Early-Age Mania: Outcomes for Partial and Nonresponders to Initial Treatment.

    PubMed

    Walkup, John T; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Miller, Leslie; Yenokyan, Gayane; Luby, Joan L; Joshi, Paramjit T; Axelson, David A; Robb, Adelaide; Salpekar, Jay A; Wolf, Dwight; Sanyal, Abanti; Birmaher, Boris; Vitiello, Benedetto; Riddle, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study evaluated lithium, risperidone, and divalproex sodium (divalproex) in children with bipolar I disorder who were naive to antimanic medication, or were partial or nonresponders to 1 of 3 study medications. This report evaluates the benefit of either an add-on or a switch of antimanic medications for an 8-week trial period in partial responders and nonresponders, respectively. TEAM is a randomized, controlled trial of individuals (N = 379) aged 6 to 15 years (mean ± SD = 10.2 ± 2.7 years) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (mixed or manic phase). Participants (n = 154) in this report were either nonresponders or partial responders to 1 of the 3 study medications. Nonresponders (n = 89) were randomly assigned to 1 of the other 2 antimanic medications and cross-tapered. Partial responders (n = 65) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 other antimanic medications as an add-on to their initial medication. Adverse event (AE) rates are reported only for the add-on group. Response rate for children switched to risperidone (47.6%) was higher than for those switched to either lithium (12.8%; p = .005; number needed to treat [NNT] = 3; 95% CI = 1.71-9.09) or divalproex (17.2%; p = .03; NNT = 3; 95% CI = 1.79-20.10); response rate for partial responders who added risperidone (53.3%) was higher than for those who added divalproex (0%; p = .0002; NNT = 2; 95% CI = 1.27-3.56) and trended higher for lithium (26.7%; p = .07; NNT = 4). Reported AEs in the add-on group were largely consistent with the known AE profile for the second medication. Weight gain (kg) was observed for all add-on medications: lithium add-on (n = 29 of 30) = 1.66 ± 1.97; risperidone add-on (n = 15 of 15) = 2.8 ± 1.34; divalproex add-on (n = 19 of 20) = 1.42 ± 1.96. There was no evidence at the 5% significance level that the average weight gain was different by study medication for partial responders (p = .07, 1-way analysis of variance

  14. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8–19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated in a four-site randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing molindone, olanzapine or risperidone. The primary outcomes were overall group change from baseline in neurocognitive composite and six domain scores after 8 weeks and continued treatment up to 52 weeks. Age and sex were included as covariates in all analyses. Results Seventy-seven of 116 TEOSS participants (66%) had post-baseline neurocognitive data. No significant differences emerged in the neurocognitive outcomes of the three medication groups. Therefore, the three treatment groups were combined into one group to assess overall neurocognitive outcomes. Significant modest improvements were observed in the composite score and in three of six domain scores in the acute phase, and in four of six domain scores in the combined acute and maintenance phases. Partial correlation analyses revealed very few relationships among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) baseline or change scores and neurocognition change scores. Conclusions Antipsychotic intervention in youth with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOSS) led to modest improvement in measures of neurocognitive function. The changes in cognition were largely unrelated to baseline symptoms or symptom change. Small treatment effect sizes, easily accounted for by practice effects, highlight the critical need for the development of more efficacious interventions for the enduring neurocognitive deficits seen in EOSS. PMID:22525956

  15. 215 mandible fractures in 120 children: demographics, treatment, outcomes, and early growth data.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darren M; Bykowski, Michael R; Cray, James J; Naran, Sanjay; Rottgers, S Alex; Shakir, Sameer; Vecchione, Lisa; Schuster, Lindsay; Losee, Joseph E

    2013-06-01

    Optimal management of pediatric mandible fractures demands that the practitioner balance reduction and fixation with preservation of growth potential and function. The ideal synthesis of these goals has not yet been defined. The authors catalogue their experience with pediatric mandible fractures at a major pediatric teaching hospital with reference to demographics, injury type, treatment, and outcomes to inform future management of these injuries. Demographics, management, and outcomes of pediatric mandible fractures presenting over 10 years at a pediatric trauma center were assessed. Cephalometric analysis was conducted. Relationships among demographics, fracture type, management, outcomes, and growth were explored. Two hundred fifteen mandible fractures in 120 patients younger than 18 years were analyzed (average follow-up, 19.5 months). The condylar head and neck were fractured most frequently. Operative management was significantly more likely for children older than 12 years (p<0.05). Operative management and multiple fractures were significantly associated with a higher rate of adverse outcomes (p<0.05), but no adverse outcomes were considered to significantly affect mandibular function by patient or surgeon. No significant growth differences existed on cephalometric analysis between our cohort and age- and sex-matched controls (p>0.05). This study reports the demographics, treatment, and early follow-up of a sizable cohort of pediatric mandible fractures. Management principles for these injuries are outlined. Although definitive recommendations must be withheld until longer follow-up is available, the data presented here show that the treatment protocols used at the authors' center have yielded largely uncompromised mandibular function and growth thus far.

  16. The impact of early symptom change and therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily

    2015-10-01

    The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical characteristics of early-stage osteonecrosis of the ankle and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Issa, Kimona; Naziri, Qais; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Lamm, Bradley M; Jones, Lynne C; Mont, Michael A

    2014-05-07

    The purposes of this study were to describe the clinical manifestations of osteonecrosis involving the distal tibia and talus, to identify risk factors associated with the disease, and to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous drilling for the treatment of ankles with early-stage symptomatic osteonecrosis. One hundred and one ankles in seventy-three patients with symptomatic osteonecrosis of the talus and/or distal tibia treated with percutaneous drilling were identified. There were eighty-one ankles in fifty-nine patients treated only at our institution and twenty ankles in fourteen patients with a failed prior core decompression at outside institutions. The parameters evaluated included demographics, disease characteristics, clinical outcomes including the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society score, Short-Form-36 scores, University of California Los Angeles activity scores, and visual analog scale pain scores, and radiographic outcomes at a mean follow-up duration of five years (range, two to nine years). Eighty-five ankles had isolated talus osteonecrosis, eleven ankles had involvement of the distal tibia and talus, and five ankles had isolated distal tibial disease. Twenty-nine patients (40%) had initially presented with symptomatic osteonecrosis of another joint, most commonly the knee (37%), the hip (29%), and the shoulder (25%). The most common identifiable risk factors included chronic corticosteroid use (49.3%), alcohol abuse (35.6%), tobacco use (29%), and hypertension (20.5%). Overall, 83% of ankles did not demonstrate further disease progression after the procedure. There were significant improvements (p < 0.05) in clinical and patient-reported outcomes after surgical treatment. The presence of human immunodeficiency virus and sickle cell disease was associated with a higher odds ratio of disease progression to joint collapse. Osteonecrosis of the distal tibia and talus was usually part of multifocal disease, and concurrent knee osteonecrosis was

  18. Treatment outcome in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: the European Scleroderma Observational Study (ESOS)

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Ariane L; Pan, Xiaoyan; Peytrignet, Sébastien; Lunt, Mark; Hesselstrand, Roger; Mouthon, Luc; Silman, Alan; Brown, Edith; Czirják, László; Distler, Jörg H W; Distler, Oliver; Fligelstone, Kim; Gregory, William J; Ochiel, Rachel; Vonk, Madelon; Ancuţa, Codrina; Ong, Voon H; Farge, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra; Midtvedt, Øyvind; Jordan, Alison C; Jobanputra, Paresh; Stevens, Wendy; Moinzadeh, Pia; Hall, Frances C; Agard, Christian; Anderson, Marina E; Diot, Elisabeth; Madhok, Rajan; Akil, Mohammed; Buch, Maya H; Chung, Lorinda; Damjanov, Nemanja; Gunawardena, Harsha; Lanyon, Peter; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Jacobsen, Søren; MacGregor, Alexander J; McHugh, Neil; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Becker, Michael; Roddy, Janet; Carreira, Patricia E; Fauchais, Anne Laure; Hachulla, Eric; Hamilton, Jennifer; İnanç, Murat; McLaren, John S; van Laar, Jacob M; Pathare, Sanjay; Proudman, Susannah; Rudin, Anna; Sahhar, Joanne; Coppere, Brigitte; Serratrice, Christine; Sheeran, Tom; Veale, Douglas J; Grange, Claire; Trad, Georges-Selim; Denton, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The rarity of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) makes randomised controlled trials very difficult. We aimed to use an observational approach to compare effectiveness of currently used treatment approaches. Methods This was a prospective, observational cohort study of early dcSSc (within three years of onset of skin thickening). Clinicians selected one of four protocols for each patient: methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclophosphamide or ‘no immunosuppressant’. Patients were assessed three-monthly for up to 24 months. The primary outcome was the change in modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Confounding by indication at baseline was accounted for using inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weights. As a secondary outcome, an IPT-weighted Cox model was used to test for differences in survival. Results Of 326 patients recruited from 50 centres, 65 were prescribed methotrexate, 118 MMF, 87 cyclophosphamide and 56 no immunosuppressant. 276 (84.7%) patients completed 12 and 234 (71.7%) 24 months follow-up (or reached last visit date). There were statistically significant reductions in mRSS at 12 months in all groups: −4.0 (−5.2 to −2.7) units for methotrexate, −4.1 (−5.3 to −2.9) for MMF, −3.3 (−4.9 to −1.7) for cyclophosphamide and −2.2 (−4.0 to −0.3) for no immunosuppressant (p value for between-group differences=0.346). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between protocols before (p=0.389) or after weighting (p=0.440), but survival was poorest in the no immunosuppressant group (84.0%) at 24 months. Conclusions These findings may support using immunosuppressants for early dcSSc but suggest that overall benefit is modest over 12 months and that better treatments are needed. Trial registration number NCT02339441. PMID:28188239

  19. Impact of early oseltamivir treatment on outcome in critically ill patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Díaz, Emili; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio; Sandiumenge, Alberto; Canadell, Laura; Díaz, Juan J; Figueira, Juan C; Marques, Asunción; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Vallés, Jordi; Baladín, Bárbara; García-López, Fernando; Suberviola, Borja; Zaragoza, Rafael; Trefler, Sandra; Bonastre, Juan; Blanquer, José; Rello, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    The impact of oseltamivir on mortality in critically ill patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (2009 H1N1) is not clear. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the timing of antiviral administration and intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes. Prospective, observational study of a cohort of ICU patients with confirmed 2009 H1N1 infection. Clinical data, treatment and outcome were compared between patients receiving early treatment (ET) with oseltamivir, initiated within 2 days, and patients administered late treatment (LT), initiated after this timepoint. Multivariate analysis and propensity score were used to determine the effect of oseltamivir on ICU mortality. Six hundred and fifty-seven patients were enrolled. Four hundred and four (61.5%) patients required mechanical ventilation (MV; mortality 32.6%). Among them, 385 received effective antiviral therapy and were included in the study group. All patients received oseltamivir for a median duration of 10 days (interquartile range 8-14 days). Seventy-nine (20.5%) ET patients were compared with 306 LT patients. The two groups were comparable in terms of main clinical variables. ICU length of stay (22.7 ± 16.7 versus 18.4 ± 14.2 days; P = 0.03), hospital length of stay (34.0 ± 20.3 versus 27.2 ± 18.2 days; P = 0.001) and MV days (17.4 ± 15.2 versus 14.0 ± 12.4; P = 0.04) were higher in the LT group. ICU mortality was also higher in LT (34.3%) than in ET (21.5%; OR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.06-3.41). A multivariate model identified ET (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.21-0.87) as an independent variable associated with reduced ICU mortality. These results were confirmed by propensity score analysis (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.22-0.90; P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that early oseltamivir administration was associated with favourable outcomes among critically ill ventilated patients with 2009 H1N1 virus infection.

  20. Prosthetic valve endocarditis: early and late outcome following medical or surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Akowuah, E F; Davies, W; Oliver, S; Stephens, J; Riaz, I; Zadik, P; Cooper, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the early and late outcome of medical and surgical treatment in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis within a single unit. Design: All patients with proven prosthetic valve endocarditis treated in one institution between 1989 and 1999 were studied. Results: There were 66 patients (24 female, 42 male), mean (SD) age 57 (14) years. Of these, 28 were treated with antibiotics alone and 38 with a combination of antibiotics and surgery. The in-hospital mortality for the antibiotic group was 46% and for the surgical group, 24%. However, seven patients in the antibiotic group were considered too sick for curative treatment. The mortality in the remaining 21 medically treated patients (6/21; 29%) was not significantly different from that in the surgically treated patients (p = 0.15). Six patients in the medically treated group and one in the surgically treated group required late reoperation. Endocarditis recurred in three patients in the medically treated group, two of whom were treated surgically, and in one patient in the surgically treated group. Kaplan–Meier survival at 10 years was 28% in the medically treated group v 58% in the surgically treated group (p = 0.04). Freedom from endocarditis at five years was 60% in the surgically treated group and 65% in the medically treated group. Conclusions: Prosthetic valve endocarditis is a serious condition with high early and late mortality, irrespective of the treatment employed. These data show that selected patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis can be successfully treated with antibiotics alone. If required, surgery in this difficult group of patients can provide satisfactory freedom from recurrent infection. PMID:12591827

  1. The effect of duration of untreated psychosis and treatment delay on the outcomes of prolonged early intervention in psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-09-26

    The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to have an effect on outcome after first-episode psychosis. The premise of specialized early intervention (SEI) services is that intervention in the early years of illness can affect long-term outcomes. In this study, we investigate whether DUP affects treatment response after 5 years of SEI treatment compared to 2 years of SEI treatment. As part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of prolonged SEI treatment 400 participants diagnosed within the schizophrenia spectrum were recruited. For this specific study participants were dichotomized based on DUP, treatment delay, and time from first symptom until start of SEI treatment. The groups were analyzed with regard to treatment response on psychopathology, level of functioning, and cognitive functioning. The participants with a short DUP had a tendency to respond better to the prolonged treatment with regards to disorganized and negative dimension. For participants with short duration from first symptom until start of SEI treatment there was a significant difference on the negative dimension favoring the prolonged OPUS treatment. The finding of an effect of prolonged treatment for participants with a short total treatment delay could mean that prolonged SEI treatment is more beneficial than treatment as usual (TAU) so long as it is provided in the early years of illness and not just in the early years after diagnosis. THE EARLIER THE BETTER: The duration of untreated psychosis influences the long-term outcomes of treatment. Nikolai Albert, at the Copenhagen Mental Health Centre, and a team of Danish researchers have investigated the effects of a specialized early intervention program (OPUS) in 400 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and compared the effects of OPUS after two and five years. Their findings suggest that five years of specialized early intervention was most beneficial when the total duration from symptom start to

  2. Predictors of Positive Treatment Outcome in People With Anorexia Nervosa Treated in a Specialized Inpatient Unit: The Role of Early Response to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wales, Jackie; Brewin, Nicola; Cashmore, Rebecca; Haycraft, Emma; Baggott, Jonathan; Cooper, Amy; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-09-01

    To investigate factors which predict positive treatment outcome in inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN), particularly the role of early treatment response. 102 patients entering specialist inpatient treatment were assessed for eating disorder history, psychopathology, and motivation to change. Predictive factors assessed were: early treatment response defined as weight increase of at least 0.5-1 kg/week during the first 6 weeks of treatment (n=87), admission body mass index (BMI), onset age, chronicity, motivation to change, diagnosis, and previous hospitalization for AN. Positive treatment outcome was defined as achieving a BMI of 17.5 kg/m(2) within an individual time frame. Logistic regression indicated that patients were 18 times more likely to reach positive treatment outcome if they met the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence weight guidelines within the first 6 weeks of hospitalization. Higher admission BMI was also found to predict positive treatment outcome. Higher entry BMI and early weight gain predict positive treatment outcome in individuals receiving specialist AN inpatient treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. The relationship between early changes in the HAMD-17 anxiety/somatization factor items and treatment outcome among depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Farabaugh, Amy; Mischoulon, David; Fava, Maurizio; Wu, Shirley L; Mascarini, Alessandra; Tossani, Eliana; Alpert, Jonathan E

    2005-03-01

    The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) Anxiety/Somatization factor includes six items: Anxiety (psychic), Anxiety (somatic), Somatic Symptoms (gastrointestinal), Somatic Symptoms (general), Hypochondriasis and Insight. This study examines the relationship between early changes (defined as those observed between baseline and week 1) in these HAMD-17 Anxiety/Somatization Factor items and treatment outcome among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients who participated in a study comparing the antidepressant efficacy of a standardized extract of hypericum with both placebo and fluoxetine. Following a 1-week, single-blind washout, patients with MDD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with hypericum extract (900 mg/day), fluoxetine (20 mg/day) or placebo. The relationship between early changes in HAMD-17 anxiety/somatization factor items and treatment outcome was assessed separately for patients who received study treatment (hypericum or fluoxetine) versus placebo with a logistic regression method. One hundred and thirty-five patients (female 57%, mean age=37.3+/-11.0 years; mean baseline HAMD-17=19.7+/-3.2 years) were randomized to double-blind treatment and were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses. After adjusting for baseline HAMD-17 scores and for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni correction, patients who remitted (HAMD-17 score <8) after study treatment had significantly greater early improvement in Somatic Symptoms (General) scores than non-remitters. No other significant differences in early changes were noted for the remaining items between remitters versus non-remitters who received active treatment. For patients treated with placebo, early change was not predictive of remission for any of the items after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, the presence of early improvement on the HAMD-17 item concerning fatigue and general somatic symptoms

  4. Anxious Depression and early changes in the HAMD-17 anxiety-somatization factor items and antidepressant treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Farabaugh, Amy H.; Bitran, Stella; Witte, Janet; Alpert, Jonathan; Chuzi, Sarah; Clain, Alisabet J.; Baer, Lee; Fava, Maurizio; McGrath, Patrick J.; Dording, Christina; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms and treatment outcome among MDD subjects during a 12-week trial of fluoxetine. We also examined the relationship between anxious depression and treatment response. Methods 510 MDD patients received 12 weeks of fluoxetine with flexible dosing (target dosages: 10 mg/day (week 1), 20 mg/day (weeks 2–4), 40 mg/day (weeks 4–8), and 60 mg/day (weeks 5–12)). We assessed the relationship between early changes in HAMD-17- anxiety/somatization factor items and depressive remission, as well as whether anxious depression at baseline predicted remission at study endpoint. . Baseline HAMD-17 scores were considered as covariates and the Bonferroni correction (p ≤ .008) was used for multiple comparisons. Results Adjusting for baseline HAMD-17 scores, patients who experienced greater early improvement in somatic symptoms (gastrointestinal) were significantly more likely to attain remission (HAMD-17 < 8) at endpoint than those without early improvement (p = .006). Early changes in the remaining items did not predict remission, nor did anxious depression at baseline. Conclusions Among the anxiety/somatization factor items, only early changes in somatic symptoms (gastrointestinal) predicted remission. Future studies are warranted to further investigate this relationship, as well as that between anxious depression and treatment outcome. PMID:20400905

  5. Association of HIV diversity and virologic outcomes in early antiretroviral treatment: HPTN 052.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Philip J; Wilson, Ethan A; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Kumwenda, Newton; Makhema, Joseph; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Hakim, James G; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Melo, Marineide G; Godbole, Sheela V; Pilotto, Jose H; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Panchia, Ravindre; Chen, Ying Q; Cohen, Myron S; Eshleman, Susan H; Fogel, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    Higher HIV diversity has been associated with virologic outcomes in children on antiretroviral treatment (ART). We examined the association of HIV diversity with virologic outcomes in adults from the HPTN 052 trial who initiated ART at CD4 cell counts of 350-550 cells/mm3. A high resolution melting (HRM) assay was used to analyze baseline (pre-treatment) HIV diversity in six regions in the HIV genome (two in gag, one in pol, and three in env) from 95 participants who failed ART. We analyzed the association of HIV diversity in each genomic region with baseline (pre-treatment) factors and three clinical outcomes: time to virologic suppression after ART initiation, time to ART failure, and emergence of HIV drug resistance at ART failure. After correcting for multiple comparisons, we did not find any association of baseline HIV diversity with demographic, laboratory, or clinical characteristics. For the 18 analyses performed for clinical outcomes evaluated, there was only one significant association: higher baseline HIV diversity in one of the three HIV env regions was associated with longer time to ART failure (p = 0.008). The HRM diversity assay may be useful in future studies exploring the relationship between HIV diversity and clinical outcomes in individuals with HIV infection.

  6. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  7. Early weight gain predicts outcome in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W

    2014-03-01

    Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN), and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n = 61) or individual adolescent focused therapy (AFT) (n = 60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.670; p = .043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC = 0.754, p = .014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square = 3.692, df = 1, p = .055). Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Initial Weight Loss Response as an Indicator for Providing Early Rescue Efforts to Improve Long-term Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Unick, Jessica L; Pellegrini, Christine A; Demos, Kathryn E; Dorfman, Leah

    2017-09-01

    There is a large variability in response to behavioral weight loss (WL) programs. Reducing rates of obesity and diabetes may require more individuals to achieve clinically significant WL post-treatment. Given that WL within the first 1-2 months of a WL program is associated with long-term WL, it may be possible to improve treatment outcomes by identifying and providing additional intervention to those with poor initial success (i.e., "early non-responders"). We review the current literature regarding early non-response to WL programs and discuss how adaptive interventions can be leveraged as a strategy to "rescue" early non-responders. Preliminary findings suggest that adaptive interventions, specifically stepped care approaches, offer promise for improving outcomes among early non-responders. Future studies need to determine the optimal time point and threshold for intervening and the type of early intervention to employ. Clinicians and researchers should consider the discussed factors when making treatment decisions.

  9. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Yael R.; Cox, Laura M.; Kirigin, Francis F.; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Yamanishi, Shingo; Teitler, Isabel; Chung, Jennifer; Sohn, Jiho; Barber, Cecily M.; Goldfarb, David S.; Raju, Kartik; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Ruiz, Victoria E.; Li, Huilin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Weinstock, George M.; Sodergren, Erica; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian species have co-evolved with intestinal microbial communities that can shape development and adapt to environmental changes, including antibiotic perturbation or nutrient flux. In humans, especially children, microbiota disruption is common, yet the dynamic microbiome recovery from early-life antibiotics is still uncharacterized. Here we use a mouse model mimicking paediatric antibiotic use and find that therapeutic-dose pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) with a beta-lactam or macrolide alters both host and microbiota development. Early-life PAT accelerates total mass and bone growth, and causes progressive changes in gut microbiome diversity, population structure and metagenomic content, with microbiome effects dependent on the number of courses and class of antibiotic. Whereas control microbiota rapidly adapts to a change in diet, PAT slows the ecological progression, with delays lasting several months with previous macrolide exposure. This study identifies key markers of disturbance and recovery, which may help provide therapeutic targets for microbiota restoration following antibiotic treatment. PMID:26123276

  10. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Yael R; Cox, Laura M; Kirigin, Francis F; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Yamanishi, Shingo; Teitler, Isabel; Chung, Jennifer; Sohn, Jiho; Barber, Cecily M; Goldfarb, David S; Raju, Kartik; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Ruiz, Victoria E; Li, Huilin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-06-30

    Mammalian species have co-evolved with intestinal microbial communities that can shape development and adapt to environmental changes, including antibiotic perturbation or nutrient flux. In humans, especially children, microbiota disruption is common, yet the dynamic microbiome recovery from early-life antibiotics is still uncharacterized. Here we use a mouse model mimicking paediatric antibiotic use and find that therapeutic-dose pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) with a beta-lactam or macrolide alters both host and microbiota development. Early-life PAT accelerates total mass and bone growth, and causes progressive changes in gut microbiome diversity, population structure and metagenomic content, with microbiome effects dependent on the number of courses and class of antibiotic. Whereas control microbiota rapidly adapts to a change in diet, PAT slows the ecological progression, with delays lasting several months with previous macrolide exposure. This study identifies key markers of disturbance and recovery, which may help provide therapeutic targets for microbiota restoration following antibiotic treatment.

  11. Retrospective 25-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in angle Class III patients : Early versus late treatment.

    PubMed

    Wendl, B; Muchitsch, A P; Winsauer, H; Walter, A; Droschl, H; Jakse, N; Wendl, M; Wendl, T

    2017-05-01

    To assess early versus late treatment of Class III syndrome for skeletal and dental differences. Thirty-eight Class III patients treated with a chincup were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline data were obtained by reviewing pretreatment (T0) anamnestic records, cephalograms, and casts. The cases were assigned to an early or a late treatment group based on age at T0 (up to 9 years or older than 9 years but before the pubertal growth spurt). Both groups were further compared based on posttreatment data (T1) and long-term follow-up data collected approximately 25 years after treatment (T2). Early treatment was successful in 74% and late treatment in 67% of cases. More failures were noted among male patients. The late treatment group was characterized post therapeutically by significantly more pronounced skeletal parameters of jaw size relative to normal Class I values; in addition, a greater skeletal discrepancy between maxilla and mandible, higher values for mandibular length, Cond-Pog, ramus height, overjet, anterior posterior dysplasia indicator (APDI), lower anterior face height, and gonial angle were measured at T1. The angle between the AB line and mandibular plane was found to be larger at T0, T1, and T2, as well as more pronounced camouflage positions of the lower anterior teeth at T0. The early treatment group was found to exhibit greater amounts of negative overjet at T0 but more effective correction at T1. Early treatment of Class III syndrome resulted in greater skeletal changes with less dental compensation.

  12. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor of CO2 laser cordectomy for early glottic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Laser cordectomy is very popular nowadays and become one of the treatments of choice for early glottis carcinoma. Transoral laser microsurgery has many advantages comparing conventional open surgery or radiation therapy. In this study, we examined the oncologic results of laser cordectomy for early glottic cancer and analyzed the prognostic impact on the survival of the several tumor-related and treatment-related factors. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed as early glottic squamous cell carcinoma, treated by laser cordectomy with curative intent were analyzed. Patients with preivous radiation therapy were included. From June 1988 to March 2005, 202 patients from five hospitals were analyzed (174 T1, 28 T2). Results: Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 98.4% and 84.9%. Twenty two patients developed local recurrence. Total laryngectomy was done in 6 patients and laryngeal preservation rate was 97%. Recurrence was higher in the patients with anterior commissure involvement (9/39) than without anterior commissure involvement (13/163). Recurrence was higher in T1b (4/15) than T1a (13/159). Previous radiation was also highly related to the recurrence (7/20 vs 15/182). Twenty patients with local recurrence after radiation therapy were treated by salvage laser cordectomy. Of them, 7 patients developed local recurrence and 5 year disease-free survival was 57%. Complication was rare with one case of hemorrhage. Tracheotomy was not necessary in all patients. Conclusions: Laser cordectomy for early glottic carcinoma showed high survival, laryngeal preservation rate and low complication rate. The prognostic factors were anterior commissure involvement, both vocal fold involvement and previous radiotherapy.

  13. Early treatment of tuberculous uveitis improves visual outcome: a 10-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Anibarro, Luis; Cortés, Eliana; Chouza, Ana; Parafita-Fernández, Alberto; García, Juan Carlos; Pena, Alberto; Fernández-Cid, Carlos; González-Fernández, África

    2018-06-04

    Diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis (TBU) is often challenging and is usually made after excluding other causes of uveitis. We analysed the characteristics of TBU and variables associated with visual outcome. A retrospective, observational analysis was performed in patients with presumptive TBU who were started on specific TB treatment between January 2006 and June 2016. Demographic, clinical, radiological, analytical and ophthalmic examination variables were studied. After completing TB treatment, a follow-up of at least 9 months was performed. A univariate and logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the variables associated with visual acuity and recurrences of uveitis. Forty affected eyes of 24 individuals were identified; 79% of patients were diagnosed during the last 3 years of the study period. Median delay from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 12 weeks. Loss of visual acuity was the most frequent symptom (87.5%). Posterior uveitis was the most frequent localization (72.9%); 19 patients (79.2%) presented at least one of the Gupta signs predictive of TBU, but there were no confirmed diagnoses. There was improvement in visual acuity in 74.4% of the eyes, but a complete response was achieved only in 56.4%. There was recurrence in two patients. The initiation of treatment ≥ 24 weeks after onset of symptoms was significantly associated with no improvement (p = 0.026). TBU can cause permanent damage to visual acuity, particularly in patients with delayed diagnosis. A prompt initiation of systemic TB treatment is essential to improve visual prognosis.

  14. Factors affecting clinical outcome following treatment of early childhood caries under general anaesthesia: a two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    El Batawi, H Y

    2014-06-01

    To investigate factors that might affect the clinical outcome of early childhood caries treatment under dental general anaesthesia (DGA). Retrospective longitudinal study. The medical records of paediatric patients with early childhood caries who underwent full dental rehabilitation under DGA during 2011 in a private medical facility in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were investigated. Study parameters were the patient's financial arrangements and compliance with suggested recall plan. Statistical analysis of caries recurrence and the need to repeat the rehabilitation process was also performed. Eighteen percent failed to attend any post-operative visit. Twenty-six percent did not comply with the post-operative preventive plan. The overall relapse rate was high (58.5%), with the highest percentage (68%) among the non-compliant group. The highest frequency of repeat DGA (10%) was in the non-compliant group. Despite the high rate of post-operative caries recurrence, DGA is still an acceptable treatment option as it minimises the need for future dental treatment. Compliance by caregivers with post-operative care plans is as important as the procedure itself. In Saudi Arabia, targeting the actual caregivers with post-operative dental health education presents challenges that might affect the clinical outcome of DGA.

  15. Early postoperative and long-term oncological outcomes of laparoscopic treatment for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Park, Soo Yeun; Choi, Wohn Ho; Ryuk, Jong Pil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (TPC/IPAA) for treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Also, we assessed the oncologic outcomes in FAP patients with coexisting malignancy. Methods From August 1999 to September 2010, 43 FAP patients with or without coexisting malignancy underwent TPC/IPAA by a laparoscopic-assisted or hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Results The median age was 33 years (range, 18 to 58 years) at the time of operation. IPAA was performed by a hand-sewn method in 21 patients (48.8%). The median operative time was 300 minutes (range, 135 to 610 minutes), which reached a plateau after 22 operations. Early postoperative complications within 30 days occurred in 7 patients (16.3%) and long-term morbidity occurred in 15 patients (34.9%) including 6 (14.0%) with desmoid tumors and 3 (7.0%) who required operative treatment. Twenty-two patients (51.2%) were diagnosed with coexisting colorectal malignancy. The median follow-up was 58.5 months (range, 7.9 to 97.8 months). There was only 1 case of local recurrence in the pelvic cavity. No cases of adenocarcinoma at the residual rectal mucosa developed. 5-year disease-free survival rate for 22 patients who had coexisting malignancy was 86.5% and 5-year overall survival rate was 92.6%. Three patients died from pulmonary or hepatic metastasis. Conclusion Laparoscopic TPC/IPAA in patients with FAP is feasible and offers favorable postoperative outcomes. It also delivered acceptable oncological outcomes in patients with coexisting malignancy. Therefore, laparoscopic TPC/IPAA may be a favorable treatment option for FAP. PMID:23166888

  16. Early results of prostate cancer radiation therapy: an analysis with emphasis on research strategies to improve treatment delivery and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is scant data regarding disease presentation and treatment response among black men living in Africa. In this study we evaluate disease presentation and early clinical outcomes among Ghanaian men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods A total of 379 men with prostate cancer were referred to the National Center for Radiotherapy, Ghana from 2003 to 2009. Data were collected regarding patient-and tumor-related factors such as age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score (GS), clinical stage (T), and use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). For patients who received EBRT, freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of 379 patients referred for treatment 69.6% had initial PSA (iPSA) > 20 ng/ml, and median iPSA was 39.0 ng/ml. A total of 128 men, representing 33.8% of the overall cohort, were diagnosed with metastatic disease at time of referral. Among patients with at least 2 years of follow-up after EBRT treatment (n=52; median follow-up time: 38.9 months), 3- and 5-year actuarial FFbF was 73.8% and 65.1% respectively. There was significant association between higher iPSA and GS (8–10 vs. ≤7, p < 0.001), and T stage (T3/4 vs. T1/2, p < 0.001). Conclusions This is the largest series reporting on outcomes after prostate cancer treatment in West Africa. That one-third of patients presented with metastatic disease suggests potential need for earlier detection to permit curative-intent therapy. Data from this study will aid in the strategic development of prostate cancer research roadmap in Ghana. PMID:23324165

  17. Evaluation of Health Outcomes with Etanercept Treatment in Patients with Early Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dougados, Maxime; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Saaibi, Diego L; Bonin, Randi; Bukowski, Jack; Pedersen, Ron; Vlahos, Bonnie; Kotak, Sameer

    2015-10-01

    Analyses were conducted to examine the baseline burden of illness and compare the effect of etanercept (ETN) versus placebo (PBO) on quality of life (QOL) in patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) who failed nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID). Patients fulfilling the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society axSpA criteria, not meeting the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), who were symptomatic 3 months to 5 years, with a Bath AS Disease Activity Index score ≥ 4, and failed ≥ 2 NSAID were randomized to ETN 50 mg weekly or PBO (double-blind) for 12 weeks, followed by open-label ETN 50 mg for 92 weeks. Stable NSAID were allowed throughout our study. QOL outcomes over 24 weeks were analyzed using ANCOVA models. At baseline, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI; ETN mean 14.7, PBO mean 15.0), EQ-5D utility (0.52, 0.57), EQ-5D visual analog scale (56.5, 56.4), and Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Index II (45.5, 48.1) were worse than population norms (6.6-8.0, 0.86, 82.5, and 25.8, respectively). At Week 12, Bath AS Patient Global Score, nocturnal and average back pain, MOS Short Form-36 (SF-36) physical component, and Work Productivity and Activity Index (WPAI) presenteeism and activity impairment favored ETN (p < 0.05). Nonsignificant improvements for ETN were seen in other WPAI domains, MFI, MOS-Sleep Index I and II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, EQ-5D utility score, and SF-36 mental component (p > 0.05). At Week 24, patients in the PBO group who had switched to ETN at Week 12 showed improvement in most QOL assessments, similar to that seen in patients receiving ETN for 24 weeks. Improvements favored ETN in QOL and productivity measures, with limited improvement on general QOL measures. Short disease duration, a short PBO-controlled period, and a wide range of QOL scores at baseline may have influenced improvements.

  18. Parent Inclusion in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention: The Influence of Parental Stress, Parent Treatment Fidelity and Parent-Mediated Generalization of Behavior Targets on Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Kristin; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Fava, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Although early intensive behavior interventions have been efficient in producing positive behavior outcome in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, there is a considerable variety in the children's progress. Research has suggested that parental and treatment factors are likely to affect children's response to treatment. The purpose of the…

  19. Self-reported dietary intake and appetite predict early treatment outcome among low-BMI adults initiating HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire; Nyirenda, Christopher; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Mwango, Albert; Kasongo, Webster; Zulu, Isaac; Shepherd, Bryan E; Heimburger, Douglas C

    2013-03-01

    Low BMI is a major risk factor for early mortality among HIV-infected persons starting antiretrovial therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa and the common patient belief that antiretroviral medications produce distressing levels of hunger is a barrier to treatment adherence. We assessed relationships between appetite, dietary intake and treatment outcome 12 weeks after ART initiation among HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition and immunosuppression. A prospective, observational cohort study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall survey. The relationships of appetite, intake and treatment outcome were analysed using time-varying Cox models. A public-sector HIV clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. One hundred and forty-two HIV-infected adults starting ART with BMI <16 kg/m2 and/or CD4+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/μl. Median age, BMI and CD4+ lymphocyte count were 32 years, 16 kg/m2 and 34 cells/μl, respectively. Twenty-five participants (18%) died before 12 weeks and another thirty-three (23%) were lost to care. A 500 kJ/d higher energy intake at any time after ART initiation was associated with an approximate 16% reduction in the hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.84; P = 0.01), but the relative contribution of carbohydrate, protein or fat to total energy was not a significant predictor of outcome. Appetite normalized gradually among survivors and hunger was rarely reported. Poor early ART outcomes were strikingly high in a cohort of HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition and mortality was predicted by lower dietary intake. Intervention trials to promote post-ART intake in this population may benefit survival and are warranted.

  20. Self-reported Dietary Intake and Appetite Predict Early Treatment Outcome among Low Body Mass Index Adults Initiating HIV Treatment in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, John R.; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire; Nyirenda, Christopher; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Mwango, Albert; Kasongo, Webster; Zulu, Isaac; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Low body mass index (BMI) is a major risk factor for early mortality among HIV infected persons starting antiretrovial therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, and the common patient belief that antiretroviral medications produce distressing levels of hunger is a barrier to treatment adherence. We assessed relationships between appetite, dietary intake, and treatment outcome 12 weeks after ART initiation among HIV infected adults with advanced malnutrition and immunosuppression. Design A prospective, observational cohort study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour recall survey. The relationships of appetite, intake, and treatment outcome were analyzed using time-varying Cox models. Setting A public-sector HIV clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. Subjects 142 HIV-infected adults starting ART with BMI <16 kg/m2 and/or CD4+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/µl. Results Median age, BMI, and CD4+ lymphocyte count were 32 years, 16 kg/m2, and 34 cells/µL, respectively. Twenty-five participants (18%) died before 12 weeks, and another 33 (23%) were lost to care. A 500 kJ/day higher energy intake at any time after ART initiation was associated with an approximate 16% reduction in the hazard of death (AHR 0.84; p=0.01), but the relative contribution of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy was not a significant predictor of outcome. Appetite normalized gradually among survivors, and hunger was rarely reported. Conclusions Poor early ART outcomes were strikingly high in a cohort of HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition, and mortality was predicted by lower dietary intake. Intervention trials to promote post-ART intake in this population may benefit survival and are warranted. PMID:22691872

  1. Neurodevelopmental consequences of pediatric cancer and its treatment: applying an early adversity framework to understanding cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Iadipaolo, Allesandra S; Harper, Felicity W; Elrahal, Farrah; Taub, Jeffrey W; Goldberg, Elimelech; Rabinak, Christine A

    2018-06-01

    Today, children are surviving pediatric cancer at unprecedented rates, making it one of modern medicine's true success stories. However, we are increasingly becoming aware of several deleterious effects of cancer and the subsequent "cure" that extend beyond physical sequelae. Indeed, survivors of childhood cancer commonly report cognitive, emotional, and psychological difficulties, including attentional difficulties, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Cognitive late- and long-term effects have been largely attributed to neurotoxic effects of cancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, surgery) on brain development. The role of childhood adversity in pediatric cancer - namely, the presence of a life-threatening disease and endurance of invasive medical procedures - has been largely ignored in the existing neuroscientific literature, despite compelling research by our group and others showing that exposure to more commonly studied adverse childhood experiences (i.e., domestic and community violence, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) strongly imprints on neural development. While these adverse childhood experiences are different in many ways from the experience of childhood cancer (e.g., context, nature, source), they do share a common element of exposure to threat (i.e., threat to life or physical integrity). Therefore, we argue that the double hit of early threat and cancer treatments likely alters neural development, and ultimately, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. In this paper, we (1) review the existing neuroimaging research on child, adolescent, and adult survivors of childhood cancer, (2) summarize gaps in our current understanding, (3) propose a novel neurobiological framework that characterizes childhood cancer as a type of childhood adversity, particularly a form of early threat, focusing on development of the hippocampus and the salience and emotion network (SEN), and (4) outline future directions for

  2. Nonsurgical treatment and early return to activity leads to improved Achilles tendon fatigue mechanics and functional outcomes during early healing in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Benjamin R; Gordon, Joshua A; Bhatt, Pankti R; Pardes, Adam M; Thomas, Stephen J; Sarver, Joseph J; Riggin, Corinne N; Tucker, Jennica J; Williams, Alexis W; Zanes, Robert C; Hast, Michael W; Farber, Daniel C; Silbernagel, Karin G; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2016-12-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are common and devastating injuries; however, an optimized treatment and rehabilitation protocol has yet to be defined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of surgical repair and return to activity on joint function and Achilles tendon properties after 3 weeks of healing. Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 100) received unilateral blunt transection of their Achilles tendon. Animals were then randomized into repaired or non-repaired treatments, and further randomized into groups that returned to activity after 1 week (RTA1) or after 3 weeks (RTA3) of limb casting in plantarflexion. Limb function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties (mechanical, organizational using high frequency ultrasound, histological, and compositional) were evaluated. Results showed that both treatment and return to activity collectively affected limb function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties. Functionally, RTA1 animals had increased dorsiflexion ROM and weight bearing of the injured limb compared to RTA3 animals 3-weeks post-injury. Such functional improvements in RTA1 tendons were evidenced in their mechanical fatigue properties and increased cross sectional area compared to RTA3 tendons. When RTA1 was coupled with nonsurgical treatment, superior fatigue properties were achieved compared to repaired tendons. No differences in cell shape, cellularity, GAG, collagen type I, or TGF-β staining were identified between groups, but collagen type III was elevated in RTA3 repaired tendons. The larger tissue area and increased fatigue resistance created in RTA1 tendons may prove critical for optimized outcomes in early Achilles tendon healing following complete rupture. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2172-2180, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nonsurgical treatment and early return to activity leads to improved Achilles tendon fatigue mechanics and functional outcomes during early healing in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, BR; Gordon, JA; Bhatt, PB; Pardes, AM; Thomas, SJ; Sarver, JJ; Riggin, CN; Tucker, JJ; Williams, AW; Zanes, RC; Hast, MW; Farber, DC; Silbernagel, KG; Soslowsky, LJ

    2016-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are common and devastating injuries; however, an optimized treatment and rehabilitation protocol has yet to be defined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of surgical repair and return to activity on joint function and Achilles tendon properties after 3-weeks of healing. Sprague Dawley rats (N=100) received unilateral blunt transection of their Achilles tendon. Animals were then randomized into repaired or non-repaired treatments, and further randomized into groups that returned to activity after 1-week (RTA1) or after 3-weeks (RTA3) of limb casting in plantarflexion. Limb function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties (mechanical, organizational using high frequency ultrasound, histological, and compositional) were evaluated. Results showed that both treatment and return to activity collectively affected limb function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties. Functionally, RTA1 animals had increased dorsiflexion ROM and weight bearing of the injured limb compared to RTA3 animals 3-weeks post injury. Such functional improvements in RTA1 tendons were evidenced in their mechanical fatigue properties and increased cross sectional area compared to RTA3 tendons. When RTA1 was coupled with nonsurgical treatment, superior fatigue properties were achieved compared to repaired tendons. No differences in cell shape, cellularity, GAG, collagen type I, or TGF-β staining were identified between groups, but collagen type III was elevated in RTA3 repaired tendons. The larger tissue area and increased fatigue resistance created in RTA1 tendons may prove critical for optimized outcomes in early Achilles tendon healing following complete rupture. PMID:27038306

  4. Are improvements in shame and self-compassion early in eating disorders treatment associated with better patient outcomes?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C; Borairi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Compassion-focused therapy (CFT; Gilbert, 2005, 2009) is a transdiagnostic treatment approach focused on building self-compassion and reducing shame. It is based on the theory that feelings of shame contribute to the maintenance of psychopathology, whereas self-compassion contributes to the alleviation of shame and psychopathology. We sought to test this theory in a transdiagnostic sample of eating disorder patients by examining whether larger improvements in shame and self-compassion early in treatment would facilitate faster eating disorder symptom remission over 12 weeks. Participants were 97 patients with an eating disorder admitted to specialized day hospital or inpatient treatment. They completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Experiences of Shame Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale at intake, and again after weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Multilevel modeling revealed that patients who experienced greater decreases in their level of shame in the first 4 weeks of treatment had faster decreases in their eating disorder symptoms over 12 weeks of treatment. In addition, patients who had greater increases in their level of self-compassion early in treatment had faster decreases in their feelings of shame over 12 weeks, even when controlling for their early change in eating disorder symptoms. These results suggest that CFT theory may help to explain the maintenance of eating disorders. Clinically, findings suggest that intervening with shame early in treatment, perhaps by building patients' self-compassion, may promote better eating disorders treatment response. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Early Enteral Combined with Parenteral Nutrition Treatment for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Immune Function, Nutritional Status and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingchao; Wang, Qiaoling; Fang, Wei; Jiang, Yunxia; Li, Liandi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Zhihong

    2016-11-20

    aspirated pneumonia (27.5% vs. 50.0%; χ 2 = 6.39, P<0.05), hypoproteinemia (17.5% vs. 55.0%; χ 2 = 18.26, P<0.01) and diarrhea (20.0% vs. 60.0%; χ 2 = 20.00, P<0.01). The EN+PN group also had significant less length of stay in NICU (t=2.51, 4.82; P<0.05, P<0.01), number of patients receiving assisted mechanical ventilation (χ 2 = 6.08, 12.88; P<0.05, P<0.01) and its durations (t=3.41, 9.08; P<0.05, P<0.01), and the death rate (χ 2 =7.50, 16.37; P<0.05, P<0.01) than those of EN or PN group. Conclusion Early EN+PN treatment could promote the recovery of the immune function, enhance nutritional status, decrease complications and improve the clinical outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

  6. Prognostic Factors, Treatment, and Outcomes in Early Stage, Invasive Papillary Breast Cancer: A SEER Investigation of Less Aggressive Treatment in a Favorable Histology.

    PubMed

    Fakhreddine, Mohamad H; Haque, Waqar; Ahmed, Awad; Schwartz, Mary R; Farach, Andrew M; Paulino, Arnold C; Bonefas, Elizabeth; Miltenburg, Darlene; Niravath, Polly; Butler, E Brian; Teh, Bin S

    2018-06-01

    Invasive papillary breast cancer (IPBCA) represents 0.5% of invasive BCA, and is thought to carry a favorable prognosis. This population-based study reports on prognostic factors, treatment, and outcomes of early-stage IPBCA to explore whether there is any evidence to support less aggressive treatment. IPBCA cases from 1990 to 2009 of the recent Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results were analyzed. Inclusion criteria included patients with stage T1-2, N0 IPBCA. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the variables of treatment, stage, race, hormone receptor status, grade (G1-3), and age. Treatment modalities included lumpectomy alone (LA), lumpectomy with radiation treatment (LRT), and mastectomy alone (MA). Among 10,485 patients, median follow-up was 56 months. Five and 10-year overall survival (OS) were 93.1% and 76.8%, respectively. Patients treated with LRT had superior mean OS 16.8 versus 14.9 years for MA (P=0.0004) and 14.2 years for LA (P=0.0003). Improved OS also correlated with lower histologic grade (P<0.0001), lower T-stage (P<0.0001), and younger age (P<0.0001). Black patients had the worst OS (12.7 y, P<0.0001). LRT is associated with superior OS for early-stage invasive papillary BCA patients, when compared with LA or MA in this population-based study. The findings support the standard of care breast conservation approach for patients with invasive papillary BCA. Other prognostic factors associated with worse OS include increased age, higher T-stage, higher histologic grade, and black race.

  7. Treatment Effects of a Modular Intervention for Early-Onset Child Behavior Problems on Family Contextual Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this multi-informant study was to examine pre-post treatment changes, and maintenance at 3-year follow-up, for multiple dimensions of the family context, for a modular intervention that has previously demonstrated significant clinical improvements in child behavior and maintenance of these effects. Family outcomes included…

  8. Comparison of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered With Parent-Reported Severity Ratings as a Primary Outcome Measure in Clinical Trials of Early Stuttering Treatment.

    PubMed

    Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Lowe, Robyn; Arnott, Simone; Bridgman, Kate; de Sonneville, Caroline; Franken, Marie-Christine

    2018-04-17

    This report investigates whether parent-reported stuttering severity ratings (SRs) provide similar estimates of effect size as percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for randomized trials of early stuttering treatment with preschool children. Data sets from 3 randomized controlled trials of an early stuttering intervention were selected for analyses. Analyses included median changes and 95% confidence intervals per treatment group, Bland-Altman plots, analysis of covariance, and Spearman rho correlations. Both SRs and %SS showed large effect sizes from pretreatment to follow-up, although correlations between the 2 measures were moderate at best. Absolute agreement between the 2 measures improved as percentage reduction of stuttering frequency and severity increased, probably due to innate measurement limitations for participants with low baseline severity. Analysis of covariance for the 3 trials showed consistent results. There is no statistical reason to favor %SS over parent-reported stuttering SRs as primary outcomes for clinical trials of early stuttering treatment. However, there are logistical reasons to favor parent-reported stuttering SRs. We conclude that parent-reported rating of the child's typical stuttering severity for the week or month prior to each assessment is a justifiable alternative to %SS as a primary outcome measure in clinical trials of early stuttering treatment.

  9. Characterizing Tumor Heterogeneity With Functional Imaging and Quantifying High-Risk Tumor Volume for Early Prediction of Treatment Outcome: Cervical Cancer as a Model

    SciT

    Mayr, Nina A., E-mail: Nina.Mayr@osumc.edu; Huang Zhibin; Wang, Jian Z.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Treatment response in cancer has been monitored by measuring anatomic tumor volume (ATV) at various times without considering the inherent functional tumor heterogeneity known to critically influence ultimate treatment outcome: primary tumor control and survival. This study applied dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) functional MRI to characterize tumors' heterogeneous subregions with low DCE values, at risk for treatment failure, and to quantify the functional risk volume (FRV) for personalized early prediction of treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: DCE-MRI was performed in 102 stage IB{sub 2}-IVA cervical cancer patients to assess tumor perfusion heterogeneity before and during radiation/chemotherapy. FRV represents the totalmore » volume of tumor voxels with critically low DCE signal intensity (<2.1 compared with precontrast image, determined by previous receiver operator characteristic analysis). FRVs were correlated with treatment outcome (follow-up: 0.2-9.4, mean 6.8 years) and compared with ATVs (Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analyses). Results: Before and during therapy at 2-2.5 and 4-5 weeks of RT, FRVs >20, >13, and >5 cm{sup 3}, respectively, significantly predicted unfavorable 6-year primary tumor control (p = 0.003, 7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) and disease-specific survival (p = 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, respectively). The FRVs were superior to the ATVs as early predictors of outcome, and the differentiating power of FRVs increased during treatment. Discussion: Our preliminary results suggest that functional tumor heterogeneity can be characterized by DCE-MRI to quantify FRV for predicting ultimate long-term treatment outcome. FRV is a novel functional imaging heterogeneity parameter, superior to ATV, and can be clinically translated for personalized early outcome prediction before or as early as 2

  10. Clinical and radiological outcomes of 5-year drug-free remission-steered treatment in patients with early arthritis: IMPROVED study.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Gülşah; Heimans, Lotte; Bergstra, Sytske Anne; Goekoop, Robbert J; van Oosterhout, Maikel; van Groenendael, Johannes H L M; Peeters, André J; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M; Lard, Leroy R; de Sonnaville, Peter B J; Grillet, Bernard A M; Huizinga, Tom W J; Allaart, Cornelia F

    2018-01-01

    To determine the 5-year outcomes of early remission induction therapy followed by targeted treatment aimed at drug-free remission (DFR) in patients with early arthritis. In 12 hospitals, 610 patients with early (<2 years) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or undifferentiated arthritis (UA) started on methotrexate (MTX) 25 mg/week and prednisone (60 mg/day tapered to 7.5 mg/day). Patients not in early remission (Disease Activity Score <1.6 after 4 months) were randomised (single blind) to arm 1, adding hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/day and sulfasalazine 2000 mg/day, or arm 2, switching to MTX plus adalimumab 40 mg/2 weeks. Treatment adjustments over time aimed at DFR. Outcomes were remission percentages, functional ability, toxicity and radiological damage progression after 5 years. After 4 months, 387 patients were in early remission, 83 were randomised to arm 1 and 78 to arm 2. After 5 years, 295/610 (48%) patients were in remission, 26% in sustained DFR (SDFR) (≥1 year) (220/387 (57%) remission and 135/387 (35%) SDFR in the early remission group, 50% remission, 11% SDFR in the randomisation arms without differences between the arms). More patients with UA (37% vs 23% RA, p=0.001) and more anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-negative patients (37% vs 18% ACPA-positive, p<0.001) achieved SDFR.Overall, mean Health Assessment Questionnaire was 0.6 (0.5), and median (IQR) damage progression was 0.5 (0-2.7) Sharp/van der Heijde points, with only five patients showing progression >25 points in 5 years. Five years of DFR-steered treatment in patients with early RA resulted in almost normal functional ability without clinically relevant joint damage across treatment groups. Patients who achieved early remission had the best clinical outcomes. There were no differences between the randomisation arms. SDFR is a realistic treatment goal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved

  11. Relative dose intensity--improving treatment and outcomes in early-stage breast cancer: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Deborah A; Penprase, Barbara; Klamerus, Justin F

    2012-11-01

    To determine the amount of chemotherapy delivered compared to amount of chemotherapy scheduled by calculating relative dose intensity (RDI) and to identify factors associated with nonadherence of scheduled treatment regimens for patients with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC). Retrospective, descriptive, correlational study. Two community hospital cancer centers in northern Michigan. 77 patients with ESBC receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The RDI Calculator™ was used for data collection. A worksheet was developed for each patient and included characteristics, treatment information, and RDI calculations. SAS®, version 19.2, was used for multivariate analyses based on logistical regression analyzing relationships among dependent and independent variables. Dependent variables were RDI prescribed and RDI received. Independent variables included chemotherapy regimen, clinical characteristics, planned dose, and schedule. The average RDI was 86.6%. The average RDI was 86.7% for patients younger than age 65, and 85.5% for those 65 and older. The most common reasons for dose reduction or dose delay were treatment toxicity, chronic disease risk factors, age, unplanned versus planned treatment dose, institution (different standards of care), patient preference, and weight. Meeting treatment goals of RDI for patients with ESBC has been shown to increase the disease-free survival rate and positively affects overall survival. Nurses have the unique opportunity to case manage patients with ESBC throughout the spectrum of care. One of the key areas of focus is education of the patient and her family members from the time of diagnosis throughout treatment and rehabilitation.

  12. Parent inclusion in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention: the influence of parental stress, parent treatment fidelity and parent-mediated generalization of behavior targets on child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kristin; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Fava, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Although early intensive behavior interventions have been efficient in producing positive behavior outcome in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, there is a considerable variety in the children's progress. Research has suggested that parental and treatment factors are likely to affect children's response to treatment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the interrelating factors that impact children's progress, highlighting the influence of parent inclusion in treatment provision captured by parental stress, how faithfully the parents followed the treatment protocols and the intensity of treatment provided at home. Twenty-four children received cross-setting staff- and parent-mediated EIBI, including continuous parent training and supervision. A comparison group of 20 children received eclectic intervention. Standardized tests were carried out by independent examiners at intake and after six months. The intervention group outperformed the eclectic group in measures of autism severity, developmental and language skills. Parent training and constant parent-mediated treatment provision led to reduced challenging behaviors from the children, increased treatment fidelity and child direct behavior change as measured by performance in correct responding on behavior targets. Variables of treatment progress and potential predictors of child outcome were analyzed in detail and mapped with regard to their relationships drawn from multiple regression analysis. Particularly, the study highlights an association between parental stress and staff treatment fidelity that interferes with decision making in treatment planning and consequently with positive behavior outcome. Such results provide important scientific and clinical information on parental and treatment factors likely to affect a child's response to treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of outcome of bright light treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder: Discarding the early response, confirming a higher atypical balance, and uncovering a higher body mass index at baseline as predictors of endpoint outcome.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Tzvetelina D; Reeves, Gloria M; Snitker, Soren; Lapidus, Manana; Sleemi, Aamar R; Balis, Theodora G; Manalai, Partam; Tariq, Muhammad M; Cabassa, Johanna A; Karim, Naila N; Johnson, Mary A; Langenberg, Patricia; Rohan, Kelly J; Miller, Michael; Stiller, John W; Postolache, Teodor T

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the early improvement in mood after the first hour of bright light treatment compared to control dim-red light would predict the outcome at six weeks of bright light treatment for depressed mood in patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). We also analyzed the value of Body Mass Index (BMI) and atypical symptoms of depression at baseline in predicting treatment outcome. Seventy-eight adult participants were enrolled. The first treatment was controlled crossover, with randomized order, and included one hour of active bright light treatment and one hour of control dim-red light, with one-hour washout. Depression was measured on the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-SAD version (SIGH-SAD). The predictive association of depression scores changes after the first session. BMI and atypical score balance with treatment outcomes at endpoint were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regressions. No significant prediction by changes in depression scores after the first session was found. However, higher atypical balance scores and BMI positively predicted treatment outcome. Absence of a control intervention for the six-weeks of treatment (only the first session in the laboratory was controlled). Exclusion of patients with comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and bipolar I disorder, and patients on antidepressant medications, reducing the generalizability of the study. Prediction of outcome by early response to light treatment was not replicated, and the previously reported prediction of baseline atypical balance was confirmed. BMI, a parameter routinely calculated in primary care, was identified as a novel predictor, and calls for replication and then exploration of possible mediating mechanisms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Clinical effectiveness of decongestive treatments on excess arm volume and patient-centered outcomes in women with early breast cancer-related arm lymphedema: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jeffs, Eunice; Ream, Emma; Taylor, Cath; Bick, Debra

    2018-01-01

    outcome measures were not pooled in statistical meta-analysis. A narrative and tabular format was used to synthesize results from identified and included studies. Results: Seven studies reporting results for outcomes of interest were critically appraised and included in the review: five randomized controlled trials and two descriptive (uncontrolled) studies. Reported outcomes included excess arm volume (five studies), health-related quality of life (three studies), arm heaviness (one study), arm function (two studies) and patient-perceived benefit (two studies). There was some evidence that decongestive treatments were effective for women presenting within either 12 months or a mean of nine months of developing breast cancer-related arm lymphedema, but the wide range of data prevented comparison of treatment findings which limited our ability to answer the review questions. Conclusions: Weak evidence (grade B) for the impact of decongestive lymphedema treatment on women with early lymphedema (i.e. less than 12 months duration of BCRL symptoms) did not allow any conclusions to be drawn about the most effective treatment to be offered when these women first present for treatment. Findings provided no justification to support change to current practice. Future primary research needs to focus on the most effective treatment for women when they first present with lymphedema symptoms, e.g. treatment provided within 12 months of developing symptoms. Studies should be adequately powered and recruit women exclusively with less than 12 months duration of breast cancer-related lymphedema symptoms, provide longer follow-up to monitor treatment effect over time, with comparable treatment protocols, outcome measures and reporting methods. PMID:29419623

  15. Favorable outcome of early treatment of new onset child and adolescent migraine-implications for disease modification.

    PubMed

    Charles, James A; Peterlin, B L; Rapoport, Alan M; Linder, Steven L; Kabbouche, Marielle A; Sheftell, Fred D

    2009-08-01

    There is evidence that the prevalence of migraine in children and adolescents may be increasing. Current theories of migraine pathophysiology in adults suggest activation of central cortical and brainstem pathways in conjunction with the peripheral trigeminovascular system, which ultimately results in release of neuropeptides, facilitation of central pain pathways, neurogenic inflammation surrounding peripheral vessels, and vasodilatation. Although several risk factors for frequent episodic, chronic, and refractory migraine have been identified, the causes of migraine progression are not known. Migraine pathophysiology has not been fully evaluated in children. In this review, we will first discuss the evidence that early therapeutic interventions in the child or adolescent new onset migraineur, may halt or limit progression and disability. We will then review the evidence suggesting that many adults with chronic or refractory migraine developed their migraine as children or adolescents and may not have been treated adequately with migraine-specific therapy. Finally, we will show that early, appropriate and optimal treatment of migraine during childhood and adolescence may result in disease modification and prevent progression of this disease.

  16. Clinical outcomes, health resource use, and cost in patients with early versus late dual or triple anti-platelet treatment for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Howard; Mollon, Patrick; Lian, Jean; Navaratnam, Prakash

    2013-08-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) guidelines recommend early dual anti-platelet therapy (thienopyridines + acetylsalicylic acid [aspirin]). However, triple therapy (thienopyridines + aspirin + glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors [GRIs]) has shown benefit in clinical trials. This study assessed real-world ACS treatment patterns and outcomes in the acute care setting. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to hospital with ACS (index event) from January 2007 to December 2009 was conducted (Thomson's MarketScan Hospital Drug Database). Eligible patients were ≥18 years of age, of either sex, and had primary admission and discharge diagnoses of ACS. Cohorts were defined by anti-platelet treatment and then by the timing of treatment initiation (early initiation: within ≤2 days of admission; late initiation: ≥2 days post-admission). Patient characteristics, clinical outcomes, resource utilization, and costs were assessed using descriptive statistics. A total of 249,907 eligible patients were placed into four treatment cohorts (aspirin assumed for all patients): aspirin only; clopidogrel only (dual therapy); GRI only (dual therapy); and clopidogrel + GRI (triple therapy). Patients in the 'clopidogrel-only' cohort were more likely to be older, female, and have more co-morbidities than those in other cohorts; stroke (6.2 %) and re-hospitalization (15.4 %) rates were higher than in the 'GRI-only' and 'triple therapy' cohorts. The GRI-only cohort had higher major bleeding rates (3.3 %), mortality (7.6 %), and costs ($US21,975 [year 2010 values]) than the clopidogrel-only and triple-therapy cohorts. Late initiation cohorts were more likely to be older, female, and have more co-morbidities than early initiation cohorts. Major bleeding was more likely with GRI-only patients (regardless of initiation timing) than with other cohorts. Late-treated clopidogrel-only patients had higher rates of stroke (6.9 %), ACS-related re-admissions (6.1 %), and all

  17. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants treated with early hydrocortisone: treatment effect according to gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Baud, Olivier; Trousson, Clémence; Biran, Valérie; Leroy, Emilie; Mohamed, Damir; Alberti, Corinne

    2018-01-10

    To determine whether early hydrocortisone treatment in extremely preterm infants affects neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age according to gestational age at birth. This is an exploratory analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes by gestational age strata from the PREMILOC trial, in which patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or low-dose hydrocortisone and randomisation was stratified by gestational age groups (24-25 and 26-27 weeks of gestation). Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was assessed using a standardised neurological examination and the revised Brunet-Lézine scale at 22 months of corrected age. A total of 379 of 406 survivors were evaluated, 96/98 in the gestational age group of 24-25 weeks and 283/308 in the gestational age group of 26-27 weeks. Among surviving infants born at 24-25 weeks, significant improvement in global neurological assessment was observed in the hydrocortisone group compared with the placebo group (P=0.02) with a risk of moderate-to-severe NDI of 2% and 18%, respectively (risk difference 16 (95% CI -28% to -5%)). In contrast, no statistically significant difference between treatment groups was observed in infants born at 26-27 weeks (P=0.95) with a similar risk of moderate-to-severe NDI of 9% in both groups. The incidence of cerebral palsy or other major neurological impairments were found similar between treatment groups in each gestational group. In an exploratory analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes from the PREMILOC trial, early low-dose hydrocortisone was associated with a statistically significant improvement in neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants born at 24 and 25 weeks of gestation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Rapid and early α-fetoprotein and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin responses to initial arterial infusion chemotherapy predict treatment outcomes of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    OYAMA, KENJI; KODA, MASAHIKO; SUGIHARA, TAKAAKI; KISHINA, MANABU; MIYOSHI, KENICHI; OKAMOTO, TOSHIAKI; HODOTSUKA, MASANORI; FUJISE, YUKI; MATONO, TOMOMITSU; TOKUNAGA, SHIHO; OKAMOTO, KINYA; HOSHO, KEIKO; OKANO, JUNICHI; MURAWAKI, YOSHIKAZU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to predict the effects of transarterial infusion (TAI) chemotherapy based on early changes in α-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventy-four patients who underwent TAI with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C and epirubicin for advanced HCC were enrolled. Antitumor responses were evaluated 6 months after TAI. Rapid and early responses were defined as the ratio of AFP or DCP after 1 week and 1 month compared to baseline. A total of 5, 10, 17 and 42 patients had complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD), respectively. Early AFP response was significantly lower in the CR+PR compared to the SD+PD groups (P<0.01). The early DCP response was significantly lower in the CR+PR compared to the SD+PD. The sensitivity and specificity of rapid and early AFP responses in the CR+PR were 0.78 and 0.72, and 0.80 and 0.73, respectively, and those of rapid and early DCP responses were 0.67 and 0.65, and 0.77 and 0.71, respectively. The combination of AFP and DCP responses had higher specificity compared to AFP or DCP alone responses. Patients were divided into responder and non-responder groups to evaluate the prediction of survival outcome. Early responders of AFP, DCP and AFP+DCP, who were divided based on the cut-off values of CR+PR survived significantly longer than the non-responders (P<0.05). In conclusion, rapid or early responses of AFP and/or DCP levels 1 and 4 weeks after TAI chemotherapy helped to predict the treatment effects. PMID:26137283

  19. Twenty‐Year Outcome and Association Between Early Treatment and Mortality and Disability in an Inception Cohort of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Gwinnutt, James M.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.; MacGregor, Alexander J.; Chipping, Jacqueline R.; Marshall, Tarnya; Lunt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 20 years from symptom onset, and to assess the association between early treatment (with disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs/steroids) and mortality and disability during follow‐up. Methods Patients recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) between 1990 and 1994 who met the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism RA criteria at baseline were included in this analysis. Demographic and clinical variables were collected at baseline and at years 1–3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Disease activity (swollen joint count [SJC]/tender joint count [TJC]), disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]), and mortality over 20 years were determined. Associations between treatment group (early treatment [ET], treatment ≤6 months after symptom onset; late treatment [LT], treatment >6 months after symptom onset; never treatment [NT], no treatment) and mortality and disability were assessed using weighted pooled logistic regression and weighted multilevel mixed‐effects linear regression, respectively. Inverse weights were used to account for confounding by indication and censoring. Results This study included 602 patients with RA (median age 56 years [interquartile range 44–68 years]; 65.9% women). The median SJCs and TJCs were low during the follow‐up period (1–3 swollen joints and 3–6 tender joints). The median HAQ DI score increased after year 1 but remained at low/moderate levels (median 1.25 after year 10). The risk of mortality was reduced in the ET and LT groups compared with that in the NT group. The ET group and the NT group had comparable HAQ DI scores during the follow‐up period (β = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] −0.06, 0.12), while the HAQ DI score was increased in the LT group (for LT versus NT, β = 0.10 [95% CI 0.02, 0.17]). Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of

  20. Early family-based intervention in the path to alcohol problems: rationale and relationship between treatment process characteristics and child and parenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nye, C L; Zucker, R A; Fitzgerald, H E

    1999-03-01

    Risk for subsequent development of alcohol problems is not uniform across the population of alcoholic families, but varies with parental comorbidity and family history. Recent studies have also identified disruptive child behavior problems in the preschool years as predictive of alcoholism in adulthood. Given the quality of risk structure in highest risk families, prevention programming is more appropriately family based rather than individual. A family-based intervention program for the prevention of conduct problems among preschool-age sons of alcoholic fathers was implemented to change this potential mediating risk structure. A population-based recruitment strategy enrolled 52 alcoholic families in a 10-month intervention involving parent training and marital problem solving. The study examined the interplay between parent treatment investment and parent and therapist expectations and satisfaction in predicting change in child behavior and authoritative parenting style during the program, and for 6 months afterward among the 29 families whose sustained involvement allowed these effects to be evaluated. Parent expectations at pretreatment influenced their early investment in the program, which in turn predicted child and parenting outcomes. Parent and therapist satisfaction ratings during treatment were associated with one another and with expectations that the program would continue to promote changes in their child. Parent investment was a particularly salient influence on outcome, as higher investment throughout the program was associated with improvement in child behavior and authoritative parenting at termination. Findings indicate that treatment process characteristics mediate the influence of baseline parent functioning on treatment success and that treatment changes themselves predict later child outcomes.

  1. Early growth hormone treatment start in childhood growth hormone deficiency improves near adult height: analysis from NordiNet® International Outcome Study.

    PubMed

    Polak, Michel; Blair, Jo; Kotnik, Primoz; Pournara, Effie; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Rohrer, Tilman R

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effect of age at growth hormone (GH) treatment start on near adult height (NAH) in children with isolated GH deficiency (GHD). NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (Nbib960128), a non-interventional, multicentre study, evaluates the long-term effectiveness and safety of Norditropin® (somatropin) (Novo Nordisk A/S) in the real-life clinical setting. Patients ( n  = 172) treated to NAH (height at ≥18 years, or height velocity <2 cm/year at ≥16 (boys) or ≥15 (girls) years) were grouped by age (years) at treatment start (early (girls, <8; boys, <9), intermediate (girls, 8-10; boys, 9-11) or late (girls, >10; boys, >11)) and GHD severity (<3 ng/mL or 3 to ≤10 ng/mL). Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of age at treatment start (as a categorical and continuous variable) on NAH standard deviation score (SDS). Age at treatment start had a marked effect on NAH SDS; NAH SDS achieved by patients starting treatment early ( n  = 40 (boys, 70.0%); least squares mean (standard error) -0.76 (0.14)) exceeded that achieved by those starting later (intermediate, n  = 42 (boys, 57.1%); -1.14 (0.15); late, n  = 90 (boys, 68.9%); -1.21 (0.10)). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between NAH SDS and age at treatment start ( P  < 0.0242), baseline height SDS (HSDS) ( P  < 0.0001), target HSDS ( P  < 0.0001), and GHD severity ( P  = 0.0012). Most (78.5%) patients achieved a normal NAH irrespective of age at treatment start. Early initiation of GH treatment in children with isolated GHD improves their chance of achieving their genetic height potential. © 2017 The authors.

  2. Developmental outcomes after early prefrontal cortex damage.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul J; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V; Benton, Arthur L

    2004-06-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical profiles and real life developmental outcomes. Based on these cases, there is preliminary evidence to support distinctive developmental differences after: (1) dorsolateral, (2) mesial, and (3) orbital-polar prefrontal lesions, for more profound impairments after bilateral damage, and possibly for recovery differences after very early vs. later childhood lesion onset. Further case and group studies are needed to confirm reliable effects of specific lesion locations, the influence of age of lesion onset, and related experiential and treatment variables in determining adult outcomes. Rather than a single underlying deficit associated with early prefrontal cortex damage, we interpret the findings to suggest that it is the altered integration and interplay of cognitive, emotional, self-regulatory, and executive/metacognitive deficits that contribute to diverse developmental frontal lobe syndromes. The findings support the fundamental importance of prefrontal cortex maturation in protracted cognitive, social-emotional, and moral development.

  3. Improved outcome with early rifampicin combination treatment in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia with a deep infection focus - a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Forsblom, Erik; Ruotsalainen, Eeva; Järvinen, Asko

    2015-01-01

    Rifampicin has been used as adjunctive therapy in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) with a deep infection focus. However, data for prognostic impact of rifampicin therapy is unestablished including the optimal initiation time point. We studied the impact of rifampicin therapy and the optimal initiation time for rifampicin treatment on prognosis in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus bacteraemia with a deep infection. Retrospective, multicentre study in Finland including 357 SAB patients with a deep infection focus. Patients with alcoholism, liver disease or patients who died within 3 days were excluded. Patients were categorised according to duration of rifampicin therapy and according to whether rifampicin was initiated early (within 7 days) or late (7 days after) after the positive blood cultures. Primary end point was 90 days mortality. Twenty-seven percent of patients received no rifampicin therapy, 14% received rifampicin for 1-13 days whereas 59% received rifampicin ≥14 days. The 90 day mortality was; 26% for patients treated without rifampicin, 16% for rifampicin therapy of any length and 10% for early onset rifampicin therapy ≥14 days. Lack of rifampicin therapy increased (OR 1.89, p=0.026), rifampicin of any duration decreased (OR 0.53, p=0.026) and rifampicin therapy ≥14 days with early onset lowered the risk for a fatal outcome (OR 0.33, p<0.01) during 90 days follow-up. Rifampicin adjunctive therapy for at least 14 days and initiated within 7 days of positive blood culture associated with improved outcome among SAB patients with a deep infection.

  4. Clinical performances of two real-time PCR assays and bDNA/TMA to early monitor treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Martinot-Peignoux, Michelle; Khiri, Hacène; Leclere, Laurence; Maylin, Sarah; Marcellin, Patrick; Halfon, Philippe

    2009-11-01

    Early viral monitoring is essential for the management of treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A variety of commercially available assays are now available to quantify HCV-RNA in routine clinical practice. Compare the clinical results of 3 commercially available assays to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of rapid virological response (RVR) at week 4 and early virological response (EVR) at week 12. 287 patients treated with standard care regimen combination therapy were studied. HCV-RNA values measured at baseline, week 4, week 12 with VERSANT HCV 3.0 Assay (bDNA), and VERSANT HCV-RNA Qualitative Assay (TMA) (bDNA/TMA); COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS/TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and Abbott m2000sp extraction/m2000rt amplification system (ART). RVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA and EVR as a > OR =2 log decline in baseline viral load (BLV). Median (range) BVLs were: 5.585(2.585-6.816), 5.189(2.792-7.747) and 4.804(2.380-6.580) log(10)IU/ml, with bDNA/TMA, CAP/CTM and ART, respectively (p<0.01); RVR was observed in 22%, 30% and 27% of the patients and PPVs were 97%, 91% and 94% with bDNA/TMA, CAP/CTM and ART, respectively (p=0.317). EVR was observed in 76%, 73% and 67% of the patients and NPVs were 93%, 83% and 79% with bDNA/TMA, CAP/CTM and ART, respectively (p=0.09). Treatment monitoring should include both detection of serum HCV-RNA at week 4 to predict SVR and at week 12 to predict non-SVR. The value of all 3 assays was similar for evaluating RVR or EVR. Because of viral load discrepancies the same assay should be used throughout patient treatment follow-up.

  5. Treatment Patterns and Early Outcomes of ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Ceritinib: A Chart Review Study.

    PubMed

    Bendaly, Edmond; Dalal, Anand A; Culver, Kenneth; Galebach, Philip; Bocharova, Iryna; Foster, Rebekah; Sasane, Medha; Macalalad, Alexander R; Guérin, Annie

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to provide the first real-world description of the characteristics, treatments, dosing patterns, and early outcomes of patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received ceritinib in US clinical practice. US oncologists provided data from medical charts of adult patients diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC who received ceritinib following crizotinib. Patient characteristics, treatment patterns, ceritinib dosing, early outcomes, and occurrence of gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs) by dose and instructions on food intake were assessed, and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to describe clinician-defined progression-free survival (PFS) on ceritinib. Medical charts of 58 ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with ceritinib were reviewed (median age 63 years; 41% male; 21% with prior chemotherapy experience). At ceritinib initiation, 44 patients had multiple distant metastases, most commonly in the liver (60%), bone (53%), and brain (38%). Initial ceritinib dose varied: 71% received 750 mg, 19% 600 mg, and 10% 450 mg. Although median follow-up after ceritinib initiation was short (3.8 months), most patients achieved either a complete or partial response (69%) on ceritinib, regardless of metastatic sites present at initiation or initial dose. Median PFS on ceritinib was 12.9 months. 17% of patients had a gastrointestinal AE reported during follow-up. The majority of events occurred in patients instructed to fast; no patients instructed to take a lower dose of ceritinib with food reported gastrointestinal AEs. These early findings of ceritinib use in clinical practice suggest that ceritinib is effective at treating crizotinib-experienced ALK-positive NSCLC patients, regardless of metastatic sites or initial dose, and dosing ceritinib with food may lead to fewer gastrointestinal AEs. Future studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted, including an ongoing randomized trial to

  6. Fasting glucose, NT-proBNP, treatment with eptifibatide, and outcomes in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: An analysis from EARLY ACS.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Serdar; Clare, Robert M; Jarai, Rudolf; Giugliano, Robert P; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Harrington, Robert A; Kristin Newby, L; Huber, Kurt

    2017-04-01

    Higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels have been linked to a more favorable glucometabolic profile. Little is known about the interaction of NT-proBNP and fasting glucose in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS). Fasting glucose and NT-proBNP were measured in 2240 patients enrolled in the EARLY ACS trial. Multivariable Cox models were used to assess associations between fasting glucose and NT-proBNP and a 96-hour composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), recurrent ischemia, or thrombotic bailout; 30-day death or MI; and 1-year mortality. In adjusted Cox models, neither NT-proBNP nor fasting glucose was associated with the 96-hour endpoint (p=0.95 and p=0.87). NT-proBNP was associated with 30-day death or MI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.22, p=0.02) and 1-year mortality (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.42-1.89, p<0.0001), but fasting glucose was associated only with 1-year death (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.08-2.16, p=0.02). NT-proBNP×glucose interaction terms were non-significant in all models. As fasting glucose levels increased, the risk of 96-hour and 30-day endpoints increased among patients who received early eptifibatide but not delayed, provisional use (p int =0.035 and p int =0.029). Higher NT-proBNP levels were associated with greater 30-day death or MI among patients who received early eptifibatide but not delayed, provisional use (p int =0.045). NT-proBNP and fasting glucose concentrations were associated with intermediate-term ischemic outcomes and may identify differential response to treatment with eptifibatide. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00089895. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Carotid Artery Stent Placement and Carotid Endarterectomy: A Challenge for Urgent Treatment after Stroke-Early and 12-Month Outcomes in a Comprehensive Stroke Center.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Alessandro; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Toschi, Nicola; Rizzato, Barbara; Legramante, Jacopo; Ippoliti, Arnaldo; Marchetti, Andrea Ascoli; Pampana, Enrico; Gandini, Roberto; Diomedi, Marina

    2018-06-20

    To compare feasibility, 12-month outcome, and periprocedural and postprocedural risks between carotid artery stent (CAS) placement and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) performed within 1 week after transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mild to severe stroke onset in a single comprehensive stroke center. Retrospective analysis of prospective data collected from 1,148 patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a single stroke unit between January 2013 and July 2015 was conducted. Among 130 consecutive patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis, 110 (10 with TIA, 100 with stroke) with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score < 20 and a prestroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score < 2 were eligible for CAS placement or CEA and treated according to the preference of the patient or a surrogate. Periprocedural (< 48 h) and postprocedural complications, functional outcome, stroke, and death rate up to 12 months were analyzed. Sixty-two patients were treated with CAS placement and 48 were treated with CEA. Several patients presented with moderate or major stroke (45.8% CEA, 64.5% CAS). NIHSS scores indicated slightly greater severity at onset in patients treated with a CAS vs CEA (6.6 ± 5.7 vs 4.2 ± 3.4; P = .08). Complication rates were similar between groups. mRS scores showed a significant improvement over time and a significant interaction with age in both groups. Similar incidences of death or stroke were shown on survival analysis. A subanalysis in patients with NIHSS scores ≥ 4 showed no differences in complication rate and outcome. CAS placement and CEA seem to offer early safe and feasible secondary stroke prevention treatments in experienced centers, even after major atherosclerotic stroke. Copyright © 2018 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Corte, Vittoriano Della; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile. PMID:27043681

  9. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile.

  10. Burns: Treatment and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft tissues, and the methods used will depend very much on the extent of scarring locally and elsewhere in the body. In nearly all cases, a significant improvement in functional and aesthetic outcomes can be achieved, which, in conjunction with intensive psychosocial rehabilitation, can lead to high-quality patient outcomes. With the prospect of facial transplantation being a clinical reality, the reconstructive spectrum has opened up even further, and, with appropriate reconstruction and support, no patient should be left economically deprived or socially isolated after a burn injury. PMID:22550448

  11. Clinical characteristics of children with severe visual impairment but favorable retinal structural outcomes from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ETROP) study.

    PubMed

    Siatkowski, R Michael; Good, William V; Summers, C Gail; Quinn, Graham E; Tung, Betty

    2013-04-01

    To describe visual function and associated characteristics at the 6-year examination in children enrolled in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study who had unfavorable visual outcomes despite favorable structural outcomes in one or both eyes. The clinical examination records of children completing the 6-year follow-up examination were retrospectively reviewed. Eligible subjects were those with visual acuity of ≤20/200 in each eye (where recordable) and a normal fundus or straightening of the temporal retinal vessels with or without macular ectopia in at least one eye. Data regarding visual function, retinal structure, presence of nystagmus, optic atrophy, optic disk cupping, seizures/shunts, and Functional Independence Measure for Children (ie, WeeFIM: pediatric functional independence measure) developmental test scores were reviewed. Of 342 participants who completed the 6-year examination, 39 (11%) met inclusion criteria. Of these, 29 (74%) had normal retinal structure, 18 (46%) had optic atrophy, and 3 (8%) had increased cupping of the optic disk in at least one eye. Latent and/or manifest nystagmus occurred in 30 children (77%). The presence of nystagmus was not related to the presence of optic atrophy. Of the 39 children, 28 (72%) had a below-normal WeeFIM score. In 25 participants (7%) completing the 6-year examination, cortical visual impairment was considered the primary cause of visual loss. The remainder likely had components of both anterior and posterior visual pathway disease. Clinical synthesis of ocular anatomy and visual and neurologic function is required to determine the etiology of poor vision in these children. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained.

  13. Treatment of early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes currently available treatment options and treatment strategies, investigational treatments, and the importance of exercise for early Parkinson's disease. The available treatment options for early Parkinson's disease have changed little in the past decade and include carbidopa/levodopa, dopamine agonists, and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors. However, we discuss changes in treatment strategies, including dosing and the use of combination therapy used in an attempt to reduce or delay the appearance of motor complications and other adverse events. We will also review several investigational treatments that have shown promise for the treatment of early Parkinson's disease, including a new extended release formulation of carbidopa/levodopa (IPX066), safinamide which inhibits MAO-B, dopamine uptake and glutamate and pardoprunox which is a 5HT-1A agonist and a partial dopamine agonist. Finally, we discuss recent studies focusing on exercise as an important component in the management of early Parkinson's disease. Advances in the management of early Parkinson's disease include evolving treatment strategies, new investigational treatments, and earlier implementation of various forms of exercise.

  14. A Model of Overall Survival Predicts Treatment Outcomes with Atezolizumab versus Chemotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Based on Early Tumor Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Claret, Laurent; Jin, Jin Y; Ferté, Charles; Winter, Helen; Girish, Sandhya; Stroh, Mark; He, Pei; Ballinger, Marcus; Sandler, Alan; Joshi, Amita; Rittmeyer, Achim; Gandara, David; Soria, Jean-Charles; Bruno, René

    2018-04-23

    Purpose: Standard endpoints often poorly predict overall survival (OS) with immunotherapies. We investigated the predictive performance of model-based tumor growth inhibition (TGI) metrics using data from atezolizumab clinical trials in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Experimental Design: OS benefit with atezolizumab versus docetaxel was observed in both POPLAR (phase II) and OAK (phase III), although progression-free survival was similar between arms. A multivariate model linking baseline patient characteristics and on-treatment tumor growth rate constant (KG), estimated using time profiles of sum of longest diameters (RECIST 1.1) to OS, was developed using POPLAR data. The model was evaluated to predict OAK outcome based on estimated KG at TGI data cutoffs ranging from 10 to 122 weeks. Results: In POPLAR, TGI profiles in both arms crossed at 25 weeks, with more shrinkage with docetaxel and slower KG with atezolizumab. A log-normal OS model, with albumin and number of metastatic sites as independent prognostic factors and estimated KG, predicted OS HR in subpopulations of patients with varying baseline PD-L1 expression in both POPLAR and OAK: model-predicted OAK HR (95% prediction interval), 0.73 (0.63-0.85), versus 0.73 observed. The POPLAR OS model predicted greater than 97% chance of success of OAK (significant OS HR, P < 0.05) from the 40-week data cutoff onward with 50% of the total number of tumor assessments when a successful study was predicted from 70 weeks onward based on observed OS. Conclusions: KG has potential as a model-based early endpoint to inform decisions in cancer immunotherapy studies. Clin Cancer Res; 1-7. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Early neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Elizabeth E; Hintz, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Infants born at extreme preterm gestation are at risk for both death and disability. Although rates of survival have improved for this population, and some evidence suggests a trend toward decreased neuromotor impairment over the past decades, a significant improvement in overall early neurodevelopmental outcome has not yet been realized. This review will examine the rates and types of neurodevelopmental impairment seen after extremely preterm birth, including neurosensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. We focus on early outcomes in the first 18-36 months of life, as the majority of large neonatal studies examining neurodevelopmental outcomes stop at this age. However, this early age is clearly just a first glimpse into lifetime outcomes; the neurodevelopmental effects of extreme prematurity may last through school age, adolescence, and beyond. Importantly, prematurity appears to be an independent risk factor for adverse development, but this population demonstrates considerable variability in the types and severity of impairments. Understanding both the nature and prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely preterm infants is important because it can lead to targeted interventions that in turn may lead to improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. College Quality and Early Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of various college qualities on several early adult outcomes, using panel data from the National Education Longitudinal Study. I compare the results using ordinary least squares with three alternative methods of estimation, including instrumental variables, and the methods used by Dale and Krueger [(2002).…

  17. Early Motherhood and Subsequent Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early motherhood has been linked with a number of adverse outcomes, including mental health difficulties and barriers to completing educational qualifications and workforce participation. The present study examined the extent to which these linkages could be explained by the influence of social, family, and background factors that were…

  18. Amotivation and functional outcomes in early schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2013-12-15

    Negative symptoms, particularly amotivation/apathy, are intimately tied to functional outcomes. In the present study, apathy strongly predicted psychosocial functioning in a sample of early course schizophrenia patients. This relationship remained robust even after controlling for other clinical variables. These data suggest amotivation is core to functioning across the disease course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Outcome Measures for Early Childhood Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.

    This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is intended to apply to all types of service and support program models for children (birth to age 5) with various developmental delays and/or disabilities. The measures are appropriate for either home-based or center-based service delivery models. Section 1…

  20. Evaluation of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving treatment during the pre-diabetes period: Is early treatment associated with improved outcomes?

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Paresh; Vallarino, Carlos; Law, Ernest H; Seifeldin, Raafat

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates the association of pretreatment with oral antidiabetics (OADs) on clinical outcomes and health resource utilization among commercially insured type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the United States. Using administrative data (Truven MarketScan® Research Databases), patients diagnosed with T2DM between 2007 and 2014 with ⩾6months continuous enrolment pre- and post-diagnosis were evaluated. Pretreatment was defined as OAD use at least 3months prior to T2DM diagnosis. Time-to-insulin initiation and healthcare costs were compared by OAD pretreatment status. Of the 866,605 patients studied, 241,856 (27.9%) were pretreated prior to T2DM diagnosis. Mean follow-up was 2.9years for pretreatment and 3.1years for those without pretreatment. Monthly diabetes-related pharmacy costs were significantly higher among pretreated patients ($66 versus $36, p<0.0001), as were overall monthly pharmacy costs ($255 versus $198, p<0.0001). Pretreated patients had lower mean monthly costs, both total ($625 versus $671, p<0.0001) and diabetes-related ($207 versus $214, p=0.0012). After multivariable adjustment, mean monthly diabetes-related total healthcare costs were higher among pretreated patients (+$60) but total all-cause monthly healthcare costs were significantly lower (-$354) (both p<0.05). Pretreatment was associated with a lower insulin initiation probability for 2years, after which probability was similar; the adjusted hazard ratio for pretreatment in a time-to-insulin model was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94-0.97). Pretreatment with OADs is associated with a modest delay in initiating insulin therapy and lower total healthcare costs. The clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of pretreatment should be elucidated in a prospective study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  2. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  3. Predictors of anger treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Morland, Leslie A; Kloezeman, Karen; Greene, Carolyn J; Rosen, Craig S; Elhai, Jon D; Frueh, B Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated predictors of therapeutic outcomes for veterans who received treatment for dysregulated anger. Data are from a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of video teleconferencing compared to in-person delivery of anger management therapy (AMT) among 125 military veterans. Multilevel modeling was used to assess 2 types of predictors (demographic characteristics and mental health factors) of changes in anger symptoms after treatment. Results showed that while veterans benefited similarly from treatment across modalities, veterans who received two or more additional mental health services and who had longer commutes to care showed the greatest improvement on a composite measure of self-reported anger symptoms. Results highlight that veterans with a range of psychosocial and mental health characteristics benefited from AMT, while those receiving the most additional concurrent mental health services had better outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Predicting meaningful outcomes to medication and self-help treatments for binge-eating disorder in primary care: The significance of early rapid response.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Gueorguieva, Ralitza

    2015-04-01

    We examined rapid response among obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a randomized clinical trial testing antiobesity medication and self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT), alone and in combination, in primary-care settings. One hundred four obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: sibutramine, placebo, shCBT + sibutramine, or shCBT + placebo. Treatments were delivered by generalist primary-care physicians and the medications were given double-blind. Independent assessments were performed by trained and monitored doctoral research clinicians monthly throughout treatment, posttreatment (4 months), and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (i.e., 16 months after randomization). Rapid response, defined as ≥65% reduction in binge eating by the fourth treatment week, was used to predict outcomes. Rapid response characterized 47% of patients, was unrelated to demographic and baseline clinical characteristics, and was significantly associated, prospectively, with remission from binge eating at posttreatment (51% vs. 9% for nonrapid responders), 6-month (53% vs. 23.6%), and 12-month (46.9% vs. 23.6%) follow-ups. Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that rapid response was significantly associated with greater decreases in binge-eating or eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and percent weight loss. Our findings, based on a diverse obese patient group receiving medication and shCBT for BED in primary-care settings, indicate that patients who have a rapid response achieve good clinical outcomes through 12-month follow-ups after ending treatment. Rapid response represents a strong prognostic indicator of clinically meaningful outcomes, even in low-intensity medication and self-help interventions. Rapid response has important clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00537810 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Prepregnancy Nutrition and Early Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Toth, Thomas L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Implantation failure and pregnancy loss are estimated to affect up to 75% of fertilized ova; however as of yet there is limited empirical evidence, particularly at the population level, for understanding the environmental determinants of these losses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on prepregnancy nutrition and early pregnancy outcomes with particular focus on the outcome of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived naturally and early pregnancy end points among pregnancies conceived through in vitro fertilization. To date, there is limited evidence to support associations of prepregnancy vitamin D and caffeine intake with pregnancy loss. There is suggestive data supporting a link between a healthy diet and lower risk of pregnancy loss. High folate and minimal to no alcohol intake prior to conception have the most consistent evidence supporting an association with lower risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26457232

  6. Family-based intervention in adolescent restrictive eating disorders: early treatment response and low weight suppression is associated with favourable one-year outcome.

    PubMed

    Swenne, Ingemar; Parling, Thomas; Salonen Ros, Helena

    2017-09-15

    Family-based treatments are first-line treatments for adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (ED) but have to be improved since outcome is poor for some. We have investigated the one-year outcome of a family-based intervention programme with defined and decisive interventions at the start of treatment. Data pertaining 201 adolescents with restrictive ED with features of anorexia nervosa but not fulfilling the weight criterion starting treatment 2010-2015, had a wide range of body mass index (BMI) and of weight loss at presentation, and completed a one-year follow-up was analysed. Recovery from the ED was defined as an Eating Disorder Examination-questionnaire (EDE-Q) score < 2.0 or as not fulfilling criteria for an ED at a clinical interview. By EDE-Q 130 (65%) had recovered at 1 year and by clinical interview 106 (53%). According to the EDE-Q criterion recovery was independently associated with lower EDE-Q score at presentation, higher weight gain after 3 months of treatment and lower weight suppression at follow-up, weight suppression being defined as the difference between premorbid and current BMI. Not fulfilling criteria for an ED was associated with the same factors and also by higher BMI at presentation. The observations that low weight and high ED cognitions confer a poor prognosis but that rapid weight gain at the start of treatment predicts a better prognosis are presently extended to adolescents with restrictive ED with a wide range of BMI at presentation. High weight suppression at follow-up is associated with a poor prognosis and indicates the importance of taking premorbid BMI into account when setting weight targets for treatment.

  7. Implementation and Operational Research: Early Tracing of Children Lost to Follow-Up From Antiretroviral Treatment: True Outcomes and Future Risks

    PubMed Central

    Ardura-Garcia, Cristina; Feldacker, Caryl; Tweya, Hannock; Chaweza, Thom; Kalulu, Mike; Phiri, Sam; Wang, Duolao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up among pediatric patients. Little is known about children who drop out of care. We aim to analyze risk factors for LTFU among children on ART, find their true outcomes through tracing, and investigate their final outcomes after resuming ART. Methods: This is a descriptive, retrospective, cohort study of children on ART between April 2006 and December 2010 in 2 clinics in urban Malawi. Routine data from an electronic data system were used and matched with information obtained through routine tracing procedures. Results: Of 985 children (1999 child-years) on ART, 251 were LTFU: 12.6/100 child-years. At ART initiation, wasting [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.58 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 2.44] was independently associated with higher risk of LTFU. Of 201 LTFU children traced, 79% were found: 11% died, 25% stopped, 26% transferred-out, and 37% were still on ART. Median time between last visit and first tracing was 84 days (interquartile range: 64–101 days). Tracing reduced risk of LTFU by 38% (AHR 0.62 and 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.91) and decreased LTFU from 23.2% to 8.5%. Additional outcomes of stop, death, and transfer-out increased 4.4-fold, 1.8-fold, and 1.3-fold, respectively. Traced children with gaps in ART intake who resumed ART had higher risk of stopping (AHR 4.92 and 95% CI: 1.67 to 14.5) and transfer out (AHR 2.70 and 95% CI: 1.75 to 4.17) as final outcome. Conclusions: Early tracing substantially reduces LTFU; approximately one-third presumed LTFU was found to be still on ART. Children with wasting at initiation and those traced and found to have irregular ART intake require targeted interventions. PMID:26218409

  8. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  9. Contemporary Patterns of Early Coronary Angiography Use in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the United States: Insights From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry.

    PubMed

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Wang, Tracy Y; Chen, Anita Y; Chiswell, Karen; Bhatt, Deepak L; Enriquez, Jonathan R; Henry, Timothy; Roe, Matthew T

    2018-02-26

    The study sought to characterize patient- and hospital-level variation in early angiography use among non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. Contemporary implementation of guideline recommendations for early angiography use in NSTEMI patients in the United States have not been described. The study analyzed NSTEMI patients included in ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) registry (2012 to 2014) who underwent in-hospital angiography. Timing of angiography was categorized as early (≤24 h) vs. delayed (>24 h). The study evaluated factors associated with early angiography, hospital-level variation in early angiography use, and the relationship with quality-of-care measures. A total of 79,760 of 138,688 (57.5%) patients underwent early angiography. Factors most strongly associated with delayed angiography included weekend or holiday presentation, lower initial troponin ratio values, higher initial creatinine values, heart failure on presentation, and older age. Median hospital-level use of early angiography was 58.5% with wide variation across hospitals (21.7% to 100.0%). Patient characteristics did not differ substantially across hospitals grouped by tertiles of early angiography use (low, middle, and high). Hospitals in the highest tertile tended to more commonly use guideline-recommended medications and had higher defect-free care quality scores. In contemporary U.S. practice, high-risk clinical characteristics were associated with lower use of early angiography in NSTEMI patients; hospital-level use of early angiography varied widely despite few differences in case mix. Hospitals that most commonly utilized early angiography also had higher quality-of-care metrics, highlighting the need for improved NSTEMI guideline adherence. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The early development phases of a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) module to assess patient reported outcomes (PROs) in women undergoing breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Thomson, H J; Winters, Z E; Brandberg, Y; Didier, F; Blazeby, J M; Mills, J

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of breast reconstruction (BRR) surgery includes measurement of patient reported outcomes (PROs). There is, however, a lack of validated BRR-specific PRO measures (PROMs) that adequately assess relevant issues. This study is developing a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire/module specific for PROs in BRR to supplement the cancer-core and breast cancer EORTC questionnaires, respectively: the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23. Phases I and II of questionnaire development followed EORTC guidelines including a systematic literature review to identify all potential 'issues' (concepts relevant to PROs) and semi-structured interviews with 89 patients and 9 European multi-disciplinary health care professionals (HCPs) (Sweden, Italy and the United Kingdom [UK]). Interviewers asked participants the 'relevance' of outcomes identified in the literature and captured additional 'issues' of importance. The literature search and interviews of patients and HCPs yielded 69 issues relating to BRR operationalised into 31 provisional items (single questions) for the module, which was conceptualised to contain five scales: treatment/surgery related symptoms (affecting the shoulder, arm and reconstructed breast), body image, sexuality, cosmetic outcomes (pertaining to three areas: breast, donor site and nipple) and overall satisfaction. The provisional development of the EORTC BRR module has 31 items addressing issues of importance to patients as well as HCPs. Further international testing is underway as a UK National Cancer Research Network trial to ensure that this PROM will be psychometrically and clinically robust and applicable for use in clinical trials, cohort studies, national audit and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early treatment with laronidase improves clinical outcomes in patients with attenuated MPS I: a retrospective case series analysis of nine sibships.

    PubMed

    Al-Sannaa, Nouriya A; Bay, Luisa; Barbouth, Deborah S; Benhayoun, Youssef; Goizet, Cyril; Guelbert, Norberto; Jones, Simon A; Kyosen, Sandra Obikawa; Martins, Ana Maria; Phornphutkul, Chanika; Reig, Celia; Pleat, Rebecca; Fallet, Shari; Ivanovska Holder, Iva

    2015-10-07

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with laronidase, (recombinant human α-L-iduronidase; Aldurazyme) is the primary treatment option for patients with attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). This study examined the effect of early ERT on clinical manifestations. This multinational, retrospective case series abstracted data from records of 20 patients with Hurler-Scheie syndrome within nine sibships that included older siblings treated with laronidase after the development of significant clinical symptoms, and younger siblings treated before significant symptomatology. Median age at diagnosis was 5.6 and 0.5 years for older and younger siblings, respectively. Median age at ERT initiation was 7.9 and 1.9 years for older and younger siblings, respectively. Improvement or stabilization of somatic signs and symptoms was more notable in younger siblings. Organomegaly present at onset of ERT improved in the majority of both older and younger siblings. Analysis of physician-rated symptom severity demonstrated that cardiac, musculoskeletal, and cognitive symptoms, when absent or mild in younger siblings at ERT initiation, generally did not develop or progress. The majority of older siblings had height/length Z-scores greater than two standard deviations below the mean (less than -2) at both time points. In general, Z-scores for younger siblings were closer to the sex- and age-matched means at follow-up. These findings suggest early initiation of laronidase, prior to the onset of symptoms in patients with attenuated MPS I, can slow or prevent the development of severe clinical manifestations.

  12. Treatment of Recurrent Nonparoxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Using Focal Impulse and Rotor Mapping (FIRM)-Guided Rotor Ablation: Early Recurrence and Long-Term Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Stefan Georg; Károlyi, László; Rämmler, Carola; Scharfe, Frank; Weinmann, Thomas; Zieschank, Mirko; Langbein, Anke

    2017-01-01

    A patient-tailored ablation approach focused on the elimination of both pulmonary vein triggers as well as substrate drivers may result in favorable outcomes in recurrent persistent AF patients. We evaluated the long-term outcomes of rotor ablation combined with conventional pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with recurrent nonparoxysmal AF. Fifty-eight consecutive patients underwent FIRM-guided rotor ablation followed by conventional PVI for the treatment of recurrent nonparoxysmal AF. A software algorithm was used to display rotational activity at rotor sites by creating propagation maps from unipolar electrograms recorded using a 64-electrode basket catheter. These rotor sites were targeted for ablation, followed by conventional PVI. All patients had nonparoxysmal AF (83% longstanding persistent) and a previously failed conventional ablation procedure. Stable rotors were identified in all patients (mean of 3.0 ± 1.6 per patient), with 55.2% having right atrial rotors and 96.6% left atrial rotors, respectively. Complications occurred in 5.2% of patients, none related to the FIRM procedure. The median follow-up was 12 months. At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, 73.2% and 76.9% of patients remained free from AF/AT, respectively. Excluding 2 patients who underwent a successful redo ablation procedure/electrical cardioversion, at 12 months of follow-up, 69.2% were free from any AF/AT and 73.1% were free from AF after a single FIRM-guided ablation procedure. A high degree of success was observed in this cohort of primarily longstanding persistent AF patients treated for recurrent AF with FIRM-guided rotor ablation. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  14. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Brian J; Källén, Bengt

    2009-07-01

    Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  15. Early Outcomes of Sutureless Aortic Valves.

    PubMed

    Hanedan, Muhammet Onur; Mataracı, İlker; Yürük, Mehmet Ali; Özer, Tanıl; Sayar, Ufuk; Arslan, Ali Kemal; Ziyrek, Uğur; Yücel, Murat

    2016-06-01

    In elderly high-risk surgical patients, sutureless aortic valve replacement (AVR) should be an alternative to standard AVR. The potential advantages of sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, while maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low rates of paravalvular leakage. The current study reports our single-center experience regarding the early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation. Between October 2012 and June 2015, 65 patients scheduled for surgical valve replacement with symptomatic aortic valve disease and New York Heart Association function of class II or higher were included to this study. Perceval S (Sorin Biomedica Cardio Srl, Sallugia, Italy) and Edwards Intuity (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) valves were used. The mean age of the patients was 71.15±8.60 years. Forty-four patients (67.7%) were female. The average preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction was 56.9±9.93. The CPB time was 96.51±41.27 minutes and the cross-clamping time was 60.85±27.08 minutes. The intubation time was 8.95±4.19 hours, and the intensive care unit and hospital stays were 2.89±1.42 days and 7.86±1.42 days, respectively. The mean quantity of drainage from chest tubes was 407.69±149.28 mL. The hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. A total of five patients (7.69%) died during follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 687.24±24.76 days. The one-year survival rate was over 90%. In the last few years, several models of valvular sutureless bioprostheses have been developed. The present study evaluating the single-center early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation presents the results of an innovative surgical technique, finding that it resulted in appropriate hemodynamic conditions with acceptable ischemic time.

  16. Early Outcomes of Sutureless Aortic Valves

    PubMed Central

    Hanedan, Muhammet Onur; Mataracı, İlker; Yürük, Mehmet Ali; Özer, Tanıl; Sayar, Ufuk; Arslan, Ali Kemal; Ziyrek, Uğur; Yücel, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background In elderly high-risk surgical patients, sutureless aortic valve replacement (AVR) should be an alternative to standard AVR. The potential advantages of sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, while maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low rates of paravalvular leakage. The current study reports our single-center experience regarding the early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation. Methods Between October 2012 and June 2015, 65 patients scheduled for surgical valve replacement with symptomatic aortic valve disease and New York Heart Association function of class II or higher were included to this study. Perceval S (Sorin Biomedica Cardio Srl, Sallugia, Italy) and Edwards Intuity (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) valves were used. Results The mean age of the patients was 71.15±8.60 years. Forty-four patients (67.7%) were female. The average preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction was 56.9±9.93. The CPB time was 96.51±41.27 minutes and the cross-clamping time was 60.85±27.08 minutes. The intubation time was 8.95±4.19 hours, and the intensive care unit and hospital stays were 2.89±1.42 days and 7.86±1.42 days, respectively. The mean quantity of drainage from chest tubes was 407.69±149.28 mL. The hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. A total of five patients (7.69%) died during follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 687.24±24.76 days. The one-year survival rate was over 90%. Conclusion In the last few years, several models of valvular sutureless bioprostheses have been developed. The present study evaluating the single-center early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation presents the results of an innovative surgical technique, finding that it resulted in appropriate hemodynamic conditions with acceptable ischemic time. PMID:27298793

  17. Treatment Outcomes and Efficacy in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logemann, Jeri A.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces six articles which address treatment outcomes and efficacy in audiology and speech-language pathology in the schools. Stresses the importance of practitioners participating in studies of treatment outcomes and efficacy to demonstrate that their evaluations and treatments make a significant difference to individuals served. (DB)

  18. Therapeutic effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole as initial choice of treatment in first episode psychosis in an early intervention service: A one-year outcome study.

    PubMed

    Malla, Ashok; Mustafa, Sally; Rho, Aldanie; Abadi, Sherezad; Lepage, Martin; Joober, Ridha

    2016-07-01

    Aripiprazole has been associated with a low prevalence of metabolic side effects as compared to other second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications mostly in patients with long standing illness. The purpose of the present study was to assess specifically the effectiveness and safety of aripiprazole as a first choice for antipsychotic therapy for young patients presenting with a previously untreated first episode of a psychotic disorder (FEP). Seventy-three patients presenting with a FEP and with minimal prior exposure to antipsychotic medications were recruited to be part of an open label naturalistic outcome study using aripiprazole as the first choice of antipsychotic medication. Data on positive, negative and total symptom severity including general psychopathological symptoms, level of functioning and metabolic indices were collected prospectively over a one-year period. As compared to baseline, patients treated with aripiprazole (mean dose 9.6mg) improved significantly on measures of positive (p<0.001), negative (p<0.001) and total severity-general psychopathology symptoms (p<0.001) and level of functioning (p<0.001). Seventy two percent of the participants achieved positive symptom remission and 50% achieved total remission (positive and negative) at one year of follow up. Unlike reports on patients with longer standing illness, significant weight gain (p<0.001) was observed, with 44% of participants experiencing >7% increase in body weight. FEP patients starting treatment with aripiprazole improved on symptoms and social and occupational functioning. Aripiprazole was well tolerated except for a significant weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Small, Stand-Alone Early College: Impact on High School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Unlu, Fatih; Furey, Jane

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Early College model is the subject of an IES-funded eleven-year longitudinal experimental study that utilized a lottery process to assign early college applicants to either treatment or control groups. This paper presents findings related to high school outcomes. The primary goal of the early college model is to increase the…

  20. Penile fracture: outcomes of early surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Daniel E W; Polackwich, A Scott; Helfand, Brian T; Masson, Puneet; Hwong, James; Dugi, Daniel D; Martinez Acevedo, Ann C; Hedges, Jason C; McVary, Kevin T

    2014-11-01

    To report a series of penile fractures, describing preoperative evaluation, surgical repair, and long-term outcomes. Medical records from Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Oregon Health & Science University from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. Clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, time from injury, mechanism and site of injury, and presence of urethral injury were assessed. Outcomes including erectile dysfunction, penile curvature, and voiding symptoms were evaluated using International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function scores. Twenty-nine patients with 30 separate episodes of penile fractures presenting to the emergency room were identified. Mean patient age was 43 ± 9.6 years. The time from presentation to the initiation of surgery was 5.5 ± 4.4 hours. Mechanism of injury was intercourse in 26 of 30 fractures with the remaining attributed to masturbation or "rolling over." Immediate surgical repair was offered to all patients. Twenty-seven patients underwent surgery. Urethral injury was noted in 5 of the 27. The site of fracture was at the proximal shaft in 11, mid shaft in 12, and distal shaft in 4 patients. The mean follow-up period was 14.3 ± 15.8 weeks. Nine patients reported new mild erectile dysfunction or penile curvature. One patient reported new irritative voiding symptoms. The most common mechanism of penile fracture was from sexual intercourse, and frequent concomitant urethral injuries were observed. The frequency of concomitant urethral injury was higher than in previous studies. Although we observed high incidence of erectile dysfunction or penile curvature with early surgical repair, we retain it as the favored approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in the early CPAP and pulse oximetry trial.

    PubMed

    Vaucher, Yvonne E; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Finer, Neil N; Carlo, Waldemar A; Gantz, Marie G; Walsh, Michele C; Laptook, Abbot R; Yoder, Bradley A; Faix, Roger G; Das, Abhik; Schibler, Kurt; Rich, Wade; Newman, Nancy S; Vohr, Betty R; Yolton, Kimberly; Heyne, Roy J; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E; Evans, Patricia W; Goldstein, Ricki F; Acarregui, Michael J; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Pappas, Athina; Hintz, Susan R; Poindexter, Brenda; Dusick, Anna M; McGowan, Elisabeth C; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Bodnar, Anna; Bauer, Charles R; Fuller, Janell; O'Shea, T Michael; Myers, Gary J; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2012-12-27

    Previous results from our trial of early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus early surfactant treatment in infants showed no significant difference in the outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A lower (vs. higher) target range of oxygen saturation was associated with a lower rate of severe retinopathy but higher mortality. We now report longer-term results from our prespecified hypotheses. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned infants born between 24 weeks 0 days and 27 weeks 6 days of gestation to early CPAP with a limited ventilation strategy or early surfactant administration and to lower or higher target ranges of oxygen saturation (85 to 89% or 91 to 95%). The primary composite outcome for the longer-term analysis was death before assessment at 18 to 22 months or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months of corrected age. The primary outcome was determined for 1234 of 1316 enrolled infants (93.8%); 990 of the 1058 surviving infants (93.6%) were evaluated at 18 to 22 months of corrected age. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 27.9% of the infants in the CPAP group (173 of 621 infants), versus 29.9% of those in the surfactant group (183 of 613) (relative risk, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.10; P=0.38), and in 30.2% of the infants in the lower-oxygen-saturation group (185 of 612), versus 27.5% of those in the higher-oxygen-saturation group (171 of 622) (relative risk, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.32; P=0.21). Mortality was increased with the lower-oxygen-saturation target (22.1%, vs. 18.2% with the higher-oxygen-saturation target; relative risk, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.55; P=0.046). We found no significant differences in the composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely premature infants randomly assigned to early CPAP or early surfactant administration and to a lower or higher target range of oxygen saturation. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy

  2. Early outcomes of carotid artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Akar Bayram, N; Bozkurt, E; Ayhan, H; Gürkaş, E; Orhan, G; Ak, F; Bilen, E; Sari, C; Akçay, M; Durmaz, T; Keles, T

    2012-03-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular events are the most common reason for patients to be bedridden and the third most common reason for death. Many studies in recent years have demonstrated that carotid artery stenting (CAS) may be an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA). In this study, we aimed to report early outcomes of patients who were treated with CAS in our clinic and discuss practicability, advantages and safety of CAS. Eighty patients who underwent CAS between December 2009 and May 2011 were eligible. The mean age was 65 years (range, 49 - 89 years). Of the study group, 73.75% were males and 26.25% were female. The percentage of asymptomatic patients was 11.7%, and the remaining patients were symptomatic. A distal embolic protection device (Angioguard®) was used in 22% of the patients whereas, in the other patients (78%), a proximal blockage system (Mo.MA®) was used. Self-expandable hybrid stents were implanted in all patients and post-dilatation was performed after implantation. None of the patients suffered from stroke, myocardial infarction or death due to CAS during their hospital stay. The mean follow-up period was 10 months (range 2 - 18 months) after discharge. None of the patients had died or had a stroke, a transient ischemic attack (TIA), or a myocardial infarction during the follow-up period. Re-stenosis was not observed in the follow-up carotid Doppler ultrasonography; flow rates were within normal limits. No major complication was observed during the early follow-up period in patients who underwent CAS in our clinic. Only 2 (2.5%) patients showed transient numbness and weakness and these did not lead to morbidity. In the management guide of extracranial carotid and vertebral artery diseases, CAS, in the light of recent studies, is recommended as an alternative to CEA in recommendations for revascularization. One of the important issues emphasized in this guide is the experience of centers. Very low complication rates after CAS suggested that

  3. NOTCH1 and FBXW7 mutations have a favorable impact on early response to treatment, but not on outcome, in children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) treated on EORTC trials 58881 and 58951.

    PubMed

    Clappier, E; Collette, S; Grardel, N; Girard, S; Suarez, L; Brunie, G; Kaltenbach, S; Yakouben, K; Mazingue, F; Robert, A; Boutard, P; Plantaz, D; Rohrlich, P; van Vlierberghe, P; Preudhomme, C; Otten, J; Speleman, F; Dastugue, N; Suciu, S; Benoit, Y; Bertrand, Y; Cavé, H

    2010-12-01

    Risk-adjusted treatment stratification in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) is currently based only on early response to chemotherapy. We investigated the prognostic implication of hyperactivation of NOTCH pathway resulting from mutations of NOTCH1 or FBXW7 in children with T-ALL enrolled in EORTC-CLG trials. Overall, 80 out of 134 (60%) patients were NOTCH+ (NOTCH1 and/or FBXW7 mutated). Although clinical presentations were not significantly associated with NOTCH status, NOTCH+ patients showed a better early response to chemotherapy as compared with NOTCH- patients, according to the rate of poor pre-phase 'responders' (25% versus 44%; P=0.02) and the incidence of high minimal residual disease (MRD) levels (11% (7/62) versus 32% (10/31); P=0.01) at completion of induction. However, the outcome of NOTCH+ patients was similar to that of NOTCH- patients, with a 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of 73% and 70% (P=0.82), and 5-year overall survival of 82% and 79% (P=0.62), respectively. In patients with high MRD levels, the 5-year EFS rate was 0% (NOTCH+) versus 42% (NOTCH-), whereas in those with low MRD levels, the outcome was similar: 76% (NOTCH+) versus 78% (NOTCH-). The incidence of isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapses was relatively high in NOTCH1+ patients (8.3%), which could be related to a higher propensity of NOTCH+ leukemic blasts to target the CNS.

  4. Early Dialysis and Adverse Outcomes After Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Nicole; Finne, Kristen; Worrall, Chris; Jauregui, Maria; Thaweethai, Tanayott; Margolis, Gregg; Kelman, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Hemodialysis patients have historically experienced diminished access to care and increased adverse outcomes after natural disasters. Although "early dialysis" in advance of a storm is promoted as a best practice, evidence for its effectiveness as a protective measure is lacking. Building on prior work, we examined the relationship between the receipt of dialysis ahead of schedule before the storm (also known as early dialysis) and adverse outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease in the areas most affected by Hurricane Sandy. Retrospective cohort analysis, using claims data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Datalink Project. Patients receiving long-term hemodialysis in New York City and the state of New Jersey, the areas most affected by Hurricane Sandy. Receipt of early dialysis compared to their usual treatment pattern in the week prior to the storm. Emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and 30-day mortality following the storm. Of 13,836 study patients, 8,256 (60%) received early dialysis. In unadjusted logistic regression models, patients who received early dialysis were found to have lower odds of ED visits (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P=0.001) and hospitalizations (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92; P=0.004) in the week of the storm and similar odds of 30-day mortality (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.58-1.09; P=0.2). In adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, receipt of early dialysis was associated with lower odds of ED visits (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.96; P=0.01) and hospitalizations (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66-0.94; P=0.01) in the week of the storm and 30-day mortality (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.997; P=0.048). Inability to determine which patients were offered early dialysis and declined and whether important unmeasured patient characteristics are associated with receipt of early dialysis. Patients who received early dialysis had significantly lower odds of having an ED visit and hospitalization in the week of the storm and of

  5. Conversion to seronegative status after abatacept treatment in patients with early and poor prognostic rheumatoid arthritis is associated with better radiographic outcomes and sustained remission: post hoc analysis of the AGREE study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Diahann T S L; Emery, Paul; Smolen, Josef S; Westhovens, Rene; Le Bars, Manuela; Connolly, Sean E; Ye, June; Toes, René E M; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the T-cell costimulation blocker abatacept on anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and associations between changes in serological status and clinical response. Post hoc analysis of the phase III AGREE study in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients with early RA and poor prognostic factors. Patients were randomised to abatacept (~10 mg/kg intravenously according to weight range) or placebo, plus MTX over 12 months followed by open-label abatacept plus MTX for 12 months. Autoantibody titres were determined by ELISA at baseline and months 6 and 12 (double-blind phase). Conversion to seronegative status and its association with clinical response were assessed at months 6 and 12. Abatacept plus MTX was associated with a greater decrease in ACPA (but not RF) titres and higher rates of both ACPA and RF conversion to seronegative status versus MTX alone. More patients converting to ACPA seronegative status receiving abatacept plus MTX achieved remission according to Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (C-reactive protein) or Clinical Disease Activity Index than patients who remained ACPA seropositive. Patients who converted to ACPA seronegative status treated with abatacept plus MTX had a greater probability of achieving sustained remission and less radiographic progression than MTX alone or patients who remained ACPA seropositive (either treatment). Treatment with abatacept plus MTX was more likely to induce conversion to ACPA/RF seronegative status in patients with early, erosive RA. Conversion to ACPA seronegative status was associated with better clinical and radiographic outcomes. NCT00122382.

  6. Conversion to seronegative status after abatacept treatment in patients with early and poor prognostic rheumatoid arthritis is associated with better radiographic outcomes and sustained remission: post hoc analysis of the AGREE study

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Paul; Smolen, Josef S; Westhovens, Rene; Le Bars, Manuela; Connolly, Sean E; Ye, June; Toes, René E M; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of the T-cell costimulation blocker abatacept on anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and associations between changes in serological status and clinical response. Methods Post hoc analysis of the phase III AGREE study in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients with early RA and poor prognostic factors. Patients were randomised to abatacept (~10 mg/kg intravenously according to weight range) or placebo, plus MTX over 12 months followed by open-label abatacept plus MTX for 12 months. Autoantibody titres were determined by ELISA at baseline and months 6 and 12 (double-blind phase). Conversion to seronegative status and its association with clinical response were assessed at months 6 and 12. Results Abatacept plus MTX was associated with a greater decrease in ACPA (but not RF) titres and higher rates of both ACPA and RF conversion to seronegative status versus MTX alone. More patients converting to ACPA seronegative status receiving abatacept plus MTX achieved remission according to Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (C-reactive protein) or Clinical Disease Activity Index than patients who remained ACPA seropositive. Patients who converted to ACPA seronegative status treated with abatacept plus MTX had a greater probability of achieving sustained remission and less radiographic progression than MTX alone or patients who remained ACPA seropositive (either treatment). Conclusions Treatment with abatacept plus MTX was more likely to induce conversion to ACPA/RF seronegative status in patients with early, erosive RA. Conversion to ACPA seronegative status was associated with better clinical and radiographic outcomes. Trial registration number NCT00122382 PMID:29657830

  7. Patient Race and Outcome Preferences as Predictors of Urologists’ Treatment Recommendations and Referral Patterns in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    care for localized prostate cancer. To date, we have completed all survey mailings, collected responses, entered these into an Access database, and...vignette, patient socioeconomic status, not race, influenced treatment recommendations for localized prostate cancer. A majority of urologists rate their...in patterns of care for localized prostate cancer. See Introduction (page 14) and Methods (pages 15-17) in Appendix B for details. Key research

  8. Treatment and Outcomes of Histoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Healthcare Professionals Statistics More Resources en español Definición Síntomas Riesgo y prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y pruebas ... and Proper Management Statistics More Resources en español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes ...

  9. Treatment and Outcomes of Aspergillosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Healthcare Professionals Statistics More Resources en español Definición Síntomas Riesgo y prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y pruebas ... and Proper Management Statistics More Resources en español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes ...

  10. Improved outcome of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rats following treatment in early life with suspensions of heat-killed environmental Actinomycetales.

    PubMed

    Fontanella, G H; Pascutti, M F; Daurelio, L; Perez, A R; Nocito, A L; Wojdyla, D; Bottasso, O; Revelli, S S; Stanford, J L

    2007-04-30

    The well-established model of Chagas' disease in "l" rats was used to evaluate the effects of three injections of heat-killed Gordonia bronchialis, Rhodococcus coprophilus or saline on Trypanosoma cruzi parasitaemia and acute and chronic myocarditis, sequelae of the infection. Two vaccinating injections were given prior to challenge with T. cruzi, and the third, immunotherapeutic, injection was given 7 days after challenge. Treatment with either actinomycete significantly reduced acute parasitaemia (p<0.04), modified cellular infiltration during acute myocarditis and limited chronic myocarditis (p<0.03) in comparison with the saline-treated control animals. Immunological investigations showed that both bacterial preparations achieved their results through different mechanisms. The relevance of our findings to human Chagas' disease is discussed.

  11. Estimating scaled treatment effects with multiple outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Edward H; Kangovi, Shreya; Mitra, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    In classical study designs, the aim is often to learn about the effects of a treatment or intervention on a single outcome; in many modern studies, however, data on multiple outcomes are collected and it is of interest to explore effects on multiple outcomes simultaneously. Such designs can be particularly useful in patient-centered research, where different outcomes might be more or less important to different patients. In this paper, we propose scaled effect measures (via potential outcomes) that translate effects on multiple outcomes to a common scale, using mean-variance and median-interquartile range based standardizations. We present efficient, nonparametric, doubly robust methods for estimating these scaled effects (and weighted average summary measures), and for testing the null hypothesis that treatment affects all outcomes equally. We also discuss methods for exploring how treatment effects depend on covariates (i.e., effect modification). In addition to describing efficiency theory for our estimands and the asymptotic behavior of our estimators, we illustrate the methods in a simulation study and a data analysis. Importantly, and in contrast to much of the literature concerning effects on multiple outcomes, our methods are nonparametric and can be used not only in randomized trials to yield increased efficiency, but also in observational studies with high-dimensional covariates to reduce confounding bias.

  12. Developmental Outcomes after Early Prefrontal Cortex Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslinger, Paul J.; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V.; Benton, Arthur L.

    2004-01-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical…

  13. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  14. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  15. Early handling modulates outcome of neonatal dexamethasone exposure.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Sanne E F; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Oitzl, Melly S; de Kloet, E Ronald

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (DEX) are used to prevent or treat respiratory disorders in prematurely born infants. Besides the short-term benefit on lung development, numerous human and animal studies have reported adverse neurodevelopmental side effects. In contrast, maternal care is known to exert a positive influence on neurodevelopmental outcome in rodents. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate whether neonatal handling (days 1-21), known to induce maternal care, might serve as an intervention strategy modulating the adverse effects of DEX treatment (days 1-3). For this purpose we have measured the outcome of these early-life manipulations on development as well as adult endocrine and behavioral phenotype of male rats. Maternal care was observed during the first week of life and indeed enhanced in response to handling. Eye opening was accelerated and body weight reduced in DEX-treated animals. In adulthood, we report that handling ameliorated impaired spatial learning observed in DEX treated non-handled animals in the T-maze. Additionally, handling reduced susceptibility to the impact of DEX treatment in the water maze. Although DEX treatment and handling both resulted in enhanced negative feedback of the stress-induced corticosterone response and both reduced startle reactivity, the acquisition of fear was only reduced by handling, without effect of DEX. Interestingly, handling had a beneficial effect on pre-pulse inhibition, which was diminished after DEX treatment. In conclusion, these findings indicate that handling of the neonate enhances maternal care and attenuates specific DEX-induced alterations in the adult behavioral phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PTSD after childbirth: early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zauderer, Cheryl R

    2014-03-13

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth may be diagnosed as postpartum depression. With a thorough assessment, women with this condition can be diagnosed correctly and receive appropriate treatment, promoting a better outcome for both mother and baby.

  17. Effects of Long-Term Etanercept Treatment on Clinical Outcomes and Objective Signs of Inflammation in Early Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis: 104-Week Results From a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Dougados, Maxime; van der Heijde, Désirée; Sieper, Joachim; Braun, Jürgen; Citera, Gustavo; Lenaerts, Jan; van den Bosch, Filip; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Pedersen, Ron; Bonin, Randi; Jones, Heather; Marshall, Lisa; Logeart, Isabelle; Vlahos, Bonnie; Bukowski, Jack F; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the long-term clinical and imaging efficacy of etanercept in patients with early, active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Adult patients who satisfied the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axial SpA (but not the modified New York radiographic criteria), with symptom duration >3 months to <5 years, and who were unresponsive to ≥2 nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs (NSAIDs) received double-blind etanercept 50 mg/week or placebo for 12 weeks, followed by open-label etanercept 50 mg/week to week 104. Clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada [SPARCC] scores), and safety outcomes at 104 weeks were analyzed. Of 215 randomized patients (etanercept: n = 106; placebo: n = 109), 205 entered the study (etanercept/etanercept: n = 100; placebo/etanercept: n = 105) and 169 completed the open-label period (etanercept/etanercept: n = 83; placebo/etanercept: n = 86). At week 104, 61 of 81 (75%), 49 of 81 (61%), 48 of 80 (60%), and 57 of 81 (70%) patients who received etanercept throughout the trial achieved ASAS20, ASAS40, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) inactive disease, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index criteria for 50% improvement (BASDAI 50) scores, respectively (observed). From baseline to week 104, continued improvements in clinical outcomes (ASDAS-C-reactive protein: -1.5 and -1.7; BASDAI: -3.3 and -3.8 [last observation carried forward]), and SPARCC MRI scores (sacroiliac joint: -6.0 and -3.4; spinal: -2.1 and -0.8 [observed]) were seen in patients receiving etanercept/etanercept and placebo/etanercept. During the study, 8% in the etanercept/etanercept group and 7% in the placebo/etanercept group had serious adverse events; no new safety signals were seen. Patients with early, active nonradiographic axial SpA and an inadequate response to at least 2 NSAIDs demonstrated improvement

  18. Hazelden's model of treatment and its outcome.

    PubMed

    Stinchfield, R; Owen, P

    1998-01-01

    Although the Minnesota Model of treatment for alcohol and drug addiction is a common treatment approach, there are few published reports of its effectiveness. This study describes the Minnesota Model treatment approach as practiced at Hazelden, a private residential alcohol and drug abuse treatment center located in Center City, Minnesota (a founding program of the Minnesota Model) and presents recent outcome results from this program. This study includes 1,083 male and female clients admitted to Hazelden for treatment of a psychoactive substance-use disorder between 1989 and 1991. The outcome study is a one group pretest/posttest design. Data collection occurred at admission to treatment and at 1-month, 6-month, and 12-month posttreatment. At 1-year follow-up, 53% reported that they remained abstinent during the year following treatment and an additional 35% had reduced their alcohol and drug use. These results are similar to those reported by other private treatment programs. The Minnesota Model has consistently yielded satisfactory outcome results, and future research needs to focus on the therapeutic process of this common treatment approach.

  19. Planning in Middle Childhood: Early Predictors and Later Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sarah L.; Scholnick, Ellin K.; Bender, Randall H.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Pasek, Kathy Hirsh; Keating, Daniel P.; Park, Yoonjung

    2014-01-01

    Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when…

  20. Overview: Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookings Institution, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO) initiative began in 2014 in anticipation of a new global emphasis on early childhood development (ECD). Led by UNESCO, the World Bank, the Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution, and UNICEF, the initiative aims to promote feasible, accurate and useful measurement of…

  1. Early Head Start Relationships: Association with Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elicker, James; Wen, Xiaoli; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Sprague, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Interpersonal relationships among staff caregivers, parents, and children have been recommended as essential aspects of early childhood intervention. This study explored the associations of these relationships with program outcomes for children and parents in 3 Early Head Start programs. A total of 71 children (8-35 months,…

  2. A Consumer's Guide To Outcomes in Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.

    This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is designed to assist families in evaluating the quality of early intervention services they receive. The measures apply to all types of service and support program models for children with various developmental delays and/or disabilities and their families.…

  3. Outcomes Reported by Spanish-Speaking Families in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Murrey G.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Nelson, Robin E.; Robinson, Nyle D.; Simpson, Mary Ellen; Guillen, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors use data from two states to compare how families participating in early intervention who completed a Spanish version of the Family Outcomes Survey (FOS) (n = 291) compared with Hispanic (n = 486) and non-Hispanic (n = 2,363) families who completed the English version. In general, most families reported positive outcomes,…

  4. Early Prediction of Acute Antidepressant Treatment Response and Remission in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Rongrong; Emslie, Graham; Mayes, Taryn; Nakonezny, Paul; Kennard, Betsy; Hughes, Carroll

    2009-01-01

    The rate of symptom improvement during the early weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment is a good indicator of remission. This finding was made after evaluating the outcome of the fluoxetine treatment on 168 children and adults with depression.

  5. Controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of early cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Orzan, OA; Șandru, A; Jecan, CR

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a disease with an unpredictable evolution mainly due to its high metastatic ability. The steadily increasing incidence and the poor outcome in advanced stages made this cancer an interesting field for many research groups. Given that CM is a curable disease in early stages, efforts have been made to detect it as soon as possible, which led to the diversification and refining of diagnosis methods and therapies. But, as the data from trials have been published, doubts about the indications and efficacy of established treatments have arisen. In fact, there is probably no single aspect of early CM that has not given birth to controversy. This article intends to present the current disputes regarding the early detection, diagnosis, treatment and postoperative follow-up of patients with localized CM. After analyzing both pros and cons, several conclusions were drawn, that reflect our experience in managing patients with early CM. PMID:25866567

  6. Is early benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Presicce, Fabrizio; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The medical armamentaria for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been extensively implemented over the past decade. Nevertheless, the timeliest moment for a possible treatment has not been fully established. A systematic literature search in January 1996 until June 2016 was performed to answer the following question: in men with LUTS due to BPH, does early treatment result in better outcome? An ad hoc Population/patient Intervention/indicator Comparator/control Outcome (PICO) was developed.The Medline, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched. Each article title and abstract were reviewed for relevance and appropriateness with regard to the topic of this review. Overtime, the introduction of novel medications and the implementation of surgical techniques have significantly improved the treatment outcomes and markedly reduced the rate of BPH surgery. Early treatments in patients at risk of disease progression may result in better clinical outcomes than a delayed approach. However, the evidence to support early intervention remains weak and criteria to identify the patient phenotype that could best benefit from immediate treatment remain ill-defined.On the contrary, the patients who ultimately undergo surgery following prolonged pharmacological treatment present with larger prostates, older age and comorbidities. At the same time, the technological progress has partly compensated this critical scenario, and commonly, a nonpejorative trend has been recorded in perioperative complications. The ideal moment to begin a treatment in LUTS/BPH patients is still uncertain, and surprisingly, rare good quality studies are available on this topic.

  7. A meta-analysis of the relation between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Graves, Tiffany A; Tabri, Nassim; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Franko, Debra L; Eddy, Kamryn T; Bourion-Bedes, Stephanie; Brown, Amy; Constantino, Michael J; Flückiger, Christoph; Forsberg, Sarah; Isserlin, Leanna; Couturier, Jennifer; Paulson Karlsson, Gunilla; Mander, Johannes; Teufel, Martin; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D; Prestano, Claudia; Satir, Dana A; Simpson, Susan; Sly, Richard; Lacey, J Hubert; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Tasca, Giorgio A; Waller, Glenn; Zaitsoff, Shannon L; Rienecke, Renee; Le Grange, Daniel; Thomas, Jennifer J

    2017-04-01

    The therapeutic alliance has demonstrated an association with favorable psychotherapeutic outcomes in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs). However, questions remain about the inter-relationships between early alliance, early symptom improvement, and treatment outcome. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relations among these constructs, and possible moderators of these relations, in psychosocial treatments for EDs. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria and supplied sufficient supplementary data. Results revealed small-to-moderate effect sizes, βs = 0.13 to 0.22 (p < .05), indicating that early symptom improvement was related to subsequent alliance quality and that alliance ratings also were related to subsequent symptom reduction. The relationship between early alliance and treatment outcome was partially accounted for by early symptom improvement. With regard to moderators, early alliance showed weaker associations with outcome in therapies with a strong behavioral component relative to nonbehavioral therapies. However, alliance showed stronger relations to outcome for younger (vs. older) patients, over and above the variance shared with early symptom improvement. In sum, early symptom reduction enhances therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome in EDs, but early alliance may require specific attention for younger patients and for those receiving nonbehaviorally oriented treatments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Treatment of early onset scoliosis : How far can we go?].

    PubMed

    Studer, D; Hasler, C C; Schulze, A

    2015-11-01

    Recently, inconsistent definitions of early onset scoliosis (EOS) and a wide variety of treatment options have been observed. To clearly define the term EOS, to depict non-operative and operative treatment options, and to present the limitations of the boundaries of these techniques. Review of the literature, including conference presentations and expert opinions, in addition to personal experiences. Early onset scoliosis (EOS) refers to spine deformity that is present before 10 years of age, regardless of etiology. All existing operative treatment options share a high risk of complications. Therefore, non-operative treatment should act as a time-buying approach to postpone surgery. Awareness of treatment options and their specific indications, in addition to respecting each patient's individual needs and feasibilities, are crucial for the optimal outcome.

  9. A comparison between the clinical significance and growth mixture modelling early change methods at predicting negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Flood, Nicola; Page, Andrew; Hooke, Geoff

    2018-05-03

    Routine outcome monitoring benefits treatment by identifying potential no change and deterioration. The present study compared two methods of identifying early change and their ability to predict negative outcomes on self-report symptom and wellbeing measures. 1467 voluntary day patients participated in a 10-day group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) program and completed the symptom and wellbeing measures daily. Early change, as defined by (a) the clinical significance method and (b) longitudinal modelling, was compared on each measure. Early change, as defined by the simpler clinical significance method, was superior at predicting negative outcomes than longitudinal modelling. The longitudinal modelling method failed to detect a group of deteriorated patients, and agreement between the early change methods and the final unchanged outcome was higher for the clinical significance method. Therapists could use the clinical significance early change method during treatment to alert them of patients at risk for negative outcomes, which in turn could allow therapists to prevent those negative outcomes from occurring.

  10. Three year outcomes of an early intervention for psychosis service as compared with treatment as usual for first psychotic episodes in a standard community mental health team. Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Agius, Mark; Shah, Samir; Ramkisson, Roshelle; Murphy, Suzanne; Zaman, Rashid

    2007-06-01

    Forty patients who had been treated for three years in an ad-hoc, assertive treatment team for patients who had suffered a first psychotic episode were compared to forty patients who had been followed up after a first psychotic episode in a community mental health team. All patients had suffered a first or early psychotic episode. The main differences between the two teams was that the ad-hoc team was assertive in its approach, offered more structured psycho-education, relapse prevention and psycho-social interventions, and had a policy of using atypical anti-psychotics at the lowest effective dose. There were many differences in outcome measures at the end of three years between the two groups. The EI patients are more likely to be taking medication at the end of three years. They are more compliant with medication. They are more likely to be prescribed atypical medication. The EI patients are more likely to have returned to work or education. The EI patients are more likely to remain living with their families. They are less likely to suffer depression to the extent of requiring anti-depressants. They appear to commit less suicide attempts. The patients in the EI service also appear to be less likely to suffer relapse and re-hospitalisation, and are less likely to have involuntary admission to hospital. They have systematic relapse prevention plans based on early warning signs. They and their families receive more psycho-education. These indications suggest that the EI patients are at the end of three years better able to manage their illness/vulnerability on their own than the CMHT patients. More patients in the EI group stopped using illicit drugs than in the CMHT group. All the above changes were statistically significant except for the number of patients who stopped using illicit drugs. In this case it is believed that the sample size was too small to demonstrate significance. These results suggest that an ad-hoc early intervention team is more effective than

  11. Three year outcomes of an early intervention for psychosis service as compared with treatment as usual for first psychotic episodes in a standard community mental health team - final results.

    PubMed

    Agius, Mark; Shah, Samir; Ramkisson, Roshelle; Murphy, Suzanne; Zaman, Rashid

    2007-09-01

    Sixty-two patients who had been treated for three years in an ad-hoc, assertive treatment team for patients who had suffered a first psychotic episode were compared to sixty-two patients who had been followed up after a first psychotic episode in a community mental health team. All patients had suffered a first or early psychotic episode. The main differences between the two teams was that the ad-hoc team was assertive in its approach, offered more structured psycho-education, relapse prevention and psycho-social interventions, and had a policy of using atypical anti-psychotics at the lowest effective dose. There were many differences in outcome measures at the end of three years between the two groups. The EI patients are more likely to be taking medication at the end of three years. They are more compliant with medication. They are more likely to be prescribed Atypical Medication. The EI patients are more likely to have returned to Work or Education. The EI patients are more likely to remain living with their families. They are less likely to suffer depression to the extent of requiring anti-depressants. They appear to commit less suicide attempts. The patients in the EI service also appear to be less likely to suffer relapse and re-hospitalisation, and are less likely to have involuntary admission to hospital. They have systematic relapse prevention plans based on Early Warning Signs. They and their families receive more psycho-education. These indications suggest that the EI patients are at the end of three years better able to manage their illness/vulnerability on their own than the CMHT patients. More patients in the EI group stopped using illicit drugs than in the CMHT group. All the above changes were statistically significant except for the total improvement in employment status and education status, which however approached significance. These results suggest that an ad-hoc Early Intervention Team is more effective than standard Community Mental Health

  12. Treatment outcomes of temporal bone osteoradionecrosis.

    PubMed

    Kammeijer, Quinten; van Spronsen, Erik; Mirck, Piet G B; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the clinical relevance of the classification systems used for temporal bone osteoradionecrosis (ORN) and to define a treatment protocol for temporal bone ORN. Retrospective case series. Amsterdam, department of otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery. Classification of temporal bone ORN was performed through use of clinical data and radiologic imaging. Outcomes of conservative and surgical treatment were investigated and compared for different grades of ORN. Of the 49 ears included in this study, 35 were primarily treated conservatively. At start of conservative treatment, 23 were classified as a localized and 8 as a diffuse form of ORN; 4 could not be classified. There was a significant difference in clinical outcome between the localized and diffuse forms of ORN (χ(2) = 5.862, P = .015), and mastoid air cell destruction on preoperative computed tomography scan was found to be a significant predictor for a negative outcome of conservative treatment (χ(2) = 4.34, P = .037). Fourteen ears with diffuse ORN were primarily treated surgically, and 11 were secondarily treated surgically following a period of conservative treatment. Twenty-two patients were treated with subtotal petrosectomy, of which 20 were cured. Three patients were treated with canal wall down mastoidectomy, and 2 had recurrence of disease. Ramsden's classification system is clinically relevant in predicting conservative treatment outcomes. Mastoid air cell destruction on computed tomography differentiates between the localized and diffuse forms of ORN. Given our results and experience with treating temporal bone ORN, we propose a treatment protocol. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. Early treatment of penile fractures: our experience.

    PubMed

    García Gómez, Borja; Romero, Javier; Villacampa, Felipe; Tejido, Angel; Díaz, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    To report our experience in early surgery of penile fractures. We review retrospectively all the cases that underwent surgery at our center from 1989 to 2009, with a total of 24. The cause of the fracture was sexual intercourse in most cases, and in all of them, surgical management was performed according to clinical presentation and physical exploration. In only 7 cases an ultrasound was performed as a complementary test. Early surgery allows prompt resolution of the problem with excellent functional outcomes and little side effects. The prognosis after emergency surgery was excellent in this review.

  14. Early clinical outcomes following laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Tolver, Mette Astrup

    2013-07-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (TAPP) has gained increasing popularity because of less post-operative pain and a shorter duration of convalescence compared with open hernia repair technique (Lichtenstein). However, investigation of duration of convalescence with non-restrictive recommendations, and a procedure-specific characterization of the early clinical outcomes after TAPP was lacking. Furthermore, optimization of the post-operative period with fibrin sealant versus tacks for fixation of mesh, and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone versus placebo needed to be investigated in randomized clinical trials. The objective of this PhD thesis was to characterize the early clinical outcomes after TAPP and optimize the post-operative period. The four studies included in this thesis have investigated duration of convalescence and procedure-specific post-operative pain and other early clinical outcomes after TAPP. Furthermore, it has been shown that fibrin sealant can improve the early post-operative period compared with tacks, while dexamethasone showed no advantages apart from reduced use of antiemetics compared with placebo. Based on these findings, and the existing knowledge, 3-5 days of convalescence should be expected when 1 day of convalescence is recommended and future studies should focus on reducing intraabdominal pain after TAPP. Fibrin sealant can optimize the early clinical outcomes but the risk of hernia recurrence and chronic pain needs to be evaluated. Dexamethasone should be investigated in higher doses.

  15. Employment and educational outcomes in early intervention programmes for early psychosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bond, G R; Drake, R E; Luciano, A

    2015-10-01

    Young adults with early psychosis want to pursue normal roles - education and employment. This paper summarises the empirical literature on the effectiveness of early intervention programmes for employment and education outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of employment/education outcomes for early intervention programmes, distinguishing three programme types: (1) those providing supported employment, (2) those providing unspecified vocational services and (3) those without vocational services. We summarised findings for 28 studies. Eleven studies evaluated early intervention programmes providing supported employment. In eight studies that reported employment outcomes separately from education outcomes, the employment rate during follow-up for supported employment patients was 49%, compared with 29% for patients receiving usual services. The two groups did not differ on enrolment in education. In four controlled studies, meta-analysis showed that the employment rate for supported employment participants was significantly higher than for control participants, odds ratio = 3.66 [1.93-6.93], p < 0.0001. Five studies (four descriptive and one quasi-experimental) of early intervention programmes evaluating unspecified vocational services were inconclusive. Twelve studies of early intervention programmes without vocational services were methodologically heterogeneous, using diverse methods for evaluating vocational/educational outcomes and precluding a satisfactory meta-analytic synthesis. Among studies with comparison groups, 7 of 11 (64%) reported significant vocational/education outcomes favouring early intervention over usual services. In early intervention programmes, supported employment moderately increases employment rates but not rates of enrolment in education. These improvements are in addition to the modest effects early programmes alone have on vocational/educational outcomes compared with usual services.

  16. Obstetrical outcomes in patients with early onset gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Simi; Dolin, Cara; Jadhav, Ashwin; Chervenak, Judith; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan; Monteagudo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize patients with early onset gestational diabetes and compare outcomes to patients diagnosed with standard gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with gestational or pregestational diabetes. All patients received a glucose challenge test at their first prenatal visit to diagnose early onset gestational diabetes and were recommended to have postpartum glucose tolerance tests to detect undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. Outcomes were compared between patients with early onset gestational diabetes and both standard gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes with p < 0.05 was used for significance. Four hundred and twenty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Nine percent of the patients with early onset gestational diabetes were found to have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes based on postpartum testing and 91% to have resolution in the postpartum period. No patient with early onset gestational diabetes and resolution in the postpartum period had abnormal screening for renal or ophthalmologic disease, but 5% had abnormal fetal echocardiograms. These patients were more likely to require pharmacotherapy for glycemic control than patients with standard gestational diabetes and less likely than patients with pregestational diabetes (55% versus 39% versus 81%). Most patients diagnosed with early onset gestational diabetes do not have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes but do have unique characteristics and obstetrical outcomes.

  17. Contemporary treatment principles for early rheumatoid arthritis: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Patrick D W; Brown, Andrew K; Edwards, Christopher J; O'Reilly, David T; Ostör, Andrew J K; Quinn, Mark; Taggart, Allister; Taylor, Peter C; Wakefield, Richard J; Conaghan, Philip G

    2009-07-01

    RA has a substantial impact on both patients and healthcare systems. Our objective is to advance the understanding of modern management principles in light of recent evidence concerning the condition's diagnosis and treatment. A group of practicing UK rheumatologists formulated contemporary management principles and clinical practice recommendations concerning both diagnosis and treatment. Areas of clinical uncertainty were documented, leading to research recommendations. A fundamental concept governing treatment of RA is minimization of cumulative inflammation, referred to as the inflammation-time area under the curve (AUC). To achieve this, four core principles of management were identified: (i) detect and refer patients early, even if the diagnosis is uncertain: patients should be referred at the first suspicion of persistent inflammatory polyarthritis and rheumatology departments should provide rapid access to a diagnostic and prognostic service; (ii) treat RA immediately: optimizing outcomes with conventional DMARDs and biologics requires that effective treatment be started early-ideally within 3 months of symptom onset; (iii) tight control of inflammation in RA improves outcome: frequent assessments and an objective protocol should be used to make treatment changes that maintain low-disease activity/remission at an agreed target; (iv) consider the risk-benefit ratio and tailor treatment to each patient: differing patient, disease and drug characteristics require long-term monitoring of risks and benefits with adaptations of treatments to suit individual circumstances. These principles focus on effective control of the inflammatory process in RA, but optimal uptake may require changes in service provision to accommodate appropriate care pathways.

  18. Treatments and outcome, the point in head trauma.

    PubMed

    Vigué, B; Ract, C

    2014-02-01

    When a severe traumatic brain-injured patient arrives to hospital, fear of failure and definite opinions about the outcome modify early care and provoke self-fulfilling prophecies. It is obvious that working on prognosis is not only useful to inform relatives but also permits to maintain a high level of care, key for a better outcome. Mortality is high (40-50%) if deaths in the first days are not excluded. Following guidelines in all cases will permit to decrease the number of preventable death and a decrease in morbidity. Well-defined networks of care leading to specialized centres with multimodal monitoring give best results. However, only 20% of living patients return to their previous life with mild handicap. These unsatisfactory results require intensifying research, notably in early rehabilitation in intensive care unit. Ethic issues should be discussed after few days of care and dialogue with relatives in a defined "window of opportunity". Ideally, we need to find strong and early indicators of outcome to limit fears on presumed handicap. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence called diffusion tensor imaging (TDI) permits to visualise traumatic axonal injury. Studies with complex statistical methodology give a good estimated probability of bad outcome but must be confirmed by more validation studies. Progress will come from a better understanding of physiopathology. Focuses on processing chain, rapid multi-monitoring, biomarkers, and investigations in MRI and TDI will help to establish opportunities for treatments and to determine limits. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. High early growth response 1 (EGR1) expression correlates with resistance to anti-EGFR treatment in vitro and with poorer outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S S; Tomita, Y; Wrin, J; Bruhn, M; Swalling, A; Mohammed, M; Price, T J; Hardingham, J E

    2017-06-01

    Biomarkers, such as mutant RAS, predict resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in only a proportion of patients, and hence, other predictive biomarkers are needed. The aims were to identify candidate genes upregulated in colorectal cancer cell lines resistant to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment, to knockdown (KD) these genes in the resistant cell lines to determine if sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibody was restored, and finally to perform a pilot correlative study of EGR1 expression and outcomes in a cohort of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients given cetuximab therapy. Comparative expression array analysis of resistant cell lines (SW48, COLO-320DM, and SNU-C1) vs sensitive cell lines (LIM1215, CaCo2, and SW948) was performed. The highest up-regulated gene in each resistant cell line was knocked down (KD) using RNA interference, and effect on proliferation was assessed with and without anti-EGFR treatment. Expression of the candidate genes in patients' tumours treated with cetuximab was assessed by immunohistochemistry; survival analyses were performed comparing high vs low expression. Genes significantly upregulated in resistant cell lines were EGR1 (early growth response protein 1), HBEGF (heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor), and AKT3 (AKT serine/threonine kinase 3). KD of each gene resulted in the respective cells being more sensitive to anti-EGFR treatment, suggesting that the resistant phenotype was reversed. In the pilot study of mCRC patients treated with cetuximab, both median PFS (1.38 months vs 6.79 months; HR 2.77 95% CI 1.2-19.4) and median OS (2.59 months vs 9.82 months; HR 3.0 95% CI 1.3-23.2) were significantly worse for those patients with high EGR1 expression. High EGR1 expression may be a candidate biomarker of resistance to anti-EGFR therapy.

  20. Nanomedicine for Early Disease Detection and Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0442 TITLE: Nanomedicine for early disease ...been developed to report and cure diseases . ESNM is prepared with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes, sequentially assembled on an inert gold...molecular characteristics of the patient and his/her specific diseased tissues with the treatment. In order to maximize therapeutic effects and

  1. Cushing's syndrome in childhood: update on genetics, treatment, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya

    2015-02-01

    To provide an update on the genes associated with Cushing's syndrome in children, as well as to familiarize the clinician with recent treatment guidelines and outcome data for children with Cushing's syndrome. The list of genes associated with Cushing's syndrome continues to grow. In addition, treatment for childhood Cushing's syndrome is evolving. As long-term follow-up data on children becomes available, clinicians need to be aware of the issues that require attention. Knowledge of the specific genetic causes of Cushing's syndrome has potential implications for treatment, surveillance, and counseling. Advances in surgical technique, radiation modalities, and medical therapies offer the potential for additional treatment options in Cushing's syndrome. Early identification and management of post-treatment morbidities in children treated for Cushing's syndrome is crucial in order to optimize care.

  2. Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518

  3. The Family Antecedents and the Subsequent Outcomes of Early Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arim, Rubab G.; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Willms, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.…

  4. Early Adult Outcomes of Adolescents Who Deliberately Poisoned Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Richard; Pickles, Andrew; Aglan, Azza; Harrington, Val; Burroughs, Heather; Kerfoot, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the early adult psychopathological and social outcomes of adolescents who deliberately poisoned themselves. Method: Prospective cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 132 of 158 (84%) adolescents who, between ages 11 and 16 years, had taken part in a randomized trial of a brief family intervention after deliberate…

  5. Asperger's syndrome and autism: comparison of early history and outcome.

    PubMed

    Szatmari, P; Bartolucci, G; Bremner, R

    1989-12-01

    The authors compared children with Asperger syndrome (AS) with high-functioning autistic children and psychiatric outpatient controls on measures of early history and outcome. In terms of their early history, the autistic probands showed more social impairment, a higher frequency of echolalia and pronoun reversal, and a more restricted range of activities than the AS group. Cluster analysis suggested refinements to the diagnostic criteria, which resulted in larger differences between the groups on these early history measures. In terms of their outcome, the autistic probands spent more time in special education classes but developed fewer accessory psychiatric symptoms than the AS children. It was clear, however, that there were no substantive, qualitative differences between the AS and autistic groups, indicating that AS should be considered a mild form of high-functioning autism. The inclusion of AS among the autistic spectrum of disorders has implications both for aetiological studies and for prevalence estimates of the pervasive developmental disorders.

  6. Early Identification and Treatment of Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Severe and persistent antisocial behavior is a prevalent, serious, and costly mental health problem. Individuals who are most likely to show persistent antisocial behavior through adolescence and into adulthood often show patterns of severe and varied conduct problems early in childhood. Treatments that intervene early in the development of these problems are most effective and least costly. Furthermore, there appear to be several common causal pathways that differ in their genetic, emotional, cognitive, and contextual characteristics. These pathways are differentiated by the level of callous-unemotional traits displayed by the individual. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of treatment outcome among Asian pathological gamblers (PGs): clinical, behavioural, demographic, and treatment process factors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Manning, Victoria; Thane, Kyaw Kyaw Wai; Ng, Andrew; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wong, Kim Eng

    2014-03-01

    Research on predictors of treatment outcome among pathological gamblers (PGs) is inconclusive and dominated by studies from Western countries. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the current study examined demographic, clinical, behavioural and treatment programme predictors of gambling frequency at 3, 6 and 12-months, among PGs treated at an addiction clinic in Singapore. Measures included the Hospital anxiety and depression scale, gambling symptom assessment scale (GSAS), personal well-being index (PWI), treatment perception questionnaire and gambling readiness to change scale. Treatment response in relation to changes in symptom severity, personal wellbeing and abstinence were also assessed. Abstinence rates were 38.6, 46.0 and 44.4 % at 3, 6 and 12-months respectively. Significant reductions in gambling frequency, GSAS, and improvement in PWI were reported between baseline and subsequent outcome assessments, with the greatest change occurring in the initial three months. No demographic, clinical, behavioural or treatment programme variable consistently predicted outcome at all three assessments, though treatment satisfaction was the most frequent significant predictor. However, being unemployed, having larger than average debts, poor treatment satisfaction and attending fewer sessions at the later stages of treatment were associated with significantly poorer outcomes, up to 1-year after initiating treatment. These findings show promise for the effectiveness of a CBT-based treatment approach for the treatment of predominantly Chinese PGs. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Taken together, the findings suggest early treatment satisfaction is paramount in improving short-term outcomes, with baseline gambling behaviour and treatment intensity playing a more significant role in the longer term.

  8. Treatment outcomes of saddle nose correction.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sang Min; Jang, Yong Ju

    2013-01-01

    Many valuable classification schemes for saddle nose have been suggested that integrate clinical deformity and treatment; however, there is no consensus regarding the most suitable classification and surgical method for saddle nose correction. To present clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of saddle nose deformity and to propose a modified classification system to better characterize the variety of different saddle nose deformities. The retrospective study included 91 patients who underwent rhinoplasty for correction of saddle nose from April 1, 2003, through December 31, 2011, with a minimum follow-up of 8 months. Saddle nose was classified into 4 types according to a modified classification. Aesthetic outcomes were classified as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Patients underwent minor cosmetic concealment by dorsal augmentation (n = 8) or major septal reconstruction combined with dorsal augmentation (n = 83). Autologous costal cartilages were used in 40 patients (44%), and homologous costal cartilages were used in 5 patients (6%). According to postoperative assessment, 29 patients had excellent, 42 patients had good, 18 patients had fair, and 2 patients had poor aesthetic outcomes. No statistical difference in surgical outcome according to saddle nose classification was observed. Eight patients underwent revision rhinoplasty, owing to recurrence of saddle, wound infection, or warping of the costal cartilage for dorsal augmentation. We introduce a modified saddle nose classification scheme that is simpler and better able to characterize different deformities. Among 91 patients with saddle nose, 20 (22%) had unsuccessful outcomes (fair or poor) and 8 (9%) underwent subsequent revision rhinoplasty. Thus, management of saddle nose deformities remains challenging. 4.

  9. Therapist perception of treatment outcome: Evaluating treatment outcomes among youth with antisocial behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Crandal, Brent R; Foster, Sharon L; Chapman, Jason E; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia A; Whitmore, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    Effective evaluation of treatment requires the use of measurement tools producing reliable scores that can be used to make valid decisions about the outcomes of interest. Therapist-rated treatment outcome scores that are obtained within the context of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) could provide clinicians and researchers with data that are easily accessible and complimentary to existing instrumentation. We examined the psychometric properties of scores from the Therapist Perception of Treatment Outcome: Youth Antisocial Behavior (TPTO:YAB), an instrument developed to assess therapist judgments of treatment success among families participating in an EST, Multisystemic Therapy (MST), for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of MST. The initial 20-item TPTO:YAB was completed by therapists of 111 families at midtreatment and 163 families at treatment termination. Rasch model dimensionality analyses provided evidence for 2 dimensions reflecting youth- and caregiver-related aspects of treatment outcome, although a bifactor analyses suggested that these dimensions reflected a single more general construct. Rasch analyses were also used to assess item and rating scale characteristics and refine the number of items. These analyses suggested items performed similarly across time and that scores reflect treatment outcome in similar ways at mid and posttreatment. Multilevel and zero-order analyses provided evidence for the validity of TPTO:YAB scores. TPTO:YAB scores were moderately correlated with scores of youth and caregiver behaviors targeted in treatment, adding support to its use as a treatment outcome measurement instrument. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. ECT treatment outcomes following performance improvement changes.

    PubMed

    Pulia, Kathy; Vaidya, Punit; Jayaram, Geetha; Hayat, Matthew J; Reti, Irving M

    2013-11-01

    Differences in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) outcomes were explored following changes in ECT administration at our institution. Two changes were introduced: (a) switching the anesthetic agent from propofol to methohexital, and (b) using a more aggressive ECT charge dosing regimen for right unilateral (RUL) electrode placement. Length of stay (LOS) and number of treatments administered per patient were monitored. A retrospective analysis was performed of two inpatient groups treated on our Mood Disorders Unit: those who underwent ECT in the 12 months prior to the changes (n = 40) and those who underwent treatment in the 12 months after the changes (n = 38). Compared with patients receiving ECT with RUL placement prior to the changes, patients who received RUL ECT after the changes had a significantly shorter inpatient LOS (27.4 versus 18 days, p = 0.028). Treatment efficacy monitored by the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale was not impacted. The change in anesthetic agent and charge dosing each accounted for 11% of the variance in LOS among patients receiving RUL ECT. The implemented changes in ECT administration positively impacted outcome for patients receiving treatment with RUL electrode placement. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Depression and treatment outcome in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Calugi, Simona; El Ghoch, Marwan; Conti, Maddalena; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the immediate and long-term effect of a cognitive-behavior therapy program for anorexia nervosa inpatients with and without concomitant Major Depressive Episodes (MDE). The program has been adapted from the "enhanced" form of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for eating disorders. Sixty-three consecutive underweight adult patients with severe eating disorder were treated with inpatient CBT. MDE was assessed with the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV. The Eating Disorder Examination, and the Brief Symptom Inventory were recorded at entry, at the end of treatment, and 6 and 12 months later. MDE was present in 60.3% of participants. No significant differences were observed in the demographic and baseline clinical variables between patients with and without MDE. Significant improvements in weight, and in eating disorder and general psychopathology were showed. There were no differences between participants with and without MDE in terms of treatment outcome, and the severity of depression was not associated with changes in global Eating Disorder Examination score. These findings suggest that a diagnosis of MDE does not influence the outcome of inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa patients, and that the severity of depression cannot be used to predict the success or failure of such treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-surgical treatments for the management of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elizaveta; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Madry, Henning; Marchettini, Paolo; Marmotti, Antonio; Van Assche, Dieter; Zanon, Giacomo; Peretti, Giuseppe M

    2016-06-01

    Non-surgical treatments are usually the first choice for the management of knee degeneration, especially in the early osteoarthritis (OA) phase when no clear lesions or combined abnormalities need to be addressed surgically. Early OA may be addressed by a wide range of non-surgical approaches, from non-pharmacological modalities to dietary supplements and pharmacological therapies, as well as physical therapies and novel biological minimally invasive procedures involving injections of various substances to obtain a clinical improvement and possibly a disease-modifying effect. Numerous pharmaceutical agents are able to provide clinical benefit, but no one has shown all the characteristic of an ideal treatment, and side effects have been reported at both systemic and local level. Patients and physicians should have realistic outcome goals in pharmacological treatment, which should be considered together with other conservative measures. Among these, exercise is an effective conservative approach, while physical therapies lack literature support. Even though a combination of these therapeutic options might be the most suitable strategy, there is a paucity of studies focusing on combining treatments, which is the most common clinical scenario. Further studies are needed to increase the limited evidence on non-surgical treatments and their combination, to optimize indications, application modalities, and results with particular focus on early OA. In fact, most of the available evidence regards established OA. Increased knowledge about degeneration mechanisms will help to better target the available treatments and develop new biological options, where preliminary results are promising, especially concerning early disease phases. Specific treatments aimed at improving joint homoeostasis, or even counteracting tissue damage by inducing regenerative processes, might be successful in early OA, where tissue loss and anatomical changes are still at very initial stages.

  13. Mental health treatment outcome expectancies in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Irankunda, Pacifique; Heatherington, Laurie

    2017-02-01

    Best practices in global mental health stress the importance of understanding local values and beliefs. Research demonstrates that expectancies about the effectiveness of a given treatment significantly predicts outcome, beyond the treatment effect itself. To help inform the development of mental health interventions in Burundi, we studied expectancies about the effectiveness of four treatments: spiritual healing, traditional healing, medication, and selected evidence-based psychosocial treatments widely used in the US. Treatment expectancies were assessed for each of three key syndromes identified by previous research: akabonge (a set of depression-like symptoms), guhahamuka (a set of trauma-related symptoms), and ibisigo (a set of psychosis-like symptoms) . In individual interviews or written surveys in French or Kirundi with patients ( N = 198) awaiting treatment at the clinic, we described each disorder and the treatments in everyday language, asking standard efficacy expectations questions about each ("Would it work?" "Why or why not?"). Findings indicated uniformly high expectancies about the efficacy of spiritual treatment, relatively high expectancies for western evidence-based treatments (especially cognitive behavior therapy [CBT] for depression-like symptoms), lower expectancies for medicine, and especially low expectancies for traditional healing (except for traditional healing for psychosis-like symptoms). There were significant effects of gender but not of education level. Qualitative analyses of explanations provide insight into the basis of people's beliefs, their explanations about why a given treatment would or would not work varied by type of disorder, and reflected beliefs about underlying causes. Implications for program development and future research are discussed.

  14. Mediators of Outcome in Complicated Grief Treatment.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Kim; Shear, M Katherine; Wall, Melanie M

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examined the mechanisms of action of complicated grief treatment (CGT), an efficacious psychotherapy for complicated grief. We explored 3 putative mediators (guilt/self-blame related to the deceased, negative thoughts about the future, and avoidance) among treatment completers assigned to either CGT (n = 35) or interpersonal psychotherapy (n = 34) in a previously reported randomized controlled trial. Antidepressant use was examined as a moderator of mediation effects. A reduction in guilt/self-blame, negative thoughts about the future, and avoidance behavior each mediated the relationship between treatment group and complicated grief outcomes. Reduction in avoidance emerged as an independent mediator after controlling for all mediators. Reducing avoidance of situations and emotions connected to the loss seems to be a key mechanism of change in CGT. Revising counterfactual thinking around troubling aspects of the death may also play a role in facilitating effective adaptation to loss. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Treatment outcomes for professional voice users.

    PubMed

    Wingate, Judith M; Brown, William S; Shrivastav, Rahul; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine M

    2007-07-01

    Professional voice users comprise 25% to 35% of the U.S. working population. Their voice problems may interfere with job performance and impact costs for both employers and employees. The purpose of this study was to examine treatment outcomes of two specific rehabilitation programs for a group of professional voice users. Eighteen professional voice users participated in this study; half had complaints of throat pain or vocal fatigue (Dysphonia Group), and half were found to have benign vocal fold lesions (Lesion Group). One group received 5 weeks of expiratory muscle strength training followed by six sessions of traditional voice therapy. Treatment order was reversed for the second group. The study was designed as a repeated measures study with independent variables of treatment order, laryngeal diagnosis (lesion vs non-lesion), gender, and time. Dependent variables included maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), Voice Handicap Index (VHI) score, Vocal Rating Scale (VRS) score, Voice Effort Scale score, phonetogram measures, subglottal pressures, and acoustic and perceptual measures. Results showed significant improvements in MEP, VHI scores, and VRS scores, subglottal pressure for loud intensity, phonetogram area, and dynamic range. No significant difference was found between laryngeal diagnosis groups. A significant difference was not observed for treatment order. It was concluded that the combined treatment was responsible for the improvements observed. The results indicate that a combined modality treatment may be successful in the remediation of vocal problems for professional voice users.

  16. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early?

    PubMed

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential.

  17. Surgical treatment of gynecomastia: complications and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Chang; Fu, Ju-Peng; Chang, Shun-Cheng; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen

    2012-11-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Multiple surgical options have been used to improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approaches to the treatment of gynecomastia and their outcomes over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical correction of gynecomastia in our department between 2000 and 2010 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and revision rate. The surgical result was evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 41 patients with 75 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) and isolated UAL. The surgical revision rate for all patients was 4.8%. The skin-sparing procedure gave good surgical results in grade IIb and grade III gynecomastia with low revision and complication rates. The self-assessment report revealed a good level of overall satisfaction and improvement in self-confidence (average scores 9.4 and 9.2, respectively, on a 10-point scale). The treatment of gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Subcutaneous mastectomy combined with UAL could be used as the first choice for surgical treatment of grade II and III gynecomastia.

  18. Motivational tools to improve probationer treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Taxman, Faye S; Walters, Scott T; Sloas, Lincoln B; Lerch, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Mayra

    2015-07-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising practice to increase motivation, treatment retention, and reducing recidivism among offender populations. Computer-delivered interventions have grown in popularity as a way to change behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Motivational Assistance Program to Initiate Treatment (MAPIT) is a three arm, multisite, randomized controlled trial, which examines the impact of Motivational interviewing (MI), a motivational computer program (MC), and supervision as usual (SAU) on addiction treatment initiation, engagement, and retention. Secondary outcomes include drug/alcohol use, probation progress, recidivism (i.e., criminal behavior) and HIV/AIDS testing and treatment among probationers. Participant characteristics are measured at baseline, 2, and 6 months after assignment. The entire study will include 600 offenders, with each site recruiting 300 offenders (Baltimore City, Maryland and Dallas, Texas). All participants will go through standard intake procedures for probation and participate in probation requirements as usual. After standard intake, participants will be recruited and screened for eligibility. The results of this clinical trial will fill a gap in knowledge about ways to motivate probationers to participate in addiction treatment and HIV care. This randomized clinical trial is innovative in the way it examines the use of in-person vs. technological approaches to improve probationer success. NCT01891656. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Predicting therapy outcome in patients with early and late obsessive-compulsive disorder (EOCD and LOCD).

    PubMed

    Langner, Judith; Laws, Manuela; Röper, Gisela; Zaudig, Michael; Hauke, Walter; Piesbergen, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    Increasing attention has been given to subtyping OCD with respect to different clinical profiles, response to drug treatments, comorbidity and age of onset. There are a number of studies looking at predictors of treatment outcome in OCD, but so far not for OCD subtypes. Prediction of outcome after cognitive-behavioural therapy was evaluated in 63 inpatients with early obsessive-compulsive disorder (EOCD < or = 12 years of age) and 191 patients with late obsessive-compulsive disorder (LOCD > 15 years of age). For EOCD patients factors predicting a good outcome included high motivation and high initial Y-BOCS scores. Factors associated with a bad outcome were higher age at assessment, a longer duration of psychiatric inpatient treatment before assessment and a low level of social functioning (BSS). For LOCD patients living in a stable relationship, high motivation and completing treatment predicted a favourable therapy outcome, while a low level of psychological functioning (BSS) and a longer duration of inpatient psychiatric treatment before assessment were associated with an undesirable therapy outcome. Subtyping OCD patients according to age of onset seems to be a promising avenue towards improving and developing more specified treatment programs.

  20. Side effects as influencers of treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Zafar

    2008-01-01

    Research relative to the efficacy of a therapeutic agent commands a clinician's greatest interest, but treatment decisions are made based on optimizing efficacy and tolerability/safety considerations. Second-generation atypical antipsychotic drugs are a study in the importance of taking a careful look at the full benefit-risk profile of each drug. The disorders that atypical antipsychotics are approved to treat--schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder--are associated with an increased rate of certain medical comorbidities compared to the general population. Between-drug differences in efficacy are relatively modest for the atypicals, or between atypicals and conventionals, while differences in safety and tolerability are larger and more clinically relevant. The current article will provide a brief summary of safety-related issues that influence treatment outcome and choice of drug.

  1. How well does early-career investigators' cardiovascular outcomes research training align with funded outcomes research?

    PubMed

    Crowley, Matthew J; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Wang, Tracy Y; Khazanie, Prateeti; Kressin, Nancy R; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Wells, Barbara L; O'Brien, Sean M; Peterson, Eric D; Sanders, Gillian D

    2018-02-01

    Outcomes research training programs should prepare trainees to successfully compete for research funding. We examined how early-career investigators' prior and desired training aligns with recently funded cardiovascular (CV) outcomes research. We (1) reviewed literature to identify 13 core competency areas in CV outcomes research; (2) surveyed early-career investigators to understand their prior and desired training in each competency area; (3) examined recently funded grants commonly pursued by early-career outcomes researchers to ascertain available funding in competency areas; and (4) analyzed alignment between investigator training and funded research in each competency area. We evaluated 185 survey responses from early-career investigators (response rate 28%) and 521 funded grants from 2010 to 2014. Respondents' prior training aligned with funded grants in the areas of clinical epidemiology, observational research, randomized controlled trials, and implementation/dissemination research. Funding in community-engaged research and health informatics was more common than prior training in these areas. Respondents' prior training in biostatistics and systematic review was more common than funded grants focusing on these specific areas. Respondents' desired training aligned similarly with funded grants, with some exceptions; for example, desired training in health economics/cost-effectiveness research was more common than funded grants in these areas. Restricting to CV grants (n=132) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded grants (n=170) produced similar results. Identifying mismatch between funded grants in outcomes research and early-career investigators' prior/desired training may help efforts to harmonize investigator interests, training, and funding. Our findings suggest a need for further consideration of how to best prepare early-career investigators for funding success. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Early intensive rehabilitation after oral cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bschorer, Maximilian; Schneider, Daniel; Hennig, Matthias; Frank, Bernd; Schön, Gerhard; Heiland, Max; Bschorer, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of oral cancer requires an effective rehabilitation strategy such as an early intensive rehabilitation (EIR) program. The medical records and data of 41 patients who participated in an EIR program and 20 control group patients were analyzed. These patients all underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor followed by microsurgical reconstruction using free flaps. The length of stay (LOS) at the acute care hospital was compared between the two groups. Four indexes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIR program. EIR patients stayed an average of 11.6 fewer days at the acute care hospital. All indexes showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The Barthel Index (BI) and the Early Intensive Rehabilitation Barthel Index (EIR-BI) improved by 36.0 and 103.6 points, respectively. At discharge, the Bogenhausener Dysphagia Score (BODS) had improved to a score of 11.0 compared to the 13.9 at admission. EIR patients had a Work Ability Index (WAI) score of 25.7. Length of stay at the acute care hospital can be reduced using early intensive rehabilitation if patients are transferred to an intensive rehabilitation clinic early. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  4. Early neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    So, Stephanie; Patterson, Catherine; Gold, Anna; Rogers, Alaine; Kosar, Christina; de Silva, Nicole; Burghardt, Karolina Maria; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W

    2016-10-01

    The survival rate of infants and children with intestinal failure is increasing, necessitating a greater focus on their developmental trajectory. To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with intestinal failure at 0-15months corrected age. Analysis of clinical, demographic and developmental assessment results of 33 children followed in an intestinal rehabilitation program between 2011 and 2014. Outcome measures included: Prechtl's Assessment of General Movements, Movement Assessment of Infants, Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Clinical factors were correlated with poorer developmental outcomes at 12-15months corrected age. Thirty-three infants (17 males), median gestational age 34weeks (interquartile range 29.5-36.0) with birth weight 1.98kg (interquartile range 1.17-2.50). Twenty-nine (88%) infants had abnormal General Movements. More than half had suspect or abnormal scores on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and medium to high-risk scores for future neuromotor delay on the Movement Assessment of Infants. Delays were seen across all Mullen subscales, most notably in gross motor skills. Factors significantly associated with poorer outcomes at 12-15months included: prematurity, low birth weight, central nervous system co-morbidity, longer neonatal intensive care admission, necrotizing enterocolitis diagnosis, number of operations and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Multiple risk factors contribute to early developmental delay in children with intestinal failure, highlighting the importance of close developmental follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence-Based Comprehensive Treatments for Early Autism

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sally J.; Vismara, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention for children with autism is currently a politically and scientifically complex topic. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated positive effects in both short-term and longer term studies. The evidence suggests that early intervention programs are indeed beneficial for children with autism, often improving developmental functioning and decreasing maladaptive behaviors and symptom severity at the level of group analysis. Whether such changes lead to significant improvements in terms of greater independence and vocational and social functioning in adulthood is also unknown. Given the few randomized controlled treatment trials that have been carried out, the few models that have been tested, and the large differences in interventions that are being published, it is clear that the field is still very early in the process of determining (a) what kinds of interventions are most efficacious in early autism, (b) what variables moderate and mediate treatment gains and improved outcomes following intervention, and (c) the degree of both short-term and long-term improvements that can reasonably be expected. To examine these current research needs, the empirical studies of comprehensive treatments for young children with autism published since 1998 were reviewed. Lovaas's treatment meet Chambless and colleague's (Chambless et al., 1998; Chambless et al., 1996) criteria for “well-established” and no treatment meets the “probably efficacious” criteria, though three treatments meet criteria for “possibly efficacious” (Chambless & Hollon, 1998). Most studies were either Type 2 or 3 in terms of their methodological rigor based on Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria. Implications of these findings are also discussed in relation to practice guidelines as well as critical areas of research that have yet to be answered PMID:18444052

  6. Change in Autism Classification with Early Intervention: Predictors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study characterized stability and changes of autism diagnostic classification with intervention in very young children and examined pre-treatment predictors and post-intervention outcome. Sixty-eight children diagnosed with autism, aged 18-35 months (M = 25.4, SD = 4.0) participated in the study. Children underwent comprehensive…

  7. Early complications in bariatric surgery: incidence, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Santo, Marco Aurelio; Pajecki, Denis; Riccioppo, Daniel; Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective method of treating severe obesity. Nevertheless, the acceptance of bariatric surgery is still questioned. The surgical complications observed in the early postoperative period following surgeries performed to treat severe obesity are similar to those associated with other major surgeries of the gastrointestinal tract. However, given the more frequent occurrence of medical comorbidities, these patients require special attention in the early postoperative follow-up. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these complications are directly associated with a greater probability of control. The medical records of 538 morbidly obese patients who underwent surgical treatment (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery) were reviewed. Ninety-three (17.2%) patients were male and 445 (82.8%) were female. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years (average = 46), and their body mass indices ranged from 34.6 to 77 kg/m2. Early complications occurred in 9.6% and were distributed as follows: 2.6% presented bleeding, intestinal obstruction occurred in 1.1%, peritoneal infections occurred in 3.2%, and 2.2% developed abdominal wall infections that required hospitalization. Three (0.5%) patients experienced pulmonary thromboembolism. The mortality rate was 0,55%. The incidence of early complications was low. The diagnosis of these complications was mostly clinical, based on the presence of signs and symptoms. The value of the clinical signs and early treatment, specially in cases of sepsis, were essential to the favorable surgical outcome. The mortality was mainly related to thromboembolism and advanced age, over 65 years.

  8. Treatment Outcomes in an Adolescent Chemical Dependency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Norbert; McMenamy, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Investigates treatment outcomes for all admissions to an adolescent chemical dependency program over a 10-month period. Interviews with parents of patients were conducted. The effect of various pretreatment and treatment factors on outcomes were investigated. Better treatment outcome was associated with older adolescents, greater participation in…

  9. Do early changes in the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization factor items affect treatment outcome among depressed outpatients? Comparison of two controlled trials of St John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) versus an SSRI

    PubMed Central

    Bitran, Stella; Farabaugh, Amy H; Ameral, Victoria E; LaRocca, Rachel A; Clain, Alisabet J; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess whether early changes in HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization items predict remission in two controlled studies of hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) versus an SSRI for major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (NIMH) study randomized 340 subjects to hypericum, sertraline, or placebo for 8 weeks. The MGH study randomized 135 subjects to hypericum, fluoxetine, or placebo for 12 weeks. We examined whether remission was associated with early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms. Results In the NIMH study, significant associations were observed between remission and early improvement in the anxiety-psychic item (sertraline arm), somatic-gastrointestinal item (hypericum arm), and somatic symptoms-general (placebo arm). None of the three treatment arms of the MGH study showed significant associations between anxiety/somatization symptoms and remission. When both study samples were pooled, we found associations for anxiety-psychic (SSRI arm), somatic-gastrointestinal and hypochondriasis (hypericum arm), and anxiety-psychic and somatic symptoms-general (placebo arm). In the entire sample, remission was associated with improvement in the anxiety-psychic, somatic-gastrointestinal, and somatic symptoms-general items. Conclusions The number and type of anxiety/somatization items associated with remission varied depending on the intervention. Early scrutiny of the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization items may help predict remission of MDD. PMID:21278577

  10. Do early changes in the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization factor items affect the treatment outcome among depressed outpatients? Comparison of two controlled trials of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) versus a SSRI.

    PubMed

    Bitran, Stella; Farabaugh, Amy H; Ameral, Victoria E; LaRocca, Rachel A; Clain, Alisabet J; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2011-07-01

    To assess whether early changes in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items predict remission in two controlled studies of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for major depressive disorder. The Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (National Institute of Mental Health) randomized 340 patients to Hypericum, sertraline, or placebo for 8 weeks, whereas the Massachusetts General Hospital study randomized 135 patients to Hypericum, fluoxetine, or placebo for 12 weeks. The investigators examined whether remission was associated with early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms. In the National Institute of Mental Health study, significant associations were observed between remission and early improvement in the anxiety (psychic) item (sertraline arm), somatic (gastrointestinal item; Hypericum arm), and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). None of the three treatment arms of the Massachusetts General Hospital study showed significant associations between anxiety/somatization symptoms and remission. When both study samples were pooled, we found associations for anxiety (psychic; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors arm), somatic (gastrointestinal), and hypochondriasis (Hypericum arm), and anxiety (psychic) and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). In the entire sample, remission was associated with the improvement in the anxiety (psychic), somatic (gastrointestinal), and somatic (general) items. The number and the type of anxiety/somatization items associated with remission varied depending on the intervention. Early scrutiny of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items may help to predict remission of major depressive disorder.

  11. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Francesconi, Fabio; da Silva, Marcus Tulius Teixeira; Costa, Regina Lana Braga; Francesconi, Valeska Albuquerque; Carregal, Eleonora; Talhari, Sinésio; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do

    2011-01-01

    Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM) is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. Fourteen (3.8%) cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  12. Lidcombe Program Webcam Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgman, Kate; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Webcam treatment is potentially useful for health care in cases of early stuttering in which clients are isolated from specialized treatment services for geographic and other reasons. The purpose of the present trial was to compare outcomes of clinic and webcam deliveries of the Lidcombe Program treatment (Packman et al., 2015) for early…

  13. The family antecedents and the subsequent outcomes of early puberty.

    PubMed

    Arim, Rübab G; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D; Dahinten, V Susan; Willms, J Douglas

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The sample (N = 8,440; 49% girls) included four cohorts of children who were followed biennially for 10 years, starting from age 4-11 to 14-21 years. Data were drawn at different years of age from these cohorts of children. Girls whose fathers were unemployed were more likely to experience early puberty than those whose fathers were employed. For boys, those living with fathers who had not finished secondary school were more likely to experience early puberty. Early maturing girls tended to engage in smoking and drinking at an earlier age compared with their peers. These findings provide support for psychosocial acceleration theory and suggest that different aspects of low family SES may act as a psychosocial stress for early pubertal maturation in boys versus girls, which may lead to engagement in drinking and smoking at a younger age, at least for girls.

  14. Does treatment of SDB in children improve cardiovascular outcome?

    PubMed

    Vlahandonis, Anna; Walter, Lisa M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2013-02-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a common disorder in both adults and children and is caused by the obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. Unlike adults, most cases of paediatric SDB are due to the presence of enlarged tonsils and adenoids, thus the main treatment option is adenotonsillectomy (T&A). It is well known that obstructive sleep apnoea in adults increases the risk for hypertension, coronary artery disease and stroke, and there is now mounting evidence that SDB also has a significant impact on the cardiovascular system in children with reports of elevated blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction and altered autonomic cardiovascular control. As there is now substantial evidence that elevated blood pressure in childhood is carried on to adulthood it is important to know if treatment of SDB improves cardiovascular outcomes. Studies in adults have shown that treatment of SDB leads to improvements in cardiovascular function, including a reduction in pulmonary artery pressure, systemic blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction. However, studies exploring the outcomes of treatment of SDB in children on the cardiovascular system are limited and varied in their methodology and outcome measures. As a number of cardiovascular disturbances are sequelae of SDB, early detection and management could result in the reduction of elevated blood pressure in children, and consequently a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. The aim of this review is to summarise the findings of studies to date which have investigated the cardiovascular outcomes in children treated for SDB and to make recommendations for future management of this very common disease. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Breastfeeding Exclusivity on Early Childhood Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between breastfeeding exclusivity and duration and children’s health and cognitive outcomes at ages 2 and 4 years. Methods. We used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort, a nationally representative sample of 10 700 children born in the United States in 2001. Parent interviews and child assessments were conducted in measurement waves at 9 months, 2 years, 4 years, and in kindergarten, with the focus on ages 2 and 4 years. We employed propensity scores as a means of adjusting for confounding involving observed characteristics. Results. Outcome analyses using propensity scores showed some small effects of breastfeeding on key outcomes at age 4 years but not at age 2 years. Effects appeared to be concentrated in reading and cognitive outcomes. Overall, we found no consistent evidence for dosage effects of breastfeeding exclusivity. Our sensitivity analyses revealed that a small amount of unobserved confounding could be responsible for the resulting benefits. Conclusions. Our study revealed little or no effect of breastfeeding exclusivity and duration on key child outcomes. PMID:24354838

  16. Tuberculous spondylodiscitis: epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Trecarichi, E M; Di Meco, E; Mazzotta, V; Fantoni, M

    2012-04-01

    Tuberculous spondylodiscitis (TS) is a rare but serious clinical condition which may lead to severe deformity and early or late neurological complications. To discuss certain aspects of the approach to TSs, focusing upon epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment outcome. For the purpose of this review, a literature search was performed using the Pubmed database through to 19th October 2011 to identify studies published in the last 20 years, concerned in epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutical aspects of TS in adults. Only studies drafted in English language and reporting case series of more than 20 patients have been included. TS has been reported to accounts for 1-5% of all TB cases, and for about 50% of the cases of articulo-skeletal TB infections. Despite the actual availability of more effective diagnostic tools, early recognition of TS remains difficult and a high index of suspicion is needed due to the chronic nature of the disease and its insidious and variable clinical presentation. A prompt diagnosis is required to improve long term outcome, and a microbiological confirmation is recommended to enable appropriate choice of anti-mycobacterial agents. Surgery has an important role in alleviating pain, correcting deformities and neurological impairment, and restoring function. Further studies are required to assess the appropriate duration of anti-microbial treatment, also in regarding of a combined surgical approach.

  17. Glutaric aciduria type 1--importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Bushra; Yunus, Zabedah Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a rare inherited organic academia. Untreated patients characteristically develop dystonia secondary to striatal injury during early childhood, which results in high morbidity and mortality. In patients diagnosed during neonatal period, striatal injury can be prevented by metabolic treatment including low lysine diet, carnitine supplementation and aggressive emergency treatment during acute episode of inter current illnesses. However, after the onset of neurological damage initiation of treatment is generally not effective. Therefore; glutaric aciduria type 1 is included in newborn screening panel for inherited metabolic diseases in many countries. We describe two children in a family with glutaric aciduria type 1 and their different long term outcomes. The first child was diagnosed late leading to severe neurological damage. The second child was diagnosed in the neonatal period as a result of selective high-risk screening and was treated appropriately giving a normal growth.

  18. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes Within a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment, attending college, and skilled employment; negative effects of risk were found for education attainment, graduating high school, being employed and avoiding teen parenthood. The home mediated the effects of risk for graduating high school, but not being employed or teen parenthood. Evidence for moderated mediation was found for educational attainment; the home mediated the association between risk and educational attainment for the control group, but not the treated group. PMID:20331676

  19. Evaluation of longitudinal 12 and 24 month cognitive outcomes in premanifest and early Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Stout, Julie C; Jones, Rebecca; Labuschagne, Izelle; O'Regan, Alison M; Say, Miranda J; Dumas, Eve M; Queller, Sarah; Justo, Damian; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Coleman, Allison; Hart, Ellen P; Dürr, Alexandra; Leavitt, Blair R; Roos, Raymund A; Langbehn, Doug R; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Frost, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Deterioration of cognitive functioning is a debilitating symptom in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD). To date, there are no effective treatments for the cognitive problems associated with HD. Cognitive assessment outcomes will have a central role in the efforts to develop treatments to delay onset or slow the progression of the disease. The TRACK-HD study was designed to build a rational basis for the selection of cognitive outcomes for HD clinical trials. There were a total of 349 participants, including controls (n=116), premanifest HD (n=117) and early HD (n=116). A standardised cognitive assessment battery (including nine cognitive tests comprising 12 outcome measures) was administered at baseline, and at 12 and 24 months, and consisted of a combination of paper and pencil and computerised tasks selected to be sensitive to cortical-striatal damage or HD. Each cognitive outcome was analysed separately using a generalised least squares regression model. Results are expressed as effect sizes to permit comparisons between tasks. 10 of the 12 cognitive outcomes showed evidence of deterioration in the early HD group, relative to controls, over 24 months, with greatest sensitivity in Symbol Digit, Circle Tracing direct and indirect, and Stroop word reading. In contrast, there was very little evidence of deterioration in the premanifest HD group relative to controls. The findings describe tests that are sensitive to longitudinal cognitive change in HD and elucidate important considerations for selecting cognitive outcomes for clinical trials of compounds aimed at ameliorating cognitive decline in HD.

  20. An outcomes evaluation of an emergency department early pregnancy assessment service and early pregnancy assessment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Kim; Crilly, Julia; May, Chris; Bates, Kym; Saxena, Rakhee

    2014-01-01

    Background Complications in early pregnancy, such as threatened or actual miscarriage is a common occurrence resulting in many women presenting to the emergency department (ED). Early pregnancy service delivery models described in the literature vary in terms of approach, setting and outcomes. Our objective was to determine outcomes of women who presented to an Australian regional ED with diagnoses consistent with early pregnancy complications following the implementation of an early pregnancy assessment service (EPAS) and early pregnancy assessment protocol (EPAP) in July 2011. Methods A descriptive, comparative (6 months before and after) study was undertaken. Data were extracted from the hospital ED information system and medical healthcare records. Outcome measures included: time to see a clinician, ED length of stay, admission rate, re-presentation rate, hospital admission and types of pathology tests ordered. Results Over the 12 -month period, 584 ED presentations were made to the ED with complications of early pregnancy (268 PRE and 316 POST EPAS–EPAP). Outcomes that improved statistically and clinically following implementation included: time to see a clinician (decreased by 6 min from 35 to 29 min), admission rate (decreased 6% from 14.5% to 8.5%), increase in β-human chorionic gonadotrophin ordering by 10% (up to 80% POST), increase in ultrasound (USS) performed by 10% (up to 73% POST) and increase in pain score documentation by 23% (up to 36% POST). Conclusions The results indicate that patient and service delivery improvements can be achieved following the implementation of targeted service delivery models such as EPAS and EPAP in the ED. PMID:24136123

  1. Reinforcement sensitivity theory and alcohol outcome expectancies in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Read, Jennifer P

    2012-03-01

    Little research has examined the development of alcohol expectancies in childhood, a notable omission as expectancies are viable targets for prevention programs. Moreover, limited alcohol expectancies research has been conducted from the perspective of psychobiological models of motivation despite the strong conceptual links between such models and cognitive models of alcohol use. To examine if the associations between individual differences from the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (Gray JA, McNaughton N. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-hippocampal System (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000) and alcohol use is mediated by alcohol expectancies in a large community sample of early adolescents using a prospective design. 378 families (1 caregiver; 1 child) were recruited via random digit phone call using a prospective design. Our findings suggest that both a strong behavioral approach system and fight-flight or freeze system were associated with high levels of positive outcome expectancies, which subsequently predicted an increase in likelihood of alcohol use. There was also some evidence that drive (an aspect of behavioral approach system) was also positively associated with negative expectancies, which subsequently predicted a low probability of alcohol use. Individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity may influence the acquisition of positive and negative outcome expectancies, thereby potentially influencing the likelihood of alcohol use in early adolescence. Thus, reinforcement sensitivity theory is a promising theory to account for the link between neural models of addiction and early acquisition of alcohol use in humans.

  2. The Relation between Trait Mindfulness and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Men Seeking Substance Use Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has examined the relation between mindfulness and substance use, demonstrating that lower trait mindfulness is associated with increased substance use, and that mindfulness-based interventions help to reduce substance use. Research has also demonstrated that early maladaptive schemas are prevalent among individuals seeking substance use treatment and that targeting early maladaptive schemas in treatment may improve outcomes. However, no known research has examined the relation between mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas despite theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect their association. Therefore, the current study examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas among adult men seeking residential substance abuse treatment (N = 82). Findings demonstrated strong negative associations between trait mindfulness and 15 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Moreover, men endorsing multiple early maladaptive schemas reported lower trait mindfulness than men with fewer early maladaptive schemas. The implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:26085852

  3. Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Gordon, Michael

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for managing adolescent ADHD. A total of 68 adolescents with ADHD and associated psychiatric comorbidities completed a manualized CBT treatment protocol. The intervention used in the study was a downward extension of the Safren et al. program for adults with ADHD who have symptoms unresolved by medication. Outcome variables consisted of narrow band (ADHD) and broadband (e.g., mood, anxiety, conduct) symptom measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd edition and ADHD-Rating Scales) as well as functioning measures (parent/teacher ratings and several ecologically real-world measures). Treatment effects emerged on the medication dosage, parent rating of pharmacotherapy adherence, adolescent self-report of personal adjustment (e.g., self-esteem), parent and teacher ratings of inattentive symptoms, school attendance, school tardiness, parent report of peer, family and academic functioning and teacher report of adolescent relationship with teacher, academic progress, and adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents with ADHD with oppositional defiant disorder were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting less from the CBT intervention. Adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety/depression were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting more from the CBT intervention. A downward extension of an empirically validated adult ADHD CBT protocol can benefit some adolescents with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  4. Early outcomes of patella resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Warren J; Miller, Lisa; Whitehouse, Sarah L; Graves, Stephen E; Ryan, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Background Patella resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty is a contentious issue. The literature suggests that resurfacing of the patella is based on surgeon preference, and little is known about the role and timing of resurfacing and how this affects outcomes. Methods We analyzed 134,799 total knee arthroplasties using data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Hazards ratios (HRs) were used to compare rates of early revision between patella resurfacing at the primary procedure (the resurfacing group, R) and primary arthroplasty without resurfacing (no-resurfacing group, NR). We also analyzed the outcomes of NR that were revised for isolated patella addition. Results At 5 years, the R group showed a lower revision rate than the NR group: cumulative per cent revision (CPR) 3.1% and 4.0%, respectively (HR = 0.75, p < 0.001). Revisions for patellofemoral pain were more common in the NR group (17%) than in the R group (1%), and “patella only” revisions were more common in the NR group (29%) than in the R group (6%). Non-resurfaced knees revised for isolated patella addition had a higher revision rate than patella resurfacing at the primary procedure, with a 4-year CPR of 15% and 2.8%, respectively (HR = 4.1, p < 0.001). Interpretation Rates of early revision of primary total knees were higher when the patella was not resurfaced, and suggest that surgeons may be inclined to resurface later if there is patellofemoral pain. However, 15% of non-resurfaced knees revised for patella addition are re-revised by 4 years. Our results suggest an early beneficial outcome for patella resurfacing at primary arthroplasty based on revision rates up to 5 years. PMID:19968604

  5. Factors Associated With Early Functional Outcome After Hip Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Guang-Ting; Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Patt, Minda L.; Desai, Pingal; Zambrana, Lester; Lane, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hip fractures are common in the elderly and are likely to become more prevalent as the US population ages. Early functional status is an indicator of longer term outcome, yet in-hospital predictors of functional recovery, particularly time of surgery and composition of support staff, after hip fracture surgery have not been well studied. Methods: Ninety-nine consecutive patients underwent hip fracture surgery by a single surgeon between 2009 and 2013. Surgery after 48 hours was deemed as surgical delay, and surgery after 5 pm was deemed as after hours. Surgical support staff experience was determined by experts from our institution as well as documented level of training. Functional status was determined by independent ambulation on postoperative day (POD) 3. Results: On POD3, 48 (79%) of 62 patients with no delay were able to ambulate, whereas only 14 (38%) of 37 patients with delayed surgery were able to ambulate (P < .001). This relationship persisted when adjusted for American Society of Anesthesiologist classification. No delay in patients older than 80 (odds ratio [OR], 6.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.16-22.10) and females (OR, 7.05; 95% CI, 2.34-21.20) was associated with greater chance of early ambulation. After-hours surgery was not associated with ambulation (P = .35). Anesthesiologist and circulating nurse experience had no impact on patient’s ambulatory status; however, nonorthopedic scrub technicians were associated with worse functional status (OR 7.50; 95% CI, 1.46-38.44, P = .01). Conclusion: Surgical delay and nonorthopedic scrub technicians are associated with worse early functional outcome after hip fracture surgery. Surgical delay should be avoided in older patients and women. More work should be done to understand the impact of surgical team composition on outcome. PMID:26929850

  6. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  7. Trajectories of physical discipline: early childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Criss, Michael M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Shaw, Daniel S; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample.

  8. Final visual acuity results in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study.

    PubMed

    Good, William V; Hardy, Robert J; Dobson, Velma; Palmer, Earl A; Phelps, Dale L; Tung, Betty; Redford, Maryann

    2010-06-01

    To compare visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with conventionally managed eyes. Infants with symmetrical, high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye randomized to earlier treatment at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (n = 84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either early treatment or conventional management. The main outcome measure was ETDRS visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers. Retinal structure was assessed as a secondary outcome. Analysis of all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant benefit for early treatment (24.3% vs 28.6% [corrected] unfavorable outcome; P = .15). Analysis of 6-year visual acuity results according to the Type 1 and 2 clinical algorithm showed a benefit for Type 1 eyes (25.1% vs 32.8%; P = .02) treated early but not Type 2 eyes (23.6% vs 19.4%; P = .37). Early-treated eyes showed a significantly better structural outcome compared with conventionally managed eyes (8.9% vs 15.2% unfavorable outcome; P < .001), with no greater risk of ocular complications. Early treatment for Type 1 high-risk prethreshold eyes improved visual acuity outcomes at 6 years of age. Early treatment for Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes did not. Application to Clinical Practice Type 1 eyes, not Type 2 eyes, should be treated early. These results are particularly important considering that 52% of Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes underwent regression of ROP without requiring treatment. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222.

  9. [Forensic (flexible) assertive community treatment: client characteristics and treatment outcomes].

    PubMed

    Neijmeijer, L; Verwoerd, J; van Vugt, M; Place, C; Kroon, H

    (Flexible) Assertive community treatment ((f)act) is applied increasingly to forensic psychiatric clients. However, evidence about the effectiveness of forensic (f)act is scanty. To investigate to what extent (subgroups of) clients receiving care from forensic (f)act teams show, after a year, changes in their social and psychological functioning and are subjected to fewer justicial outcome measures. Between 2009 and 2011, eight forensic (f)act teams collected, at two measurement moments separated by an average of 12 months, data relating to client characteristics and outcomes of care. The study involved 202 clients. After a year clients showed significant improvements in psychological and social functioning, and had fewer confrontations with the police and the law. They were detained less often and for shorter periods and were considered to be less likely to reoffend. The number of admissions to mental health care and to addiction and forensic care remained constant. Clients with a psychiatric disorder and likely to display criminal behaviour showed improvement while being treated by forensic (f)act teams. Further research is needed to prove whether forensic (f)act treatment will have the desired effects in the longer term and will enjoy the status of being regarded as evidence based practice.

  10. The impact of early specialist management on outcomes of patients with in-hospital stroke.

    PubMed

    Manawadu, Dulka; Choyi, Jithesh; Kalra, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    Delays in treatment of in-hospital stroke (IHS) adversely affect patient outcomes. We hypothesised that early referral and specialist management of IHS patients will improve outcomes at 90 days. Baseline characteristics, assessment delays, thrombolysis eligibility, 90-day functional outcomes and all-cause mortality were compared between IHS patients referred for specialist stroke management within 3 hours of symptom onset (early referrals) and later referrals. Patients were identified from a prospective stroke registry between January 2009 and December 2010. Inclusion criteria were primary admission with a non-stroke diagnosis, onset of new neurological deficits after admission and early ischaemic changes on CT or MR imaging. Eighty four (4.6%) of 1836 stroke patients had IHS (mean age 74 year; 51% male, median NIHSS score 10). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between 53 (63%) early and 31 (37%) late referrals. Thrombolysis was performed in 29 (76%) of the 37/78 (47%) potentially eligible patients; 7 patients were excluded because specialist referral was delayed beyond 4.5 hours despite symptom recognition within 3 hours of onset. Early referral improved functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0-2 at 90 days 40% v 7%, p = 0.001) and was an independent predictor of mRS 0-2 at 90 days after adjusting for age, pre-morbid function, primary cause for hospital admission and stroke severity [OR 1.13 (95% C.I.  = 1.10-1.27), p = 0.002]. Early referral and specialist management of IHS patients that includes thrombolysis is associated with better functional outcomes at 90 days.

  11. Treatment and outcomes of aortic endograft infection.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Matthew R; Duncan, Audra A; Harlander-Locke, Michael P; Lawrence, Peter F; Lyden, Sean; Fatima, Javariah; Eskandari, Mark K

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the medical and surgical management and outcomes of patients with aortic endograft infection after abdominal endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Patients diagnosed with infected aortic endografts after EVAR/TEVAR between January 1, 2004, and January 1, 2014, were reviewed using a standardized, multi-institutional database. Demographic, comorbidity, medical management, surgical, and outcomes data were included. An aortic endograft infection was diagnosed in 206 patients (EVAR, n = 180; TEVAR, n = 26) at a mean 22 months after implant. Clinical findings at presentation included pain (66%), fever/chills (66%), and aortic fistula (27%). Ultimately, 197 patients underwent surgical management after a mean of 153 days. In situ aortic replacement was performed in 186 patients (90%) using cryopreserved allograft in 54, neoaortoiliac system in 21, prosthetic in 111 (83% soaked in antibiotic), and 11 patients underwent axillary-(bi)femoral bypass. Graft cultures were primarily polymicrobial (35%) and gram-positive (22%). Mean hospital length of stay was 23 days, with perioperative 30-day morbidity of 35% and mortality of 11%. Of the nine patients managed only medically, four of five TEVAR patients died after mean of 56 days and two of four EVAR patients died; both deaths were graft-related (mean follow-up, 4 months). Nineteen replacement grafts were explanted after a mean of 540 days and were most commonly associated with prosthetic graft material not soaked in antibiotic and extra-anatomic bypass. Mean follow-up was 21 months, with life-table survival of 70%, 65%, 61%, 56%, and 51% at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, respectively. Aortic endograft infection can be eradicated by excision and in situ or extra-anatomic replacement but is often associated with early postoperative morbidity and mortality and occasionally with a need for late removal for reinfection. Prosthetic graft replacement after explanation is

  12. Outcomes of subsequent pregnancies after conservative treatment for placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Doron; Hants, Yael; Shanwetter, Neta; Simons, Moshe; Weiniger, Carolyn F; Gielchinsky, Yuval; Ezra, Yossef

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the association between conservative treatment for placenta accreta and subsequent pregnancy outcomes. In a retrospective study, data were analyzed on women who received conservative treatment for placenta accreta (removal of the placenta with uterine preservation) at a tertiary hospital in Jerusalem, Israel, between 1990 and 2000. Data were collected on subsequent pregnancies and neonatal outcomes until 2010, and compared with those from a matched control group of women who did not have placenta accreta. A total of 134 women were included in both groups. Placenta accreta occurred in 62 (22.8%) of 272 subsequent deliveries in the study group for which data were available and 5 (1.9%) of 266 in the control group (relative risk [RR] 12.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.95-29.69; P<0.001). Early postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 23 (8.6%) of 268 deliveries in the study group and 7 (2.6%) of 268 in the control group (RR 3.29; 95% CI 1.43-7.53; P<0.001). The odds ratio for recurrent placenta accreta in subsequent deliveries in the study group was 15.41 (95% CI 6.09-39.03; P<0.001). Although subsequent pregnancies after conservative treatment for placenta accreta were mostly successful, the risk of recurrent placenta accreta and postpartum hemorrhage is high in future deliveries. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Raemaekers, John

    2016-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such as the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) HD10 study demonstrated, that even two cycles of ABVD followed by 20 Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) are sufficient and result in more than 90% of patients being cured. The current treatment for early unfavorable patients is either four cycles of ABVD plus 30 Gy IF-RT or two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline followed by two cycles of ABVD plus IF-RT. Here, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) demonstrated that in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive patients after two cycles of ABVD, treatment switched to two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline plus radiotherapy results in significantly improved outcomes. Other aspects including attempts to further reduce intensity of treatment will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of deferred or no treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with early primary biliary cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Hirohara, Junko; Nakano, Toshiaki; Yagi, Minami; Namisaki, Tadashi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takikawa, Hajime

    2018-02-06

    As primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a heterogeneous disease, we hypothesized that there is a population of patients with early PBC who do not require prompt treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In this study, we analyzed data from a large-scale PBC cohort in Japan, and retrospectively investigated whether outcomes of early PBC patients were affected with prompt or deferred/no UDCA treatment. We defined early PBC as asymptomatic, serum alkaline phosphatase <1.67-fold the upper limit of normal, normal bilirubin, and histological stages I-II at presentation. We compared the outcomes of early PBC patients between the treatment regimens; prompt treatment group (UDCA was initiated within 1 year after diagnosis) and deferred/no treatment group (UDCA initiated >1 year after diagnosis or never initiated). Furthermore, we examined the outcomes of early PBC patients alternatively defined only with symptomatology and biochemistry. We identified 562 early PBC patients (prompt: n = 509; deferred/no treatment: n = 53). Incidence rates (per 1000 patient-years) for liver-related mortality or liver transplantation and decompensating events were 0.5 and 5.4, respectively, in the prompt treatment group, and 0 and 8.7, respectively, in the deferred/no treatment group. Multivariate analyses showed that age and bilirubin were significantly associated with developing decompensating events, whereas the prompt and deferred/no treatments were not. We obtained similar results in early PBC patients defined without histological examination. We showed that deferred/no treatment for early PBC patients did not affect the outcomes. This study provides a rationale for a future prospective, randomized study. © 2018 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  15. Operative Outcome and Patient Satisfaction in Early and Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hokkam, Emad N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually associated with reduced hospital stay, sick leave, and health care expenditures. Early diagnosis and treatment of acute cholecystitis reduce both mortality and morbidity and the accurate diagnosis requires specific diagnostic criteria of clinical data and imaging studies. Objectives. To compare early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy regarding the operative outcome and patient satisfaction. Patients and Methods. Patients with acute cholecystitis were divided into two groups, early (A) and delayed (B) cholecystectomy. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was confirmed by clinical examination, laboratory data, and ultrasound study. The primary end point was operative and postoperative outcome and the secondary was patient's satisfaction. Results. The number of readmissions in delayed treatment group B was three times in 10% of patients, twice in 23.3%, and once in 66.7% while the number of readmissions was once only in patients in group A and the mean total hospital stays were higher in group B than in group A. The overall patient's satisfaction was 92.66 ± 6.8 in group A compared with 75.34 ± 12.85 in group B. Conclusion. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy resulted in significant reduction in length of hospital stay and accepted rate of operative complications and conversion rates when compared with delayed techniques. PMID:25197568

  16. Predictors of Outcomes in Autism Early Intervention: Why Don’t We Know More?

    PubMed Central

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Prior, Margot; Williams, Katrina; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Response to early intervention programs in autism is variable. However, the factors associated with positive versus poor treatment outcomes remain unknown. Hence the issue of which intervention/s should be chosen for an individual child remains a common dilemma. We argue that lack of knowledge on “what works for whom and why” in autism reflects a number of issues in current approaches to outcomes research, and we provide recommendations to address these limitations. These include: a theory-driven selection of putative predictors; the inclusion of proximal measures that are directly relevant to the learning mechanisms demanded by the specific educational strategies; the consideration of family characteristics. Moreover, all data on associations between predictor and outcome variables should be reported in treatment studies. PMID:24999470

  17. Early surgical treatment of retinal hemangioblastomas.

    PubMed

    van Overdam, Koen A; Missotten, Tom; Kilic, Emine; Spielberg, Leigh H

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical course after early surgical treatment with excision of retinal hemangioblastomas (RHs) before development of major complications. Interventional case series of four eyes (four patients) with a peripheral RH that had not yet been treated by laser or cryotherapy prior to surgery. All eyes underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy with lesion excision. One patient underwent ligation of the feeder vessel prior to lesion excision. Best-corrected visual acuity and clinical course were assessed during a follow-up period of at least 4 years. Four patients (mean age 27.3 years; range 19-32) were included, of whom two had von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Visual acuity improved in three patients (mean 4.8 lines; range 3-10) and remained stable at 0.0 logMAR in one patient. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications included transient mild vitreous haemorrhage (n = 2), and local epiretinal membrane formation at the excision location (n = 1). At 4 years postoperatively, there were no long-term complications. There was one case of a new lesion, which was effectively treated with laser. Vitrectomy with RH excision seems to be an effective approach for larger RHs and could be considered an early treatment option in selected cases. Postoperative complications were limited in scope of this case series. Important points to consider during vitrectomy are effective closure of feeder and draining vessels as well as complete removal of posterior hyaloid and epiretinal membranes in order to avoid postoperative vitreous haemorrhage and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Treatment of vasculitic peripheral neuropathy: a retrospective analysis of outcome.

    PubMed

    Mathew, L; Talbot, K; Love, S; Puvanarajah, S; Donaghy, M

    2007-01-01

    Vasculitis of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is rare. There are no controlled treatment trials, and clinical practice is guided by experience from case series and indirectly by analogy with systemic vasculitis. We identified patients (n=212) with possible vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (VPN) from the neuropathology and neurophysiology records of two centres over 28 years. Case-notes were available for 181, from which, 106 cases of clinicopathological VPN were identified. Adequate treatment data were available in 100; follow-up data, in 93. Of 106 cases, 95 had systemic vasculitis and 11 had vasculitis confined to the PNS. Pharmacological treatment (94/100 cases) was corticosteroid-based, and included cyclophosphamide in 54; 17 received additional agents. Initial stabilization was achieved in all but six. One-year survival was 90.3%. Of the nine who died in the first years (mean age 73 years), seven had received cyclophosphamide, and all but two had severe, multisystem vasculitis. The neurological relapse rate was 10%. Only one relapse occurred after cyclophosphamide treatment. Outcome was reported as good in 72% (78% in those who relapsed). Death and relapse were infrequent in treated patients. Relapse occurred almost exclusively in patients treated with prednisolone alone. Aggressive early treatment with cyclophosphamide may prevent relapse. The current management approach to VPN appears largely effective, especially if cyclophosphamide is used.

  19. Early EEG for outcome prediction of postanoxic coma: prospective cohort study with cost-minimization analysis.

    PubMed

    Sondag, Lotte; Ruijter, Barry J; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C; Beishuizen, Albertus; Bosch, Frank H; van Til, Janine A; van Putten, Michel J A M; Hofmeijer, Jeannette

    2017-05-15

    We recently showed that electroencephalography (EEG) patterns within the first 24 hours robustly contribute to multimodal prediction of poor or good neurological outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Here, we confirm these results and present a cost-minimization analysis. Early prognosis contributes to communication between doctors and family, and may prevent inappropriate treatment. A prospective cohort study including 430 subsequent comatose patients after cardiac arrest was conducted at intensive care units of two teaching hospitals. Continuous EEG was started within 12 hours after cardiac arrest and continued up to 3 days. EEG patterns were visually classified as unfavorable (isoelectric, low-voltage, or burst suppression with identical bursts) or favorable (continuous patterns) at 12 and 24 hours after cardiac arrest. Outcome at 6 months was classified as good (cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 or 2) or poor (CPC 3, 4, or 5). Predictive values of EEG measures and cost-consequences from a hospital perspective were investigated, assuming EEG-based decision- making about withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in the case of a poor predicted outcome. Poor outcome occurred in 197 patients (51% of those included in the analyses). Unfavorable EEG patterns at 24 hours predicted a poor outcome with specificity of 100% (95% CI 98-100%) and sensitivity of 29% (95% CI 22-36%). Favorable patterns at 12 hours predicted good outcome with specificity of 88% (95% CI 81-93%) and sensitivity of 51% (95% CI 42-60%). Treatment withdrawal based on an unfavorable EEG pattern at 24 hours resulted in a reduced mean ICU length of stay without increased mortality in the long term. This gave small cost reductions, depending on the timing of withdrawal. Early EEG contributes to reliable prediction of good or poor outcome of postanoxic coma and may lead to reduced length of ICU stay. In turn, this may bring small cost reductions.

  20. School Age Outcomes of Children Diagnosed Early and Later with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan Louise Erin; Vinen, Zoe; Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder is considered best practice, increasing access to early intervention. Yet, many children are diagnosed after 3-years. The current study investigated the school age outcomes of children who received an early and later diagnosis of ASD. The cognitive and behavioural outcomes of children diagnosed early (n…

  1. Treatment outcomes of using inhalation sedation for comprehensive dental care.

    PubMed

    Madouh, M; BaniHani, A; Tahmassebi, J F

    2018-02-01

    To assess the outcomes of dental treatment under inhalation sedation within a UK specialist hospital setting. This was a retrospective cohort study of the case notes of patients under 17 years of age who received dental treatment using inhalation sedation at a UK specialist setting during the period 2006-2011. Treatment outcomes were categorised into five groups: (1) treatment completed as planned, (2) modified treatment completed, (3) treatment abandoned in sedation unit and patient referred for treatment under general analgesia (GA), (4) treatment abandoned in sedation unit and patient referred for treatment under local analgesia (LA), (5) child failed to return to complete treatment. In total, the case notes of 453 patients were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 10.3 ± 2.9 years. Treatment was completed successfully in 63.6% of the cases, 15.9% were referred for treatment under GA, 11.2% failed to return to complete the treatment, 7.1% received modified treatment completed, and only 2.2% were referred for treatment under LA. Treatment outcomes were significantly associated with patient`s age (p = 0.002). The treatment outcome "treatment abandoned and child referred to be treated under GA" had significantly lower mean patient ages than the other outcomes. The majority of children referred for inhalation sedation, completed their course of treatment. A significantly higher proportion of those in the younger age group required GA to complete their treatment.

  2. Effects of perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain on long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ilka; Finke, Beatrice; Tam, Friederike I; Fittig, Eike; Scholz, Michael; Gantchev, Krassimir; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe mental disorder with an onset during adolescence, has been found to be difficult to treat. Identifying variables that predict long-term outcome may help to develop better treatment strategies. Since body image distortion and weight gain are central elements of diagnosis and treatment of AN, the current study investigated perceptual body image distortion, defined as the accuracy of evaluating one's own perceived body size in relation to the actual body size, as well as total and early weight gain during inpatient treatment as predictors for long-term outcome in a sample of 76 female adolescent AN patients. Long-term outcome was defined by physical, psychological and psychosocial adjustment using the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule as well as by the mere physical outcome consisting of menses and/or BMI approximately 3 years after treatment. Perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain predicted long-term outcome (explained variance 13.3 %), but not the physical outcome alone. This study provides first evidence for an association of perceptual body image distortion with long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa and underlines the importance of sufficient early weight gain.

  3. Treatment outcomes in locally advanced colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Harish, K; Narayanaswamy, YV; Nirmala, S

    2004-01-01

    Background Locally advanced colorectal cancers form a distinct subgroup where contiguous organs could be involved without distant metastases and so may be amenable to curative surgical resection. It was our objective to report our experience in treating six such patients with operable locally advanced colorectal carcinomas. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the case notes of 47 patients who were diagnosed with colorectal cancers at M S Ramaiah Medical Teaching Hospital between the years 1996 – 2001. Six patients were identified with T4 lesions, adjacent organ involvement and with no nodal involvement. The treatments and outcomes for these patients were then reviewed. Results Two of three patients with rectal malignancies who underwent pelvic exenteration succumbed to disease recurrence within the first 18 months. One of the three patients with colonic cancers died of non malignant causes. The other two are disease free till date. Conclusions Aggressive multivisceral resections for locally advanced colonic cancers might be appropriate. Rectal cancers when locally advanced may be considered for pelvic exenteration, but a more guarded prognosis may apply. PMID:15527504

  4. Adverse Experiences in Early Childhood and Kindergarten Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Manuel E; Wade, Roy; Lin, Yong; Morrow, Lesley M; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-02-01

    To examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in early childhood and teacher-reported academic and behavioral problems in kindergarten. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort. Subjects with primary caregiver-reported information on ACE exposures ascertained at 5 years and teacher-reported outcomes at the end of the child's kindergarten year were included. Outcomes included teacher ratings of academic skills, emergent literacy skills, and behavior. We included 8 ACE exposures on the basis of the original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kaiser study and created an ACE score by summing individual adversities. We examined the associations between teacher-reported academic and behavioral outcomes and ACE scores by using logistic regression. In the study sample, 1007 children were included. Fifty-five percent had experienced 1 ACE and 12% had experienced ≥ 3. Adjusting for potential confounders, experiencing ≥ 3 ACEs was associated with below-average language and literacy skills (adjusted odds ratio [AORs]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.9) and math skills (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), poor emergent literacy skills, attention problems (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.8-6.5), social problems (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0), and aggression (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.6). In this study of urban children, experiencing ACEs in early childhood was associated with below-average, teacher-reported academic and literacy skills and behavior problems in kindergarten. These findings underscore the importance of integrated approaches that promote optimal development among vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Early nutrition and health: short- and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diet, nutritional status during pregnancy, and the early diet of the offspring play an important role in later health. The short- and long-term outcomes of early nutrition have been extensively studied in recent decades. One of the most commonly investigated nutritional interventions is breastfeeding, which is associated with a number of positive short- and long-term outcomes. A short-term effect of breastfeeding is reduced morbidity and mortality in children from poor living conditions and in preterm infants. Breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development and also has a long-term protective effect on obesity risk, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and a lowering effect on blood pressure. Selected nutrients have undergone extensive investigation to show their role in disease prevention or improved development, e.g. protein intake in infancy seems to be associated with a later risk of obesity or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has a positive impact on cognitive function. Another consideration is the fast catch-up growth in small for gestational age infants as an important factor associated with adult risk of cardiovascular problems. On the other hand, high protein and energy intake seems to be positively associated with some indicators of cognitive development. Most of the evidence comes from observational studies that cannot exclude potential confounders. Animal studies demonstrate causality but should not be directly extrapolated to humans. The number of randomized controlled studies is increasing but long-term follow-ups are necessary to obtain convincing results. The majority of these trials compare different infant formula compositions and macro- or micronutrient supplementation. One of the major questions is to define a critical (or opportunity) window and a mechanism of nutritional influence on several health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Corticosteroid injection in early treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, K L; Laskowski, E R; Idank, D M; McLean, T J; Egan, K S

    2001-10-01

    To analyze whether a corticosteroid injection in combination with rehabilitation early in the course of lateral epicondylitis (LE) alters the outcome up to 6 months after injection compared with a control injection and rehabilitation. Randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Sports medicine center in a tertiary care center. Subjects with a diagnosis of LE whose symptoms had been present less than 4 weeks were included. Subjects were recruited by word of mouth and through advertising. The 39 subjects who were recruited were 18 to 65 years old. 19 subjects were randomized to receive rehabilitation and a sham injection, and 20 were randomized to receive rehabilitation and a corticosteroid injection. At 4 and 8 weeks, they were reevaluated and their treatment programs were modified, if indicated. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months, and included a functional pain questionnaire and a visual analogue pain scale. Painless grip strength on the affected side and maximal grip strength bilaterally were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in outcome between the two groups with the exception of an improvement in the visual analogue pain scale in the corticosteroid group from 8 weeks to 6 months. Outcome measurements in both groups improved significantly over time; more than 80% of subjects reported improvements from baseline to 6 months for all scales. A corticosteroid injection does not provide a clinically significant improvement in the outcome of LE, and rehabilitation should be the first line of treatment in patients with a short duration of symptoms.

  7. Early father's and mother's involvement and child's later educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2004-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether gender and family structure moderate the relationship between father's and mother's involvement and child's educational attainment, and (3) to explore whether the impact of father's involvement depends on the level of mother's involvement. The study used longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study. The initial sample were those 7,259 cohort members with valid data on mother involvement at age 7, father involvement at age 7, and school-leaving qualification by age 20. Of those, 3,303 were included in the final analysis. The measures were control variables, structural factors (family structure, sibship size and residential mobility), child factors (emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability and academic motivation), and father's and mother's involvement. Father involvement and mother involvement at age 7 independently predicted educational attainment by age 20. The association between parents' involvement and educational attainment was not stronger for sons than for daughters. Father involvement was not more important for educational attainment when mother involvement was low rather than high. Not growing up in intact two-parent family did not weaken the association between father's or mother's involvement and educational outcomes. Early father involvement can be another protective factor in counteracting risk conditions that might lead to later low attainment levels.

  8. Outcome of Surgical Treatment of 200 Children With Cushing's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lonser, Russell R.; Wind, Joshua J.; Nieman, Lynnette K.; Weil, Robert J.; DeVroom, Hetty L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Factors influencing the outcome of surgical treatment of pediatric Cushing's disease (CD) have not been fully established. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine features influencing the outcome of surgery for pediatric CD. Design: In this prospective observational study, the clinical, imaging, endocrinological, and operative outcomes were analyzed in consecutive patients treated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 1982 through 2010. Setting: The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. Results: Two hundred CD patients (106 females, 94 males) were included. Mean age at symptom development was 10.6 ± 3.6 years (range, 4.0 to 19.0 y). Mean age at NIH operation was 13.7 ± 3.7 years. Twenty-seven patients (13%) had prior surgery at another institution. Magnetic resonance imaging identified adenomas in 97 patients (50%). When positive, magnetic resonance imaging accurately defined a discrete adenoma in 96 of the 97 patients (99%), which was more accurate than the use of ACTH ratios during inferior petrosal sinus sampling to determine adenoma lateralization (accurate in 72% of patients without prior surgery). A total of 195 of the 200 patients (98%) achieved remission after surgery (189 [97%] were hypocortisolemic; 6 [3%] were eucortisolemic postoperatively). Factors associated with initial remission (P < .05) included identification of an adenoma at surgery, immunohistochemical ACTH-producing adenoma, and noninvasive ACTH adenoma. Younger age, smaller adenoma, and absence of cavernous sinus wall or other dural invasion were associated with long-term remission (P < .05). A minimum morning serum cortisol of less than 1 μg/dl after surgery had a positive predictive value for lasting remission of 96%. Conclusions: With rare disorders, such as pediatric CD, enhanced outcomes are obtained by evaluation and treatment at centers with substantial experience. Resection of pituitary adenomas in pediatric CD in that setting can be safe

  9. Early outcomes following low dose naltrexone enhancement of opioid detoxification.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A; Peindl, Kathleen; Gottheil, Edward; Wu, Li-Tzy; Gorelick, David A

    2009-01-01

    Although withdrawal severity and treatment completion are the initial focus of opioid detoxification, post-detoxification outcome better defines effective interventions. Very low dose naltrexone (VLNTX) in addition to methadone taper was recently associated with attenuated withdrawal intensity during detoxification. We describe the results of a seven-day follow-up evaluation of 96 subjects who completed inpatient detoxification consisting of the addition of VLNTX (0.125 or 0.250 mg per day) or placebo to methadone taper in a double blind, randomized investigation. Individuals receiving VLNTX during detoxification reported reduced withdrawal and drug use during the first 24 hours after discharge. VLNTX addition was also associated with higher rates of negative drug tests for opioids and cannabis and increased engagement in outpatient treatment after one week. Further studies are needed to test the utility of this approach in easing the transition from detoxification to various follow-up treatment modalities designed to address opioid dependence.

  10. Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Characteristics and Outcomes in the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Ford, Julian D; Pearson, Geraldine S; Scranton, Victoria L; Dusad, Asha

    2017-12-01

    To assess patient characteristics and clinician-rated outcomes for children diagnosed with early-onset bipolar disorder in comparison to a depressive disorders cohort from a single clinic site. To assess predictors of bipolar treatment response. Medical records from 714 consecutive pediatric patients evaluated and treated at an academic tertiary child and adolescent psychiatry clinic between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed. Charts of bipolar children (n = 49) and children with depressive disorders (n = 58) meeting study inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared on variables assessing clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. Outcomes were assessed by using pre- and post-Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Severity and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores, and a CGI-Improvement score ≤2 at final visit determined responder status. Bipolar outcome predictors were assessed by using multiple linear regression. Clinic prevalence rates were 6.9% for early-onset bipolar disorder and 1.5% for very early-onset bipolar disorder. High rates of comorbid diagnoses, symptom severity, parental stress, and child high-risk behaviors were found in both groups. The bipolar cohort had higher rates of aggression and higher lifetime systems of care utilization. The final CGI and CGAS outcomes for unipolar depression patients differed statistically significantly from those for the bipolar cohort, reflecting better clinical status and more improvement at outcome for the depression patients. Both parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist total T-score at clinic admission and the number of lifetime systems-of-care for the child were significantly and inversely associated with improvement for the bipolar cohort. Early-onset bipolar disorder is a complex and heterogeneous psychiatric disorder. Evidence-based treatment should emphasize psychopharmacology with adjunctive family and individual psychotherapy. Strategies to improve engagement in treatment may be especially

  11. Opportunity cost for early treatment of Chagas disease in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Janine M; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life.

  12. Opportunity Cost for Early Treatment of Chagas Disease in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Janine M.; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions/Significance In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life. PMID:24743112

  13. The microbiome in early life: implications for health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Sabrina; Shen, Nan; Wu, Han Chih; Clemente, Jose C

    2016-07-07

    Recent studies have characterized how host genetics, prenatal environment and delivery mode can shape the newborn microbiome at birth. Following this, postnatal factors, such as antibiotic treatment, diet or environmental exposure, further modulate the development of the infant's microbiome and immune system, and exposure to a variety of microbial organisms during early life has long been hypothesized to exert a protective effect in the newborn. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown that factors that alter bacterial communities in infants during childhood increase the risk for several diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding early-life microbiome composition. In this review, we describe how prenatal and postnatal factors shape the development of both the microbiome and the immune system. We also discuss the prospects of microbiome-mediated therapeutics and the need for more effective approaches that can reconfigure bacterial communities from pathogenic to homeostatic configurations.

  14. Antidepressant treatment outcomes of psychogenic movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Lang, Anthony E

    2005-12-01

    Psychogenic movement disorder (PMD) is a subtype of conversion disorder. We describe the outcomes of a series of PMD patients following antidepressant treatment. Twenty-three outpatients with chronic PMD, diagnosed using Fahn and Williams' criteria, underwent psychiatric assessment. The patients were referred for assessment and management from January 2003 to July 2004. Fifteen agreed to be treated with antidepressants. Patients received citalopram or paroxetine; those who did not respond after 4 weeks of taking an optimal dose were switched to venlafaxine. Concurrently, 3 had supportive psychotherapy, and 1 had family intervention. Assessments included the DSM-IV-based Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and scales measuring depression, anxiety, and motor and global severity. Eighteen patients (78%) had at least 1 Axis I diagnosis in addition to the somatoform diagnosis, and 3 (13%) had somatization disorder. Five (22%) had previous psychiatric contact. Nine (39%) had previously been treated with antidepressants, but only 4 (17%) had adequate trials. No significant differences existed in patient characteristics between treated and untreated groups. Among treated patients, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores improved from baseline (p < .01). Two treated subgroups were identified: 10 patients (67%) had primary conversion disorder, of whom 8 had marked motor and global improvements with 7 complete remissions, and 5 (33%) had primary hypochondriasis, somatization disorder, or probable factitious disorder/malingering, of whom none improved. All of the patients with primary conversion disorder had a current or previous depressive or anxiety disorder compared with 40% (N = 2) of the patients with additional somatoform diagnoses. Our preliminary findings suggest that chronic PMD with primary conversion symptoms and with recent or current depression or anxiety may respond to antidepressants. Further well-designed studies, now under way, are required

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder in the perinatal period: early infant and maternal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blankley, Gaynor; Galbally, Megan; Snellen, Martien; Power, Josephine; Lewis, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    This study examines pregnancy and early infant outcomes of pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder presenting for obstetric services to a major metropolitan maternity hospital in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective case review of pregnancy and early infant outcomes on 42 women who had been diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder via psychiatric assessment using DSM-IV-R criteria was undertaken. Outcomes were compared with a control group of 14,313 consisting of women and infants of non-affected women from the same hospital over the same period of time. Women presenting for obstetric services with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder experienced considerable psychosocial impairment. They anticipated birth as traumatic and frequently requested early delivery. High comorbidity with substance abuse was found and high rates of referral to child protective services. Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder were significantly more likely to have negative birth outcomes such as lowered Apgar scores, prematurity and special care nursery referral when compared with controls. These findings offer preliminary evidence to be considered by clinicians in developing treatments and services for the perinatal care of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. Further research is required in order to develop evidence informed clinical guidelines for the management of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  16. Lack of Early Improvement Predicts Poor Outcome Following Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yogendrakumar, Vignan; Smith, Eric E; Demchuk, Andrew M; Aviv, Richard I; Rodriguez-Luna, David; Molina, Carlos A; Silva Blas, Yolanda; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Kobayashi, Adam; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Lum, Cheemun; Gubitz, Gord; Padma, Vasantha; Roy, Jayanta; Kase, Carlos S; Bhatia, Rohit; Ali, Myzoon; Lyden, Patrick; Hill, Michael D; Dowlatshahi, Dar

    2018-04-01

    , 98%; positive predictive value, 91%; adjusted odds ratio, 12.24 [CI, 4.08-36.66]). All definitions reproduced well in the validation cohort. Lack of clinical improvement at 24 hours robustly predicted poor outcome and showed good discrimination for individual patients who would do poorly. These findings are useful for prognostication and may also present as a potential early surrogate outcome for future intracerebral hemorrhage treatment trials.

  17. Systematic Outcomes Research for Corrections-Based Treatment: Implications from the Criminal Justice Kentucky Treatment Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; McNees, Erin; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Walker, Robert; Thompson, LaDonna; Pangburn, Kevin; Oser, Carrie B.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Kentucky correctional system has expanded corrections-based modified therapeutic community treatment from 6 programs to 24 programs. To examine the effectiveness of these programs, the state initiated a systematic treatment outcome study known as the Criminal Justice Kentucky Treatment Outcome Study (CJKTOS). The…

  18. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents’ behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents’ antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent’s activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899

  19. Understanding Treatment Effect Estimates When Treatment Effects Are Heterogeneous for More Than One Outcome.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John M; Chapman, Cole G; Schroeder, Mary C

    2018-06-01

    Patient-centred care requires evidence of treatment effects across many outcomes. Outcomes can be beneficial (e.g. increased survival or cure rates) or detrimental (e.g. adverse events, pain associated with treatment, treatment costs, time required for treatment). Treatment effects may also be heterogeneous across outcomes and across patients. Randomized controlled trials are usually insufficient to supply evidence across outcomes. Observational data analysis is an alternative, with the caveat that the treatments observed are choices. Real-world treatment choice often involves complex assessment of expected effects across the array of outcomes. Failure to account for this complexity when interpreting treatment effect estimates could lead to clinical and policy mistakes. Our objective was to assess the properties of treatment effect estimates based on choice when treatments have heterogeneous effects on both beneficial and detrimental outcomes across patients. Simulation methods were used to highlight the sensitivity of treatment effect estimates to the distributions of treatment effects across patients across outcomes. Scenarios with alternative correlations between benefit and detriment treatment effects across patients were used. Regression and instrumental variable estimators were applied to the simulated data for both outcomes. True treatment effect parameters are sensitive to the relationships of treatment effectiveness across outcomes in each study population. In each simulation scenario, treatment effect estimate interpretations for each outcome are aligned with results shown previously in single outcome models, but these estimates vary across simulated populations with the correlations of treatment effects across patients across outcomes. If estimator assumptions are valid, estimates across outcomes can be used to assess the optimality of treatment rates in a study population. However, because true treatment effect parameters are sensitive to correlations

  20. Group Treatment of Depression: Individual Predictors of Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoberman, Harry M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Identified patient characteristics predictive of individual outcome in psychoeducational group treatment for unipolar depression, a coping with depression course. After treatment, 85 percent of the subjects no longer met diagnostic criteria for depressive disorders. Found the most robust predictors of outcome to be pretreatment depression level,…

  1. Outcomes of Early Adolescent Donor Hearts in Adult Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Madan, Shivank; Patel, Snehal R; Vlismas, Peter; Saeed, Omar; Murthy, Sandhya; Forest, Stephen; Jakobleff, William; Sims, Daniel; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Hsu, Daphne T; Shin, Julia; Goldstein, Daniel; Jorde, Ulrich P

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to determine outcomes of adult recipients of early adolescent (EA) (10 to 14 years) donor hearts. Despite a shortage of donor organs, EA donor hearts (not used for pediatric patients) are seldom used for adults because of theoretical concerns for lack of hormonal activation and changes in left ventricular mass. Nonetheless, the outcomes of adult transplantation using EA donor hearts are not clearly established. All adult (≥18 years of age) heart transplant recipients in the United Network for Organ Sharing database between April 1994 and September 2015 were eligible for this analysis. Recipients of EA donor hearts were compared with recipients of donor hearts from the usual adult age group (ages 18 to 55 years). Main outcomes were all-cause mortality and cardiac allograft vasculopathy up to 5 years, and primary graft failure up to 90 days post-transplant. Propensity score analysis was used to identify a cohort of recipients with similar baseline characteristics. Of the 35,054 eligible adult recipients, 1,123 received hearts from EA donors and 33,931 from usual-age adult donors. With the use of propensity score matching, 944 recipients of EA donor hearts were matched to 944 recipients of usual-age adult donor hearts. There was no difference in 30-day, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year recipient survival or primary graft failure rates in the 2 groups using both Cox hazards ratio and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Of note, adult patients who received EA donor hearts had a trend toward less cardiac allograft vasculopathy (Cox hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 1.01; p = 0.07). In this largest analysis to date, we found strong evidence that EA donor hearts, not used for pediatric patients, can be safely transplanted in appropriate adult patients and have good outcomes. This finding should help increase the use of EA donor hearts. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Focus on Early Optimized Treatment.

    PubMed

    Habert, Jeffrey; Katzman, Martin A; Oluboka, Oloruntoba J; McIntyre, Roger S; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Khullar, Atul; Milev, Roumen V; Kjernisted, Kevin D; Chokka, Pratap R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the case that a more rapid, individualized approach to treating major depressive disorder (MDD) may increase the likelihood of achieving full symptomatic and functional recovery for individual patients and that studies show it is possible to make earlier decisions about appropriateness of treatment in order to rapidly optimize that treatment. A PubMed search was conducted using terms including major depressive disorder, early improvement, predictor, duration of untreated illness, and function. English-language articles published before September 2015 were included. Additional studies were found within identified research articles and reviews. Thirty antidepressant studies reporting predictor criteria and outcome measures are included in this review. Studies were reviewed to extract definitions of predictors, outcome measures, and results of the predictor analysis. Results were summarized separately for studies reporting effects of early improvement, baseline characteristics, and duration of untreated depression. Shorter duration of the current depressive episode and duration of untreated depression are associated with better symptomatic and functional outcomes in MDD. Early improvement of depressive symptoms predicts positive symptomatic outcomes (response and remission), and early functional improvement predicts an increased likelihood of functional remission. The approach to treatment of depression that exhibits the greatest potential for achieving full symptomatic and functional recovery is early optimized treatment: early diagnosis followed by rapid individualized treatment. Monitoring symptoms and function early in treatment is crucial to ensuring that patients do not remain on ineffective or poorly tolerated treatment, which may delay recovery and heighten the risk of residual functional deficits. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Prediction of antiepileptic drug treatment outcomes using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colic, Sinisa; Wither, Robert G.; Lang, Min; Zhang, Liang; Eubanks, James H.; Bardakjian, Berj L.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments produce inconsistent outcomes, often necessitating patients to go through several drug trials until a successful treatment can be found. This study proposes the use of machine learning techniques to predict epilepsy treatment outcomes of commonly used AEDs. Approach. Machine learning algorithms were trained and evaluated using features obtained from intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings of the epileptiform discharges observed in Mecp2-deficient mouse model of the Rett Syndrome. Previous work have linked the presence of cross-frequency coupling (I CFC) of the delta (2-5 Hz) rhythm with the fast ripple (400-600 Hz) rhythm in epileptiform discharges. Using the I CFC to label post-treatment outcomes we compared support vector machines (SVMs) and random forest (RF) machine learning classifiers for providing likelihood scores of successful treatment outcomes. Main results. (a) There was heterogeneity in AED treatment outcomes, (b) machine learning techniques could be used to rank the efficacy of AEDs by estimating likelihood scores for successful treatment outcome, (c) I CFC features yielded the most effective a priori identification of appropriate AED treatment, and (d) both classifiers performed comparably. Significance. Machine learning approaches yielded predictions of successful drug treatment outcomes which in turn could reduce the burdens of drug trials and lead to substantial improvements in patient quality of life.

  4. Prediction of antiepileptic drug treatment outcomes using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Colic, Sinisa; Wither, Robert G; Lang, Min; Zhang, Liang; Eubanks, James H; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2017-02-01

    Antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments produce inconsistent outcomes, often necessitating patients to go through several drug trials until a successful treatment can be found. This study proposes the use of machine learning techniques to predict epilepsy treatment outcomes of commonly used AEDs. Machine learning algorithms were trained and evaluated using features obtained from intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings of the epileptiform discharges observed in Mecp2-deficient mouse model of the Rett Syndrome. Previous work have linked the presence of cross-frequency coupling (I CFC ) of the delta (2-5 Hz) rhythm with the fast ripple (400-600 Hz) rhythm in epileptiform discharges. Using the I CFC to label post-treatment outcomes we compared support vector machines (SVMs) and random forest (RF) machine learning classifiers for providing likelihood scores of successful treatment outcomes. (a) There was heterogeneity in AED treatment outcomes, (b) machine learning techniques could be used to rank the efficacy of AEDs by estimating likelihood scores for successful treatment outcome, (c) I CFC features yielded the most effective a priori identification of appropriate AED treatment, and (d) both classifiers performed comparably. Machine learning approaches yielded predictions of successful drug treatment outcomes which in turn could reduce the burdens of drug trials and lead to substantial improvements in patient quality of life.

  5. Outcome Expectations and Associated Treatment Outcomes in Motivational Enhancement Therapy Delivered in English and Spanish

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Kelly; Decker, Suzanne; Kiluk, Brian D.; Añez, Luis; Paris, Manuel; Frankforter, Tami; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The relationship between patients’ baseline expectations regarding treatment outcome and actual outcomes has not been widely studied within the field of substance use disorders. We hypothesized that outcome expectations would be unrelated to outcomes in a study investigating Motivational Enhancement Therapy delivered in English (MET-E) consistent with our earlier work, and conducted exploratory analyses in a separate study that investigated the same treatment delivered in Spanish (MET-S). Methods These secondary analyses compared patient outcome expectations and substance use treatment outcomes in two large, multisite randomized controlled clinical trials that evaluated three sessions of MET-E or MET-S. The MET-E sample included 461 participants and the MET-S sample included 405 participants. Outcome expectations were measured by a single item regarding expectations about abstinence prior to initiating treatment. Results Outcome expectations were strongly associated with most substance use outcomes in the MET-S trial (but not in MET-E), even after controlling for severity of substance use at baseline. In MET-S, those who indicated that they were ‘unsure’ that they would achieve abstinence during treatment submitted a greater percentage of drug-positive urine toxicology screens during the treatment period than those who were ‘sure’ they would achieve abstinence (F = 18.83, p <.001). Discussion and Conclusions Patients’ outcome expectations regarding the likelihood of abstinence may be an important predictor of drug use treatment outcomes among Spanish-speakers, but not necessarily for English-speakers. Scientific Significance Individual differences and cultural factors may play a role in the association between outcome expectations and treatment outcomes. PMID:26541501

  6. Outcome expectations and associated treatment outcomes in motivational enhancement therapy delivered in English and Spanish.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Kelly; Decker, Suzanne; Kiluk, Brian D; Añez, Luis; Paris, Manuel; Frankforter, Tami; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between patients' baseline expectations regarding treatment outcome and actual outcomes has not been widely studied within the field of substance use disorders. We hypothesized that outcome expectations would be unrelated to outcomes in a study investigating motivational enhancement therapy delivered in English (MET-E) consistent with our earlier work, and conducted exploratory analyses in a separate study that investigated the same treatment delivered in Spanish (MET-S). These secondary analyses compared patient outcome expectations and substance use treatment outcomes in two large, multisite randomized controlled clinical trials that evaluated three sessions of MET-E or MET-S. The MET-E sample included 461 participants and the MET-S sample included 405 participants. Outcome expectations were measured by a single item regarding expectations about abstinence prior to initiating treatment. Outcome expectations were strongly associated with most substance use outcomes in the MET-S trial (but not in MET-E), even after controlling for severity of substance use at baseline. In MET-S, those who indicated that they were "unsure" that they would achieve abstinence during treatment submitted a greater percentage of drug-positive urine toxicology screens during the treatment period than those who were 'sure' they would achieve abstinence (F = 18.83, p < .001). Patients' outcome expectations regarding the likelihood of abstinence may be an important predictor of drug use treatment outcomes among Spanish-speakers, but not necessarily for English-speakers. Individual differences and cultural factors may play a role in the association between outcome expectations and treatment outcomes. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Classical Galactosaemia in Ireland: incidence, complications and outcomes of treatment.

    PubMed

    Coss, K P; Doran, P P; Owoeye, C; Codd, M B; Hamid, N; Mayne, P D; Crushell, E; Knerr, I; Monavari, A A; Treacy, E P

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening for the inborn error of metabolism, classical galactosaemia prevents life-threatening complications in the neonatal period. It does not however influence the development of long-term complications and the complex pathophysiology of this rare disease remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to report the development of a healthcare database (using Distiller Version 2.1) to review the epidemiology of classical galactosaemia in Ireland since initiation of newborn screening in 1972 and the long-term clinical outcomes of all patients attending the National Centre for Inherited Metabolic Disorders (NCIMD). Since 1982, the average live birth incidence rate of classical galactosaemia in the total Irish population was approximately 1:16,476 births. This reflects a high incidence in the Irish 'Traveller' population, with an estimated birth incidence of 1:33,917 in the non-Traveller Irish population. Despite early initiation of treatment (dietary galactose restriction), the long-term outcomes of classical galactosaemia in the Irish patient population are poor; 30.6 % of patients ≥ 6 yrs have IQs <70, 49.6 % of patients ≥ 2.5 yrs have speech or language impairments and 91.2 % of females ≥ 13 yrs suffer from hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) possibly leading to decreased fertility. These findings are consistent with the international experience. This emphasizes the requirement for continued clinical research in this complex disorder.

  8. Improved early outcome for end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in children.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Anne-Marie; van Doorn, Carin; Burch, Michael; Whitmore, Pauline; Neligan, Sophie; Rees, Philip; Radley-Smith, Rosemary; Goldman, Allan; Brown, Katherine; Cohen, Gordon; Tsang, Victor; Elliott, Martin; de Leval, Marc R

    2003-12-01

    To review the impact of management changes on the early outcomes of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in children. We conducted a retrospective study of all consecutive children with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy who received hospital treatment since 1992. Over the past 3 years the following management changes were made: (1) more aggressive use of mechanical cardiac assistance; (2) high priority listing for transplantation; and (3) ABO incompatible transplants for infants. Outcomes for 46 patients admitted between 1992 and 1999 (group I) were compared with 53 patients between 2000 and March 2003 (group II). In group I, 12 (26%) patients received mechanical support with recovery in 3 and transplantation in 5 (1 died). In group II, 19 (36%) patients received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with recovery in 5 and transplantation in 12 (all survived). The use of mechanical assistance was associated with high morbidity related to bleeding, end-organ failure, and long-term mechanical ventilation. Five patients in group II received ABO incompatible transplants and all survived. There have been no episodes of rejection or need for increased immunosuppressive therapy. Hospital mortality has been significantly reduced (group I, 37% vs group II, 11%; P <.05). Recent refinements in the management of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy in children have significantly reduced early mortality. Identification of markers of early myocardial recovery and development of mechanical devices for longer term and more physiologic support are essential to achieve further improvements in outcome.

  9. Effectiveness of a cervical pessary for women who did not deliver 48 h after threatened preterm labor (Assessment of perinatal outcome after specific treatment in early labor: Apostel VI trial).

    PubMed

    Hermans, Frederik J R; Schuit, Ewoud; Opmeer, Brent C; Oudijk, Martijn A; Bekker, Mireille; Woiski, Mallory; Bax, Caroline J; Sueters, Marieke; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Franssen, Maureen T M; Pajkrt, Eva; Mol, Ben Willem J; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-07-12

    Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. As preventive strategies are largely ineffective, threatened preterm labor is a frequent problem that affects approximately 10 % of pregnancies. In recent years, risk assessment in these women has incorporated cervical length measurement and fetal fibronectin testing, and this has improved the capacity to identify women at increased risk for delivery within 14 days. Despite these improvements, risk for preterm birth continues to be increased in women who did not deliver after an episode of threatened preterm labor, as indicated by a preterm birth rate between 30 to 60 % in this group of women. Currently no effective treatment is available. Studies on maintenance tocolysis and progesterone have shown ambiguous results. The pessary has not been evaluated in women with threatened preterm labor, however studies in asymptomatic women with a short cervix show reduced rates of preterm birth rates as well as perinatal complications. The APOSTEL VI trial aims to assess the effectiveness of a cervical pessary in women who did not deliver within 48 h after an episode of threatened preterm labor. This is a nationwide multicenter open-label randomized clinical trial. Women with a singleton or twin gestation with intact membranes, who were admitted for threatened preterm labor, at a gestational age between 24 and 34 weeks, a cervical length between 15 and 30 mm and a positive fibronectin test or a cervical length below 15 mm, who did not deliver after 48 h will be eligible for inclusion. Women will be allocated to a pessary or no intervention (usual care). Primary outcome is preterm delivery < 37 weeks. Secondary outcomes are amongst others a composite of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Sample size is based on an expected 50 % reduction of preterm birth before 37 weeks (two-sided test, α 0.05 and β 0.2). Two hundred women with a singleton pregnancy need to be randomized. Analysis will be done

  10. Surgical outcomes of early congenital cholesteatoma: minimally invasive transcanal approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang H; Jang, Jeong H; Lee, Dongjun; Lee, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2014-03-01

    To introduce a simple and alternative surgical technique, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), for early stage congenital cholesteatoma in children and to evaluate the feasibility and results of MITM for management of early stage congenital cholesteatoma with respect to its effectiveness and safety. Retrospective review. Between August 2008 and September 2012, a total of 36 patients with congenital cholesteatoma met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Patient medical records, including demographic characteristics, intraoperative findings, and follow-up records, were reviewed. Subjects consisted of 23 males (64%) and 13 females (36%), and the age at operation ranged from 12 months to 6 years (mean age = 3 years and 6 months). The number of congenital cholesteatoma was as follows: 26 patients at stage I and 10 patients at stage II. The follow-up duration was between 12 and 56 months, with an average of 30 months. There were no postoperative complications such as tympanic membrane perforation, dizziness, or secondary middle ear infection. Among 36 patients who had undergone the MITM approach for the treatment of congenital cholesteatoma, five (13.8%) showed recurrence and underwent a second-look operation. On the basis of our data, the MITM approach is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma in children. It has many advantages, in that there is no external wound and it is a simple surgical technique that involves easy postoperative care, a short operation time and hospitalization period, avoidance of serious complications, and easy repeatability for recurrence. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Assessment and support during early labour for improving birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinobu; Hanada, Nobutsugu; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Takehara, Kenji; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Hatoko; Nagata, Chie; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-04-20

    The progress of labour in the early or latent phase is usually slow and may include painful uterine contractions. Women may feel distressed and lose their confidence during this phase. Support and assessment interventions have been assessed in two previous Cochrane Reviews. This review updates and replaces these two reviews, which have become out of date. To investigate the effectiveness of assessment and support interventions for women during early labour.In order to measure the effectiveness of the interventions, we compared the duration of labour, the rate of obstetrical interventions, and the rate of other maternal or neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials of any assessment or support intervention in the latent phase of labour. We planned to include cluster-randomised trials if they were eligible. We did not include quasi-randomised trials. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We resolved any disagreement by discussion or by involving a third assessor. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We included five trials with a total of 10,421 pregnant women in this review update. The trials were conducted in the UK, Canada and America. The trials compared interventions in early labour versus usual care. We examined three comparisons: early labour assessment versus immediate admission to hospital; home visits by midwives versus usual care (telephone triage); and one-to-one structured midwifery care versus usual care. These trials were at moderate- risk of bias mainly because blinding women and staff to these interventions is not generally feasible. For important outcomes we assessed evidence using

  12. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of early treatment of the patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Kluckow, Martin; Jeffery, Michele; Gill, Andy; Evans, Nick

    2014-03-01

    Failure of closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may be associated with harm. Early cardiac ultrasound-targeted treatment of a large PDA may result in a reduction in adverse outcomes and need for later PDA closure with no increase in adverse effects. Multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Three neonatal intensive care units in Australia. Eligible infants born <29 weeks were screened for a large PDA and received indomethacin or placebo before age 12 h. Death or abnormal cranial ultrasound. The trial ceased enrolment early due to lack of availability of indomethacin. 164 eligible infants were screened before 12 h; of the 92 infants with a large PDA, 44 were randomised to indomethacin and 48 to placebo. There was no difference in the main outcome between groups. Infants receiving early indomethacin had significantly less early pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) (2% vs 21%), a trend towards less periventricular/intraventricular haemorrhage (PIVH) (4.5% vs 12.5%) and were less likely to receive later open-label treatment for a PDA (20% vs 40%). The 72 non-randomised infants with a small PDA were at low risk of pulmonary haemorrhage and had an 80% spontaneous PDA closure rate. Early cardiac ultrasound-targeted treatment of a large PDA is feasible and safe, resulted in a reduction in early pulmonary haemorrhage and later medical treatment but had no effect on the primary outcome of death or abnormal cranial ultrasound. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000295347).

  13. Perceived Autonomy Support in the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Bauer, Daniel J; Meyer-Kalos, Piper; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Schooler, Nina R; Glynn, Shirley M; Gingerich, Susan; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined perceived support for autonomy-the extent to which individuals feel empowered and supported to make informed choices-among participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether NAVIGATE, the active treatment studied in RAISE ETP, was associated with greater improvements in perceived autonomy support over the two-year intervention, compared with community care, and to examine associations between perceived autonomy support and quality of life and symptoms over time and across treatment groups. This study examined perceived autonomy support among the 404 individuals with first-episode psychosis who participated in the RAISE ETP trial (NAVIGATE, N=223; community care, N=181). Three-level conditional linear growth modeling was used given the nested data structure. The results indicated that perceived autonomy support increased significantly over time for those in NAVIGATE but not in community care. Once treatment began, higher perceived autonomy support was related to higher quality of life at six, 12, and 18 months in NAVIGATE and at 12, 18, and 24 months in community care. Higher perceived autonomy support was related to improved scores on total symptoms and on excited symptoms regardless of treatment group and time. Overall, perceived autonomy support increased in NAVIGATE but not for those in community care and was related to improved quality of life and symptoms across both treatment groups. Future research should examine the impact of perceived autonomy support on a wider array of outcomes, including engagement, medication adherence, and functioning.

  14. Treatment outcomes of patients on antiretrovirals after six months of treatment, Khami Clinic, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ncube, R T; Hwalima, Z; Tshimanga, M; Chirenda, J; Mabaera, B; Apollo, T

    2008-01-01

    To describe treatment outcomes of patients on anti-retrovirals at six months of treatment. We conducted pre-intervention post intervention surveys using a pretest-post test design. Khami Municipal Clinic, Bulawayo. We interviewed consecutive patients eligible to receive antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). All patients had a history of TB treatment and a CD4 count less than 200 cells/mm. Mean change in CD4 count, weight, body mass index, and Karnofsky performance measured before and at six months ofantiretroviral treatment. 72 subjects were interviewed at baseline, their median age was 38 years (Q1, 32 years, Q3, 43 years). Of these, 17 (24%) died before six months of treatment. Three (4%) defaulted treatment follow up. A total of 52 respondents were alive and interviewed at six months though only 50, had repeat CD4 counts at six months. Among the 50 survivors, the mean CD4 count at six months was significantly higher than at baseline (p = 0.0003). There was a 4.2 point statistical significant increase in the mean weight from baseline (p = 0.0005). Similarly, the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) significantly increased by 1.5 kg/m2 from baseline, (p = 0.001). The mean Karnofsky performance increased from 89% at baseline to 95% at six months (p = 0004). The researchers noted that patients on TB treatment were being deferred antiretroviral therapy until they completed TB treatment. The Khami project bears testimony that even in a resource poor setting; treatment of HIV/AIDS with antiretroviral drugs is feasible. We recommend early treatment initiation for those on TB treatment in line with national guidelines.

  15. Adult outcomes as a function of an early childhood educational program: an Abecedarian Project follow-up.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Frances A; Pungello, Elizabeth P; Burchinal, Margaret; Kainz, Kirsten; Pan, Yi; Wasik, Barbara H; Barbarin, Oscar A; Sparling, Joseph J; Ramey, Craig T

    2012-07-01

    Adult (age 30) educational, economic, and social-emotional adjustment outcomes were investigated for participants in the Abecedarian Project, a randomized controlled trial of early childhood education for children from low-income families. Of the original 111 infants enrolled (98% African American), 101 took part in the age 30 follow-up. Primary indicators of educational level, economic status, and social adjustment were examined as a function of early childhood treatment. Treated individuals attained significantly more years of education, but income-to-needs ratios and criminal involvement did not vary significantly as a function of early treatment. A number of other indicators were described for each domain. Overall, the findings provide strong evidence for educational benefits, mixed evidence for economic benefits, and little evidence for treatment-related social adjustment outcomes. Implications for public policy are discussed.

  16. Treatment outcomes of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mibei, D J; Kiarie, J W; Wairia, A; Kamene, M; Okumu, M E

    2016-11-01

    Successful treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is crucial in preventing disease transmission and reducing related morbidity and mortality. A standardised DR-TB treatment regimen is used in Kenya. Although patients on treatment are monitored, no evaluation of factors affecting treatment outcomes has yet been performed. To analyse treatment outcomes of DR-TB patients in Kenya and factors associated with successful outcome. Retrospective analysis of secondary data from Kenya's National Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Lung disease programme. DR-TB data from the national database for January to December 2012 were reviewed. Of 205 DR-TB patients included in the analysis, 169 (82.4%) had a successful treatment outcome, 18 (9%) died and 18 (9%) were lost to follow-up. Only sex (P = 0.006) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status (P = 0.008) were predictors of successful treatment. Females were more likely to attain treatment success (OR 3.86, 95%CI 1.47-10.12), and HIV-negative status increased the likelihood of successful treatment (OR 3.53, 95%CI 1.4-8.9). Treatment success rates were higher than World Health Organization targets. Targeted policies for HIV-positive patients and males will improve treatment outcomes in these groups.

  17. Radiofrequency ablation for early oesophageal squamous neoplasia: Outcomes form United Kingdom registry

    PubMed Central

    Haidry, Rehan J; Butt, Mohammed A; Dunn, Jason; Banks, Matthew; Gupta, Abhinav; Smart, Howard; Bhandari, Pradeep; Smith, Lesley Ann; Willert, Robert; Fullarton, Grant; John, Morris; Di Pietro, Massimo; Penman, Ian; Novelli, Marco; Lovat, Laurence B

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To report outcomes on patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early oesophageal squamous neoplasia from a National Registry. METHODS: A Prospective cohort study from 8 tertiary referral centres in the United Kingdom. Patients with squamous high grade dysplasia (HGD) and early squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) confined to the mucosa were treated. Visible lesions were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) before RFA. Following initial RFA treatment, patients were followed up 3 monthly. Residual flat dysplasia was treated with RFA until complete reversal dysplasia (CR-D) was achieved or progression to invasive Squamous cell cancer defined as infiltration into the submucosa layer or beyond. The main outcome measures were CR-D at 12 mo from start of treatment, long term durability, progression to cancer and adverse events. RESULTS: Twenty patients with squamous HGD/ESCC completed treatment protocol. Five patients (25%) had EMR before starting RFA treatment. CR-D was 50% at 12 mo with a median of 1 RFA treatment, mean 1.5 (range 1-3). Two further patients achieved CR-D with repeat RFA after this time. Eighty per cent with CR-D remain dysplasia free at latest biopsy, with median follow up 24 mo (IQR 17-54). Six of 20 patients (30%) progressed to invasive cancer at 1 year. Four patients (20%) required endoscopic dilatations for symptomatic structuring after treatment. Two of these patients have required serial dilatations thereafter for symptomatic dysphagia with a median of 4 dilatations per patient. The other 2 patients required only a single dilatation to achieve an adequate symptomatic response. One patient developed cancer during follow up after end of treatment protocol. CONCLUSION: The role of RFA in these patients remains unclear. In our series 50% patients responded at 12 mo. These figures are lower than limited published data. PMID:24106401

  18. Outcomes Associated With Early Preventive Dental Care Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children in Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Morrisey, Michael A.; Sen, Bisakha

    2017-01-01

    Importance There is a recommendation for children to have a dental home by 6 months of age, but there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of early preventive dental care or whether primary care providers (PCPs) can deliver it. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of preventive dental care in reducing caries-related treatment visits among Medicaid enrollees. Design, Setting, and Participants High-dimensional propensity scores were used to address selection bias for a retrospective cohort study of children continuously enrolled in coverage from the Alabama Medicaid Agency from birth between 2008 and 2012, adjusting for demographics, access to care, and general health service use. Exposures Children receiving preventive dental care prior to age 2 years from PCPs or dentists vs no preventive dental care. Main Outcome and Measures Two-part models estimated caries-related treatment and expenditures. Results Among 19 658 eligible children, 25.8% (n = 3658) received early preventive dental care, of whom 44% were black, 37.6% were white, and 16.3% were Hispanic. Compared with matched children without early preventive dental care, children with dentist-delivered preventive dental care more frequently had a subsequent caries-related treatment (20.6% vs 11.3%, P < .001), higher rate of visits (0.29 vs 0.15 per child-year, P < .001), and greater dental expenditures ($168 vs $87 per year, P < .001). Dentist-delivered preventive dental care was associated with an increase in the expected number of caries-related treatment visits by 0.14 per child per year (95% CI, 0.11-0.16) and caries-related treatment expenditures by $40.77 per child per year (95% CI, $30.48-$51.07). Primary care provider–delivered preventive dental care did not significantly affect caries-related treatment use or expenditures. Conclusions and Relevance Children with early preventive care visits from dentists were more likely to have subsequent dental care, including caries

  19. Morbidly adherent placenta treatments and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William A; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Leveno, Kenneth J; Iams, Jay D; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C

    2015-03-01

    To describe recent maternal and neonatal delivery outcomes among women with a morbidly adherent placenta in major centers across the United States. This study reviewed a cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011 from the Assessment of Perinatal EXcellence data set. All cases of morbidly adherent placenta were identified. Maternal demographics, procedures undertaken, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. There were 158 women with a morbidly adherent placenta (1/731 births, 95% confidence interval 1/632-866). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous and 37% had no prior cesarean delivery. Only 53% (84/158) were suspected to have a morbidly adherent placenta before delivery. Women with a prenatally suspected morbidly adherent placenta experienced large blood loss (33%), hysterectomy (92%), and intensive care unit admission (39%) compared with 19%, 45%, and 22%, respectively, in those not suspected prenatally to have a morbidly adherent placenta (P<.05 for all). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous. Half of the morbidly adherent placenta cases were suspected before delivery and outcomes were poorer in this group, probably because the more clinically significant morbidly adherent placentas are more likely to be suspected before delivery. : II.

  20. Unsuccessful outcomes after posterior urethroplasty: definition, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Koraitim, Mamdouh M

    2012-05-01

    To establish some guidelines for the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of failed posterior urethroplasty. We identified 20 successive patients who required a secondary endoscopic or surgical procedure after anastomotic repair of a postpelvic fracture urethral injury from 1979 to 2010. Of the 20 patients, 18 had undergone perineal repair and 2 a perineo-abdominal procedure. Their medical records were reviewed with a focus on 6 postoperative items: symptoms, onset of unsuccessful result, urethral calibration, urethrocystography, urethroscopy, and treatment. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 25 years (mean 14). Of the 20 patients, 11 (55%) presented shortly after removal of the urethral stent with failure to void (n = 9) or incontinence (n = 2), and 9 (45%) presented 1 month to 12 years after surgery with a weak stream. Early failures resulted from obstruction at the site of repair in 5 patients, retraction of the bulbar urethra in 3, wrong anastomosis to a false tract in 1, and an open bladder neck in 2. Correction was accomplished by salvage urethroplasty in 8 patients and bladder neck repair in 2. Late failures resulted from narrowing of the anastomosis and were corrected by direct visual internal urethrotomy in 7 patients and surgery in 2. Unsuccessful outcomes can be encountered shortly after removal of the urethral stent or delayed for several months or years after surgery. Early cases present by an inability to void or incontinence and usually require salvage urethroplasty or bladder neck repair. Late cases present by a weak urinary stream, are due to narrowing of the anastomosis, and are usually corrected by direct visual internal urethrotomy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    improved 5-year survival rate when compared with more advanced stage III and IV lesions. Surgical management of this disease remains the mainstay of treatment. Other therapies include radiation and chemotherapy options that may be used adjunctively and palliatively. Following treatment, it is important to understand the significant risks of second primary cancers developing within the upper aerodigestive tract as a result of field cancerization. The most important message is that early detection of the asymptomatic early stage oral cancer translates in general terms to satisfactory clinical outcome and cure in most patients.

  2. Development of Children at Risk for Adverse Outcomes Participating in Early Intervention in Developing Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L.; Bann, Carla M.; Biasini, Fred J.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth; Carlo, Waldemar A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated positive effects of early developmental intervention (EDI) on the development of children in developing countries. Few studies, however, have examined longitudinally when differential treatment effects may be observed and whether differential outcomes are associated with exposure to different risk…

  3. Three year outcomes in an early intervention service for psychosis in a multicultural and multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Agius, Mark; Shah, Samir; Ramkisson, Roshelle; Persaud, Albert; Murphy, Suzanne; Zaman, Rashid

    2008-12-01

    Concern has been expressed that it may be difficult to provide certain interventions to some ethnic groups in an Early Intervention Service for Psychosis, and that as a consequence, three-year outcomes for the different Ethnic Groups may be different in different groups. To test whether there are differences between the three year outcomes of different ethnic groups represented in the patient population of an Early Intervention service for Psychosis. The three-year outcomes for the first group of 62 Patients to receive three years treatment in the Early Intervention Service in Luton, Bedfordshire were examined. This group well represented the ethnic mix of the population of Luton. It does not appear that there are major differences between the three-year outcomes of any one of the three groups studied. However the South Asian Patients appear to present earlier, with shorter DUPs, seemed more likely to marry, live with their families, and seem more likely to return to higher education after a first psychotic episode of psychosis compared to the Caucasians. Afro-Carribeans and South Asians were more likely to be unemployed, but many South Asians were employed, as were Caucasians. The fewest persons employed were in the Afro-Caribbean group. While slightly more South Asians and Afro-Carribeans were admitted compulsorily under the mental health act over the three years, 60% of each of the two non-white groups were never admitted compulsorily. This is different from the reported national trends of the Mental Health act being used excessively with the Afro-Caribbean population. No previous study has looked at the outcomes of Early Intervention Services for First Psychotic Episodes according to the Ethnic Origin of the Clients. The better outcomes seen with South Asians are probably due to cultural factors among the South Asians born in this country, rather than to issues related to the Psychotic Illness itself. These findings are important in planning services in areas

  4. Predicting in-treatment performance and post-treatment outcomes in methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Maureen P; Marinelli-Casey, Patricia; Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; Rawson, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the utility of individual drug use and treatment characteristics for predicting in-treatment performance and post-treatment outcomes over a 1-year period. Data were collected from 420 adults who participated in the Methamphetamine Treatment Project (MTP), a multi-site study of randomly assigned treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Interviews were conducted at baseline, during treatment and during three follow-up time-points: treatment discharge and at 6 and 12 months following admission. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI); the Craving, Frequency, Intensity and Duration Estimate (CFIDE); and laboratory urinalysis results were used in the current study. Analyses addressed both in-treatment performance and post-treatment outcomes. The most consistent finding is that pre-treatment methamphetamine use predicts in-treatment performance and post-treatment outcomes. No one variable predicted all in-treatment performance measures; however, gender, route of administration and pre-treatment methamphetamine use were significant predictors. Similarly, post-treatment outcomes were predicted by a range of variables, although pre-treatment methamphetamine use was significantly associated with each post-treatment outcome. These findings provide useful empirical information about treatment outcomes for methamphetamine abusers, and highlight the utility of assessing individual and in-treatment characteristics in the development of appropriate treatment plans.

  5. Functional and Radiographic Outcomes Following Growth-Sparing Management of Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Charles E; Tran, Dong-Phuong; McClung, Anna

    2017-06-21

    In this study, we sought to evaluate radiographic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes of patients who have completed growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis. This prospective study involved patients with early-onset scoliosis who underwent growth-sparing treatment and either "final" fusion or observation for ≥2 years since the last lengthening procedure. Demographics, radiographic parameters, pulmonary function test (PFT) values, and scores of patient-reported assessments (Early-Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire [EOSQ] and Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-30) were obtained. At the most recent follow-up, patients performed 2 additional functional outcome tests: step-activity monitoring and a treadmill exercise-tolerance test. Twelve patients were evaluated as "graduates" of growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis (mean of 37 months since the most recent surgery). The major scoliosis curve measurement averaged 88° before treatment and 47° at the most recent follow-up. T1-S1 height increased from a mean of 22.3 cm to 34.7 cm and T1-T12 height, from 13.3 to 22.3 cm. At the most recent follow-up, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) as a percentage of the predicted volume were 52.1% and 55.3%, respectively, and were essentially unchanged from the earliest PFT that patients could perform (FEV1 = 53.8% of predicted and FVC = 53.5% of predicted). There was no difference between graduates and controls with respect to activity time or total steps in step-activity monitoring, and in the exercise-tolerance test, graduates walked at the same speed but at a higher heart rate and at a significantly higher (p <0.001) VO2 cost (rate of oxygen consumed per distance traveled). The EOSQ mean score was 102.2 of a possible 120 points, and the SRS mean score was 4.1 of a possible 5 points. A realistic long-term goal for the management of early-onset scoliosis appears to be spine elongation and maintenance of

  6. Fidelity and outcomes in six integrated dual disorders treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Daniel W

    2011-02-01

    Fidelity scores and outcomes were measured in six outpatient programs in California which implemented Integrated Dual Disorders Treatment (IDDT). Outcomes were measured for 1 year in four sites and 2 years in two sites; fidelity was assessed at 6 month intervals. Three of the six sites achieved high fidelity (at least a 4 on a 5 point fidelity scale) and three moderate fidelity (at least a 3). Retention in treatment, mental health functioning, stage of substance abuse treatment, abstinence, and psychiatric hospitalization were measured. Outcomes for individual programs were generally positive but not consistent within programs or across programs. Using pooled data in a longitudinal regression model with random effects at person level and adjustment of standard errors for clustering by site, change over time was not statistically significant for the primary outcomes. Fidelity scores had limited association with positive outcomes.

  7. Rostral anterior cingulate cortex activity and early symptom improvement during treatment for major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Korb, Alexander S.; Hunter, Aimee M.; Cook, Ian A.; Leuchter, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    In treatment trials for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), early symptom improvement is predictive of eventual clinical response. Clinical response may also be predicted by elevated pretreatment theta (4-7 Hz) current density in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). We investigated the relationship between pretreatment EEG and early improvement in predicting clinical outcome in 72 MDD subjects across three placebo-controlled treatment trials. Subjects were randomized to receive fluoxetine, venlafaxine, or placebo. Theta current density in the rACC and mOFC was computed with Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). An ANCOVA, examining week 8 Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HamD) percent change, showed a significant effect of week-2-HamD-percent-change, and a significant three-way interaction of week-2-HamD-percent-change × Treatment × rACC. Medication subjects with robust early improvement showed almost no relationship between rACC theta current density and final clinical outcome. However, in subjects with little early improvement, rACC activity showed a strong relationship with clinical outcome. The model examining mOFC showed a trend in the three-way interaction. A combination of pretreatment rACC activity and early symptom improvement may be useful for predicting treatment response. PMID:21546222

  8. Early Outcomes of Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty After Prior Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Barry, Jeffrey J; Sing, David C; Vail, Thomas P; Hansen, Erik N

    2017-02-01

    The coexistence of degenerative hip disease and spinal pathology is not uncommon with the number of surgical treatments performed for each condition increasing annually. The limited research available suggests spinal pathology portends less pain relief and worse outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We hypothesize that primary THA patients with preexisting lumbar spinal fusions (LSF) experience worse early postoperative outcomes. This study is a retrospective matched cohort study. Primary THA patients at 1 institution who had undergone prior LSF (spine arthrodesis-hip arthroplasty [SAHA]) were identified and matched to controls of primary THA without LSF. Early outcomes (<90 days) were compared. From 2012 to 2014, 35 SAHA patients were compared to 70 matched controls. Patients were similar in age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologist score, body mass index, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. SAHA patients had higher rates of complications (31.4% vs 8.6%, P = .008), reoperation (14.3% vs 2.9%, P = .040), and general anesthesia (54.3% vs 5.7%, P = .0001). Bivariate analysis demonstrated SAHA to predict reoperation (odds ratio, 5.67; P = .045) and complications (odds ratio, 4.89; P = .005). With the numbers available, dislocations (0% vs 2.8%), infections (0% vs 8.6%), readmissions, postoperative walking distance, and disposition only trended to favor controls (P > .05). Comparing controls to SAHA patients with <3 or ≥3 levels fused, longer fusions had increased cumulative postoperative narcotic consumption (mean morphine equivalents, 44.3 vs 46.9 vs 169.4; P = .001). Patients with preexisting LSF experience worse early outcomes after primary THA including higher rates of complications and reoperation. Lower rates of neuraxial anesthesia and increased narcotic usage represent potential contributors. The complex interplay between the lumbar spine and hip warrants attention and further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early clinical outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in bharatpur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Laxman; Bhattacharya, Rabindra; Guruprasad, Sogunuu; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2013-06-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention represents one of the cornerstone management modalities for patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction and has undergone tremendous growth over the past two decades. This study was aimed to determine the early clinical outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary interventions in a tertiary-level teaching hospital without onsite cardiac surgery backup. This was a prospective descriptive study which included all consecutive patients who were admitted for primary percutaneous coronary interventions between March 2011 and January 2013 at the College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal. Total 68 patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary interventions as a mode of revascularization. The primary end point of the study was to identify in-hospital as well as 30-day clinical outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary interventions. The mean age was 56.31 ± 11.47 years, with age range of 32 years to 91 years. Of the 68 primary percutaneous coronary interventions performed, 15 (22.05%) were carried out in women and 10 (14.70%) in patients over 75 years of age. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention for anterior wall myocardial infarction was more common than for non-anterior wall myocardial infarction (55.88% vs. 44.12%). Proximal artery stenting was performed in 38.50% and the non proximal artery stenting in 61.50%. The outcomes were mortality (5.88%), cardiogenic shock (5.88%), contrast-induced nephropathy requiring dialysis (2.94%), arrhythmias requiring treatment (4.41%), early stent thrombosis (2.94%) and minor complications (14.70%). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention improves the early clinical outcomes in patient with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Despite having no onsite cardiac surgery backup, primary percutaneous coronary intervention was feasible with acceptable complications in a tertiary-care teaching hospital.

  10. ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL ENALAPRIL ANTIHYPERTENSIVE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enalapril, one of several antihypertensive drugs that act as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, is often used for treatment of hypertension in women of reproductive age. Adverse birth outcomes following the use of ACE inhibitors, including enalapril, during pregnanc...

  11. Outcome Studies in the Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Patricia M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews outcome studies in the treatment of panic disorder without agoraphobia for adults. Presents evidence supporting the efficacy of psychopharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions. Addresses the need for standards of care in counseling persons with panic disorder. (RB)

  12. Endoscopic findings and treatment outcome in cases presenting with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Muhammad; Salamat, Amjad; Saeed, Farrukh; Zafar, Hafiz; Hassan, Fayyaz; Farooq, Asif

    2011-01-01

    Dysphagia results from impeded transport of liquids, solids, or both from the pharynx to the stomach. Among the malignant lesions, carcinoma of oesophagus is the commonest cause. Our objective was to find out the frequency of different endoscopic lesions and outcome of the endoscopic therapeutic interventions in patients presenting with dysphagia. This descriptive study was conducted at Department of Gastroenterology, Military Hospital Rawalpindi from June 2008 to May 2009. Patients of dysphagia after their consent were interviewed about the symptoms. Relevant biochemical investigations were done. Barium swallow and upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy were carried out. Benign strictures were dilated with Savary Gilliard Dilators. Malignant strictures were further evaluated to decide treatment plan. In patients considered to have oesophageal dysmotility, pressure manometery was done before specific therapy. Seventy nine patients were enrolled. Twenty-five had malignant strictures, out of those commonest was adenocarcinoma 14 (56%). Twenty-nine had benign strictures the commonest being Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) related peptic stricture 9 (31%). Fifteen had oesophageal dysmotility, and achalasia was present in 10 out of them. After evaluation 12 out of 25 patients with malignant strictures were considered fit for surgery. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) were passed in 5. All benign strictures were dilated with Savary-Gillard dilators. Pneumatic balloon dilation was done in patients of achalasia. The commonest malignant lesion resulting in dysphagia was adenocarcinoma while in benign it was GERD related peptic stricture. Achalasia was most frequent in oesophageal motility disorders. Standard of treatment for early oesophageal malignancy is surgical resection. SEMS is a reliable way to allay dysphagia in inoperable cases. Savary Gillard dilatation in benign, and pneumatic balloon achalasia dilatations are effective ways of treatment.

  13. Diffuse optical measurements of head and neck tumor hemodynamics for early prediction of chemoradiation therapy outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Irwin, Daniel; Chen, Li; Kumar, Sameera; Shang, Yu; Huang, Chong; Johnson, Ellis L.; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2016-08-01

    This study used a hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument to monitor tumor hemodynamic responses to chemoradiation therapy for early prediction of treatment outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. Forty-seven patients were measured once per week to evaluate the hemodynamic status of clinically involved cervical lymph nodes as surrogates for the primary tumor response. Patients were classified into two groups: complete response (CR) (n=29) and incomplete response (IR) (n=18). Tumor hemodynamic responses were found to be associated with clinical outcomes (CR/IR), wherein the associations differed depending on human papillomavirus (HPV-16) status. In HPV-16 positive patients, significantly lower levels in tumor oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) at weeks 1 to 3, total hemoglobin concentration at week 3, and blood oxygen saturation (StO2) at week 3 were found in the IR group. In HPV-16 negative patients, significantly higher levels in tumor blood flow index and reduced scattering coefficient (μs‧) at week 3 were observed in the IR group. These hemodynamic parameters exhibited significantly high accuracy for early prediction of clinical outcomes, within the first three weeks of therapy, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.83 to 0.96.

  14. Diffuse optical measurements of head and neck tumor hemodynamics for early prediction of chemoradiation therapy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Irwin, Daniel; Chen, Li; Kumar, Sameera; Shang, Yu; Huang, Chong; Johnson, Ellis L.; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This study used a hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument to monitor tumor hemodynamic responses to chemoradiation therapy for early prediction of treatment outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. Forty-seven patients were measured once per week to evaluate the hemodynamic status of clinically involved cervical lymph nodes as surrogates for the primary tumor response. Patients were classified into two groups: complete response (CR) (n=29) and incomplete response (IR) (n=18). Tumor hemodynamic responses were found to be associated with clinical outcomes (CR/IR), wherein the associations differed depending on human papillomavirus (HPV-16) status. In HPV-16 positive patients, significantly lower levels in tumor oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) at weeks 1 to 3, total hemoglobin concentration at week 3, and blood oxygen saturation (StO2) at week 3 were found in the IR group. In HPV-16 negative patients, significantly higher levels in tumor blood flow index and reduced scattering coefficient (μs′) at week 3 were observed in the IR group. These hemodynamic parameters exhibited significantly high accuracy for early prediction of clinical outcomes, within the first three weeks of therapy, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.83 to 0.96. PMID:27564315

  15. Prostate Cancer: A Contemporary Approach to Treatment and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Adam B; Kundu, Shilajit D

    2018-03-01

    Given the high incidence of prostate cancer and the need for shared decision-making before screening, it is imperative that primary care providers understand treatment options and treatment adverse effects. In this review article, the treatment options for the localized and metastatic prostate cancer are discussed, including the different modalities and their indications, adverse effects, oncologic outcomes, posttreatment monitoring, and potential treatment options following cancer recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Personality disorder and treatment outcome in alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Foulds, James

    2018-01-01

    As personality disorder impacts the outcome of most major mental disorders, it would be consistent for it to impact negatively on the outcome of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This update is to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent literature examining the impact of personality disorder and personality traits on the treatment outcome of AUDs. Comorbidity between personality disorder and AUD is significant and approaches 50%. Patients with AUD and comorbid personality disorder are substantially less likely to remain in treatment, drink more per drinking day and drink more frequently. If retained in treatment, comorbidity does not, however, lead to poorer outcomes. Relapse to drinking is more common in patient with high novelty seeking and lower reward dependence and persistence. Reporting from most studies is of moderate-to-poor quality and a single high-quality study may alter these findings. Landmark alcohol studies are notably quiet on the impact of personality on AUD treatment outcome. Both personality disorder and higher novelty seeking impact negatively on the treatment outcome of AUD. As personality disorder is common in this group, clinicians engaged in AUD treatment should screen for personality disturbance, either disorder or high novelty seeking.

  17. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  18. Early definitive treatment rate as a quality indicator of care in acute gallstone pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Charman, S C; Palser, T

    2017-11-01

    Early definitive treatment (cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the same admission or within 2 weeks after discharge) of gallstone disease after a biliary attack of acute pancreatitis is standard of care. This study investigated whether compliance with early definitive treatment for acute gallstone pancreatitis can be used as a care quality indicator for the condition. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. All emergency admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England with a first time diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis in the financial years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were examined. Trends in early definitive treatment between hospital trusts were examined and patient morbidity outcomes were determined. During the study interval there were 19 510 patients with an overall rate of early definitive treatment at 34·7 (range 9·4-84·7) per cent. In the 1-year follow-up period, 4661 patients (23·9 per cent) had one or more emergency readmissions for complications related to gallstone pancreatitis. Of these, 2692 (57·8 per cent) were readmissions for acute pancreatitis; 911 (33·8 per cent) were within the first 2 weeks of discharge, with the remaining 1781 (66·2 per cent) occurring after the point at which definitive treatment should have been received. Early definitive treatment resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in readmission risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·58 to 0·65). The risk was further reduced for acute pancreatitis readmissions to 54 per cent in the early definitive treatment group (adjusted RR 0·46, 0·42 to 0·51). In acute gallstone pancreatitis, compliance with recommended early definitive treatment varied considerably, with associated variation in outcomes. Compliance should be used as a quality indicator to improve care. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Epilepsy in Qatar: Causes, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Naim; Melikyan, Gayane; Al Hail, Hassan; Al Jurdi, Ayman; Aqeel, Faten; Elzafarany, Abdullah; Abuhadra, Nour; Laswi, Mujahed; Alsamman, Yasser; Uthman, Basim; Deleu, Dirk; Mesraoua, Boulenouar; Alarcon, Gonzalo; Azar, Nabil; Streletz, Leopold; Mahfoud, Ziyad

    2016-10-01

    Qatar is a small country on the Eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its population is a unique mixture of native citizens and immigrants. We aimed to describe the features of epilepsy in Qatar as such information is virtually lacking from the current literature. We summarized information retrospectively collected from 468 patients with epilepsy seen through the national health system adult neurology clinic. Epilepsy was classified as focal in 65.5% of the cases and generalized in 23%. Common causes of epilepsy were as follows: stroke (9%), hippocampal sclerosis (7%), infections (6%), and trauma (6%). Sixty-six percent of patients were receiving a single antiepileptic drug, with levetiracetam being the most frequently prescribed drug (41% of subjects). When the patients were divided by geographical background, remote infections caused the epilepsy in 15% of Asian patients (with neurocysticercosis accounting for 10%) but only in 1% of Qatari and 3% of Middle East/North African subjects (with no reported neurocysticercosis) (p<0.001). Cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative etiologies were the most prominent in Qataris, accounting for 14% (p=0.005) and 4% (p=0.03) of cases, respectively. The choice of antiepileptic drugs varied also according to the regional background, but the seizure freedom rate did not, averaging at 54% on the last clinic visit. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed information about epilepsy in Qatar. The geographical origin of patients adds to the heterogeneity of this disorder. Neurocysticercosis should be in the etiological differential diagnosis of epilepsy in patients coming from Southeast Asian countries, despite the fact that it is not endemic to Qatar. The choice of antiepileptic drugs is influenced by the availability of individual agents in the patients' native countries but had no bearing on the final seizure outcome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Outcomes after treatment of acute aortic occlusion.

    PubMed

    de Varona Frolov, Serguei R; Acosta Silva, Marcela P; Volo Pérez, Guido; Fiuza Pérez, Maria D

    2015-11-01

    Acute aortic occlusion (AAO) is a rare disease with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the results of surgical treatment of acute aortic occlusion and risk factors for mortality. Retrospective review of the clinical history of 29 patients diagnosed and operated on for AAO during 28 years. The following variables were analysed: age, sex, tabaco use, diabetes, chronic renal insufficiency, chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, 30-day mortality and long-term survival. A univariant analysis was performed of variables related to mortality. Twenty-nine patients were included (18 male) with a mean age of 66,2 years. The aetiology was: embolism (EM) in 11 cases and Thrombosis (TR) in 18 cases. The surgical procedures performed included bilateral transfemoral thrombectomy (14 cases), aorto-bifemoral by-pass (8 cases), axilo uni/bifemoral by-pass (5 cases) and aortoiliac and renal tromboendarterectomy (2 cases). Morbidity included: renal failure (14 cases), mesenteric ischemia (4 cases), cardiac complications (7 cases), respiratory complications (5 cases) and loss of extremity (2 cases). The in-hospital mortality was 21% (EM 0%, TR 21%). The estimated survival at 1.3 and 5 years was 60, 50 and 44% respectively. Age (p=0.032), arterial hypertension (p=0.039) and aetiology of the AAO (p=0.039) were related to mortality. Acute aortic occlusion is a medical emergency with high mortality rates. Acute renal failure is the most common postoperative complication. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Early dropout predictive factors in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Ilaria; Falchi, Anna Giulia; Muggia, Chiara; Grecchi, Ilaria; Montagna, Elisabetta; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-02-01

    Diet attrition and failure of long term treatment are very frequent in obese patients. This study aimed to identify pre-treatment variables determining dropout and to customise the characteristics of those most likely to abandon the program before treatment, thus making it possible to modify the therapy to increase compliance. A total of 146 outpatients were consecutively enrolled; 73 patients followed a prescriptive diet while 73 followed a novel brief group Cognitive Behavioural Treatment (CBT) in addition to prescriptive diet. The two interventions lasted for six months. Anthropometric, demographic, psychological parameters and feeding behaviour were assessed, the last two with the Italian instrument VCAO Ansisa; than, a semi-structured interview was performed on motivation to lose weight. To identify the baseline dropout risk factors among these parameters, univariate and multivariate logistic models were used. Comparison of the results in the two different treatments showed a higher attrition rate in CBT group, despite no statistically significant difference between the two treatment arms (P = 0.127). Dropout patients did not differ significantly from those who did not dropout with regards to sex, age, Body Mass Index (BMI), history of cycling, education, work and marriage. Regardless of weight loss, the most important factor that determines the dropout appears to be a high level of stress revealed by General Health Questionnaire-28 items (GHQ-28) score within VCAO test. The identification of hindering factors during the assessment is fundamental to reduce the dropout risk. For subjects at risk, it would be useful to dedicate a stress management program before beginning a dietary restriction.

  2. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure, default, or relapse and outcomes of retreatment in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with tuberculosis require retreatment if they fail or default from initial treatment or if they relapse following initial treatment success. Outcomes among patients receiving a standard World Health Organization Category II retreatment regimen are suboptimal, resulting in increased risk of morbidity, drug resistance, and transmission.. In this study, we evaluated the risk factors for initial treatment failure, default, or early relapse leading to the need for tuberculosis retreatment in Morocco. We also assessed retreatment outcomes and drug susceptibility testing use for retreatment patients in urban centers in Morocco, where tuberculosis incidence is stubbornly high. Methods Patients with smear- or culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis presenting for retreatment were identified using clinic registries in nine urban public clinics in Morocco. Demographic and outcomes data were collected from clinical charts and reference laboratories. To identify factors that had put these individuals at risk for failure, default, or early relapse in the first place, initial treatment records were also abstracted (if retreatment began within two years of initial treatment), and patient characteristics were compared with controls who successfully completed initial treatment without early relapse. Results 291 patients presenting for retreatment were included; 93% received a standard Category II regimen. Retreatment was successful in 74% of relapse patients, 48% of failure patients, and 41% of default patients. 25% of retreatment patients defaulted, higher than previous estimates. Retreatment failure was most common among patients who had failed initial treatment (24%), and default from retreatment was most frequent among patients with initial treatment default (57%). Drug susceptibility testing was performed in only 10% of retreatment patients. Independent risk factors for failure, default, or early relapse after initial treatment included male gender (aOR = 2

  3. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure, default, or relapse and outcomes of retreatment in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kelly E; Lahlou, Ouafae; Ghali, Iraqi; Knudsen, Janine; Elmessaoudi, My Driss; Cherkaoui, Imad; El Aouad, Rajae

    2011-02-28

    Patients with tuberculosis require retreatment if they fail or default from initial treatment or if they relapse following initial treatment success. Outcomes among patients receiving a standard World Health Organization Category II retreatment regimen are suboptimal, resulting in increased risk of morbidity, drug resistance, and transmission.. In this study, we evaluated the risk factors for initial treatment failure, default, or early relapse leading to the need for tuberculosis retreatment in Morocco. We also assessed retreatment outcomes and drug susceptibility testing use for retreatment patients in urban centers in Morocco, where tuberculosis incidence is stubbornly high. Patients with smear- or culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis presenting for retreatment were identified using clinic registries in nine urban public clinics in Morocco. Demographic and outcomes data were collected from clinical charts and reference laboratories. To identify factors that had put these individuals at risk for failure, default, or early relapse in the first place, initial treatment records were also abstracted (if retreatment began within two years of initial treatment), and patient characteristics were compared with controls who successfully completed initial treatment without early relapse. 291 patients presenting for retreatment were included; 93% received a standard Category II regimen. Retreatment was successful in 74% of relapse patients, 48% of failure patients, and 41% of default patients. 25% of retreatment patients defaulted, higher than previous estimates. Retreatment failure was most common among patients who had failed initial treatment (24%), and default from retreatment was most frequent among patients with initial treatment default (57%). Drug susceptibility testing was performed in only 10% of retreatment patients. Independent risk factors for failure, default, or early relapse after initial treatment included male gender (aOR = 2.29, 95% CI 1

  4. Posttreatment Factors Influencing Outcome of Adolescent Chemical Dependency Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Ruth H.; Sherry, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Adolescents (n=144) in in-patient chemical dependency treatment completed questionnaires designed to determine pre- and posttreatment environmental, psychological, and problem severity influences on outcome of treatment. Results indicated that posttreatment psychosocial environment measures and pretreatment problem severity indicators consistently…

  5. Client Engagement Characteristics Associated with Problem Gambling Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki A.; Cosic, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research examining the factors associated with problem gambling treatment outcomes has examined client factors and to date, treatment characteristics, therapist factors, and client-therapist interactions have essentially remained unexplored. This study aimed to investigate how client engagement variables (client-rated therapeutic…

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Conduct Disorder and Residential Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabat, Julia Cathcart; Lyons, John S.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    We examined the differential outcomes in residential treatment for youths with conduct disorder (CD)--with special attention paid to interactions with age and gender--in a sample of children and adolescents in 50 residential treatment centers and group homes across Illinois. Multi-disciplinary teams rated youths ages 6-20 (N = 457) on measures of…

  7. Improving Outcome for Mental Disorders by Enhancing Memory for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Smith, Rita L.; Gumport, Nicole B.; Hollon, Steven D.; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Hein, Kerrie; Dolsen, Michael R.; Hamen, Kristen; Kanady, Jennifer C.; Thompson, Monique A.; Abrons, Deidre

    2017-01-01

    Summary Patients exhibit poor memory for treatment. A novel Memory Support Intervention, derived from basic science in cognitive psychology and education, is tested with the goal of improving patient memory for treatment and treatment outcome. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to 14 sessions of cognitive therapy (CT)+Memory Support (n = 25) or CT-as-usual (CTMS; n = 23). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 6 months later. Memory support was greater in CT+Memory Support compared to the CT-as-usual. Compared to CT-as-usual, small to medium effect sizes were observed for recall of treatment points at post-treatment. There was no difference between the treatment arms on depression severity (primary outcome). However, the odds of meeting criteria for ‘response’ and ‘remission’ were higher in CT+Memory Support compared with CT-as-usual. CT+Memory Support also showed an advantage on functional impairment. While some decline was observed, the advantage of CT+Memory Support was evident through 6-month follow-up. Patients with less than 16 years of education experience greater benefits from memory support than those with 16 or more years of education. Memory support can be manipulated, may improve patient memory for treatment and may be associated with an improved outcome. PMID:27089159

  8. The Early Entrance Option: Academic and Social/Emotional Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braymen, Rebecca K. F.; Piersel, Wayne C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines how early kindergarten entrants fare academically and socially/emotionally in their schooling. Screening procedures are used to identify children with exceptional ability and to eliminate from early entrance children likely to have adjustment difficulties. The screening battery includes measurements of academic readiness, social/emotional…

  9. Early Adolescent Risk Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Externalizing Behavioral Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…

  10. Examining Multidimensional Middle Grade Outcomes after Early Elementary School Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Sophia; Cappella, Elise; Schwartz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Recently, researchers have begun to employ rigorous statistical methods and developmentally-informed theories to evaluate outcomes for students retained in non-kindergarten early elementary school. However, the majority of this research focuses on academic outcomes. Gaps remain regarding retention's effects on psychosocial outcomes important to…

  11. Measuring Family Outcomes Early Intervention: Findings from a Large-Scale Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Olmsted, Murrey G.; Nelson, Robin; Robinson, Nyle; Simpson, Mary Ellen; Guillen, Chelsea; Houts, Renate

    2010-01-01

    This article reports data from a large-scale assessment using the Family Outcomes Survey with families participating in early intervention. The study was designed to determine how families describe themselves with regard to outcomes achieved, the extent to which outcomes are interrelated, and the extent to which child, family, and program factors…

  12. General practitioners' treatment orientations towards low back pain: influence on treatment behaviour and patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Sieben, Judith M; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Portegijs, Piet J M; Warmenhoven, Franca C; Sint, Ageeth G; Dautzenberg, Nadine; Romeijnders, Arnold; Arntz, Arnoud; Knottnerus, J André

    2009-04-01

    In low back pain (LBP) treatment and research attention has shifted from a biomedical towards a biopsychosocial approach. Patients' LBP beliefs and attitudes were found to predict long-term outcome, and recently it has been suggested that the health care providers' ideas about LBP are also important predictors of treatment behaviour and outcome. In the present study we examined whether (1) differences in General Practitioners' (GP) LBP treatment orientation are associated with differences in actual treatment behaviour and (2) whether treatment orientation is related to LBP outcome in patients. Two hundred twenty two patients consulting their GP with a new episode of LBP were recruited and completed questionnaires on (among others) LBP outcome (graded chronic pain scale) at baseline, during 12 months of follow-up and at the end of the study. Data on treatment were collected from the GPs. The GPs also completed a set of questionnaires on LBP treatment orientation. Associations between measures of treatment orientation, treatment recommendations, treatment behaviour and LBP outcome were analysed. A biomedical treatment orientation was found to be associated with more concern about tissue damage and the effect of physical activity on pain and recovery in vignettes. No associations were found between treatment orientation measures, actual treatment behaviour and LBP outcome. Associations were not found as expected. Still these findings are relevant and may feed a clinically important debate on widely accepted assumptions about the role and influence of health care providers in changing patients' pain behaviours.

  13. Impact of early postoperative enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Liu, H Y; Guo, S H; Sun, P; Gong, F M; Jia, B Q

    2015-06-29

    The impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients was investigated. Three hundred pa-tients undergoing gastric cancer surgery from July 2010 to May 2014 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 150/group). Experimental group patients received enteral nutrition in water during the early postoperative period. Control group patients received conventional perioperative treatment. Patients' clinical outcomes, post-operative immune function, and nutritional statuses were compared, which revealed that the postoperative fever duration (80.2 ± 6.0 vs 88.1 ± 8.1 h, P < 0.05), anal exhaust time (78.8 ± 9.3 vs 85.3 ± 8.4 h, P < 0.05), and length of hospitalization (7.73 ± 2.13 vs 9.77 ± 1.76 days, P < 0.01) differed significantly. Treatment costs in thousands of dol-lars were 31.24 ± 3.21 for the experimental group and 35.61 ± 2.32 for the control group; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative complications did not significantly differ between the experimental and control groups [14.0% (21/150) vs 17.3% (26/150), P > 0.05]. At postoperative days 3 and 7, the CD3(+), CD4(+), natural killer cell, albumin, and prealbumin levels and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ra-tio were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (all P < 0.05). CD8(+) cell counts were significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05). Postsurgical oral EEN can improve nutritional status and immune function and promote early recovery of intestinal function in patients with gastric cancer.

  14. Systematic review of early cardiometabolic outcomes of the first treated episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Foley, Debra L; Morley, Katherine I

    2011-06-01

    The increased mortality associated with schizophrenia is largely due to cardiovascular disease. Treatment with antipsychotics is associated with weight gain and changes in other cardiovascular risk factors. Early identification of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors is a clinical imperative but prospective longitudinal studies of the early cardiometabolic adverse effects of antipsychotic drug treatment other than weight gain have not been previously reviewed. To assess the methods and reporting of cardiometabolic outcome studies of the first treated episode of psychosis, review key findings, and suggest directions for future research. PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Scopus from January 1990 to June 2010. Subjects were experiencing their first treated episode of psychosis. Subjects were antipsychotic naive or had been exposed to antipsychotics for a short known period at the beginning of the study. Cardiometabolic indices were assessed. Studies used a longitudinal design. Sixty-four articles were identified describing 53 independent studies; 25 studies met inclusion criteria and were retained for detailed review. Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklists were used to assess the methods and reporting of studies. A qualitative review of findings was conducted. Two key hypotheses were identified based on this review: (1) in general, there is no difference in cardiovascular risk assessed by weight or metabolic indices between individuals with an untreated first episode of psychosis and healthy controls and (2) cardiovascular risk increases after first exposure to any antipsychotic drug. A rank order of drugs can be derived but there is no evidence of significant class differences. Recommended directions for future research include assessing the effect on cardiometabolic outcomes of medication adherence and dosage effects, determining the therapeutic window for antipsychotic use in adults and

  15. Motivational deficits in early schizophrenia: prevalent, persistent, and key determinants of functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Negative symptoms, in particular motivational deficits, are reported as impediments to functional recovery in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the prevalence of motivational deficits in patients early in the illness, and the impact these deficits have on community functioning. Patients with schizophrenia between the ages of 18 and 35years, and within 5years of initiating antipsychotic treatment were included in the present investigation (N=166). The impact of motivation and cognition on concurrent and longitudinal functioning was evaluated. Motivational impairments were found in more than 75% of participants, and were not associated with receipt of social support. These deficits served as the most robust and reliable predictor of functional outcome, while neurocognition demonstrated significantly weaker associations with outcome. When considered together, motivational deficits demonstrated a reliable link with concurrent and longitudinal functioning, with cognition not offering any independent predictive value. Moreover, motivation was found to mediate the relationship between cognition and outcome. Changes in motivation were linked to changes in functioning; however, this was not the case for changes in cognitive performance. Motivation emerged as a significant predictor of functioning even after selected demographic and clinical characteristics (e.g., positive symptoms) were accounted for. These data indicate that motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, even in the early stages of the illness, and these deficits stand as one of the most robust barriers to people with schizophrenia achieving functional recovery. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits is critical to effective treatment innovation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Paediatric forearm fractures: functional outcome of conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Tarmuzi, Nazari Ahmad; Abdullah, Shalimar; Osman, Zulkiflee; Das, Srijit

    2009-01-01

    Forearm fractures are common in the paediatric age group. Closed reduction and casting are the primary means of treatment in over 90% of these fractures. Resultant deformities are usually a product of indirect trauma involving angular loading combined with rotational deformity and fragment displacement. Retrospectively, 48 patients aged between 4 to 12 years with forearm fractures, were treated conservatively with closed reduction and a cast during a 2-year period. Functional outcomes were measured in terms of pronation and supination. All fractures united before the final visit. Most forearm bone fractures were complete fractures at the mid shaft. Eighty-six percent of the patients had excellent functional outcomes and none had poor outcomes. There were significantly reduced angles of deformities before and after treatment (p < 0.05). Radiographically, in the frontal plane, 57.1% of radius and 73.9% of ulnar fractures achieved perfect reduction (i.e. a degree of deformity of less than 5 degrees). However, in the lateral plane, there were fewer perfect reductions for the radius and ulna, at 14.6% and 54.3%, respectively. All except for one patient were satisfied with the outcomes. The level of fracture did not influence the outcomes. Conservative treatment is still an acceptable form of treatment especially for stable forearm fractures in children achieving excellent outcomes (Tab. 1, Fig. 7, Ref. 20).

  17. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Heo, Eun Jin; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-03-01

    Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC.

  18. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  19. Surrogate markers for time-varying treatments and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jesse Y; Kennedy, Edward H; Roy, Jason A; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Small, Dylan S; Joffe, Marshall M

    2015-01-01

    Background A surrogate marker is a variable commonly used in clinical trials to guide treatment decisions when the outcome of ultimate interest is not available. A good surrogate marker is one where the treatment effect on the surrogate is a strong predictor of the effect of treatment on the outcome. We review the situation when there is one treatment delivered at baseline, one surrogate measured at one later time point and one ultimate outcome of interest, and discuss new issues arising when variables are time-varying. Methods Most of the literature on surrogate markers has only considered simple settings with one treatment, one surrogate, and one outcome of interest at a fixed time point. However, more complicated time-varying settings are common in practice. In this paper, we describe the unique challenges in two settings, time-varying treatments and time-varying surrogates, while relating the ideas back to the causal-effects and causal-association paradigms. Conclusions In addition to discussing and extending popular notions of surrogacy to time-varying settings, we give examples illustrating that one can be misled by not taking into account time-varying information about the surrogate or treatment. We hope this paper has provided some motivation for future work on estimation and inference in such settings. PMID:25948621

  20. Results of a Coordinated Specialty Care Program for Early Psychosis and Predictors of Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nossel, Ilana; Wall, Melanie M; Scodes, Jennifer; Marino, Leslie A; Zilkha, Sacha; Bello, Iruma; Malinovsky, Igor; Lee, Rufina; Radigan, Marleen; Smith, Thomas E; Sederer, Lloyd; Gu, Gyojeong; Dixon, Lisa

    2018-05-15

    This study prospectively evaluated outcomes of OnTrackNY, a statewide coordinated specialty care (CSC) program for treatment of early psychosis in community settings, as well as predictors of outcomes. The sample included 325 individuals ages 16-30 with recent-onset nonaffective psychosis who were enrolled in OnTrackNY and who had at least one three-month follow-up. Clinicians provided data at baseline and quarterly up to one year. Domains assessed included demographic and clinical characteristics, social and occupational functioning, medications, suicidality and violence, hospitalization, and time to intervention. Primary outcomes included the symptoms, occupational functioning, and social functioning scales of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), as adapted by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center; education and employment status; and psychiatric hospitalization rate. Education and employment rates increased from 40% to 80% by six months, hospitalization rates decreased from 70% to 10% by three months, and improvement in GAF scores continued for 12 months. Female gender, non-Hispanic white race-ethnicity, and more education at baseline predicted better education and employment status at follow-up. Individuals with early psychosis receiving CSC achieved significant improvements in education and employment and experienced a decrease in hospitalization rate. Demographic variables and baseline education predicted education and employment outcomes. CSC teams should make particular effort to support the occupational goals of individuals at increased risk of not engaging in work or school, including male participants and participants from racial and ethnic minority groups.

  1. Do Family Interventions Improve Outcomes in Early Psychosis? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, Melanie; Onwumere, Juliana; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Family interventions for psychosis (FIp) are effective in reducing service user relapse and carer distress in people with schizophrenia-spectrum conditions. Several treatment and best practice guidelines recommend FIp for all people with schizophrenia. However, outcome findings in relation to early psychosis groups have been inconsistent. The current paper reports a systematic review and meta-analyses of articles that evaluated FIp in early psychosis with a clearly defined comparison group. A combination of electronic database searches (using PsychINFO, Medline, and CENTRAL), citation searches and hand searches of key journals and reviews was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles published in English from database inception to June 2016 were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP). Seventeen papers from 14 studies met inclusion criteria for review, the overall quality of which was moderate. Meta-analytic synthesis showed that FIp improved service user functioning and reduced the likelihood of relapse by the end of treatment. Psychotic symptoms were significantly reduced in the FIp group at follow up, but this was not evident at end of treatment. In terms of FIp target mechanisms, carers receiving FIp were more likely to shift from high to low expressed emotion and less likely to report patient focused criticism or engage in conflict communication than carers randomized to standard care. Carer burden and well-being were improved by the end of treatment but gains were not sustained at follow up. FIp had no impact on carer emotional over-involvement. The findings indicate that FIp is an effective intervention for early psychosis service users and their relatives. However, further research is required to establish which key therapeutic components of FIp are most effective for whom, in addition to understanding the mechanisms by which FIp might affect positive change. PMID:28396643

  2. Early diagnosis and treatment in a child with foodborne botulism.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Maria Renata; Lamba, Marta; Rossi, Alessandro; Siani, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxins. Despite rare the mortality rate is high if untreated. Diagnosis of botulism is still a challenge for clinician, due to the variability of clinical manifestations and disease course. We report on a child with type B botulin intoxication who was early diagnosed and treated underlining that clinical suspicion is crucial to start prompt treatment. An 11-year-old boy presented with bilateral ptosis and mydriasis, dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing, dysphonia, urine retention and constipation. Clear sensorium and no fever were observed. Immediately the suspicion of botulism was risen and botulinum antitoxin was administered. 3 days later serum and rectal samples tested positive for Clostridium botulinum. The patient completely recovered when discharged from hospital. Foodborne botulism is still possible in developed countries. The confirmation test of botulism requires some days. To avoid long delays between intoxication and diagnosis prompt clinical suspicion is thus crucial. The outcome depends on rapid implementation of appropriate management with intensive respiratory care and antitoxin administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: maternal hyperimmunoglobulin therapy improves outcomes among infants at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Silvia; Manara, Renzo; Milanese, Laura; Da Roit, Anna; Forner, Gabriella; Salviato, Eleonora; Citton, Valentina; Magno, Fioretta Marciani; Orzan, Eva; Morando, Carla; Cusinato, Riccardo; Mengoli, Carlo; Palu, Giorgio; Ermani, Mario; Rinaldi, Roberto; Cosmi, Erich; Gussetti, Nadia

    2012-08-01

    Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the leading infectious cause of congenital neurological disabilities. Early CMV infection carries a higher risk of adverse neonatal outcome (sensorineural hearing loss or neurological deficits). Intravenous hyperimmunoglobulin (HIG) therapy seems to be promising, but its efficacy needs further investigation. Since 2002, we have enrolled consecutively all pregnant women with early (ie, before gestational week 17) CMV infection. Beginning in 2007, all women were offered treatment with HIG (200 UI per kilogram of maternal weight, in a single intravenous administration). Outcome of infants was evaluated at the age of 1 year. Of the 592 women with early primary CMV infection, amniocentesis for CMV DNA detection was performed for 446. Of the 92 CMV-positive fetuses, pregnancy was terminated for 24, HIG was administered to mothers of 31, and no treatment was received by mothers of 37. Fetuses of treated mothers did not differ from fetuses of nontreated mothers according to mother's age, gestational week of infection, CMV load, or detection of abnormal ultrasonography findings. At the 1-year evaluation, 4 of 31 infants with treated mothers (13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-25%) and 16 of 37 infants with nontreated mothers (43%; 95% CI, 27%-59%) presented with poor outcomes (P < .01, by the 2-tailed Fisher exact test). HIG treatment improved the outcome of fetuses from women who had primary CMV infection before gestational week 17.

  4. Effect of depression treatment on chronic pain outcomes.

    PubMed

    Teh, Carrie Farmer; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Reynolds, Charles F; Cleary, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effect of depression treatment on medical and social outcomes for individuals with chronic pain and depression. People with chronic pain and depression have worse health outcomes than those with chronic pain alone. Little is known about the effectiveness of depression treatment for this population. Propensity score-weighted analyses, using both waves (1997-1998 and 2000-2001) of the National Survey of Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Health Problems, were used to examine the effect of a) any depression treatment and b) minimally adequate depression treatment on persistence of depression symptoms, depression severity, pain severity, overall health, mental health status, physical health status, social functioning, employment status, and number of workdays missed. Analyses were limited to those who met Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form criteria for major depressive disorder, reported having at least one chronic pain condition, and completed both interviews (n = 553). Receiving any depression treatment was associated with higher scores on the mental component summary of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12, indicating better mental health (difference = 2.65 points, p = .002) and less interference of pain on work (odds ratio = 0.57, p = .02). Among those receiving treatment, minimal adequacy of treatment was not significantly associated with better outcomes. Depression treatment improves mental health and reduces the effects of pain on work among those with chronic pain and depression. Understanding the effect of depression treatment on outcomes for this population is important for employers, healthcare providers treating this population, and policymakers working in this decade of pain control and research to improve care for chronic pain sufferers.

  5. Bispectral index to predict neurological outcome early after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Stammet, Pascal; Collignon, Olivier; Werer, Christophe; Sertznig, Claude; Devaux, Yvan

    2014-12-01

    To address the value of continuous monitoring of bispectral index (BIS) to predict neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. In this prospective observational study in adult comatose patients treated by therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest we measured bispectral index (BIS) during the first 24 hours of intensive care unit stay. A blinded neurological outcome assessment by cerebral performance category (CPC) was done 6 months after cardiac arrest. Forty-six patients (48%) had a good neurological outcome at 6-month, as defined by a cerebral performance category (CPC) 1-2, and 50 patients (52%) had a poor neurological outcome (CPC 3-5). Over the 24h of monitoring, mean BIS values over time were higher in the good outcome group (38 ± 9) compared to the poor outcome group (17 ± 12) (p<0.001). Analysis of BIS recorded every 30 minutes provided an optimal prediction after 12.5h, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89, a specificity of 89% and a sensitivity of 86% using a cut-off value of 23. With a specificity fixed at 100% (sensitivity 26%) the cut-off BIS value was 2.4 over the first 271 minutes. In multivariable analyses including clinical characteristics, mean BIS value over the first 12.5h was a predictor of neurological outcome (p = 6E-6) and provided a continuous net reclassification index of 1.28% (p = 4E-10) and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.31 (p=1E-10). Mean BIS value calculated over the first 12.5h after ICU admission potentially predicts 6-months neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships between Treatment Expectations and Treatment Outcomes among Outpatients with Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raylu, Namrata; Kaur, Inderjit

    2012-01-01

    Currently, studies exploring the relationship between treatment expectations (TE) and outcome among individuals with substance use problems are significantly lacking. This is important as relapse and attrition rates among this group are greater than those with other psychological problems. Understanding how TE impact treatment outcomes among this…

  7. ENGAGEMENT IN OUTPATIENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT AND EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Dunigan, Robert; Acevedo, Andrea; Campbell, Kevin; Garnick, Deborah W.; Horgan, Constance M.; Huber, Alice; Lee, Margaret T.; Panas, Lee; Ritter, Grant A.

    2013-01-01

    This study, a collaboration between an academic research center and Washington State’s health, employment and correction departments, investigates the extent to which treatment engagement, a widely adopted performance measure, is associated with employment, an important outcome for individuals receiving treatment for substance use disorders. Two-stage Heckman probit regressions were conducted using 2008 administrative data for 7,570 adults receiving publicly-funded treatment. The first stage predicted employment in the year following the first treatment visit and three separate second stages models predicted number of quarters employed, wages, and hours worked. Engagement as a main effect was not significant for any of the employment outcomes. However, for clients with prior criminal justice involvement, engagement was associated with both employment and higher wages following treatment. Clients with criminal justice involvement face greater challenge regarding employment, so the identification of any actionable step which increases the likelihood of employment or wages is an important result. PMID:23686216

  8. Systematic Review of Treatment Outcome Measures for Vulvodynia.

    PubMed

    Sadownik, Leslie A; Yong, Paul J; Smith, Kelly B

    2018-07-01

    To systematically evaluate the literature regarding vulvodynia treatment outcome measures. A systematic literature search on OVID, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases was conducted from inception until May 2016. Studies were included/excluded based on prespecified criteria. Reported outcome measures were organized into 6 core outcome domains recommended by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT): pain; physical functioning, emotional functioning, participant ratings of global improvement and satisfaction with treatment, symptoms and adverse events, and participant disposition. Of the 206 articles identified for full-text screening, 33 met our criteria. One study adhered to all IMMPACT recommendations. The number of outcomes measured per study ranged from 1 to greater than 20. Patient-reported pain outcomes were found in the majority (27/33; 82%) of studies. Pain severity with intercourse was reported by 24 (73%) of 33 studies-9 different scales were used to measure this outcome. Clinician-reported outcomes were present in 14 (42%) of 33 studies. Methods of measuring vestibular sensitivity by "cotton swab" test were different in 8 of 10 studies. Other domains reported included; physical function (8/33 studies; 24%), sexual function (23/33 studies; 70%), and emotional function (13/33 studies; 39%). Symptoms and adverse events were reported by 15 (45%) of 33 studies. One study formally reported participant disposition using all the information recommended by CONSORT. Comparison of clinical trial results in vulvodynia is not possible because of a lack of standard treatment outcome measures. Vulvodynia researchers should apply the IMMPACT criteria to guide the development of a minimum core set of standard outcome measures that measure holistic health.

  9. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  10. Financial analysis of early stand treatments in southwest Oregon.

    Helge Eng; K. Norman Johnson; Roger D. Fight

    1990-01-01

    Management guidelines for economically efficient early stand treatments were developed by identifying treatments that would maximize financial returns over the rotation for coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwest Oregon. Short rotations and low stand densities (trees per acre) gave...

  11. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Hilt, Lori M.; Chereji, Elizabeth; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment integrity refers to implementing interventions as intended. Treatment integrity is critically important for experimental validity and for drawing valid inferences regarding the relationship between treatment and outcome. Yet, it is rarely adequately addressed in psychotherapy research. The authors examined barriers to treatment integrity…

  12. Brief dynamic psychotherapy : patient suitability, treatment length, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Høglend, P; Sørlie, T; Heyerdahl, O; Sørbye, O; Amlo, S

    1993-01-01

    Forty-three neurotic outpatients were treated according to common practice with dynamic psychotherapy of brief to moderate length. Suitability for brief dynamic psychotherapy, measured by quality of interpersonal relations, was independent of DSM-III diagnoses. Suitability was a significant direct predictor of symptomatic and dynamic change 2 and 4 years after therapy. Treatment length added no explained outcome variance over patient characteristics. However, patients with high suitability had a relatively more favorable dynamic outcome with a brief, focused treatment approach, whereas patients with low suitability had relatively more favorable outcome with a longer, less focused treatment of more than 1 year's duration. The significant interaction emerged at 4-year follow-up.

  13. Addison disease: early detection and treatment principles.

    PubMed

    Michels, Aaron; Michels, Nicole

    2014-04-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency, or Addison disease, has many causes, the most common of which is autoimmune adrenalitis. Autoimmune adrenalitis results from destruction of the adrenal cortex, which leads to deficiencies in glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and adrenal androgens. In the United States and Western Europe, the estimated prevalence of Addison disease is one in 20,000 persons; therefore, a high clinical suspicion is needed to avoid misdiagnosing a life-threatening adrenal crisis (i.e., shock, hypotension, and volume depletion). The clinical manifestations before an adrenal crisis are subtle and can include hyperpigmentation, fatigue, anorexia, orthostasis, nausea, muscle and joint pain, and salt craving. Cortisol levels decrease and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increase. When clinically suspected, patients should undergo a cosyntropin stimulation test to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency requires replacement of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. During times of stress (e.g., illness, invasive surgical procedures), stress-dose glucocorticoids are required because destruction of the adrenal glands prevents an adequate physiologic response. Management of primary adrenal insufficiency or autoimmune adrenalitis requires vigilance for concomitant autoimmune diseases; up to 50% of patients develop another autoimmune disorder during their lifetime.

  14. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. PMID:29024974

  15. Outcome and status of microsatellite stability in Japanese atomic bomb survivors with early gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Manabu; Taguchi, Kenichi; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Ishida, Teruyoshi

    2013-03-01

    In the decade after the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima, a high incidence of leukemia was observed among atomic bomb survivors. However, the incidence of other cancers gradually increased, while that of leukemia decreased after this period. We evaluated the clinical outcome of early gastric cancer and microsatellite stability over a long-term period in atomic bomb survivors. The results of surgical treatment for early gastric cancer were reviewed for 117 atomic bomb survivors and 394 control patients between 1995 and 2006. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for hMSH2 and hMLH1 expression was performed to evaluate the status of microsatellite stability in 57 atomic bomb survivors and 82 control patients. The long-term survival rate for early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was significantly lower than that in control patients (p < 0.01). Multivariable analysis revealed that age and sex were significant and independent prognostic factors for early gastric cancer. Defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression was also significantly higher in survivors than in control patients (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that atomic bomb survivorship was related to defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression. The prognosis of early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was poor and was related to age and sex, rather than to being an atomic bomb survivor. Furthermore, a higher rate of defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression was observed in the survivors.

  16. Early changes in brain structure correlate with language outcomes in children with neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Kevin A; Kim, Hosung; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Gano, Dawn; Ferriero, Donna M; Barkovich, A James; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Glass, Hannah C; Xu, Duan

    2017-01-01

    Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months. All subjects underwent T1-weighted imaging at 3 T using a 3D IR-SPGR sequence. Images were normalized in intensity and nonlinearly registered to a template constructed specifically for this population, creating a deformation field map. We then used deformation based morphometry (DBM) to correlate variation in the local volume of gray and white matter with composite scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) at 30 months. Our general linear model included gestational age, sex, birth weight, and treatment with hypothermia as covariates. Regional brain volume was significantly associated with language scores, particularly in perisylvian cortical regions including the left supramarginal gyrus, posterior superior and middle temporal gyri, and right insula, as well as inferior frontoparietal subcortical white matter. We did not find significant correlations between regional brain volume and motor or cognitive scale scores. We conclude that, in children with a history of NE, local changes in the volume of perisylvian gray and white matter at 6 months are correlated with language outcome at 30 months. Quantitative measures of brain volume on early MRI may help identify infants at risk for poor language outcomes.

  17. Neuromotor outcomes at school age after extremely low birth weight: early detection of subtle signs.

    PubMed

    Gidley Larson, Jennifer C; Baron, Ida Sue; Erickson, Kristine; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Litman, Fern R

    2011-01-01

    Motor impairments are prevalent in children born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g). Rarely studied are subtle motor deficits that indicate dysfunction or delay in neural systems critical for optimal cognitive, academic, and behavioral function. We aimed to examine quantifiable signs of subtle neuromotor dysfunction in an early school-aged ELBW cohort that coincidentally had age-appropriate cognition and design copying. We studied 97 participants born between 1998 and 2001; 74 ELBW (6.7 years ± 0.75) compared with 23 term-born (6.6 years ± 0.29). Neuromotor outcomes were assessed using the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs-Revised, and measures of dexterity/coordination and visual-motor integration. ELBW participants performed worse than term-born on design-copying and dexterity, were age-appropriate compared to normative data, and had slower timed movements and more subtle overflow movements. Those ELBW born <26 weeks performed most poorly compared with those born 26-34 weeks and term-born. Subtle motor dysfunctions are detectable and quantifiable in ELBW children by school age, even in the presence of average cognition. Early age assessment of incoordination, motor speed, and overflow movements should aid initiation of timely therapies to prepare at-risk ELBW children for subsequent school entry and facilitate design of optimal early treatment strategies. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Maternal dental history and child’s birth outcome and early cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, JL; Rowland, AS; Longnecker, MP; Crawford, P; Golding, J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Prenatal exposure to high levels of mercury, radiation, and inflammation have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes such as increases in preterm delivery, low birthweight, and delayed neurodevelopment. Few data are available to evaluate the potential effects of prenatal low-level exposure to these factors as might occur during dental care. We evaluated maternal dental history prior to and during pregnancy in relation to birth outcomes and early communicative development among offspring in a large cohort (n=7375) of British children born in 1991–1992. Dental history was assessed by questionnaire. The child’s communicative development was assessed using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory at 15 months of age. Total mercury was measured in umbilical cord tissue for a subset of the children. Overall, dental care, including amalgam fillings, was not associated with birth outcomes or language development. Having x-rays taken during pregnancy was not associated with birthweight measured continuously (β=14.7, p=0.4), but was associated with slightly increased odds of having a term, low birthweight baby (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.0–3.4). More detailed evaluation of the potential adverse effects of elective dental treatment during pregnancy, particularly dental x-rays, may be warranted. PMID:17697075

  19. Effect of Depression Treatment on Chronic Pain Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Carrie Farmer; Zaslavsky, Alan; Reynolds, Charles F.; Cleary, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective People with chronic pain and depression have worse health outcomes than those with chronic pain alone. Little is known about the effectiveness of depression treatment for this population. We examined the effect of depression treatment on medical and social outcomes for individuals with chronic pain and depression Methods Propensity score weighted analyses using both waves (1997-1998 and 2000-2001) of the National Survey of Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Health Problems were used to examine the effect of (1) any depression treatment and (2) minimally adequate depression treatment on persistence of depression symptoms, depression severity, pain severity, overall health, mental health status, physical health status, social functioning, employment status, and number of work days missed. Analyses were limited to those who met CIDI-SF criteria for major depressive disorder, reported having at least one chronic pain condition, and completed both interviews (n=553). Results Receiving any depression treatment was associated with higher scores on the mental component summary of the MOS SF-12, indicating better mental health (difference = 2.65 points, p=0.002) and less interference of pain on work (OR=0.57, p=0.02). Among those receiving treatment, minimal adequacy of treatment was not significantly associated with better outcomes. Conclusions Depression treatment improves mental health and reduces the effects of pain on work among those with chronic pain and depression. Understanding the effect of depression treatment on outcomes for this population is important for employers, healthcare providers treating this population, and policymakers working in this Decade of Pain Control and Research to improve care for chronic pain sufferers. PMID:19875633

  20. Sex differences in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension enrolled in the registry to evaluate early and long-term pulmonary arterial hypertension disease management.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Shelley; Traiger, Glenna L; Turner, Michelle; McGoon, Michael D; Wason, Prieya; Barst, Robyn J

    2012-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease that affects more women than men. The reasons for the female preponderance are unclear, and there are limited data available for men with PAH. Data from the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL Registry) were analyzed to explore sex differences among patients with PAH with regard to 2-year survival from enrollment and 5-year survival from time of diagnosis. The data set included 2,318 women and 651 men. More women had PAH associated with connective tissue disease (P < .001), and more men had portopulmonary hypertension (P < .001) and HIV-associated PAH (P < .001). More women had congenital heart disease-associated PAH (P = .017), thyroid disease (P < .001), and depression reported (P ≤ .001). At diagnosis, men had higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (53 ± 14 vs 51 ± 14.3 mm Hg; P = .013) and mean right atrial pressure (10 ± 6 vs 9 ± 6 mm Hg; P = .031). Women had better survival estimates for 2 years from enrollment and for 5 years from diagnosis. Stratifying by age showed that survival from enrollment was similar between men and women aged < 60 years at enrollment, whereas men aged ≥ 60 years have lower survival rates compared with women aged ≥ 60 years. Our findings highlight similarities and differences between men and women with PAH, raising questions for future exploration regarding the role of hormones and sex in causation and survival in PAH. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00370214; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  1. Combining clinical variables to optimize prediction of antidepressant treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, Raquel; Malki, Karim; Maier, Wolfgang; Rietschel, Marcella; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna; Henigsberg, Neven; Dernovsek, Mojca Zvezdana; Souery, Daniel; Stahl, Daniel; Dobson, Richard; Aitchison, Katherine J; Farmer, Anne; Lewis, Cathryn M; McGuffin, Peter; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remission during treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline and to identify contributing predictors from a range of demographic and clinical variables in 793 adults with major depressive disorder. A combination of demographic and clinical variables, with strong contributions from symptoms of depressed mood, reduced interest, decreased activity, indecisiveness, pessimism and anxiety significantly predicted treatment outcomes, explaining 5-10% of variance in symptom improvement with escitalopram. Similar combinations of variables predicted remission with area under the curve 0.72, explaining approximately 15% of variance (pseudo R(2)) in who achieves remission, with strong contributions from body mass index, appetite, interest-activity symptom dimension and anxious-somatizing depression subtype. Escitalopram-specific outcome prediction was more accurate than generic outcome prediction, and reached effect sizes that were near or above a previously established benchmark for clinical significance. Outcome prediction on the nortriptyline arm did not significantly differ from chance. These results suggest that easily obtained demographic and clinical variables can predict therapeutic response to escitalopram with clinically meaningful accuracy, suggesting a potential for individualized prescription of this antidepressant drug. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The Association of Kindergarten Entry Age with Early Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated whether age at kindergarten entry was associated with early literacy achievement gaps and if these gaps persisted over time. Using the kindergarten age eligibility cutoff date, they created 2 groups of students who represented the oldest and youngest children in a cohort of students in high-poverty, low-performing schools.…

  3. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  4. Early Colleges at Scale: Impacts on Secondary and Postsecondary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauen, Douglas L.; Fuller, Sarah; Barrett, Nathan; Janda, Ludmila

    2017-01-01

    We examine the impacts of early college high schools, small schools of choice located on college campuses. These schools provide a no-cost opportunity for students to earn college credit--or a 2-year degree--while in high school. Using rich administrative data on multiple cohorts of students and quasiexperimental methods informed by the…

  5. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurry, Jane; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the long-term effectiveness of two differing models of early intervention for children with reading difficulties: Reading Recovery and a specific phonological training. Approximately 400 children were pre-tested, 95 were assigned to Reading Recovery, 97 to Phonological Training and the remainder acted as controls. In the short…

  6. Early Outcomes of the GEAR UP Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Kim; Judkins, David; Keller, Brad; Shimshak, Amy

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, Congress authorized the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) program. The purpose of the program is to foster increased knowledge, expectations, and preparation for postsecondary education among low-income students and their families. GEAR UP projects may provide services to students, parents and…

  7. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  8. Long-term neurological outcome in children with early-onset epilepsy associated with tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cusmai, Raffaella; Moavero, Romina; Bombardieri, Roberta; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    In tuberous sclerosis complex, early seizure onset is associated with high risk of intractable epilepsy and cognitive/behavioral impairment. We retrospectively evaluated the long-term outcome of 44 infants presenting with seizures in the first 12 months who received vigabatrin, and were followed up for at least 3.5 years. At the final evaluation 55% of patients were still having seizures, 80% had intellectual disability, and 30% had autism. Sixty-five percent of children who had been treated earlier with vigabatrin after seizure onset achieved seizure freedom, compared with 24% of subjects who received vigabatrin treatment later (P<0.01). Intellectual disability was present in 61% of the children treated early (group A) and in 100% of the children treated later (group B). Nine percent of group A and 52% of group B had autism (P≈0.001). A shorter gap between seizure onset and start of treatment could reduce the risk of epileptic encephalopathy, minimizing the deleterious effect of seizures, but is not able to completely reverse the tuberous sclerosis complex-associated cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term outcome of early interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Arieh Y; Ankri, Yael; Gilad, Moran; Israeli-Shalev, Yossi; Adessky, Rhonda; Qian, Meng; Freedman, Sara

    2016-05-01

    Failing to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has major clinical and public health consequences. This work evaluates the 3-year outcome of offering early interventions to survivors with acute PTSD. Adults admitted consecutively to the hospital with acute DSM-IV PTSD were randomized, between June 2003 and October 2007, to 12 weeks of prolonged exposure (n = 63) or cognitive therapy (n = 40) or concealed SSRI (escitalopram; n = 23) versus placebo (n = 23). Eighty-two participants who declined treatment were followed as well. Treatment started 1 month after the traumatic event, and participants were reassessed 5 and 36 months later. Assessors were blinded to treatment allocation and acceptance. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) evaluated PTSD and PTSD symptoms. Self-reported symptoms, general functioning, and employment status were secondary outcomes. Participants lost to follow-up were missing completely at random. Prolonged exposure and cognitive therapy significantly reduced PTSD and PTSD symptoms between 1 and 5 months (mean CAPS total scores [95% CI] at 1 month: prolonged exposure = 73.59 [68.21-78.96] and cognitive therapy = 71.78 [66.92-78.93]; mean CAPS total scores [95% CI] at 5 months: prolonged exposure = 28.59 [21.89-35.29] and cognitive therapy = 29.48 [21.32-37.95], P < .001), and their results remained stable. At 3 years, however, the study groups had similar levels of PTSD symptoms (mean CAPS total scores [95% CI]: prolonged exposure = 31.51 [20.25-42.78]; cognitive therapy = 32.08 [20.74-43.42]; SSRI = 34.31 [16.54-52.07]; placebo = 32.13 [20.15-44.12]; and no intervention = 30.59 [19.40-41.78]), similar prevalence of PTSD (28.6%-46.2%), and similar secondary outcomes. Early prolonged exposure and cognitive therapy accelerated the recovery from acute PTSD. Their effect remained stable, however, without reducing the 3-year prevalence of the disorder. The lingering prevalence of PTSD, despite efficient interventions, illustrates a

  10. Early Integration and Other Outcomes for Community College Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Dika, Sandra L.; Elling, Theodore W.; Algozzine, Bob; Ginn, Donna J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore academic and social integration and other outcomes for community college transfer students. The study used Tinto's ("Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition," 1993) "Longitudinal Model of Institutional Departure" and Deil-Amen's ("J Higher…

  11. Living With Early Prostate Cancer: Decisions and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    quality of life outcome states, i.e., good vs. poor prostate...cancer-related quality of life . Phase 1: interview participants in our quality of life survey of previously treated patients, stratified quality % of life . Phase...2: interview members of our prospective cohort who have completed 36-month follow-up, stratified by quality of life states and observed

  12. Revising a College 101 Course for Sustained Impact: Early Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Raufman, Julia; Efthimiou, Chris; Ritze, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    In response to strikingly low completion rates in public 2-year colleges, including for students who are well-prepared academically, most community colleges across the country offer student success courses as one approach to improving outcomes for students. Some colleges have begun to revise these courses in response to research indicating that…

  13. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated…

  14. Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in remnant stomach or gastric tube.

    PubMed

    Nishide, N; Ono, H; Kakushima, N; Takizawa, K; Tanaka, M; Matsubayashi, H; Yamaguchi, Y

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists regarding the optimal treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) in a remnant stomach or gastric tube. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for EGC in a remnant stomach and gastric tube. Between September 2002 and December 2009, ESD was performed in 62 lesions in 59 patients with EGC in a remnant stomach (48 lesions) or gastric tube (14 lesions). Clinicopathological data were retrieved retrospectively to assess the en bloc resection rate, complications, and outcomes. Treatment results were assessed according to the indications for endoscopic resection, and were compared with those of ESD performed in a whole stomach during the same study period. The en bloc resection rates for lesions within the standard and expanded indication were 100 % and 93 %, respectively. Postoperative bleeding occurred in five patients (8 %). The perforation rate was significantly higher (18 %, 11 /62) than that of ESD in a whole stomach (5 %, 69 /1479). Among the perforation cases, eight lesions involved the anastomotic site or stump line, and ulcerative changes were observed in five lesions. The 3-year overall survival rate was 85 %, with eight deaths due to other causes and no deaths from gastric cancer. A high en bloc resection rate was achieved by ESD for EGC in a remnant stomach or gastric tube; however, this procedure is still technically demanding due to the high complication rate of perforation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The impact of benzodiazepine use on methadone maintenance treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brands, Bruna; Blake, Joan; Marsh, David C; Sproule, Beth; Jeyapalan, Renuka; Li, Selina

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine predictors of benzodiazepine use among methadone maintenance treatment patients, to determine whether baseline benzodiazepine use influenced ongoing use during methadone maintenance treatment, and to assess the effect of ongoing benzodiazepine use on treatment outcomes (i.e., opioid and cocaine use and treatment retention). A retrospective chart review of 172 methadone maintenance treatment patients (mean age = 34.6 years; standard deviation = 8.5 years; 64% male) from January 1997 to December 1999 was conducted. At baseline, 29% were "non-users" (past year) of benzodiazepine, 36% were "occasional users," and 35% were "regular/problem users." Regular/problem users were more likely to have started opioid use with prescription opioids, experienced more overdoses, and reported psychiatric comorbidity. Being female, more years of opioid use, and a history of psychiatric treatment were significant predictors of baseline benzodiazepine use. Ongoing benzodiazepine users were more likely to have opioid-positive and cocaine-positive urine screens during methadone maintenance treatment. Only ongoing cocaine use was negatively related to retention. Benzodiazepine use by methadone maintenance treatment patients is associated with a more complex clinical picture and may negatively influence treatment outcomes.

  16. Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Dupere, Sally; Ahearn, William

    2014-12-01

    Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated observational measures of autism-specific deficits (i.e., social behavior). In the current study, 83 children with autism (CWA), aged 1, 2 and 3 years, and 58 same-aged typically developing children (TDC) were directly observed in the areas of cognitive skills, joint attention (JA), play, and stereotypic behavior using a measure called the Early Skills Assessment Tool (ESAT; MacDonald et al., 2006). CWA were assessed at entry into an EIBI program and again after 1 year of treatment. Changes in performance were compared pre- and post-treatment as well as to the normative data by age. Results indicate significant gains on the ESAT across all age groups with the greatest gains seen in the children who entered treatment prior to their second birthday. Increases were seen on direct measures of JA, play, imitation and language while decreases were seen in stereotypy regardless of level of performance at entry into EIBI. The ESAT, a direct measurement tool, served as a sensitive tool to measure changes in autism symptomatology following EIBI treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal investigation into childhood- and adolescence-onset depression: psychiatric outcome in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Valerie; Goodyer, Ian M

    2006-03-01

    Major depression in childhood or adolescence increases the risk off affective disorder in adulthood. The precise nature and course of the subsequent disorder remain unclear. To investigate long-term psychiatric outcome of school-age depression in community and clinic samples. A group of 113 young adults were followed up after a mean of 7.8 years (s.e.=15). Groups with persistent and recurrent depression were identified. Recurrence of affective disorder was similar in clinic and community groups. The clinic group had significantly longer index episodes; these were predicted by an early psychiatric history, longer episode duration before treatment and greater impairment. Being female, having higher self-report depression scores and comorbidity at index episode predicted earlier recurrence. Males were more likely to have persistent depression. Prognosis is similar in young people with depression from community and clinical samples. Boys from a clinical sample are at higher risk than girls of becoming persistently and severely mentally ill.

  18. Outcomes associated with a negotiated asthma treatment plan.

    PubMed

    Clark, Noreen M; Ko, Yi-An; Gong, Z Molly; Johnson, Timothy R

    2012-08-01

    Negotiated treatment plans are increasingly recommended in asthma clinical care. However, limited data are available to indicate whether this more patient-engaged process results in improved health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between the presence of a negotiated treatment plan and the outcomes related to adherence to the medical regimen, symptom control, and health care use. The focus of the study was on women, the subgroup of adult patients, who are most vulnerable for negative asthma outcomes. Data were collected by telephone interview and medical record review from 808 women diagnosed with asthma at baseline, first year, and second year follow-up. Associations were examined between the presence of a negotiated treatment plan at baseline and subsequent asthma outcomes. Women with a negotiated treatment plan reported more adherent to prescribed asthma medicines (odds ratio (OR) = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (1.82, 3.19)) and those with a plan and using oral steroids at baseline had less oral steroid use at follow-up (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = (0.05, 0.93)). Women with a negotiated plan also had more days (17%, 95% CI = (8, 27)) and nights (31%, 95% CI = (16, 48)) with symptoms than those without such a plan. No differences in hospitalizations, emergency department visits, or urgent physician office visits were noted between the groups. Patients with higher education levels were more likely to have a negotiated treatment plan. Negotiated treatment plans appear to have achieved greater adherence to prescribed asthma medicines and less need for oral steroids but were not related to fewer symptoms of asthma or reductions in urgent health care use. Additional strategies may be needed to reduce symptom and health services utilization outcomes.

  19. Alliance, Technology, and Outcome in the Treatment of Anxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Brian C.; Choudhury, Muniya S.; Shortt, Alison L.; Pincus, Donna B.; Creed, Torrey A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    A strong therapeutic alliance is intuitively important in a cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxious youth where the child must confront feared stimuli in numerous exposure tasks. Research examining alliance-outcome relationships and the specific role of the alliance is currently limited. Is the alliance supportive in nature, does it enhance…

  20. Outpatient Treatment of Child Molesters: Motivational Factors and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Hall, Katurah

    1994-01-01

    Four motivational factors were examined as predictors of treatment effectiveness for 48 male child molesters seen in outpatient therapy using multimodal cognitive behavior therapy for 1 year. Motivation was related to successful outcome. Acceptance of responsibility for sexual deviancy consistently proved to be an effective predictor of favorable…

  1. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  2. Psychophysiological Outcome of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments of Agoraphobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Larry; Mavissakalian, Matig

    1985-01-01

    Examined relative and combined effectiveness of behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy in 62 severe, chronic agoraphobics. Identified differential temporal response and treatment patterns across psychophysiological domains. Synchrony/desynchrony phenomena yielded significant findings with regard to process and clinical outcome status. Exploratory…

  3. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective in this study was to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method: Participants were 1,226…

  4. Early Magnesium Treatment After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dorhout Mees, Sanne M; Algra, Ale; Wong, George K C; Poon, Wai S; Bradford, Celia M; Saver, Jeffrey L; Starkman, Sidney; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; van den Bergh, Walter M; van Kooten, F; Dirven, C M; van Gijn, J; Vermeulen, M; Rinkel, G J E; Boet, R; Chan, M T V; Gin, T; Ng, S C P; Zee, B C Y; Al-Shahi Salman, R; Boiten, J; Kuijsten, H; Lavados, P M; van Oostenbrugge, R J; Vandertop, W P; Finfer, S; O'Connor, A; Yarad, E; Firth, R; McCallister, R; Harrington, T; Steinfort, B; Faulder, K; Assaad, N; Morgan, M; Starkman, S; Eckstein, M; Stratton, S J; Pratt, F D; Hamilton, S; Conwit, R; Liebeskind, D S; Sung, G; Kramer, I; Moreau, G; Goldweber, R; Sanossian, N

    2015-11-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is an important cause of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Trials of magnesium treatment starting <4 days after symptom onset found no effect on poor outcome or DCI in SAH. Earlier installment of treatment might be more effective, but individual trials had not enough power for such a subanalysis. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to study whether magnesium is effective when given within different time frames within 24 hours after the SAH. Patients were divided into categories according to the delay between symptom onset and start of the study medication: <6, 6 to 12, 12 to 24, and >24 hours. We calculated adjusted risk ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals for magnesium versus placebo treatment for poor outcome and DCI. We included 5 trials totaling 1981 patients; 83 patients started treatment<6 hours. For poor outcome, the adjusted risk ratios of magnesium treatment for start <6 hours were 1.44 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-2.51); for 6 to 12 hours 1.03 (0.65-1.63), for 12 to 24 hours 0.84 (0.65-1.09), and for >24 hours 1.06 (0.87-1.31), and for DCI, <6 hours 1.76 (0.68-4.58), for 6 to 12 hours 2.09 (0.99-4.39), for 12 to 24 hours 0.80 (0.56-1.16), and for >24 hours 1.08 (0.88-1.32). This meta-analysis suggests no beneficial effect of magnesium treatment on poor outcome or DCI when started early after SAH onset. Although the number of patients was small and a beneficial effect cannot be definitively excluded, we found no justification for a new trial with early magnesium treatment after SAH. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Early math matters: kindergarten number competence and later mathematics outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nancy C; Kaplan, David; Ramineni, Chaitanya; Locuniak, Maria N

    2009-05-01

    Children's number competencies over 6 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten to the middle of 1st grade, were examined in relation to their mathematics achievement over 5 later time points, from the end of 1st grade to the end of 3rd grade. The relation between early number competence and mathematics achievement was strong and significant throughout the study period. A sequential process growth curve model showed that kindergarten number competence predicted rate of growth in mathematics achievement between 1st and 3rd grades as well as achievement level through 3rd grade. Further, rate of growth in early number competence predicted mathematics performance level in 3rd grade. Although low-income children performed more poorly than their middle-income counterparts in mathematics achievement and progressed at a slower rate, their performance and growth were mediated through relatively weak kindergarten number competence. Similarly, the better performance and faster growth of children who entered kindergarten at an older age were explained by kindergarten number competence. The findings show the importance of early number competence for setting children's learning trajectories in elementary school mathematics. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Early Math Matters: Kindergarten Number Competence and Later Mathematics Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Kaplan, David; Ramineni, Chaitanya; Locuniak, Maria N.

    2009-01-01

    Children’s number competencies over 6 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten to the middle of 1st grade, were examined in relation to their mathematics achievement over 5 later time points, from the end of 1st grade to the end of 3rd grade. The relation between early number competence and mathematics achievement was strong and significant throughout the study period. A sequential process growth curve model showed that kindergarten number competence predicted rate of growth in mathematics achievement between 1st and 3rd grades as well as achievement level through 3rd grade. Further, rate of growth in early number competence predicted mathematics performance level in 3rd grade. Although low-income children performed more poorly than their middle-income counterparts in mathematics achievement and progressed at a slower rate, their performance and growth were mediated through relatively weak kindergarten number competence. Similarly, the better performance and faster growth of children who entered kindergarten at an older age were explained by kindergarten number competence. The findings show the importance of early number competence for setting children’s learning trajectories in elementary school mathematics. PMID:19413436

  7. Early rehabilitation outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Birol; Tok, Fatih; Yavuz, Ferdi; Yaşar, Evren; Alaca, Rıdvan

    2011-07-12

    Although important data on the prognosis and rehabilitation outcome in stroke patients have been reported, data on functional recovery according to stroke subtypes are limited. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke-the most common subtype of ischemic stroke. The records of stroke patients that underwent the rehabilitation program at our brain injury rehabilitation service between January 2007 and December 2008 were reviewed, and those with MCA stroke were included in the study. Patient demographic and clinical data, and Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores at admission and discharge were collected. The study included 80 MCA stroke patients with a mean age of 63.54 years. FIM and BI scores improved significantly post rehabilitation (P<0.05). Age was negatively correlated with both BI and FIM scores at admission and discharge. Length of stay was not correlated with improvement in BI or FIM scores during hospitalization. The patients that had ≤1 month of inpatient rehabilitation had similar outcomes as those that had >1 month of inpatient rehabilitation (P>0.05). Length of time after stroke onset was not correlated with BI or FIM scores at admission. Regardless of initial functional status, prediction of discharge functional status was misleading. Physiatrists should keep in mind that functional improvement does not always increase with duration of inpatient therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cluster analysis and prediction of treatment outcomes for chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Soler, Zachary M; Hyer, J Madison; Rudmik, Luke; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Smith, Timothy L; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2016-04-01

    Current clinical classifications of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have weak prognostic utility regarding treatment outcomes. Simplified discriminant analysis based on unsupervised clustering has identified novel phenotypic subgroups of CRS, but prognostic utility is unknown. We sought to determine whether discriminant analysis allows prognostication in patients choosing surgery versus continued medical management. A multi-institutional prospective study of patients with CRS in whom initial medical therapy failed who then self-selected continued medical management or surgical treatment was used to separate patients into 5 clusters based on a previously described discriminant analysis using total Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) score, age, and missed productivity. Patients completed the SNOT-22 at baseline and for 18 months of follow-up. Baseline demographic and objective measures included olfactory testing, computed tomography, and endoscopy scoring. SNOT-22 outcomes for surgical versus continued medical treatment were compared across clusters. Data were available on 690 patients. Baseline differences in demographics, comorbidities, objective disease measures, and patient-reported outcomes were similar to previous clustering reports. Three of 5 clusters identified by means of discriminant analysis had improved SNOT-22 outcomes with surgical intervention when compared with continued medical management (surgery was a mean of 21.2 points better across these 3 clusters at 6 months, P < .05). These differences were sustained at 18 months of follow-up. Two of 5 clusters had similar outcomes when comparing surgery with continued medical management. A simplified discriminant analysis based on 3 common clinical variables is able to cluster patients and provide prognostic information regarding surgical treatment versus continued medical management in patients with CRS. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Modeling old-age wealth with endogenous early-life outcomes: The case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DeGraff, Deborah S.; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the life course and aging by examining the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being, using data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Empirical research in this area has been challenged by the potential endogeneity of the early-life outcomes of interest, an issue which most studies ignore or downplay. Our contribution takes two forms: (1) we examine in detail the potential importance of two key life-cycle outcomes, age at marriage (a measure of family formation) and years of educational attainment (a measure of human capital investment) for old-age wealth, and (2) we illustrate the empirical value of past context variables that could help model the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being. Our illustrative approach, matching macro-level historical policy and census variables to individual records to use as instruments in modeling the endogeneity of early-life behaviors, yields a statistically identified two-stage model of old-age wealth with minimum bias. We use simulations to show that the results for the model of wealth in old age are meaningfully different when comparing the approach that accounts for endogeneity with an approach that assumes exogeneity of early-life outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that in the Mexican case, models which ignore the potential endogeneity of early-life outcomes are likely to under-estimate the effects of such variables on old-age wealth. PMID:25170434

  10. Lidcombe Program Webcam Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, Kate; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Webcam treatment is potentially useful for health care in cases of early stuttering in which clients are isolated from specialized treatment services for geographic and other reasons. The purpose of the present trial was to compare outcomes of clinic and webcam deliveries of the Lidcombe Program treatment (Packman et al., 2015) for early stuttering. The design was a parallel, open plan, noninferiority randomized controlled trial of the standard Lidcombe Program treatment and the experimental webcam Lidcombe Program treatment. Participants were 49 children aged 3 years 0 months to 5 years 11 months at the start of treatment. Primary outcomes were the percentage of syllables stuttered at 9 months postrandomization and the number of consultations to complete Stage 1 of the Lidcombe Program. There was insufficient evidence of a posttreatment difference of the percentage of syllables stuttered between the standard and webcam Lidcombe Program treatments. There was insufficient evidence of a difference between the groups for typical stuttering severity measured by parents or the reported clinical relationship with the treating speech-language pathologist. This trial confirmed the viability of the webcam Lidcombe Program intervention. It appears to be as efficacious and economically viable as the standard, clinic Lidcombe Program treatment.

  11. Outcomes of management of early temporomandibular joint disorders: How effective is nonsurgical therapy in the long-term?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyed Hossein; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Navi, Fina; Pourshahab, Majid; Bayanzadeh, Seyed Masoud; Hajmiragha, Habib; Isapour, Mona

    2010-01-01

    Aim The first step in the management of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) is usually noninvasive, especially if the disorder is in the early stages. Clinically, pain and clicking are early signs and symptoms of TMD. The management of TMD usually includes “splint therapy” and analgesics. In this study, we report our long-term outcomes in the treatment of patients suffering from early TMD. Materials and Methods: We assessed the records of 138 patients who were referred for management of TMD. Selection was based on pain and/or clicking of the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ), no pathologic lesions of the TMJ, no anterior disc displacement without reduction (closed lock), no Degenerative Joint Disease, no history of migraine, trauma, osteoarthritis, metabolic disease, or malocclusion (deep bite, cross bite, jaw deformity, etc). The patients were treated with an acrylic maxillary Interocclusal Splint (IOS) cuspid-rise type and were told to refrain from biting, yawning and chewing hard food. The outcome of the treatment, potential etiologic factors (Bruxism), signs and symptoms and patient demographics (such as age, sex, treatment duration, etc.) were assessed. The data were analyzed using the Chi-square test to correlate significance. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients (26 males and 112 females) with early signs and symptoms of TMD (pain and/or click of the TMJ) were treated from 2001 to 2010; 81% were females and 19% were males. All the 138 patients used the IOS at night only. The patients were followed-up for 1–9 years. Data analysis showed that 64% of the patients were completely relieved of signs and symptoms; 22% were moderately relieved (decreased severity of signs and symptoms) and 14% had no noticeable post-treatment changes in clicking or pain (P = 0.001). Patients with bruxism and those presenting with both pain and clicking showed a better response to IOS treatment (P = 0.046 and P = 0.001, respectively). The results also showed that age, sex

  12. Treatment of Early-stage Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformations with Intralesional Interstitial Bleomycin Injection: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yunbo; Zou, Yun; Hua, Chen; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xi; Ma, Gang; Chang, Lei; Qiu, Yajing; Lyu, Dongze; Wang, Tianyou; Chang, Shih-Jen; Qiao, Congzhen; Luo, Chunfen; Tremp, Mathias; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy and safety of intralesional interstitial bleomycin injection in the treatment of early-stage (Schobinger stage I or II) extracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Materials and Methods This prospective study involved 34 patients with early-stage AVMs, as defined by the Schobinger staging system. The patients received intralesional interstitial bleomycin injected at a maximum dose of 15 000 IU or 1000 IU per kilogram of body weight for children who weighed less than 15 kg per procedure for a total of 6 months (once every month). Therapeutic outcome was evaluated by the degree of devascularization at angiography and the clinical outcome 3 months after the last treatment. Further follow-up was evaluated based on further clinical outcome. Adverse events were recorded according to the Society of Interventional Radiology classification. Results Of the 34 patients with early-stage AVM, 32 (mean age, 20.5 years; 24 female [75%]) completed the study. The results showed that 27 (84.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 71.1, 97.7) patients were responsive to bleomycin injection, including nine (28.1%) with a complete response. Four (12.5%) patients showed no response, and one (3.1%) patient experienced worsening 3 months after the last treatment. During further follow-up (mean follow-up time, 20.7 months; range, 5-28 months), the outcome remained stable in 31 (96.9%) of the 32 patients. A major complication, anaphylactic shock, was observed in one (3.1%, 95% CI: 0, 9.5) patient. Common minor complications included hyperpigmentation, nausea, pruritus, and bullae. Conclusion Intralesional interstitial bleomycin injection is a feasible approach for early-stage AVMs and yields safe and effective outcomes. © RSNA, 2017.

  13. Management and treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in MDR-TB treatment in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phuong, N T M; Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Thuy, H T; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    The programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam has been rapidly scaled up since 2009. To document the annual numbers of patients enrolled for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment during 2010-2014 and to determine characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients initiating treatment during 2010-2012. A retrospective cohort study using national reports and data from the national electronic data system for drug-resistant TB. The number of patients enrolled annually for MDR-TB treatment increased from 97 in 2010 to 1522 in 2014. The majority of patients were middle-aged men who had pulmonary disease and had failed a retreatment regimen; 77% had received ⩾2 courses of TB treatment. Favourable outcomes (cured and treatment completed) were attained in 73% of patients. Unfavourable outcomes included loss to follow-up (12.5%), death (8%) and failure (6.3%). Having had ⩾2 previous treatment courses and being human immunodeficiency virus-positive were associated with unfavourable outcomes. Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for MDR-TB each year with good treatment outcomes under national programme management in Viet Nam. However, there is a need to increase case detection-currently at 30% of the estimated 5100 MDR-TB cases per year, reduce adverse outcomes and improve monitoring and evaluation.

  14. Management and treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in MDR-TB treatment in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, N. V.; Hoa, N. B.; Thuy, H. T.; Takarinda, K. C.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam has been rapidly scaled up since 2009. Objectives: To document the annual numbers of patients enrolled for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment during 2010–2014 and to determine characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients initiating treatment during 2010–2012. Design: A retrospective cohort study using national reports and data from the national electronic data system for drug-resistant TB. Results: The number of patients enrolled annually for MDR-TB treatment increased from 97 in 2010 to 1522 in 2014. The majority of patients were middle-aged men who had pulmonary disease and had failed a retreatment regimen; 77% had received ⩾2 courses of TB treatment. Favourable outcomes (cured and treatment completed) were attained in 73% of patients. Unfavourable outcomes included loss to follow-up (12.5%), death (8%) and failure (6.3%). Having had ⩾2 previous treatment courses and being human immunodeficiency virus-positive were associated with unfavourable outcomes. Conclusion: Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for MDR-TB each year with good treatment outcomes under national programme management in Viet Nam. However, there is a need to increase case detection—currently at 30% of the estimated 5100 MDR-TB cases per year, reduce adverse outcomes and improve monitoring and evaluation. PMID:27051608

  15. Involuntary admission may support treatment outcome and motivation in patients receiving assertive community treatment.

    PubMed

    Kortrijk, Hans Erik; Staring, A B P; van Baars, A W B; Mulder, C L

    2010-02-01

    Patients with severe mental illness who are treated in assertive community treatment (ACT) teams are sometimes involuntarily admitted when they are dangerous to themselves or others, and are not motivated for treatment. However, the consequences of involuntary admission in terms of psychosocial outcome and treatment motivation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that involuntary admission would improve psychosocial outcome and not adversely affect their treatment motivation. In the context of routine 6-monthly outcome monitoring in the period January 2003-March 2008, we used the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) and a motivation-for-treatment scale to assess 260 severely mentally ill patients at risk for involuntary admission. Mixed models with repeated measures were used for data analyses. During the observation period, 77 patients (30%) were involuntarily admitted. Relative to patients who were not involuntarily admitted, these patients improved significantly in HoNOS total scores (F = 17,815, df = 1, p < 0.001) and in motivation for treatment (F = 28.139, df = 1, p < 0.001). Patients who were not involuntarily admitted had better HoNOS and motivation scores at baseline, but did not improve. Involuntary admission in the context of ACT was associated with improvements in psychosocial outcome and motivation for treatment. There are no indications that involuntary admission leads to deterioration in psychosocial outcome or worsening of motivation for treatment.

  16. Treatment outcome of patients with isoniazid mono-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chien, J-Y; Chen, Y-T; Wu, S-G; Lee, J-J; Wang, J-Y; Yu, C-J

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid mono-resistance is the most common first-line drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB), but its treatment outcome remains unclear. From January 2004 to October 2011, 425 (5.1%) of 8414 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB from four hospitals in Taiwan were identified as having isoniazid mono-resistant TB. Among them, 395 (92.9%) were included and followed up for 2 years after complete treatment. Although 328 (83.0%) patients were successfully treated, 67 (17.0%) had unfavourable outcomes, including death in 56 (14.2%) and treatment failure in 11 (2.8%). The treatment success rate was similar in patients with high-level and low-level isoniazid-resistant TB (82.2% versus 83.4%, p 0.785) and among those taking anti-TB treatment with and without isoniazid (83.1% versus 83.0%, p 1.000). Patients without rifampicin interruption had lower risk of unfavourable outcome (14.3% versus 37.0%, p <0.001), especially those with low-level isoniazid resistance (11.5% versus 56.5%, p <0.001). Supplementation with a new-generation fluoroquinolone improved treatment success (60.0% versus 12.5%, p 0.003). The presence of cavitary lesions was significantly associated with a higher relapse rate (4.1% versus 0.0%, p 0.006) and extended treatment of 7-9, 10-12 and >12 months had less relapse than 6-month treatment (3.2%, 0%, 3.7% and 25.0%, respectively, p 0.037). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that co-morbidity with cancer (hazard ratio, 2.43) and rifampicin interruption (hazard ratio 1.91) were independent factors associated with unfavourable outcomes. Treatment throughout with rifampicin and extended treatment for cavitary disease are crucial for improving outcomes in patients with isoniazid mono-resistant TB. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  18. Outcome for Children Receiving the Early Start Denver Model before and after 48 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is an intervention program recommended for pre-schoolers with autism ages 12-48 months. The rationale for this recommendation is the potential for intervention to affect developmental trajectories during early sensitive periods. We investigated outcomes of 32 children aged 18-48 months and 28 children aged…

  19. Early Intervention Outcomes for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes-Grosser, Donna M.; Elbaum, Batya; Wu, Yan; Siegenthaler, Kirsten M.; Cavalari, Rachel S.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be diagnosed as early as 18 months of age. State Early Intervention (EI) programs under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) are serving increasing numbers of children with ASD; however, little is known about outcomes of these services. This study evaluated the impact of EI for…

  20. Early Head Start and African American Families: Impacts and Mechanisms of Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Brenda Jones; Sandstrom, Heather; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Persistent disparities exist between African American children and their European American counterparts across developmental domains. Early childhood intervention may serve to promote more positive outcomes among African American children. The current study examined whether and how the Early Head Start (EHS) program benefited African American…

  1. The Effect of Early Noncognitive Skills on Social Outcomes in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…

  2. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  3. Conceptualizing Child and Family Outcomes of Early Intervention Services for Children with ASD and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes-Grosser, Donna M.; Rosas, Scott R.; Goldman, Alyssa; Elbaum, Batya; Romanczyk, Ray; Callahan, Emily H.

    2013-01-01

    State early intervention programs (EIPs) have been encouraged to develop and implement comprehensive outcomes measurement systems. As the number of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families receiving services in state EIPs increases, disability-specific outcomes data are needed to better understand issues of access, costs,…

  4. Complex Possibilities: "Working Theories" as an Outcome for the Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    "Working theories" are described as one of the two principal outcomes of Te Whariki, the early childhood curriculum in Aotearoa New Zealand. Despite its prominence as a curricular outcome, the theoretical positioning of the concept of working theory remains relatively undebated, with researchers readily attributing the term to a…

  5. Hispanic Subgroups, Acculturation, and Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Karen G.; Carmody, Tom; Akhtar, Maleeha; Stebbins, Mary B.; Walters, Scott T.; Warden, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Hispanic subgroup differences in substance use treatment outcomes, and the relationship of acculturation characteristics to these outcomes. Data were from a multisite randomized clinical trial of motivational enhancement therapy versus treatment as usual in a sample of Spanish-speaking substance abusers. Participants were Cuban American (n=34), Mexican American (n=209), Puerto Rican (n=78), and other Hispanic American (n=54). Results suggested that Cuban Americans and individuals with more connection to Hispanic culture had lower treatment retention. Hispanics born in the U.S and those who spoke English at home had a lower percentage of days abstinent during weeks 5-16, although Puerto Ricans born in the U.S. and Cuban Americans living more years in the U.S. had a higher percentage of days abstinent in weeks 1-4 and 5-16, respectively. Results may inform future hypothesis-driven studies in larger Hispanic treatment seeking samples of the relationship between acculturation and treatment outcome. PMID:26362001

  6. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    SciT

    Pulsifer, Margaret B., E-mail: mpulsifer@mgh.harvard.edu; Sethi, Roshan V.; Kuhlthau, Karen A.

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiationmore » (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.« less

  7. Smoking Status and Substance Use Treatment Outcomes Among Spanish Speakers Enrolled in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    PubMed

    de Dios, Marcel A; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Childress, Sarah; Vaughan, Ellen; Cerna, Yohanna; Niaura, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent among individuals with drug and alcohol disorders. Concurrent tobacco dependence treatment during substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is supported, yet the association between SUD treatment outcomes and smoking status has been understudied in minorities, including Latinos. Participants were 322 Spanish-speaking Latinos enrolled in a SUD treatment study in 5 U.S. cities. Logistic regression examined associations between baseline smoking status and treatment outcomes for nontobacco substance use at follow-up. Covariates included age, gender, level of education, marital status, treatment group, and mandated treatment status. Results indicated smokers had a reduced likelihood of abstinence for all nontobacco substances (p = .001) and their primary drug of use (p = .007). Findings contribute to the growing literature indicating a possible beneficial effect of smoking cessation services on SUD treatment, specifically among Latinos. Further research is needed to identify ideal smoking cessation treatments for Latinos. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Wound Status Early Outcome Sensor and 3D Construct Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    1.35 Fyn  94 83 0.11 0.04 0.74 0.99 Milk   Fat  Globule Membrane  Protein 1.35 Milk   Fat  Globule Membrane  Protein 1413 1240 0.02 0.03 11.06 14.94 PGP9.5...reproducible in biological replicates, which indicates the possibility of random bias for certain proteins with iTRAQ channel specificity. Raw spectrum...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Early identification of the specific proteins , which indicate delayed

  9. Long-Term Outcome of the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara; Guitar, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To report long-term outcomes of the first 15 preschool children treated with the Lidcombe Program by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who were inexperienced with the program and independent of the program developers. Research questions were: Would the treatment have a similar outcome with inexperienced SLPs compared to outcomes when…

  10. Post-treatment Stage of Change Predicts 12-month Outcome of Treatment for Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Heather, Nick; McCambridge, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate relationships between clients' self-reported ‘stage of change’ and outcomes after treatment for alcohol problems. Methods: Using data from the ‘United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial’, clients who had received at least one session of treatment and who had complete data (n = 392) entered the analysis. Two continuous measures of drinking behaviour (% days abstinent (PDA) and drinks per drinking day (DDD)) and categorical outcomes at the 12-month follow-up were compared between clients in Pre-action and Action stages of change at either pre- or post-treatment assessment. Multiple and logistic regression analyses examined the relationships between stage of change and treatment outcomes, evaluating the strength of these relationships by controlling for likely confounders. Results: Pre-treatment stage of change did not predict outcome but post-treatment stage of change predicted PDA and DDD at the 12-month follow-up. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, clients in Action at post-treatment were two to three times more likely to show a favourable categorical outcome, variously defined, than those in Pre-action. There were no differences between clients who had received Motivational Enhancement Therapy and those who had received Social Behaviour and Network Therapy in proportions maintaining or moving towards Action from before to after treatment. Conclusions: These findings confirm previous reports that motivational variables predict outcome of treatment but add that such a relationship is seen for post-treatment stage of change. For therapists, it would seem important to monitor the client's stage of change—which in good clinical practice often occurs in informal ways—and have strategies to deal with low motivation to change whenever it occurs throughout treatment. The findings are also consistent with a ‘common factors’ perspective on effective treatment for alcohol problems. PMID:23408241

  11. Outcomes of conception subsequent to methotrexate treatment for an unruptured ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Svirsky, Ran; Ben-Ami, Ido; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Halperin, Reuvit; Rozovski, Uri

    2017-11-01

    To assess the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in subsequent pregnancies among women treated with methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy. In a retrospective single-center study, data were assessed for women treated with methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy at Asaf Harofe Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel, between May 2004 and May 2014. Overall, 226 women were treated with methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy and subsequently conceived. The median time from treatment to conception was 10 months (range 1-120 months), and 127 women conceived within 12 months of treatment. Except for early missed abortion-which affected 23 (10.2%) pregnancies-adverse pregnancy outcomes such as fetal malformations were rare. The frequency of early abortion was lowest for women who conceived within 6 months of treatment with methotrexate (3/93, 3.2%), increased between 6 and 23 months (15/83, 18.1%), and remained high thereafter (7/50, 14.0%; P=0.006). The frequency of fetal malformation in a subsequent pregnancy was low among women treated with methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy. The frequency of early missed abortion was lowest during the first 6 months after treatment with methotrexate. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Neuroblastoma: treatment outcome after incomplete resection of primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suk-Bae; Park, Kwi-Won; Jung, Sung-Eun; Youn, Woong-Jae

    2009-09-01

    For International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stages III or IV neuroblastoma (intermediate or high risk), complete excision of the primary tumor is not always feasible. Most current studies on the treatment outcome of these patients have reported on the complete excision status. The aim of this study is to review the treatment outcome after the incomplete resection. The medical records of 37 patients that underwent incomplete resection between January 1986 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Incomplete resection was assessed by review of the operative notes and postoperative computerized tomography. Age, gender, tumor location, INSS stage, N-myc gene copy number, pre- and postoperative therapy, and treatment outcome were reviewed. The treatment outcome was evaluated according to the postoperative treatment protocol in the high-risk group. Intermediate-risk patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy, isotretinoin (ITT) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). High-risk patients were treated with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), ITT, and IL-2 (N = 11). Before the introduction of PBSCT, the high-risk patients were also treated with the conventional chemotherapy (N = 19). Intermediate-risk patients (N = 5) currently have no evidence of disease (NED). For the high-risk patients (N = 32), 19 patients were treated with chemotherapy alone; 15 patients died of their disease while four patients currently have an NED status. Eight of 11 patients that underwent PBSCT are currently alive. For intermediate risk, conventional chemotherapy appears to be acceptable treatment. However, for high-risk patients, every effort should be made to control residual disease including the use of myeloablative chemotherapy, differentiating agents and immune-modulating agents.

  13. Improved Binocular Outcomes Following Binocular Treatment for Childhood Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Krista R.; Jost, Reed M.; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Dao, Lori; Beauchamp, Cynthia L.; Leffler, Joel N.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Childhood amblyopia can be treated with binocular games or movies that rebalance contrast between the eyes, which is thought to reduce depth of interocular suppression so the child can experience binocular vision. While visual acuity gains have been reported following binocular treatment, studies rarely report gains in binocular outcomes (i.e., stereoacuity, suppression) in amblyopic children. Here, we evaluated binocular outcomes in children who had received binocular treatment for childhood amblyopia. Methods Data for amblyopic children enrolled in two ongoing studies were pooled. The sample included 41 amblyopic children (6 strabismic, 21 anisometropic, 14 combined; age 4–10 years; ≤4 prism diopters [PD]) who received binocular treatment (20 game, 21 movies; prescribed 9–10 hours treatment). Amblyopic eye visual acuity and binocular outcomes (Randot Preschool Stereoacuity, extent of suppression, and depth of suppression) were assessed at baseline and at 2 weeks. Results Mean amblyopic eye visual acuity (P < 0.001) and mean stereoacuity improved (P = 0.045), and mean extent (P = 0.005) and depth of suppression (P = 0.003) were reduced from baseline at the 2-week visit (87% game adherence, 100% movie adherence). Depth of suppression was reduced more in children aged <8 years than in those aged ≥8 years (P = 0.004). Worse baseline depth of suppression was correlated with a larger depth of suppression reduction at 2 weeks (P = 0.001). Conclusions After 2 weeks, binocular treatment in amblyopic children improved visual acuity and binocular outcomes, reducing the extent and depth of suppression and improving stereoacuity. Binocular treatments that rebalance contrast to overcome suppression are a promising additional option for treating amblyopia. PMID:29625442

  14. Improved Binocular Outcomes Following Binocular Treatment for Childhood Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Krista R; Jost, Reed M; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Dao, Lori; Beauchamp, Cynthia L; Leffler, Joel N; Birch, Eileen E

    2018-03-01

    Childhood amblyopia can be treated with binocular games or movies that rebalance contrast between the eyes, which is thought to reduce depth of interocular suppression so the child can experience binocular vision. While visual acuity gains have been reported following binocular treatment, studies rarely report gains in binocular outcomes (i.e., stereoacuity, suppression) in amblyopic children. Here, we evaluated binocular outcomes in children who had received binocular treatment for childhood amblyopia. Data for amblyopic children enrolled in two ongoing studies were pooled. The sample included 41 amblyopic children (6 strabismic, 21 anisometropic, 14 combined; age 4-10 years; ≤4 prism diopters [PD]) who received binocular treatment (20 game, 21 movies; prescribed 9-10 hours treatment). Amblyopic eye visual acuity and binocular outcomes (Randot Preschool Stereoacuity, extent of suppression, and depth of suppression) were assessed at baseline and at 2 weeks. Mean amblyopic eye visual acuity (P < 0.001) and mean stereoacuity improved (P = 0.045), and mean extent (P = 0.005) and depth of suppression (P = 0.003) were reduced from baseline at the 2-week visit (87% game adherence, 100% movie adherence). Depth of suppression was reduced more in children aged <8 years than in those aged ≥8 years (P = 0.004). Worse baseline depth of suppression was correlated with a larger depth of suppression reduction at 2 weeks (P = 0.001). After 2 weeks, binocular treatment in amblyopic children improved visual acuity and binocular outcomes, reducing the extent and depth of suppression and improving stereoacuity. Binocular treatments that rebalance contrast to overcome suppression are a promising additional option for treating amblyopia.

  15. Relationship between LAAM-methadone preference and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    White, Jason M; Danz, Cath; Kneebone, Joanne; La Vincente, Sophie F; Newcombe, David A L; Ali, Robert L

    2002-05-01

    Studies of relative LAAM-methadone preference have indicated that a significant proportion of patients prefer levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM). The present study was designed to determine whether this preference is associated with better treatment outcomes. Sixty-two stable methadone patients participated in a randomised crossover clinical trial. They received LAAM (alternate days) and methadone (daily) for 3 months each, followed by a further 6-month period during which they were free to choose between the drugs. LAAM maintenance was associated with a lower rate of heroin use than methadone maintenance based on analysis of morphine concentration in hair and equivalent health outcomes. The majority of subjects showed a preference for LAAM (n=27, 69.2%) rather than methadone (n=12, 30.8%). The main reasons given for the LAAM preference were that it produced less withdrawal (39.3%), fewer side effects (28.5%), less craving for heroin (17.9%), and entailed fewer pick-up days (14.3%). Those who chose LAAM had lower levels of heroin use during LAAM maintenance, significantly better outcomes on two sub-scales of the SF-36 (Vitality and Mental Health), and reported that they felt more normal and that they were 'held' better when on LAAM. For those who chose methadone, there were no differences in outcomes between the LAAM and methadone maintenance periods. Preference for LAAM is associated with treatment outcomes as good or better than those with methadone.

  16. The Impact of Twin Birth on Early Neonatal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Monica; Schiavolin, Paola; Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Uccella, Sara; De Carli, Agnese; Passera, Sofia; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Dessimone, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Acaia, Barbara; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe the impact of twin birth, chorionicity, intertwin birth weight (BW) discordance and birth order on neonatal outcomes. We performed a hospital-based retrospective study on 2,170 twins (6.4% of all live births) and 2,217 singletons inborn 2007 to 2011. Data on neonatal characteristics, morbidities, and mortality were collected and compared. Univariate and multiple (adjusted for gestational age [GA] and gender) linear random intercept regression models were used. Overall, 62.3% of twins were born premature. At multiple regression, twins were similar to singletons for neonatal morbidities, but they were more likely to have lower BW and to be born by cesarean delivery. Monochorionic twins had lower GA and BW compared with dichorionic ones and were more likely to develop respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 1.7), hypoglycemia (OR, 3.3), need for transfusion, (OR, 3.4) but not brain abnormalities. Moderate and severe BW discordance were associated with longer length of stay and increased risk for morbidities but not for death. Birth order had no effects. Prematurity was the most common outcome in twins and accounted for the apparently increased risk in morbidities. Monochorionicity was confirmed as risk factor for lower GA and neonatal morbidities. BW discordance may play a role in developing neonatal complications and needs to be further investigated. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Predictors of outcome in residential cognitive and interpersonal treatment for social phobia: do cognitive and social dysfunction moderate treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Borge, Finn-Magnus; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold

    2010-09-01

    The predictors of residential cognitive (RCT) and residential interpersonal Treatment (RIPT) for social phobia were explored. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) found differential effects of CT and IPT for depression, suggesting that the level of cognitive or social dysfunction predicted differential outcome. We examined whether an analogous effect could be demonstrated in 10 weeks of residential treatment of 80 social phobia subjects. (2) We also included expectations, age of onset, severity of illness, concurrent anxiety, mood, avoidant personality disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder as predictors in this exploratory study. Main outcome was the social phobia subscale of Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI SP). DSM-IV axis I and II interviews were completed. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) findings were not reproduced. However, RIPT subjects with poor general functioning were less improved following treatment. Subjects with concurrent agoraphobia responded better with RCT than subjects without agoraphobia. (2) Age of onset and expectations were the most powerful predictors of post treatment outcome. Some patient characteristics appear to impact outcome with RIPT and RCT differentially. The findings are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early treatment is associated with improved cognition in Hurler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Poe, Michele D; Chagnon, Sarah L; Escolar, Maria L

    2014-11-01

    Hurler syndrome is the most clinically severe form of an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder characterized by the deficiency of α-L-iduronidase. The resulting accumulation of glycosaminoglycans causes progressive multisystem deterioration, resulting in death in childhood. Umbilical cord blood transplantation from unrelated donors has been previously shown to improve neurological outcomes of children <2 years of age and prolong life. The purpose of this article is to determine whether age at transplantation can predict cognitive outcomes. Between June 1997 and February 2013, 31 patients with Hurler syndrome underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation and were evaluated at baseline and every 6 to 12 months thereafter. All 31 patients underwent complete neurodevelopmental evaluation (median follow-up = 7.3 years, range = 2-21.7) and a median of 7.0 evaluations (range = 3-18). Younger age at transplantation was associated with improved cognitive function (p = 0.001), receptive and expressive language (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01), and adaptive behavior (p = 0.03). Early age at transplantation is a strong predictor of cognitive, language, and adaptive behavior outcomes. Children younger than 9 months at the time of transplant showed normal cognitive development. Our results demonstrate that early diagnosis is necessary for optimal outcomes and support the need for newborn screening, because most patients are not identified at this young age. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  19. Early Elevations of the Complement Activation Fragment C3a and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Anne M.; Gibbs, Ronald S.; Murphy, James R.; Giclas, Patricia C.; Salmon, Jane E.; Holers, V. Michael

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate whether elevations of complement C3a early in pregnancy are predictive of the subsequent development of adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS A plasma sample was obtained from each enrolled pregnant woman before 20 weeks of gestation. The cohort (n=1,002) was evaluated for the development of adverse pregnancy outcomes defined as hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (gestational hypertension or preeclampsia), preterm birth (before 37 weeks of gestation), premature rupture of the membranes, pregnancy loss (during the embryonic and fetal period), intrauterine growth restriction, and the composite outcome of any adverse outcome. RESULTS One or more adverse pregnancy outcomes occurred in 211 (21%) of the cohort. The mean levels (ng/mL) of C3a in early pregnancy were significantly (P=<.001) higher among women with one or more adverse outcomes (858±435) compared with women with an uncomplicated pregnancy (741±407). Adjusted for parity and prepregnancy body mass index, women with levels of C3a in the upper quartile in early pregnancy were three times more likely to have an adverse outcome later in pregnancy compared with women in the lowest quartile (95% confidence interval, 1.8–4.8; P<.001). The link between early elevated C3a levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes was driven primarily by individual significant (P<.05) associations of C3a with hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, preterm birth, and premature rupture of the membranes. CONCLUSION Elevated C3a as early as the first trimester of pregnancy is an independent predictive factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, suggesting that complement-related inflammatory events in pregnancy contribute to the subsequent development of poor outcomes at later stages of pregnancy. PMID:21173647

  20. Outcome of multimodality treatment of Ewing's sarcoma of the extremities.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Akshay; Gupta, Himesh; Jain, Sandeep; Kapoor, Gauri

    2010-10-01

    The management of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT, Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor) has been established as a multimodality treatment. Advances in imaging and diagnostics, chemotherapy, surgical techniques, radiotherapy and prosthetic technology have resulted in drastic changes in the outcome of this disease, with most of the recent studies having 5-year survival rates of more than 60%. The Indian patients present at a more advanced stage and the compliance of treatment is suboptimal. While there is plenty of data in the world literature on the outcome of Ewing's sarcoma, there is paucity of data in Indian patients. Therefore, we conducted the present study to analyze the outcome of multimodality treatment of ESFT of the extremities at a tertiary nonprofit institute over a decade. 34 patients who had histopathologically proven diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma of the extremities and had received treatment at our institute from 1997 through 2007 were included for analysis. The majority of patients had involvement of the femur (35%), followed by tibia (17%), fibula and foot (15% each), humerus (12%) and soft tissue of thigh (6%). Twenty-nine patients presented with localized disease (Enneking stage II B) while five patients presented with metastases (Enneking stage III). All patients received Vincristine, Actinomycin D, Cyclofosfamide + Ifosfamide and Etoposide (VAC+IE)-based chemotherapy and local treatment was offered to all but three patients having multicentric disease. The local treatment offered were, radiation (n= 15), surgery (n= 12) both surgery and radiation (n=4). All patients were analyzed for oncological outcome (event-free and overall survival, local and systemic relapses) by clinical and imaging evaluation and functional outcome by using the musculoskeletal tumor society (MSTS) score. These outcomes were correlated with age, sex, size of tumor, stage at presentation, modality of local treatment and site of relapse. At the final follow

  1. The cost of refusing treatment and equality of outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Savulescu, J

    1998-01-01

    Patients have a right to refuse medical treatment. But what should happen after a patient has refused recommended treatment? In many cases, patients receive alternative forms of treatment. These forms of care may be less cost-effective. Does respect for autonomy extend to providing these alternatives? How for does justice constrain autonomy? I begin by providing three arguments that such alternatives should not be offered to those who refuse treatment. I argue that the best argument which refusers can appeal to is based on the egalitarian principle of equality of outcome. However, this principle does not ultimately support a right to less cost-effective alternatives. I focus on Jehovah's Witnesses refusing blood and requesting alternative treatments. However, the point applies to many patients who refuse cost-effective medical care. PMID:9752624

  2. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients in a clinic of Bangalore.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyam, S; Chadha, V K; Manuvel, C; Praseeja, P; Sharada, M A; Nagendra, N; Gupta, J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 112 cases (New = 101, previously treated = 11) were diagnosed as suffering from tuberculosis (TB) at a private clinic in Bangalore city. The clinic identified TB suspects, established diagnosis of TB, administered direct observation of treatment (DOT), maintained treatment cards and undertook defaulter retrieval actions as and when required. The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) provided support in terms of sputum microscopy supply of patient-wise drug boxes and registration of patients. Ninety six (95.1%) of new cases and 10 (90.9%) of previously treated cases had successful treatment outcome. Most patients completed treatment within the prescribed period. No TB deaths were reported during the period of treatment.

  3. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  4. Depression-Specific Outcomes After Treatment of Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Rodney J.; Hyer, J. Madison; Smith, Timothy L.; Mace, Jess C.; Cortese, Bernadette M.; Uhde, Thomas W.; Rudmik, Luke; Soler, Zachary M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Depression is frequently undiagnosed in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and affects quality of life, productivity, and health care use. OBJECTIVE To examine depression-specific outcomes after medical or surgical treatment of CRS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A multi-institutional, prospective study of patients with refractory CRS treated at tertiary academic rhinology centers was performed from March 1, 2011, to November 1, 2015. Data analysis was performed from October 1, 2015, to November 1, 2015. INTERVENTIONS Patients self-selected to undergo continued medical management or endoscopic sinus surgery for refractory CRS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Patients completed the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT22), Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and missed productivity and medication use questionnaires before and at least 6 months after treatment. Computed tomography and endoscopy scoring were performed with reviewers masked to patient-reported data. Depression-specific outcomes were recorded using the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ2). RESULTS Baseline data were available on 685 patients, with 167 (24.4%) having depression according to the PHQ2 scores. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 50.5 (15.0) years, and 332 (48.4%) were male. Revision surgery status was the only baseline factor associated with depression (53.9%vs 38.0%, P < .001). Patients with depression had worse baseline SNOT22 (mean, 64.5 vs 47.6), PSQI (mean, 12.8 vs 8.4), productivity (mean, 22.8 vs 5.2 days missed), and medication use scores for oral antibiotics (mean, 23.8 vs 14.8) and oral corticosteroids (mean, 17.8 vs 9.9) (P < .001 for all). Medical and surgical treatments had similar outcomes for patients with depression with mean improvement in the PHQ2 scores from 3.96 to 1.91 (P < .001), and 110 of 167 patients (65.9%) categorized as having depression at baseline were categorized as not having depression after

  5. Early Outcomes Of Decentralized Care for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Schnippel, Kathryn; Mohr, Erika; Hirasen, Kamban; Evans, Denise; Rosen, Sydney; Sanne, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objective We describe baseline characteristics, time to treatment initiation and interim patient outcomes at a decentralized, outpatient treatment site for rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). Methods Prospective observational cohort study of RR-TB patients from March 2013 until December 2014. Study subjects were followed until completion of the intensive phase of treatment (6 months), transfer out, or a final outcome (loss from treatment (LFT) or death). Results 214 patients with RR-TB were enrolled in the study. Xpert MTB/RIF was the diagnostic test of rifampicin resistance for 87% (n = 186), followed by direct PCR on AFB positive specimen in 14 (7%) and indirect PCR on cultured isolate in 5 (2%). Median time between sputum testing and treatment initiation was 10 days (IQR 6–21). Interim outcomes were available in 148 patients of whom 78% (n = 115) were still on treatment, 9% (n = 13) had died, and 14% (n = 20) were LFT. Amongst 131 patients with culture positive pulmonary TB, 85 (64.9%) were culture negative at 6 months, 12 were still sputum culture positive (9.2%) and 34 had no culture documented or contaminated culture (26%). Patients who initiated as outpatients within 1 week of sputum collection for diagnosis of RR-TB had a significantly lower incidence of LFT (IRR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.09–0.98). HIV co-infection occurred in 178 patients (83%) with a median CD4 count 88 cells/ml3 (IQR 27–218). Conclusions Access to decentralized treatment coupled with the rapid diagnosis of RR-TB has resulted in short time to treatment initiation. Despite the lack of treatment delays, early treatment outcomes remain poor with high rates of death and loss from care. PMID:27812140

  6. Early Outcomes Of Decentralized Care for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Berhanu, Rebecca; Schnippel, Kathryn; Mohr, Erika; Hirasen, Kamban; Evans, Denise; Rosen, Sydney; Sanne, Ian

    2016-01-01

    We describe baseline characteristics, time to treatment initiation and interim patient outcomes at a decentralized, outpatient treatment site for rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). Prospective observational cohort study of RR-TB patients from March 2013 until December 2014. Study subjects were followed until completion of the intensive phase of treatment (6 months), transfer out, or a final outcome (loss from treatment (LFT) or death). 214 patients with RR-TB were enrolled in the study. Xpert MTB/RIF was the diagnostic test of rifampicin resistance for 87% (n = 186), followed by direct PCR on AFB positive specimen in 14 (7%) and indirect PCR on cultured isolate in 5 (2%). Median time between sputum testing and treatment initiation was 10 days (IQR 6-21). Interim outcomes were available in 148 patients of whom 78% (n = 115) were still on treatment, 9% (n = 13) had died, and 14% (n = 20) were LFT. Amongst 131 patients with culture positive pulmonary TB, 85 (64.9%) were culture negative at 6 months, 12 were still sputum culture positive (9.2%) and 34 had no culture documented or contaminated culture (26%). Patients who initiated as outpatients within 1 week of sputum collection for diagnosis of RR-TB had a significantly lower incidence of LFT (IRR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.09-0.98). HIV co-infection occurred in 178 patients (83%) with a median CD4 count 88 cells/ml3 (IQR 27-218). Access to decentralized treatment coupled with the rapid diagnosis of RR-TB has resulted in short time to treatment initiation. Despite the lack of treatment delays, early treatment outcomes remain poor with high rates of death and loss from care.

  7. Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print this issue Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key En español Send us your comments ... type of arthritis. It’s far more common than rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear on ...

  8. The association between hospital outcomes and diagnostic imaging: early findings.

    PubMed

    Lee, David W; Foster, David A

    2009-11-01

    Resource use variation across the United States prompts the important question of whether "more is better" when it comes to health care services. The aim of this study was to examine correlations between the use of 4 common imaging modalities (CT, MR, ultrasound, and radiography) and in-hospital mortality and costs. Using clinical and utilization data for 1.1 million inpatient admissions at 102 US hospitals during 2007, two hospital-specific, risk-adjusted imaging utilization measures for each modality were constructed that controlled for patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and for hospital characteristics were constructed for each modality. First, logistic regression was used to estimate the odds that each type of imaging service would be provided during an admission. Second, the mean number of services per admission was estimated using output from a two-part ordinary least squares model. Hospital-specific, risk-adjusted inpatient mortality and total hospital costs were also computed, and correlations between the imaging utilization measures and the mortality and cost outcome measures were then assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients (P < .05). The correlation analyses were weighted by hospital admission volume. Hospitals in which patients were more likely to receive imaging services during admissions had lower mortality, even after controlling for potential confounders. Correlation coefficients were -0.2 for all modalities (P = .02-.05). Weaker correlations existed between mean services per admission and mortality, while costs trended insignificantly higher with greater utilization. This study lays the foundation for further exploration of the relationship between resource use and the clinical and economic outcomes associated with imaging utilization.

  9. Compliance with Clostridium difficile treatment guidelines: effect on patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Crowell, K T; Julian, K G; Katzman, M; Berg, A S; Tinsley, A; Williams, E D; Koltun, W A; Messaris, E

    2017-08-01

    Guidelines for the severity classification and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were published by Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) in 2010; however, compliance and efficacy of these guidelines has not been widely investigated. This present study assessed compliance with guidelines and its effect on CDI patient outcomes as compared with before these recommendations. A retrospective study included all adult inpatients with an initial episode of CDI treated in a single academic center from January 2009 to August 2014. Patients after guideline publication were compared with patients treated in 2009-2010. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected to stratify for disease severity. Outcome measures included compliance with guidelines, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and surgical intervention for CDI. A total of 1021 patients with CDI were included. Based upon the 2010 guidelines, 42 (28·8%) of 146 patients treated in 2009 would have been considered undertreated, and treatment progressively improved over time, as inadequate treatment decreased to 10·0% (15/148 patients) in 2014 (P = 0·0005). Overall, patient outcomes with guideline-adherent treatment decreased CDI attributable mortality twofold (P = 0·006) and CDI-related LOS by 1·9 days (P = 0·0009) when compared with undertreated patients. Compliance with IDSA/SHEA guidelines was associated with a decreased risk of mortality and LOS in hospitalized patients with CDI.

  10. Facial dog bite injuries in children: treatment and outcome assessment.

    PubMed

    Eppley, Barry L; Schleich, Arno Rene

    2013-03-01

    Dog bite injuries to a child's face are not an infrequent occurrence. They may require primary and revisional surgery. All result in permanent facial scars. This report describes the treatment and outcomes of dog bites of the face, scalp, and neck based on a case series of 107 children over a 10-year period.The average children's age was 5.9 years. In cases where the dog was identified (95%), it was known to the victim and their family. The events leading to the dog bite were categorized as provoked (77%) in the majority of the cases.The majority of wounds could be closed primarily without a significant risk of wound infection. Complex reconstructions were required in more severe cases. The majority of families (77%) opted for scar revision between 9 and 18 months after initial treatment to improve the aesthetic outcome.Lawsuit actions resulted in 39 of the cases making good documentation an essential part of treatment. Dogbite injuries to the face in children frequently require multiple scar revisions to obtain the best possible aesthetic outcome, and the family should be so counseled at the onset of treatment.

  11. Outcome of renal replacement treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, M A; Briggs, J D; Junor, B J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the outcome of renal replacement treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus and in non-diabetic patients with end stage renal failure. DESIGN--Retrospective comparison of cases and matched controls. SETTING--Renal unit, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, providing both dialysis and renal transplantation. PATIENTS--82 Diabetic patients starting renal replacement treatment between 1979 and 1988, compared with 82 matched non-diabetic controls with renal failure and 39 different matched controls undergoing renal transplantation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient characteristics, history of smoking, prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischaemia at start of renal replacement treatment; survival of patients with renal replacement treatment and of patients and allografts with renal transplantation. RESULTS--The overall survival of the diabetic patients during the treatment was 83%, 59%, and 50% at one, three, and five years. Survival was significantly poorer in the diabetic patients than the controls (p less than 0.001). Particularly adverse features for outcome at the start of treatment were increasing age (p less than 0.01) and current cigarette smoking (relative risk (95% confidence interval) 2.28 (0.93 to 4.84), p less than 0.05). Deaths were mainly from cardiac and vascular causes. The incidence of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was the same in diabetic patients and controls (49% in each group remained free of peritonitis after one year), and the survival of renal allografts was not significantly worse in diabetic patients (p less than 0.5). CONCLUSIONS--Renal replacement treatment may give good results in diabetic patients, although the outlook remains less favourable than for non-diabetic patients because of coexistent, progressive vascular disease, which is more severe in older patients. PMID:2207427

  12. Contralateral Vocal Fold Reactive Lesions: Nomenclature, Treatment Choice, and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Koss, Shira L; Kidwai, Sarah M; Pitman, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Contralateral reactive lesions (RLs) represent a distinct entity among benign bilateral vocal fold (VF) lesions. Lack of uniform nomenclature and a myriad of surgical options have hampered attempts to develop treatment guidelines. The objective of this study is to better define RLs and their prognosis, through the development of a standard nomenclature, with an aim to guide treatment and delineate the role of phonosurgery. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care center. Analysis was performed on patients with Current Procedural Terminology code 31545. Operative reports with a primary lesion and contralateral RL were included. Outcomes included the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) scale, lesion persistence/recurrence, mucosal wave, and edge character based on blinded videostroboscopy review. A nomenclature was developed based on intraoperative RLs (n = 30), defined by lesion consistency (fibrous or polypoid) and relationship to normal VF edge (gradual or steep). Reactive lesion treatment included no intervention, excision, potassium titanyl phosphate laser, steroid injection, or a combination thereof. Observations included the following: inconsistent treatment modalities were employed, excision of RLs did not yield better outcomes, fibrous RLs were more likely to persist and polypoid lesions more likely to recur, gradual lesions were more likely to remain disease free, and most treatments showed improved mucosal wave, VHI-10, and GRBAS. Reactive lesions have not been well classified, and treatments are based on subjective intraoperative decision making with unpredictable outcomes. The nomenclature proposed will allow for a better definition of the RL and provide a framework for future research to identify optimal treatment. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  13. ADHD, Multimodal Treatment, and Longitudinal Outcome: Evidence, Paradox, and Challenge.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Given major increases in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in rates of medication for this condition, we carefully examine evidence for effects of single versus multimodal (i.e., combined medication and psychosocial/behavioral) interventions for ADHD. Our primary data source is the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA), a 14-month, randomized clinical trial in which intensive behavioral, medication, and multimodal treatment arms were contrasted with one another and with community intervention (treatment-as-usual), regarding outcome domains of ADHD symptoms, comorbidities, and core functional impairments. Although initial reports emphasized the superiority of well-monitored medication for symptomatic improvement, reanalyses and reappraisals have highlighted (a) the superiority of combination treatment for composite outcomes and for domains of functional impairment (e.g., academic achievement, social skills, parenting practices); (b) the importance of considering moderator and mediator processes underlying differential patterns of outcome, including comorbid subgroups and improvements in family discipline style during the intervention period; (c) the emergence of side effects (e.g., mild growth suppression) in youth treated with long-term medication; and (d) the diminution of medication's initial superiority once the randomly assigned treatment phase turned into naturalistic follow-up. The key paradox is that whereas ADHD clearly responds to medication and behavioral treatment in the short term, evidence for long-term effectiveness remains elusive. We close with discussion of future directions and a call for greater understanding of relevant developmental processes in the attempt to promote optimal, generalized, and lasting treatments for this important and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder.

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Treatment Outcomes among Adults in Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…

  15. Early versus Deferred Treatment for Smoldering Multiple Myeloma: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Van S.; Gao, Lu; Wu, Xiaosong; Tao, Yi; Hu, Xiaojing; Hou, Jun; Han, Ying; Xu, Hongwei; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Whether patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) needed to receive early interventional treatment remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of early treatment over deferred treatment for patients with SMM. Methods MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched to May 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effect of early treatment over deferred treatment. Primary outcome measure was mortality, and secondary outcome measures were progression, response rate, and adverse events. Results Overall, 5 trials including 449 patients were identified. There was a markedly reduced risk of disease progression with early treatment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07 to 0.24). There were no significant differences in mortality and response rate (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.60, and OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.23, respectively). More patients in the early treatment arm experienced gastrointestinal toxicities (OR = 10.02, 95%CI = 4.32 to 23.23), constipation (OR = 8.58, 95%CI = 3.20 to 23.00) and fatigue or asthenia (OR = 2.72, 95%CI = 1.30 to 5.67). No significant differences were seen with the development of acute leukemia (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 0.42 to 18.81), hematologic cancer (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 0.43 to 10.01), second primary tumors (OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 0.81 to 14.68), nor vertebral compression (OR = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.02 to 1.59). Conclusions Early treatment delayed disease progression but increased the risk of gastrointestinal toxicities, constipation and fatigue or asthenia. The differences on vertebral compression, acute leukemia, hematological cancer and second primary tumors were not statistically significant. Based on the current evidence, early treatment didn’t significantly affect mortality and response rate. However, further much larger trials were needed to provide more evidence

  16. Measuring treatment outcomes in gambling disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Dylan; Keen, Brittany; Entwistle, Gavin; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2018-03-01

    Considerable variation of outcome variables used to measure recovery in the gambling treatment literature has precluded effective cross-study evaluations and hindered the development of best-practice treatment methodologies. The aim of this systematic review was to describe current diffuse concepts of recovery in the gambling field by mapping the range of outcomes and measurement strategies used to evaluate treatments, and to identify more commonly accepted indices of recovery. A systematic search of six academic databases for studies evaluating treatments (psychological and pharmacological) for gambling disorders with a minimum 6-month follow-up. Data from eligible studies were tabulated and analysis conducted using a narrative approach. Guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adhered to. Thirty-four studies were reviewed systematically (RCTs = 17, comparative designs = 17). Sixty-three different outcome measures were identified: 25 (39.7%) assessed gambling-specific constructs, 36 (57.1%) assessed non-gambling specific constructs, and two instruments were used across both categories (3.2%). Self-report instruments ranged from psychometrically validated to ad-hoc author-designed questionnaires. Units of measurement were inconsistent, particularly in the assessment of gambling behaviour. All studies assessed indices of gambling behaviour and/or symptoms of gambling disorder. Almost all studies (n = 30; 88.2%) included secondary measures relating to psychiatric comorbidities, psychological processes linked to treatment approach, or global functioning and wellbeing. In research on gambling disorders, the incorporation of broader outcome domains that extend beyond disorder-specific symptoms and behaviours suggests a multi-dimensional conceptualization of recovery. Development of a single comprehensive scale to measure all aspects of gambling recovery could help to facilitate uniform reporting practices

  17. Early Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Infants Exposed to Infectious Syphilis In Utero.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Valsan P; Hendson, Leonora; Singh, Ameeta; Guenette, Tamara; Gratrix, Jennifer; Robinson, Joan L

    2018-06-01

    There are minimal neurodevelopmental follow-up data for infants exposed to syphilis in utero. This is an inception cohort study of infants exposed to syphilis in utero. We reviewed women with reactive syphilis serology in pregnancy or at delivery in Edmonton (Canada), 2002 through 2010 and describe the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with and without congenital syphilis. There were 39 births to women with reactive syphilis serology, 9 of whom had late latent syphilis (n = 4), stillbirths (n = 2) or early neonatal deaths (n = 3), leaving 30 survivors of which 11 with and 7 without congenital syphilis had neurodevelopmental assessment. Those with congenital syphilis were all born to women with inadequate syphilis treatment before delivery. Neurodevelopmental impairment was documented in 3 of 11 (27%) infants with congenital syphilis and one of 7 (14%) without congenital syphilis with speech language delays in 4 of 11 (36%) with congenital syphilis and 3 of 7 (42%) without congenital syphilis. Infants born to mothers with reactive syphilis serology during pregnancy are at high risk for neurodevelopmental impairment, whether or not they have congenital syphilis, so should all be offered neurodevelopmental assessments and early referral for services as required.

  18. Finasteride use during pregnancy and early neonatal outcome: a case report.

    PubMed

    AlSaad, Doua; Lee, Ben H; Al-Obaidly, Sawsan

    2018-06-01

    The use of antiandrogen drugs such as finasteride during pregnancy may carry the risk of birth defects, especially hypospadias. We report a 39-year-old woman, with 5 weeks unplanned pregnancy, the patient conceived while receiving daily dose of finasteride 2.5 mg for treatment of alopecia. The patient's partner was concurrently using finasteride for the same purpose. Ultrasound scans including detailed anatomy were normal throughout pregnancy and the fetal gender was detected to be male. The patient had her delivery at 38 +5 weeks' gestation, by elective cesarean section, a male infant with a weight of 3.58 kg and Apgar score of 9 and 10 at 1 and 5-min, respectively. The infant was healthy with no obvious dysmorphic features. In this case report, maternal use of finasteride in early pregnancy was not associated with external genitalia abnormalities of a male baby. Moreover, maternal exposure to the semen of partner who received finasteride did not adversely affect the short term neonatal outcomes. However, absence of apparent neonatal adverse effects in a single case report does not indicate safety of use. Population-based long term neonatal outcomes are yet to be established.

  19. Provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674

  20. The Tennessee study: factors affecting treatment outcome and healing time following nonsurgical root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Azim, A A; Griggs, J A; Huang, G T-J

    2016-01-01

    To determine factors that may influence treatment outcome and healing time following root canal treatment. Root filled and restored teeth by pre-doctoral students were included in this study. Teeth/roots were followed-up regularly, and treatment outcome was evaluated at every follow-up appointment (healed, healing, uncertain or unsatisfactory). Host (age, immune condition, pulp/periapical diagnosis, tooth/root type, location and anatomy) and treatment factors (master apical file size, apical extension, voids and density of root filling) were recorded from patient dental records. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the impact of the factors on treatment outcomes and healing times. A total of 422 roots from 291 teeth met the inclusion criteria with a mean follow-up period of 2 years. The preoperative pulp condition, procedural errors during treatment, apical extension and density of root fillings significantly affected the treatment outcome. The average time required for a periapical lesion to heal was 11.78 months. The healing time increased in patients with compromised healing, patients older than 40 years, roots with Weine type II root canal systems, root canal systems prepared to a master apical file size <35, and roots with overextended fillings (P < 0.1). Multiple host and treatment factors affected the healing time and outcome of root canal treatment. Follow-up protocols should consider these factors before concluding the treatment outcome: patient's age, immune condition, as well as roots with overextended fillings, root canal systems with smaller apical preparations (size <35) or roots with complex canal systems. Intervention may be recommended if the treatment quality was inadequate or if patients became symptomatic. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cushing’s syndrome in childhood: update on genetics, treatment, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an update on the genes associated with Cushing’s syndrome in children, as well as to familiarize the clinician with recent treatment guidelines and outcome data for children with Cushing’s syndrome. Recent findings The list of genes associated with Cushing’s syndrome continues to grow. In addition, treatment for childhood Cushing’s syndrome is evolving. As long-term follow-up data on children becomes available, clinicians need to be aware of the issues that require attention. Summary Knowledge of the specific genetic causes of Cushing’s syndrome has potential implications for treatment, surveillance, and counseling. Advances in surgical technique, radiation modalities, and medical therapies offer the potential for additional treatment options in Cushing’s syndrome. Early identification and management of post-treatment morbidities in children treated for Cushing’s syndrome is crucial in order to optimize care. PMID:25517021

  2. Early Outcomes in Children With Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Kimberly A; Moorthy, Lakshmi N; Lubieniecka, Joanna M; Twilt, Marinka; Yeung, Rae S M; Toth, Mary B; Shenoi, Susan; Ristic, Goran; Nielsen, Susan M; Luqmani, Raashid A; Li, Suzanne C; Lee, Tzielan; Lawson, Erica F; Kostik, Mikhail M; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Huber, Adam M; Hersh, Aimee O; Foell, Dirk; Elder, Melissa E; Eberhard, Barbara A; Dancey, Paul; Charuvanij, Sirirat; Benseler, Susanne M; Cabral, David A

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the early disease course in childhood-onset antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and the 12-month outcomes in children with AAV. Eligible subjects were children entered into the Pediatric Vasculitis Initiative study who were diagnosed before their eighteenth birthday as having granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's), microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss), or ANCA-positive pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. The primary outcome measure was achievement of disease remission (Pediatric Vasculitis Activity Score [PVAS] of 0) at 12 months with a corticosteroid dosage of <0.2 mg/kg/day. Secondary outcome measures included the rates of inactive disease (PVAS of 0, with any corticosteroid dosage) and rates of improvement at postinduction (4-6 months after diagnosis) and at 12 months, presence of damage at 12 months (measured by a modified Pediatric Vasculitis Damage Index [PVDI]; score 0 = no damage, score 1 = one damage item present), and relapse rates at 12 months. In total, 105 children with AAV were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 13.8 years (interquartile range 10.9-15.8 years). Among the study cohort, 42% of patients achieved remission at 12 months, 49% had inactive disease at postinduction (4-6 months), and 61% had inactive disease at 12 months. The majority of patients improved, even if they did not achieve inactive disease. An improvement in the PVAS score of at least 50% from time of diagnosis to postinduction was seen in 92% of patients. Minor relapses occurred in 12 (24%) of 51 patients after inactive disease had been achieved postinduction. The median PVDI damage score at 12 months was 1 (range 0-6), and 63% of patients had ≥1 PVDI damage item scored as present at 12 months. This is the largest study to date to assess disease outcomes in pediatric AAV. Although the study showed that a significant proportion of patients did not

  3. Treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS): rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study are described. Using a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design at four sites, youths with EOSS (ages 8-19 years) were assigned to an 8-week acute trial of risperidone (0.5-6.0 mg/day), olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day). Responders continued double-blind treatment for 44 weeks. The primary outcome measure was responder status at 8 weeks, defined by a 20% reduction in baseline Positive and Negative Symptom Scale scores plus ratings of significant improvement on the Clinical Global Impressions. Secondary outcome measures included assessments of psychopathology, functional impairment, quality of life, and medication safety. An intent-to-treat analytic plan was used. From February 2002 to May 2006, 476 youths were screened, 173 were further evaluated, and 119 were randomized. Several significant study modifications were required to address safety, the use of adjunctive medications, and the termination of the olanzapine treatment arm due to weight gain. The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study will inform clinical practice regarding the use of antipsychotic medications for youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Important safety concerns emerged during the study, including higher than anticipated rates of suicidality and problems tapering thymoleptic agents before randomization.

  4. Sedation improves early outcome in severely septic Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infective etiologies, has a high mortality rate that is linked both to excess cytokine activity and apoptosis of critical immune cells. Dexmedetomidine has recently been shown to improve outcome in a septic cohort of patients when compared to patients randomized to a benzodiazepine-based sedative regimen. We sought to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine and midazolam, at equi-sedative doses, on inflammation and apoptosis in an animal model of severe sepsis. Methods After central venous access, Sprague Dawley rats underwent cecal ligation and intestinal puncture (CLIP) with an 18 G needle without antibiotic cover and received either saline, or an infusion of comparable volume of saline containing midazolam (0.6 mg.kg-1.h-1) or dexmedetomidine (5 ug.kg-1.h-1) for 8 hours. Following baseline measurements and CLIP, blood was sampled for cytokine measurement (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6; n = 4-6 per group) at 2, 4 and 5 hours, and animal mortality rate (MR) was monitored (n = 10 per group) every 2 hours until 2 hours had elapsed. In addition, spleens were harvested and apoptosis was assessed by immunoblotting (n = 4 per group). Results The 24 hour MR in CLIP animals (90%) was significantly reduced by sedative doses of either dexmedetomidine (MR = 20%) or midazolam (MR = 30%). While both sedatives reduced systemic levels of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha (P < 0.05); only dexmedetomidine reduced the IL-6 response to CLIP, though this narrowly missed achieving significance (P = 0.05). Dexmedetomidine reduced splenic caspase-3 expression (P < 0.05), a marker of apoptosis, when compared to either midazolam or saline. Conclusions Sedation with midazolam and dexmedetomidine both improve outcome in polymicrobial severely septic rats. Possible benefits conveyed by one sedative regimen over another may become evident over a more prolonged time-course as both IL-6 and apoptosis were

  5. Cognitive mediators of treatment outcomes in pediatric functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; Romano, Joan M; Labus, Jennifer; Walker, Lynn S; Murphy, Tasha B; Tilburg, Miranda A L van; Feld, Lauren D; Christie, Dennis L; Whitehead, William E

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral (CB) interventions improve outcomes for many pediatric health conditions, but little is known about which mechanisms mediate these outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify whether changes in targeted process variables from baseline to 1 week posttreatment mediate improvement in outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a brief CB intervention for idiopathic childhood abdominal pain. Two hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: a 3-session social learning and CB treatment (N=100), or a 3-session educational intervention controlling for time and attention (N=100). Outcomes were assessed at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The intervention focused on altering parental responses to pain and on increasing adaptive cognitions and coping strategies related to pain in both parents and children. Multiple mediation analyses were applied to examine the extent to which the effects of the social learning and CB treatment condition on child gastrointestinal (GI) symptom severity and pain as reported by children and their parents were mediated by changes in targeted cognitive process variables and parents' solicitous responses to their child's pain symptoms. Reductions in parents' perceived threat regarding their child's pain mediated reductions in both parent-reported and child-reported GI symptom severity and pain. Reductions in children's catastrophic cognitions mediated reductions in child-reported GI symptom severity but no other outcomes. Reductions in parental solicitousness did not mediate outcomes. Results suggest that reductions in reports of children's pain and GI symptoms after a social learning and CB intervention were mediated at least in part by decreasing maladaptive parent and child cognitions.

  6. Brainstem encephalitis: etiologies, treatment, and predictors of outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ik Lin; Mowry, Ellen M.; Steele, Sonya U.; Pardo, Carlos A.; McArthur, Justin C.; Nath, Avindra

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem encephalitis (BE) is an uncommon condition. We sought to characterize clinical presentations, etiologies, response to treatment, and predictors of outcome. We performed a retrospective review of non–HIV infected patients diagnosed with BE at Johns Hopkins Hospital (January 1997–April 2010). We characterized clinical and paraclinical features, and used regression models to assess associations with poor outcome. BE was diagnosed in 81 patients. An etiology was identified in 58 of 81 (71.6 %) of cases, most of which were confirmed or probable inflammatory/autoimmune conditions. Of the remaining 23 cases in which a specific diagnosis remained undefined, clinical presentation, CSF, neuroimaging studies, and outcomes were similar to the inflammatory/autoimmune group. Brain biopsy identified a specific diagnosis in 7 of 14 patients (50 %). Fifteen patients (18.5 %) either died or had a poor outcome. In multivariate logistic regression models, a higher CSF protein (per 5 mg/dl, OR = 1.11, 95 % CI: 1.03–1.20), a higher CSF glucose (per 5 mg/dl, OR = 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.09–1.70), and higher serum glucose (per 5 mg/dl, OR = 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.06–1.52) were independently associated with increased odds of poor outcome. Inflammatory and non-infectious conditions accounted for most cases of BE. Higher CSF protein and glucose were independently associated with poor outcome. In immunocompetent patients with BE of undefined etiology despite extensive investigation, a trial of immunosuppressive treatment may be warranted, though deterioration clinically or on magnetic resonance imaging should prompt a brain biopsy. PMID:23749332

  7. Anticipatory smiling: Linking early affective communication and social outcome

    PubMed Central

    Parlade, Meaghan Venezia; Messinger, Daniel S.; Delgado, Christine E.F.; Kaiser, Marygrace Yale; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    In anticipatory smiles, infants appear to communicate pre-existing positive affect by smiling at an object and then turning the smile toward an adult. We report two studies in which the precursors, development, and consequences of anticipatory smiling were investigated. Study 1 revealed a positive correlation between infant smiling at 6 months and the level of anticipatory smiling at 8 and 10 months during joint attention episodes, as well as a positive correlation between anticipatory smiling and parent-rated social expressivity scores at 30 months. Study 2 confirmed a developmental increase in the number of infants using anticipatory smiles between 9 and 12 months that had been initially documented in the Study 1 sample [Venezia, M., Messinger, D. S., Thorp, D., & Mundy, P. (2004). The development of anticipatory smiling. Infancy, 6(3), 397–406]. Additionally, anticipatory smiling at 9 months positively predicted parent-rated social competence scores at 30 months. Findings are discussed with regard to the importance of anticipatory smiling in early socioemotional development. PMID:19004500

  8. Early outcomes of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for adult craniopharyngiomas.

    PubMed

    Jane, John A; Kiehna, Erin; Payne, Spencer C; Early, Stephen V; Laws, Edward R

    2010-04-01

    Although the transsphenoidal approach for subdiaphragmatic craniopharyngiomas has been performed for many years, there are few reports describing the role of the endoscopic transsphenoidal technique for suprasellar craniopharyngiomas. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for adults with craniopharyngiomas in whom the goal was gross-total resection. Twelve patients were identified who were older than 18 years at the time of their pure endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. Their medical records and imaging studies were retrospectively reviewed. Gross-total resection was achieved in 42% of cases when assessed by intraoperative impression alone and in 75% when assessed by the first postoperative MR imaging study. However, 83% of patients achieved at least a 95% resection when assessed by both intraoperative impression and the first postoperative MR imaging study. Permanent diabetes insipidus occurred postoperatively in 44% of patients. Six (67%) of 9 patients who had a functioning hypothalamic-pituitary axis preoperatively developed panhypopituitarism after surgery. Visual improvement or normalization occurred in 78% of patients with preoperative visual deficits. Although no patient experienced a postoperative CSF leak, 1 patient was treated for meningitis. The authors have achieved a high rate of radical resection and symptomatic improvement with the endoscopic transsphenoidal technique for both subdiaphragmatic (sellar/suprasellar) and supradiaphragmatic (suprasellar) craniopharyngiomas. However, this is also associated with a high incidence of new endocrinopathy. Endoscopic assessment of tumor resection may be more sensitive for residual tumor than the first postoperative MR imaging study.

  9. Integrated Specialized Early-Course Psychosis Treatment Services - University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce Model.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, DraŽenka; Čulo, Ilaria; Silić, Ante; Kos, Suzana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2018-06-01

    First episode of psychosis presents a critical period in terms of numerous associated risks, but also possibilities for effective therapeutic interventions. There is a continued focus on early interventions in prodromal states and early course of frank psychosis, aimed at ensuring faster remission, reducing relapses, achieving better long-term functioning, and preventing adverse outcomes linked to untreated psychosis and chronic psychotic disorders. A number of different specialized treatment models and services exist trying to close knowledge gaps and provide clinical interventions to first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but there is still no generally accepted standard of care informing our every-day practice. FEP and early-course psychosis specialized treatment model developed in 2004 in University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce rests on integration of care across different organization units and clinical presentation acuity levels and patient needs (intensive care, FEP inpatient unit, FEP outpatient services including day hospital). Such integration of FEP services allows for flexible entry point on multiple levels, earlier structuring of therapeutic alliance for those requiring inpatient care, reduction of risks associated with FEP, quicker formation of long-term treatment plans, reduction of delay in accessing specialized services, and a more coordinated diagnostic process and recruitment of FEP patient population. Detailed evaluations of outcomes and comparisons with different treatment models are necessary in order to assess strengths and weaknesses of each specific model and inform modifications to current practice models.

  10. Outcomes of Treatment of Nonagenarians With Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mack, Molly Claire; Szerlip, Molly; Herbert, Morley A; Akram, Siddique; Worley, Christina; Kim, Rebeca J; Prince, Brandon A; Harrington, Katherine B; Mack, Michael J; Holper, Elizabeth M

    2015-07-01

    Because nonagenarians with aortic stenosis (AS) often present as frail with more comorbid conditions, long-term outcomes and quality of life are important treatment considerations. The aim of this report is to describe survival and functional outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing treatment for AS by surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This is a retrospective analysis of all patients aged 90 years or more undergoing treatment for AS between 2007 and 2013 at two centers. Outcomes were compared between SAVR and TAVR. Long-term survival was compared with an age- and sex-matched population from the Social Security Actuarial Life Table. In all, 110 patients underwent treatment for isolated AS (20 SAVR and 90 TAVR). Mean age was 91.85 ± 1.80 years, and 50.9% were female. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons mean predicted risk of mortality was 11.11% ± 5.74%. Operative mortality was 10.9% (10.0% SAVR; 11.1% TAVR); 2.7% of patients had a stroke. The TAVR patients were more likely to be discharged home (75.9% versus 55.6% for SAVR, p = 0.032). Mean follow-up was 1.8 ± 1.5 years, with a 1-year and 5-year survival of 78.7% and 45.3%, respectively, which approximated the US actuarial survival. There was a significant improvement in quality of life as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire at 1 year compared with baseline. Treatment of AS approximates natural life expectancy in select nonagenarians, with no significant difference in long-term survival between SAVR and TAVR. Importantly, patient quality of life improved at 1 year. With appropriate selection, nonagenarians with severe AS can benefit from treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment outcomes in 4 modes of orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Donald; Vlaskalic, Vicki; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2005-03-01

    This study is a continuation of a previously published report on the outcome of orthodontic treatment provided in offices representing different modes of practice. The sample consisted of duplicate pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) dental casts of 348 patients from traditional private orthodontic practices (5 offices, 134 patients), company-owned practices (5 offices, 107 patients), offices associated with practice-management organizations (2 offices, 60 patients), and general dental practices (2 offices, 47 patients). Methods were used to obtain random, representative samples from each office, starting with lists of patients who were treated consecutively with full fixed orthodontic appliances. The dental casts were measured by 2 independent judges who used the unweighted PAR score. Good interjudge agreement was shown on the initial casts, but the agreement was not as strong on the final casts. The measurements showed that treatment outcomes were generally satisfactory, although some significant differences between offices and management modes were shown.

  12. Standardized Treatment of Neonatal Status Epilepticus Improves Outcome.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mandy L; Malloy, Katherine M; Lawson, Sheena N; Rose, Rebecca S; Buss, William F; Mietzsch, Ulrike

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to decrease practice variation in treatment of neonatal status epilepticus by implementing a standardized protocol. Our primary goal was to achieve 80% adherence to the algorithm within 12 months. Secondary outcome measures included serum phenobarbital concentrations, number of patients progressing from seizures to status epilepticus, and length of hospital stay. Data collection occurred for 6 months prior and 12 months following protocol implementation. Adherence of 80% within 12 months was partially achieved in patients diagnosed in our hospital; in pretreated patients, adherence was not achieved. Maximum phenobarbital concentrations were decreased (56.8 vs 41.0 µg/mL), fewer patients progressed from seizures to status epilepticus (46% vs 36%), and hospital length of stay decreased by 9.7 days in survivors. In conclusion, standardized, protocol-driven treatment of neonatal status epilepticus improves consistency and short-term outcome. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Early Stage Breast Cancer Treatments for Younger Medicare Beneficiaries with Different Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ngo, Long H; Li, Donglin; Roetzheim, Richard G; Drews, Reed E; McCarthy, Ellen P

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore how underlying disability affects treatments and outcomes of disabled women with breast cancer. Data Sources Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data, linked with Medicare files and Social Security Administration disability group. Study Design Ninety thousand two hundred and forty-three incident cases of early-stage breast cancer under age 65; adjusted relative risks and hazards ratios examined treatments and survival, respectively, for women in four disability groups compared with nondisabled women. Principal Findings Demographic characteristics, treatments, and survival varied among four disability groups. Compared with nondisabled women, those with mental disorders and neurological conditions had significantly lower adjusted rates of breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Survival outcomes also varied by disability type. Conclusions Compared with nondisabled women, certain subgroups of women with disabilities are especially likely to experience disparities in care for breast cancer. PMID:18479411

  14. Addiction treatment outcomes, process and change: Texas Institute of Behavioral Research at Texas Christian University.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D Dwayne; Joe, George W; Dansereau, Donald F; Flynn, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    For more than 40 years the Texas Institute of Behavioral Research (IBR) has given special attention to assessment and evaluation of drug user populations, addiction treatment services and various cognitive and behavioral interventions. Emphasis has been on studies in real-world settings and the use of multivariate methodologies to address evaluation issues within the context of longitudinal natural designs. Historically, its program of addiction treatment research may be divided into three sequential epochs-the first era dealt mainly with client assessment and its role in treatment outcome and evaluation (1969-89), the second focused upon modeling the treatment process and the importance of conceptual frameworks (1989-2009) in explaining the relationships among treatment environment, client attributes, treatment process and outcome, and the third (and current) era has expanded into studying tactical deployment of innovations and implementation. Recent projects focus upon adapting and implementing innovations for improving early engagement in adolescent residential treatment settings and drug-dependent criminal justice populations. Related issues include the spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other infectious diseases, organizational and systems functioning, treatment costs and process related to implementation of evidence-based practices. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Outcomes assessment following treatment of spasmodic dysphonia with botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Courey, M S; Garrett, C G; Billante, C R; Stone, R E; Portell, M D; Smith, T L; Netterville, J L

    2000-09-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), a disabling focal dystonia involving the laryngeal musculature, is most commonly treated by the intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (BTX). Although the treatment is well tolerated and generally produces clinical voice improvement, it has never been statistically shown to alter the patient's perception of voice quality or general health. Declining resources for medical care mandate that treatment outcomes be documented. A prospective analysis of the effects of BTX on the patient's perception of voice and general health was undertaken. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and Short Form 36 (SF-36) surveys were administered to patients before treatment and 1 month after. Pretreatment and posttreatment scores were analyzed with a Student's t-test. On the VHI, improvements in the patients' perception of their functional, physical, and emotional voice handicap reached statistical significance (p < or = .0005). On the SF-36, patients had statistically significant improvements in mental health (p < or = .03) and social functioning (p < or = .04). Treatment of SD with BTX significantly lessened the patients' perception of dysphonia. In addition, it improved their social functioning and their perception of their mental health. These outcome measures justify the continued treatment of SD with BTX.

  16. Assessment of treatment outcome in patients with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, J R; Steenks, M H; Ros, W J; Lobbezoo-Scholte, A M; Bosman, F; Winnubst, J A

    1994-11-01

    Psychosocial, socio-demographic and symptom characteristics have been shown to be associated with treatment outcome in patients with craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD). This study was performed to assess to what extent symptoms and correlates of CMD change as a consequence of conservative treatment for CMD. Treatment outcome in a group of CMD patients treated with a stabilization splint (experimental group) was compared with that of a group of patients with CMD who were not treated for CMD (control group). Patients in the experimental group had fewer symptoms of CMD at the end of treatment. However, several symptoms and correlates of CMD also improved in the control group (severity of pain, joint noises, ear symptoms). It was therefore questioned whether all improvements in symptoms and correlates of CMD in the experimental group could be attributed to the treatment received. Results suggest that the main improvement that might be ascribed to therapy was a decrease in 'jaw symptoms'. There was a noticeable decrease in depression and an increased use of 'planned actions and rational thinking' as a coping style in the experimental group whereas these variables did not change in the control group. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  17. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A; Serra-Majem, Luis

    2013-01-01

    To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52-2.98) and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01-4.04), gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27-3.19) and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13-7.32) and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12-8.91) and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46-22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25-3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03-2.99), tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14-1.63) and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11) and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35-2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56-2.56) and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12-3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62-8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50-8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41-8.54). Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those women who intend to get pregnant and to

  18. Measuring Outcome in the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gallop, Robert; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Sadicario, Jaclyn S.; Woody, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Little in known about the extent to which outcome measures used in studies of the treatment of cocaine dependence are associated with longer-term use and with broader measures of clinical improvement. The current study examined reductions in use, and abstinence-oriented measures, in relation to functioning and longer-term clinical benefits in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Methods Overall drug use, cocaine use, and functioning in a number of addiction-related domains for 487 patients diagnosed with DSM-IV cocaine dependence and treated with one of four psychosocial interventions in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study were assessed monthly during 6 months of treatment and at 9, 12, 15, and 18 month follow-up. Results Measures of during-treatment reduction in use were moderately correlated with drug and cocaine use measures 12 months, but showed non-significant or small correlations with measures of functioning at 12 months. Highest correlations were evident for abstinence measures (maximum consecutive days abstinence and completely abstinent) during treatment in relation to sustained (3 month) abstinence at 12 months. Latent class analysis of patterns of change over time revealed that most patients initially (months 1 to 4 of treatment) either became abstinent immediately or continued to use every month. Over the couse of follow-up, patients either maintained abstinence or used regularly – intermittent use was less common. Conclusions There were generally small associations between various measures of cocaine use and longer-term clinical benefits, other than abstinence was associated with continued abstinence. No one method of measuring outcome of treatment of cocaine dependence appears superior to others. PMID:26366427

  19. Early outcomes with a single-sided access endovascular stent.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Michael; Pecoraro, Felice; Planer, David; Pfammatter, Thomas; Puippe, Gilbert; Bettex, Dominique; Veith, Frank J; Lachat, Mario; Chaykovska, Lyubov

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to report the 1-year follow-up study results of the new Horizon stent graft (Endospan, Herzliya, Israel) from two different prospective consecutive trials. The Horizon abdominal aortic aneurysm stent graft system is a 14F profile system requiring only a single access site. It consists of three modules, introduced separately: base limb (iliac to iliac limb); distal aortic limb; and proximal aortic limb with a bare suprarenal crown and active fixation. Data from the first in man (FIM) clinical study with 10 patients enrolled and the pivotal study with 30 patients were analyzed. Outcomes measured were freedom from major adverse events (MAEs) including all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, renal failure, respiratory failure, paraplegia, stroke, bowel ischemia, and procedural blood loss ≥1000 mL. Performance end points included successful delivery and deployment of the device, freedom from aneurysm growth ≥5 mm, type I or type III endoleak, stent graft occlusion, conversion to open surgery, rupture, and stent graft migration. In the FIM study, one conversion to open surgery with >1000 mL of blood loss was registered perioperatively. In the pivotal study, no perioperative MAE was registered. Overall, at 1-year follow-up, two deaths and one aneurysm growth unrelated to endoleak were registered. The results of both the FIM and pivotal studies demonstrated that 39 of 40 procedures were successful for delivery and deployment of the Horizon stent graft. No MAE was registered during the follow-up. The primary safety and performance end points were met in both studies. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multihospital System Membership and Patient Treatments, Expenditures, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between hospital membership in systems and the treatments, expenditures, and outcomes of patients. Data Sources The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review dataset, for data on Medicare patients admitted to general medical-surgical hospitals between 1985 and 1998 with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI); the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, for data on hospitals. Study Design A multivariate regression analysis. An observation is a fee-for-service Medicare AMI patient admitted to a study hospital. Dependent variables include patient transfers, catheterizations, angioplasties or bypass surgeries, 90-day mortality, and Medicare expenditures. Independent variables include system participation, other admission hospital and patient traits, and hospital and year fixed effects. The five-part system definition incorporates the size and location of the index admission hospital and the size and distance of its partners. Principal Findings While the effects of multihospital system membership on patients are in general limited, patients initially admitted to small rural system hospitals that have big partners within 100 miles experience lower mortality rates than patients initially admitted to independent hospitals. Regression results show that to the extent system hospital patients experience differences in treatments and outcomes relative to patients of independent hospitals, these differences remain even after controlling for the admission hospital's capacity to provide cardiac services. Conclusions Multihospital system participation may affect AMI patient treatment and outcomes through factors other than cardiac service offerings. Additional investigation into the nature of these factors is warranted. PMID:15230926

  1. Tuberculosis treatment outcome monitoring in European Union countries: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van Hest, Rob; Ködmön, Csaba; Verver, Suzanne; Erkens, Connie G.M.; Straetemans, Masja; Manissero, Davide; de Vries, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Treatment success measured by treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) is a key programmatic output of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to collect and report data on TOM. Online reference bibliographic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant indexed and non-indexed literature published between January 2000 and August 2010. The search strategy resulted in 615 potentially relevant indexed citations, of which 27 full-text national studies (79 data sets) were included for final analysis. The selected studies were performed in 10 EU/EEA countries and gave a fragmented impression of TOM in the EU/EEA. Publication year, study period, sample size, databases, definitions, variables, patient and outcome categories, and population subgroups varied widely, portraying a very heterogeneous picture. This review confirmed previous reports of considerable heterogeneity in publications of TOM results across EU/EEA countries. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE indexed studies are not a suitable instrument to measure representative TOM results for the 30 EU/EEA countries. Uniform and complete reporting to the centralised European Surveillance System will produce the most timely and reliable results of TB treatment outcomes in the EU/EEA. PMID:22790913

  2. Influence of psychotherapy attendance on buprenorphine treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Iván D.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Covi, Lino; Umbricht, Annie; Contoreggi, Carlo; Fudala, Paul J.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Gorelick, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of psychotherapy attendance on treatment outcome in 90 dually (cocaine and heroin) dependent outpatients who completed 70 days of a controlled clinical trial of sublingual buprenorphine (16 mg, 8 mg, or 2 mg daily, or 16 mg every other day) plus weekly individual standardized interpersonal cognitive psychotherapy. Treatment outcome was evaluated by quantitative urine benzoylecgonine (BZE) and morphine levels (log-transformed), performed three times per week. Repeated-measures linear regression was used to assess the effects of psychotherapy attendance (percent of visits kept), medication group, and study week on urine drug metabolite levels. Mean psychotherapy attendance was 71% of scheduled visits. Higher psychotherapy attendance was associated with lower urine BZE levels, and this association grew more pronounced as the study progressed (p = 0.04). The inverse relationship between psychotherapy attendance and urine morphine levels varied by medication group, being most pronounced for subjects receiving 16 mg every other day (p = 0.02). These results suggest that psychotherapy can improve the outcome of buprenorphine maintenance treatment for patients with dual (cocaine and opioid) dependence. PMID:15857725

  3. Outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and CO2 laser for early glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Yu; Li, Chao; Zhou, Xuan; Huang, Yongwang; Zhang, Lun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the voice and functional outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and CO2 laser for early glottic cancer were evaluated. One hundred sixty eight patients with early glottic cancer from October 2007 to June 2015 were included. Ninety-seven patients underwent RFA and seventy-one patients underwent CO2 laser. The operation time and score of visual analog scale (VAS) for pain on the second day after surgery were recorded. The electronic laryngoscopy was performed at one week, one month and three months of postoperation. The operation time in RFA was shorter than that in CO2 laser (8.52±1.43min vs. 11.76±1.67min, P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in VAS scores between two operation methods (2.86±0.52 vs. 2.89±0.68, P>0.05). One month after operation, the mucosal recovery in RFA group was better than that in CO2 laser group (P<0.05). The alterations of acoustic parameters Jitter, Shimmer and HNR at three time points after operation showed statistical significances in both RFA and CO2 laser groups (P<0.05). The significant differences in acoustic parameters between two groups were also observed (P<0.05). There were no differences in three-year survival rate, local recurrence rate, recurrence rate with anterior commissure involvement and postoperative adhesion rate with anterior commissure between the patients with RFA and CO2 laser (P>0.05). No patient underwent tracheotomy and had symptoms of bucking, dyspnea, severe pain, hemoptysis and other serious complications. Both RFA and CO2 laser are safe and effective for the treatment of early glottic cancer. RFA has the advantage of quick voice recovery, low mucosa injury and short operation time, which is worthy for wide clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgical treatment for apparent early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most experts would agree that the standard surgical treatment for endometrial cancer includes a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, the benefit of full surgical staging with lymph node dissection in patients with apparent early stage disease remains a topic of debate. Recent prospective data and advances in laparoscopic techniques have transformed this disease into one that can be successfully managed with minimally invasive surgery. This review will discuss the current surgical management of apparent early stage endometrial cancer and some of the new techniques that are being incorporated. PMID:24596812

  5. Laparoscopic HIPEC for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Gastric Cancer - Technique and Early Outcomes of Our First Cases.

    PubMed

    Bălescu, Irina; Godoroja, Daniela; Gongu, Mircea; Tomulescu, Victor; Copăescu, Cătălin

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most aggressive malignancies, being associated with very poor therapeutic outcomes, especially in the advanced disease patients. Due to this evidence, finding a better treatment, a better control and higher survival rates is the current scientific focus of the medical community. Once the benefits of cytoreductive surgery in association with intraperitoneal hyperthermy (HIPEC) have been widely demonstrated in patients presenting peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal or ovarian origin,attention was focused on the possible benefit of this method in patients diagnosed with peritoneal carcinomatosis with gastric origin. Moreover, using laparoscopy for the cytoreductive surgery (L-CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (L-HIPEC), the advantages of minimal invasive surgery (MIS) are expected to contribute to improved postoperative outcomes. In this way, the patients benefit from a faster administration of the adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment, whenever is necessary. to present the technique of L-CRS + L-HIPEC and the early therapeutic outcomes in a case series of two patients diagnosed with peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer. A complete investigational work-up including diagnostic laparoscopy to evaluate the Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index (PCI) was fulfilled in all the cases. The institutional Tumor Board decided the therapeutic strategy: laparoscopic radical resection and HIPEC (L-CRS +L-HIPEC). The procedures were performed into a private setting (Ponderas Academic Hospital). Results: Two male patients,46 and 69years old, presenting carcinomatosis from gastric cancer were included into the study. Initial PCI was assessed by laparoscopy and it was 18 and 7, respectively. Both cases underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. D2 laparoscopic radical gastrectomy and L-HIPEC was then performed. Time of procedure was360 and 320 minutes, respectively. The intraperitoneal temperature varied between 41 and 42°C, while the

  6. Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: assessing risk, monitoring response, and optimizing outcome.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Naranie; Hiwase, Devendra Keshaorao; Ross, David Morrall

    2017-12-01

    Over the past two decades, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have become the foundation of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. The choice between imatinib and newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) needs to be balanced against the known toxicity and efficacy data for each drug, the therapeutic goal being to maximize molecular response assessed by BCR-ABL RQ-PCR assay. There is accumulating evidence that the early achievement of molecular targets is a strong predictor of superior long-term outcomes. Early response assessment provides the opportunity to intervene early with the aim of ensuring an optimal response. Failure to achieve milestones or loss of response can have diverse causes. We describe how clinical and laboratory monitoring can be used to ensure that each patient is achieving an optimal response and, in patients who do not reach optimal response milestones, how the monitoring results can be used to detect resistance and understand its origins.

  7. Ten year experience with antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia: Trends in patient characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lay, Phirum; An, Sokkab; Soeung, Sunpiseth; Srey, Pich Sovannary; Thai, Sopheak; Lynen, Lutgarde; Griensven, Johan van

    2017-01-01

    particularly high in the first few program years. A lower risk was observed among individuals starting ART during the 2006-2008 period. Factors independently associated with an increased risk of treatment failure included ART-experience, NVP-based ART and a baseline CD4 count below 200 cells/μL. Overall program outcomes were fair, and generally compare well to other reports from the region. Despite gradually earlier initiation of ART over the ten year period, ART is still initiated at too low CD4 count levels, warranting increased efforts for early HIV diagnosis and enrolment/retention into HIV care. Tailored strategies for poor prognostic groups (older age, male, low BMI) should be designed and evaluated.

  8. Early treatment improves urodynamic prognosis in neurogenic voiding dysfunction: 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Costa Monteiro, Lucia M; Cruz, Glaura O; Fontes, Juliana M; Vieira, Eliane T R C; Santos, Eloá N; Araújo, Grace F; Ramos, Eloane G

    To evaluate the association between early treatment and urodynamic improvement in pediatric and adolescent patients with neurogenic bladder. Retrospective longitudinal and observational study (between 1990 and 2013) including patients with neurogenic bladder and myelomeningocele treated based on urodynamic results. The authors evaluated the urodynamic follow-up (bladder compliance and maximum bladder capacity and pressure) considering the first urodynamic improvement in two years as the outcome variable and early referral as the exposure variable, using a descriptive and multivariate analysis with logistic regression model. Among 230 patients included, 52% had an early referral. The majority were diagnosed as overactive bladder with high bladder pressure (≥40cm H 2 O) and low bladder compliance (3mL/cmH 2 O) and were treated with oxybutynin and intermittent catheterization. Urodynamic follow-up results showed 68% of improvement at the second urodynamic examination decreasing bladder pressure and increasing bladder capacity and compliance. The percentage of incontinence and urinary tract infections decreased over treatment. Early referral (one-year old or less) increased by 3.5 the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years (95% CI: 1.81-6.77). Treatment onset within the first year of life improves urodynamic prognosis in patients with neurogenic bladder and triplicates the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years. The role of neonatologists and pediatricians in early referral is extremely important. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Working memory capacity and addiction treatment outcomes in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Houck, Jon M; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2018-01-01

    Brief addiction treatments including motivational interviewing (MI) have shown promise with adolescents, but the factors that influence treatment efficacy in this population remain unknown. One candidate is working memory, the ability to hold a fact or thought in mind. This is relevant, as in therapy, a client must maintain and manipulate ideas while working with a clinician. Working memory depends upon brain structures and functions that change markedly during neurodevelopment and that can be negatively impacted by substance use. In a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial for adolescent substance use comparing alcohol/marijuana education and MI, we evaluated the relationship between working memory and three-month treatment-outcomes with the hypothesis that the relationship between intervention conditions and outcome would be moderated by working memory. With a diverse sample of adolescents currently using alcohol and/or marijuana (N = 153, 64.7% male, 70.6% Hispanic), we examined the relationship between baseline measures of working memory and alcohol and cannabis-related problem scores measured at the three-month follow-up. The results showed that lower working memory scores were associated with poorer treatment response only for alcohol use, and only within the education group. No relationship was found between working memory and treatment outcomes in the MI group. The results suggest that issues with working memory capacity may interfere with adolescents' ability to process and implement didactic alcohol and marijuana content in standard education interventions. These results also suggest that MI can be implemented equally effectively across the range of working memory functioning in youth.

  10. EARLY COMPLICATIONS IN THE ORTHOPEDIC TREATMENT OF BONE METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Luiz Eduardo Moreira; Miranda, Ricardo Horta; Ghedini, Daniel Ferreira; Aguilar, Rafael Bazílio; Novais, Eduardo Nilo Vasconcelos; de Abreu e Silva, Guilherme Moreira; Araújo, Ivana Duval; de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the early complications in the orthopedic treatment of metastatic bone lesions and the factors associated with these complications. Method: There were assessed, retrospectively, 64 patients that underwent surgical treatment for bone metastases, analyzing the complications that occurred in the pre-operative and early post- operative period and associating them with the tumor origin, type of procedure done, the need of blood reposition before the surgery, the need of new surgical procedures and the mortality due to the complications. Results: Early complications in the treatment were observed in 17 (26.6%) patients, of which six (35.2%) ended up dying due to these complications. Regarding the type, 15 (23.8%) cases were due to surgical complications, four (6.3%) clinical and three (4.7%) patients showed clinical and surgical complications. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications or mortality when assessed the type of reconstruction or affected region. The tumors with a renal origin needed more blood reposition and showed a bigger frequency of complications. Conclusion: The complications occurred in 26.6%. The complications are not related to the kind of treatment performed or to the region affected. The renal origin tumors showed a higher risk of hemorrhage. PMID:27077063

  11. EARLY COMPLICATIONS IN THE ORTHOPEDIC TREATMENT OF BONE METASTASES.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luiz Eduardo Moreira; Miranda, Ricardo Horta; Ghedini, Daniel Ferreira; Aguilar, Rafael Bazílio; Novais, Eduardo Nilo Vasconcelos; de Abreu E Silva, Guilherme Moreira; Araújo, Ivana Duval; de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope

    2009-01-01

    To assess the early complications in the orthopedic treatment of metastatic bone lesions and the factors associated with these complications. There were assessed, retrospectively, 64 patients that underwent surgical treatment for bone metastases, analyzing the complications that occurred in the pre-operative and early post- operative period and associating them with the tumor origin, type of procedure done, the need of blood reposition before the surgery, the need of new surgical procedures and the mortality due to the complications. Early complications in the treatment were observed in 17 (26.6%) patients, of which six (35.2%) ended up dying due to these complications. Regarding the type, 15 (23.8%) cases were due to surgical complications, four (6.3%) clinical and three (4.7%) patients showed clinical and surgical complications. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications or mortality when assessed the type of reconstruction or affected region. The tumors with a renal origin needed more blood reposition and showed a bigger frequency of complications. The complications occurred in 26.6%. The complications are not related to the kind of treatment performed or to the region affected. The renal origin tumors showed a higher risk of hemorrhage.

  12. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Early-Lapse Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Hayes, Steven C.; Wilson, Kelly G.; Gifford, Elizabeth V.

    2008-01-01

    A significant percentage of individuals attempting smoking cessation lapse within a matter of days, and very few are able to recover to achieve long-term abstinence. This observation suggests that many smokers may have quit-attempt histories characterized exclusively by early lapses to smoking following quit attempts. Recent negative-reinforcement conceptualizations of early lapse to smoking suggest that individuals' reactions to withdrawal and inability to tolerate the experience of these symptoms, rather than withdrawal severity itself, may represent an important treatment target in the development of new behavioral interventions for this subpopulation of smokers. This article presents the theoretical rationale and describes a novel, multicomponent distress-tolerance treatment for early-lapse smokers that incorporates behavioral and pharmacological elements of standard smoking-cessation treatment, whereas drawing distress-tolerance elements from exposure-based and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy–based treatment approaches. Preliminary data from a pilot study (N = 16) are presented, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:18391050

  13. Outcome following treatment of feline gastrointestinal mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Barrett, L E; Skorupski, K; Brown, D C; Weinstein, N; Clifford, C; Szivek, A; Haney, S; Kraiza, S; Krick, E L

    2018-06-01

    Prognosis of feline gastrointestinal mast cell tumours (FGIMCT), based on limited available literature, is described as guarded to poor, which may influence treatment recommendations and patient outcome. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical findings, treatment response, and outcome of FGIMCT. Medical records of 31 cats diagnosed with and treated for FGIMCT were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included signalment, method of diagnosis, tumour location (including metastatic sites), treatment type, cause of death and survival time. Mean age was 12.9 y. Diagnosis was made via cytology (n = 15), histopathology (n = 13) or both (n = 3). Metastatic sites included abdominal lymph node (n = 10), abdominal viscera (n = 4) and both (n = 2). Therapeutic approaches included chemotherapy alone (n = 15), surgery and chemotherapy (n = 7), glucocorticoid only (n = 6) and surgery and glucocorticoid (n = 3). Lomustine (n = 15) and chlorambucil (n = 12) were the most commonly used chemotherapy drugs. Overall median survival time was 531 d (95% confidence interval 334, 982). Gastrointestinal location, diagnosis of additional cancers, and treatment type did not significantly affect survival time. Cause of death was tumour-related or unknown (n = 12) and unrelated (n = 8) in the 20 cats dead at the time of analysis. The prognosis for cats with FGIMCT may be better than previously reported, with 26% of cats deceased from an unrelated cause. Surgical and medical treatments (including prednisolone alone) were both associated with prolonged survival times. Treatment other than prednisolone may not be necessary in some cats. Continued research into prognostic factors and most effective treatment strategies are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Early nerve repair in traumatic brachial plexus injuries in adults: treatment algorithm and first experiences.

    PubMed

    Pondaag, Willem; van Driest, Finn Y; Groen, Justus L; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2018-01-26

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of early nerve repair within 2 weeks following adult traumatic brachial plexus injury (ATBPI). METHODS From 2009 onwards, the authors have strived to repair as early as possible extended C-5 to C-8 or T-1 lesions or complete loss of C-5 to C-6 or C-7 function in patients in whom there was clinical and radiological suspicion of root avulsion. Among a group of 36 patients surgically treated in the period between 2009 and 2011, surgical findings in those who had undergone treatment within 2 weeks after trauma were retrospectively compared with results in those who had undergone delayed treatment. The result of biceps muscle reanimation was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS Five of the 36 patients were referred within 2 weeks after trauma and were eligible for early surgery. Nerve ruptures and/or avulsions were found in all early cases of surgery. The advantages of early surgery are as follows: no scar formation, easy anatomical identification, and gap length reduction. Disadvantages include less-clear demarcation of vital nerve tissue and unfamiliarity with the interpretation of frozen-section examination findings. All 5 early-treatment patients recovered a biceps force rated Medical Research Council grade 4. CONCLUSIONS Preliminary results of nerve repair within 2 weeks of ATBPI are encouraging, and the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. The authors propose a decision algorithm to select patients eligible for early surgery. Referral standards for patients with ATBPI must be adapted to enable early surgery.

  15. Serratia marcescens meningitis: epidemiology, prognostic factors and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yen-Mu; Hsu, Po-Chang; Yang, Chien-Chang; Chang, Hong-Jyun; Ye, Jung-Jr; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lee, Ming-Hsun

    2013-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is a rare pathogen of central nervous system infections. This study was to investigate the epidemiology, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes of S. marcescens meningitis. This retrospective analysis included 33 patients with culture-proven S. marcescens meningitis hospitalized between January 2000 and June 2011. Of the 33 patients enrolled, only one did not receive neurosurgery before the onset of S. marcescens meningitis. Patients with S. marcescens meningitis had higher ratios of brain solid tumors (54.5%) and neurosurgery (97.0%) with a mortality rate of 15.2%. The mean interval between the first neurosurgical procedure and the diagnosis of meningitis was 17.1 days (range, 4-51 days). Only one third-generation cephalosporin-resistant S. marcescens isolate was recovered from the patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Compared with the favorable outcome group (n = 20), the unfavorable outcome group (n = 13) had a higher percentage of brain solid tumors, more intensive care unit stays, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, CSF lactate and serum C-reactive protein concentrations at diagnosis of meningitis. Under the multiple regression analysis, CSF lactate concentration ≥2-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) was independently associated with unfavorable outcomes (odds ratio, 7.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-47.96; p = 0.041). S. marcescens meningitis is highly associated with neurosurgical procedures for brain solid tumors. CSF lactate concentration ≥2x ULN may predict an unfavorable outcome. Its mortality is not high and empiric treatment with parenteral third-generation cephalosporins may have a satisfactory clinical response. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results From a Two-Year Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control and treated for two years. Comprehensive data on cognition and employment were collected annually. Results Individuals treated with CET were significantly more likely to be competitively employed, had greater earnings from employment, and were more satisfied with their employment status by the end of treatment compared to EST recipients. Mediator analyses revealed that improvements in both social and non-social cognition mediated the CET effects on employment. Conclusion CET can help facilitate employment in early schizophrenia, by addressing the cognitive impairments that limit functioning in the disorder. Inclusion of cognitive rehabilitation in social work practice can support more optimal functional recovery from schizophrenia. PMID:23885163

  17. Marijuana commercialization and adolescent substance treatment outcomes in Colorado.

    PubMed

    LeNoue, Sean R; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Thurstone, Christian

    2017-12-01

    In Colorado, marijuana was legalized for medical use in 2000, commercialized in 2009, and approved for recreational purposes in 2012. Little is known about the association between recent policy changes and adolescent substance treatment outcomes measured by urine drug screens (UDS). This study addressed this research gap. Participants were youth (N = 523) aged 11-19 years who were enrolled in an outpatient motivational interviewing (MI)/cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) plus contingency management (CM) in Denver, Colorado from October 2007 to June 2014. The measures included UDS collected during weekly treatment sessions and sent to a commercial laboratory for quantitative analysis of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/Creatinine (Cr). Linear regression models and logistic regression models using a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach for repeated measures were completed to answer the study aims. Males, but not females, had a marginally significant increasing trend over time in monthly average THC/Cr (β = 1.99, p = 0.046). There was a significant increasing trend over time (per 30 days) in the odds of having a negative UDS within 6 sessions (OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 1.003-1.04, p = 0.006). Based on these data, substance treatment outcomes from MI and CBT are mixed, but overall treatment appears to remain effective in a state with legalized marijuana. (Am J Addict 2017;26:802-806). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. The impact of global budgeting on treatment intensity and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kan, Kamhon; Li, Shu-Fen; Tsai, Wei-Der

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the effects of global budgets on the amount of resources devoted to cardio-cerebrovascular disease patients by hospitals of different ownership types and these patients' outcomes. Theoretical models predict that hospitals have financial incentives to increase the quantity of treatments applied to patients. This is especially true for for-profit hospitals. If that's the case, it is important to examine whether the increase in treatment quantity is translated into better treatment outcomes. Our analyses take advantage of the National Health Insurance of Taiwan's implementation of global budgets for hospitals in 2002. Our data come from the National Health Insurance's claim records, covering the universe of hospitalized patients suffering acute myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke. Regression analyses are carried out separately for government, private not-for-profit and for-profit hospitals. We find that for-profit hospitals and private not-for-profit hospitals did increase their treatment intensity for cardio-cerebrovascular disease patients after the 2002 implementation of global budgets. However, this was not accompanied by an improvement in these patients' mortality rates. This reveals a waste of medical resources and implies that aggregate expenditure caps should be supplemented by other designs to prevent resources misallocation.

  19. Predicting Social Anxiety Treatment Outcome Based on Therapeutic Email Conversations.

    PubMed

    Hoogendoorn, Mark; Berger, Thomas; Schulz, Ava; Stolz, Timo; Szolovits, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Predicting therapeutic outcome in the mental health domain is of utmost importance to enable therapists to provide the most effective treatment to a patient. Using information from the writings of a patient can potentially be a valuable source of information, especially now that more and more treatments involve computer-based exercises or electronic conversations between patient and therapist. In this paper, we study predictive modeling using writings of patients under treatment for a social anxiety disorder. We extract a wealth of information from the text written by patients including their usage of words, the topics they talk about, the sentiment of the messages, and the style of writing. In addition, we study trends over time with respect to those measures. We then apply machine learning algorithms to generate the predictive models. Based on a dataset of 69 patients, we are able to show that we can predict therapy outcome with an area under the curve of 0.83 halfway through the therapy and with a precision of 0.78 when using the full data (i.e., the entire treatment period). Due to the limited number of participants, it is hard to generalize the results, but they do show great potential in this type of information.

  20. Concurrent Group Treatment for Hepatitis C: Implementation and Outcomes in a Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Melissa R.; Soloway, Irene J.; Jefferson, Karen S.; Roose, Robert J.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Litwin, Alain H.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among current and former drug users. However, the minority of patients enrolled in drug treatment programs have initiated HCV treatment. New models are needed to overcome barriers to care. In this retrospective study, we describe the implementation and outcomes of 42 patients treated in a Concurrent Group Treatment (CGT) program. Patients participated in weekly provider-led group treatment sessions which included review of side effects; discussion of adherence and side effect management; administration of interferon injections; brief physical exam; and ended with brief meditation. Of the first 27 patients who initiated CGT, 42% achieved a sustained viral response. Additionally, 87% (13/15) of genotype-1 infected patients treated with direct acting antiviral agent achieved an undetectable viral load at 24 weeks. The CGT model may be effective in overcoming barriers to treatment and improving adherence and outcomes among patients enrolled in drug treatment programs. PMID:23036920

  1. Imatinib mesylate in chronic myeloid leukemia: frontline treatment and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stagno, Fabio; Stella, Stefania; Spitaleri, Antonio; Pennisi, Maria Stella; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Vigneri, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib Mesylate has dramatically improved the clinical outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in the chronic phase of the disease, generating unprecedented rates of complete hematologic and cytogenetic responses and sustained reductions in BCR-ABL transcripts. Here, we present an overview on the efficacy and safety of Imatinib and describe the most important clinical studies employing this drug for the frontline treatment of chronic phase CML. We also discuss recent reports describing the long-term outcome of patients receiving Imatinib for their disease. The imminent availability of generic forms of Imatinib coupled with the approval of expensive second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors underlines an unmet need for early molecular parameters that may distinguish CML patients likely to benefit from the drug from those that should receive alternative forms of treatment.

  2. Commentary: On the Importance of Early Life Cognitive Abilities in Shaping Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Scott M; Clouston, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Early life cognitive ability is likely to be dynamically related to life course factors including educational attainment, occupational outcomes, health behaviors, activities, health, and subsequent cognitive health. Disentangling the selective and causal processes contributing to cognitive functioning across the lifespan is challenging and requires long-term investments in longitudinal data. We discuss results from several analyses using data from the Individual Development and Adaptation longitudinal research program (Bergman, 2000; Magnusson, 1988) that provide fresh insights into the relation of early life cognition, particularly high levels of cognitive capabilities, to educational achievement, emotional adjustment, and career success. These papers and the longitudinal data provide a remarkable window into the development and impacts of cognition, and high cognitive functioning, on a variety of important life outcomes that we hope will continue to inform us about additional outcomes in middle life, transition to retirement, and cognition and health in later years and to robustly examine how the early years matter across the whole lifespan.

  3. Two-year outcome after early or late Intervention in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Badings, Erik A; Remkes, Wouter S; The, Salem H K; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Tjeerdsma, Geert; Rasoul, Saman; Timmer, Jorik R; van der Wielen, Marloes L J; Lok, Dirk J A; Hermanides, Renicus S; Van Wijngaarden, Jan; Suryapranata, Harry; van ’t Hof, Arnoud W J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare long-term outcome of an early to a delayed invasive strategy in high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Methods This prospective, multicentre trial included patients with NSTE-ACS and at least two out of three of the following high-risk criteria: (1) evidence of extensive myocardial ischaemia on ECG, (2) elevated biomarkers for myocardial necrosis and (3) age above 65 years. Patients were randomised to either an early (angiography and revascularisation if appropriate <12 hours) or a delayed invasive strategy (>48 hours after randomisation). Endpoint for this prespecified long-term follow-up was the composite incidence of death or reinfarction after 2 years. Data collection was performed by telephone contact with the patients, their relatives or general practitioner and by review of hospital records. Results Endpoint status after 2-year follow-up was collected in 521 of 542 initially enrolled patients. Incidence of death or reinfarction was 11.8% in the early and 13.1% in the delayed treatment group (relative risk (RR)=0.90, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.42). No significant differences were found in occurrence of the individual components of the primary endpoint: death 6.1% vs 8.9%, RR 0.69 (95% CI 0.37 to 1.27), reinfarction 6.5% vs 5.4%, RR 1.20 (95% CI 0.60 to 2.38). Post-hoc subgroup analysis showed statistical significant interaction between age and treatment strategy on outcome (p=0.02). Conclusions After 2 years follow-up, no difference in incidence of death or reinfarction was seen between early to late invasive strategy. These findings are in line with results of other studies with longer follow-up. Older patients seem to benefit more from early invasive treatment. PMID:28409008

  4. Successful treatment algorithm for evaluation of early pregnancy after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Goossen, Rachel P; Sparks, Amy E T; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Duran, Eyup Hakan

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate a prospectively implemented clinical algorithm for early identification of ectopic pregnancy (EP) and heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after assisted reproductive technology (ART). Analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic medical center. All ART-conceived pregnancies between January 1995 and June 2013. Early pregnancy monitoring via clinical algorithm with all pregnancies screened using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and reported symptoms, with subsequent early ultrasound evaluation if hCG levels were abnormal or if the patient reported pain or vaginal bleeding. Algorithmic efficiency for diagnosis of EP and HP and their subsequent clinical outcomes using a binary forward stepwise logistic regression model built to determine predictors of early pregnancy failure. Of the 3,904 pregnancies included, the incidence of EP and HP was 0.77% and 0.46%, respectively. The algorithm selected 96.7% and 83.3% of pregnancies diagnosed with EP and HP, respectively, for early ultrasound evaluation, leading to earlier treatment and resolution. Logistic regression revealed that first hCG, second hCG, hCG slope, age, pain, and vaginal bleeding were all independent predictors of early pregnancy failure after ART. Our clinical algorithm for early pregnancy evaluation after ART is effective for identification and prompt intervention of EP and HP without significant over- or misdiagnosis, and avoids the potential catastrophic morbidity associated with delayed diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies for managing aortoiliac occlusions: access, treatment and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Clair, Daniel G; Beach, Jocelyn M

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of severe aortoiliac disease has dramatically evolved from a dependence on open aortobifemoral grafting to hybrid and endovascular only approaches. Open surgery has been the gold standard treatment of severe aortoiliac disease with excellent patency rates, but with increased length of stay and major complications. In contrast, endovascular interventions can successfully treat almost any lesion with decreased risk, compared to open surgery. Although primary patency rates remain inferior, secondary endovascular interventions are often minor procedures resulting in comparable long-term outcomes. The risks of renal insufficiency, embolization and access complications are not insignificant; however, most can be prevented or managed without significant clinical consequence. Endovascular therapies should be considered a first-line treatment option for all patients with aortoiliac disease, especially those with high-risk cardiovascular comorbidities. PMID:25907618

  6. Outcomes of Buccinator Treatment With Botulinum Toxin in Facial Synkinesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priyesh N; Owen, Scott R; Norton, Cathey P; Emerson, Brandon T; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Ries, William R; Stephan, Scott J

    2018-05-01

    The buccinator, despite being a prominent midface muscle, has been previously overlooked as a target in the treatment of facial synkinesis with botulinum toxin. To evaluate outcomes of patients treated with botulinum toxin to the buccinator muscle in the setting of facial synkinesis. Prospective cohort study of patients who underwent treatment for facial synkinesis with botulinum toxin over multiple treatment cycles during a 1-year period was carried out in a tertiary referral center. Botulinum toxin treatment of facial musculature, including treatment cycles with and without buccinator injections. Subjective outcomes were evaluated using the Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) prior to injection of botulinum toxin and 2 weeks after treatment. Outcomes of SAQ preinjection and postinjection scores were compared in patients who had at least 1 treatment cycle with and without buccinator injections. Subanalysis was performed on SAQ questions specific to buccinator function (facial tightness and lip movement). Of 84 patients who received botulinum toxin injections for facial synkinesis, 33 received injections into the buccinator muscle. Of the 33, 23 met inclusion criteria (19 [82.6%] women; mean [SD] age, 46 [10] years). These patients presented for 82 treatment visits, of which 44 (53.6%) involved buccinator injections and 38 (46.4%) were without buccinator injections. The most common etiology of facial paralysis included vestibular schwannoma (10 [43.5%] participants) and Bell Palsy (9 [39.1%] participants). All patients had improved posttreatment SAQ scores compared with prebotulinum scores regardless of buccinator treatment. Compared with treatment cycles in which the buccinator was not addressed, buccinator injections resulted in lower total postinjection SAQ scores (45.9; 95% CI, 38.8-46.8; vs 42.8; 95% CI, 41.3-50.4; P = .43) and greater differences in prebotox and postbotox injection outcomes (18; 95% CI, 16.2-21.8; vs 19; 95% CI, 14.2-21.8; P

  7. Traumatized refugees: morbidity, treatment and predictors of outcome.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck

    2014-08-01

    Despite large numbers of traumatized refugees, little is known about effective treatment of war trauma in refugees and immigrants. Few studies evaluating treatment have been published and most studies are follow-up studies with methodological limitations and little comparability across studies. The purpose of the PhD is to characterize transcultural trauma patients in Denmark needing psychiatric treatment with regards to psychopathology and predictors of mental health and to evaluate the effects of the treatment. Two studies reported in 4 papers form the basis of the thesis. FORLOB (Paper 1-3) was a follow-up study that included all patients receiving treatment at the Competence Center for Transcultural Psychiatry in Copenhagen from April 2008 to February 2010. Patients completed self-ratings of symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety as well as level of functioning and quality of life (HTQ, HSCL-25, SDS & WHO-5) before treatment and after treatment. Associations of co-morbid diagnoses and predictors of the patients' health condition were examined with linear and logistic regression and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Treatment in FORLOB consisted of a combination of Sertraline, Mianserin, psycho-education and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TFCBT). The treatment administered to each patient was monitored in detail and changes in outcome and predictors of change were analyzed. PTF1 (Paper 4) was a randomized controlled clinical trial with 2x2 factorial design (antidepressants, TFCBT, antidepressants & TFCBT, waiting list). Potential participants were screened amongst adult patients referred to the Competence Center for Transcultural Psychiatry in the period June 2009-2011. Patients with PTSD, war trauma and without a psychotic disorder were included. The manualized treatment consisted of weekly sessions with a physician and/or psychologist over a period of 6 months. The treatment effect was evaluated with a combination of self-ratings and blinded

  8. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Retreatment Tuberculosis Patients in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Ade, Serge; Adjibodé, Omer; Wachinou, Prudence; Toundoh, Narcisse; Awanou, Bérénice; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Affolabi, Dissou; Adè, Gabriel; Harries, Anthony D.; Anagonou, Séverin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin baseline characteristics, culture, and drug sensitivity testing (DST) results and treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective national cohort study of all retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin in 2013 using registers and treatment cards. Results. Of 3957 patients with tuberculosis, 241 (6%) were retreatment cases. Compared to new pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) patients, there were significantly higher numbers of males (P = 0.04), patients from “Atlantique-Littoral” (P = 0.006), patients aged 45–64 years (P = 0.007), and HIV-positive patients (P = 0.04) among those retreated. Overall, 171 (71%) patients submitted sputum for DST, of whom (163) 95% were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Xpert MTB/RIF and/or culture and 17 (10%) were rifampicin resistant (9 with MDR-TB and 8 monoresistant to rifampicin). For those without MDR-TB (n = 224), treatment success was 93%. Worse outcomes occurred in those with unknown HIV status (RR: 0.27; 0.05–1.45; P < 0.01) while better outcomes occurred in those who relapsed (RR: 1.06, 95 CI: 1.02–1.10, P = 0.04). Conclusion. In 2013, a high proportion of retreatment patients received DST. Treatment success was good although more needs to be done to systematically increase the final follow-up smear examination. Reasons of high losses to follow-up from “Oueme-Plateau” should be investigated. PMID:27110400

  9. Early pregnancy failure: factors affecting successful medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Marwan; Tendler, Rene; Kais, Mohamad; Maximovsky, Olga; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob

    2010-06-01

    The results of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure are conflicting. To determine whether gestational sac volume measurement as well as other variables can predict the success rate of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. The study group comprised 81 women diagnosed with missed abortion or anembryonic pregnancy who consented to medical treatment. Demographic data were collected and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level was documented. Crown-rump length and the sac volume were measured using transvaginal ultrasound. TVU was performed 12-24 hours after intravaginal administration of 800 micro g misoprostol. If the thickness of the uterine cavity was less than 30 mm, the women were discharged. If the sac was still intact or the thickness of the uterine cavity exceeded 30 mm, they were offered an additional dosage of intravaginal misoprostol or surgical uterine evacuation. Medical treatment successfully terminated 32 pregnancies (39.5%), 30 after one dose of misoprostol and 2 after two doses (group A); 49 underwent surgical evacuation (group B), 47 following one dose of misoprostol and 2 following two doses. There were no significant differences between the groups in age and gestational week. Gestational sac volume did not differ between groups A and B (10.03 and 11.98 ml respectively, P = 0.283). Parity (0.87 and 1.43, P = 0.015), previous pregnancies (2.38 and 2.88, P = 0.037), and betahCG concentration (6961 and 28,748 mlU, P = 0.013) differed significantly between the groups. Gestational sac volume is not a predictor of successful medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. Previous pregnancies and deliveries and higher betahCG concentration negatively affect the success rate of medical treatment.

  10. Intra-Abdominal Candidiasis: The Importance of Early Source Control and Antifungal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vergidis, Pascalis; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Shields, Ryan K.; Park, Seo Young; Wildfeuer, Brett N.; Simmons, Richard L.; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) is poorly understood compared to candidemia. We described the clinical characteristics, microbiology, treatment and outcomes of IAC, and identified risk factors for mortality. We performed a retrospective study of adults diagnosed with IAC at our center in 2012–2013. Risk factors for mortality were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. We identified 163 patients with IAC, compared to 161 with candidemia. Types of IAC were intra-abdominal abscesses (55%), secondary peritonitis (33%), primary peritonitis (5%), infected pancreatic necrosis (5%), and cholecystitis/cholangitis (3%). Eighty-three percent and 66% of secondary peritonitis and abscesses, respectively, stemmed from gastrointestinal (GI) tract sources. C. albicans (56%) and C. glabrata (24%) were the most common species. Bacterial co-infections and candidemia occurred in 67% and 6% of patients, respectively. Seventy-two percent of patients underwent an early source control intervention (within 5 days) and 72% received early antifungal treatment. 100-day mortality was 28%, and highest with primary (88%) or secondary (40%) peritonitis. Younger age, abscesses and early source control were independent predictors of survival. Younger age, abscesses and early antifungal treatment were independently associated with survival for IAC stemming from GI tract sources. Infectious diseases (ID) consultations were obtained in only 48% of patients. Consulted patients were significantly more likely to receive antifungal treatment. IAC is a common disease associated with heterogeneous manifestations, which result in poor outcomes. All patients should undergo source control interventions and receive antifungal treatment promptly. It is important for the ID community to become more engaged in treating IAC. PMID:27123857

  11. Treatment outcomes of acute bipolar depressive episode with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Caldieraro, Marco Antonio; Dufour, Steven; Sylvia, Louisa G; Gao, Keming; Ketter, Terence A; Bobo, William V; Walsh, Samantha; Janos, Jessica; Tohen, Mauricio; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; McElroy, Susan L; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Deckersbach, Thilo; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2018-05-01

    The impact of psychosis on the treatment of bipolar depression is remarkably understudied. The primary aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes of bipolar depressed individuals with and without psychosis. The secondary aim was to compare the effect of lithium and quetiapine, each with adjunctive personalized treatments (APTs), in the psychotic subgroup. We assessed participants with DSM-IV bipolar depression included in a comparative effectiveness study of lithium and quetiapine with APTs (the Bipolar CHOICE study). Severity was assessed by the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and by the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity-Bipolar Version (CGI-S-BP). Mixed models were used to assess the course of symptom change, and Cox regression survival analysis was used to assess the time to remission. Psychotic features were present in 10.6% (n = 32) of the depressed participants (n = 303). Those with psychotic features had higher scores on the BISS before (75.2 ± 17.6 vs. 54.9 ± 16.3; P < .001) and after (37.2 ± 19.7 vs. 26.3 ± 18.0; P = .003) 6-month treatment. The CGI-S-BP yielded similar results. Participants with and without psychosis had similar course of symptom improvement and similar time to remission. There was no significant difference in the treatment outcomes of lithium (n = 11) and quetiapine (n = 21) among the psychotic subgroup. Bipolar depressive episodes with psychotic features are more severe, and compared to nonpsychotic depressions, present a similar course of improvement. Given the small number of participants presenting psychosis, the lack of statistically significant difference between lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment of psychotic bipolar depressive episodes needs replication in a larger sample. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Early treatment of posterior crossbite - a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment in contrast to normal growth effects for functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition by means of three-dimensional digital model analysis. Methods This randomised clinical trial was assessed to analyse the orthodontic treatment effects for patients with functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using a two-step procedure: initial maxillary expansion followed by a U-bow activator therapy. In the treatment group 31 patients and in the control group 35 patients with a mean age of 7.3 years (SD 2.1) were monitored. The time between the initial assessment (T1) and the follow-up (T2) was one year. The orthodontic analysis was done by a three-dimensional digital model analysis. Using the ‘Digimodel’ software, the orthodontic measurements in the maxilla and mandible and for the midline deviation, the overjet and overbite were recorded. Results Significant differences between the control and the therapy group at T2 were detected for the anterior, median and posterior transversal dimensions of the maxilla, the palatal depth, the palatal base arch length, the maxillary arch length and inclination, the midline deviation, the overjet and the overbite. Conclusions Orthodontic treatment of a functional unilateral posterior crossbite with a bonded maxillary expansion device followed by U-bow activator therapy in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition is an effective therapeutic method, as evidenced by the results of this RCT. It leads to three-dimensional therapeutically induced maxillary growth effects. Dental occlusion is significantly improved, and the prognosis for normal craniofacial growth is enhanced. Trial registration Registration trial DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:23339736

  13. Can anesthetic treatment worsen outcome in status epilepticus?

    PubMed

    Sutter, Raoul; Kaplan, Peter W

    2015-08-01

    Status epilepticus refractory to first-line and second-line antiepileptic treatments challenges neurologists and intensivists as mortality increases with treatment refractoriness and seizure duration. International guidelines advocate anesthetic drugs, such as continuously administered high-dose midazolam, propofol, and barbiturates, for the induction of therapeutic coma in patients with treatment-refractory status epilepticus. The seizure-suppressing effect of anesthetic drugs is believed to be so strong that some experts recommend using them after benzodiazepines have failed. Although the rationale for the use of anesthetic drugs in patients with treatment-refractory status epilepticus seems clear, the recommendation of their use in treating status epilepticus is based on expert opinions rather than on strong evidence. Randomized trials in this context are lacking, and recent studies provide disturbing results, as the administration of anesthetics was associated with poor outcome independent of possible confounders. This calls for caution in the straightforward use of anesthetics in treating status epilepticus. However, there are still more questions than answers, and current evidence for the adverse effects of anesthetic drugs in patients with status epilepticus remains too limited to advocate a change of treatment algorithms. In this overview, the rationale and the conflicting clinical implications of anesthetic drugs in patients with treatment-refractory status epilepticus are discussed, and remaining questions are elaborated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Infertility treatment use in relation to selected adverse birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Welmerink, Diana B; Voigt, Lynda F; Daling, Janet R; Mueller, Beth A

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether maternal infertility treatment is associated with adverse outcomes. Population-based cohort study using linked birth certificate-hospital discharge data. Washington State. Live-born singleton infants conceived with infertility treatment between 2003 and 2006 (n = 2,182) and a random sample of live-born singleton infants conceived spontaneously, frequency matched by birth year (n = 10,989). None. Mantel-Haenszel adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for low birth weight, delivery at <37 weeks, small for gestational age infants, any malformation, placenta previa, and placenta abruptio. Women with infertility treatment were at increased risk of placental abnormalities, including placenta abruptio (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5) and placenta previa (RR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.0-4.7). Their infants were more likely to be delivered at <37 weeks (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-1.9) or weigh <2500 g (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7); however, they were not at increased risk of being small for gestational age. An increased risk of malformations was observed in infants born to older women with infertility treatment, but not to younger women. Women using infertility treatment are at increased risk for delivering preterm, placenta previa, and placenta abruptio. Studies with measurement of specific infertility treatments will help identify the mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment adherence and health outcomes in patients with bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine adherence to inhaled antibiotics, other respiratory medicines and airway clearance and to determine the association between adherence to these treatments and health outcomes (pulmonary exacerbations, lung function and Quality of Life Questionnaire-Bronchiectasis [QOL-B]) in bronchiectasis after 12 months. Methods Patients with bronchiectasis prescribed inhaled antibiotics for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were recruited into a one-year study. Participants were categorised as “adherent” to medication (medication possession ratio ≥80% using prescription data) or airway clearance (score ≥80% in the Modified Self-Reported Medication-Taking Scale). Pulmonary exacerbations were defined as treatment with a new course of oral or intravenous antibiotics over the one-year study. Spirometry and QOL-B were completed at baseline and 12 months. Associations between adherence to treatment and pulmonary exacerbations, lung function and QOL-B were determined by regression analyses. Results Seventy-five participants were recruited. Thirty-five (53%), 39 (53%) and 31 (41%) participants were adherent to inhaled antibiotics, other respiratory medicines, and airway clearance, respectively. Twelve (16%) participants were adherent to all treatments. Participants who were adherent to inhaled antibiotics had significantly fewer exacerbations compared to non-adherent participants (2.6 vs 4, p = 0.00) and adherence to inhaled antibiotics was independently associated with having fewer pulmonary exacerbations (regression co-efficient = -0.51, 95% CI [-0.81,-0.21], p < 0.001). Adherence to airway clearance was associated with lower QOL-B Treatment Burden (regression co-efficient = -15.46, 95% CI [-26.54, -4.37], p < 0.01) and Respiratory Symptoms domain scores (regression co-efficient = -10.77, 95% CI [-21.45; -0.09], p < 0.05). There were no associations between adherence to other respiratory medicines and any of the

  16. Treatment adherence and health outcomes in patients with bronchiectasis.