Science.gov

Sample records for early trigger characteristics

  1. Early labour services: changes, triggers, monitoring and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Spiby, Helen; Green, Josephine M; Richardson-Foster, Helen; Hucknall, Clare

    2013-04-01

    to identify the changes to early labour services, their triggers and monitoring. a mixed methods approach in two stages, firstly a postal questionnaire survey of Heads of Midwifery (HoM) services in NHS Trusts in England (cover sheet to each HoM and questionnaire for each unit in their jurisdiction) and, secondly, semi-structured telephone interviews with a purposive sample of senior midwives. The interviews sought further information about reasons for change; the impact of changes and explored the unit's particular innovations. PARTICIPANTS AND RESPONSE RATE: 145 (89%) NHS Trusts provided data (cover sheet and/or questionnaire); responses were received from all areas and types of unit. Seventeen HoMs or designated senior midwives were interviewed. 83 of 170 units (49%) had made changes to early labour service provision during the past 5 years, including home assessment; the introduction of triage units and telephone assessment tools. Changes were more likely in high volume units and in consultant units with midwifery-led care areas. Further changes were planned by 93/178 (25%) units. Triggers for changes to early labour services comprised local or unit-based factors, including Category X (non-labour) admissions, response to service users and research evidence. The impact of Category X admissions on workload contributed to the triggers for change. Fifty-six (31%) could provide a confirmed figure or estimate for category X admissions. Experiences of introducing change included issues related to engagement of the workforce and the contribution of clinical leadership. Thirty-eight (48%) units did not routinely monitor use of early labour services. Overall monitoring of services was not significantly more likely in units that had made changes. Audit activity was reported more frequently in units that had made changes to their early labour services. early labour services had undergone significant changes following a range of triggers but the extent of change was not

  2. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Early Warning/Track-and-Trigger Systems to Detect Deterioration and Improve Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Ariel L; Lominadze, George; Gong, Michelle N; Savel, Richard H

    2016-02-01

    As a global effort toward improving patient safety, a specific area of focus has been the early recognition and rapid intervention in deteriorating ward patients. This focus on "failure to rescue" has led to the construction of early warning/track-and-trigger systems. In this review article, we present a description of the data behind the creation and implementation of such systems, including multiple algorithms and strategies for deployment. Additionally, the strengths and weaknesses of the various systems and their evaluation in the literature are emphasized. Despite the limitations of the current literature, the potential benefit of these early warning/track-and-trigger systems to improve patient outcomes remains significant. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  5. An extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism? Evidence from the paleo-Tethys Ocean.

    PubMed

    Tejada, M L G; Ravizza, G; Suzuki, K; Paquay, F S

    2012-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous Greater Ontong Java Event in the Pacific Ocean may have covered ca. 1% of the Earth's surface with volcanism. It has puzzled scientists trying to explain its origin by several mechanisms possible on Earth, leading others to propose an extraterrestrial trigger to explain this event. A large oceanic extraterrestrial impact causing such voluminous volcanism may have traces of its distal ejecta in sedimentary rocks around the basin, including the paleo-Tethys Ocean which was then contiguous with the Pacific Ocean. The contemporaneous marine sequence at central Italy, containing the sedimentary expression of a global oceanic anoxic event (OAE1a), may have recorded such ocurrence as indicated by two stratigraphic intervals with (187)Os/(188)Os indicative of meteoritic influence. Here we show, for the first time, that platinum group element abundances and inter-element ratios in this paleo-Tethyan marine sequence provide no evidence for an extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism.

  6. An extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism? Evidence from the paleo-Tethys Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Tejada, M. L. G.; Ravizza, G.; Suzuki, K.; Paquay, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous Greater Ontong Java Event in the Pacific Ocean may have covered ca. 1% of the Earth's surface with volcanism. It has puzzled scientists trying to explain its origin by several mechanisms possible on Earth, leading others to propose an extraterrestrial trigger to explain this event. A large oceanic extraterrestrial impact causing such voluminous volcanism may have traces of its distal ejecta in sedimentary rocks around the basin, including the paleo-Tethys Ocean which was then contiguous with the Pacific Ocean. The contemporaneous marine sequence at central Italy, containing the sedimentary expression of a global oceanic anoxic event (OAE1a), may have recorded such ocurrence as indicated by two stratigraphic intervals with 187Os/188Os indicative of meteoritic influence. Here we show, for the first time, that platinum group element abundances and inter-element ratios in this paleo-Tethyan marine sequence provide no evidence for an extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism. PMID:22355780

  7. Influence of uncertain identification of triggering rainfall on the assessment of landslide early warning thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, David J.; Cancelliere, Antonino; Greco, Roberto; Bogaard, Thom A.

    2018-03-01

    Uncertainty in rainfall datasets and landslide inventories is known to have negative impacts on the assessment of landslide-triggering thresholds. In this paper, we perform a quantitative analysis of the impacts of uncertain knowledge of landslide initiation instants on the assessment of rainfall intensity-duration landslide early warning thresholds. The analysis is based on a synthetic database of rainfall and landslide information, generated by coupling a stochastic rainfall generator and a physically based hydrological and slope stability model, and is therefore error-free in terms of knowledge of triggering instants. This dataset is then perturbed according to hypothetical reporting scenarios that allow simulation of possible errors in landslide-triggering instants as retrieved from historical archives. The impact of these errors is analysed jointly using different criteria to single out rainfall events from a continuous series and two typical temporal aggregations of rainfall (hourly and daily). The analysis shows that the impacts of the above uncertainty sources can be significant, especially when errors exceed 1 day or the actual instants follow the erroneous ones. Errors generally lead to underestimated thresholds, i.e. lower than those that would be obtained from an error-free dataset. Potentially, the amount of the underestimation can be enough to induce an excessive number of false positives, hence limiting possible landslide mitigation benefits. Moreover, the uncertain knowledge of triggering rainfall limits the possibility to set up links between thresholds and physio-geographical factors.

  8. Location characteristics of early perihaematomal oedema

    PubMed Central

    McCarron, M O; McCarron, P; Alberts, M J

    2006-01-01

    Background The natural history and triggers of perihaematomal oedema (PHO) remain poorly understood. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (a common cause of lobar haemorrhage) has localised anticoagulant and thrombolytic properties, which may influence PHO. We hypothesised that early (within 24 hours) oedema to haematoma volume ratios are smaller in patients with lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) than in patients with deep ICH. Methods Haematoma and PHO volumes were measured in consecutive patients admitted to an acute stroke unit with a diagnosis of spontaneous supratentorial ICH proven by computed tomography. The oedema to haematoma volume ratios were calculated and compared in patients with lobar ICH and deep ICH. Results In total, 44 patients with ICH were studied: 19 patients had deep ICH, median haematoma volume 8.4 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 4.8 to 20.8), median PHO 8.2 ml (2.8 to 16), and 25 had lobar ICHs, median haematoma volume 17.6 ml (6.6 to 33.1) and median oedema volume 10.2 ml (3.4 to 24.2). Patients with lobar ICH were older than those with deep ICH (65.7 v 57.4 years, p = 0.009) but ICH location did not differ by sex or race. There was no evidence that haematoma or oedema volumes were related to type of ICH (p = 0.23, p = 0.39 respectively). The median oedema to haematoma volume ratios were similar in patients with lobar and deep ICH (0.67 v 0.58, p = 0.71). Controlling for age, sex, and race made little difference to these comparisons. Conclusions There are no major location specific differences in PHO volumes within 24 hours of ICH onset. Deep and lobar ICH may have common therapeutic targets to reduce early PHO. PMID:16484648

  9. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis is an early trigger for hypothyroid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Xu, Tian-Ying; Guan, Yun-Feng; Zhao, Yan; Li, Zhi-Yong; Lan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xia; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Kang, Zhi-Min; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an initial and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis, a later step of atherosclerosis. Hypothyroidism accelerates atherosclerosis. However, the early events responsible for this pro-atherosclerotic effect are unclear. Rats were resistant to induction of atherosclerosis by high cholesterol diet alone, but became susceptible in hypothyroid state achieved by administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) for 6 weeks. VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis were obvious within 1 week after PTU treatment, without signs of endothelial dysfunction. This early VSMC damage was caused by hypothyroidism but not the high cholesterol diet. In ApoE knockout mice, PTU-induced hypothyroidism triggered early VSMC apoptosis, increased oxidative stress, and accelerated atherosclerosis development. Thyroid hormone supplementation (T4, 10, or 50 μg/kg) prevented atherogenic phenotypes in hypothyroid rats and mice. In rats, thyroidectomy caused severe hypothyroidism 5 days after operation, which also led to rapid VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis. In vitro studies did not show a direct toxic effect of PTU on VSMCs. In contrast, thyroid hormone (T3, 0.75 μg/L plus T4, 50 nmol/L) exerted a direct protection against VSMC apoptosis, which was reduced by knockdown of TRα1, rather than TRβ1 and TRβ2 receptors. TRα1-mediated inhibition of apoptotic signalling of JNKs and caspase-3 contributed to the anti-apoptotic action of thyroid hormone. These findings provide an in vivo example for VSMC apoptosis as an early trigger of hypothyroidism-associated atherosclerosis, and reveal activation of TRα1 receptors to prevent VSMC apoptosis as a therapeutic strategy in this disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    PubMed

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Carvedilol analogue inhibits triggered activities evoked by both early and delayed afterdepolarizations.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Mitsunori; Xiao, Jianmin; Zhou, Qiang; Vembaiyan, Kannan; Chua, Su-Kiat; Rubart-von der Lohe, Michael; Lin, Shien-Fong; Back, Thomas G; Chen, S R Wayne; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Carvedilol and its analogues suppress delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardias by direct action on the cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2). To test a hypothesis that carvedilol analogue may also prevent triggered activities (TAs) through the suppression of early afterdepolarizations (EADs). Intracellular Ca(2+) and membrane voltage were simultaneously recorded by using optical mapping technique in Langendorff-perfused mouse and rabbit hearts to study the effect of carvedilol analogue VK-II-36, which does not have significant beta-blocking effects. Spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) elevations (SCaEs) during diastole were induced by rapid ventricular pacing and isoproterenol infusion in intact rabbit ventricles. Systolic and diastolic SCaEs were simultaneously noted in Langendorff-perfused RyR2 R4496(+/-) mouse hearts after creating atrioventricular block. VK-II-36 effectively suppressed SCaEs and eliminated TAs observed in both mouse and rabbit ventricles. We tested the effect of VK-II-36 on EADs by using a rabbit model of acquired long QT syndrome, in which phase 2 and phase 3 EADs were observed in association with systolic SCaEs. VK-II-36 abolished the systolic SCaEs and phase 2 EADs, and greatly decreased the dispersion of repolarization and the amplitude of phase 3 EADs. VK-II-36 completely prevented EAD-mediated TAs in all ventricles studied. A carvedilol analogue, VK-II-36, inhibits ventricular tachyarrhythmias in intact mouse and rabbit ventricles by the suppression of SCaEs, independent of beta-blocking activity. The RyR2 may be a potential target for treating focal ventricular arrhythmias triggered by either EADs or DADs. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MARTX Toxin in the Zoonotic Serovar of Vibrio vulnificus Triggers an Early Cytokine Storm in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Murciano, Celia; Lee, Chung-Te; Fernández-Bravo, Ana; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Fouz, Belén; Hor, Lien-I; Amaro, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2-serovar E is a zoonotic clonal complex that can cause death by sepsis in humans and fish. Unlike other biotypes, Bt2 produces a unique type of MARTXVv (Multifunctional-Autoprocessive-Repeats-in-Toxin; RtxA13), which is encoded by a gene duplicated in the pVvBt2 plasmid and chromosome II. In this work, we analyzed the activity of this toxin and its role in human sepsis by performing in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. First, we demonstrated that the ACD domain, present exclusively in this toxin variant, effectively has an actin-cross-linking activity. Second, we determined that the whole toxin caused death of human endotheliocytes and monocytes by lysis and apoptosis, respectively. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that RtxA13 contributes to human death caused by this zoonotic serovar by triggering an early cytokine storm in blood. To this end, we used a Bt2-SerE strain (R99) together with its rtxA13 deficient mutant, and a Bt1 strain (YJ016) producing RtxA11 (the most studied MARTXVv) together with its rtxA11 deficient mutant, as controls. Our results showed that RtxA13 was essential for virulence, as R99ΔΔrtxA13 was completely avirulent in our murine model of infection, and that R99, but not strain YJ016, induced an early, strong and dysregulated immune response involving the up-regulation of a high number of genes. This dysregulated immune response was directly linked to RtxA13. Based on these results and those obtained ex vivo (human blood), we propose a model of infection for the zoonotic serovar of V. vulnificus, in which RtxA13 would act as a sepsis-inducing toxin. PMID:28775962

  13. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken'Ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J.; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion-ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models—the helium-ignition branch—does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  14. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Mazzali, Paolo A; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-04

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion-ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models-the helium-ignition branch-does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  15. Study on the plasma generation characteristics of an induction-triggered coaxial pulsed plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisheng, CUI; Wenzheng, LIU; Jia, TIAN; Xiuyang, CHEN

    2018-02-01

    At present, spark plugs are used to trigger discharge in pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), which are known to be life-limiting components due to plasma corrosion and carbon deposition. A strong electric field could be formed in a cathode triple junction (CTJ) to achieve a trigger function under vacuum conditions. We propose an induction-triggered electrode structure on the basis of the CTJ trigger principle. The induction-triggered electrode structure could increase the electric field strength of the CTJ without changing the voltage between electrodes, contributing to a reduction in the electrode breakdown voltage. Additionally, it can maintain the plasma generation effect when the breakdown voltage is reduced in the discharge experiments. The induction-triggered electrode structure could ensure an effective trigger when the ablation distance of Teflon increases, and the magnetic field produced by the discharge current could further improve the plasma density and propagation velocity. The induction-triggered coaxial PPT we propose has a simplified trigger structure, and it is an effective attempt to optimize the micro-satellite thruster.

  16. Mass Transport Deposits in the Santaren Channel: Distribution, Characteristics, and Potential Triggering Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnyder, J.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine slope failures are a likely cause for tsunami generation along the East U.S. coast. A possible source are the large slope failures along western Great Bahama Bank (GBB). Numerical models simulate tsunami generation and propagation through the Straits of Florida, caused by these Pleistocene mass wasting events. In order to estimate the likelihood and extent of future landslides, distribution, characteristics, and possible triggering mechanisms of previous failures and their associated mass transport deposits (MTD) have to be investigated. In 2013, the University of Hamburg acquired 2D high-resolution multichannel seismic data, multibeam data, and subbottom profiles inside the Santaren Channel, along the slopes of western GBB and Cay Sal Bank (CSB). The two platforms are different in two ways. CSB is part of the Cuban Fold and Thrust Belt while GBB is situated in a tectonically quiet zone. In addition, the slopes of western GBB are on the leeward side of the bank, while the eastern slopes of CSB are in a windward position. Differences in nature and size of mass wasting events between the Cay Sal side and the western GBB side of the dataset show how influential the tectonically active Cuban Fold and Thrust Belt is to the generation of large MTDs in this area. In the study area, the slope failures can be divided in two categories; small-scale in situ failures with high frequencies on the slopes, dominant on the western GBB side, and large landslides with a lower frequency, but higher volumes and transport distances on the toe of the slope and in the basin, dominant on the Cay Sal side. The distribution of in situ failures, such as slump and debris flow alternation, shows the interplay between high and low inner strength of the sediment, respectively. On the other hand, large MTDs caused by submarine landslides suggest movement in an unconfined manner. Internal sediment preconditions derived from sea level oscillations are suggested as triggering mechanisms

  17. Mycobacterium avium biofilm attenuates mononuclear phagocyte function by triggering hyperstimulation and apoptosis during early infection.

    PubMed

    Rose, Sasha J; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an opportunistic human pathogen that has been shown to form biofilm in vitro and in vivo. Biofilm formation in vivo appears to be associated with infections in the respiratory tract of the host. The reasoning behind how M. avium subsp. hominissuis biofilm is allowed to establish and persist without being cleared by the innate immune system is currently unknown. To identify the mechanism responsible for this, we developed an in vitro model using THP-1 human mononuclear phagocytes cocultured with established M. avium subsp. hominissuis biofilm and surveyed various aspects of the interaction, including phagocyte stimulation and response, bacterial killing, and apoptosis. M. avium subsp. hominissuis biofilm triggered robust tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release from THP-1 cells as well as superoxide and nitric oxide production. Surprisingly, the hyperstimulated phagocytes did not effectively eliminate the cells of the biofilm, even when prestimulated with gamma interferon (IFN-γ) or TNF-α or cocultured with natural killer cells (which have been shown to induce anti-M. avium subsp. hominissuis activity when added to THP-1 cells infected with planktonic M. avium subsp. hominissuis). Time-lapse microscopy and the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) assay determined that contact with the M. avium subsp. hominissuis biofilm led to early, widespread onset of apoptosis, which is not seen until much later in planktonic M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection. Blocking TNF-α or TNF-R1 during interaction with the biofilm significantly reduced THP-1 apoptosis but did not lead to elimination of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Our data collectively indicate that M. avium subsp. hominissuis biofilm induces TNF-α-driven hyperstimulation and apoptosis of surveilling phagocytes, which prevents clearance of the biofilm by cells of the innate immune system and allows the biofilm

  18. Phenotypic characteristics of early Wolfram syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wolfram Syndrome (WFS:OMIM 222300) is an autosomal recessive, progressive, neurologic and endocrinologic degenerative disorder caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, encoding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein wolframin, thought to be involved in the regulation of ER stress. This paper reports a cross section of data from the Washington University WFS Research Clinic, a longitudinal study to collect detailed phenotypic data on a group of young subjects in preparation for studies of therapeutic interventions. Methods Eighteen subjects (ages 5.9–25.8, mean 14.2 years) with genetically confirmed WFS were identified through the Washington University International Wolfram Registry. Examinations included: general medical, neurologic, ophthalmologic, audiologic, vestibular, and urologic exams, cognitive testing and neuroimaging. Results Seventeen (94%) had diabetes mellitus with the average age of diabetes onset of 6.3 ± 3.5 years. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed in 13 (72%) at an average age of 10.6 ± 3.3 years. Seventeen (94%) had optic disc pallor and defects in color vision, 14 (78%) had hearing loss and 13 (72%) had olfactory defects, eight (44%) had impaired vibration sensation. Enuresis was reported by four (22%) and nocturia by three (17%). Of the 11 tested for bladder emptying, five (45%) had elevated post-void residual bladder volume. Conclusions WFS causes multiple endocrine and neurologic deficits detectable on exam, even early in the course of the disease. Defects in olfaction have been underappreciated. The proposed mechanism of these deficits in WFS is ER stress-induced damage to neuronal and hormone-producing cells. This group of subjects with detailed clinical phenotyping provides a pool for testing proposed treatments for ER stress. Longitudinal follow-up is necessary for establishing the natural history and identifying potential biomarkers of progression. PMID:23981289

  19. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  20. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into ourmore » trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.« less

  1. Integration of the Super Nova early warning system with the NOvA Trigger

    DOE PAGES

    Habig, Alec; Zirnstein, Jan

    2015-12-23

    The NOvA experiment, with a baseline of 810km, samples Fermilab’s upgraded NuMI beam with a Near Detector on-site and a Far Detector (FD) at Ash River, MN, to observe oscillations of muon neutrinos. The 344,064 liquid scintillator-filled cells of the 14 kton FD provide high granularity of a large detector mass and enable us to also study non-accelerator based neutrinos with our Data Driven Trigger framework. This paper will focus on the real time integration of the SNEWS with the NOvA Trigger where we have set up an XML-RPC based messaging system to inject the SNEWS signal directly into ourmore » trigger. In conclusion, this presents a departure from the E-Mail based notification mechanism used by SNEWS in the past and allows NOvA more control over propagation and transmission timing.« less

  2. Divergence of developmental trajectories is triggered interactively by early social and ecological experience in a cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Lena; Oberhummer, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative breeders feature the highest level of social complexity among vertebrates. Environmental constraints foster the evolution of this form of social organization, selecting for both well-developed social and ecological competences. Cooperative breeders pursue one of two alternative social trajectories: delaying reproduction to care for the offspring of dominant breeders or dispersing early to breed independently. It is yet unclear which ecological and social triggers determine the choice between these alternatives and whether diverging developmental trajectories exist in cooperative vertebrates predisposing them to dispersal or philopatry. Here we experimentally reared juveniles of cooperatively breeding cichlid fish by varying the social environment and simulated predation threat in a two-by-two factorial long-term experiment. First, we show that individuals develop specialized behavioral competences, originating already in the early postnatal phase. Second, these specializations predisposed individuals to pursue different developmental trajectories and either to disperse early or to extend philopatry in adulthood. Thus, our results contrast with the proposition that social specializations in early ontogeny should be restricted to eusocial species. Importantly, social and ecological triggers were both required for the generation of divergent life histories. Our results thus confirm recent predictions from theoretical models that organisms should combine relevant information from different environmental cues to develop integrated phenotypes. PMID:29078289

  3. Characteristics of plasma-puff trigger for a inverse-pinch plasma switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Eun H.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for the azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressure of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill-gas pressure range for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff was about 120 mTorr less than or equal to P(sub op) less than or equal to 450 Torr for He and N2. For Argon 120 mTorr is less than or equal to P(sub op) is less than or equal to 5 Torr. The inverse-pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. The azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff will be discussed in comparison with the current hypocycloidal-pinch plasma-puff triggering.

  4. Characteristics of M-component in rocket-triggered lightning and a discussion on its mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Yang, Jing; Wang, Caixia; Zhao, Yang

    2013-09-01

    The current and electric field pulses associated with M-component following dart leader-return stroke sequences in negative rocket-triggered lightning flashes were analyzed in detail by using the data from Shandong Artificially Triggering Lightning Experiment, conducted from 2005 to 2010. For 63 M-components with current waveforms superimposed on the relatively steady continuing current, the geometric mean values of the peak current, duration, and charge transfer were 276 A, 1.21 ms, and 101 mC, respectively. The behaviors of the channel base current versus close electric field changes and the observation facts by different authors were carefully examined for investigation on mechanism of the M-component. A modified model based on Rakov's "two-wave" theory is proposed and confirms that the evolution of M-component through the lightning channel involves a downward wave transferring negative charge from the upper to the lower channel and an upward wave draining the charge transported by the downward wave. The upward wave serves to deplete the negative charge by the downward wave at its interface and makes the charge density of the channel beneath the interface layer to be roughly zero. Such modified concept is recognized to be reasonable by the simulated results showing a good agreement between the calculated and the measured E-field waveforms.

  5. Decision making and action implementation: evidence for an early visually triggered motor activation specific to potential actions.

    PubMed

    Tandonnet, Christophe; Garry, Michael I; Summers, Jeffery J

    2013-07-01

    To make a decision may rely on accumulating evidence in favor of one alternative until a threshold is reached. Sequential-sampling models differ by the way of accumulating evidence and the link with action implementation. Here, we tested a model's prediction of an early action implementation specific to potential actions. We assessed the dynamics of action implementation in go/no-go and between-hand choice tasks by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (single- or paired-pulse TMS; 3-ms interstimulus interval). Prior to implementation of the selected action, the amplitude of the motor evoked potential first increased whatever the visual stimulus but only for the hand potentially involved in the to-be-produced action. These findings suggest that visual stimuli can trigger an early motor activation specific to potential actions, consistent with race-like models with continuous transmission between decision making and action implementation. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. The Geometric Characteristics and Initiation Mechanisms of the Earthquake- Triggered Daguangbao Landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. J.; Tsao, C. C.; Yang, C. M.; Wu, W. J.; Lee, C. T.; Lin, M. L.; Zhang, W. F.; Pei, X. J.; Wang, G. H.; Huang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, catastrophic landslides are getting considerable attentions not only from natural hazard but also from geo-material science. In the past century, the Daguangbao (DGB) landslide which triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake is one of the largest earthquake- triggered landslides. Our main goal is to characterize the geometry of DGB landslide to better determine the initiation mechanisms. Based on the remote sensing images analysis and field investigation, we proposed an atypical wedge model of DGB landslide compose of a folded strata and a zigzag stepping-out joint system, which outcropped at the south and north of the landslide site, respectively. The intersection line of wedge is curved, counterclockwise rotated and daylighted, which fit the pre- and post- position of the mining tent with 1.9 km displacements. The volume of sliding mass was evaluated to 10.51×108 m3 by the atypical wedge model. The identified slip zone of DGB landslide consists of the breccia and gouge layers in the dolomite strata. The rotary-shear tests were performed with the intact dolomite rocks near the slip zone and the gouges in the slip zone to determine the strength of slip surface. The peak and the steady-state friction coefficient of the tested dry dolomite discontinuities, wet gouges are 0.52~0.96, 0.73~0.86 and 0.1~0.57, 0.16~0.63, respectively. Although the result of static wedge stability analysis shows that the slope is quite stable (F.S. = 4), but the result of pseudo-static wedge stability analysis with seismic coefficient will trigger the gigantic wedge by the Wenchuan earthquake. Moreover, the friction coefficient of the tested gouges after long slip displacements as shear velocity exceeds 1.3 m/s will lower than 0.25 (=tan(14°); the intersection line plunged 14°). Therefore, the gigantic wedge can be accelerated by the inertial force and keep moving rapidly with long run-out. According to the calculations of simple one dimensional particle motion model, DGB landslide

  7. Antimicrobial and water-triggered release characteristics of a copper sulfate-polyvinyl acetate adhesive composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus, A. P. O.; Roxas-Villanueva, R. M. L.; Herrera, M. U.

    2017-05-01

    Water-triggered release of antimicrobial solutions is advantageous in inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi in moist and wet environments. In this study, we fabricated a composite, by mixing polyvinyl acetate adhesive with copper sulfate solution, which exhibits antimicrobial activities against bacteria. Polyvinyl acetate adhesive serves as the binder and water soluble substance while copper sulfate serves as the antimicrobial agent. The composite was coated in an acetate film and air-dried. To monitor the rate of release of copper ions, the composite was submerged in water and the conductivity was measured. The conductivity saturation time was determined. The composite showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive).

  8. Behavioral characteristics of Internet gamblers who trigger corporate responsible gambling interventions.

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather M; LaPlante, Debi A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2012-09-01

    As the worldwide popularity of Internet gambling increases, concerns about the potential for gambling-related harm also increase. This paper reports the results of a study examining actual Internet gambling behavior during 10 years of play. We examined the electronic gambling records of subscribers (N=2,066) who triggered a responsible gaming alert system at a large international online gaming company. We compared these cases with control subscribers (N=2,066) who had the same amount of exposure to the Internet gambling service provider. We used discriminant function analysis to explore what aspects of gambling behavior distinguish cases from controls. Indices of the intensity of gambling activity (e.g., total number of bets made, number of bets per betting day) best distinguished cases from controls, particularly in the case of live-action sports betting. Control group players evidenced behavior similar to the population of players using this service. These results add to our understanding of behavioral markers for disordered Internet gambling and will aid in the development of behavior-based algorithms capable of predicting the presence and/or the onset of disordered Internet gambling. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of Landslides Triggered by Mw 7.8 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Smriti

    The Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck central Nepal on April 25, 2015 and brought about a huge loss of life and property. The quake was also responsible for the generation of a large number of landslides. They blocked highways, devastated villages, and temporarily dammed some rivers. About 14,670 landslips were triggered off by the main shock and its numerous large aftershocks. Among the detected failures, about 23% had an area greater than 100 m2. Since such failures can directly affect people's life and property, they are considered for further investigation in this study. A comparison of these coseismic landslides with the 29 historical failures reveals that these landslides slightly exceed in number from those expected for the peak ground acceleration observed due to these earthquakes. The landslides seem to be concentrated within the area of the fault rupture surface. About 90% of the detected landslips could be classified as earth falls. The areas having relatively soft rocks, such as slates, shales, schists and phyllites of the Lesser Himalaya, suffered from a greater number of failures. The landslides had a strong correlation with the peak ground acceleration and they also showed a positive correlation with some landslide-susceptible geological formations composing the study area.

  10. Early and sustained exposure to high-sucrose diet triggers hippocampal ER stress in young rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bruno Araújo Serra; Melo, Thamys Marinho; Flister, Karla Frida Torres; França, Lucas Martins; Kajihara, Daniela; Tanaka, Leonardo Yuji; Laurindo, Francisco Rafael Martins; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Early-life environmental insults have been shown to promote long-term development of chronic non-communicable diseases, including metabolic disturbances and mental illnesses. As such, premature consumption of high-sugar foods has been associated to early onset of detrimental outcomes, whereas underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether early and sustained exposure to high-sucrose diet promotes metabolic disturbances that ultimately might anticipate neurological injuries. At postnatal day 21, weaned male rats started to be fed a standard chow (10 % sucrose, CTR) or a high-sucrose diet (25 % sucrose, HSD) for 9 weeks prior to euthanasia at postnatal day 90. HSD did not alter weight gain and feed efficiency between groups, but increased visceral, non-visceral and brown adipose tissue accumulation. HSD rats demonstrated elevated blood glucose levels in both fasting and fed states, which were associated to impaired glucose tolerance. Peripheral insulin sensitivity did not change, whereas hepatic insulin resistance was supported by increased serum triglyceride levels, as well as higher TyG index values. Assessment of hippocampal gene expression showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways were activated in HSD rats, as compared to CTR. HSD rats had overexpression of unfolded protein response sensors, PERK and ATF6; ER chaperone, PDIA2 and apoptosis-related genes, CHOP and Caspase 3; but decreased expression of chaperone GRP78. Finally, HSD rats demonstrated impaired neuromuscular function and anxious behavior, but preserved cognitive parameters. In conclusion, our data indicate that early exposure to HSD promote metabolic disturbances, which disrupt hippocampus homeostasis and might precociously affect its neurobehavioral functions.

  11. Induced Genome-Wide Binding of Three Arabidopsis WRKY Transcription Factors during Early MAMP-Triggered Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Birkenbihl, Rainer P.; Kracher, Barbara; Roccaro, Mario

    2017-01-01

    During microbial-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (MTI), molecules derived from microbes are perceived by cell surface receptors and upon signaling to the nucleus initiate a massive transcriptional reprogramming critical to mount an appropriate host defense response. WRKY transcription factors play an important role in regulating these transcriptional processes. Here, we determined on a genome-wide scale the flg22-induced in vivo DNA binding dynamics of three of the most prominent WRKY factors, WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY33. The three WRKY factors each bound to more than 1000 gene loci predominantly at W-box elements, the known WRKY binding motif. Binding occurred mainly in the 500-bp promoter regions of these genes. Many of the targeted genes are involved in signal perception and transduction not only during MTI but also upon damage-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, providing a mechanistic link between these functionally interconnected basal defense pathways. Among the additional targets were genes involved in the production of indolic secondary metabolites and in modulating distinct plant hormone pathways. Importantly, among the targeted genes were numerous transcription factors, encoding predominantly ethylene response factors, active during early MTI, and WRKY factors, supporting the previously hypothesized existence of a WRKY subregulatory network. Transcriptional analysis revealed that WRKY18 and WRKY40 function redundantly as negative regulators of flg22-induced genes often to prevent exaggerated defense responses. PMID:28011690

  12. Induced Genome-Wide Binding of Three Arabidopsis WRKY Transcription Factors during Early MAMP-Triggered Immunity.

    PubMed

    Birkenbihl, Rainer P; Kracher, Barbara; Somssich, Imre E

    2017-01-01

    During microbial-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (MTI), molecules derived from microbes are perceived by cell surface receptors and upon signaling to the nucleus initiate a massive transcriptional reprogramming critical to mount an appropriate host defense response. WRKY transcription factors play an important role in regulating these transcriptional processes. Here, we determined on a genome-wide scale the flg22-induced in vivo DNA binding dynamics of three of the most prominent WRKY factors, WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY33. The three WRKY factors each bound to more than 1000 gene loci predominantly at W-box elements, the known WRKY binding motif. Binding occurred mainly in the 500-bp promoter regions of these genes. Many of the targeted genes are involved in signal perception and transduction not only during MTI but also upon damage-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, providing a mechanistic link between these functionally interconnected basal defense pathways. Among the additional targets were genes involved in the production of indolic secondary metabolites and in modulating distinct plant hormone pathways. Importantly, among the targeted genes were numerous transcription factors, encoding predominantly ethylene response factors, active during early MTI, and WRKY factors, supporting the previously hypothesized existence of a WRKY subregulatory network. Transcriptional analysis revealed that WRKY18 and WRKY40 function redundantly as negative regulators of flg22-induced genes often to prevent exaggerated defense responses. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Hair follicle characteristics as early marker of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Tapia, Jose Carlos; Gastanadui-Gonzalez, Maria Gabriela; Roman-Carpio, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM2) includes a continuum of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia that causes several chronic long-term complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The hair follicle could reveal signs of early vascular impairment, yet its relationship to early metabolic injuries has been largely ignored. We propose that in earlier stages of the continuum of DM2-related metabolic disorders, a group of susceptible patients who do not yet meet the diagnostic criteria to be considered as persons with DM2 may present chronic vascular impairment and end organ damage, including hair follicle damage, which can be evaluated to identify an early risk marker. This hypothesis is based in the association found between insulin resistance and alopecia in non-diabetic persons, and the hair loss on the lower limbs as a manifestation of long-term peripheral arterial disease among subjects with DM2. In order to test this hypothesis, studies are required to evaluate if hair follicle characteristics are related to and can predict hyperglycemic complications, and if they do so, which feature of the hair follicle, such as hair growth, best characterizes such DM2-related conditions. If this hypothesis were proven to be true, significant advances towards a personalized approach for early prevention strategies and management of DM2 would be made. By focusing on the hair follicles, early stages of metabolic-related organ damage could be identified using non-invasive low-cost techniques. In so doing, this approach could provide early identification of DM2-susceptible individuals and lead to the early initiation of adequate primary prevention strategies to reduce or avoid the onset of large internal organ damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. HAIR FOLLICLE CHARACTERISTICS AS EARLY MARKER OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Tapia, Jose Carlos; Gastanadui-Gonzalez, Maria Gabriela; Roman-Carpio, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM2) includes a continuum of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia that causes several chronic long-term complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The hair follicle could reveal signs of early vascular impairment, yet its relationship to early metabolic injuries has been largely ignored. We propose that in earlier stages of the continuum of DM2-related metabolic disorders, a group of susceptible patients who do not yet meet the diagnostic criteria to be considered as persons with DM2 may present chronic vascular impairment and end organ damage, including hair follicle damage, which can be evaluated to identify an early risk marker. This hypothesis is based in the association found between insulin resistance and alopecia in non-diabetic persons, and the hair loss on the lower limbs as a manifestation of long-term peripheral arterial disease among subjects with DM2. In order to test this hypothesis, studies are required to evaluate if hair follicle characteristics are related to and can predict hyperglycemic complications, and if they do so, which feature of the hair follicle, such as hair growth, best characterizes such DM2-related conditions. If this hypothesis were proven to be true, significant advances towards a personalized approach for early prevention strategies and management of DM2 would be made. By focusing on the hair follicles, early stages of metabolic-related organ damage could be identified using non-invasive low-cost techniques. In so doing, this approach could provide early identification of DM2-susceptible individuals and lead to the early initiation of adequate primary prevention strategies to reduce or avoid the onset of large internal organ damage. PMID:27692164

  15. Controlled fire use in early humans might have triggered the evolutionary emergence of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Rebecca H; Trauer, James M; Curnoe, Darren; Tanaka, Mark M

    2016-08-09

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), a wildly successful group of organisms and the leading cause of death resulting from a single bacterial pathogen worldwide. It is generally accepted that MTBC established itself in human populations in Africa and that animal-infecting strains diverged from human strains. However, the precise causal factors of TB emergence remain unknown. Here, we propose that the advent of controlled fire use in early humans created the ideal conditions for the emergence of TB as a transmissible disease. This hypothesis is supported by mathematical modeling together with a synthesis of evidence from epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, and paleoanthropology.

  16. Functionally Redundant RXLR Effectors from Phytophthora infestans Act at Different Steps to Suppress Early flg22-Triggered Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fraiture, Malou; Liu, Xiaoyu; Boevink, Petra C.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Chen, Ying; Kandel, Kabindra; Sessa, Guido; Birch, Paul R. J.; Brunner, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequences of several economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes have revealed the presence of large families of so-called RXLR effectors. Functional screens have identified RXLR effector repertoires that either compromise or induce plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying the modes of action of these effectors in planta. The perception of highly conserved pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs), such as flg22, triggers converging signaling pathways recruiting MAP kinase cascades and inducing transcriptional re-programming, yielding a generic anti-microbial response. We used a highly synchronizable, pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify a set of RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans (PiRXLRs), the causal agent of potato and tomato light blight that manipulate early stages of flg22-triggered signaling. Of thirty-three tested PiRXLR effector candidates, eight, called Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response (SFI), significantly suppressed flg22-dependent activation of a reporter gene under control of a typical MAMP-inducible promoter (pFRK1-Luc) in tomato protoplasts. We extended our analysis to Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-host plant species of P. infestans. From the aforementioned eight SFI effectors, three appeared to share similar functions in both Arabidopsis and tomato by suppressing transcriptional activation of flg22-induced marker genes downstream of post-translational MAP kinase activation. A further three effectors interfere with MAMP signaling at, or upstream of, the MAP kinase cascade in tomato, but not in Arabidopsis. Transient expression of the SFI effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans and, for the most potent effector, SFI1, nuclear localization is required for both suppression of MAMP signaling and virulence function. The present study provides a framework to decipher the molecular

  17. Distributed optical fibre sensing for early detection of shallow landslides triggering.

    PubMed

    Schenato, Luca; Palmieri, Luca; Camporese, Matteo; Bersan, Silvia; Cola, Simonetta; Pasuto, Alessandro; Galtarossa, Andrea; Salandin, Paolo; Simonini, Paolo

    2017-10-31

    A distributed optical fibre sensing system is used to measure landslide-induced strains on an optical fibre buried in a large scale physical model of a slope. The fibre sensing cable is deployed at the predefined failure surface and interrogated by means of optical frequency domain reflectometry. The strain evolution is measured with centimetre spatial resolution until the occurrence of the slope failure. Standard legacy sensors measuring soil moisture and pore water pressure are installed at different depths and positions along the slope for comparison and validation. The evolution of the strain field is related to landslide dynamics with unprecedented resolution and insight. In fact, the results of the experiment clearly identify several phases within the evolution of the landslide and show that optical fibres can detect precursory signs of failure well before the collapse, paving the way for the development of more effective early warning systems.

  18. Elevated Extinction Rates as a Trigger for Diversification Rate Shifts: Early Amniotes as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Ruta, Marcello; Müller, Johannes; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Tree shape analyses are frequently used to infer the location of shifts in diversification rate within the Tree of Life. Many studies have supported a causal relationship between shifts and temporally coincident events such as the evolution of “key innovations”. However, the evidence for such relationships is circumstantial. We investigated patterns of diversification during the early evolution of Amniota from the Carboniferous to the Triassic, subjecting a new supertree to analyses of tree balance in order to infer the timing and location of diversification shifts. We investigated how uneven origination and extinction rates drive diversification shifts, and use two case studies (herbivory and an aquatic lifestyle) to examine whether shifts tend to be contemporaneous with evolutionary novelties. Shifts within amniotes tend to occur during periods of elevated extinction, with mass extinctions coinciding with numerous and larger shifts. Diversification shifts occurring in clades that possess evolutionary innovations do not coincide temporally with the appearance of those innovations, but are instead deferred to periods of high extinction rate. We suggest such innovations did not cause increases in the rate of cladogenesis, but allowed clades to survive extinction events. We highlight the importance of examining general patterns of diversification before interpreting specific shifts. PMID:26592209

  19. Characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Godinho, José; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Ramos, Elisabete

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to identify socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence. The sample was comprised of 1,680 adolescents (884 girls and 796 boys) aged 13, attending private and public schools in Porto, Portugal, during 2003/2004. Adolescents completed questionnaires pertaining to demographic, social and behavioral characteristics, including the time spent watching television and playing computer games on week and weekend days. Logistic and proportional ordinal regressions showed that attending public schools, sleeping less time, using tobacco and presenting low levels of physical activity were factors associated with high media use. In boys living with one of their parents as well as living with younger and older parents were also associated with high media use. Besides the association with less healthier behaviours, we also found higher media use among adolescents from lower social classes and less structured families, which may increase their exposure to negative influence of the media.

  20. Shorter Exposures to Harder X-Rays Trigger Early Apoptotic Events in Xenopus laevis Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Dong, JiaJia; Mury, Sean P.; Drahos, Karen E.; Moscovitch, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Background A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and utilized for therapeutic

  1. Characteristics of Drainage Divide Migration through Coseismic and Storm-Triggered Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Li, G.

    2016-12-01

    Drainage basin reorganization is a fundamental but poorly understood process in landscape evolution. Capture and loss of drainage area by rivers redistributes erosive power and can drive the response of a landscape to tectonic/climatic forcing. Evidence of discrete capture of tributaries is widespread and common, but study of gradual migration of divides by hillslope processes (e.g. landsliding) has been minimal. Much scholarship is devoted to the geometric characteristics of rivers as they respond to tectonic forces, and divide migration has been proposed to result from contrasts in fluvial channel form. However, fluvial processes do not extend to basin divides, so fluvial controls on drainage reorganization should be mediated by hillslope processes such as slope failure. Here we explore whether the mediating role of hillslopes can be observed over the timescale of a single earthquake or major storm. We examine landslides in steep landscapes caused by three major events in the past decade: the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China, the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan, and the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal. These events generated landslides that cut off ridges, causing area gain and loss in the drainage basins outlined by those ridges. We compare the location of these ridge-cutting landslides to values of Χ, an integral value of upstream drainage area over the length of a river. Comparing the Χ values of rivers which share a drainage divide is thought to show which river is likely to gain area at the expense of the other as the divide migrates, defining an "aggressor" (smaller Χ at divide) and a "victim" (greater Χ). We compute Χ for the rivers draining ridge-cutting landslides and consider whether landslides favor drainage area gain in basins with lower X values. Our preliminary results suggest that divide migration in areas with small to moderate disparities in Χ appears to be stochastic, with divides frequently migrating in the opposite

  2. Characteristics of early versus late implant failure: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Manor, Yifat; Oubaid, Saheer; Mardinger, Ofer; Chaushu, Gavriel; Nissan, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Implant failures can be divided into early and late according to the timing of failure. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare both types. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 194 patients (98 men and 96 women) who presented after dental implant failures during a 6-year period (2000 to 2006). The patient served as the unit of analysis. A history of at least 1 failed and removed dental implant served as the inclusion criterion. Patients were excluded from this study whenever their files had missing data. The collected data included a patient's characteristics, failure characteristics, and the anatomic status of the alveolar ridge after failure. Late failures were associated with moderate to severe bone loss, a larger number of failed implants per patient, a higher incidence in men, and mostly in posterior areas. Early failures were associated with minimal bone loss, occurred more in women, at a younger age, and in most cases the implants were intended to support single crowns. Meticulous follow-up is needed to reveal and treat failing or ailing implants. Once established as hopeless, they should be removed as soon as possible to prevent further bone loss.

  3. Characteristics of early spelling of children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Cordewener, Kim A H; Bosman, Anna M T; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Speed, nature, and knowledge transfer of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling, namely, 'Type of Grapheme', 'Grapheme Position', 'Number of Graphemes', and 'Word Structure' were examined at the middle and at the end of first grade. At the beginning of first grade when children were between 71 and 97 months, they performed well below national norms on assessment of active grapheme knowledge. The delay in word spelling persisted, but decreased between the middle and the end of first grade. Despite this delay, the findings suggest that characteristics of early spelling for children with SLI are rather similar to those of children with typical language development. For example, children with SLI represented more graphemes at the end of first grade than at the middle of first grade, found it easier to represent the initial grapheme in words than the final or medial grapheme (Grapheme Position), were more successful spelling shorter than longer words (Number of Graphemes), and spelled words with simple structures (CVC) more accurately than those with complex structures (CVCC and CCVC; Word Structure). Finally, participants demonstrated that they can use known graphemes to spell words, but the transfer between active grapheme knowledge and word spelling was not always stable. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain the speed and the nature of spelling acquisition of children with SLI. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain what skills are most important for teachers to practice with children with SLI to improve the spelling skills of these children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood constituents trigger brain swelling, tissue death, and reduction of glucose metabolism early after acute subdural hematoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Baechli, Heidi; Behzad, Melika; Schreckenberger, Matthias; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Heimann, Axel; Kempski, Oliver; Alessandri, Beat

    2010-03-01

    Outcome from acute subdural hematoma is often worse than would be expected from the pure increase of intracranial volume by bleeding. The aim was to test whether volume-independent pathomechanisms aggravate damage by comparing the effects of blood infusion with those of an inert fluid, paraffin oil, on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), local cerebral blood flow (CBF), edema formation, glucose metabolism ([18F]-deoxyglucose, MicroPET ), and histological outcome. Rats were injured by subdural infusion of 300 muL venous blood or paraffin. ICP, CPP, and CBF changes, assessed during the first 30 mins after injury, were not different between the injury groups at most time points (n=8 per group). Already at 2 h after injury, blood caused a significantly more pronounced decrease in glucose metabolism in the injured cortex when compared with paraffin (P<0.001, n=5 per group). Ipsilateral brain edema did not differ between groups at 2 h, but was significantly more pronounced in the blood-treated groups at 24 and 48 h after injury (n=8 per group). These changes caused a 56.2% larger lesion after blood when compared with paraffin (48.1+/-23.0 versus 21.1+/-11.8 mm(3); P<0.02). Blood constituent-triggered pathomechanisms aggravate the immediate effects due to ICP, CPP, and CBF during hemorrhage and lead to early reduction of glucose metabolism followed by more severe edema and histological damage.

  5. Acetabular overcoverage in the horizontal plane: an underdiagnosed trigger of early hip arthritis. A CT scan study in young adults.

    PubMed

    Valera, Màrius; Ibáñez, Natalia; Sancho, Rogelio; Llauger, Jaume; Gich, Ignasi

    2018-01-01

    Acetabular overcoverage promotes hip osteoarthritis causing a pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement. Acetabular coverage in the horizontal plane is usually poorly defined in imaging studies and may be misdiagnosed. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of acetabular overcoverage measured in the frontal plane and in the horizontal plane by CT scan and to determine its relationship with other anatomic features in the onset of hip arthritis in young adults. We compared prospectively CT scans from two groups of adults of 55 years or younger: the patient group (n = 30) consisted of subjects with diagnosis of early hip arthritis (Tönnis Grade I or II) and the control group (n = 31) consisted of subjects with healthy hips. Two independent observers analyzed centre edge angle (CEA), acetabular anteversion angle (AAA), anterior sector acetabular angle (AASA), posterior sector acetabular angle (PASA), horizontal acetabular sector angle (HASA), femoral anteversion angle (FAVA), alpha angle (AA), and Mckibbin Instability Index (MI). Angles measuring the acetabular coverage on the horizontal plane (AASA, PASA and, HASA) were significantly higher in the patient group (p < 0.001, p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively). Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation between CEA and HASA in patients (r = 0.628) and in controls (r = 0.660). However, a high CEA (> 35º) was strongly associated with a high HASA (> 160º) in patients (p = 0.024) but not in controls (p = 0.21), suggesting that pincer should be simultaneously present in the horizontal and frontal plane to trigger hip degeneration. No significant association was detected between a high alpha angle (> 60º) and a high CEA (> 35º suggesting that a mixed pincer-cam aetiology was not prevalent in our series. Multivariate regression analysis showed the most significant predictors of degenerative joint disease were HASA (p = 0.008), AA (p = 0.048) and ASAA (p = 0

  6. Basic Instinct Undressed: Early Spatiotemporal Processing for Primary Sexual Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, Lore B.; Del Zotto, Marzia; Tyrand, Rémi; Pegna, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the spatiotemporal dynamics associated with conscious and non-conscious processing of naked and dressed human bodies. To this effect, stimuli of naked men and women with visible primary sexual characteristics, as well as dressed bodies, were presented to 20 heterosexual male and female participants while acquiring high resolution EEG data. The stimuli were either consciously detectable (supraliminal presentations) or were rendered non-conscious through backward masking (subliminal presentations). The N1 event-related potential component was significantly enhanced in participants when they viewed naked compared to dressed bodies under supraliminal viewing conditions. More importantly, naked bodies of the opposite sex produced a significantly greater N1 component compared to dressed bodies during subliminal presentations, when participants were not aware of the stimulus presented. A source localization algorithm computed on the N1 showed that the response for naked bodies in the supraliminal viewing condition was stronger in body processing areas, primary visual areas and additional structures related to emotion processing. By contrast, in the subliminal viewing condition, only visual and body processing areas were found to be activated. These results suggest that naked bodies and primary sexual characteristics are processed early in time (i.e., <200 ms) and activate key brain structures even when they are not consciously detected. It appears that, similarly to what has been reported for emotional faces, sexual features benefit from automatic and rapid processing, most likely due to their high relevance for the individual and their importance for the species in terms of reproductive success. PMID:23894532

  7. Basic instinct undressed: early spatiotemporal processing for primary sexual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Lore B; Del Zotto, Marzia; Tyrand, Rémi; Pegna, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the spatiotemporal dynamics associated with conscious and non-conscious processing of naked and dressed human bodies. To this effect, stimuli of naked men and women with visible primary sexual characteristics, as well as dressed bodies, were presented to 20 heterosexual male and female participants while acquiring high resolution EEG data. The stimuli were either consciously detectable (supraliminal presentations) or were rendered non-conscious through backward masking (subliminal presentations). The N1 event-related potential component was significantly enhanced in participants when they viewed naked compared to dressed bodies under supraliminal viewing conditions. More importantly, naked bodies of the opposite sex produced a significantly greater N1 component compared to dressed bodies during subliminal presentations, when participants were not aware of the stimulus presented. A source localization algorithm computed on the N1 showed that the response for naked bodies in the supraliminal viewing condition was stronger in body processing areas, primary visual areas and additional structures related to emotion processing. By contrast, in the subliminal viewing condition, only visual and body processing areas were found to be activated. These results suggest that naked bodies and primary sexual characteristics are processed early in time (i.e., <200 ms) and activate key brain structures even when they are not consciously detected. It appears that, similarly to what has been reported for emotional faces, sexual features benefit from automatic and rapid processing, most likely due to their high relevance for the individual and their importance for the species in terms of reproductive success.

  8. Clinical, psychological and maternal characteristics in early functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Abali, Osman; Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoc; Bilici, Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the clinical features of functional constipation (FC) at preschool age, as well as emotional and behavioral characteristics of the children, psychological symptom level and parental attitudes of the mothers, and compared these with that of non-referred typically developing controls with normal intestinal habits. Participants included 65 children with FC (mean age, 43.6 ± 15.4 months; range, 25-72 months), 59 healthy controls (mean age, 46.9 ± 14.5 months; range, 25-72 months) and the mothers of the children. The Childhood Behavior Checklist, Symptom Checklist 90 and Parental Attitude Research Instrument were filled in by the mothers. Participants with FC had higher problem scores than the comparison children in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. Approximately half exhibited internalizing and one-third had externalizing problems in the clinical range. The mothers of the patient group had higher levels of psychological distress, overprotective parenting and strict discipline. On multiple logistic regression analysis child psychopathology, maternal education level and maternal distress were independently associated with FC. Behavior problems are common in children with FC from an early age. Low level of education and high psychological distress of the mothers seem to be important risk factors for constipation and should be assessed carefully in the management of these cases. © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Early expression of triggering receptors and regulatory role of 2B4 in human natural killer cell precursors undergoing in vitro differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sivori, Simona; Falco, Michela; Marcenaro, Emanuela; Parolini, Silvia; Biassoni, Roberto; Bottino, Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the progression of cell surface receptor expression during the in vitro-induced human natural killer (NK) cell maturation from CD34+ Lin− cell precursors. NKp46 and NKp30, two major triggering receptors that play a central role in natural cytotoxicity, were expressed before the HLA class I-specific inhibitory receptors. Moreover, their appearance at the cell surface correlated with the acquisition of cytolytic activity by developing NK cells. Although the early expression of triggering receptors may provide activating signals required for inducing further cell differentiation, it may also affect the self-tolerance of developing NK cells. Our data show that a fail-safe mechanism preventing killing of normal autologous cells may be provided by the 2B4 surface molecule, which, at early stages of NK cell differentiation, functions as an inhibitory rather than as an activating receptor. PMID:11917118

  10. The effectiveness of physiologically based early warning or track and trigger systems after triage in adult patients presenting to emergency departments: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Francesca; Meskell, Pauline; Conway, Aislinn; McDaid, Fiona; Santesso, Nancy; Hickey, Fergal G; Gillespie, Paddy; Raymakers, Adam J N; Smith, Valerie; Devane, Declan

    2017-12-06

    Changes to physiological parameters precede deterioration of ill patients. Early warning and track and trigger systems (TTS) use routine physiological measurements with pre-specified thresholds to identify deteriorating patients and trigger appropriate and timely escalation of care. Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) are undiagnosed, undifferentiated and of varying acuity, yet the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using early warning systems and TTS in this setting is unclear. We aimed to systematically review the evidence on the use, development/validation, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physiologically based early warning systems and TTS for the detection of deterioration in adult patients presenting to EDs. We searched for any study design in scientific databases and grey literature resources up to March 2016. Two reviewers independently screened results and conducted quality assessment. One reviewer extracted data with independent verification of 50% by a second reviewer. Only information available in English was included. Due to the heterogeneity of reporting across studies, results were synthesised narratively and in evidence tables. We identified 6397 citations of which 47 studies and 1 clinical trial registration were included. Although early warning systems are increasingly used in EDs, compliance varies. One non-randomised controlled trial found that using an early warning system in the ED may lead to a change in patient management but may not reduce adverse events; however, this is uncertain, considering the very low quality of evidence. Twenty-eight different early warning systems were developed/validated in 36 studies. There is relatively good evidence on the predictive ability of certain early warning systems on mortality and ICU/hospital admission. No health economic data were identified. Early warning systems seem to predict adverse outcomes in adult patients of varying acuity presenting to the ED but there

  11. The economic benefits of disease triggered early harvest: A case study of pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon from Norway.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Rich, K M; Jensen, B Bang; Aunsmo, A

    2015-10-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is an important viral disease in Norwegian, Scottish and Irish aquaculture causing biological losses in terms of reduced growth, mortality, increased feed conversion ratio, and carcass downgrading. We developed a bio-economic model to investigate the economic benefits of a disease triggered early harvesting strategy to control PD losses. In this strategy, the salmon farm adopts a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) diagnostic screening program to monitor the virus levels in stocks. Virus levels are used to forecast a clinical outbreak of pancreas disease, which then initiates a prescheduled harvest of the stock to avoid disease losses. The model is based on data inputs from national statistics, literature, company data, and an expert panel, and use stochastic simulations to account for the variation and/or uncertainty associated with disease effects and selected production expenditures. With the model, we compared the impacts of a salmon farm undergoing prescheduled harvest versus the salmon farm going through a PD outbreak. We also estimated the direct costs of a PD outbreak as the sum of biological losses, treatment costs, prevention costs, and other additional costs, less the costs of insurance pay-outs. Simulation results suggests that the economic benefit from a prescheduled harvest is positive once the average salmon weight at the farm has reached 3.2kg or more for an average Norwegian salmon farm stocked with 1,000,000smolts and using average salmon sales prices for 2013. The direct costs from a PD outbreak occurring nine months (average salmon weight 1.91kg) after sea transfer and using 2013 sales prices was on average estimated at NOK 55.4 million (5%, 50% and 90% percentile: 38.0, 55.8 and 72.4) (NOK=€0.128 in 2013). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the losses from a PD outbreak are sensitive to feed- and salmon sales prices, and that high 2013 sales prices contributed to substantial losses associated with a PD outbreak. Copyright

  12. Impact of virus strain characteristics on early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection in commercial table-egg layer flocks and implications for outbreak control.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J Todd; Malladi, Sasidhar; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Hueston, Will; Hennessey, Morgan; Lee, Brendan; Voss, Shauna; Funk, Janel; Der, Christina; Bjork, Kathe E; Clouse, Timothy L; Halvorson, David A

    2012-12-01

    Early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infection in commercial poultry flocks is a critical component of outbreak control. Reducing the time to detect HPAI infection can reduce the risk of disease transmission to other flocks. The timeliness of different types of detection triggers could be dependent on clinical signs that are first observed in a flock, signs that might vary due to HPAI virus strain characteristics. We developed a stochastic disease transmission model to evaluate how transmission characteristics of various HPAI strains might effect the relative importance of increased mortality, drop in egg production, or daily real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR testing, toward detecting HPAI infection in a commercial table-egg layer flock. On average, daily RRT-PCR testing resulted in the shortest time to detection (from 3.5 to 6.1 days) depending on the HPAI virus strain and was less variable over a range of transmission parameters compared with other triggers evaluated. Our results indicate that a trigger to detect a drop in egg production would be useful for HPAI virus strains with long infectious periods (6-8 days) and including an egg-drop detection trigger in emergency response plans would lead to earlier and consistent reporting in some cases. We discuss implications for outbreak control and risk of HPAI spread attributed to different HPAI strain characteristics where an increase in mortality or a drop in egg production or both would be among the first clinical signs observed in an infected flock.

  13. Rainfall characteristics associated to the triggering of fast- and slow-moving landslides - a comparison between the South French Alps and Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remaitre, Alexandre; Wallner, Stefan; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall is worldwide a recognized trigger of landslides. Numerous studies were conducted in order to define the relationships between the precipitations and the triggering or the reactivation of landslides. Hydrological triggering of landslides can be divided in three general types: (1) development of local perched water tables in the subsoil leading to shallow slope instabilities and possible gravitational flows, (2) long-lasting rise in permanent water tables leading to more deep-seated slope instabilities, and (3) intense runoff causing channel-bed erosion and debris flows. Types (1) and (3) are usually observed during high rainfall intensities (hourly and daily rainfall) associated to heavy storms; type (2) is usually observed through increasing water content in the subsoil due to antecedent rainfalls (weekly or monthly rainfall) and/or massive snowmelt. Many investigations have been carried out to determine the amount of precipitation needed to trigger slopes failures. For rainfall-induced landslides a threshold may be define the rainfall, soil moisture or hydrological conditions that, when reached or exceeded, are likely to trigger landslides. Usually rainfall thresholds can be defined on physical process-based or conceptual models or empirical, historical and statistical bases. Nevertheless, both the large variety of landslides and to the extreme variety of climatic conditions leading to the triggering or the reactivation of a landslide lead to a regional definition of relationships between landslide occurrence and associated climatic conditions. The purpose of this case study is to analyze the relationships between the triggering of three types of landslides, debris flows, shallow landslides and deep-seated mudslides, and different patterns of rainfall in two study sites with different physiographic and climatic characteristics: the Barcelonnette basin in the South French Alps and the Waidhofen an der Ybbs area in Lower Austria. For this purpose, we

  14. Dynamic triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  15. Characteristics of Early Stages of Corrosion Fatigue in Aircraft Skin

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-02-01

    SRI International is conducting research to characterize and quantitatively describe the early stages of corrosion fatigue in the fuselage skin of commercial aircraft. Specific objectives are to gain an improved deterministic understanding of the tra...

  16. Influence of follicle characteristics at ovulation on early embryo survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reproductive losses are significant in domestic animals and represent huge economic inefficiencies in livestock production. Across livestock species, embryonic mortality is the greatest contributor to reproductive losses. In most livestock species, early pregnancy diagnosis is an impediment to mak...

  17. Characteristics of Early Work Experiences and Their Association with Future Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; O'Mally, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Early work experiences are a key predictor of future employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments. We investigated how specific characteristics of early work experiences influence future employment and whether the receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits is associated with early work experiences among…

  18. Characteristics of effective professional development for early career science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-04-01

    The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.

  19. Effects of stressor characteristics on early warning signs of critical transitions and "critical coupling" in complex dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Blume, Steffen O P; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Complex dynamical systems face abrupt transitions into unstable and catastrophic regimes. These critical transitions are triggered by gradual modifications in stressors, which push the dynamical system towards unstable regimes. Bifurcation analysis can characterize such critical thresholds, beyond which systems become unstable. Moreover, the stochasticity of the external stressors causes small-scale fluctuations in the system response. In some systems, the decomposition of these signal fluctuations into precursor signals can reveal early warning signs prior to the critical transition. Here, we present a dynamical analysis of a power system subjected to an increasing load level and small-scale stochastic load perturbations. We show that the auto- and cross-correlations of bus voltage magnitudes increase, leading up to a Hopf bifurcation point, and further grow until the system collapses. This evidences a gradual transition into a state of "critical coupling," which is complementary to the established concept of "critical slowing down." Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the type of load perturbation and load characteristics on early warning signs and find that gradient changes in the autocorrelation provide early warning signs of the imminent critical transition under white-noise but not for auto-correlated load perturbations. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between all voltage magnitude pairs generally increases prior to and beyond the Hopf bifurcation point, indicating "critical coupling," but cannot provide early warning indications. Finally, we show that the established early warning indicators are oblivious to limit-induced bifurcations and, in the case of the power system model considered here, only react to an approaching Hopf bifurcation.

  20. Main components and characteristics of landslide early warning systems operational worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piciullo, Luca; Cepeda, José

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades the number of victims and economic losses due to natural hazards are dramatically increased worldwide. The reason can be mainly ascribed to climate changes and urbanization in areas exposed at high level of risk. Among the many mitigation measures available for reducing the risk to life related to natural hazards, early warning systems certainly constitute a significant cost-effective option available to the authorities in charge of risk management and governance. The aim is to help and protect populations exposed to natural hazards, reducing fatalities when major events occur. Landslide is one of the natural hazards addressed by early warning systems. Landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) are mainly composed by the following four components: set-up, correlation laws, decisional algorithm and warning management. Within this framework, the set-up includes all the preliminary actions and choices necessary for designing a LEWS, such as: the area covered by the system, the types of landslides and the monitoring instruments. The monitoring phase provides a series of important information on different variables, considered as triggering factors for landslides, in order to define correlation laws and thresholds. Then, a decisional algorithm is necessary for defining the: number of warning levels to be employed in the system, decision making procedures, and everything else system managers may need for issuing warnings in different warning zones. Finally the warning management is composed by: monitoring and warning strategy; communication strategy; emergency plan and, everything connected to the social sphere. Among LEWSs operational worldwide, two categories can be defined as a function of the scale of analysis: "local" and "territorial" systems. The scale of analysis influences several actions and aspects connected to the design and employment of the system, such as: the actors involved, the monitoring systems, type of landslide phenomena

  1. Early lexical characteristics of toddlers with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L

    2014-11-01

    Objective : To examine development of early expressive lexicons in toddlers with cleft palate to determine whether they differ from those of noncleft toddlers in terms of size and lexical selectivity. Design : Retrospective. Patients : A total of 37 toddlers with cleft palate and 22 noncleft toddlers. Main Outcome Measures : The groups were compared for size of expressive lexicon reported on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory and the percentage of words beginning with obstruents and sonorants produced in a language sample. Differences between groups in the percentage of word initial consonants correct on the language sample were also examined. Results : Although expressive vocabulary was comparable at 13 months of age for both groups, size of the lexicon for the cleft group was significantly smaller than that for the noncleft group at 21 and 27 months of age. Toddlers with cleft palate produced significantly more words beginning with sonorants and fewer words beginning with obstruents in their spontaneous speech samples. They were also less accurate when producing word initial obstruents compared with the noncleft group. Conclusions : Toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate a slower rate of lexical development compared with their noncleft peers. The preference that toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate for words beginning with sonorants could suggest they are selecting words that begin with consonants that are easier for them to produce. An alternative explanation might be that because these children are less accurate in the production of obstruent consonants, listeners may not always identify obstruents when they occur.

  2. Classical ROS-dependent and early/rapid ROS-independent release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps triggered by Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Rochael, Natalia C; Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B; Nascimento, Michelle T C; DeSouza-Vieira, Thiago S; Oliveira, Matheus P; Garcia e Souza, Luiz F; Oliveira, Marcus F; Saraiva, Elvira M

    2015-12-17

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) extruded from neutrophils upon activation are composed of chromatin associated with cytosolic and granular proteins, which ensnare and kill microorganisms. This microbicidal mechanism named classical netosis has been shown to dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by NADPH oxidase and also chromatin decondensation dependent upon the enzymes (PAD4), neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). NET release also occurs through an early/rapid ROS-independent mechanism, named early/rapid vital netosis. Here we analyze the role of ROS, NE, MPO and PAD4 in the netosis stimulated by Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes in human neutrophils. We demonstrate that promastigotes induce a classical netosis, dependent on the cellular redox imbalance, as well as by a chloroamidine sensitive and elastase activity mechanism. Additionally, Leishmania also induces the early/rapid NET release occurring only 10 minutes after neutrophil-parasite interaction. We demonstrate here, that this early/rapid mechanism is dependent on elastase activity, but independent of ROS generation and chloroamidine. A better understanding of both mechanisms of NET release, and the NETs effects on the host immune system modulation, could support the development of new potential therapeutic strategies for leishmaniasis.

  3. The Influence of Student Characteristics on Early Elementary Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Wilhelmina

    2018-01-01

    Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) is a widely-used index of reading ability in early elementary grades; however, little information exists on predictive value of student characteristics on ORF scores (Wang, Algozzine, Ma, & Porfeli, 2011). A three-step sequential model was used to analyze the influence of student characteristics on scores (N = 2649)…

  4. Triggering Parental Involvement for Parents of Different Language Backgrounds: The Role of Types of Partnership Activities and Preschool Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachfeld, Axinja; Anders, Yvonne; Kuger, Susanne; Smidt, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Home and educational institutions are children's most important external influences and a positive partnership between the two can positively affect children's cognitive and non-cognitive development. Quality of family-preschool partnership (FPP) can depend on preschool and family characteristics. For Germany, studies show that immigrant parents…

  5. Weak characteristic information extraction from early fault of wind turbine generator gearbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiuli

    2017-09-01

    Given the weak early degradation characteristic information during early fault evolution in gearbox of wind turbine generator, traditional singular value decomposition (SVD)-based denoising may result in loss of useful information. A weak characteristic information extraction based on μ-SVD and local mean decomposition (LMD) is developed to address this problem. The basic principle of the method is as follows: Determine the denoising order based on cumulative contribution rate, perform signal reconstruction, extract and subject the noisy part of signal to LMD and μ-SVD denoising, and obtain denoised signal through superposition. Experimental results show that this method can significantly weaken signal noise, effectively extract the weak characteristic information of early fault, and facilitate the early fault warning and dynamic predictive maintenance.

  6. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generating excess early double-stranded RNA transiently activates protein kinase R and triggers enhanced innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Wolferstätter, Michael; Schweneker, Marc; Späth, Michaela; Lukassen, Susanne; Klingenberg, Marieken; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Lauterbach, Henning; Hochrein, Hubertus; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; Hausmann, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important molecular pattern associated with viral infection and is detected by various extra- and intracellular recognition molecules. Poxviruses have evolved to avoid producing dsRNA early in infection but generate significant amounts of dsRNA late in infection due to convergent transcription of late genes. Protein kinase R (PKR) is activated by dsRNA and triggers major cellular defenses against viral infection, including protein synthesis shutdown, apoptosis, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production. The poxviral E3 protein binds and sequesters viral dsRNA and is a major antagonist of the PKR pathway. We found that the highly replication-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) engineered to produce excess amounts of dsRNA early in infection showed enhanced induction of IFN-β in murine and human cells in the presence of an intact E3L gene. IFN-β induction required a minimum overlap length of 300 bp between early complementary transcripts and was strongly PKR dependent. Excess early dsRNA produced by MVA activated PKR early but transiently in murine cells and induced enhanced systemic levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, and other cytokines and chemokines in mice in a largely PKR-dependent manner. Replication-competent chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) generating excess early dsRNA also enhanced IFN-I production and was apathogenic in mice even at very high doses but showed no in vitro host range defect. Thus, genetically adjuvanting MVA and CVA to generate excess early dsRNA is an effective method to enhance innate immune stimulation by orthopoxvirus vectors and to attenuate replicating vaccinia virus in vivo. Efficient cellular sensing of pathogen-specific components, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is an important prerequisite of an effective antiviral immune response. The prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) and its derivative modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) produce dsRNA as a by-product of viral

  7. The Characteristics and triggering Factors of the October 2013 Obudu International Tourist Centre catastrophic Landslide South-East Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Igwe, Ogbonnaya

    2015-04-01

    The October 2013 catastrophic landslides at the Obudu international tourist zone south-east Nigeria destroyed resources worth several millions of dollars and trapped international tourist who were later rescued by a helicopter. Intense rainfall caused several slope failures on the steep slopes of the hills. These landslides occurred after several days of heavy rain (> 600 mm) and were the first reported slope failures in this region. The failures were on a predominantly metamorphic terrain and only on slopes adjacent to the main road. They occurred as slides, not debris flow, but produced a wide range of casualties. The failures were of residual materials (about 1 m thick) obtained from weathering of schist. One of the landslides involved the movement of about 70,000 m3 debris for 8.6 m with depth of slip surface of 6 m. Another, which produced the most fatality initiated on a slope greater than 40o and displaced about 77, 000 m3. It had a runout length of 60 m, width of 98 m, depth to slip surface of 8 m and depositional area of about 2,500 m2. Had the opposite slope bounding the other side of the road not hindered the movement of debris, the runout distance could have been larger. The research found that all the landslides occurred on slope-portions composed of schist rather than gneiss or granite. Slip surfaces developed within the regolith and the shear zone was characterized by the presence of silty materials supported by clayey matrix. Field observations indicated that the failures generally developed as localized translational slides within the semi-consolidated, cohesive soil units (with high plasticity and low strength) within the upper to middle weathered zone of the schist. The increase in pore pressure arising from elevated water table during rainfall created instability by weakening the shear strength along the failure plane. However, differences in permeability favored the formation of perched water table which eventually triggered sliding.

  8. Characteristics of phase 3-like activity and rebound excitation triggered by hexamethonium and atropine administration in the ovine small bowel.

    PubMed

    Romański, K W

    2010-02-01

    Administration of hexamethonium (Hx) and atropine inhibits myoelectric and motor activity and then evokes a stimulatory effect called rebound excitation (RE) in the ovine small bowel. RE has not been precisely characterized so far and it is possible that it is composed of different types of motility. This study was thus devoted to characterizing these excitatory changes in the myoelectric and motor activity of the small bowel, particularly in the duodenum in conscious sheep. These alterations occurred in response to different intravenous doses of Hx and atropine administered alone or in combinations during various phases of the migrating myoelectric or motor complex (MMC) in the fasted and non-fasted sheep. Initially two basic types of excitatory response to the cholinergic blockade were found. In the course of chronic experiments different doses of Hx and atropine evoked phase 3-like activity (unorganized phase 3 of the MMC or its fragments) alternating with the less regular RE and the duration of these changes was related to the drug dose. In the nonfasted sheep these changes were less pronounced than in the fasted animals. When the drug was given during phase 1 of the MMC, RE did not occur or was greatly reduced. Administration of Hx and atropine in the course of phase 2a and phase 2b of the MMC produced roughly similar effects. Hx triggered stronger phase 3-like activity and RE than atropine. Combinations of Hx and atropine induced an additive effect, more evident in the fasted animals. These actions of Hx and atropine, thus, appear to involve at least partly the same intramural pathways. It is concluded that Hx and atropine evoke phase 3-like activity alternating with RE as the secondary stimulatory response in conscious sheep and both these types of the intestinal motility represent two distinct motility patterns.

  9. Anti-inflammatory polymersomes of redox-responsive polyprodrug amphiphiles with inflammation-triggered indomethacin release characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiajia; Deng, Zhengyu; Liu, Guhuan; Hu, Jinming; Liu, Shiyong

    2018-03-21

    Inflammation serves as a natural defense mechanism to protect living organisms from infectious diseases. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help relieve inflammatory reactions and are clinically used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation, whereas long-term use of NSAIDs may lead to severe side effects including gastrointestinal damage and cardiovascular toxicity. Therefore, it is of increasing importance to configure new dosing strategies and alleviate the side effects of NSAIDs. Towards this goal, glutathione (GSH)-responsive disulfide bonds and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-reactive phenylboronic ester linkages were utilized as triggering moieties in this work to design redox-responsive prodrug monomers and polyprodrug amphiphiles based on indomethacin (IND) drug. Note that IND is a widely prescribed NSAID in the clinic. Starting from three types of redox-reactive IND prodrug monomers, redox-responsive polyprodrug amphiphiles were synthesized through reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations of prodrug monomers using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based macroRAFT agent. The resultant polyprodrug amphiphiles with high IND loading contents (>33 wt%) could self-assemble into polymersomes with PEO shielding coronas and redox-responsive bilayer membranes composed of IND prodrugs. Upon incubation with GSH or H 2 O 2 , controlled release of intact IND in the active form from polyprodrug polymersomes was actuated by GSH-mediated disulfide cleavage reaction and H 2 O 2 -mediated oxidation of phenylboronic ester moieties, respectively, followed by self-immolative degradation events. Furthermore, in vitro studies at the cellular level revealed that redox-responsive polymersomes could efficiently relieve inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Early Identification of Autism: Early Characteristics, Onset of Symptoms, and Diagnostic Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.

    2009-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants who later go on to develop autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit subtle disruptions in social interest and attention, communication, temperament, and head circumference growth that occur prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These disruptions may reflect the early course of ASD development and may also…

  11. Sensitivity to Regional Earthquake Triggering and Magnitude-Frequency Characteristics of Microseismicity Detected via Matched-Filter Analysis, Central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, C. M.; Townend, J.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Warren-Smith, E.

    2016-12-01

    Microseismicity recorded since 2008 by the Southern Alps Microseismicity Borehole Array (SAMBA) and other predominantly short-period seismic networks deployed in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, reveals distinctive patterns of triggering in response to regional seismicity (magnitudes larger than 5, epicentral distances of 100-500 km). Using matched-filter detection methods implemented in the EQcorrscan package (Chamberlain et al., in prep.), we analyze microseismicity occurring in several geographically distinct swarms in order to examine the responses of specific microearthquake sources to earthquakes of different sizes occurring at different distances and azimuths. The swarms exhibit complex responses to regional seismicity which reveal that microearthquake triggering in these cases involves a combination of extrinsic factors (related to the dynamic stresses produced by the regional earthquake) and intrinsic factors (controlled by the local state of stress and possibly by hydrogeological processes). We find also that the microearthquakes detected by individual templates have Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency characteristics. Since the detected events, by design, have very similar hypocentres and focal mechanisms, the observed scaling pertains to a restricted set of fault planes.

  12. Trigger Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  13. Synchronized cell attachment triggered by photo-activatable adhesive ligands allows QCM-based detection of early integrin binding

    PubMed Central

    Iturri, Jagoba; García-Fernández, Luis; Reuning, Ute; García, Andrés J.; Campo, Aránzazu del; Salierno, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    The Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique was applied to monitor and quantify integrin-RGD recognition during the early stages of cell adhesion. Using QCM-D crystals modified with a photo-activatable RGD peptide, the time point of presentation of adhesive ligand at the surface of the QCM-D crystal could be accurately controlled. This allowed temporal resolution of early integrin-RGD binding and the subsequent cell spreading process, and their separate detection by QCM-D. The specificity of the integrin-RGD binding event was corroborated by performing the experiments in the presence of soluble cyclicRGD as a competitor, and cytochalasin D as inhibitor of cell spreading. Larger frequency change in the QCM-D signal was observed for cells with larger spread area, and for cells overexpressing integrin αvβ3 upon stable transfection. This strategy enables quantification of integrin activity which, in turn, may allow discrimination among different cell types displaying distinct integrin subtypes and expression levels thereof. On the basis of these findings, we believe the strategy can be extended to other photoactivatable ligands to characterize cell membrane receptors activity, a relevant issue for cancer diagnosis (and prognosis) as other several pathologies. PMID:25825012

  14. Sills, aureoles and pipes in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, as triggers for Early Jurassic environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensen, Henrik H.; Planke, Sverre; Silkoset, Petter; Hammer, Øyvind; Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Dani W.; Chevallier, Luc

    2017-04-01

    Most of the Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) formed during the last 260 million years are associated with climatic change, oceanic anoxia, or extinctions in marine and terrestrial environments. Current hypotheses involve A) degassing of carbon either from oceans or shallow sea-bed reservoirs, B) carbon and sulfur degassing from flood basalts, C) degassing from sedimentary basins heavily intruded by LIPs. Here we present new data on gas generation and degassing from the Karoo LIP, based on fieldwork, borehole studies (geochemistry, petrography), and thermal modeling. Our data expand and corroborate earlier work on the sub-volcanic processes in the Karoo Basin. We show that 1) hundreds of breccia pipes are rooted in Early Jurassic sill complexes and contact aureoles within the organic-rich Ecca Group, 2) statistical analyses reveal a fractal distribution of pipes and that they are overdispersed at small scales (<50 m), but clustered at larger scales (>800 m), 3) contact aureoles show a reduction in organic matter content towards the sill contacts, reduced to zero in the nearest zones, producing more carbon gas compared to thermal model calculations, 4) we find up to 3 permil reduction in the d13C of the organic matter remaining in the aureoles, and finally 5) some pipes contain recent oil seeps. We conclude that the sill-pipe system released thermogenic gases to the Early Jurassic atmosphere and that the pipes may have acted as permanent fluid flow pathways.

  15. Peptide synthesis triggered by comet impacts: A possible method for peptide delivery to the early Earth and icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Haruna; Mimura, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    We performed shock experiments simulating natural comet impacts in an attempt to examine the role that comet impacts play in peptide synthesis. In the present study, we selected a mixture of alanine (DL-alanine), water ice, and silicate (forsterite) to make a starting material for the experiments. The shock experiments were conducted under cryogenic conditions (77 K), and the shock pressure range achieved in the experiments was 4.8-25.8 GPa. The results show that alanine is oligomerized into peptides up to tripeptides due to the impact shock. The synthesized peptides were racemic, indicating that there was no enantioselective synthesis of peptides from racemic amino acids due to the impact shock. We also found that the yield of linear peptides was a magnitude higher than those of cyclic diketopiperazine. Furthermore, we estimated the amount of cometary-derived peptides to the early Earth based on two models (the Lunar Crating model and the Nice model) during the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) using our experimental data. The estimation based on the Lunar Crating model gave 3 × 109 mol of dialanine, 4 × 107 mol of trialanine, and 3 × 108 mol of alanine-diketopiperazine. Those based on the Nice model, in which the main impactor of LHB is comets, gave 6 × 1010 mol of dialanine, 1 × 109 mol of trialanine, and 8 × 109 mol of alanine-diketopiperazine. The estimated amounts were comparable to those originating from terrestrial sources (Cleaves, H.J., Aubrey, A.D., Bada, J.L. [2009]. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 39, 109-126). Our results indicate that comet impacts played an important role in chemical evolution as a supplier of linear peptides, which are important for further chemical evolution on the early Earth. Our study also highlights the importance of icy satellites, which were formed by comet accumulation, as prime targets for missions searching for extraterrestrial life.

  16. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Soulé, Jonathan; Penke, Zsuzsa; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Alme, Maria Nordheim; Laroche, Serge; Bramham, Clive R.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and α-CaMKII) with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. PMID:19190776

  17. Subsurface North Atlantic warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidence from the early Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.

    2015-04-01

    Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North Atlantic were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt ice-rafted detritus (IRD) events during cold periods of the early Pleistocene. We used paired Mg / Ca and δ18O measurements of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral - sin.), deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, to estimate the subsurface temperatures and seawater δ18O from a sediment core from Gardar Drift, in the subpolar North Atlantic. Carbon isotopes of benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / Ca-based temperatures and seawater δ18O suggest increased subsurface temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during periods of weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of IRD. Subsurface accumulation of warm waters would have resulted in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic. The release of heat stored at the subsurface to the atmosphere would have helped to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North Atlantic in response to AMOC slowdown during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3.

  18. Subsurface North Atlantic warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidences from the Early Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.

    2014-10-01

    Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North Atlantic were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt IRD events during cold periods of the Early Pleistocene. We used Mg / Ca-based temperatures of deep-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral) planktonic foraminifera and paired Mg / Ca-δ18O measurements to estimate the subsurface temperatures and δ18O of seawater at Site U1314. Carbon isotopes on benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / Ca-based temperatures and δ18O of seawater suggest increased temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to enhanced northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during periods of AMOC reduction. Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of ice-rafted detritus (IRD). Warm waters accumulated at subsurface would result in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic. Release of heat and salt stored at subsurface would help to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North Atlantic in response to AMOC slowdown during the MIS3.

  19. S-adenosyl methionine prevents ASD like behaviors triggered by early postnatal valproic acid exposure in very young mice.

    PubMed

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Tfilin, Matanel; Ergaz, Zivanit; Yanai, Joseph; Szyf, Moshe; Turgeman, Gadi

    2018-01-16

    A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. From day 50, we carried out neurobehavioral tests and assessment of the antioxidant status of the prefrontal cerebral cortex, liver assessing SOD and CAT activity, lipid peroxidation and the expression of antioxidant genes. Mice injected with VPA exhibited neurobehavioral deficits typical of ASD that were more prominent in males. Changes in the activity of SOD and CAT increased lipid peroxidation and changes in the expression of antioxidant genes were observed in the prefrontal cortex of VPA treated mice, more prominent in females, while ASD like behavior was more prominent in males. There were no changes in the redox potential of the liver. The co-administration of VPA and SAM alleviated most ASD like neurobehavioral symptoms and normalized the redox potential in the prefrontal cortex. Early postnatal VPA administration induces ASD like behavior that is more severe in males, while the redox status changes are more severe in females; SAM corrects both. VPA-induced ASD seems to result from epigenetic changes, while the redox status changes may be secondary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Long term real-time monitoring of large alpine rockslides by GB-InSAR: mechanisms, triggers, scenario assessment and Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, G. B.; Agliardi, F.; Sosio, R.; Rivolta, C.; Leva, D.; Dei Cas, L.

    2012-04-01

    Large rockslides in alpine valleys can undergo catastrophic evolution, posing extraordinary risks to settlements, lives and critical infrastructures. These phenomena are controlled by a complex interplay of lithological, structural, hydrological and meteo-climatic factors, which eventually result in: complex triggering mechanisms and kinematics, highly variable activity, regressive to progressive trends with superimposed acceleration and deceleration periods related to rainfall and snowmelt. Managing large rockslide risk remains challenging, due the high uncertainty related to their geological model and dynamics. In this context, the most promising approach to constrain rockslide kinematics, establish correlations with triggering factors, and predict future displacements, velocity and acceleration, and eventually possible final collapse is based on the analysis and modelling of long-term series of monitoring data. More than traditional monitoring activities, remote sensing represents an important tool aimed at describing local rockslide displacements and kinematics, at distinguishing rates of activity, and providing real time data suitable for early warning. We analyze a long term monitoring dataset collected for a deep-seated rockslide (Ruinon, Lombardy, Italy), actively monitored since 1997 through an in situ monitoring network (topographic and GPS, wire extensometers and distometer baselines) and since 2006 by a ground based radar (GB-InSAR). Monitoring allowed to set-up and update the geological model, identify rockslide extent and geometry, analyze its sensitivity to seasonal changes and their impact on the reliability and EW potential of monitoring data. GB-InSAR data allowed to identify sub-areas with different behaviors associated to outcropping bedrock and thick debris cover, and to set-up a "virtual monitoring network" by a posteriori selection of critical locations. Resulting displacement time series provide a large amount of information even in debris

  1. Human Neutrophil Clearance of Bacterial Pathogens Triggers Anti-Microbial γδ T Cell Responses in Early Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Gareth W.; Heuston, Sinéad; Brown, Amanda C.; Chess, James A.; Toleman, Mark A.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin; Parish, Tanya; Williams, John D.; Davies, Simon J.; Johnson, David W.; Topley, Nicholas; Moser, Bernhard; Eberl, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Human blood Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, monocytes and neutrophils share a responsiveness toward inflammatory chemokines and are rapidly recruited to sites of infection. Studying their interaction in vitro and relating these findings to in vivo observations in patients may therefore provide crucial insight into inflammatory events. Our present data demonstrate that Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells provide potent survival signals resulting in neutrophil activation and the release of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL8 (IL-8). In turn, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells readily respond to neutrophils harboring phagocytosed bacteria, as evidenced by expression of CD69, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This response is dependent on the ability of these bacteria to produce the microbial metabolite (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP), requires cell-cell contact of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells with accessory monocytes through lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and results in a TNF-α dependent proliferation of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. The antibiotic fosmidomycin, which targets the HMB-PP biosynthesis pathway, not only has a direct antibacterial effect on most HMB-PP producing bacteria but also possesses rapid anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting γδ T cell responses in vitro. Patients with acute peritoneal-dialysis (PD)-associated bacterial peritonitis – characterized by an excessive influx of neutrophils and monocytes into the peritoneal cavity – show a selective activation of local Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells by HMB-PP producing but not by HMB-PP deficient bacterial pathogens. The γδ T cell-driven perpetuation of inflammatory responses during acute peritonitis is associated with elevated peritoneal levels of γδ T cells and TNF-α and detrimental clinical outcomes in infections caused by HMB-PP positive microorganisms. Taken together, our findings indicate a direct link between invading pathogens, neutrophils, monocytes and microbe-responsive γδ T cells in early

  2. The clinical and histopathological characteristics of early-onset basal cell carcinoma in Asians.

    PubMed

    Yang, M Y; Kim, J M; Kim, G W; Mun, J H; Song, M; Ko, H C; Kim, B S; Kim, H S; Kim, M B

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is by far the most common cancer in white populations. In addition, recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of BCC in Korea. We have observed a significant number of early-onset BCC cases in which the disease occurred in patients younger than 50 years. To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of early-onset BCC in an Asian population, specifically in Koreans. One hundred and five patients with early-onset BCC were enrolled from a total of 1047 BCC patients who underwent surgery between January 1997 and December 2014 (942 patients over the age of 50 years were designated as the control group). Early-onset BCC accounted for 10.03% of all 1047 cases and the incidence over time displayed an incremental trend. The early-onset group displayed similar results as the control group, with a predominance of female BCC patients and the majority of tumours displaying the following characteristics: small in size, occurring in sun-exposed areas and belonging to the noduloulcerative clinical subtype and nodular histopathological subtype. In comparison with a previous study in a Western population, the incidence of the disease in non-exposed areas of the body, as well as the proportion of tumours of the superficial histological subtype, were lower in Asian patients. Although the clinicopathological characteristics of BCC are well-known, these characteristics have not been determined for early-onset BCC in an Asian population. Therefore, this study is the first report on early-onset BCC in Asians, specifically in a Korean patient group. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Unique Associations between Childhood Temperament Characteristics and Subsequent Psychopathology Symptom Trajectories from Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A

    2017-08-01

    Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.

  4. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching…

  5. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to: Evaluate the evidence regarding parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Eating disorders are rare in children, but disordered eating is common. Understanding the phenomenology of disordered eating in childhood can aid prevention of full-blown eating disorders. The purpose of this review is to systematically extract and synthesize the evidence on parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies published from 1990 to 2013 addressing parental and child characteristics of disordered eating in children aged 6 to 12 years were eligible for inclusion. The search was restricted to studies with cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal designs, studies in English, and with abstracts available. Forty-four studies fit these criteria. Most studies were based on community samples with a cross-sectional design. The included studies varied considerably in size, instruments used to assess early-onset disordered eating, and parental and child characteristics investigated. Important determinants included the following: higher body weight, previously reported disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, parental disordered eating, and parental comments/concerns about child's weight and eating. The findings were inconsistent for sex, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-esteem/worth, and parental body weight. In conclusion, characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating have mainly been explored with a cross-sectional design. Full understanding of causal pathways will require good-quality longitudinal studies designed to address the influence of parental eating

  6. Postneedling soreness after deep dry needling of a latent myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle: Characteristics, sex differences and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel Luis; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-04-27

    Postneedling soreness is considered the most frequent secondary effect associated to dry needling. A detailed description of postneedling soreness characteristics has not been previously reported. (1) to assess the intensity and duration of postneedling soreness and tenderness after deep dry needling of a trapezius latent myofascial trigger point (MTrP), (2) to evaluate the possible differences in postneedling soreness between sexes and (3) to analyze the influence on postneedling soreness of factors involved in the dry needling process. Sixty healthy subjects (30 men, 30 women) with latent MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle received a dry needling intervention in the MTrP. Pain and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were assessed during a 72 hours follow-up period. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed a significant effect for time in pain and in PPT. An interaction between sex and time in pain was obtained: women exhibited higher intensity in postneedling pain than men. The pain during needling and the number of needle insertions significantly correlated with postneedling soreness. Soreness and hyperalgesia are present in all subjects after dry needling of a latent MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Women exhibited higher intensity of postneedling soreness than men.

  7. Early developmental characteristics and features of major depressive disorder among child psychiatric patients in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Kapornai, Krisztina; Gentzler, Amy L; Tepper, Ping; Kiss, Eniko; Mayer, László; Tamás, Zsuzsanna; Kovacs, Maria; Vetró, Agnes

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the relations of early atypical characteristics (perinatal problems, developmental delay, and difficult temperament) and onset-age (as well as severity of) first major depressive disorder (MDD) and first internalizing disorder in a clinical sample of depressed children in Hungary. Participants were 371 children (ages 7-14) with MDD, and their biological mothers, recruited through multiple clinical sites. Diagnoses (via DSM-IV criteria) and onset dates of disorders were finalized "best estimate" psychiatrists, and based on multiple information sources. Mothers provided developmental data in a structured interview. Difficult temperament predicted earlier onset of MDD and first internalizing disorder, but its effect was ameliorated if the family was intact during early childhood. Further, the importance of difficult temperament decreased as a function of time. Perinatal problems and developmental delay did not impact onset ages of disorders, and none of the early childhood characteristics associated with MDD episode severity. Children with MDD may have added disadvantage of earlier onset if they had a difficult temperament in infancy. Because early temperament mirrors physiological reactivity and regulatory capacity, it can affect various areas of functioning related to psychopathology. Early caregiver stability may attenuate some adverse effects of difficult infant temperament.

  8. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  9. Do child's psychosocial functioning, and parent and family characteristics predict early alcohol use? The TRAILS Study.

    PubMed

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-02-01

    Given the negative consequences of early alcohol use for health and social functioning, it is essential to detect children at risk of early drinking. The aim of this study is to determine predictors of early alcohol use that can easily be detected in Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). We obtained data from the first two waves on 1261 Dutch adolescents who participated in TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) at ages 10-14 years and from the PCH records regarding ages 4-10 years. Early adolescence alcohol use (age 10-14 years) was defined as alcohol use at least once at ages 10-12 years (wave 1) and at least once in the previous 4 weeks at ages 12-14 years (wave 2). Predictors of early alcohol use concerned parent and teacher reports at wave 1 and PCH registrations, regarding the child's psychosocial functioning, and parental and socio-demographic characteristics. A total of 17.2% of the adolescents reported early alcohol use. Predictors of early alcohol use were teacher-reported aggressive behaviour [odds ratios (OR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.86; 1.11-3.11], being a boy (OR 1.80, 95%-CI 1.31-2.56), being a non-immigrant (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.05-5.09), and low and middle educational level of the father (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.12-2.62 and OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.16-2.70, respectively), mutually adjusted. A limited set of factors was predictive for early alcohol use. Use of this set may improve the detection of early adolescence alcohol use in PCH. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Early changes in physical tree characteristics during an oak decline event in the Ozark highlands

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich

    2006-01-01

    An oak decline event is severely affecting up to 120 000 ha in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. Results of early changes in physical tree characteristics during that event are presented. In the fall and winter of 1999 and 2000, we established research plots on a site that would become a center of severe oak decline. In August 2000, standing trees > 14 cm in...

  11. Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy: Differences in Clinical Characteristics between Patients with Early and Late Age of Onset.

    PubMed

    Silpa-Archa, Sukhum; Cao, Jennifer H; Boonsopon, Sutasinee; Lee, Joan; Preble, Janine M; Foster, C Stephen

    2017-10-01

    To describe differences in the clinical characteristics of birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC) patients diagnosed early and later in life. This is a retrospective cohort study. Age was primarily analyzed and 50 years of age at diagnosis was selected as a cut-off point. A total of 144 patients (288 eyes) were included; 68 with early-onset and 76 with late-onset BSRC. The younger group had a statistically significant higher rate of more severe iritis (p = 0.04); an average number of non-steroidal immunosuppressants and biologic agents (NSIB) (p = 0.04); and a prolonged time to initiation of NSIB (p = 0.01). There were only four patients (3%) who had >0.5+ cells in the anterior chamber. Patients with early-onset BSRC carried a higher risk for anterior segment inflammation, had a more prolonged delay to initiation of treatment with NSIB, and required a greater number of NSIBs to achieve remission.

  12. A Population-Based Inquiry of Homeless Episode Characteristics and Early Educational Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzo, John; Leboeuf, Whitney; Brumley, Benjamin; Perlman, Staci

    2013-06-01

    Child homelessness and educational well-being is an area of national research that requires more precise investigation to address mixed findings. The aim of this study was to extend the investigation of the relations between homelessness and educational well-being by determining if timing and frequency of homeless episodes are differentially associated with children's academic and classroom engagement outcomes. This investigation used a comprehensive research model to study the effects of these homeless episode characteristics within a large urban student cohort. Additionally, this study accounted for co-occurring early risk factors. Findings indicated that having a first homeless episode in early childhood was associated with non-proficiency in mathematics and academic engagement problems. Also more frequent homeless episodes were related to truancy in third grade. These results stress the importance of early intervention for homeless children and underscore the need to further understand the variation in young children's homeless experiences.

  13. Identification of Early Nuclear Target Genes of Plastidial Redox Signals that Trigger the Long-Term Response of Arabidopsis to Light Quality Shifts.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Lars; Gläßer, Christine; Liebers, Monique; Hiekel, Stefan; Courtois, Florence; Czarnecki, Olaf; Schlicke, Hagen; Zubo, Yan; Börner, Thomas; Mayer, Klaus; Grimm, Bernhard; Pfannschmidt, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Natural illumination conditions are highly variable and because of their sessile life style, plants are forced to acclimate to them at the cellular and molecular level. Changes in light intensity or quality induce changes in the reduction/oxidation (redox) state of the photosynthetic electron chain that acts as a trigger for compensatory acclimation responses comprising functional and structural adjustments of photosynthesis and metabolism. Such responses include redox-controlled changes in plant gene expression in the nucleus and organelles. Here we describe a strategy for the identification of early redox-regulated genes (ERGs) in the nucleus of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana that respond significantly 30 or 60 min after the generation of a reduction signal in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. By comparing the response of wild-type plants with that of the acclimation mutant stn7, we could specifically identify ERGs. The results reveal a significant impact of chloroplast redox signals on distinct nuclear gene groups including genes for the mitochondrial electron transport chain, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and signaling lipid synthesis. These expression profiles are clearly different from those observed in response to the reduction of photosynthetic electron transport by high light treatments. Thus, the ERGs identified are unique to redox imbalances in photosynthetic electron transport and were then used for analyzing potential redox-responsive cis-elements, trans-factors, and chromosomal regulatory hot spots. The data identify a novel redox-responsive element and indicate extensive redox control at transcriptional and chromosomal levels that point to an unprecedented impact of redox signals on epigenetic processes. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prototyping an Early-warning System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides on a Regional Scale Using a Physically-based Model and Remote Sensing Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z.; Hong, Y.; Kirschbaum, D. B.; Fukuoka, H.; Sassa, K.; Karnawati, D.; Fathani, F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent advancements in the availability of remotely sensed datasets provide an opportunity to advance the predictability of rainfall-triggered landslides at larger spatial scales. An early-warning system based on a physical landslide model and remote sensing information is used to simulate the dynamical response of the soil water content to the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall in complex terrain. The system utilizes geomorphologic datasets including a 30-meter ASTER DEM, a 1-km downscaled FAO soil map, and satellite-based Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation. The applied physical model SLIDE (SLope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium) defines a direct relationship between a factor of safety and the rainfall depth on an infinite slope. This prototype model is applied to a case study in Honduras during Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and a secondary case of typhoon-induced shallow landslides over Java Island, Indonesia. In Honduras, two study areas were selected which cover approximately 1,200 square kilometers and where a high density of shallow landslides occurred. The results were quantitatively evaluated using landslide inventory data compiled by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) following Hurricane Mitch, and show a good agreement between the modeling results and observations. The success rate for accurately estimating slope failure locations reached as high as 78% and 75%, while the error indices were 35% and 49%, respectively for each of the two selected study areas. Advantages and limitations of this application are discussed with respect to future assessment and challenges of performing a slope-stability estimation using coarse data at 1200 square kilometers. In Indonesia, the system has been applied over the whole Java Island. The prototyped early-warning system has been enhanced by integration of a susceptibility mapping and a precipitation forecasting model (i.e. Weather Research Forecast). The performance has been evaluated

  15. Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics and drinking in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E

    2018-01-01

    The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occupational, social and medical characteristics of early prenatal leave in France.

    PubMed

    Vigoureux, Solène; Blondel, Béatrice; Ringa, Virginie; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-12-01

    In France, most women of childbearing age work. The prenatal leave law in France protects women during pregnancy and their employment. We aimed to describe how long before delivery women stopped working and analyse the association between occupational, social and medical factors and early prenatal leave (before 24 weeks' gestation). The sample was extracted from the 2010 French National Perinatal Survey. Women were interviewed in French maternity units during a 1-week period. We focused on all women with a singleton live birth who were working during pregnancy (n = 10 149). Women were interviewed between delivery and discharge to collect information on employment, date of leave, sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Among women who worked during pregnancy, 27.5% reported early occupational leave (before 24 weeks' gestation). Early occupational leave was more frequent among women with unstable jobs (fixed-term vs. non-fixed-term contract: adjusted odds ratio aOR = 1.60 [95% confidence interval 1.40-1.84]) and with less-qualified occupational categories (manual workers vs. managers and upper-intellectual positions: aOR = 2.96 [2.30-3.82]), even after adjusting for sociodemographic and other employment characteristics. Women with a pathological or at risk pregnancy left work earlier than other women. After stratification on type of pregnancy there was still a higher rate of early leave for women with less qualified occupational group. In France, social vulnerability of pregnant women, linked to low sociodemographic situation or low occupational categories, is associated with early leave during pregnancy, even after stratification on type of pregnancy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of early accountable care organizations defines patient, structural, cost, and quality-of-care characteristics.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Arnold M; Jha, Ashish K; Orav, E John; Liebman, Daniel L; Audet, Anne-Marie J; Zezza, Mark A; Guterman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have attracted interest from many policy makers and clinical leaders because of their potential to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. Federal ACO programs for Medicare beneficiaries are now up and running, but little information is available about the baseline characteristics of early entrants. In this descriptive study we present data on the structural and market characteristics of these early ACOs and compare ACOs' patient populations, costs, and quality with those of their non-ACO counterparts at baseline. We found that ACO patients were more likely than non-ACO patients to be older than age eighty and had higher incomes. ACO patients were less likely than non-ACO patients to be black, covered by Medicaid, or disabled. The cost of care for ACO patients was slightly lower than that for non-ACO patients. Slightly fewer than half of the ACOs had a participating hospital. Hospitals that were in ACOs were more likely than non-ACO hospitals to be large, teaching, and not-for-profit, although there was little difference in their performance on quality metrics. Our findings can be useful in interpreting the early results from the federal ACO programs and in establishing a baseline to assess the programs' development.

  18. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  19. A diagnosis model for early Tourette syndrome children based on brain structural network characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hongwei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jishui; Peng, Yun; He, Huiguang

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurobehavioral disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. Tic generation has been linked to disturbed networks of brain areas involved in planning, controlling and execution of action. The aim of our work is to select topological characteristics of structural network which were most efficient for estimating the classification models to identify early TS children. Here we employed the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic tractography to construct the structural networks of 44 TS children and 48 age and gender matched healthy children. We calculated four different connection matrices (fiber number, mean FA, averaged fiber length weighted and binary matrices) and then applied graph theoretical methods to extract the regional nodal characteristics of structural network. For each weighted or binary network, nodal degree, nodal efficiency and nodal betweenness were selected as features. Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Extraction (SVM-RFE) algorithm was used to estimate the best feature subset for classification. The accuracy of 88.26% evaluated by a nested cross validation was achieved on combing best feature subset of each network characteristic. The identified discriminative brain nodes mostly located in the basal ganglia and frontal cortico-cortical networks involved in TS children which was associated with tic severity. Our study holds promise for early identification and predicting prognosis of TS children.

  20. [Clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Q H; Liang, J J; Chen, L X; Mo, Y Q; Wei, X N; Zheng, D H; Dai, L

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients. Methods: Consecutive inpatients with primary gout were recruited between 2013 and 2017. The patients with gout onset younger than 30 were defined as early-onset group while the others were enrolled as control group. Clinical characteristics and uric acid (UA) indicators were compared between two groups. Results: Among 202 recruited patients, the early-onset group included 36 patients (17.8%). Compared with control group, the early-onset group presented more patients with obesity [13 patients (36.1%) vs. 22 patients (13.3%), P< 0.05], significantly higher serum UA level [(634±124)μmol/L vs.(527±169)μmol/L] and glomerular load of UA[(7.2±2.8)mg·min(-1)·1.73m(-2) vs. (4.4±2.2)mg·min(-1)·1.73m(-2)] and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [(83±21)ml·min(-1)·1.73m(-2) vs. (67±21)ml·min(-1)·1.73m(-2)] (all P< 0.05), lower fractional excretion of UA [4.4% (3.4%,6.1%) vs. 7.2% (5.2%,9.6%), P< 0.05], whereas 24h urinary UA excretion was comparable [(2 788±882)μmol/1.73m(2) vs. (2 645±1 140)μmol/1.73m(2), P= 0.274]. Subgroup analysis of patients without chronic kidney disease showed significantly lower fractional excretion of UA in the early-onset group [4.5%(3.3%,6.1%) vs. 6.7% (5.1%,8.7%), P< 0.05]. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity ( OR= 3.25) and fractional excretion of UA less than 7% ( OR= 9.01, all P< 0.05) were risk factors of gout early onset. Conclusion: The gout patients with early-onset younger than 30 present high serum and glomerular load of uric acid which might be due to obesity and relative under-excretion of renal uric acid.

  1. Clinically relevant characteristics associated with early treatment drug use versus abstinence.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Gerald; Stitzer, Maxine; Nunes, Edward V; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee

    2014-04-04

    This study describes early treatment drug use status and associated clinical characteristics in a diverse sample of patients entering outpatient substance abuse psychosocial counseling treatment. The goal is to more fully characterize those entering treatment with and without active use of their primary drug in order to better understand associated treatment needs and resilience factors. We examined baseline data from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study (Web-delivery of Treatment for Substance Use) with an all-comers sample of patients (N = 494) entering 10 outpatient treatment centers. Patients were categorized according to self-identified primary drug of abuse (alcohol, cocaine/stimulants, opioids, marijuana) and by baseline drug use status (positive/negative) based on urine testing or self-reports of recent use (alcohol). Characteristics were examined by primary drug and early use status. Classified as drug-negative were 84%, 76%, 62%, and 33% of primary opioid, stimulant, alcohol, and marijuana users; respectively. Drug-positive versus -negative patients did not differ on demographics or rates of substance abuse/dependence diagnoses. However, those negative for active use had better physical and mental health profiles, were less likely to be using a secondary drug, and were more likely to be attending 12-step self-help meetings. Early treatment drug abstinence is common among substance users entering outpatient psychosocial counseling programs, regardless of primary abused drug. Abstinence (by negative UA) is associated with better health and mental health profiles, less secondary drug use, and more days of 12-step attendance. These data highlight differential treatment needs and resiliencies associated with early treatment drug use status. NCT01104805.

  2. Personal Network Characteristics as Predictors of Change in Obesity Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2018-05-17

    The potential for peers to influence obesity risk behavior increases in adolescence, yet there are knowledge gaps of how behaviors are modified in response to peers over time. This study examined how personal friendship network characteristics were associated with obesity-related behaviors from late childhood to early adolescence. Two waves of friendship, physical activity, screen time, and dietary recall data were collected from 11- to 13-year-old students (99% retention) in Australia (n = 308) over a five- to eight-month period. Regression models identified friendship network characteristics that predicted later health behaviors which varied by gender and behavior type, such as the number of friends positively associated with physical activity intensity (males) and screen time (females). The need for considering context to influence behavior change is discussed. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  3. OS087. Maternal characteristics, mean arterial pressure and PLGF in early prediction of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kuc, S; Koster, M P; Franx, A; Schielen, P C; Visser, G H

    2012-07-01

    In a previous study, we described the predictive value of first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (fb-hCG), Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and A Desintegrin And Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) for early onset preeclampsia (delivery <34 weeks) [1]. The objective of the current study was to obtain the predictive value of these serum makers, for both early onset PE (EOPE) and late onset PE (LOPE), combined with maternal characteristics and first-trimester maternal mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). This was a nested case-control study, using stored first-trimester maternal serum from 167 women who subsequently developed PE, and 500 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies which resulted in a live birth =>37 weeks. Maternal characteristics (i.e. medical records, parity, weight, length) MAP and pregnancy outcome (i.e. gestational age at delivery, birthweight, fetal sex) were collected for each individual and used to calculate prior risks for PE in a multiple logistic regression model. MAP values and marker levels of PAPP-A, fb-hCG, PlGF and ADAM12 were expressed as multiples of the gestation-specific normal median (MoMs). Subsequently, MoMs were log-transformed and compared between PE and controls using Student's t-tests. Posterior risks were calculated using different combinations of variables;(1) maternal characteristics, serum markers, and MAP separately (2) maternal characteristics combined with serum markers or MAP (3) maternal characteristics combined with serum markers and MAP. The model-predicted detection rates (DR) for fixed 10% false-positive rates were obtained for EOPE and LOPE with or without intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR,birth weight <10th centile). The maternal characteristics: maternal age, weight, length, smoking status and nulliparity were discriminative between PE and control groups and therefore incorporated in the multiple logistic regression model. MoM MAP was

  4. Baseline Demographic, Anthropometric, Psychosocial, and Behavioral Characteristics of Rural, Southern Women in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Goodman, Melissa H; Olender, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Objectives Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) characteristics of rural, Southern, pregnant women enrolled in a maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting program are described. Methods Participants included 82 women early in their second trimester of pregnancy and residing in three Lower Mississippi Delta counties in the United States. Baseline data were collected through direct measurement and surveys. Results Participants were primarily African American (96 %), young (mean age = 23 years), single (93 %), and received Medicaid (92 %). Mean gestational age was 18 weeks, 67 % of participants were overweight or obese before becoming pregnant, and 16 % tested positive for major depression. Participants were sedentary (mean minutes of moderate intensity physical activity/week = 30), had low diet quality (mean Healthy Eating Index-2010 total score = 43 points), with only 38, 4, and 7 % meeting recommendations for saturated fat, fiber, and sodium intakes, respectively. Conclusions for Practice In the Lower Mississippi Delta, there is a need for interventions that are designed to help women achieve optimal GWG by improving their diet quality and increasing the amount of physical activity performed during pregnancy. Researchers also should consider addressing barriers to changing health behaviors during pregnancy that may be unique to this region of the United States.

  5. Early Childhood Settings in 15 Countries: What Are Their Structural Characteristics? The IEA Preprimary Project, Phase 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Patricia P., Ed.; Montie, Jeanne, Ed.

    This is the second of four monographs reporting the findings of Phase 2 of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Preprimary Project, which presents data on the physical characteristics of children's early childhood settings. Early childhood settings were documented in the following 15 countries: (1)…

  6. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  7. Early Puberty, Friendship Group Characteristics, and Dating Abuse in US Girls.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frances R; Rothman, Emily F; Jaffee, Sara R

    2017-06-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between advanced pubertal development and adolescent dating abuse (ADA) and to test if this relationship is moderated by friendship group characteristics in a nationally representative sample of US girls. Data were drawn from wave 1 and 2 (1995-1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The sample included 3870 girls aged 13 to 17 years, all of whom were in romantic and/or nonromantic sexual relationships. Relative pubertal development was measured as perceived physical development as compared with peers of the same age and race and age at menarche at wave 1. Participants reported at wave 2 whether they had experienced any verbal or physical abuse in their relationships. Friendship group characteristics included the percentage of boy friends, older friends, and friends' risk behavior level. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed an interaction between advanced pubertal development and percentage of boy friends on ADA victimization, adjusted for age, race, parents' marital status, household income, number of relationships, self-esteem, self-control, and antisocial behavior history. Advanced pubertal development was associated with more ADA victimization when girls' friendship groups comprised a higher percentage of boys. Findings highlight the importance of pubertal timing and friendship group characteristics to ADA victimization. Early pubertal development is a risk marker for ADA victimization, particularly when a higher percentage of girls' friends are boys. Pediatricians and adolescent health specialists should be sensitive to the elevated risk for ADA victimization in early-maturing girls. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Methods Participants were 310 students, aged 11–13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Results Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Conclusion Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time. PMID:26709924

  9. TrigDB for improving the reliability of the epicenter locations by considering the neighborhood station's trigger and cutting out of outliers in operation of Earthquake Early Warning System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H. C.; Park, J. H.; Lim, I. S.; Seong, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    TrigDB is initially developed for the discrimination of teleseismic-origin false alarm in the case with unreasonably associated triggers producing mis-located epicenters. We have applied TrigDB to the current EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) from 2014. During the early stage of testing EEWS from 2011, we adapted ElarmS from US Berkeley BSL to Korean seismic network and applied more than 5 years. We found out that the real-time testing results of EEWS in Korea showed that all events inside of seismic network with bigger than magnitude 3.0 were well detected. However, two events located at sea area gave false location results with magnitude over 4.0 due to the long period and relatively high amplitude signals related to the teleseismic waves or regional deep sources. These teleseismic-relevant false events were caused by logical co-relation during association procedure and the corresponding geometric distribution of associated stations is crescent-shaped. Seismic stations are not deployed uniformly, so the expected bias ratio varies with evaluated epicentral location. This ratio is calculated in advance and stored into database, called as TrigDB, for the discrimination of teleseismic-origin false alarm. We upgraded this method, so called `TrigDB back filling', updating location with supplementary association of stations comparing triggered times between sandwiched stations which was not associated previously based on predefined criteria such as travel-time. And we have tested a module to reject outlier trigger times by setting a criteria comparing statistical values(Sigma) to the triggered times. The criteria of cutting off the outlier is slightly slow to work until the number of stations more than 8, however, the result of location is very much improved.

  10. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  11. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  12. Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Characteristics and Outcomes in the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Ford, Julian D; Pearson, Geraldine S; Scranton, Victoria L; Dusad, Asha

    2017-12-01

    To assess patient characteristics and clinician-rated outcomes for children diagnosed with early-onset bipolar disorder in comparison to a depressive disorders cohort from a single clinic site. To assess predictors of bipolar treatment response. Medical records from 714 consecutive pediatric patients evaluated and treated at an academic tertiary child and adolescent psychiatry clinic between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed. Charts of bipolar children (n = 49) and children with depressive disorders (n = 58) meeting study inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared on variables assessing clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. Outcomes were assessed by using pre- and post-Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Severity and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores, and a CGI-Improvement score ≤2 at final visit determined responder status. Bipolar outcome predictors were assessed by using multiple linear regression. Clinic prevalence rates were 6.9% for early-onset bipolar disorder and 1.5% for very early-onset bipolar disorder. High rates of comorbid diagnoses, symptom severity, parental stress, and child high-risk behaviors were found in both groups. The bipolar cohort had higher rates of aggression and higher lifetime systems of care utilization. The final CGI and CGAS outcomes for unipolar depression patients differed statistically significantly from those for the bipolar cohort, reflecting better clinical status and more improvement at outcome for the depression patients. Both parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist total T-score at clinic admission and the number of lifetime systems-of-care for the child were significantly and inversely associated with improvement for the bipolar cohort. Early-onset bipolar disorder is a complex and heterogeneous psychiatric disorder. Evidence-based treatment should emphasize psychopharmacology with adjunctive family and individual psychotherapy. Strategies to improve engagement in treatment may be especially

  13. Structural and biomechanical characteristics after early mobilization in an Achilles tendon rupture model: operative versus nonoperative treatment.

    PubMed

    Krapf, Daniel; Kaipel, Martin; Majewski, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Acute Achilles tendon ruptures are common sports injuries; however, treatment remains a clinical challenge. Studies show a superior effect of early mobilization and full weight bearing on tendon healing and clinical outcome; however, few data exist on structural and biomechanical characteristics in the early healing phase. This study investigated the histological and biomechanical characteristics of early mobilization and full weight bearing in an Achilles tendon rupture model. Eighty rats underwent dissection of a hindpaw Achilles tendon; 40 rats were treated conservatively and 40 underwent open repair of the transected Achilles tendon by suturing. Early mobilization and full weight bearing were allowed in both groups. At 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after tenotomy, tensile strength, stiffness, thickness, tissue characteristics (histological analysis), and length were determined. Dissected Achilles tendons healed in all animals during full weight-bearing early mobilization. One and 2 weeks after tenotomy, rats in the operative group showed increased tensile strength and stiffness compared with the nonoperative group. Repair-site diameters were increased at 1, 2, and 8 weeks after tenotomy. Tendon length was decreased in the operative group throughout observation, whereas the nonoperative group showed increased structural characteristics on the cellular level and a more homogeneous collagen distribution. Surgical treatment of dissected rat Achilles tendons showed superior biomechanical characteristics within the first 2 weeks. Conservative treatment resulted in superior histological findings but significant lengthening of the tendon in the early healing phase (weeks 1-8). Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trigger Finger Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Trigger Finger Animation Trigger Finger Close Popup Close ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  15. Antisocial boys and their friends in early adolescence: relationship characteristics, quality, and interactional process.

    PubMed

    Dishion, T J; Andrews, D W; Crosby, L

    1995-02-01

    This study examines the close friendships of early adolescent boys in relation to antisocial behavior. 186 13-14-year-old boys and their close friends were interviewed, assessed at school, and videotaped in a problem-solving task. Similarity was observed between the demographic characteristics and antisocial behavior of the boys and their close friends. There was a tendency for the close friends of antisocial boys to live within the same neighborhood block and to have met in unstructured, unsupervised activities. Direct observations of interactions with close friends revealed a reliable correlation between antisocial behavior, directives, and negative reciprocity. Positive interactions within the friendship were uncorrelated with antisocial behavior and relationship quality. Implications of these findings for clinical and developmental theory are discussed.

  16. A Comparative Descriptive Study of Characteristics of Early- and Late-Onset Dementia Family Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Francine; Lachance, Lise; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Coulombe, Renée; Antoine, Pascal; Pasquier, Florence

    2016-02-01

    Characteristics of early- and late-onset dementia family caregivers were described and compared. Based on a theoretical model of role transition, data were collected through structured interviews from 48 caregivers of adults with Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia older than the age of 70 and 48 caregivers of similarly diagnosed adults younger than the age of 60. A significantly higher proportion of caregivers of younger adults were spouses and gainfully employed compared with those of older adults; they had more years of schooling, took care of a person with more severe impairments, received more help, perceived themselves as better prepared to deal with future needs, and better informed about services. They did not differ from caregivers of older adults in terms of psychological distress, role confidence, self-efficacy, and social support. This study highlights differences and similarities to be considered in the development of services tailored to the specific needs of each group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Cardiovascular oscillations at the bedside: early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using heart rate characteristics monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, J. Randall; Delos, John B.; Flower, Abigail A.; Cao, Hanqing; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Richman, Joshua S.; Lake, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied principles of statistical signal processing and non-linear dynamics to analyze heart rate time series from premature newborn infants in order to assist in the early diagnosis of sepsis, a common and potentially deadly bacterial infection of the bloodstream. We began with the observation of reduced variability and transient decelerations in heart rate interval time series for hours up to days prior to clinical signs of illness. We find that measurements of standard deviation, sample asymmetry and sample entropy are highly related to imminent clinical illness. We developed multivariable statistical predictive models, and an interface to display the real-time results to clinicians. Using this approach, we have observed numerous cases in which incipient neonatal sepsis was diagnosed and treated without any clinical illness at all. This review focuses on the mathematical and statistical time series approaches used to detect these abnormal heart rate characteristics and present predictive monitoring information to the clinician. PMID:22026974

  18. Early migration characteristics of a 180° porous-coated cup with 1-mm press fit.

    PubMed

    Stihsen, Christoph; Rath, Christopher; Radl, Roman; Saalabian, Ali A; Materna, Wilfried; Rehak, Peter; Windhager, Reinhard

    2013-05-01

    Evaluation of early cup movement is an important diagnostic tool to predict the likelihood of long-term implant loosening and clinical failure. The investigated cementless cup is clinically proven over 10 years, but there is a paucity of information that accurately describes the migration characteristics of this component. We retrospectively analysed the clinical outcome and migration behaviour of 60 Pinnacle 100 shells after an average 3.8-year follow-up (range 2.1-5.4 years). For migration measurement, EBRA (Einzel-Bild-Röntgen-Analyse) digital software was applied. Clinical assessment was performed using the HHS, the UCLA score and the SF-36 health survey. The clinical outcome showed excellent results with a mean HHS of 95.4 (SD 7.1) and mean UCLA of 6.9 (SD 1.3). All implants were radiologically stable within the observation period and none of the cups was at risk for aseptical loosening. EBRA analysis revealed a mean total migration of 1.4 mm (SD 0.9) (95 % CI 1.1-1.6) at 3 years. Eight cups migrated more than 1 mm within the first three postoperative months, thereafter the migration curves flattened down. Surgeons may expect to find a variable amount of early migration when using the Pinnacle cup. To our knowledge, these are the first results, which show an early "impaction" of a cementless cup, followed by subsequent osseointegration. We believe that an appropriate long-term outcome of the investigated cup is ensured. The data of the present investigation will provide clinicians with useful baseline information with which to compare new cup designs.

  19. High-accuracy detection of early Parkinson's Disease using multiple characteristics of finger movement while typing

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disease affecting over 6 million people worldwide. Loss of dopamine-producing neurons results in a range of both motor and non-motor symptoms, however there is currently no definitive test for PD by non-specialist clinicians, especially in the early disease stages where the symptoms may be subtle and poorly characterised. This results in a high misdiagnosis rate (up to 25% by non-specialists) and people can have the disease for many years before diagnosis. There is a need for a more accurate, objective means of early detection, ideally one which can be used by individuals in their home setting. In this investigation, keystroke timing information from 103 subjects (comprising 32 with mild PD severity and the remainder non-PD controls) was captured as they typed on a computer keyboard over an extended period and showed that PD affects various characteristics of hand and finger movement and that these can be detected. A novel methodology was used to classify the subjects’ disease status, by utilising a combination of many keystroke features which were analysed by an ensemble of machine learning classification models. When applied to two separate participant groups, this approach was able to successfully discriminate between early-PD subjects and controls with 96% sensitivity, 97% specificity and an AUC of 0.98. The technique does not require any specialised equipment or medical supervision, and does not rely on the experience and skill of the practitioner. Regarding more general application, it currently does not incorporate a second cardinal disease symptom, so may not differentiate PD from similar movement-related disorders. PMID:29190695

  20. Characteristics of the spouse caregiving experience: Comparison between early- and late-onset dementia.

    PubMed

    Wawrziczny, Emilie; Berna, Guillaume; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Pasquier, Florence; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-06-20

    To investigate the characteristics of the caregiving experience according to age at onset of dementia to adapt support programs. Fifty-seven spouse caregivers of persons with early-onset dementia (PEOD) and 93 spouse caregivers of persons with late-onset dementia (PLOD) participated. The characteristics of the caregiving experience were assessed using questionnaires. We compared the two groups according to age at onset of the disease using a multivariate test, Pillai's Trace test. The analysis showed that there were similarities and differences between the two groups of spouse caregivers. All spouse caregivers were confident in their caregiving role and fairly well prepared for future needs and reported mild depressive and anxious symptoms. However, they lacked informal support, had low confidence in requesting respite care and reported effects on their health. Compared to spouse caregivers of PLOD, spouse caregivers of PEOD had more severe perceptions of the cognitive disorders of persons with dementia (PWD) and had a better sense of preparedness and knowledge of services. Spouse caregivers of PLOD were more confident in their ability to control disturbing thoughts. The results suggest that programs should provide information on support networks to improve preparedness for spouse caregivers of PLOD as well as emphasizing positive coping strategies for caregivers of PEOD to maintain good-quality relationships with PWD, which influences the perception of the symptoms. For both groups, family relationships should be considered.

  1. Location characteristics of early gastric cancer treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae Hwan; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Hyeong Seok; Ryu, Dae Gon

    2017-11-01

    The timely detection of early gastric cancer (EGC) is important in performing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We attempted to determine the location characteristics of regions where EGC is frequently detected and analyzed the EGC characteristics associated with that location. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with EGC treated by ESD between November 2008 and August 2016. We retrospectively investigated and analyzed 647 EGC lesions. The patients' mean age was 66.7 ± 10.8 years. The patient population was predominantly male (77.1%, 499/647). A well-to-moderately differentiated carcinoma was observed in 97.2% of patients. The common site of carcinoma occurrence was the lower part of the stomach (the antrum and lower third of body, 89.6%). Among the stomach hemispheres, the lesser curvature side was the most frequent site of EGC (43.9%). The posterior side of EGC was more frequent than anterior side of EGC (20.4 vs. 15.6%, respectively). Submucosal invasive EGC was more frequent in the mid-to-upper parts of stomach than lower part of stomach (odds ratio 1.919; confidence interval 1.014-3.623; p = 0.045). Most EGCs that are resectable with ESD were found in the lower part and in the lesser curvature of the stomach. The submucosal invasive EGC was more frequent in the mid-to-upper part of stomach.

  2. Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Urban Residential Environment Characteristics as Determinants of Early Childhood Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, James W.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Andrews, Howard F.; Garfinkel, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Whyatt, Robin; Rundle, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated whether neighborhood characteristics correlated with early neurodevelopment and whether these characteristics confounded the previously reported association between exposure to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate insecticide) and neurodevelopment. Methods. We obtained prenatal addresses, chlorpyrifos exposure data, and 36-month Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) scores for a birth cohort in New York City (born 1998–2002). We used data from the 2000 US Census to estimate measures of physical infrastructure, socioeconomic status, crowding, demographic composition, and linguistic isolation for 1-kilometer network areas around each child's prenatal address. Generalized estimating equations were adjusted for demographics, maternal education and IQ, prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, caretaking environment quality, and building dilapidation. Results. Of 266 children included as participants, 47% were male, 59% were Dominican, and 41% were African American. For each standard deviation higher in neighborhood percent poverty, the PDI score was 2.6 points lower (95% confidence interval [CI] = −3.7, −1.5), and the MDI score was 1.7 points lower (95% CI = −2.6, −0.8). Neighborhood-level confounding of the chlorpyrifos-neurodevelopment association was not apparent. Conclusions. Neighborhood context and chlorpyrifos exposure were independently associated with neurodevelopment, thus providing distinct opportunities for health promotion. PMID:20299657

  3. Clinicopathological characteristics of clinical early gastric cancer in the upper-third stomach.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Konishi, Hirotaka; Okamoto, Kazuma; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-12-07

    To elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics of clinically early gastric cancer in the upper-third stomach and to clarify treatment precautions. A total of 683 patients with clinical early gastric cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study, 128 of whom had gastric cancer in the upper-third stomach (U group). All patients underwent a double contrast barium examination, endoscopy, and computed tomography (CT), and were diagnosed preoperatively based on the findings obtained. The clinicopathological features of these patients were compared with those of patients with gastric cancer in the middle- and lower-third stomach (ML group). We also compared clinicopathological factors between accurate-diagnosis and under-diagnosis groups in order to identify factors affecting the accuracy of a preoperative diagnosis of tumor depth. Patients in the U group were older (P = 0.029), had a higher ratio of males to females (P = 0.015), and had more histologically differentiated tumors (P = 0.007) than patients in the ML group. A clinical under-diagnosis occurred in 57 out of 683 patients (8.3%), and was more frequent in the U group than in the ML group (16.4% vs 6.3%, P < 0.0001). Therefore, the rates of lymph node metastasis and lymphatic invasion were slightly higher in the U group than in the ML group (P = 0.071 and 0.082, respectively). An under-diagnosis was more frequent in histologically undifferentiated tumors (P = 0.094) and in those larger than 4 cm (P = 0.024). The median follow-up period after surgery was 56 mo (range, 1-186 mo). Overall, survival and disease-specific survival rates were significantly lower in the U group than in the ML group (P = 0.016 and 0.020, respectively). However, limited operation-related cancer recurrence was not detected in the U group in the present study. Clinical early gastric cancer in the upper-third stomach has distinguishable characteristics that increase the risk of a clinical under-diagnosis, especially in patients with

  4. Contextual Influences on Early Drinking: Characteristics of Drinking and Non-Drinking Days

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Abar, Caitlin C.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Hayes, Kerri L.

    2016-01-01

    Research characterizing the adolescent drinking context is limited, often relies on samples of current drinkers reporting on recent/last or typical drinking experiences, and provides little information about the context of very early use. The present study uses repeated monthly assessments to describe the context of drinking days and matched non-drinking days to determine the unique risk associated with different drinking-related characteristics. Additionally, we used latent class analysis to empirically identify key configurations of drinking-related characteristics and both family- and non-family-related environmental characteristics (social context, physical location, source of alcohol). Data included 688 days (344 drinking days, 344 non-drinking days) from 164 middle-school students enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (62% female; 26% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Results supported four patterns: (1) heavier drinking occurring in a peer context, lighter drinking occurring in (2) a family context or (3) a peer context, and (4) drinking alcohol obtained at home without permission. Latent classes varied as a function of gender, age, peer norms, and parenting behaviors as well as alcohol type and perceived alcohol availability. Findings indicated that highly endorsed contexts were not necessarily the riskiest ones, and simply targeting an oft-reported source of alcohol, physical location, or social context may not be an effective strategy for reducing underage drinking. Additionally, although greater monitoring and anticipated parent reaction to drinking are typically protective against adolescent drinking, we found they were associated with parent-sanctioned drinking, suggesting the role of parenting practices must be considered in the context of drinking pattern. PMID:27269292

  5. Induction of Sirt1 by Mechanical Stretch of Skeletal Muscle through the Early Response Factor EGR1 Triggers an Antioxidative Response*

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Patricia S.; Mohamed, Junaith S.; Lopez, Michael A.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical loading of muscles by intrinsic muscle activity or passive stretch leads to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (1, 2). The NAD-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 is involved in the protection against oxidative stress by enhancing FOXO-driven Sod2 transcription (3–5). In this report, we unravel a mechanism triggered by mechanical stretch of skeletal muscle cells that leads to an EGR1-dependent transcriptional activation of the Sirt1 gene. The resulting transient increase in SIRT1 expression generates an antioxidative response that contributes to reactive oxygen species scavenging. PMID:20971845

  6. Clinical characteristics of early-stage osteonecrosis of the ankle and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Issa, Kimona; Naziri, Qais; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Lamm, Bradley M; Jones, Lynne C; Mont, Michael A

    2014-05-07

    The purposes of this study were to describe the clinical manifestations of osteonecrosis involving the distal tibia and talus, to identify risk factors associated with the disease, and to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous drilling for the treatment of ankles with early-stage symptomatic osteonecrosis. One hundred and one ankles in seventy-three patients with symptomatic osteonecrosis of the talus and/or distal tibia treated with percutaneous drilling were identified. There were eighty-one ankles in fifty-nine patients treated only at our institution and twenty ankles in fourteen patients with a failed prior core decompression at outside institutions. The parameters evaluated included demographics, disease characteristics, clinical outcomes including the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society score, Short-Form-36 scores, University of California Los Angeles activity scores, and visual analog scale pain scores, and radiographic outcomes at a mean follow-up duration of five years (range, two to nine years). Eighty-five ankles had isolated talus osteonecrosis, eleven ankles had involvement of the distal tibia and talus, and five ankles had isolated distal tibial disease. Twenty-nine patients (40%) had initially presented with symptomatic osteonecrosis of another joint, most commonly the knee (37%), the hip (29%), and the shoulder (25%). The most common identifiable risk factors included chronic corticosteroid use (49.3%), alcohol abuse (35.6%), tobacco use (29%), and hypertension (20.5%). Overall, 83% of ankles did not demonstrate further disease progression after the procedure. There were significant improvements (p < 0.05) in clinical and patient-reported outcomes after surgical treatment. The presence of human immunodeficiency virus and sickle cell disease was associated with a higher odds ratio of disease progression to joint collapse. Osteonecrosis of the distal tibia and talus was usually part of multifocal disease, and concurrent knee osteonecrosis was

  7. [Electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampal postnatal early development mediated by AMPA receptors in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Yi; Zhang, Ai-Feng; Zhao, Wen; Gao, Yu-Dan; Duan, Hong-Mei; Hao, Peng; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang

    2018-04-25

    The present study was aimed to investigate the electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampal postnatal early development mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into postnatal 0.5-, 1-, 2- and 3-month groups (n = 12). Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) mediated by AMPA receptors were recorded to evaluate the changes in the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by using patch-clamp and MED64 planar microelectrode array technique respectively. The results showed that, during the period of postnatal 0.5-3 months, some of the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, such as the membrane capacitance (Cm) and the resting membrane potential (RMP), showed no significant changes, while the membrane input resistance (Rin) and the time constant (τ) of the cells were decreased significantly. The amplitude, frequency and kinetics (both rise and decay times) of sEPSCs were significantly increased during the period of postnatal 0.5-1 month, but they were all decreased during the period of postnatal 1-3 months. In addition, the range of evoked fEPSPs in hippocamal CA1 region was significantly expanded, but the fEPSP amplitudes were decreased significantly during the period of postnatal 0.5-3 months. Furthermore, the evoked fEPSPs could be significantly inhibited by extracellular application of the AMPA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). These results suggest that AMPA receptor may act as a major type of excitatory receptor to regulate synaptic transmission and connections during the early stage of hippocampal postnatal development, which promotes the development and functional maturation of hippocampus in rats.

  8. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Conclusions: Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. Citation: Ogna A, Forni Ogna V, Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  9. Early trajectory of psychiatric symptoms after traumatic brain injury: relationship to patient and injury characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hart, Tessa; Benn, Emma K T; Bagiella, Emilia; Arenth, Patricia; Dikmen, Sureyya; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Novack, Thomas A; Ricker, Joseph H; Zafonte, Ross

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatric disturbance is common and disabling after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Few studies have investigated the trajectory of psychiatric symptoms in the first 6 months postinjury, when monitoring and early treatment might prevent persistent difficulties. The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of psychiatric symptoms 1-6 months post-TBI, the patient/injury characteristics associated with changes, and characteristics predictive of persisting symptoms. A secondary analysis was performed on data from a clinical trial with three data collection points. Across eight centers, 872 participants with complicated mild to severe TBI were administered the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) at 30, 90, and 180 days postinjury. Mixed-effects models were used to assess longitudinal changes in the BSI Global Severity Index (GSI). Multi-variate logistic regression was used to assess predictors of clinically significant GSI elevations persisting to 6 months post-TBI. In general, GSI scores improved over time. Women improved faster than men; race/ethnicity was also significantly associated with rate of change, with Hispanics showing the most and African Americans the least improvement. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms (caseness) occurred in 42% of the sample at 6 months, and more than one type of symptom was common. Significant predictors of caseness included African American race, age from 30 to 60 years, longer post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration, pre-TBI unemployment, and pre-TBI risky alcohol use. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are common in the first 6 months post-TBI and frequently extend beyond the depression and anxiety symptoms that may be most commonly screened. Patients with longer PTA and preinjury alcohol misuse may need more intensive monitoring for symptom persistence.

  10. Early-Life State-of-Residence Characteristics and Later Life Hypertension, Diabetes, and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Eisen, Ellen A; Modrek, Sepideh; Mokyr Horner, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Costello, Sadie; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    We examined how state characteristics in early life are associated with individual chronic disease later in life. We assessed early-life state of residence using the first 3 digits of social security numbers from blue- and white-collar workers from a US manufacturing company. Longitudinal data were available from 1997 to 2012, with 305 936 person-years of observation. Disease was assessed using medical claims. We modeled associations using pooled logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights. We found small but statistically significant associations between early-state-of-residence characteristics and later life hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. The most consistent associations were with income inequality, percentage non-White, and education. These associations were similar after statistically controlling for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and current state characteristics. Characteristics of the state in which an individual lives early in life are associated with prevalence of chronic disease later in life, with a strength of association equivalent to genetic associations found for these same health outcomes.

  11. Migration characteristics and early clinical results of a novel-finned press-fit acetabular cup.

    PubMed

    Kaipel, Martin; Prenner, Anton; Bachl, Sebastian; Farr, Sebastian; Sinz, Günter

    2014-04-01

    Ana Nova® is a novel-finned press-fit acetabular cup which showed superior biomechanical characteristics in an experimental set-up. Using Einzel Bild Röntgen Analyse (EBRA) measurements should offer the opportunity to predict implant survival at an early stage. The purpose of this study was to assess migration and clinical outcome 2 years after total hip replacement by a novel-finned press-fit acetabular cup. In this study, migration and clinical results of the implant were prospectively assessed in 67 patients. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris hip score (HHS). Migration analyses were performed using the computer assisted EBRA system. Data were analyzed for normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Group comparisons were performed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. At 2 years after surgery, none of the implants needed revision and HHS increased from 39.7 up to 92.2. In contrast to the beneficial clinical outcome, 17 of 44 patients showed increased total migration ( 1 mm/2a). Adverse migration data in this study might predict aseptic loosening and decreased survival of the implant. According to previous studies, it is possible that this effect occurred because of limited accuracy of the EBRA system. In our opinion, migration analyses may not be recommended as a screening tool in a 2 year follow-up.

  12. Characteristics of long recovery early VLF events observed by the North African AWESOME Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitamor, S.; Cohen, M. B.; Cotts, B. R. T.; Ghalila, H.; Alabdoadaim, M. A.; Graf, K.

    2013-08-01

    Lightning strokes are capable of initiating disturbances in the lower ionosphere, whose recoveries persist for many minutes. These events are remotely sensed via monitoring subionospherically propagating very low frequency (VLF) transmitter signals, which are perturbed as they pass through the region above the lightning stroke. In this paper we describe the properties and characteristics of the early VLF signal perturbations, which exhibit long recovery times using subionospheric VLF transmitter data from three identical receivers located at Algiers (Algeria), Tunis (Tunisia), and Sebha (Libya). The results indicate that the observation of long recovery events depends strongly on the modal structure of the signal electromagnetic field and the distance from the disturbed region and the receiver or transmitter locations. Comparison of simultaneously collected data at the three sites indicates that the role of the causative lightning stroke properties (e.g., peak current and polarity), or that of transient luminous events may be much less important. The dominant parameter which determines the duration of the recovery time and amplitude appears to be the modal structure of the subionospheric VLF probe signal at the ionospheric disturbance, where scattering occurs, and the subsequent modal structure that propagates to the receiver location.

  13. Characteristics of early MRI in children and adolescents with vanishing white matter.

    PubMed

    van der Lei, Hannemieke D; Steenweg, Marjan E; Barkhof, Frederik; de Grauw, Ton; d'Hooghe, Marc; Morton, Richard; Shah, Siddharth; Wolf, Nicole; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2012-02-01

    MRI in vanishing white matter typically shows diffuse abnormality of the cerebral white matter, which becomes increasingly rarefied and cystic. We investigated the MRI characteristics preceding this stage. In a retrospective observational study, we evaluated all available MRIs in our database of DNA-confirmed VWM patients and selected MRIs without diffuse cerebral white matter abnormalities and without signs of rarefaction or cystic degeneration in patients below 20 years of age. A previously established scoring list was used to evaluate the MRIs. An MRI of seven patients fulfilled the criteria. All had confluent and symmetrical abnormalities in the periventricular and bordering deep white matter. In young patients, myelination was delayed. The inner rim of the corpus callosum was affected in all patients. In early stages of VWM, MRI does not necessarily display diffuse cerebral white matter involvement and rarefaction or cystic degeneration. If the MRI abnormalities do not meet the criteria for VWM, it helps to look at the corpus callosum. If the inner rim (the callosal-septal interface) is affected, VWM should be considered. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Early experiences matter: a review of the effects of prenatal environment on offspring characteristics in poultry.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L M; Sparks, N H C; Rutherford, K M D

    2016-03-01

    Early life experiences can be important in determining offspring phenotypes and may influence interaction with the environment and hence health, welfare, and productivity. The prenatal environment of poultry can be divided into the pre-lay environment and the egg storage/incubation environment, both of which can affect offspring outcomes. The ability to separate maternal and egg/incubation effects makes birds well suited to this type of research. There are many factors, including feeding and nutrition, environmental conditions, husbandry practices, housing system, social environment, infectious environment, and maternal health status, that can influence both the health and performance and behavior and cognition of the offspring. There are some aspects of the environments that can be changed to produce beneficial effects in the offspring, like addition of certain additives to feed or short changes in incubation temperatures, while other aspects should be avoided to reduce negative effects, such as unpredictable feeding and lighting regimens. Measures of offspring characteristics may prove to be a useful method of assessing parent stock welfare if known stressors result in predictable offspring outcomes. This has the advantage of assessing the parent environment without interfering with the animals and possibly affecting their responses and could lead to improved welfare for the animals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  15. Characteristics of familial aggregation in early-onset Alzheimer`s disease: Evidence of subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, D.; Martinez, M.; Babron, M.C.

    1995-06-19

    Characteristics of familial aggregation of Alzheimer`s Disease were studied in 92 families ascertained through a clinically diagnosed proband with an onset below age 60 years. In each family data were systematically collected on the sibships of the proband, of his father, and of his mother. A total of 926 relatives were included and 81% of the living relatives (i.e., 251 individuals) were directly examined. The estimated cumulative risk among first degree relatives was equal to 35% by age 89 years (95% confidence interval 22 to 47%). This result does not support the hypothesis that an autosomal dominant gene, fully penetrantmore » by age 90 years, is segregating within all these pedigrees. Despite the fact that all probands were selected for an onset before age 60 years it was shown that two types of families could be delineated with respect to age at onset among affected relatives: all secondary cases with an onset below age 60 years were contributed by a particular group of families (type 1 families), whereas all secondary cases with an onset after age 60 years were contributed by another group of families (type 2 families). Although genetic interpretation of these findings is not straightforward, they support the hypothesis of etiologic heterogeneity in the determinism of early-onset Alzheimer`s disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  16. Characteristics of children under 6 years of age treated for early childhood caries in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Nadia; Barnes, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective survey highlighted the characteristics of children less than six years of age presenting with early childhood caries (ECC) who had two or more teeth extracted under intravenous sedation at the Tygerberg Oral Health Centre in Cape Town, South Africa. This survey was carried out in order to plan a community-appropriate intervention strategy. Records of 140 patients kept by the pediatric Dentistry Division met the inclusion criteria and were included in this survey. Most of the patients originate from economically disadvantaged areas. Diet, feeding and oral hygiene habits were shown to be the most significant factors that contributed to the development of ECC in these patients. All the children were either breast- or bottle-fed past one year of age. 93.6% of the children went to sleep with the bottle or while on the breast and 90% of them were fed on demand during the night. On average, breastfeeding was stopped at 9 months of age compared to bottle-feeding that, on average, was stopped at a much later mean age of 23 months. Where oral hygiene practices were concerned, 52.6% of children brushed their own teeth without supervision. Frequency of brushing varied between subjects. The results of this study have demonstrated that there is a need for culturally appropriate education campaigns to inform parents (especially those in disadvantaged communities) about the importance of oral health and the prevention of oral disease.

  17. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  18. Early Intervention Special Instructors and Service Coordinators in One State: Characteristics, Professional Development, and Needed Lines of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    The success of Early Intervention (EI) programs (Part C, IDEA [Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004]) for infants and toddlers with special needs (birth to 36 months) is largely influenced by the quality of direct service providers. Little is known, however, about characteristics of providers or involvement in training…

  19. The Relation between Mother-Infant Interactional Characteristics in Early Infancy and Later Attachment as Assessed in the Strange Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Yuko; Miyake, Kazuo

    Maternal and infant interactional characteristics in early infancy were investigated in order to examine their causal relationship with later attachment as assessed in the Strange Situation. Although the results of rating for maternal variables at four months of age exhibited significant differences between the set (S1) composed of attachment type…

  20. Characteristics of microbial community involved in early biofilms formation under the influence of wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuke; Li, Jie; Lu, Junling; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2018-04-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) containing microorganisms and residual nutrients can influence the biofilm formation. Although the process and mechanism of bacterial biofilm formation have been well characterized, little is known about the characteristics and interaction of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes in the early colonization, especially under the influence of WWTP effluent. The aim of this study was to characterize the important bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species in the early stage of biofilm formation downstream of the WWTP outlet. Water and biofilm samples were collected 24 and 48hr after the deposition of bio-cords in the stream. Illumina Miseq sequencing of the 16S and 18S rDNA showed that, among the three domains, the bacterial biofilm community had the largest alpha and beta diversity. The early bacterial colonizers appeared to be "biofilm-specific", with only a few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between the biofilm and the ambient water environment. Alpha-proteobacteria and Ciliophora tended to dominate the bacterial and eukaryotic communities, respectively, of the early biofilm already at 24hr, whereas archaea played only a minor role during the early stage of colonization. The network analysis showed that the three domains of microbial community connected highly during the early colonization and it might be a characteristic of the microbial communities in the biofilm formation process where co-occurrence relationships could drive coexistence and diversity maintenance within the microbial communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Characteristics and Circumstances of U.S. Women Who Obtain Very Early and Second-Trimester Abortions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    To determine which characteristics and circumstances were associated with very early and second-trimester abortion. Paper and pencil surveys were collected from a national sample of 8,380 non-hospital U.S. abortion patients in 2014 and 2015. We used self-reported LMP to calculate weeks gestation; when LMP was not provided we used self-reported weeks pregnant. We constructed two dependent variables: obtaining a very early abortion, defined as six weeks gestation or earlier, and obtaining second-trimester abortion, defined as occurring at 13 weeks gestation or later. We examined associations between the two measures of gestation and a range of characteristics and circumstances, including type of abortion waiting period in the patients' state of residence. Among first-trimester abortion patients, characteristics that decreased the likelihood of obtaining a very early abortion include being under the age of 20, relying on financial assistance to pay for the procedure, recent exposure to two or more disruptive events and living in a state that requires in-person counseling 24-72 hours prior to the procedure. Having a college degree and early recognition of pregnancy increased the likelihood of obtaining a very early abortion. Characteristics that increased the likelihood of obtaining a second-trimester abortion include being Black, having less than a high school degree, relying on financial assistance to pay for the procedure, living 25 or more miles from the facility and late recognition of pregnancy. While the availability of financial assistance may allow women to obtain abortions they would otherwise be unable to have, it may also result in delays in accessing care. If poor women had health insurance that covered abortion services, these delays could be alleviated. Since the study period, four additional states have started requiring that women obtain in-person counseling prior to obtaining an abortion, and the increase in these laws could slow down the trend in

  2. Geochemical characteristics and early diagenesis of recent carbonate mound sediments in the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaekers, Helen; Foubert, Anneleen; Wienberg, Claudia; Hebbeln, Dierk; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds occur in patches along the continental margin of the North Atlantic Ocean, from northern Norway down to Mauretania. Recent research has been focused on carbonate mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz, especially along the Moroccan margin. The Pen Duick, the Renard and the Vernadsky carbonate mound provinces in the Gulf of Cádiz are only some of the mound provinces which have been the subject of several recent research projects (Foubert et al., 2008; Wienberg et al., 2009). No living scleractinians could be found on top of those carbonate mounds. During cruise 64PE284 of RV Pelagia, gravity cores have been taken through carbonate mounds in the Carbonate Mound Provinces (CMP) SE of Yuma mud volcano and N of Meknes mud volcano. These cores have been analysed by several methods such as Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the geochemical characteristics of carbonate mounds, which can be used to quantify the effects of early diagenetic processes which may have altered the palaeo-environmental characteristics of the carbonate mounds. Dating has been done with 14C and U/Th methods pointing to mound growth phases being restricted to glacial periods. XRF and ICP-OES measurements give both qualitative and quantitative data of the chemical composition of the core. The main elements that have been analysed are Ca, Si, Fe, Sr, Al, K, Mg, Ti. According to the trend they follow, they can be devided in two groups, representative for the two encountered fraction types. These two fraction types (biogenic carbonate-rich fraction and terrigenous silicate-rich fraction) can be coupled to interglacial/glacial palaeo-environmental conditions. XRD measurements give an overview of the mineralogical composition of the cores. Thin sections, analysed by cathodeluminescence and classical optical petrography, and micro-CT scans are used to

  3. Comparing Characteristics of Early-Onset Injection Drug Users to Those With Late-Onset Injection in Kermanshah, Iran.

    PubMed

    Jorjoran Shushtari, Zahra; Noroozi, Alireza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Ahounbar, Elahe; Hajbi, Ahmad; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Farhadi, Mohammad Hossin; Farhoudian, Ali; Higgs, Peter; Shahboulagh, Farahnaz Mohammadi; Waye, Katherine; Noroozi, Mehdi

    2017-05-12

    Characteristics and behaviors of early-onset injection drug users are under studied topics in Iran. This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic characteristics as well as the drug using behaviors of early-onset and late-onset injection drug users in Kermanshah, West Iran. In this cross-sectional study using snowball and convenience sampling, we recruited 450 people during the Fall of 2014 from two drop in centers in Kermanshah, Iran. We collected data through face-to-face interviews. Early-onset injection is defined as whether the person reported their first injection at 22 years of age or younger. Subsequently, late-onset injection is defined as 23 years of age or older. We compared the characteristics of the two groups through both univariate and multiple logistic analyses. Overall, 54% (CI 95%: 44.3%, 62.2%) were early injectors. After controlling for low socioeconomic status, initiation of drug use at a young age, multiple drug use and methamphetamine use were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of early-onset injection. Additionally, early-onset injection was associated with recent syringe borrowing (OR = 2.6, p = 0.001), recent syringe lending (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01), recent cooker sharing (OR = 3.2, p = 0.01) and injecting two or more times a day (OR = 2.2, p = 0.04). Early-onset injectors were more likely to report a lower socioeconomic status, initiation of first drug use at a younger age, using methamphetamine alongside polydrug use, and engaging in higher risk taking behaviors like borrowing needles. With these associations, the study emphasizes the need for drug-prevention programs to focus on the transition to injection drug use at younger ages.

  4. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Asthma Contact Us Share Asthma Triggers: Gain Control Breathing Freely: Controlling Asthma Triggers This video features ... Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma Top of Page Molds About Molds ...

  5. Characteristics of referred muscle pain to the head from active trigger points in women with myofascial temporomandibular pain and fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Zarco-Moreno, Pedro; Galán-Del-Río, Fernando; Svensson, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Our aim was to compare the differences in the prevalence and the anatomical localization of referred pain areas of active trigger points (TrPs) between women with myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) or fibromyalgia (FMS). Twenty women (age 46 ± 8 years) with TMD and 20 (age 48 ± 6 years) with FMS were recruited from specialized clinic. Bilateral temporalis, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and suboccipital muscles were examined for TrPs. TrPs were identified by palpation and considered active when the pain reproduced familiar pain symptom experienced by the patient. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomical maps, digitalized and also measured. A new analysis technique based on a center of gravity (COG) method was used to quantitative estimate of the localization of the TrP referred pain areas. Women with FMS exhibited larger areas of usual pain symptoms than women with myofascial TMD (P < 0.001). The COG coordinates of the usual pain on the frontal and posterior pain maps were located more superior in TMD than in FMS. The number of active TrPs was significantly higher in TMD (mean ± SD 6 ± 1) than in FMS (4 ± 1) (P = 0.002). Women with TMD exhibited more active TrPs in the temporalis and masseter muscles than FMS (P < 0.01). Women with FMS had larger referred pain areas than those with TMD for sternocleidomastoid and suboccipital muscles (P < 0.001). Significant differences within COG coordinates of TrP referred pain areas were found in TMD, the referred pain was more pronounced in the orofacial region, whereas the referred pain in FMS was more pronounced in the cervical spine. This study showed that the referred pain elicited from active TrPs shared similar patterns as usual pain symptoms in women with TMD or FMS, but that distinct differences in TrP prevalence and location of the referred pain areas could be observed. Differences in location of referred pain areas may help clinicians to determine the most relevant TrPs for each

  6. Influence of Clinical and Sociodemographic Characteristics on Early Intervention Enrollment after NICU Discharge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Perrin, James M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to characterize participation of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates in early intervention (EI). We used data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study. We fit models of days from referral to Individualized Family Service Plan creation (plan time), days from referral to initiation of services (service time),…

  7. Mathematics Teaching during the Early Years in Hong Kong: A Reflection of Constructivism with Chinese Characteristics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Sharon S. N.; Rao, Nirmala

    2008-01-01

    This paper characterizes early mathematics instruction in Hong Kong. The teaching of addition in three pre-primary and three lower primary schools was observed and nine teachers were interviewed about their beliefs about early mathematics teaching. A child-centered, play-based approach was evident but teachers emphasized discipline, diligence and…

  8. Socioeconomic disparities in gait speed and associated characteristics in early old age.

    PubMed

    Plouvier, S; Carton, M; Cyr, D; Sabia, S; Leclerc, A; Zins, M; Descatha, A

    2016-04-23

    A few studies have documented associations between socioeconomic position and gait speed, but the knowledge about factors from various domains (personal factors, lifestyle, occupation…) which contribute to these disparities is limited. Our objective was to assess socioeconomic disparities in usual gait speed in a general population in early old age in France, and to identify potential contributors to the observed disparities, including occupational factors. The study population comprised 397 men and 339 women, aged 55 to 69, recruited throughout France for the field pilot of the CONSTANCES cohort. Gait speed was measured in meters/second. Socioeconomic position was based on self-reported occupational class. Information on personal characteristics, lifestyle, comorbidities and past or current occupational physical exposure came either from the health examination, from interview or from self-administered questionnaire. Four groups were considered according to sex-specific distributions of speed (the two slowest thirds versus the fastest third, for each gender). Logistic regression models adjusted for health screening center and age allowed to the study of cross-sectional associations between: 1- slower speed and occupational class; 2- slower speed and each potential contributor; 3- occupational class and selected potential contributors. The association between speed and occupational class was then further adjusted for the factors significantly associated both with speed and occupational class, in order to assess the potential contribution of these factors to disparities. With reference to managers/executives, gait speed was reduced in less skilled categories among men (OR 1.21 [0.72-2.05] for Intermediate/Tradesmen, 1.95 [0.80-4.76] for Clerks, Sale/service workers, 2.09 [1.14-3.82] for Blue collar/Craftsmen) and among women (OR 1.12 [0.55-2.28] for Intermediate/Tradesmen, 2.33 [1.09-4.97] for Clerks, 2.48 [1.18-5.24] for Sale/service workers/Blue collar

  9. Early Life Characteristics Associated with Appetite-Related Eating Behaviors in 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Gabriela; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old. A 2-factor solution was identified: factor 1-appetite restraint and factor 2-appetite disinhibition. Associations were estimated through generalized linear models adjusted for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI) before birth, family structure, number of siblings, and child's sex (β regression coefficients and 95% CIs). Higher appetite restraint at 7 years old was associated with higher maternal age and educational level, families with both parents (1- vs 2-parent: β = -0.074, 95% CI -0.140, -0.007) and no siblings (≥2 vs 0: β = -0.152, 95% CI -0.224, -0.081), and more sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old. It was also associated with lower child and maternal BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. In contrast, higher appetite disinhibition was associated with lower maternal educational background, having a 1-parent family, more sedentary behaviors (≥120 vs <120 min/d of media: β = 0.055, 95% CI 0.018, 0.093), and higher BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. Higher maternal age and education, and a family with both parents at 4 years old seem to influence higher appetite restraint, but less appetite disinhibition at 7 years old. More sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old were associated with higher appetite restraint and appetite disinhibition scores later in childhood. These results can be useful for the development of prevention guidelines and educational strategies aimed at improving healthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social and Emotional Characteristics and Early Childhood Mathematical and Literacy Giftedness: Observations From Parents and Childcare Providers Using the ECLS-B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Hope E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated mixed results regarding differences in social and emotional characteristics between gifted and typical populations. The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) is to investigate the affective characteristics of early mathematics and literacy ability…

  11. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  12. The temporal characteristics of the early and late stages of the L- and M-cone pathways that signal color

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Daniela; Henning, G. Bruce; Stockman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Flickering long-wavelength light appears more yellow than steady light of the same average intensity. The hue change is consistent with distortion of the visual signal at some nonlinear site (or sites) that produces temporal components not present in the original stimulus (known as distortion products). We extracted the temporal attenuation characteristics of the early (prenonlinearity) and late (post-nonlinearity) filter stages in the L- and M-cone chromatic pathway by varying the input stimulus to manipulate the distortion products and the measuring of the observers' sensitivity to them. The early, linear, filter stage acts like a band-pass filter peaking at 10–15 Hz with substantial sensitivity losses at both lower and higher frequencies. Its characteristics are consistent with nonlinearity being early in the visual pathway but following surround inhibition. The late stage, in contrast, acts like a low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency around 3 Hz. The response of the early stage speeds up with radiance, but the late stage does not. A plausible site for the nonlinearity, which modelling suggests may be smoothly compressive but with a hard limit at high input levels, is after surround inhibition from the horizontal cells. PMID:23457358

  13. Role of Teacher Characteristics and School Resources in Early Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eunjoo; Brown, Elizabeth T.; Karp, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the degree to which school-level teacher characteristics and resources are related to the mathematics learning of kindergarten children using a sample drawn from a large US database. Kindergarten-level teacher characteristics were operationalised as collective teacher efficacy, teacher experience and teacher preparation;…

  14. Early gene Broad complex plays a key role in regulating the immune response triggered by ecdysone in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Verma, Puja; Tapadia, Madhu G

    2015-08-01

    In insects, humoral response to injury is accomplished by the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are secreted in the hemolymph to eliminate the pathogen. Drosophila Malpighian tubules (MTs), however, are unique immune organs that show constitutive expression of AMPs even in unchallenged conditions and the onset of immune response is developmental stage dependent. Earlier reports have shown ecdysone positively regulates immune response after pathogenic challenge however, a robust response requires prior potentiation by the hormone. Here we provide evidence to show that MTs do not require prior potentiation with ecdysone hormone for expression of AMPs and they respond to ecdysone very fast even without immune challenge, although the different AMPs Diptericin, Cecropin, Attacin, Drosocin show differential expression in response to ecdysone. We show that early gene Broad complex (BR-C) could be regulating the IMD pathway by activating Relish and physically interacting with it to activate AMPs expression. BR-C depletion from Malpighian tubules renders the flies susceptible to infection. We also show that in MTs ecdysone signaling is transduced by EcR-B1 and B2. In the absence of ecdysone signaling the IMD pathway associated genes are down regulated and activation and translocation of transcription factor Relish is also affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipid Peroxidation Is an Early Symptom Triggered by Aluminum, But Not the Primary Cause of Elongation Inhibition in Pea Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2001-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) roots were treated with aluminum in a calcium solution, and lipid peroxidation was investigated histochemically and biochemically, as well as other events caused by aluminum exposure. Histochemical stainings were observed to distribute similarly on the entire surface of the root apex for three events (aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and callose production), but the loss of plasma membrane integrity (detected by Evans blue uptake) was localized exclusively at the periphery of the cracks on the surface of root apex. The enhancement of four events (aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, callose production, and root elongation inhibition) displayed similar aluminum dose dependencies and occurred by 4 h. The loss of membrane integrity, however, was enhanced at lower aluminum concentrations and after longer aluminum exposure (8 h). The addition of butylated hydroxyanisole (a lipophilic antioxidant) during aluminum treatment completely prevented lipid peroxidation and callose production by 40%, but did not prevent or slow the other events. Thus lipid peroxidation is a relatively early symptom induced by the accumulation of aluminum and appears to cause, in part, callose production, but not the root elongation inhibition; by comparison, the loss of plasma membrane integrity is a relatively late symptom caused by cracks in the root due to the inhibition of root elongation. PMID:11154329

  16. The plant pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici improves bacterial growth and triggers early gene regulations in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp.

    PubMed

    Barret, M; Frey-Klett, P; Boutin, M; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, A-Y; Martin, F; Guillot, L; Sarniguet, A

    2009-01-01

    In soil, some antagonistic rhizobacteria contribute to reduce root diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Direct modes of action of these bacteria have been largely explored; however, commensal interaction also takes place between these microorganisms and little is known about the influence of filamentous fungi on bacteria. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) and the biocontrol bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp was set up to analyse bacterial transcriptional changes induced by the fungal mycelium at three time-points of the interaction before cell contact and up until contact. For this, a Pf29Arp shotgun DNA microarray was constructed. Specifity of Ggt effect was assessed in comparison with one of two other filamentous fungi, Laccaria bicolor and Magnaporthe grisea. During a commensal interaction, Ggt increased the growth rate of Pf29Arp. Before contact, Ggt induced bacterial genes involved in mycelium colonization. At contact, genes encoding protein of stress response and a patatin-like protein were up-regulated. Among all the bacterial genes identified, xseB was specifically up-regulated at contact by Ggt but down-regulated by the other fungi. Data showed that the bacterium sensed the presence of the fungus early, but the main gene alteration occurred during bacterial-fungal cell contact.

  17. Propofol and sevoflurane during epidural/general anesthesia: comparison of early recovery characteristics and pain relief.

    PubMed

    Hepağuşlar, Hasan; Ozzeybek, Deniz; Ozkardeşler, Sevda; Taşdöğen, Aydin; Duru, Seden; Elar, Zahide

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the early recovery characteristics and pain relief of adult patients during combined anesthesia with (epidural and general), either with propofol or sevoflurane for maintenance in major abdominal surgery. Twenty-two patients (ASA I-III) were enrolled in this randomized, prospective study. After fluid preloading, 10 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% + 5 ml of prilocaine 0.5% + 1 ml of fentanyl 50 microg mL(-1) were administered via an epidural catheter. General anesthesia was induced with fentanyl and propofol after T6 sensorial blockade. Propofol group (n = 11) received propofol (2-5 mg kg(-1) h(-1)), sevoflurane group (n = 11) received sevoflurane (1-2%) for maintenance. Anesthesia was supplemented with N2O in O2 and intravenous fentanyl. Continuous epidural infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine + 1 microg fentanyl (5-7 mL h(-1)) was started forty-five min after the epidural bolus dose and 5 ml of it was given at the start of the wound closure. All anesthetics were discontinued except epidural infusion during the last suture. After emergence time was determined, the patients were transferred to the PACU. They were observed for orientation times of person and place. The pain scores (verbal analogue scale, 0-10) were assessed with 30 min intervals. When the patient's pain score was >3, rescue analgesic protocol (diclofenac Na 75 mg im followed by meperidine HCI approximately 0.25 mg kg(-1) iv at the latter period) was applied. In the case of inadequate pain relief during the latter assessment periods, meperidine HCI approximately 0.25 mg kg(-1) was administered. Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test were used for the statistical analysis. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant. Between the groups no statistical differences were observed in the emergence time (5 vs. 6 min, median) and in the orientation time to person (6 vs. 10 min). Recovery of orientation to place was found faster in propofol group (7 vs. 12 min, p = 0.041). Pain scores of the patients

  18. Comparison of Quantitative Characteristics of Early Post-resuscitation EEG Between Asphyxial and Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bihua; Chen, Gang; Dai, Chenxi; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yongqin

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis has shown promising results in studying brain injury and functional recovery after cardiac arrest (CA). However, whether the quantitative characteristics of EEG, as potential indicators of neurological prognosis, are influenced by CA causes is unknown. The purpose of this study was designed to compare the quantitative characteristics of early post-resuscitation EEG between asphyxial CA (ACA) and ventricular fibrillation CA (VFCA) in rats. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were randomized into either ACA or VFCA group. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5-min untreated CA. Characteristics of early post-resuscitation EEG were compared, and the relationships between quantitative EEG features and neurological outcomes were investigated. Compared with VFCA, serum level of S100B, neurological deficit score and brain histopathologic damage score were dramatically higher in the ACA group. Quantitative measures of EEG, including onset time of EEG burst, time to normal trace, burst suppression ratio, and information quantity, were significantly lower for CA caused by asphyxia and correlated with the 96-h neurological outcome and survival. Characteristics of earlier post-resuscitation EEG differed between cardiac and respiratory causes. Quantitative measures of EEG not only predicted neurological outcome and survival, but also have the potential to stratify CA with different causes.

  19. Work and Family Characteristics as Predictors of Early Retirement in Married Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Bettina; Korunka, Christian; Hoonakker, Peter; Raymo, James M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an integrative model of early retirement using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The model extends prior work by incorporating work-family conflict to capture the interaction between the work and family domains and by assuming proximal and distal predictors of early retirement. More precisely, the model suggests that family and job demands and resources predict family-to-work and work-to-family conflict, respectively. All of these factors are presumed to have only indirect effects on retirement timing via the intervening effect of quality of life measures, that is, marital satisfaction, job satisfaction and health. The authors assume that these three factors constitute predictors of early retirement in addition to socioeconomic status and the availability of a pension plan and health insurance. The model was tested with structural equation modeling techniques, and the results were supportive. Therefore, the proposed model offers a general framework for the integration of previous research findings. PMID:21430790

  20. Phosphorylation of FMRP and alterations of FMRP complex underlie enhanced mLTD in adult rats triggered by early life seizures.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Paul B; Castano, Anna M; O'Leary, Heather; Simpson, Kameron; Browning, Michael D; Benke, Tim A

    2013-11-01

    Outside of Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the role of Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in mediating neuropsychological abnormalities is not clear. FMRP, p70-S6 kinase (S6K) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are thought to cooperate as a dynamic signaling complex. In our prior work, adult rats have enhanced CA1 hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) following an early life seizure (ELS). We now show that mGluR-mediated LTD (mLTD) is specifically enhanced following ELS, similar to FMRP knock-outs. Total FMRP expression is unchanged but S6K is hyperphosphorylated, consistent with S6K overactivation. We postulated that either disruption of the FMRP-S6K-PP2A complex and/or removal of this complex from synapses could explain our findings. Using subcellular fractionation, we were surprised to find that concentrations of FMRP and PP2A were undisturbed in the synaptosomal compartment but reduced in parallel in the cytosolic compartment. Following ELS FMRP phosphorylation was reduced in the cytosolic compartment and increased in the synaptic compartment, in parallel with the compartmentalization of S6K activation. Furthermore, FMRP and PP2A remain bound following ELS. In contrast, the interaction of S6K with FMRP is reduced by ELS. Blockade of PP2A results in enhanced mLTD; this is occluded by ELS. This suggests a critical role for the location and function of the FMRP-S6K-PP2A signaling complex in limiting the amount of mLTD. Specifically, non-synaptic targeting and the function of the complex may influence the "set-point" for regulating mLTD. Consistent with this, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), an FMRP "target" which regulates mLTD expression, is specifically increased in the synaptosomal compartment following ELS. Further, we provide behavioral data to suggest that FMRP complex dysfunction may underlie altered socialization, a symptom associated and observed in other rodent models of autism, including FXS. © 2013.

  1. The effects of patient and physician characteristics on early outpatient satisfaction with substance dependence care: results of the SUBUSQOL study

    PubMed Central

    Bourion-Bédès, Stéphanie; Schwan, Raymund; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Vlamynck, Guillaume; Viennet, Sarah; Schvartz, Maxime; Gaunard, Anne; Bédès, Alex; Clerc-Urmès, Isabelle; Baumann, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Background Although patient perceptions of health care have increasingly been explored in the literature, little is known about care satisfaction among individuals with substance dependence. This exploratory study assessed the relationships between patient and physician characteristics and early outpatient satisfaction with care for alcohol and opioid dependence. Methods Satisfaction was assessed using a multidimensional, self-administered and validated questionnaire during the early care process among a prospective outpatient cohort. In addition to measuring satisfaction and obtaining sociodemographic and clinical data, this study collected data on the self-reported health status and physician characteristics at inclusion. Cross-sectional analysis with multiple linear regression was performed to identify the variables associated with satisfaction level. Results A total of 249 outpatients were included, and 63.8% completed the satisfaction questionnaire. Patients without a history of previous care for substance dependence were more satisfied with the appointment-making process (β=7.2; P=0.029) and with the doctor consultation (β=10.3; P=0.003) than those who had received care previously. Neither sociodemographic characteristics nor self-reported health status was associated with outpatient satisfaction. Conclusion The factors that affect patients’ ratings of early satisfaction with the care that they receive should be studied further because increased understanding of the factors that negatively affect these ratings might enable caregivers and outpatient management facilities to improve the patient experience during the early stages of care, which might in turn improve treatment adherence, continuity of care, and other health-related outcomes. PMID:28507432

  2. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  3. Inclusion of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Education: What Teacher Characteristics Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Frances Lai Mui; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Tracey, Danielle; Barker, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the inclusion of children with special needs in regular classrooms has gained increasing advocacy, teachers' attitudes vary. Previous studies examining teacher attitudes have focused on primary and secondary schools in the Western world, and little is known about early childhood settings in Eastern countries. This study used MANOVA to…

  4. Spatial characteristics of early successional habitat across the Upper Great Lakes states

    Treesearch

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; James D. Garner; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry

    2016-01-01

    Creation and management of early successional forest (ESF) is needed to halt and reverse declines of bird species dependent on pioneering plant species or young forests. ESF-dependent bird species require specific structural forest classes and are sensitive to forest age (a surrogate for forest structure), patch size, proximity to patch edges, and the juxtaposition of...

  5. Baseline demographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of rural, Southern women in early pregnacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) char...

  6. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; McClellan, Jon; Findling, Robert L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Anderson, Robert; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Williams, Emily; McNamara, Nora K.; Jackson, Joseph A.; Ritz, Louise; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Pierson, Leslie; Varley, Jennifer A.; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Hamer, Robert M.; Noyes, Nancy; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Sikich, Linmarie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We examined baseline demographic and clinical profiles of youths enrolled from 2001 to 2006 in the publicly funded multicenter, randomized controlled trial Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Method: Youths (8-19 years) with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder were recruited at four academic sites.…

  7. Understanding Infants: Characteristics of Early Childhood Practitioners' Interpretations of Infants and Their Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degotardi, Sheila; Davis, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    This research explored the nature of early childhood practitioners' interpretations of infants in their programs on the basis that such interpretations guide practitioner-infant interactions and curriculum decision-making processes. Twenty-four infant practitioners were asked to describe a nominated infant in their program and to interpret video…

  8. Early Language Development in Context: Interactions between Infant Temperament and Parenting Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laake, Lauren M.; Bridgett, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study considered the interplay between infant temperament and maternal caregiving behaviors in relation to early language. A total of 118 mother-infant dyads participated in the study. Mothers rated infant positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), and maternal behaviors were coded during a free-play task when infants…

  9. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  10. Early Characteristics of Children with ASD Who Demonstrate Optimal Progress between Age Two and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Emily; Barton, Marianne; Robins, Diana L.; Abrams, Danielle N.; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Although for many children, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability, a subset of children with ASD lose their diagnosis and show typical cognitive and adaptive abilities. The ages at which this transition can occur is not known, but it sometimes occurs quite early. Participants in the current study were 207 children with an ASD at…

  11. Parenting and Child Characteristics in the Prediction of Shame in Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Lall, Debra I. K.; De Jaeger, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined individual differences in shame responding in early childhood and predictive relations with shame proneness in middle childhood. Child shame responding, parental shaming, and child temperamental inhibition were assessed at Time 1 (n = 225, aged 3-4 years), shame responding was reassessed at Time 2 (n = 199, aged 5-7 years), and shame…

  12. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  13. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  14. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Silva, Neimar de Paula; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Camargo, Beatriz; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    The population-based cancer registries (PBCR) and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC]) have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL) in Brazil. A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i) characteristics of the child at birth and (ii) characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models. EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10) and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00). The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. The early development of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: Characteristics of sibling interactions.

    PubMed

    Bontinck, Chloè; Warreyn, Petra; Van der Paelt, Sara; Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Although sibling interactions play an important role in children's early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated. Sibling interactions in ASD-dyads were characterized by higher levels of negativity. Although somewhat less pronounced in ASD-dyads, role asymmetry was present in both groups, with the older child taking the dominant position. Finally, siblings pairs with an older sister were characterized by more positive behaviours. Since differences in sibling interactions may alter the developmental trajectories of both siblings, these early relationships should be taken into account in future ASD research and interventions.

  16. A Kinematic Description of the Temporal Characteristics of Jaw Motion for Early Chewing: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Erin M.; Green, Jordan R.; Weismer, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to describe age- and consistency-related changes in the temporal characteristics of chewing in typically developing children between the ages of 4 and 35 months and adults using high-resolution optically based motion capture technology. Method: Data were collected from 60 participants (48 children, 12…

  17. Early transcriptomic changes induced by magnesium deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana reveal the alteration of circadian clock gene expression in roots and the triggering of abscisic acid-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Christian; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Coppens, Frederik; Craciun, Adrian; Inzé, Dirk; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    *Plant growth and development ultimately depend on environmental variables such as the availability of essential minerals. Unravelling how nutrients affect gene expression will help to understand how they regulate plant growth. *This study reports the early transcriptomic response to magnesium (Mg) deprivation in Arabidopsis. Whole-genome transcriptome was studied in the roots and young mature leaves 4, 8 and 28 h after the removal of Mg from the nutrient solution. *The highest number of regulated genes was first observed in the roots. Contrary to other mineral deficiencies, Mg depletion did not induce a higher expression of annotated genes in Mg uptake. Remarkable responses include the perturbation of the central oscillator of the circadian clock in roots and the triggering of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling, with half of the up-regulated Mg genes in leaves being ABA-responsive. However, no change in ABA content was observed. *The specificity of the response of some Mg-regulated genes was challenged by studying their expression after other mineral deficiencies and environmental stresses. The possibility to develop markers for Mg incipient deficiency is discussed here.

  18. Incidence and characteristics of early childhood wheezing, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Fatimah S; Fry, Alicia M; Goswami, Doli; Sharmeen, Amina; Nahar, Kamrun; Anjali, Bilkis Ara; Rahman, Mustafizur; Brooks, W Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    Early childhood wheezing substantially impacts quality of life in high-income countries, but data are sparse on early childhood wheezing in low-income countries. We estimate wheezing incidence, describe wheezing phenotypes, and explore the contribution of respiratory viral illnesses among children aged <5 years in urban Bangladesh. During 2004-2010, respiratory illness surveillance was conducted through weekly home visits. Children with fever or respiratory illness were referred for examination by study physicians including lung auscultation. During 2005-2007, every fifth referred child had nasal washes tested for human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial viruses, and influenza and parainfluenza viruses. During April 2004-July 2010, 23,609 children were enrolled in surveillance. Of these, 11,912 (50%) were male, median age at enrollment was 20 months (IQR 5-38), and 4,711 (20%) had ≥1 wheezing episode accounting for 8,901 episodes (733 [8%] associated with hospitalization); 25% wheezed at <1 year of age. Among children aged <5 years, incidences of wheezing and wheezing hospitalizations were 2,335/10,000 and 192/10,000 child-years. Twenty-eight percent had recurrent wheezing. Recurrent versus non-recurrent wheezing episodes were more likely to be associated with oxygen saturation <93% (OR 6.9, 95%CI 2.8-17.3), increased work of breathing (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.4-1.8), and hospitalization (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.4). Respiratory viruses were detected in 66% (578/873) of episodes with testing. In urban Bangladesh, early childhood wheezing is common and largely associated with respiratory virus infections. Recurrent wheezing is associated with more severe illness and may predict children who would benefit most from closer follow-up and targeted interventions. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:588-595. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [The clinical characteristics of the early manifestations of radiation exposure in children].

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, I K

    1993-11-01

    The article substantiates the necessity to conduct the thorough study not only of the remote consequences of the Chernobyl APS disaster, but also of the early clinical manifestations of radiation influence in children, as a most vulnerable group in respect to radiation. Age factor is considered to be one of the dominant features which influence upon the absorptive capacity of thyroid gland in respect to radioiodine, and thus provoking a high vulnerability of children in crisis situations. The authors study hematological peculiarities of radioreactions in children and adults. There are recommendations for preventing the reception of radionuclides by babies during lactation.

  20. First-trimester screening for early and late preeclampsia using maternal characteristics, biomarkers, and estimated placental volume.

    PubMed

    Sonek, Jiri; Krantz, David; Carmichael, Jon; Downing, Cathy; Jessup, Karen; Haidar, Ziad; Ho, Shannon; Hallahan, Terrence; Kliman, Harvey J; McKenna, David

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. First-trimester screening has been shown to be effective in selecting patients at an increased risk for preeclampsia in some studies. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of screening for preeclampsia in the first trimester based on maternal characteristics, medical history, biomarkers, and placental volume. This is a prospective observational nonintervention cohort study in an unselected US population. Patients who presented for an ultrasound examination between 11-13+6 weeks' gestation were included. The following parameters were assessed and were used to calculate the risk of preeclampsia: maternal characteristics (demographic, anthropometric, and medical history), maternal biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein), and estimated placental volume. After delivery, medical records were searched for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Detection rates for early-onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks' gestation) and later-onset preeclampsia (≥34 weeks' gestation) for 5% and 10% false-positive rates using various combinations of markers were calculated. We screened 1288 patients of whom 1068 (82.99%) were available for analysis. In all, 46 (4.3%) developed preeclampsia, with 13 (1.22%) having early-onset preeclampsia and 33 (3.09%) having late-onset preeclampsia. Using maternal characteristics, serum biomarkers, and uterine artery pulsatility index, the detection rate of early-onset preeclampsia for either 5% or 10% false-positive rate was 85%. With the same protocol, the detection rates for preeclampsia with delivery <37 weeks were 52% and 60% for 5% and 10% false-positive rates, respectively. Based on maternal characteristics, the detection rates for late-onset preeclampsia were 15% and 48% for 5% and 10%, while for preeclampsia at ≥37 weeks' gestation the detection rates were 24

  1. The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant Universe a few hundred million years after the big bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial haloes with Tvir ≥ 104 K provides the most promising way to assemble massive black holes. In this study, we aim to determine the characteristic mass scale of seed black holes and the time evolution of the accretion rates resulting from the direct collapse model. We explore the formation of supermassive black holes via cosmological large eddy simulations (LES) by employing sink particles and following their evolution for 20 000 yr after the formation of the first sink. As the resulting protostars were shown to have cool atmospheres in the presence of strong accretion, we assume here that UV feedback is negligible during this calculation. We confirm this result in a comparison run without sinks. Our findings show that black hole seeds with characteristic mass of 105 M⊙ are formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner flux which leads to an isothermal collapse. The characteristic mass is about two times higher in LES compared to the implicit large eddy simulations. The accretion rates increase with time and reach a maximum value of 10 M⊙ yr-1 after 104 yr. Our results show that the direct collapse model is clearly feasible as it provides the expected mass of the seed black holes.

  2. [Acute myocardial infarction in women. Initial characteristics, management and early outcome. The FAST-MI registry].

    PubMed

    Simon, T; Puymirat, E; Lucke, V; Bouabdallaoui, N; Lognoné, T; Aissaoui, N; Cohen, S; Ashrafpoor, G; Roul, G; Jouve, B; Levy, G; Charpentier, S; Grollier, G; Ferrières, J; Danchin, N

    2013-08-01

    To assess gender differences in characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes in patients participating in the French FAST-MI 2010 registry. Three thousand and seventy-nine patients hospitalised for ST-elevation (STEMI) or non-ST-elevation (NSTEMI) myocardial infarction in 213 French centres during a 1-month period at the end of 2010. Women account for 27% of the population and more frequently present with NSTEMI. They are 9 years older than men on average, although 25% of women with STEMI are less than 60 years of age. Management of STEMI is similar, after adjustment for baseline characteristics. However, fewer women are treated with primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty. In NSTEMI, although use of coronary angiography is similar, fewer women get treated with angioplasty. Most medications are used in a similar way in men and women, except thienopyridines, with fewer women receive prasugrel. After adjustment, in-hospital mortality is similar for men and women. Myocardial infarction is not specific to men: one out of four patients admitted for myocardial infarction is a woman. Initial management is rather similar for men and women, after taking into account differences in baseline characteristics. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty, however, remains less frequently used in women. In-hospital complications have become rarer and do not differ according to sex. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Migration characteristics and early clinical results of the NANOS® short-stem hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kaipel, Martin; Grabowiecki, Phillip; Sinz, Katrina; Farr, Sebastian; Sinz, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Femoral short stems promise essential advantages in total hip arthroplasty. Up to now, only short- and midterm clinical studies exist. Data on early stem migration that could predict later aseptic loosening at an early stage are rare. The purpose of this study was to assess migration patterns and clinical outcome 2 years after hip replacement by a metaphyseal anchored cementless short stem. Migration data and clinical results were prospectively assessed in 49 patients. Clinical outcome was measured using the Harris Hip Score (HHS). Migration analyses were performed using the computer-assisted Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA) system. At 2 years after surgery, none of the implants needed revision, and HHS increased from 47.9 up to 98.1. Of 49 patients, 5 (10%) showed increased vertical stem migration (1.5 mm/2a) that might predict late aseptic loosening. Of 49 stems, 44 (90%) showed stable migration patterns indicating a beneficial long-term outcome. Results of this study confirm the excellent clinical data of previous works. Migration patterns strongly suggest that short-stem arthroplasty is not only an innovative but also a reliable strategy in total hip replacement.

  4. The early development of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: Characteristics of sibling interactions

    PubMed Central

    Warreyn, Petra; Van der Paelt, Sara; Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Although sibling interactions play an important role in children’s early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated. Sibling interactions in ASD-dyads were characterized by higher levels of negativity. Although somewhat less pronounced in ASD-dyads, role asymmetry was present in both groups, with the older child taking the dominant position. Finally, siblings pairs with an older sister were characterized by more positive behaviours. Since differences in sibling interactions may alter the developmental trajectories of both siblings, these early relationships should be taken into account in future ASD research and interventions. PMID:29543814

  5. The ATLAS high level trigger steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, N.; Bold, T.; Eifert, T.; Fischer, G.; George, S.; Haller, J.; Hoecker, A.; Masik, J.; Nedden, M. Z.; Reale, V. P.; Risler, C.; Schiavi, C.; Stelzer, J.; Wu, X.

    2008-07-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several new features for commissioning and operation have been added: comprehensive monitoring is now built in to the framework; for validation and debugging, reconstructed data can be written out; the steering is integrated with the new configuration (presented separately), and topological and global triggers have been added. This paper will present details of the final design and its implementation, the principles behind it, and the requirements and constraints it is subject to. The experience gained from technical runs with realistic trigger menus will be described.

  6. Do early career indicators of clinical skill predict subsequent career outcomes and practice characteristics for general internists?

    PubMed

    Gray, Bradley; Reschovsky, James; Holmboe, Eric; Lipner, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    To study relationships between clinical skill measures assessed at the beginning of general internists' careers and their career outcomes and practice characteristics. General Internist Community Tracking Study Physician Survey respondents (2000-2001, 2004-2005) linked with residency program evaluations and American Board of Internal Medicine board certification examination score records; n = 2,331. Cross-sectional regressions of career outcome and practice characteristic measures on board examination scores/success, residency evaluations interacted with residency type, and potential confounding variables. Failure to achieve board certification was associated with $27,206 (18 percent, p < .05) less income and 14.9 percent more minority patients relative to physicians scoring in the bottom quartile on their initial examination who eventually became certified (p < .01). Other skill measures were not associated with income. Scoring in the top rather than bottom quartile on the board certification examination was associated with 9 percent increased likelihood of reporting high career satisfaction (p < .05). Among physicians trained in community hospital residency programs, lower evaluations were associated with 14.5 percent higher share of minority patients (p < .05). Both skill measures were associated with practice type. There are associations between early career skill measures and career outcomes. In addition, minority patients are more likely to be treated by physicians with lower early career clinical skills measures than nonminority patients. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  8. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort.

    PubMed

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1-2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Tidal triggering of moonquakes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    It is argued that the moonquakes recorded by sensors at the Apollo 12 landing site between December 1969 and December 1970, and which according to Latham et al. (1971) are believed to be triggered by the anomalistic lunar tide, could be triggered just as well by the latitudinal (or declination) tidal wave. Considerations are set forth which indicate that a combined latitudinal-anomalistic tidal mechanism is supported by Latham's data.

  10. Family Socioeconomic Status, Cortisol, and Physical Health in Early Childhood: The Role of Advantageous Neighborhood Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Roubinov, Danielle S; Hagan, Melissa J; Boyce, W Thomas; Adler, Nancy E; Bush, Nicole R

    2018-06-01

    Children from families with lower socioeconomic status (SES) evidence greater physiological dysregulation and poorer health. Despite recognition of environmental contributors, little is known about the influence of neighborhood characteristics. The present study examined the moderating role of community-level risks and resources on the relation of family SES to children's daily cortisol output and physical health during the kindergarten year. In fall and spring of kindergarten, children's (N = 338) daily total cortisol was measured and parents and teachers rated children's global physical health. Parents reported family SES. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed using the Child Opportunity Index, a population-level tool that evaluates the quality of multiple domains of neighborhood attributes. In fall, children reared in lower SES family environments had higher cortisol when residing in lower quality (lower opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.097, p < .001), but there was no relation between family SES and children's cortisol in more advantaged (higher opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.023, p = .36). Lower family SES was prospectively associated with poorer physical health in spring (controlling for fall health) only among children living in lower opportunity neighborhoods (b = -.250, p = .018) and was unrelated to physical health among children residing in higher opportunity neighborhoods (b = .042, p = .70). Higher opportunity neighborhoods may protect against the negative consequences of low family SES on children's stress physiology and physical health. Public health interventions that bolster neighborhood opportunities may benefit young children reared in socioeconomically disadvantaged family environments.

  11. Characteristics of hand involvement in a comparative study of two early RA cohorts from the UK and China.

    PubMed

    Su, Bowen; Ma, Qing; Edwards, Christopher J; Williams, Mark; Adams, Jo

    2017-10-01

    To compare the characteristics of early hand involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using two matched populations, from the UK and China. A cohort comparison study was conducted. Sixty Chinese patients recruited from Shanghai, China were matched on gender and age with 60 patients from a prospective early RA cohort from the UK (SARAH trial). The procedures of data collection in China followed the standard operating procedures employed in the SARAH trial. Outcome measures including Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), medication history and physical assessments were used to assess functional ability and hand impairment. UK patients reported significantly more hand pain (P = 0.015), less satisfaction with dominant hand performance (P  = 0.040), more swollen and tender joints (P = 0.016 and P = 0.001) and greater dexterity of both dominant and non-dominant hands (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001), while Chinese patients had higher disease activity indicated by erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, more rheumatoid factor, less satisfaction in both dominant and non-dominant hand appearances (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) and greater dominant hand deformity (P  = 0.003). No statistically significant differences were seen in range of movement and overall hand function as reported by the MHQ. The severity of RA is not milder in China than in the UK and the characteristics of hand involvement tend to be different. Clinicians should consider country-specific differences in managing pain and delivering treatment. It would be helpful for a future study to investigate the RA impact characteristics on a wider range of patients both from within China and from other populations. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Is It All about Money? Work Characteristics and Women's and Men's Marriage Formation in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan; Raley, R Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Using data from the NLSY 97, this paper investigates how work characteristics (earnings and autonomy) shape young adults' transition to first marriage separately for men and women. The results suggest that earnings are positively associated with marriage and that this association is as strong for women as men in their mid-to-late twenties. Additionally, occupational autonomy-having the control over one's own work structure-facilitates entry into first marriage for women in their mid-to late-20s but, for men, occupational autonomy is not associated with marriage at these ages. These results suggest that even as women's earnings are increasingly important for marriage, other aspects of work are also important for stable family formation.

  13. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  14. Maternal characteristics associated with the obesogenic quality of the home environment in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Fisher, Abigail; Fildes, Alison; Wardle, Jane

    2016-12-01

    The home environment is likely to influence children's diet and activity patterns and ultimately, their weight trajectories. Identifying family characteristics associated with a more 'obesogenic' home can provide insight into the determinants, and has implications for targeting and tailoring strategies to promote healthier lifestyles. The present study examined maternal characteristics associated with a more obesogenic home environment in 1113 families with preschool children. Primary caregivers (99% mothers) from the Gemini cohort completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI) when their children were 4 years old. Maternal demographics and BMI were assessed in the Gemini baseline questionnaire when the children were on average 8 months old. Maternal eating style was assessed when the children were on average 2 years old, using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). Responses to the HEI were standardised and summed to create a composite score of the obesogenic quality of the home; this was categorised into tertiles. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression showed that mothers who were younger (adjusted OR; 95% CI = 0.96; 0.94-0.98), less educated (1.97; 1.40-2.77), and had lower incomes (1.89; 1.43-2.49) at baseline were more likely to live in an obesogenic home environment at 4 years, as were mothers who scored higher on the DEBQ External Eating scale (1.40; 1.16-1.70) at 2 years, and had a higher baseline BMI (1.05; 1.02-1.08). Using a novel, composite measure of the home environment, this study finds that families who are more socio-economically deprived, and where the mothers are themselves heavier and have a more food responsive eating style, tend to provide a home environment with the hallmarks of a higher risk of weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics of early-manifesting females with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Imbornoni, Lauren; Price, Elinora T; Andrews, Jennifer; Meaney, F John; Ciafaloni, Emma; Cunniff, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Manifestations of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) are present in up to 40% of heterozygous females, but there are few reports of females who exhibit skeletal muscle symptoms in childhood. From the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance Tracking and Research Network, a multi-site population-based surveillance network for dystrophinopathy, nine symptomatic female heterozygotes with onset of symptoms prior to age 9 years were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 8.3 years, and the median interval from first symptoms to diagnosis was 1.35 years. Of the nine female heterozygotes, four had a positive family history, seven had intellectual disability and five had at least one mental health disorder. Mental health concerns included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum features, bipolar disorder, and depression. The frequency of intellectual and mental health problems in this group is higher than previously reported for affected males and for symptomatic females. These findings may have implications for diagnosis of early manifesting heterozygotes and for their health supervision. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparison of clinical characteristics between familial and non-familial early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aditi; Ringman, John M; Lee, Albert S; Juarez, Kevin O; Mendez, Mario F

    2012-10-01

    Although familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is an early onset AD (EAD), most patients with EAD do not have a familial disorder. Recent guidelines recommend testing for genes causing FAD only in those EAD patients with two first-degree relatives. However, some patients with FAD may lack a known family history or other indications for suspecting FAD but might nonetheless be carriers of FAD mutations. The study was aimed to identify clinical features that distinguish FAD from non-familial EAD (NF-EAD). A retrospective review of a university-based cohort of 32 FAD patients with PSEN1-related AD and 81 with NF-EAD was conducted. The PSEN1 patients, compared to the NF-EAD patients, had an earlier age of disease onset (41.8 ± 5.2 vs. 55.9 ± 4.8 years) and, at initial assessment, a longer disease duration (5.1 ± 3.4 vs. 3.3 ± 2.6 years) and lower MMSE scores (10.74 ± 8.0 vs. 20.95 ± 5.8). Patients with NF-EAD were more likely to present with non-memory deficits, particularly visuospatial symptoms, than were FAD patients. When age, disease duration, and MMSE scores were controlled in a logistical regression model, FAD patients were more likely to have significant headaches, myoclonus, gait abnormality, and pseudobulbar affect than those with NF-EAD. In addition to a much younger age of onset, FAD patients with PSEN1 mutations differed from those with NF-EAD by a history of headaches and pseudobulbar affect, as well as myoclonus and gait abnormality on examination. These may represent differences in pathophysiology between FAD and NF-EAD and in some contexts such findings should lead to genetic counseling and appropriate recommendations for genetic testing for FAD.

  17. Comparison of clinical characteristics between familial and non-familial early onset Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ringman, John M.; Lee, Albert S.; Juarez, Kevin O.; Mendez, Mario F.

    2012-01-01

    Although familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) is an early onset AD (EAD), most patients with EAD do not have a familial disorder. Recent guidelines recommend testing for genes causing FAD only in those EAD patients with two first-degree relatives. However, some patients with FAD may lack a known family history or other indications for suspecting FAD but might nonetheless be carriers of FAD mutations. The study was aimed to identify clinical features that distinguish FAD from non-familial EAD (NF-EAD). A retrospective review of a university-based cohort of 32 FAD patients with PSEN1-related AD and 81 with NF-EAD was conducted. The PSEN1 patients, compared to the NF-EAD patients, had an earlier age of disease onset (41.8 ± 5.2 vs. 55.9 ± 4.8 years) and, at initial assessment, a longer disease duration (5.1 ± 3.4 vs. 3.3 ± 2.6 years) and lower MMSE scores (10.74 ± 8.0 vs. 20.95 ± 5.8). Patients with NF-EAD were more likely to present with non-memory deficits, particularly visuospatial symptoms, than were FAD patients. When age, disease duration, and MMSE scores were controlled in a logistical regression model, FAD patients were more likely to have significant headaches, myoclonus, gait abnormality, and pseudobulbar affect than those with NF-EAD. In addition to a much younger age of onset, FAD patients with PSEN1 mutations differed from those with NF-EAD by a history of headaches and pseudobulbar affect, as well as myoclonus and gait abnormality on examination. These may represent differences in pathophysiology between FAD and NF-EAD and in some contexts such findings should lead to genetic counseling and appropriate recommendations for genetic testing for FAD. PMID:22460587

  18. Characteristics of Neovascularization in Early Stages of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiandong; Chen, Ding; Yang, Xiaoling; Zou, Ruitao; Zhao, Kuo; Cheng, Dan; Huang, Shenghai; Zhou, Tingye; Yang, Ye; Chen, Feng

    2018-05-25

    To classify retinal neovascularization in untreated early stages of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) based on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A cross-sectional study. Thirty-five eyes were included. They underwent color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and OCTA examinations. Neovascularizations elsewhere (NVEs), neovascularizations of the optic disc (NVDs), and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMAs) were scanned by OCTA. The origin and morphology of NVE/NVD/IRMA on OCTA were evaluated. Retinal nonperfusion areas (NPAs) were measured using Image J software. In 35 eyes successfully imaged, 75 NVEs, 35 NVDs and 12 IRMAs were captured. Three proposed subtypes of NVE were indentified based on the origins and morphological features. Type 1 (32 of 75, 42.67%) originated from venous, in a tree-like shape. Type 2 (30 of 75, 40.00%) originated from capillary networks, with an octopus-like appearance. Type 3 (13 of 75, 17.33%) originated from the IRMAs, having a sea fan shape. NVD originated from the retinal artery, the retinal vein, or from the choroid, and arose from the bending vessels near the rim of the optic disc. IRMA originated from and drained into retinal venules, extending in the retina. The initial layer and affiliated NPA were significantly different in the 3 subtypes of NVEs (all P < 0.01). OCTA allowed identification of the origins and morphological patterns of neovascularization in PDR. The new classification of retinal neovascularization may be useful to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms and to guide efficient therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Kinematic Description of the Temporal Characteristics of Jaw Motion for Early Chewing: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin M.; Green, Jordan R.; Weismer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to describe age- and consistency-related changes in the temporal characteristics of chewing in typically-developing children between 4 – 35 months of age and adults using high-resolution optically-based motion capture technology. Method Data were collected from a total of 60 participants (48 children, 12 adults) across five age ranges (beginners, 7-months, 12-months, 35-months, and adults); each age group included 12 participants. Three different food consistencies were trialed as appropriate. The data were analyzed to assess changes in chewing rate, chewing sequence duration, and a measure of the estimated number of chewing cycles. Results The results revealed both age- and consistency-related changes in chewing rate, sequence duration, and the estimated number of chewing cycles with consistency differences affecting masticatory timing in children as young as 7-months of age. Chewing rate varied as a function of age and consistency and chewing sequence duration was shorter for adults than children regardless of consistency type. Additionally, the results from the estimated number of chewing cycles measure suggests that chewing effectiveness increased with age; this measure was also dependent on consistency type. Conclusions The findings suggest that the different temporal chewing variables follow distinct developmental trajectories and are consistency-dependent in children as young as 7-months of age. Clinical implications are detailed. PMID:22223889

  20. Triennial Reproduction Symposium: influence of follicular characteristics at ovulation on early embryonic survival.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W; Smith, M F; MacNeil, M D; Day, M L; Bridges, G A; Perry, G A; Abreu, F M; Atkins, J A; Pohler, K G; Jinks, E M; Madsen, C A

    2013-07-01

    Reproductive failure in livestock can result from failure to fertilize the oocyte or embryonic loss during gestation. Although fertilization failure occurs, embryonic mortality represents a greater contribution to reproductive failure. Reproductive success varies among species and production goals but is measured as a binomial trait (i.e., pregnancy), derived by the success or failure of multiple biological steps. This review focuses primarily on follicular characteristics affecting oocyte quality, fertilization, and embryonic health that lead to pregnancy establishment in beef cattle. When estrous cycles are manipulated with assisted reproductive technologies and ovulation is induced, duration of proestrus (i.e., interval from induced luteolysis to induced ovulation), ovulatory follicle growth rate, and ovulatory follicle size are factors that affect the maturation of the follicle and oocyte at induced ovulation. The most critical maturational component of the ovulatory follicle is the production of sufficient estradiol to prepare follicular cells for luteinization and progesterone synthesis and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. The exact roles of estradiol in oocyte maturation remain unclear, but cows that have lesser serum concentrations of estradiol have decreased fertilization rates and decreased embryo survival on d 7 after induced ovulation. When length of proestrus is held constant, perhaps the most practical follicular measure of fertility is ovulatory follicle size because it is an easily measured attribute of the follicle that is highly associated with its ability to produce estradiol.

  1. The CMS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. 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S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. 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M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova PANEVA, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Sevilla, M. Franco; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  2. The CMS trigger system

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  3. The CMS trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  4. A novel in situ trigger combination method

    DOE PAGES

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; ...

    2013-01-30

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and system performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding ofmore » the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, that were combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a $W$ boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. We compare the inclusion and novel in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF $WH$ search. This new combination method, by virtue of its scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and insensitivity to correlations between triggers, will benefit future long-running collider experiments, including those currently operating on the Large Hadron Collider.« less

  5. A novel in situ trigger combination method

    SciTech Connect

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and system performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding ofmore » the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, that were combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a $W$ boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. We compare the inclusion and novel in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF $WH$ search. This new combination method, by virtue of its scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and insensitivity to correlations between triggers, will benefit future long-running collider experiments, including those currently operating on the Large Hadron Collider.« less

  6. Regional differences in trait-like characteristics of the waking EEG in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Benz, Dominik C; Tarokh, Leila; Achermann, Peter; Loughran, Sarah P

    2013-10-09

    The human waking EEG spectrum shows high heritability and stability and, despite maturational cortical changes, high test-retest reliability in children and teens. These phenomena have also been shown to be region specific. We examined the stability of the morphology of the wake EEG spectrum in children aged 11 to 13 years recorded over weekly intervals and assessed whether the waking EEG spectrum in children may also be trait-like. Three minutes of eyes open and three minutes of eyes closed waking EEG was recorded in 22 healthy children once a week for three consecutive weeks. Eyes open and closed EEG power density spectra were calculated for two central (C3LM and C4LM) and two occipital (O1LM and O2LM) derivations. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to determine whether the morphology of the waking EEG spectrum between 1 and 20 Hz is trait-like. We also examined the stability of the alpha peak using an ANOVA. The morphology of the EEG spectrum recorded from central derivations was highly stable and unique to an individual (correctly classified in 85% of participants), while the EEG recorded from occipital derivations, while stable, was much less unique across individuals (correctly classified in 42% of participants). Furthermore, our analysis revealed an increase in alpha peak height concurrent with a decline in the frequency of the alpha peak across weeks for occipital derivations. No changes in either measure were observed in the central derivations. Our results indicate that across weekly recordings, power spectra at central derivations exhibit more "trait-like" characteristics than occipital derivations. These results may be relevant for future studies searching for links between phenotypes, such as psychiatric diagnoses, and the underlying genes (i.e., endophenotypes) by suggesting that such studies should make use of more anterior rather than posterior EEG derivations.

  7. Characteristics of Early Recipients of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Funding.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Stephany; Bazemore, Andrew; Merenstein, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is grounded in the goals of increasing access, improving quality, and reducing cost in the U.S. health care system. The ACA established the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) to help accomplish these goals through patient-focused research. PCORI has a different charge than its federally supported counterpart, the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-to fund research that ultimately helps patients make better-informed health care decisions. The authors examined characteristics of the recipients and settings of the first six rounds of PCORI funding and differentiated PCORI and NIH funding patterns to analyze the extent to which PCORI is accomplishing the goals set out by the ACA. The authors performed a retrospective review of publicly available datasets, supplemented by a short questionnaire to funded PCORI principal investigators (PIs). The authors analyzed PCORI's first six funding cycles (2011-2014) and data on NIH funding patterns (2000-2013) to determine whether PCORI and NIH funding patterns differed by investigator, department, and institution, and whether PCORI had funded research in primary care settings. The authors found that PCORI is funding a more diverse cadre of PIs and biomedical departments than is NIH, but not a greater diversity of institutions, and that less than one-third of PCORI studies involve or are relevant to primary care--the largest patient care platform in the United States. As PCORI looks to be refunded, it is important that research funding is further evaluated and publicly acknowledged to assess whether goals are being achieved.

  8. Molecular characteristics and alterations during early development of the human vagina

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Helga; Richter, Elisabeth; Adam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Unresolved questions remain concerning the derivation of the vagina with respect to the relative contributions from the Müllerian ducts, the urogenital sinus, and the Wolffian ducts. Recent molecular and cellular studies in rodents have opened up a large gap between the level of understanding of vaginal development in mice and understanding of human vaginal development, which is based on histology. To compare the findings in mice with human vaginal development and to address this gap, we analysed molecular characteristics of the urogenital sinus, Wolffian ducts, and Müllerian ducts in 8–14-week-old human specimens using immunohistochemical methods. The monoclonal antibodies used were directed against cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK19, vimentin, laminin, p63, E-cadherin, caspase-3, Ki67, HOX A13, and BMP-4. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that, during weeks 8–9, the epithelium of the Müllerian ducts became positive for p63 as p63-positive cells that originated from the sinus epithelium reached the caudal tip of the fused Müllerian ducts via the Wolffian ducts. The lumen of the fused Müllerian ducts was closed by an epithelial plug that contained both vimentin-positive and vimentin-negative cells. Subsequently, the resulting epithelial tube enlarged by proliferation of basal p63-positive cells. The first signs of squamous differentiation were detected during week 14, with the appearance of CK14-positive cells. According to our results, all three components, namely, the urogenital sinus, Wolffian ducts, and Müllerian ducts, interacted during the formation of the human vagina. The sinus epithelium provided p63-positive cells, the Wollfian ducts acted as a ‘transporter’, and the Müllerian ducts contributed the guiding structure for the vaginal anlagen. Epithelial differentiation began at the end of the period studied and extended in a caudo-cranial direction. The present study is one of the first to provide up-to-date molecular correlates for human

  9. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  10. Characteristics of the Early Immune Response Following Transplantation of Mouse ES Cell Derived Insulin-Producing Cell Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Ashleigh S.; Wood, Kathryn J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The fully differentiated progeny of ES cells (ESC) may eventually be used for cell replacement therapy (CRT). However, elements of the innate immune system may contribute to damage or destruction of these tissues when transplanted. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we assessed the hitherto ill-defined contribution of the early innate immune response in CRT after transplantation of either ESC derived insulin producing cell clusters (IPCCs) or adult pancreatic islets. Ingress of neutrophil or macrophage cells was noted immediately at the site of IPCC transplantation, but this infiltration was attenuated by day three. Gene profiling identified specific inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that were either absent or sharply reduced by three days after IPCC transplantation. Thus, IPCC transplantation provoked less of an early immune response than pancreatic islet transplantation. Conclusions/Significance Our study offers insights into the characteristics of the immune response of an ESC derived tissue in the incipient stages following transplantation and suggests potential strategies to inhibit cell damage to ensure their long-term perpetuation and functionality in CRT. PMID:20532031

  11. Characteristics of the early immune response following transplantation of mouse ES cell derived insulin-producing cell clusters.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ashleigh S; Wood, Kathryn J

    2010-06-04

    The fully differentiated progeny of ES cells (ESC) may eventually be used for cell replacement therapy (CRT). However, elements of the innate immune system may contribute to damage or destruction of these tissues when transplanted. Herein, we assessed the hitherto ill-defined contribution of the early innate immune response in CRT after transplantation of either ESC derived insulin producing cell clusters (IPCCs) or adult pancreatic islets. Ingress of neutrophil or macrophage cells was noted immediately at the site of IPCC transplantation, but this infiltration was attenuated by day three. Gene profiling identified specific inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that were either absent or sharply reduced by three days after IPCC transplantation. Thus, IPCC transplantation provoked less of an early immune response than pancreatic islet transplantation. Our study offers insights into the characteristics of the immune response of an ESC derived tissue in the incipient stages following transplantation and suggests potential strategies to inhibit cell damage to ensure their long-term perpetuation and functionality in CRT.

  12. Improvement in sensory characteristics of Campbell Early wine by adding dual starters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ki-Seon; Kim, Ji Eun; Seo, Eun-Young; Kim, Yu Jin; Choi, Hwa Young; Yoon, Hyang-Sik; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Han, Nam Soo

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of adding a dual starter on the chemical and sensory characteristics of red wine made of Campbell Early grape. The yeast starter, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter, Oenococcus oeni, were used for inoculation in the winemaking process for alcoholic and malolactic fermentation (MLF), respectively. After 200 days incubation, the chemical compositions of yeast/LAB-added wine (YL-wine) were compared with those of no starter-added wine (control) and yeast-added wine (Y-wine). The results show that no significant differences were observed in pH, total sugar, and alcohol content among wine samples, but the malic acid content in YL-wine was significantly reduced and various esters and higher alcohols were synthesized. The sensory test revealed that the addition of dual starters resulted in improved overall acceptability in wine. This study emphasizes the importance of O. oeni in addition to yeast in making Campbell Early wine.

  13. Living with a Grandparent and Parent in Early Childhood: Associations with School Readiness and Differences by Demographic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of three-generation family households (grandparent, parent, child), relatively little research has studied these households during early childhood. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (N∼6,550), this study investigates the associations between three-generation coresidence in early childhood and school readiness, and how the associations differ by maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, relationship status and poverty. For the full sample of children, no associations between three-generation coresidence and school readiness were found. Analyses by demographic characteristics found that race/ethnicity and nativity moderate the associations; whereas maternal age, relationship status and poverty do not. The findings suggest that three-generation coresidence was associated with lower levels of expressive language for White, Asian and Black children, but more expressive language for Hispanic children. Coresidence was also associated with more externalizing behavior for White and American Indian/Alaskan Native children but less externalizing behavior for Hispanic and Black children. Analyses by maternal nativity found that for children of immigrant mothers, three-generation coresidence was associated with more expressive language and less externalizing and internalizing behavior. Interactions between race/ethnicity and nativity found that the positive associations for Hispanic children were concentrated among children of immigrant parents. No differences were found between grandmother-only and grandmother/grandfather three-generation family households. Overall the findings suggest there may be heterogeneity by race/ethnicity and nativity in the associations between three-generation coresidence and school readiness. PMID:25365124

  14. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  15. AIDS radio triggers.

    PubMed

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  16. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  17. Uterine and placenta characteristics during early vascular development in the pig from day 22 to 42 of gestation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Elane C; Miles, Jeremy R; Lents, Clay A; Rempel, Lea A

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient placenta development is one of the primary causes of fetal death and reduced fetal growth after 35 days of gestation. Between day 22 and 42 the placenta consists of a central highly vascular placenta (HVP), adjacent to the fetus, a less vascular placenta (LVP), on either side of the fetus, and necrotic tips (NT). The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate uterine-placenta characteristics during early gestation in the gilt and determine time points and physiological changes. Gilts (n=25) were artificially inseminated at first detection of estrus (day 0) and 24h later, and harvested at 22, 27, 32, 37 or 42 days of gestation. Litter size, 12.1±3.4, was similar for all days of gestation. Fetal and placenta weight increased with day of gestation. The greatest increase in placenta weight occurred between 37 and 42 days of gestation. The LVP zones had no measurable fold formation until day 27. Necrotic tips became apparent after 27 days of gestation. Unoccupied areas of the uterus developed folds with changes in endometrial cell size and morphology from day 32 to 42 of gestation. Limited changes occurred in either fetal growth or placenta weight from day 27 through 32 of gestation; however, significant morphological changes occur at the maternal-fetal interface, demonstrating the dynamic architecture of the developing porcine placenta during early gestation. This work establishes fundamental time points in placenta development corresponding to fetal growth and microfold formation that may influence fetal growth and impact fetal survival. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Imitating actions on objects in early-onset and regressive autism: Effects and implications of task characteristics on performance

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sally J.; Young, Gregory S.; Cook, Ian; Giolzetti, Angelo; Ozonoff, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the nature of object imitation performance in early autism. We hypothesized that imitation would be relatively preserved when behaviors on objects resulted in salient instrumental effects. We designed tasks in which, in one condition, the motor action resulted in a salient, meaningful effect on an object, whereas in the other condition, the same action resulted in a less salient effect because of differing object characteristics. The motor aspects of the tasks did not vary across conditions. Four participant groups of 2- to 5-year-olds were examined: 17 children with early-onset autism, 24 children with regressive onset autism, 22 children with developmental delays, and 22 children with typical development. Groups were matched on nonverbal skills, and differences in verbal development were examined as a moderator of imitative ability. Results revealed an interaction of group by condition, with the combined autism group failing more tasks than the combined comparison groups, and failing more tasks in the less salient condition than in the more salient condition, as hypothesized. Analyses of autism subgroups revealed these effects were primarily because of the regression onset group. Accuracy of motor performance was examined by analyzing errors. Among children passing imitative acts, there were no group differences and no condition effects in the number, type, or pattern of performance errors. Among children passing the tasks, the group with autism did not demonstrate more emulation errors (imitating the goal but not the means) than other groups. There was no evidence that either motor or attentional aspects of the tasks contributed to the poorer imitative performance of the children with autism. PMID:20102648

  19. Effects of Spatial Variability of Soil Properties on the Triggering of Rainfall-Induced Shallow Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-04-01

    Naturally-occurring spatial variations in soil properties (e.g., soil depth, moisture, and texture) affect key hydrological processes and potentially the mechanical response of soil to hydromechanical loading (relative to the commonly-assumed uniform soil mantle). We quantified the effects of soil spatial variability on the triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides at the hillslope- and catchment-scales, using a physically-based landslide triggering model that considers interacting soil columns with mechanical strength thresholds (represented by the Fiber Bundle Model). The spatial variations in soil properties are represented as Gaussian random distributions and the level of variation is characterized by the coefficient of variation and correlation lengths of soil properties (i.e., soil depth, soil texture and initial water content in this study). The impacts of these spatial variations on landslide triggering characteristics were measured by comparing the times to triggering and landslide volumes for heterogeneous soil properties and homogeneous cases. Results at hillslope scale indicate that for spatial variations of an individual property (without cross correlation), the increasing of coefficient of variation introduces weak spots where mechanical damage is accelerated and leads to earlier onset of landslide triggering and smaller volumes. Increasing spatial correlation length of soil texture and initial water content also induces early landslide triggering and small released volumes due to the transition of failure mode from brittle to ductile failure. In contrast, increasing spatial correlation length of soil depth "reduces" local steepness and postpones landslide triggering. Cross-correlated soil properties generally promote landslide initiation, but depending on the internal structure of spatial distribution of each soil property, landslide triggering may be reduced. The effects of cross-correlation between initial water content and soil texture

  20. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  1. Moon origin - The impact-trigger hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    1986-01-01

    Arguments in favor of the impact-trigger model of lunar origin are presented. Lunar properties favoring this hypothesis include: (1) lunar iron and volatile deficiency; (2) angular momentum of the earth-moon system; and (3) similar O isotopes, bulk iron contents, and densities of earth's mantle and the moon. It is shown that the intense early bombardment averaged during earth's formation was several billion times the present meteoritic mass flux, consistent with a giant impact.

  2. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  3. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  4. Transient triggering of near and distant earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Blanpied, M.L.; Beeler, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate qualitatively that frictional instability theory provides a context for understanding how earthquakes may be triggered by transient loads associated with seismic waves from near and distance earthquakes. We assume that earthquake triggering is a stick-slip process and test two hypotheses about the effect of transients on the timing of instabilities using a simple spring-slider model and a rate- and state-dependent friction constitutive law. A critical triggering threshold is implicit in such a model formulation. Our first hypothesis is that transient loads lead to clock advances; i.e., transients hasten the time of earthquakes that would have happened eventually due to constant background loading alone. Modeling results demonstrate that transient loads do lead to clock advances and that the triggered instabilities may occur after the transient has ceased (i.e., triggering may be delayed). These simple "clock-advance" models predict complex relationships between the triggering delay, the clock advance, and the transient characteristics. The triggering delay and the degree of clock advance both depend nonlinearly on when in the earthquake cycle the transient load is applied. This implies that the stress required to bring about failure does not depend linearly on loading time, even when the fault is loaded at a constant rate. The timing of instability also depends nonlinearly on the transient loading rate, faster rates more rapidly hastening instability. This implies that higher-frequency and/or longer-duration seismic waves should increase the amount of clock advance. These modeling results and simple calculations suggest that near (tens of kilometers) small/moderate earthquakes and remote (thousands of kilometers) earthquakes with magnitudes 2 to 3 units larger may be equally effective at triggering seismicity. Our second hypothesis is that some triggered seismicity represents earthquakes that would not have happened without the transient load (i

  5. Korean Brain Aging Study for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease: Methodology and Baseline Sample Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Byun, Min Soo; Yi, Dahyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Yun-Sang; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Choi, Murim; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Dong Woo; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Kim, Jee Wook; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-11-01

    The Korean Brain Aging Study for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's disease (KBASE) aimed to recruit 650 individuals, aged from 20 to 90 years, to search for new biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to investigate how multi-faceted lifetime experiences and bodily changes contribute to the brain changes or brain pathologies related to the AD process. All participants received comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, multi-modal brain imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, [ 11 C]Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography (PET), and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, blood and genetic marker analyses at baseline, and a subset of participants underwent actigraph monitoring and completed a sleep diary. Participants are to be followed annually with clinical and neuropsychological assessments, and biannually with the full KBASE assessment, including neuroimaging and laboratory tests. As of March 2017, in total, 758 individuals had volunteered for this study. Among them, in total, 591 participants-291 cognitively normal (CN) old-aged individuals, 74 CN young- and middle-aged individuals, 139 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 87 individuals with AD dementia (ADD)-were enrolled at baseline, after excluding 162 individuals. A subset of participants (n=275) underwent actigraph monitoring. The KBASE cohort is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study that recruited participants with a wide age range and a wide distribution of cognitive status (CN, MCI, and ADD) and it has several strengths in its design and methodologies. Details of the recruitment, study methodology, and baseline sample characteristics are described in this paper.

  6. Characteristic optical coherence tomography findings in patients with primary vitreoretinal lymphoma: a novel aid to early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; Tasiopoulou, Anastasia; Murray, Philip I; Patel, Praveen J; Sagoo, Mandeep S; Denniston, Alastair K; Keane, Pearse A

    2018-01-06

    The diagnosis of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) poses significant difficulties; presenting features are non-specific and confirmation usually necessitates invasive vitreoretinal biopsy. Diagnosis is often delayed, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Non-invasive imaging modalities such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) offer simple and rapid aids to diagnosis. We present characteristic SD-OCT images of patients with biopsy-positive PVRL and propose a number of typical features, which we believe are useful in identifying these lesions at an early stage. Medical records of all patients attending Moorfields Eye Hospital between April 2010 and April 2016 with biopsy-positive PVRL were reviewed. Pretreatment SD-OCT images were collected for all eyes and were reviewed independently by two researchers for features suggestive of PVRL. Pretreatment SD-OCT images of 32 eyes of 22 patients with biopsy-proven PVRL were reviewed. Observed features included hyper-reflective subretinal infiltrates (17/32), hyper-reflective infiltration in inner retinal layers (6/32), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) undulation (5/32), clumps of vitreous cells (5/32) and sub-RPE deposits (3/32). Of these, the hyper-reflective subretinal infiltrates have an appearance unique to PVRL, with features not seen in other diseases. We have identified a range of SD-OCT features, which we believe to be consistent with a diagnosis of PVRL. We propose that the observation of hyper-reflective subretinal infiltrates as described is highly suggestive of PVRL. This case series further demonstrates the utility of SD-OCT as a non-invasive and rapid aid to diagnosis, which may improve both visual outcomes and survival of patients with intraocular malignancies such as PVRL. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Oilfield water treatment by electrocoagulation-reverse osmosis for agricultural use: effects on germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paulo S A; Cerqueira, Alexandre A; Rigo, Michelle M; de Paiva, Julieta L; Couto, Rafael S P; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel V; Marques, Monica R C

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of oilfield water (OW), treated by a hybrid process of electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis (EC-RO), on seed germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower (Heliantus annus L.). In the EC step, tests were conducted with 28.6 A m -2 current density and 4 min. reaction time. In the RO step, the system was operated with 1 L min -1 constant flow and 2 MPa, 2.5 MPa and 3 MPa feed pressures. In all feed pressures, RO polymeric membranes achieved very high removals of chemical oxygen demand (up to 89%) and oils and greases (100%) from EC-treated effluent. In best feed pressure (2.5 MPa), turbidity, total dissolved salts, electrical conductivity, salinity, toxic ions and sodium adsorption ratio values attained internationally recognized standards for irrigation water. Using EC-RO (feed pressure:2.5 MPa) treated OW, germinated sunflower seeds percentage (86 ± 6%), speed of germination (30 ± 2) and biomass production (49 ± 5 mg) were statistically similar to control (distilled water) results. Vigor index average values obtained using OW treated by EC-RO (3871)were higher than that obtained by OW water treated by EC (3300). The results of this study indicate that EC-RO seems to be a promising alternative for treatment of OW aiming sunflower crops irrigation, since the use of this treated effluent did not affect adversely seed germination and seedling development, and improved seedling vigor. Furthermore, OW treatment by EC-RO reduces sodium levels into acceptable standards values avoiding soil degradation.

  8. Characteristics of adverse drug reactions in a vemurafenib early post-marketing phase vigilance study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uhara, H; Kiyohara, Y; Tsuda, A; Takata, M; Yamazaki, N

    2018-02-01

    Post-approval research or monitoring is important to determine real-world safety of new products; however, evidence is scant for vemurafenib in Japanese patients. In Japan, a unique system is officially obligated to investigate post-approval safety. Here we report the first adverse drug reaction (ADR) data from vemurafenib-treated Japanese patients with metastatic melanoma. Data were collected in an early post-marketing phase vigilance (EPPV) study. ADRs were events for which a causal relationship with vemurafenib could not be ruled out or was unknown. ADR data were collected for patients treated with vemurafenib (960 mg bid) between 26 February and 25 August 2015. Among 95 patients, 46 patients had 118 ADRs (24 serious ADRs in 13 patients). The most common serious ADRs were hypersensitivity (n = 1; 3 events), arthralgia (n = 2; 2 events), pyrexia (n = 2; 2 events) and drug eruption (n = 2; 2 events). Seven patients had serious skin disorders or hypersensitivity, six of whom had prior anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies 5-35 days before starting vemurafenib. ADR reports of serious skin disorders appeared to be collected more rapidly than previously reported. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma developed in only one patient. EPPV in Japanese vemurafenib-treated patients identified no new safety signals. The most serious skin and hypersensitivity ADRs occurred in patients with prior anti-PD-1 exposure. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma appeared to be rare in Japanese patients. Further research is needed to clarify whether prior treatment with anti-PD-1 agents or racial differences affect the characteristic profile of cutaneous ADRs in Japanese patients.

  9. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.

    We present that LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils resulting from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the detector are processed with an FPGA-based digital trigger system that analyzes the incoming data in real-time, with just a few microsecond latency. The system enables first pass selection of events of interest based on their pulse shape characteristics and 3D localization of the interactions. It has been shown to be > 99% efficient in triggering on S2 signals induced by only few extracted liquid electrons. It is continuously and reliably operating since itsmore » full underground deployment in early 2013. Finally, this document is an overview of the systems capabilities, its inner workings, and its performance.« less

  11. FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.

    LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils resulting from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the detector are processed with an FPGA-based digital trigger system that analyzes the incoming data in real-time, with just a few microsecond latency. The system enables first pass selection of events of interest based on their pulse shape characteristics and 3D localization of the interactions. It has been shown to be >99% efficient in triggering on S2 signals induced by only few extracted liquid electrons. It is continuously and reliably operating since its full underground deployment inmore » early 2013. This document is an overview of the systems capabilities, its inner workings, and its performance.« less

  12. FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A. G.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O`Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Skulski, W.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yin, J.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2016-05-01

    LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils resulting from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the detector are processed with an FPGA-based digital trigger system that analyzes the incoming data in real-time, with just a few microsecond latency. The system enables first pass selection of events of interest based on their pulse shape characteristics and 3D localization of the interactions. It has been shown to be > 99 % efficient in triggering on S2 signals induced by only few extracted liquid electrons. It is continuously and reliably operating since its full underground deployment in early 2013. This document is an overview of the systems capabilities, its inner workings, and its performance.

  13. FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; ...

    2016-02-17

    We present that LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils resulting from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the detector are processed with an FPGA-based digital trigger system that analyzes the incoming data in real-time, with just a few microsecond latency. The system enables first pass selection of events of interest based on their pulse shape characteristics and 3D localization of the interactions. It has been shown to be > 99% efficient in triggering on S2 signals induced by only few extracted liquid electrons. It is continuously and reliably operating since itsmore » full underground deployment in early 2013. Finally, this document is an overview of the systems capabilities, its inner workings, and its performance.« less

  14. Surgery for trigger finger.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Haroldo Junior; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Lenza, Mário; Gomes Dos Santos, Joao Baptista; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2018-02-20

    Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to August 2017. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed adults with trigger finger and compared any type of surgical treatment with each other or with any other non-surgical intervention. The major outcomes were the resolution of trigger finger, pain, hand function, participant-reported treatment success or satisfaction, recurrence of triggering, adverse events and neurovascular injury. Two review authors independently selected the trial reports, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes calculated risk ratios (RRs), and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, the data were pooled into meta-analysis using the random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. Fourteen trials were included, totalling 1260 participants, with 1361 trigger fingers. The age of participants included in the studies ranged from 16 to 88 years; and the majority of participants were women (approximately 70%). The average duration of symptoms ranged from three to 15 months, and the follow-up after the procedure ranged from eight weeks to 23 months.The studies reported nine types of comparisons: open surgery versus steroid injections (two

  15. The Typical Thunderclap Headache of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome and its Various Triggers.

    PubMed

    Ducros, Anne; Wolff, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During the last 10 years, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has emerged as the most frequent cause of thunderclap headache (TCH) in patients without aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and as the most frequent cause of recurrent TCHs. The typical TCHs of RCVS are multiple, recurring over a few days to weeks, excruciating, short-lived, and brought up by exertion, sexual activities, emotion, Valsalva maneuvers, or bathing, among other triggers. All these triggers induce sympathetic activation. In a minority of cases with RCVS, TCH heralds stroke and rarely death. Early diagnosis of RCVS in patients who present with isolated headache enables proper management and might reduce the risk of eventual stroke. This review describes the characteristics, triggers, diagnosis, and management of TCH in RCVS. One aim is to underline that the TCH pattern of RCVS is so typical that it enables, according to the 2013 revision of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, the diagnosis of "probable RCVS" in patients with such a headache pattern, normal cerebral angiography, and no other cause. Another objective is to discuss the role of physical and emotional stress in RCVS and in other related conditions involving similar triggers. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  16. Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanism in the Duolong Cu mining district, western Tibet: Record of slab breakoff that triggered ca. 108-113 Ma magmatism in the western Qiangtang terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shao-gang; Tang, Ju-xing; Song, Yang; Liu, Zhi-bo; Feng, Jun; Li, Yan-bo

    2017-05-01

    derived from mantle enriched by the metasomatism of subducted fluids, whereas the rhyolite could have been derived by partial melting of mafic juvenile crust that originated from an older and more depleted mantle. In light of the geochemical characteristics and field relationships, we propose that breakoff of the Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere was responsible for the generation and emplacement of the MF bimodal volcanic rocks. The fact that the MF bimodal volcanic arc magmatism was active at ca. 108-113 Ma indicates that it was associated with closure of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean via an arc-arc "soft" collision during the Early Cretaceous.

  17. Living with a Grandparent and Parent in Early Childhood: Associations with School Readiness and Differences by Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of 3-generation family households (grandparent, parent, child), relatively little research has studied these households during early childhood. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort ("N" = ~6,550), this study investigated the associations between…

  18. Different Pathways to Juvenile Delinquency: Characteristics of Early and Late Starters in a Sample of Previously Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alltucker, Kevin W.; Bullis, Michael; Close, Daniel; Yovanoff, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We examined the differences between early and late start juvenile delinquents in a sample of 531 previously incarcerated youth in Oregon's juvenile justice system. Data were analyzed with logistic regression to predict early start delinquency based on four explanatory variables: foster care experience, family criminality, special education…

  19. Earthquake triggering by transient and static deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.M.; Blanpied, M.L.; Bodin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence for both static and transient near-field and far-field triggered seismicity are explained in terms of a frictional instability model, based on a single degree of freedom spring-slider system and rate- and state-dependent frictional constitutive equations. In this study a triggered earthquake is one whose failure time has been advanced by ??t (clock advance) due to a stress perturbation. Triggering stress perturbations considered include square-wave transients and step functions, analogous to seismic waves and coseismic static stress changes, respectively. Perturbations are superimposed on a constant background stressing rate which represents the tectonic stressing rate. The normal stress is assumed to be constant. Approximate, closed-form solutions of the rate-and-state equations are derived for these triggering and background loads, building on the work of Dieterich [1992, 1994]. These solutions can be used to simulate the effects of static and transient stresses as a function of amplitude, onset time t0, and in the case of square waves, duration. The accuracies of the approximate closed-form solutions are also evaluated with respect to the full numerical solution and t0. The approximate solutions underpredict the full solutions, although the difference decreases as t0, approaches the end of the earthquake cycle. The relationship between ??t and t0 differs for transient and static loads: a static stress step imposed late in the cycle causes less clock advance than an equal step imposed earlier, whereas a later applied transient causes greater clock advance than an equal one imposed earlier. For equal ??t, transient amplitudes must be greater than static loads by factors of several tens to hundreds depending on t0. We show that the rate-and-state model requires that the total slip at failure is a constant, regardless of the loading history. Thus a static load applied early in the cycle, or a transient applied at any time, reduces the stress

  20. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb-1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  1. Testing for the 'predictability' of dynamically triggered earthquakes in The Geysers geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, Chastity; Meng, Xiaofeng; Hardebeck, Jeanne

    2018-03-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is well known for being susceptible to dynamic triggering of earthquakes by large distant earthquakes, owing to the introduction of fluids for energy production. Yet, it is unknown if dynamic triggering of earthquakes is 'predictable' or whether dynamic triggering could lead to a potential hazard for energy production. In this paper, our goal is to investigate the characteristics of triggering and the physical conditions that promote triggering to determine whether or not triggering is in anyway foreseeable. We find that, at present, triggering in The Geysers is not easily 'predictable' in terms of when and where based on observable physical conditions. However, triggered earthquake magnitude positively correlates with peak imparted dynamic stress, and larger dynamic stresses tend to trigger sequences similar to mainshock-aftershock sequences. Thus, we may be able to 'predict' what size earthquakes to expect at The Geysers following a large distant earthquake.

  2. Testing for the ‘predictability’ of dynamically triggered earthquakes in Geysers Geothermal Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, Chastity; Meng, Xiaofeng; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2018-01-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is well known for being susceptible to dynamic triggering of earthquakes by large distant earthquakes, owing to the introduction of fluids for energy production. Yet, it is unknown if dynamic triggering of earthquakes is ‘predictable’ or whether dynamic triggering could lead to a potential hazard for energy production. In this paper, our goal is to investigate the characteristics of triggering and the physical conditions that promote triggering to determine whether or not triggering is in anyway foreseeable. We find that, at present, triggering in The Geysers is not easily ‘predictable’ in terms of when and where based on observable physical conditions. However, triggered earthquake magnitude positively correlates with peak imparted dynamic stress, and larger dynamic stresses tend to trigger sequences similar to mainshock–aftershock sequences. Thus, we may be able to ‘predict’ what size earthquakes to expect at The Geysers following a large distant earthquake.

  3. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  4. What characteristics of primary care and patients are associated with early death in patients with lung cancer in the UK?

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Emma L; McKeever, Tricia M; Baldwin, David R; Anwar, Sadia; Powell, Helen A; Gibson, Jack E; Iyen-Omofoman, Barbara; Hubbard, Richard B

    2015-02-01

    The UK has poor lung cancer survival rates and high early mortality, compared to other countries. We aimed to identify factors associated with early death, and features of primary care that might contribute to late diagnosis. All cases of lung cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 were extracted from The Health Improvement Network database. Patients who died within 90 days of diagnosis were compared with those who survived longer. Standardised chest X-ray (CXR) and lung cancer rates were calculated for each practice. Of 20,142 people with lung cancer, those who died early consulted with primary care more frequently prediagnosis. Individual factors associated with early death were male sex (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.24), current smoking (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.28 to 1.61), increasing age (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.62 to 1.99 for age ≥80 years compared to 65-69 years), social deprivation (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.30 for Townsend quintile 5 vs 1) and rural versus urban residence (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.41). CXR rates varied widely, and the odds of early death were highest in the practices which requested more CXRs. Lung cancer incidence at practice level did not affect early deaths. Patients who die early from lung cancer are interacting with primary care prediagnosis, suggesting potentially missed opportunities to identify them earlier. A general increase in CXR requests may not improve survival; rather, a more timely and appropriate targeting of this investigation using risk assessment tools needs further assessment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Photon-triggered nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Hoo-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Min; So, Jae-Pil; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Barrelet, Carl J.; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Photon-triggered electronic circuits have been a long-standing goal of photonics. Recent demonstrations include either all-optical transistors in which photons control other photons or phototransistors with the gate response tuned or enhanced by photons. However, only a few studies report on devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified without an electrical gate. Here we show photon-triggered nanowire (NW) transistors, photon-triggered NW logic gates and a single NW photodetection system. NWs are synthesized with long crystalline silicon (CSi) segments connected by short porous silicon (PSi) segments. In a fabricated device, the electrical contacts on both ends of the NW are connected to a single PSi segment in the middle. Exposing the PSi segment to light triggers a current in the NW with a high on/off ratio of >8 × 106. A device that contains two PSi segments along the NW can be triggered using two independent optical input signals. Using localized pump lasers, we demonstrate photon-triggered logic gates including AND, OR and NAND gates. A photon-triggered NW transistor of diameter 25 nm with a single 100 nm PSi segment requires less than 300 pW of power. Furthermore, we take advantage of the high photosensitivity and fabricate a submicrometre-resolution photodetection system. Photon-triggered transistors offer a new venue towards multifunctional device applications such as programmable logic elements and ultrasensitive photodetectors.

  6. Potential Environmental Triggers of Myositis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Myositis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Goldberg CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The...TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 12September2011-11September2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Environmental Triggers of Myositis 5a...10 INTRODUCTION: The Potential Environmental Triggers of Myositis

  7. Photon-triggered nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Hoo-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Min; So, Jae-Pil; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Barrelet, Carl J; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Photon-triggered electronic circuits have been a long-standing goal of photonics. Recent demonstrations include either all-optical transistors in which photons control other photons or phototransistors with the gate response tuned or enhanced by photons. However, only a few studies report on devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified without an electrical gate. Here we show photon-triggered nanowire (NW) transistors, photon-triggered NW logic gates and a single NW photodetection system. NWs are synthesized with long crystalline silicon (CSi) segments connected by short porous silicon (PSi) segments. In a fabricated device, the electrical contacts on both ends of the NW are connected to a single PSi segment in the middle. Exposing the PSi segment to light triggers a current in the NW with a high on/off ratio of >8 × 10 6 . A device that contains two PSi segments along the NW can be triggered using two independent optical input signals. Using localized pump lasers, we demonstrate photon-triggered logic gates including AND, OR and NAND gates. A photon-triggered NW transistor of diameter 25 nm with a single 100 nm PSi segment requires less than 300 pW of power. Furthermore, we take advantage of the high photosensitivity and fabricate a submicrometre-resolution photodetection system. Photon-triggered transistors offer a new venue towards multifunctional device applications such as programmable logic elements and ultrasensitive photodetectors.

  8. CDF trigger interface board 'FRED'

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.; Dell' Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.

    1985-08-01

    We describe FASTBUS boards which interface sixteen different trigger interrupts to the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) data acquisition system. The boards are known to CDF by the acronym 'FRED'. The data acquisition scheme for CDF allows for up to 16 different parts of the detector, called 'Partitions', to run independently. Four partitions are reserved for physics runs and sophisticated calibration and debugging: they use the common Level 1 and Level 2 trigger logic and have access to information from all the components of the CDF detector. These four partitions are called ''CDF Partitions''. The remaining twelve partitions have no accessmore » to the common trigger logic and provide their own Level 1 and Level 2 signals: they are called ''Autonomous Partitions''. Fred collects and interprets signals from independent parts of the CDF trigger system and delivers Level 1 and Level 2 responses to the Trigger Supervisors (FASTBUS masters which control the data acquisition process in each partition).« less

  9. Emotional triggers in myocardial infarction: do they matter?

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Donald; Newman, Jonathan D; Whang, William; Davidson, Karina W

    2013-01-01

    Considerable excitement and interest have arisen recently concerning the role that acute emotional triggers may play in precipitating a myocardial infarction (MI). Observational studies have found repeatedly that patients report excessive anger, anxiety, sadness, grief, or acute stress immediately prior to onset of MI, and recent meta-analyses summarizing these findings reported strong associations between MI occurrence and many of these acute emotions. However, it is unclear whether and through what mechanisms acute emotional triggers might influence MI, and whether there is any clinical utility in knowing if or how emotions trigger MI. We debate whether emotional triggers matter by reviewing the recent evidence for the association between acute emotional triggers and MI and by describing the potential pathophysiological characteristics and mechanisms underlying this association and the preventive strategies that could be used to mitigate the risk of acute MI. We also examine whether the study of emotional triggers could influence clinical risk management or changes in clinical practice/management. We offer suggestions for research that might shed light on whether emotional triggers could initiate a paradigm shift in preventive cardiology, or whether acute emotional triggers are either intractable catalysts for, or merely an epiphenomenon of, some MIs.

  10. Emotional triggers in myocardial infarction: do they matter?

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Newman, Jonathan D.; Whang, William; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable excitement and interest have arisen recently concerning the role that acute emotional triggers may play in precipitating a myocardial infarction (MI). Observational studies have found repeatedly that patients report excessive anger, anxiety, sadness, grief, or acute stress immediately prior to onset of MI, and recent meta-analyses summarizing these findings reported strong associations between MI occurrence and many of these acute emotions. However, it is unclear whether and through what mechanisms acute emotional triggers might influence MI, and whether there is any clinical utility in knowing if or how emotions trigger MI. We debate whether emotional triggers matter by reviewing the recent evidence for the association between acute emotional triggers and MI and by describing the potential pathophysiological characteristics and mechanisms underlying this association and the preventive strategies that could be used to mitigate the risk of acute MI. We also examine whether the study of emotional triggers could influence clinical risk management or changes in clinical practice/management. We offer suggestions for research that might shed light on whether emotional triggers could initiate a paradigm shift in preventive cardiology, or whether acute emotional triggers are either intractable catalysts for, or merely an epiphenomenon of, some MIs. PMID:23178642

  11. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Early Childhood Teacher Preparation: The Impact of Contextual Characteristics on Coursework and Practica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chih-Ing; Maxwell, Kelly L.; Able-Boone, Harriet; Zimmer, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    The population of children in early childhood settings is becoming increasingly culturally and linguistically diverse, and these changes in demographics have warranted teachers becoming more culturally responsive and better prepared to work with diverse young children and families. Teacher preparation programs across the nation have responded…

  12. Educational Characteristics of Adolescents with Gifted Academic Intrinsic Motivation: A Longitudinal Investigation from School Entry through Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Allen W.; Clayton R. Cook; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Morris, Phillip E.

    2005-01-01

    The construct of gifted motivation was examined in a contemporary, long-term, longitudinal investigation. Adolescents with extremely high academic intrinsic motivation (i.e., gifted motivation) were compared to their cohort peer comparison on a variety of educationally relevant measures from elementary school through the early adulthood years.…

  13. Acute rejection characteristics from a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of early corticosteroid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Gaber, A Osama; Moore, Linda W; Alloway, Rita R; Woodle, E Steve; Pirsch, John; Shihab, Fuad; Henning, Alice; Fitzsimmons, William; Holman, John; Reisfield, Robin; First, M Roy

    2013-02-27

    This report characterizes acute rejection and rejection outcomes in subjects randomized to continuous corticosteroid therapy (CCS) or early corticosteroid withdrawal (CSWD; 7 days after transplantation) in the Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial. The Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial was a 5-year, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of early CCS withdrawal in 386 kidney transplant recipients (195 CCS and 191 CSWD). Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were required as well as either rabbit antithymocyte globulin or interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction. Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) was grade 1A or higher by Banff criteria. This report also provides borderline changes (BL) that did not meet Banff grade 1A included with BCAR (BCAR+BL). BCAR+BL was 25 (12.8%) in CCS group and 42 (22.0%) in CSWD group (P=0.022). Early BCAR+BL (first 90 days after transplantation) was less frequent in CCS (n=5 [2.6%]) than in CSWD (n=22 [11.5%]; P<0.001). Among non-African-American subjects, early BCAR+BL occurred more often in CSWD (n=20 [12.7%]) versus CCS (n=2 [1.3%]; P<0.001). Late acute rejection (>2 years) occurred more often in African-American subjects in CCS (n=5 [13.9%]) than in CSWD (n=0; P=0.056). Risk factors were CSWD (hazard ratio [HR], 4.72; P<0.002) and human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.48; P<0.005) for early BCAR+BL and CSWD (HR, 1.9; P<0.02), human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.2; P<0.01), and age (HR, 0.97; P<0.002) for 5-year rejection. The HR for graft loss associated with BCAR+BL was 8.8. BCAR+BL may occur more frequently during the early period after transplantation under an early CSWD regimen with tacrolimus plus induction compared with CCS, particularly among non-African-Americans.

  14. SKIN WRINKLES AND RIGIDITY IN EARLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN VARY BY RACE/ETHNICITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKIN ANCILLARY STUDY OF THE KEEPS TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Design Baseline assessment of participants prior to randomization to study drug. Setting Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Patients Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Interventions Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Outcome Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and BMI. Results In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races (p=0.0003), where Black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In White women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity(p<0.001). Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however only in the White subgroup (p<0.01). In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling (p<0.05). Conclusions Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. PMID:20971461

  15. Skin wrinkles and rigidity in early postmenopausal women vary by race/ethnicity: baseline characteristics of the skin ancillary study of the KEEPS trial.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Baseline assessment of participants before randomization to study drug. Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and body mass index (BMI). In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races, where black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In white women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity. Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however, only in the white subgroup. In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling. Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. De Novo Mutations in SLC25A24 Cause a Disorder Characterized by Early Aging, Bone Dysplasia, Characteristic Face, and Early Demise.

    PubMed

    Writzl, Karin; Maver, Ales; Kovačič, Lidija; Martinez-Valero, Paula; Contreras, Laura; Satrustegui, Jorgina; Castori, Marco; Faivre, Laurence; Lapunzina, Pablo; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Radović, Slobodanka; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Peterlin, Borut; Del Arco, Araceli; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2017-11-02

    A series of simplex cases have been reported under various diagnoses sharing early aging, especially evident in congenitally decreased subcutaneous fat tissue and sparse hair, bone dysplasia of the skull and fingers, a distinctive facial gestalt, and prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. For historical reasons, we suggest naming the entity Fontaine syndrome. Exome sequencing of four unrelated affected individuals showed that all carried the de novo missense variant c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) or c.650G>A (p.Arg217His) in SLC25A24, a solute carrier 25 family member coding for calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein (SCaMC-1, also known as SLC25A24). SLC25A24 allows an electro-neutral and reversible exchange of ATP-Mg and phosphate between the cytosol and mitochondria, which is required for maintaining optimal adenine nucleotide levels in the mitochondrial matrix. Molecular dynamic simulation studies predict that p.Arg217Cys and p.Arg217His narrow the substrate cavity of the protein and disrupt transporter dynamics. SLC25A24-mutant fibroblasts and cells expressing p.Arg217Cys or p.Arg217His variants showed altered mitochondrial morphology, a decreased proliferation rate, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased ATP-linked mitochondrial oxygen consumption. The results suggest that the SLC25A24 mutations lead to impaired mitochondrial ATP synthesis and cause hyperpolarization and increased proton leak in association with an impaired energy metabolism. Our findings identify SLC25A24 mutations affecting codon 217 as the underlying genetic cause of human progeroid Fontaine syndrome. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions of the characteristics of the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth by child care providers may influence early adoption of nutrition guidelines in child care centres.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Hara; Farmer, Anna; Berry, Tanya R; McCargar, Linda J; Mager, Diana R

    2015-04-01

    In 2008, the Alberta government released the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) as a resource for child care facilities to translate nutrition recommendations into practical food choices. Using a multiple case study method, early adoption of the guidelines was examined in two child care centres in Alberta, Canada. Key constructs from the Diffusion of Innovations framework were used to develop an interview protocol based on the perceived characteristics of the guidelines (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability) by child care providers. Analysis of the ANGCY was conducted by a trained qualitative researcher and validated by an external qualitative researcher. This entailed reviewing guideline content, layout, organisation, presentation, format, comprehensiveness and dissemination to understand whether characteristics of the guidelines affect the adoption process. Data were collected through direct observation, key informant interviews and documentation of field notes. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Overall, the guidelines were perceived positively by child care providers. Child care providers found the guidelines to have a high relative advantage, be compatible with current practice, have a low level of complexity, easy to try and easy to observe changes. It is valuable to understand how child care providers perceive characteristics of guidelines as this is the first step in identifying the needs of child care providers with respect to early adoption and identifying potential educational strategies important for dissemination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Influence of patient and tumor characteristics on early therapy persistence with letrozole in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: results of the prospective Evaluate-TM study with 3941 patients.

    PubMed

    Nabieva, N; Kellner, S; Fehm, T; Häberle, L; de Waal, J; Rezai, M; Baier, B; Baake, G; Kolberg, H-C; Guggenberger, M; Warm, M; Harbeck, N; Wuerstlein, R; Deuker, J-U; Dall, P; Richter, B; Wachsmann, G; Brucker, C; Siebers, J W; Fersis, N; Kuhn, T; Wolf, C; Vollert, H-W; Breitbach, G-P; Janni, W; Landthaler, R; Kohls, A; Rezek, D; Noesselt, T; Fischer, G; Henschen, S; Praetz, T; Heyl, V; Kühn, T; Krauss, T; Thomssen, C; Hohn, A; Tesch, H; Mundhenke, C; Hein, A; Rauh, C; Bayer, C M; Jacob, A; Schmidt, K; Belleville, E; Brucker, S Y; Kümmel, S; Beckmann, M W; Wallwiener, D; Hadji, P; Fasching, P A

    2018-01-01

    Patients' compliance and persistence with endocrine treatment has a significant effect on the prognosis in early breast cancer (EBC). The purpose of this analysis was to identify possible reasons for non-persistence, defined as premature cessation of therapy, on the basis of patient and tumor characteristics in individuals receiving adjuvant treatment with letrozole. The EvAluate-TM study is a prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study in which treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole was evaluated in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive EBC in the early therapy phase. Treatment persistence was evaluated at two pre-specified study visits after 6 and 12 months. As a measure of early therapy persistence the time from the start to the end of treatment (TTEOT) was analyzed. Cox regression analyses were carried out to identify patient characteristics and tumor characteristics predicting TTEOT. Out of the total population of 3941 patients with EBC, 540 (13.7%) events involving treatment cessation unrelated to disease progression were observed. This was due to drug-related toxicity in the majority of cases (73.5%). Persistence rates were 92.2%, 86.9%, and 86.3% after 6, 12, and 15 months, respectively. The main factors influencing premature treatment discontinuation were older age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.02/year], comorbidities (HR 1.06 per comorbidity), low body mass index, and lower tumor grade (HR 0.85 per grade unit). These results support the view that older, multimorbid patients with low tumor grade and low body mass index are at the greatest risk for treatment discontinuation and might benefit from compliance and support programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Early Combination of Material Characteristics and Toxicology Is Useful in the Design of Low Toxicity Carbon Nanofiber

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ellen K.; Larsen, Sten Y.; Nygaard, Unni C.; Marioara, Calin D.; Syversen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the early combination of material characterization and toxicology testing in order to design carbon nanofiber (CNF) with low toxicity. The aim was to investigate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification procedures can result in a CNF product with low toxicity. Different CNF batches from a pilot plant were characterized with respect to physical properties (chemical composition, specific surface area, morphology, surface chemistry) as well as toxicity by in vitro and in vivo tests. A description of a test battery for both material characterization and toxicity is given. The results illustrate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification, thermal treatment in particular, influence the material characterization as well as the outcome of the toxic tests. The combination of the tests early during product development is a useful and efficient approach when aiming at designing CNF with low toxicity. Early quality and safety characterization, preferably in an iterative process, is expected to be efficient and promising for this purpose. The toxicity tests applied are preliminary tests of low cost and rapid execution. For further studies, effects such as lung inflammation, fibrosis and respiratory cancer are recommended for the more in-depth studies of the mature CNF product.

  20. Characteristics of Early Vocabulary and Grammar Development in Slovenian-Speaking Infants and Toddlers: A CDI-Adaptation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slovenian…

  1. Environmental characteristics of early childhood education and care centres and young children's weight status: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguang; Pereira, João R; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Okely, Anthony D; Feng, Xiaoqi; Santos, Rute

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize ECEC environmental correlates of weight status in children under the age of 6years. Six databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched until March 2017. Observational studies examining the relationship between ECEC environmental characteristics and weight status in children aged 0-6years were included. Data was extracted using a predesigned form. Eight studies, representing 4862 children, met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two environmental characteristics were identified and classified into four domains (physical, political, economic, and sociocultural); of these, six correlates were found. 'Active environment' 'sedentary opportunities', 'active play time', 'high sugar and high fat served', 'educators' weight' and 'educators' habitual physical activity level' were associated with weight status in young children. However, for most environmental characteristics examined, strong evidence is not available yet, due to variations across studies on the measures of environmental characteristics and analytical methodologies. Stronger empirical evidence in greater quantity is needed. Future studies in this area are recommended to investigate the environmental influence using an ecological approach and to examine the potential mediators, with a focus on the settings of family-based centres and samples representing toddlers and/or infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Children's Negative Attributions on Depressive Symptoms: An Inherited Characteristic or a Product of the Early Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Belli, Stefano D.; Gregory, Alice M.; Napolitano, Maria; Eley, Thalia C.

    2012-01-01

    Negative attributional style has been associated with depressive symptoms in children. Yet, it is unclear whether these cognitive biases reflect inherited characteristics of the broader depressive phenotype or are a product of children's environments. While existing data in adolescents show that negative attributions reflect a genetic…

  3. Early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production systems: III. Steer weaning, finishing and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning of steer calves on BW gain, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics in two herds located in the Northern Great Plains, USA. Steer calves from predominantly Angus × Hereford dams were stratified within dam age and calving date (Fort K...

  4. Characteristics features and factors influencing early death in Acute promyelocytic leukemia; Experience from United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Inaam Bashir; Zaabi, Mariam R Al; Alam, Arif; Hashim, Mohammed Jawad; Tallman, Martin S; Kristensen, Jorgen

    2017-07-01

    Although acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a curable hematologic malignancy, early death (ED) remains a significant cause of treatment failure especially in developing countries. In a retrospective data analysis of 67 adult APL patients diagnosed in United Arab Emirates we report an ED rate of 11.9% which is comparable to that reported from more developed countries. We identified the following parameters at presentation as significant predictor of increased ED: Age >40 years (P = 0.015), fever (P = 0.030), WBC count >20 × 10 9 /L (P = 0.010), the breakpoints other than bcr1 (P = 0.043) and fibrinogen level <1.5 g/L (P = 0.025). Delay in ATRA administration beyond 24 h from admission and fibrinogen <150 mg/dL were also significant predictors of ED, but only among high-risk patients (P = 0.035 and P = 0.033, respectively). WBC count >10 × 10 9 /L and expression of HLA-DR (P = 0.018) or CD2 (P = 0.017) were significant predictors for differentiation syndrome (DS) which was found to be a predictor of ED (P = 0.002). Reducing the APL related ED rate in centers with limited resources is feasible provided early initiation of ATRA administration and early correction of coagulopathy in high-risk patients in addition to prompt treatment of DS. To our knowledge this is the first report from the Arabian Gulf describing ED in APL.

  5. The CMS High-Level Trigger and Trigger Menus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisyan, Aram

    2008-04-01

    The CMS experiment is one of the two general-purpose experiments due to start operation soon at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will collide protons at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The online event selection for the CMS experiment is carried out in two distinct stages. At Level-1 the trigger electronics reduces the 40 MHz collision rate to provide up to 100 kHz of interesting events, based on objects found using its calorimeter and muon subsystems. The High Level Trigger (HLT) that runs in the Filter Farm of the CMS experiment is a set of sophisticated software tools that run in a real-time environment to make a further selection and archive few hundred Hz of interesting events. The coherent tuning of the HLT algorithms to accommodate multiple physics channels is a key issue for CMS, one that literally defines the reach of the experiment's physics program. In this presentation we will discuss the strategies and trigger configuration developed for startup physics program of the CMS experiment, up to a luminosity of 10^31 s-1cm-2. Emphasis will be given to the full trigger menus, including physics and calibration triggers.

  6. Early- and Late-Onset Depression in Late Life: A Prospective Study on Clinical and Structural Brain Characteristics and Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dols, Annemiek; Bouckaert, Filip; Sienaert, Pascal; Rhebergen, Didi; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Ten Kate, Mara; de Winter, Francois-Laurent; Comijs, Hannie C; Emsell, Louise; Oudega, Mardien L; van Exel, Eric; Schouws, Sigfried; Obbels, Jasmien; Wattjes, Mike; Barkhof, Frederik; Eikelenboom, Piet; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Stek, Max L

    2017-02-01

    The clinical profile of late-life depression (LLD) is frequently associated with cognitive impairment, aging-related brain changes, and somatic comorbidity. This two-site naturalistic longitudinal study aimed to explore differences in clinical and brain characteristics and response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in early- (EOD) versus late-onset (LOD) late-life depression (respectively onset <55 and ≥55 years). Between January 2011 and December 2013, 110 patients aged 55 years and older with ECT-treated unipolar depression were included in The Mood Disorders in Elderly treated with ECT study. Clinical profile and somatic health were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed before the first ECT and visually rated. Response rate was 78.2% and similar between the two sites but significantly higher in LOD compared with EOD (86.9 versus 67.3%). Clinical, somatic, and brain characteristics were not different between EOD and LOD. Response to ECT was associated with late age at onset and presence of psychotic symptoms and not with structural MRI characteristics. In EOD only, the odds for a higher response were associated with a shorter index episode. The clinical profile, somatic comorbidities, and brain characteristics in LLD were similar in EOD and LOD. Nevertheless, patients with LOD showed a superior response to ECT compared with patients with EOD. Our results indicate that ECT is very effective in LLD, even in vascular burdened patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics related to early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy among women diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus: an analysis using the GOAL study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jessica H; Howards, Penelope P; Spencer, Jessica B; Tsagaris, Katina C; Lim, Sam S

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects women and often develops during their reproductive years. Research suggests that some women who receive cyclophosphamide as treatment for SLE experience earlier decline in menstrual function, but reproductive health among women with SLE who have not taken this drug is less well understood. This study aims to better understand the relation between SLE and reproduction by assessing early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy in women treated with and without cyclophosphamide from a population-based cohort with large numbers of African-Americans. Female patients with SLE, ages 20-40 at time of diagnosis, who were 40 years or older at the time of the survey were included in this analysis (N=147). Participants in the Georgians Organized Against Lupus (GOAL) study were asked about their reproductive histories including early secondary amenorrhoea, defined as loss of menstruation before age 40. Women who were cyclophosphamide naïve had an increased prevalence of early secondary amenorrhoea compared with population estimates, 13-17% compared with 1-5%. Factors associated with early secondary amenorrhoea in women not treated with cyclophosphamide were marital status and receipt of a kidney transplant. Treatment with cyclophosphamide doubled the prevalence after adjustment for patient characteristics. Over 88% of women reported being pregnant at least once, and about 83% of these had a child, but the majority of pregnancies occurred before diagnosis. SLE diagnosed in early adulthood may affect women's reproductive health even if they are not treated with cyclophosphamide. Better understanding of other factors related to reproductive health in this population will improve clinicians' and patients' abilities to make treatment and family planning decisions.

  8. Characteristics related to early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy among women diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus: an analysis using the GOAL study

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jessica H; Howards, Penelope P; Spencer, Jessica B; Tsagaris, Katina C; Lim, Sam S

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects women and often develops during their reproductive years. Research suggests that some women who receive cyclophosphamide as treatment for SLE experience earlier decline in menstrual function, but reproductive health among women with SLE who have not taken this drug is less well understood. This study aims to better understand the relation between SLE and reproduction by assessing early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy in women treated with and without cyclophosphamide from a population-based cohort with large numbers of African-Americans. Methods Female patients with SLE, ages 20–40 at time of diagnosis, who were 40 years or older at the time of the survey were included in this analysis (N=147). Participants in the Georgians Organized Against Lupus (GOAL) study were asked about their reproductive histories including early secondary amenorrhoea, defined as loss of menstruation before age 40. Results Women who were cyclophosphamide naïve had an increased prevalence of early secondary amenorrhoea compared with population estimates, 13–17% compared with 1–5%. Factors associated with early secondary amenorrhoea in women not treated with cyclophosphamide were marital status and receipt of a kidney transplant. Treatment with cyclophosphamide doubled the prevalence after adjustment for patient characteristics. Over 88% of women reported being pregnant at least once, and about 83% of these had a child, but the majority of pregnancies occurred before diagnosis. Conclusions SLE diagnosed in early adulthood may affect women's reproductive health even if they are not treated with cyclophosphamide. Better understanding of other factors related to reproductive health in this population will improve clinicians' and patients' abilities to make treatment and family planning decisions. PMID:27752335

  9. Family and infant characteristics associated with timing of core and non-core food introduction in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H.M.; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify family and infant characteristics associated with timing of introduction of two food types: core foods (nutrient-dense) and non-core foods (nutrient-poor) in a population-based sample of mothers and infants. Method Participants were 1861 mothers and infants from the Gemini twin birth cohort (one child per family). Family and infant characteristics were assessed when the infants were around 8 months old. Timing of introducing core and non-core foods was assessed at 8 and 15 months. As the distributions of timing were skewed, three similar-sized groups were created for each food type: earlier (core: 1–4 months; non-core: 3–8 months), average (core: 5 months; non-core: 9–10 months), and later introduction (core: 6–12 months; non-core: 11–18 months). Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine predictors of core and non-core food introduction, with bootstrapping to test for differences between the core and non-core models. Results Younger maternal age, lower education level, and higher maternal BMI were associated with earlier core and non-core food introduction. Not breastfeeding for at least 3 months and higher birth weight were specifically associated with earlier introduction of core foods. Having older children was specifically associated with earlier introduction of non-core foods. Conclusion There are similarities and differences in the characteristics associated with earlier introduction of core and non-core foods. Successful interventions may require a combination of approaches to target both food types. PMID:23486509

  10. Family and infant characteristics associated with timing of core and non-core food introduction in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Schrempft, S; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Fisher, A; Wardle, J

    2013-06-01

    To identify family and infant characteristics associated with timing of introduction of two food types: core foods (nutrient-dense) and non-core foods (nutrient-poor) in a population-based sample of mothers and infants. Participants were 1861 mothers and infants from the Gemini twin birth cohort (one child per family). Family and infant characteristics were assessed when the infants were around 8 months old. Timing of introducing core and non-core foods was assessed at 8 and 15 months. As the distributions of timing were skewed, three similar-sized groups were created for each food type: earlier (core: 1-4 months; non-core: 3-8 months), average (core: 5 months; non-core: 9-10 months) and later introduction (core: 6-12 months; non-core: 11-18 months). Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine predictors of core and non-core food introduction, with bootstrapping to test for differences between the core and non-core models. Younger maternal age, lower education level and higher maternal body mass index were associated with earlier core and non-core food introduction. Not breastfeeding for at least 3 months and higher birth weight were specifically associated with earlier introduction of core foods. Having older children was specifically associated with earlier introduction of non-core foods. There are similarities and differences in the characteristics associated with earlier introduction of core and non-core foods. Successful interventions may require a combination of approaches to target both food types.

  11. Article 1: Long-Term outcomes of cochlear implantation in early childhood: Sample characteristics and data collection methods

    PubMed Central

    Geers, Ann E.; Brenner, Chris; Tobey, Emily A.

    2011-01-01

    Precis Articles contained in this monograph describe the communication performance of 112 teenagers who received multichannel cochlear implants between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Children were first tested during the elementary school years when they were 8 or 9 years of age. They also were tested as adolescents when they were between 15 and 18 years old. Characteristics of the population are described including their modes of communication and educational environments. Child, family and educational variables that will be explored in the following articles as possible predictors of successful outcomes are introduced. PMID:21479156

  12. Early retirement among Danish female cleaners and shop assistants according to work environment characteristics and upper extremity complaints: an 11-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christensen, Michael Victor; Maribo, Thomas

    2016-05-04

    Studies have shown a negative social gradient in the incidence of early retirement. To prevent undesired early retirement, there is a need for knowledge of specific predictors in addition to social factors with a limited potential for change. The main purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal complaints and working conditions as predictors of early retirement among Danish female cleaners. Using Cox regression with an adjustment for extraneous factors, we compared the risk of disability pension and retirement before the nominal retirement age (65 years) in an 11-year cohort study with registry-based follow-up of 1430 female cleaners and 579 shop assistants. In subsequent analyses of female cleaners, disability pension and voluntary early retirement were modeled according to work characteristics and upper extremity complaints. The adjusted hazard rate (HR) for disability pension among cleaners compared to the control group was 2.27 (95% CI 1.58 to 3.28) and, for voluntary early retirement, 1.01 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.20). In the subset of cleaners, the predictors of disability pension were persistent shoulder pain HR: 1.98 (95% CI 1.47 to 2.67), elbow pain HR: 1.41 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.94) and symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand HR: 1.58 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.20). Predictors of voluntary early retirement were persistent shoulder pain HR: 1.40 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.67) and floor mopping for more than 10 h per week HR: 1.20 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.40). Cleaners have a twofold higher risk of disability pension compared to the control group. Risk factors for disability pension among cleaners were persistent shoulder and elbow pain together with symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand. The findings of specific health related predictors of early retirement could be used in secondary prevention with targeted temporary reduced workload.

  13. Exploiting mAb structure characteristics for a directed QbD implementation in early process development.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Micael; von Stosch, Moritz; Glassey, Jarka

    2018-03-07

    In today's biopharmaceutical industries, the lead time to develop and produce a new monoclonal antibody takes years before it can be launched commercially. The reasons lie in the complexity of the monoclonal antibodies and the need for high product quality to ensure clinical safety which has a significant impact on the process development time. Frameworks such as quality by design are becoming widely used by the pharmaceutical industries as they introduce a systematic approach for building quality into the product. However, full implementation of quality by design has still not been achieved due to attrition mainly from limited risk assessment of product properties as well as the large number of process factors affecting product quality that needs to be investigated during the process development. This has introduced a need for better methods and tools that can be used for early risk assessment and predictions of critical product properties and process factors to enhance process development and reduce costs. In this review, we investigate how the quantitative structure-activity relationships framework can be applied to an existing process development framework such as quality by design in order to increase product understanding based on the protein structure of monoclonal antibodies. Compared to quality by design, where the effect of process parameters on the drug product are explored, quantitative structure-activity relationships gives a reversed perspective which investigates how the protein structure can affect the performance in different unit operations. This provides valuable information that can be used during the early process development of new drug products where limited process understanding is available. Thus, quantitative structure-activity relationships methodology is explored and explained in detail and we investigate the means of directly linking the structural properties of monoclonal antibodies to process data. The resulting information as a

  14. External triggering and triggered targeting strategies for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfei; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2017-06-01

    Drug delivery systems that are externally triggered to release drugs and/or target tissues hold considerable promise for improving the treatment of many diseases by minimizing nonspecific toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of therapy. These drug delivery systems are constructed from materials that are sensitive to a wide range of external stimuli, including light, ultrasound, electrical and magnetic fields, and specific molecules. The responsiveness conferred by these materials allows the release of therapeutics to be triggered on demand and remotely by a physician or patient. In this Review, we describe the rationales for such systems and the types of stimuli that can be deployed, and provide an outlook for the field.

  15. Origin of the ornamented bâton percé from the Gołębiewo site 47 as a trigger of discussion on long-distance exchange among Early Mesolithic communities of Central Poland and Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Witas, Henryk; Lisowska-Gaczorek, Aleksandra; Reitsema, Laurie; Szostek, Krzysztof; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Kuriga, Justyna; Makowiecki, Daniel; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Cienkosz-Stepańczak, Beata

    2017-01-01

    This article describes evidence for contact and exchange among Mesolithic communities in Poland and Scandinavia, based on the interdisciplinary analysis of an ornamented bâton percé from Gołębiewo site 47 (Central Poland). Typological and chronological-cultural analyses show the artefact to be most likely produced in the North European Plain, during the Boreal period. Carbon-14 dating confirms the antiquity of the artefact. Ancient DNA analysis shows the artefact to be of Rangifer tarandus antler. Following this species designation, a dispersion analysis of Early-Holocene reindeer remains in Europe was conducted, showing this species to exist only in northern Scandinavia and north-western Russia in this period. Therefore, the bâton from Gołębiewo constitutes the youngest reindeer remains in the European Plain and south-western Scandinavia known to date. An attempt was made to determine the biogeographic region from which the antler used to produce the artefact originates from. To this end, comprehensive δ18O, δ13C and δ15N isotope analyses were performed. North Karelia and South Lapland were determined as the most probable regions in terms of isotopic data, results which correspond to the known distribution range of Rangifer tarandus at this time. In light of these finds, the likelihood of contact between Scandinavia and Central Europe in Early Holocene is evaluated. The bâton percé from Gołębiewo is likely key evidence for long-distance exchange during the Boreal period. PMID:28977014

  16. Origin of the ornamented bâton percé from the Gołębiewo site 47 as a trigger of discussion on long-distance exchange among Early Mesolithic communities of Central Poland and Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Osipowicz, Grzegorz; Witas, Henryk; Lisowska-Gaczorek, Aleksandra; Reitsema, Laurie; Szostek, Krzysztof; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Kuriga, Justyna; Makowiecki, Daniel; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Cienkosz-Stepańczak, Beata

    2017-01-01

    This article describes evidence for contact and exchange among Mesolithic communities in Poland and Scandinavia, based on the interdisciplinary analysis of an ornamented bâton percé from Gołębiewo site 47 (Central Poland). Typological and chronological-cultural analyses show the artefact to be most likely produced in the North European Plain, during the Boreal period. Carbon-14 dating confirms the antiquity of the artefact. Ancient DNA analysis shows the artefact to be of Rangifer tarandus antler. Following this species designation, a dispersion analysis of Early-Holocene reindeer remains in Europe was conducted, showing this species to exist only in northern Scandinavia and north-western Russia in this period. Therefore, the bâton from Gołębiewo constitutes the youngest reindeer remains in the European Plain and south-western Scandinavia known to date. An attempt was made to determine the biogeographic region from which the antler used to produce the artefact originates from. To this end, comprehensive δ18O, δ13C and δ15N isotope analyses were performed. North Karelia and South Lapland were determined as the most probable regions in terms of isotopic data, results which correspond to the known distribution range of Rangifer tarandus at this time. In light of these finds, the likelihood of contact between Scandinavia and Central Europe in Early Holocene is evaluated. The bâton percé from Gołębiewo is likely key evidence for long-distance exchange during the Boreal period.

  17. Exploratory studies on a passively triggered vacuum spark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, R. K.; Auluck, S. K. H.; Nagpal, J. S.; Kulkarni, L. V.

    1999-12-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on a passively triggered vacuum spark device are presented. The diagnostics include the current, x-ray and optical emission measurements. The sharp dips in the current derivative signal indicate the occurrence of pinching at an early stage of the discharge (at current icons/Journals/Common/approx" ALT="approx" ALIGN="TOP"/>5 kA). A well-confined plasma with a central hot region was recorded using a streak camera. The pinched plasma was observed to undergo kink-type oscillations with a time period of 10-15 ns. Repeated plasma fronts were seen to move from the anode to the cathode with an average velocity of icons/Journals/Common/approx" ALT="approx" ALIGN="TOP"/>5 × 106 cm s-1. Soft x-ray emission having a radiation intensity of a few hundred mR per discharge was observed. The x-ray signals obtained using photodiodes showed multiple bursts. A soft x-ray pinhole camera recorded micro-pinches of icons/Journals/Common/approx" ALT="approx" ALIGN="TOP"/>100 µm. The x-ray emitting regions were confined to the inter-electrode gap. The x-ray emission characteristics were influenced by the electrolytic resistance, which was connected across the spark gap to initiate discharge.

  18. Is It All about Money? Work Characteristics and Women’s and Men’s Marriage Formation in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan; Raley, R. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the NLSY 97, this paper investigates how work characteristics (earnings and autonomy) shape young adults’ transition to first marriage separately for men and women. The results suggest that earnings are positively associated with marriage and that this association is as strong for women as men in their mid-to-late twenties. Additionally, occupational autonomy—having the control over one’s own work structure—facilitates entry into first marriage for women in their mid-to late-20s but, for men, occupational autonomy is not associated with marriage at these ages. These results suggest that even as women’s earnings are increasingly important for marriage, other aspects of work are also important for stable family formation. PMID:27158176

  19. Oestrogen receptor negative early operable primary breast cancer in older women-Biological characteristics and long-term clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Syed, Binafsha Manzoor; Morgan, Dal; Setty, Tulassi; Green, Andrew R; Paish, Emma C; Ellis, Ian O; Cheung, K L

    2017-01-01

    Older women are at the greatest risk of breast cancer development and a considerable number present with comorbidities. Although the majority of breast cancers in this age group express oestrogen receptor (ER), which makes endocrine therapy (primary or adjuvant) feasible, given the huge size of the elderly population, there remains a significant number of patients, in absolute term, whose tumours do not express ER and their management is challenging. Of a consecutive series of 1,758 older (≥70 years) women with early operable primary breast cancer managed in a dedicated service from 1973-2010, 252(14.3%) had ER-negative (histochemical (H) score ≤50) tumours. Their clinical outcome was retrospectively reviewed and tumour samples collected from diagnostic core biopsies were analysed for progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2 and Ki67 using immunohistochemistry. The commonest primary treatment was surgery (N = 194, 77%) followed by primary endocrine therapy (14.3%), primary radiotherapy (5.6%) and supportive treatment only (3.1%). Among the patients undergoing surgery, most of them had grade 3 (78.1%) and node-negative disease (62.2%). Some of them (21.1%) received postoperative radiotherapy. At a median follow-up of 37.5 months, 117 patients had died, out of which 48.6% were due to breast cancer. For those who underwent surgery, the regional and local recurrence rates were 2% and 1.1% per annum respectively. For those who received primary endocrine therapy, 38% progressed at 6 months, however all patients who had primary radiotherapy achieved clinical benefit at 6 months. Regardless of treatment given, the 5-year breast cancer specific and overall survival rates were 70% and 50% respectively. Biological analysis based on good quality needle core biopsy specimensfrom181 patients showed that 26.8% (N = 49), 16.9% (N = 31) and 70.7% (N = 70)expressed positivity for PgR, HER2 and Ki67 respectively. No correlation between these biomarkers and breast cancer specific

  20. Diffusion of subsidized ACTs in accredited drug shops in Tanzania: determinants of stocking and characteristics of early and late adopters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many households in sub-Saharan Africa utilize the private sector as a primary source of treatment for malaria episodes. Expanding access to effective treatment in private drug shops may help reduce incidence of severe disease and mortality. This research leveraged a longitudinal survey of stocking of subsidized artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), an effective anti-malarial, in Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) in two regions of Tanzania. This provided a unique opportunity to explore shop and market level determinants of product diffusion in a developing country retail market. Methods 356 ADDOs in the Rukwa and Mtwara regions of Tanzania were surveyed at seven points between Feb 2011 and May 2012. Shop level audits were used to measure the availability of subsidized ACTs at each shop. Data on market and shop level factors were collected during the survey and also extracted from GIS layers. Regression and network based methodologies were used. Shops classified as early and late adopters, following Rogers’ model of product diffusion, were compared. The Bass model of product diffusion was applied to determine whether shops stocked ACTs out of a need to imitate market competitors or a desire to satisfy customer needs. Results Following the introduction of a subsidy for ACTs, stocking increased from 12% to nearly 80% over the seven survey rounds. Stocking was influenced by higher numbers of proximal shops and clinics, larger customer traffic and the presence of a licensed pharmacist. Early adopters were characterized by a larger percentage of customers seeking care for malaria, a larger catchment and sourcing from specific wholesalers/suppliers. The Bass model of product diffusion indicated that shops were adopting products in response to competitor behavior, rather than customer demand. Conclusions Decisions to stock new pharmaceutical products in Tanzanian ADDOs are influenced by a combination of factors related to both market competition

  1. Diffusion of subsidized ACTs in accredited drug shops in Tanzania: determinants of stocking and characteristics of early and late adopters.

    PubMed

    Larson, Peter S; Yadav, Prashant; Alphs, Sarah; Arkedis, Jean; Massaga, Julius; Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Jessica L

    2013-12-18

    Many households in sub-Saharan Africa utilize the private sector as a primary source of treatment for malaria episodes. Expanding access to effective treatment in private drug shops may help reduce incidence of severe disease and mortality. This research leveraged a longitudinal survey of stocking of subsidized artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), an effective anti-malarial, in Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) in two regions of Tanzania. This provided a unique opportunity to explore shop and market level determinants of product diffusion in a developing country retail market. 356 ADDOs in the Rukwa and Mtwara regions of Tanzania were surveyed at seven points between Feb 2011 and May 2012. Shop level audits were used to measure the availability of subsidized ACTs at each shop. Data on market and shop level factors were collected during the survey and also extracted from GIS layers. Regression and network based methodologies were used. Shops classified as early and late adopters, following Rogers' model of product diffusion, were compared. The Bass model of product diffusion was applied to determine whether shops stocked ACTs out of a need to imitate market competitors or a desire to satisfy customer needs. Following the introduction of a subsidy for ACTs, stocking increased from 12% to nearly 80% over the seven survey rounds. Stocking was influenced by higher numbers of proximal shops and clinics, larger customer traffic and the presence of a licensed pharmacist. Early adopters were characterized by a larger percentage of customers seeking care for malaria, a larger catchment and sourcing from specific wholesalers/suppliers. The Bass model of product diffusion indicated that shops were adopting products in response to competitor behavior, rather than customer demand. Decisions to stock new pharmaceutical products in Tanzanian ADDOs are influenced by a combination of factors related to both market competition and customer demand, but are particularly

  2. Domains of cognitive function in early old age: which ones are predicted by pre-retirement psychosocial work characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    Sabbath, Erika; Andel, Ross; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Berr, Claudine

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work characteristics may predict cognitive functioning after retirement. However, little research has explored specific cognitive domains associated with psychosocial work environments. Our study tested whether exposure to job demands, job control, and their combination during working life predicted post-retirement performance on eight cognitive tests. Methods We used data from French GAZEL cohort members who had undergone post-retirement cognitive testing (n=2,149). Psychosocial job characteristics were measured on average four years before retirement using Karasek’s Job Content Questionnaire (job demands, job control, demand-control combinations). We tested associations between these exposures and post-retirement performance on tests of executive function, visual-motor speed, psycho-motor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency using OLS regression. Results Low job control during working life was negatively associated with executive function, psychomotor speed, phonemic fluency, and semantic fluency after retirement (p’s<.05) even after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic status, health and social behaviours, and vascular risk factors. Both passive (low-demand, low-control) and high-strain (high-demand, low-control) jobs were associated with lower scores on phonemic and semantic fluency when compared to low-strain (low-demand, high-control) jobs. Conclusions Low job control, in combination with both high and low job demands, is associated with post-retirement deficits in some, but not all, cognitive domains. In addition to work stress, associations between passive work and subsequent cognitive function may implicate lack of cognitive engagement at work as a risk factor for future cognitive difficulties. PMID:27188277

  3. Domains of cognitive function in early old age: which ones are predicted by pre-retirement psychosocial work characteristics?

    PubMed

    Sabbath, Erika L; Andel, Ross; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Berr, Claudine

    2016-10-01

    Psychosocial work characteristics may predict cognitive functioning after retirement. However, little research has explored specific cognitive domains associated with psychosocial work environments. Our study tested whether exposure to job demands, job control and their combination during working life predicted post-retirement performance on eight cognitive tests. We used data from French GAZEL cohort members who had undergone post-retirement cognitive testing (n=2149). Psychosocial job characteristics were measured on average for 4 years before retirement using Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire (job demands, job control and demand-control combinations). We tested associations between these exposures and post-retirement performance on tests for executive function, visual-motor speed, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency using ordinary least squares regression. Low job control during working life was negatively associated with executive function, psychomotor speed, phonemic fluency and semantic fluency after retirement (p's<0.05), even after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic status, health and social behaviours and vascular risk factors. Both passive (low-demand, low-control) and high-strain (high-demand, low-control) jobs were associated with lower scores on phonemic and semantic fluency when compared to low-strain (low-demand, high-control) jobs. Low job control, in combination with both high and low-job demands, is associated with post-retirement deficits in some, but not all, cognitive domains. In addition to work stress, associations between passive work and subsequent cognitive function may implicate lack of cognitive engagement at work as a risk factor for future cognitive difficulties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Early to Middle Ordovician back-arc basin in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge: characteristics, extent, and tectonic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tull, James; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Barineau, Clinton I.

    2014-01-01

    Fault-dismembered segments of a distinctive, extensive, highly allochthonous, and tectonically significant Ordovician (ca. 480–460 Ma) basin, which contains suites of bimodal metavolcanic rocks, associated base metal deposits, and thick immature deep-water (turbiditic) metasediments, occur in parts of the southern Appalachian Talladega belt, eastern Blue Ridge, and Inner Piedmont of Alabama, Georgia, and North and South Carolina. The basin's predominantly metasedimentary strata display geochemical and isotopic evidence of a mixed provenance, including an adjacent active volcanic arc and a provenance of mica (clay)-rich sedimentary and felsic plutonic rocks consistent with Laurentian (Grenvillian) upper-crustal continental rocks and their passive-margin cover sequences. Geochemical characteristics of the subordinate intercalated bimodal metavolcanic rocks indicate formation in a suprasubduction environment, most likely a back-arc basin, whereas characteristics of metasedimentary units suggest deposition above Neoproterozoic rift and outer-margin lower Paleozoic slope and rise sediments within a marginal basin along Ordovician Laurentia's Iapetus margin. This tectonic setting indicates that southernmost Appalachian Ordovician orogenesis (Taconic orogeny) began as an extensional accretionary orogen along the outer margin of Laurentia, rather than in an exotic (non-Laurentian) arc collisional setting. B-type subduction polarity requires that the associated arc-trench system formed southeast of the palinspastic position of the back-arc basin. This scenario can explain several unique features of the southern Appalachian Taconic orogen, including: the palinspastic geographic ordering of key tectonic elements (i.e., back-arc, arc, etc.), and a lack of (1) an obducted arc sensu stricto on the Laurentian margin, (2) widespread Ordovician regional metamorphism, and (3) Taconic klippen to supply detritus to the Taconic foreland basin.

  5. Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: Heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics

    PubMed Central

    JESTER, JENNIFER M.; NIGG, JOEL T.; ADAMS, KENNETH; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.; PUTTLER, LEON I.; WONG, MARIA M.; ZUCKER, ROBERT A.

    2008-01-01

    In attention/hyperactivity and aggressive behavior problems were measured in 335 children from school entry throughout adolescence, at 3-year intervals. Children were participants in a high-risk prospective study of substance use disorders and comorbid problems. A parallel process latent growth model found aggressive behavior decreasing throughout childhood and adolescence, whereas inattentive/hyperactive behavior levels were constant. Growth mixture modeling, in which developmental trajectories are statistically classified, found two classes for inattention/hyperactivity and two for aggressive behavior, resulting in a total of four trajectory classes. Different influences of the family environment predicted development of the two types of behavior problems when the other behavior problem was held constant. Lower emotional support and lower intellectual stimulation by the parents in early childhood predicted membership in the high problem class of inattention/hyperactivity when the trajectory of aggression was held constant. Conversely, conflict and lack of cohesiveness in the family environment predicted membership in a worse developmental trajectory of aggressive behavior when the inattention/hyperactivity trajectories were held constant. The implications of these findings for the development of inattention/hyperactivity and for the development of risk for the emergence of substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:15971762

  6. Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jester, Jennifer M; Nigg, Joel T; Adams, Kenneth; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Puttler, Leon I; Wong, Maria M; Zucker, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Inattention/hyperactivity and aggressive behavior problems were measured in 335 children from school entry throughout adolescence, at 3-year intervals. Children were participants in a high-risk prospective study of substance use disorders and comorbid problems. A parallel process latent growth model found aggressive behavior decreasing throughout childhood and adolescence, whereas inattentive/hyperactive behavior levels were constant. Growth mixture modeling, in which developmental trajectories are statistically classified, found two classes for inattention/hyperactivity and two for aggressive behavior, resulting in a total of four trajectory classes. Different influences of the family environment predicted development of the two types of behavior problems when the other behavior problem was held constant. Lower emotional support and lower intellectual stimulation by the parents in early childhood predicted membership in the high problem class of inattention/hyperactivity when the trajectory of aggression was held constant. Conversely, conflict and lack of cohesiveness in the family environment predicted membership in a worse developmental trajectory of aggressive behavior when the inattention/hyperactivity trajectories were held constant. The implications of these findings for the development of inattention/hyperactivity and for the development of risk for the emergence of substance use disorders are discussed.

  7. Early Alterations in Bone Characteristics of Type I Diabetic Rat Femur: A Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ozlem; Bilgin, Mehmet Dincer; Evis, Zafer; Pleshko, Nancy; Severcan, Feride

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in microstructure and mineral features can affect the mechanical and chemical properties of bones and their capacity to resist mechanical forces. Controversial results on diabetic bone mineral content have been reported and little is known about the structural alterations in collagen, maturation of apatite crystals, and carbonate content in diabetic bone. This current study is the first to report the mineral and organic properties of cortical, trabecular, and growth plate regions of diabetic rat femurs using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and the Vickers microhardness test. Femurs of type I diabetic rats were embedded into polymethylmethacrylate blocks, which were used for FT-IR imaging and microhardness studies. A lower mineral content and microhardness, a higher carbonate content especially labile type carbonate content, and an increase in size and maturation of hydroxyapatite crystals were observed in diabetic femurs, which indicate that diabetes has detrimental effects on bone just like osteoporosis. There was a decrease in the level of collagen maturity in diabetic femurs, implying a decrease in bone collagen quality that may contribute to the decrease in tensile strength and bone fragility. Taken together, the findings revealed alterations in structure and composition of mineral and matrix components, and an altered quality and mechanical strength of rat femurs in an early stage of type I diabetes. The results contribute to the knowledge of structure-function relationship of mineral and matrix components in diabetic bone disorder and can further be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Child Characteristics, Parent Education and Depressive Symptoms, and Marital Conflict Predicting Trajectories of Parenting Behavior from Childhood Through Early Adolescence in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Dopkins Stright, Anne; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2017-09-01

    The study examined how child and parent characteristics, and contextual sources of stress, such as marital conflict predict initial status and trajectories of parent involvement, support, and harsh control, over a 4-year period in families in Taiwan (n = 4,754). Based on Belsky's (1984) ecological model of parenting, three domains predicting parenting were tested, child characteristics (age cohort and gender), father and mother characteristics (education and depressive symptoms), and contextual sources of stress (marital conflict). The study followed two cohorts of children; the younger cohort was followed from first to fourth grade and the older cohort from fourth to seventh grade. Initially, fourth graders reported more parental involvement, support, and harsh control than first graders. However, involvement, support, and harsh control decreased across the 4 years for the older cohort as they transitioned to early adolescence. In the first year, girls reported more parental involvement and support and less harsh control than boys. Across the 4 years, involvement and support increased, and harsh control decreased for boys; whereas involvement stayed the same, support slightly decreased, and harsh control slightly increased for girls. Children whose parents were more educated reported more parent involvement, support, and harsh control in the first year. Children whose fathers were chronically depressed and whose parents were experiencing marital conflict reported decreasing parent involvement and support over the years. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. Shy, but funny? Examining peer-valued characteristics as moderators of the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-04-01

    Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity.

  10. Pulling the Parent Trigger--Forum. "Education Next" Talks with Ben Austin and Michael J. Petrilli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ben; Petrilli, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Championed by California-based Parent Revolution, and adopted first by California in early 2010, more than a half-dozen states now have parent trigger laws. The parent trigger, which allows a majority of parents at a low-performing school to vote to seize control from the local district, has been wielded at four California schools. Is the parent…

  11. Comparative study of clinical and neuropsychological characteristics between early-, late and very-late-onset schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Manon; van der Werf, Margriet; Verkaaik, Mike; Arts, Baer; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Verhey, Frans; Köhler, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    To compare the clinical and neurocognitive profile of early-onset (EOP, <40 years), late-onset (LOP, 40-59 years) and very-late-onset (VLOP, ≥60 years) psychosis. Cross-sectional observational study. Secondary, tertiary, and community mental health care. Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder were included from two complementary studies (GROUP and PSITE) on genetic and environmental risk factors of psychosis in the Netherlands and Belgium. Main outcome measures were the severity of positive and negative symptoms, quality of life, and age-corrected scores on measures of general intelligence, verbal memory, attention, and executive function. One-year follow-up data were used to validate diagnoses and exclude participants with possible or probable dementia. 286 EOP (85%), 24 LOP (7%) and 28 VLOP (8%) participated. VLOP patients reported significantly more positive symptoms than EOP patients. Age-at-onset groups had similar age-corrected scores on IQ, verbal memory, attention and executive functions. A significantly better performance was found in VLOP compared with LOP on the CAMCOG total score, though scores were still within the normal range. After controlling for possible confounding, however, VLOP differed significantly on an attention accuracy task compared with LOP patients. Re-entering data for probable dementia patients (N = 4) did change the results regarding cognition outcomes. VLOP patients show more positive symptoms but do not appear to differ on neuropsychological tests from EOP and LOP when age is controlled for. This questions the idea that VLOP is the expression of underlying neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Disease Characteristics and Rheumatoid Arthritis Development in Patients with Early Undifferentiated Arthritis: A 2-year Followup Study.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Gina H; Norli, Ellen S; Kvien, Tore K; Haugen, Anne J; Grøvle, Lars; Nygaard, Halvor; Bjørneboe, Olav; Thunem, Cathrine; Mjaavatten, Maria D; Lie, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    To examine the 2-year disease course in patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) focusing on fulfillment of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) classification criteria. Data were provided by the Norwegian Very Early Arthritis Clinic study, which included patients presenting with ≥ 1 swollen joint of ≤ 16 weeks' duration. UA was defined as patients not fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria and who did not have a clinical diagnosis other than RA at baseline. The main outcome was fulfillment of the 2010 RA criteria. Secondary outcomes were disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) use, resolution of synovitis without use of DMARD during followup, and final clinical diagnosis. We included 477 patients with UA of whom 47 fulfilled the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria during followup (UA-RA) and 430 did not (UA-non-RA). Of the UA-RA patients, 70% fulfilled the criteria within the first 6 months. UA-RA patients were older, more often positive for rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated protein antibodies, female, and ever smokers, and they more often presented with polyarticular arthritis, small joint involvement, and a swollen shoulder joint. During followup, 53% of UA-RA patients vs 13% of UA-non-RA patients used DMARD (p < 0.001). Overall, 71% of patients with UA achieved absence of clinical synovitis at final followup without use of DMARD. The most frequent final clinical diagnosis was UA (61%). Only 9.8% of patients with UA fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria during 2-year followup. Small joint involvement and swollen shoulder joint were among the factors associated with RA development. In two-thirds of patients with UA, the arthritis resolved without use of DMARD.

  13. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Christopher D; Bratton, Daniel J; Craig, Sonya E; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2-4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2-4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2-4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months. Although, in general, early patterns of CPAP

  14. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Bratton, Daniel J.; Craig, Sonya E.; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. Methods The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2–4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. Results One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2–4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2–4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. Conclusions In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months

  15. Investigation of high-voltage pulse trigger generator based on photo-conductive semiconductor switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xu; Liu, Jin-Liang; Wang, Lang-Ning; Qiu, Yong-Feng

    2018-06-01

    The trigger to generate high-voltage pulse is one of the most important parts in a pulsed-power system, especially for the conduction characteristics of the main switch. However, traditional triggers usually have the drawbacks of large structure and worse long-term working stability, which goes against the demands of pulsed-power system miniaturization and stability. In the paper, a pulse trigger using photo-conductive semiconductor switch was developed, which is of small size, stable performance and steep leading edge of the output pulse rise. It is found that the output trigger pulse rise time is 14 ns, and the jitter of 20 shots is 330 ps. Applying the designed pulsed trigger in a field distortion switch and a triggered vacuum switch, experiments show that the switches could be triggered stably with reduced jitter.

  16. Note: Design and investigation of a multichannel plasma-jet triggered gas switch.

    PubMed

    Tie, Weihao; Liu, Xuandong; Zhang, Qiaogen; Liu, Shanhong

    2014-07-01

    We described the fabrication and testing of a multichannel plasma-jet triggered gas switch (MPJTGS). A novel six-channel annular micro-plasma-gun was embedded in the trigger electrode to generate multichannel plasma jets as a nanosecond trigger pulse arrived. The gas breakdown in multiple sites of the spark gap was induced and fixed around jet orifices by the plasma jets. We tested the multichannel discharge characteristics of the MPJTGS in two working modes with charge voltage of 50 kV, trigger voltage of +40 kV (25 ns rise time), and trigger energy of 240 J, 32 J, and 2 J, respectively, at different working coefficients. Results show that the average number of discharge channels increased as the trigger energy increased, and decreased as the working coefficient decreased. At a working coefficient of 87.1% and trigger energy of 240 J, the average number of discharge channels in Mode II could reach 4.1.

  17. Triggering Reform at Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    An intriguing experiment is afoot in some of the nation's struggling public schools. New "Parent Trigger" laws passed in California and on the agenda in New York, Ohio, Colorado, and Chicago, allow parents of chronically failing schools to unseat the schools' leadership and staff. But the initiative has pitfalls. It's easy to mobilize…

  18. Syncope: what is the trigger?

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, R

    2003-02-01

    Although a syncopal attack is frequently preceded by prodromal symptoms, sometimes the onset can be so abrupt that there is no warning at all. The switch in autonomic responses responsible for such an attack is quite rapid and dramatic, but the trigger for this remains one of the unresolved mysteries in cardiovascular physiology.

  19. The trigger system of the JEM-EUSO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, M.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Hamada, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kawasai, Y.; Sawabe, T.; Takahashi, Y.; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    The trigger system of JEM-EUSO should face different major challenging points: a) cope with the limited down-link transmission rate from the ISS to Earth, by operating a severe on-board and on-time data reduction; b) use very fast, low power consuming and radiation hard electronics; c) have a high signal-over-noise performance and flexibility in order to lower as much as possible the energy threshold of the detector, adjust the system to a variable nightglow background, and trigger on different categories of events (images insisting on the same pixels or crossing huge portions of the entire focal surface). Based on the above stringent requirements, the main ingredients for the trigger logic are: the Gate Time Unit (GTU); the minimum number Nthresh of photo-electrons piling up in a GTU in a pixel to be fired; the persistency level Npers, in which fired pixels are over threshold; the localization and correlation in space and time of the fired pixels, that distinguish a real EAS from an accidental background enhancement. The core of the trigger logic is the Track Trigger Algorithm that has been specifically developed for this purpose. Its characteristics, preliminary performance and its possible implementation on FPGA or DSP will be discussed together with a general overview of the architecture of the triggering system of JEM-EUSO.

  20. A plant effector-triggered immunity signaling sector is inhibited by pattern-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Daisuke; Mase, Keisuke; Lu, You; Tsuda, Yayoi; Chakravarthy, Suma; Wei, Hai-Lei; Foley, Joseph W; Collmer, Alan; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2017-09-15

    Since signaling machineries for two modes of plant-induced immunity, pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), extensively overlap, PTI and ETI signaling likely interact. In an Arabidopsis quadruple mutant, in which four major sectors of the signaling network, jasmonate, ethylene, PAD4, and salicylate, are disabled, the hypersensitive response (HR) typical of ETI is abolished when the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 is bacterially delivered but is intact when AvrRpt2 is directly expressed in planta These observations led us to discovery of a network-buffered signaling mechanism that mediates HR signaling and is strongly inhibited by PTI signaling. We named this mechanism the ETI-Mediating and PTI-Inhibited Sector (EMPIS). The signaling kinetics of EMPIS explain apparently different plant genetic requirements for ETI triggered by different effectors without postulating different signaling machineries. The properties of EMPIS suggest that information about efficacy of the early immune response is fed back to the immune signaling network, modulating its activity and limiting the fitness cost of unnecessary immune responses. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Difference in the Clinical Characteristics of Ventricular Fibrillation Occurrence in the Early Phase of an Acute Myocardial Infarction Between Patients With and Without J Waves.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Yoshihisa; Nogami, Akihiko; Harimura, Yoshie; Ishibashi, Mayu; Noguchi, Yuichi; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Sato, Akira; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2015-08-01

    We recently showed that the presence of J waves increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurrence in the early phase of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of VF occurrences in the early phase of an AMI between patients with and without J waves. This retrospective, observational study included 281 consecutive patients with an AMI (69 ± 12 years; 207 men) in whom 12-lead ECGs before AMI onset could be evaluated. The patients were classified based on a VF occurrence <48 hours after AMI onset and the presence of J waves. J waves were electrocardiographically defined as an elevation of the terminal portion of the QRS complex of >0.1 mV from baseline in at least 2 contiguous inferior or lateral leads. VF occurred in 24 patients, and J waves were present in 37. VF occurrence was more prevalent in the patients with than without J waves (27% vs. 6%; P < 0.001). Among the 244 patients without J waves, peak creatine kinase level (P < 0.01), number of diseased coronary arteries (P < 0.01), and male sex (P < 0.05) were higher in the patients with than without VF occurrence. However, among the 37 patients with J waves, there was no significant difference in these variables. There was no association between the location of J waves and the infarct area. In patients with AMI, those with J waves were more likely to develop VF and less likely to have high-risk clinical characteristics than those without J waves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sex differences in the prediction of the effectiveness of paroxetine for patients with major depressive disorder identified using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for early response.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Norio, Yasui-Furukori; Sato, Yasushi; Nakagami, Taku; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao

    2014-01-01

    We investigated cutoff values for the early response of patients with major depressive disorder to paroxetine and their sex differences by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to predict the effectiveness of paroxetine. In total, 120 patients with major depressive disorder were enrolled and treated with 10-40 mg/day paroxetine for 6 weeks; 89 patients completed the protocol. A clinical evaluation using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was performed at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. In male subjects, the cutoff values for MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 20.9%, 34.9%, and 33.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 83.3% and 80.0%, 83.3% and 80.0%, and 100% and 90%, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.908, 0.821, and 0.979, respectively. In female subjects, the cutoff values for the MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 21.4%, 35.7%, and 32.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 71.4% and 84.6%, 73.8% and 76.9%, and 90.5% and 76.9%, respectively. The AUCs were 0.781, 0.735, and 0.904, respectively. Early improvement with paroxetine may predict the long-term response. The accuracy of the prediction for the response is higher in male subjects.

  3. Clinical characteristics of Japanese candidates for lung transplant for interstitial lung disease and risk factors for early death while on the waiting list.

    PubMed

    Higo, Hisao; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Ichihara, Eiki; Kubo, Toshio; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Otani, Shinji; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro

    2017-07-01

    Lung transplants have produced very favorable outcomes for patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) in Japan. However, because of the severe donor lung shortage, patients must wait approximately 2.5 years before they can undergo transplantation and many candidates die before allocation. We reveal the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with ILD who are candidates for lung transplants and the risk factors for early death while on the waiting list. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of patients registered in the Japan Organ Transplant Network from Okayama University Hospital who are candidates for cadaveric lung transplants for ILD between 1999 and 2015. Fifty-three patients with ILD were included (24 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 29 others). They had severe pulmonary dysfunction and low exercise tolerability. The median waiting time for transplantation was 462 days, and 22 patients died before allocation. Patients who died before 462 days without undergoing transplantation had more severe dyspnea, shorter 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and lower performance status than those who waited ≥462 days. Japanese candidates for cadaveric lung transplants for ILD have severe pulmonary dysfunction. Severe dyspnea, short 6MWD, and low performance status are risk factors for early death while on the waiting list. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution of Glycated Haemoglobin According to Early-Life and Contemporary Characteristics in Adolescents and Adults without Diabetes: The 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Buffarini, Romina; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Silveira, Vera M; Miranda, Jaime J; Gonçalves, Helen D; Oliveira, Isabel O; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Menezes, Ana Maria; Assunção, Maria Cecília F

    2016-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of glucose control in individuals with diabetes mellitus, is also related with the incidence of cardiometabolic risk in populations free of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of HbA1c levels according to early-life and contemporary factors in adolescents and adults without diabetes mellitus. HbA1c was measured in adults aged 30 years and adolescents aged 18 years who are participants in the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe the HbA1c mean values according to early-life and contemporary characteristics collected prospectively since birth. The distribution of the HbA1c was approximately normal in both cohorts, with a mean (SD) 5.10% (0.43) in the 1982 cohort, and 4.89% (0.50) in the 1993 cohort. HbA1c mean levels were significantly higher in individuals self-reported as black/brown skin color compared to those self-reported as white in both cohorts. Parental history of diabetes was associated with higher HbA1c mean in adults, while stunting at one year old presented an inverse relation with the outcome in adolescents. No other early and contemporary factors were associated with HbA1c levels in adults or adolescents. We found a consistent relationship between HbA1c and skin color in both cohorts. Further research is needed to understand the role of genomic ancestry on levels of HbA1c concentrations which may inform policies and preventive actions for diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk.

  5. Analysis of PAMP-Triggered ROS Burst in Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yuying; Macho, Alberto P

    2017-01-01

    The plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers a plethora of cellular immune responses. One of these responses is a rapid and transient burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases. The ROS burst requires a functional receptor complex and the contribution of several additional regulatory components. In laboratory conditions, the ROS burst can be detected a few minutes after the treatment with an immunogenic microbial elicitor. For these reasons, the elicitor-triggered ROS burst has been often exploited as readout to probe the contribution of plant components to early immune responses. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the measurement of elicitor-triggered ROS burst in a simple, fast, and easy manner.

  6. Development and Applications of Photo-triggered Theranostic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Prakash; Mallidi, Srivallesha; Zheng, Xiang; Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin; Mir, Youssef; Elrington, Stefan; Khurshid, Ahmat; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2010-01-01

    Theranostics, the fusion of therapy and diagnostics for optimizing efficacy and safety of therapeutic regimes, is a growing field that is paving the way towards the goal of personalized medicine for the benefit of patients. The use of light as a remote-activation mechanism for drug delivery has received increased attention due to its advantages in highly specific spatial and temporal control of compound release. Photo-triggered theranostic constructs could facilitate an entirely new category of clinical solutions which permit early recognition of the disease by enhancing contrast in various imaging modalities followed by the tailored guidance of therapy. Finally, such theranostic agents could aid imaging modalities in monitoring response to therapy. This article reviews recent developments in the use of light-triggered theranostic agents for simultaneous imaging and photoactivation of therapeutic agents. Specifically, we discuss recent developments in the use of theranostic agents for photodynamic-, photothermal- or photo-triggered chemo-therapy for several diseases. PMID:20858520

  7. Study of Tectonic Tremor in Depth: Triggering Stress Observation and Model of the Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tien-Huei

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been discovered in recent years due to advances in seismic instruments and increased density of seismic networks. The NVT is a special kind of seismic signal indicative of the physical conditions and the failure mechanism on the source on the fault where NVT occurs. The detection methods used and the sensitivity of them relies on the density, distance and instrumentation of the station network available. How accurately the tremor is identified in different regions varies greatly among different studies. Therefore, there has not been study that rigorously documents tectonic tremors in different regions under limited methods and data. Meanwhile, many incidences of NVTs are observed during or after small but significant strain change induced by teleseismic, regional or local earthquake. The understanding of the triggering mechanisms critical for tremor remains unclear. In addition, characteristics of the triggering of NVT in different regions are rarely compared because of the short time frame after the discovery of the triggered NVTs. We first explore tectonic tremor based on observations to learn about its triggering, frequency of occurrence, location and spectral characteristics. Then, we numerically model the triggering of instability on the estimated tremor-source, under assumptions fine-tuned according to previous studies (Thomas et al., 2009; Miyazawa et al., 2005; Hill, 2008; Ito, 2009; Rubinstein et al., 2007; Peng and Chao, 2008). The onset of the slip reveals that how and when the external loading triggers tremor. It also holds the information to the background stress conditions under which tremor source starts with. We observe and detect tremor in two regions: Anza and Cholame, along San Jacinto Fault (SJF) and San Andreas Fault (SAF) respectively. These two sections of the faults, relative to general fault zone on which general earthquakes occur, are considered transition zones where slip of slow rates occurs. Slip events

  8. Early insights into the characteristics and evolution of clinical parameters in a cohort of patients prescribed sacubitril/valsartan in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Rolf; Viriato, Daniel; Klebs, Sven; Grunow, Stefanie S; Schindler, Matthias; Engelhard, Johanna; Proenca, Catia C; Calado, Frederico; Schlienger, Raymond; Dworak, Markus; Balas, Bogdan; Bruce Wirta, Sara

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to provide early insights into sacubitril/valsartan (sac/val) prescription patterns and the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients prescribed sac/val in primary care and cardiology settings in Germany. The study used electronic medical records from the German IMS® Disease Analyzer database. Patients with ≥1 prescription for sac/val during 1 January-31 December 2016 (n = 1643) were identified and followed up for ≤12 months from first prescription. Patients with ≥1 heart failure (HF) diagnosis during the study period, ≥1 additional HF diagnosis in the full history of the database, and ≥1 prescription for an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker and a β-blocker during the study period, without a prescription for sac/val (n = 25,264), were included as a reference cohort. Changes in clinical parameters in the 12 months before and after sac/val initiation were investigated and compared with those from the PARADIGM-HF study. The characteristics of patients prescribed sac/val more closely resembled those of patients enrolled in PARADIGM-HF (e.g. younger age, higher proportion of men than women, lower systolic blood pressure) than patients in the reference cohort. Most patients were initiated on the lowest dose of sac/val irrespective of clinical setting. Significant decreases (p < 0.001) in NT-proBNP and glycated haemoglobin levels were observed following sac/val initiation. Patients prescribed sac/val had similar baseline demographics and clinical characteristics to those from PARADIGM-HF, and most patients were initiated on the lowest dose. Changes in clinical parameters before and after initiation mirrored findings from the PARADIGM-HF study.

  9. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  11. Design, characterization, and sensitivity of the supernova trigger system at Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hanyu; Lebanowski, Logan; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin

    2016-02-01

    Providing an early warning of galactic supernova explosions from neutrino signals is important in studying supernova dynamics and neutrino physics. A dedicated supernova trigger system has been designed and installed in the data acquisition system at Daya Bay and integrated into the worldwide Supernova Early Warning System (SNEWS). Daya Bay's unique feature of eight identically-designed detectors deployed in three separate experimental halls makes the trigger system naturally robust against cosmogenic backgrounds, enabling a prompt analysis of online triggers and a tight control of the false-alert rate. The trigger system is estimated to be fully sensitive to 1987A-type supernova bursts throughout most of the Milky Way. The significant gain in sensitivity of the eight-detector configuration over a mass-equivalent single detector is also estimated. The experience of this online trigger system is applicable to future projects with spatially distributed detectors.

  12. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  14. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  15. Landslide database dominated by rainfall triggered events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoli, G.; Strauch, W.; Álvarez, A.

    2009-04-01

    A digital landslide database has been created for Nicaragua to provide the scientific community and national authorities with a tool for landslide hazard assessment. Valuable information on landslide events has been obtained from a great variety of sources. On the basis of the data stored in the database, preliminary analyses performed at national scale aimed to characterize landslides in terms of spatial and temporal distribution, types of slope movements, triggering mechanisms, number of casualties and damage to infrastructure. A total of about 17000 events spatially distributed in mountainous and volcanic terrains have been collected in the database. The events are temporally distributed between 1826 and 2003, but a large number of the records (62% of the total number) occurred during the disastrous Hurricane Mitch in October 1998. The results showed that debris flows are the most common types of landslides recorded in the database (66% of the total amount), but other types, including rockfalls and slides, have also been identified. Rainfall, also associated with tropical cyclones, is the most frequent triggering mechanism of landslides in Nicaragua, but also seismic and volcanic activities are important triggers or, especially, the combination of one of them with rainfall. Rainfall has caused all types of failures, but debris flows and translational shallow slides are more frequent types. Earthquakes have most frequently triggered rockfalls and slides, while volcanic eruptions rockfalls and debris flows. Landslides triggered by rainfall were limited in time to the wet season that lasts from May to October and an increase in the number of events is observed during the months of September and October, which is in accord with the period of the rainy season in the Pacific and Northern and Central regions and when the country has the highest probability of being impacted by hurricanes. Both Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclones have triggered landslides. At the

  16. Headache triggers in the US military.

    PubMed

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  17. Seismic wave triggering of nonvolcanic tremor, episodic tremor and slip, and earthquakes on Vancouver Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Gomberg, Joan; Vidale, John E.; Wech, Aaron G.; Kao, Honn; Creager, Kenneth C.; Rogers, Garry

    2009-02-01

    We explore the physical conditions that enable triggering of nonvolcanic tremor and earthquakes by considering local seismic activity on Vancouver Island, British Columbia during and immediately after the arrival of large-amplitude seismic waves from 30 teleseismic and 17 regional or local earthquakes. We identify tremor triggered by four of the teleseismic earthquakes. The close temporal and spatial proximity of triggered tremor to ambient tremor and aseismic slip indicates that when a fault is close to or undergoing failure, it is particularly susceptible to triggering of further events. The amplitude of the triggering waves also influences the likelihood of triggering both tremor and earthquakes such that large amplitude waves triggered tremor in the absence of detectable aseismic slip or ambient tremor. Tremor and energy radiated from regional/local earthquakes share the same frequency passband so that tremor cannot be identified during these smaller, more frequent events. We confidently identify triggered local earthquakes following only one teleseism, that with the largest amplitude, and four regional or local events that generated vigorous aftershock sequences in their immediate vicinity. Earthquakes tend to be triggered in regions different from tremor and with high ambient seismicity rates. We also note an interesting possible correlation between large teleseismic events and episodic tremor and slip (ETS) episodes, whereby ETS events that are "late" and have built up more stress than normal are susceptible to triggering by the slight nudge of the shaking from a large, distant event, while ETS events that are "early" or "on time" are not.

  18. Tremor evidence for dynamically triggered creep events on the deep San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Shelly, D. R.; Hill, D. P.; Aiken, C.

    2010-12-01

    Deep tectonic tremor has been observed along major subduction zones and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central and southern California. It appears to reflect deep fault slip, and it is often seen to be triggered by small stresses, including passing seismic waves from large regional and teleseismic earthquakes. Here we examine tremor activity along the Parkfield-Cholame section of the SAF from mid-2001 to early 2010, scrutinizing its relationship with regional and teleseismic earthquakes. Based on similarities in the shape and timing of seismic waveforms, we conclude that triggered and ambient tremor share common sources and a common physical mechanism. Utilizing this similarity in waveforms, we detect tremor triggered by numerous large events, including previously unreported triggering from the recent 2009 Mw7.3 Honduras, 2009 Mw8.1 Samoa, and 2010 Mw8.8 Chile earthquakes at teleseismic distances, and the relatively small 2007 Mw5.4 Alum Rock and 2008 Mw5.4 Chino Hills earthquakes at regional distances. We also find multiple examples of systematic migration in triggered tremor, similar to ambient tremor migration episodes observed at other times. Because these episodes propagate much more slowly than the triggering waves, the migration likely reflects a small, triggered creep event. As with ambient tremor bursts, triggered tremor at times persists for multiple days, probably indicating a somewhat larger creep event. This activity provides a clear example of delayed dynamic triggering, with a mechanism perhaps also relevant for triggering of regular earthquakes.

  19. Age-related changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of gait accompany ongoing lower limb linear growth in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Froehle, Andrew W; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2013-05-01

    Walking gait is generally held to reach maturity, including walking at adult-like velocities, by 7-8 years of age. Lower limb length, however, is a major determinant of gait, and continues to increase until 13-15 years of age. This study used a sample from the Fels Longitudinal Study (ages 8-30 years) to test the hypothesis that walking with adult-like velocity on immature lower limbs results in the retention of immature gait characteristics during late childhood and early adolescence. There was no relationship between walking velocity and age in this sample, whereas the lower limb continued to grow, reaching maturity at 13.2 years in females and 15.6 years in males. Piecewise linear mixed models regression analysis revealed significant age-related trends in normalized cadence, initial double support time, single support time, base of support, and normalized step length in both sexes. Each trend reached its own, variable-specific age at maturity, after which the gait variables' relationships with age reached plateaus and did not differ significantly from zero. Offsets in ages at maturity occurred among the gait variables, and between the gait variables and lower limb length. The sexes also differed in their patterns of maturation. Generally, however, immature walkers of both sexes took more frequent and relatively longer steps than did mature walkers. These results support the hypothesis that maturational changes in gait accompany ongoing lower limb growth, with implications for diagnosing, preventing, and treating movement-related disorders and injuries during late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting need for orthognathic surgery in early permanent dentition patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate using receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yun-Chia Ku, Michelle; Lo, Lun-Jou; Chen, Min-Chi; Wen-Ching Ko, Ellen

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the need for orthognathic surgery in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in the early permanent dentition. In this retrospective cohort study, we included 61 patients with complete UCLP (36 male, 25 female; mean age, 18.47 years; range, 16.92-26.17 years). The subjects were grouped into an orthognathic surgery group and a nonsurgery group at the time of growth completion. Lateral cephalograms obtained at the age of 11 years were analyzed to compare the 2 groups. The receiver operating characteristic analysis was applied to predict the probability of the need for orthognathic surgery in early adulthood by using the measurements obtained at the age of 11 years. SNB, ANB, SN, overbite, overjet, maxillary length, mandibular body length, and L1-MP were found to be significantly different between the 2 groups. For a person with a score of 2 in the 3-variable-based criteria, the sensitivity and specificity for determining the need for surgical treatment were 90.0% and 83.9%, respectively (ANB, ≤-0.45°; overjet, ≤-2.00 mm; maxillary length, ≤47.25 mm). Three cephalometric variables, the minimum number of discriminators required to obtain the optimum discriminant effectiveness, predicted the future need for orthognathic surgery with an accuracy of 86.9% in patients with UCLP. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cluster observations and simulations of He+ EMIC triggered emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grison, B.; Shoji, M.; Santolik, O.; Omura, Y.

    2012-12-01

    EMIC triggered emissions have been reported in the inner magnetosphere at the edge of the plasmapause nightside [Pickett et al., 2010]. The generation mechanism proposed by Omura et al. [2010] is very similar to the one of the whistler chorus emissions and simulation results agree with observations and theory [Shoji et Omura, 2011]. The main characteristics of these emissions generated in the magnetic equatorial plane region are a frequency with time dispersion and a high level of coherence. The start frequency of previously mentioned observations is above half of the proton gyrofrequency. It means that the emissions are generated on the proton branch. On the He+ branch, generation of triggered emissions, in the same region, requests more energetic protons and the triggering process starts below the He+ gyrofrequency. It makes their identification in Cluster data rather difficult. Recent simulation results confirm the possibility of EMIC triggered emission on the He+ branch. In the present contribution we propose to compare a Cluster event to simulation results in order to investigate the possibility to identify observations to a He+ triggered emission. The impact of the observed waves on particle precipitation is also investigated.

  2. Level Zero Trigger Processor for the NA62 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldi, D.; Chiozzi, S.

    2018-05-01

    The NA62 experiment is designed to measure the ultra-rare decay K+ arrow π+ ν bar nu branching ratio with a precision of ~ 10% at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The trigger system of NA62 consists in three different levels designed to select events of physics interest in a high beam rate environment. The L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP) is the lowest level system of the trigger chain. It is hardware implemented using programmable logic. The architecture of the NA62 L0TP system is a new approach compared to existing systems used in high-energy physics experiments. It is fully digital, based on a standard gigabit Ethernet communication between detectors and the L0TP Board. The L0TP Board is a commercial development board, mounting a programmable logic device (FPGA). The primitives generated by sub-detectors are sent asynchronously using the UDP protocol to the L0TP during the entire beam spill period. The L0TP realigns in time the primitives coming from seven different sources and performs a data selection based on the characteristics of the event such as energy, multiplicity and topology of hits in the sub-detectors. It guarantees a maximum latency of 1 ms. The maximum input rate is about 10 MHz for each sub-detector, while the design maximum output trigger rate is 1 MHz. A description of the trigger algorithm is presented here.

  3. Triggered and Untriggered Searches for GRB Optical Bursts with ROTSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, R.; Akerlof, C.; Lee, B.; McKay, T.; Rykoff, E.; Marshall, S.; Bloch, J.; Casperson, D.; Gisler, G.; Szymanski, J.; Wren, J.

    2000-12-01

    The ROTSE project is dedicated to the observation of early optical emission from gamma-ray bursts. We have pursued this goal both by analysis of data taken from satellite-derived triggers via GCN, as well as through the study of untriggered data. Recent work now permits us to analyze much larger fields than previously possible. We will discuss our searches for GRB optical bursts which utilize this capability.

  4. [Pathogenetic characteristics of trigger mechanisms of preterm birth].

    PubMed

    Holota, V Ia; Beniuk, V O; Chernenko, V Iu

    2000-01-01

    A study was made into the immune factors capability to induce labour in physiologic delivery and in threat of preterm birth. The immune response reactivity was proved to be the case immediately before the physiological labour and in premature delivery. The studies made showed that a rise in the level of lymphocytes and in the subpopulations ratios is a matter of principle in the diagnosis and prognosis of the contractile activity of the uterus. Preclinical diagnosis of pregnancy suspension permit performing a rational drug correction to secure a positive effect on indices for perinatal pathology.

  5. Extratropical Forcing Triggered the 2015 Madden–Julian Oscillation–El Niño Event

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chi-Cherng; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lee, Ming-Ying; Chow, Chun-Hoe; Jiang, Li-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report the triggering effect of extratropical perturbation on the onset of an atypical Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) and onset of the 2015–16 El Niño in March 2015. The MJO exhibited several unique characteristics: the effect of extratropical forcing, atypical genesis location and timing in the equatorial western Pacific, and the extremity of amplitudes in many aspects. The southward-penetrating northerly associated with the extratropical disturbances in the extratropical western North Pacific contributed to triggering the deep convection and westerly wind burst (WWB) and onset of the MJO over the anomalously warm tropical western Pacific in early March. The persisting strong WWB forced downwelling Kelvin wave-like oceanic perturbation that propagated eastward and led to the onset of the 2015–16 El Niño. The proposed novel extratropical forcing mechanism explaining the unique extratropics–MJO–El Niño association, based on both data diagnostics and numerical experiments, warrants further attention for a more detailed understanding of the onset of the MJO and its potential effect on El Niño. PMID:28436491

  6. Extratropical Forcing Triggered the 2015 Madden-Julian Oscillation-El Niño Event.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chi-Cherng; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lee, Ming-Ying; Chow, Chun-Hoe; Jiang, Li-Chiang

    2017-04-24

    In this paper, we report the triggering effect of extratropical perturbation on the onset of an atypical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and onset of the 2015-16 El Niño in March 2015. The MJO exhibited several unique characteristics: the effect of extratropical forcing, atypical genesis location and timing in the equatorial western Pacific, and the extremity of amplitudes in many aspects. The southward-penetrating northerly associated with the extratropical disturbances in the extratropical western North Pacific contributed to triggering the deep convection and westerly wind burst (WWB) and onset of the MJO over the anomalously warm tropical western Pacific in early March. The persisting strong WWB forced downwelling Kelvin wave-like oceanic perturbation that propagated eastward and led to the onset of the 2015-16 El Niño. The proposed novel extratropical forcing mechanism explaining the unique extratropics-MJO-El Niño association, based on both data diagnostics and numerical experiments, warrants further attention for a more detailed understanding of the onset of the MJO and its potential effect on El Niño.

  7. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  8. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, P.J.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1990-12-18

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable. 10 figs.

  9. Individual and interpersonal triggers to quit smoking in China: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Im, Pek Kei; McNeill, Ann; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Xu, Steve; Quah, Anne C. K.; Jiang, Yuan; Shahab, Lion

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the most prominent individual and interpersonal triggers to quit smoking in China and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Data come from Waves 1-3 (2006-2009) of the ITC China Survey, analysed cross-sectionally as person-waves (N=14,358). Measures included socio-demographic and smoking characteristics. Those who quit between waves (4.3%) were asked about triggers that “very much” led them to stop smoking, and continuing smokers about triggers that “very much” made them think about quitting. Triggers covered individual (personal health concerns, cigarette price, smoking restrictions, advertisements, warning labels) and interpersonal factors (family/societal disapproval of smoking, setting an example to children, concerns about second-hand smoke). Results Over a third of respondents (34.9%) endorsed at least one trigger strongly; quitters were more likely than smokers to mention any trigger. While similar proportions of smokers endorsed individual (24.4%) and interpersonal triggers (24.0%), quitters endorsed more individual (61.1%) than interpersonal (48.3%) triggers. However, the most common triggers (‘personal health concerns’; ‘setting an example to children’) were the same, endorsed by two-thirds of quitters and a quarter of smokers, as were the least common triggers (‘warning labels’; ‘cigarette price’), endorsed by one in ten quitters and one in twenty smokers. Lower dependence among smokers and greater education among all respondents were associated with endorsing any trigger. Conclusions Individual rather than interpersonal triggers appear more important for quitters. Major opportunities to motivate quit attempts are missed in China, particularly with regard to taxation and risk communication. Interventions need to focus on more dependent and less-educated smokers. PMID:25888422

  10. How cold pool triggers deep convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    The cold pool in the boundary layer is often considered a major triggering mechanism of convection. Here, presented are basic theoretical considerations on this issue. Observations suggest that cold pool-generated convective cells is available for shallow maritime convection (Warner et al. 1979; Zuidema et al. 2012), maritime deep convection (Barnes and Garstang 1982; Addis et al. 1984; Young et al. 1995) and continental deep convection (e.g., Lima and Wilson 2008; Flamant 2009; Lothon et al. 2011; Dione et al. 2013). Moreover, numerical studies appear to suggest that cold pools promote the organization of clouds into larger structures and thereby aid the transition from shallow to deep convection (Khairoutdinov and Randall 2006, Boing et al. 2012, Schlemmer and Hohenegger, 2014). Even a cold--pool parameterization coupled with convection is already proposed (Grandpeix and Lafore 2010: but see also Yano 2012). However, the suggested link between the cold pool and deep convection so far is phenomenological at the best. A specific process that the cold pool leads to a trigger of deep convection must still to be pinned down. Naively, one may imagine that a cold pool lifts up the air at the front as it propagates. Such an uplifting leads to a trigger of convection. However, one must realize that a shift of air along with its propagation does not necessarily lead to an uplifting, and even if it may happen, it would not far exceed a depth of the cold pool itself. Thus, the uplifting can never be anything vigorous. Its thermodynamic characteristics do help much either for inducing convection. The cold-pool air is rather under rapid recovering process before it can induce convection under a simple parcel-lifting argument. The most likely reason that the cold pool may induce convection is its gust winds that may encounter an air mass from an opposite direction. This induces a strong convergence, also leading to a strong uplifting. This is an argument essentially developed

  11. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fan-Yun; Wei, Xiao; Zhou, Kai; Hu, Wei; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage) to C (advanced stage) in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection.

  12. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for mortality of early- and late-onset invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Guo, Fengmei; Kang, Yan; Zang, Bin; Cui, Wei; Qin, Bingyu; Qin, Yingzhi; Fang, Qiang; Qin, Tiehe; Jiang, Dongpo; Cai, Bojing; Li, Ruoyu; Qiu, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To identify the epidemiology, treatments, outcomes, and risk factors for patients with early- or late-onset invasive candidiasis (EOIC or LOIC) in intensive care units in China. Patients were classified as EOIC (≤10 days) or LOIC (>10 days) according to the time from hospital admission to IC onset to identify distinct clinical characteristics. There were 105 EOIC cases and 201 LOIC cases in this study. EOIC was related to more severe clinical conditions at ICU admission or prior to IC. Significantly, more cases of Candida parapsilosis infection were found in patients with LOIC than in those with EOIC. The mortality of EOIC was significantly lower than that for LOIC. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at ICI diagnosis in the EOIC group and the interval from ICU admission to ICI occurrence in the LOIC group were identified as risk factors for mortality. Susceptibility to the first-line agent was associated with a lower risk of mortality in the LOIC group. The mortality rate was significantly lower in the EOIC group, and there were more cases of non-albicans infection in the LOIC group. Susceptibility to the first-line agent was an important predictor of mortality in the LOIC group. SOFA score at ICI diagnosis in the EOIC group and interval from ICU admission to ICI occurrence in the LOIC group were identified as risk factors for mortality. PMID:29049184

  13. Emotional stressors trigger cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B G; French, W J; Mayeda, G S; Burstein, S; Economides, C; Bhandari, A K; Cannom, D S; Kloner, R A

    2012-07-01

    To describe the relation between emotional stress and cardiovascular events, and review the literature on the cardiovascular effects of emotional stress, in order to describe the relation, the underlying pathophysiology, and potential therapeutic implications. Targeted PUBMED searches were conducted to supplement the authors' existing database on this topic. Cardiovascular events are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Cardiovascular events can be triggered by acute mental stress caused by events such as an earthquake, a televised high-drama soccer game, job strain or the death of a loved one. Acute mental stress increases sympathetic output, impairs endothelial function and creates a hypercoagulable state. These changes have the potential to rupture vulnerable plaque and precipitate intraluminal thrombosis, resulting in myocardial infarction or sudden death. Therapies targeting this pathway can potentially prevent acute mental stressors from initiating plaque rupture. Limited evidence suggests that appropriately timed administration of beta-blockers, statins and aspirin might reduce the incidence of triggered myocardial infarctions. Stress management and transcendental meditation warrant further study. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Antiviral immune responses: triggers of or triggered by autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D.; Getts, Meghann Teague; Miller, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Several common autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis, are genetically linked to distinct human MHC class II molecules and other immune modulators. However, genetic predisposition is only one risk factor for the development of these diseases, and low concordance rates in monozygotic twins as well as geographical distribution of disease risk point towards environmental factors in the genesis of these diseases. Among these environmental factors, infections have been implicated in the onset and/or promotion of autoimmunity. In this review, we outline mechanisms by which pathogens can trigger autoimmune disease, and also pathways by which infection and immune control of infectious disease might be dysregulated during autoimmunity. PMID:19319143

  15. Premonitory slip and tidal triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Beeler, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    We have conducted a series of laboratory simulations of earthquakes using granite cylinders containing precut bare fault surfaces at 50 MPa confining pressure. Axial shortening rates between 10-4 and 10-6 mm/s were imposed to simulate tectonic loading. Average loading rate was then modulated by the addition of a small-amplitude sine wave to simulate periodic loading due to Earth tides or other sources. The period of the modulating signal ranged from 10 to 10,000 s. For each combination of amplitude and period of the modulating signal, multiple stick-slip events were recorded to determine the degree of correlation between the timing of simulated earthquakes and the imposed periodic loading function. Over the range of parameters studied, the degree of correlation of earthquakes was most sensitive to the amplitude of the periodic loading, with weaker dependence on the period of oscillations and the average loading rate. Accelerating premonitory slip was observed in these experiments and is a controlling factor in determining the conditions under which correlated events occur. In fact, some form of delayed failure is necessary to produce the observed correlations between simulated earthquake timing and characteristics of the periodic loading function. The transition from strongly correlated to weakly correlated model earthquake populations occurred when the amplitude of the periodic loading was approximately 0.05 to 0.1 MPa shear stress (0.03 to 0.06 MPa Coulomb failure function). Lower-amplitude oscillations produced progressively lower correlation levels. Correlations between static stress increases and earthquake aftershocks are found to degrade at similar stress levels. Typical stress variations due to Earth tides are only 0.001 to 0.004 MPa, so that the lack of correlation between Earth tides and earthquakes is also consistent with our findings. A simple extrapolation of our results suggests that approximately 1% of midcrustal earthquakes should be correlated with

  16. Aftershock triggering by complete Coulomb stress changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilb, Debi; Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the correlation between seismicity rate change following the 1992, M7.3, Landers, California, earthquake and characteristics of the complete Coulomb failure stress (CFS) changes (??CFS(t)) that this earthquake generated. At close distances the time-varying "dynamic" portion of the stress change depends on how the rupture develops temporally and spatially and arises from radiated seismic waves and from permanent coseismic fault displacement. The permanent "static" portion (??CFS) depends only on the final coseismic displacement. ??CFS diminishes much more rapidly with distance than the transient, dynamic stress changes. A common interpretation of the strong correlation between ??CFS and aftershocks is that load changes can advance or delay failure. Stress changes may also promote failure by physically altering properties of the fault or its environs. Because it is transient, ??CFS(t) can alter the failure rate only by the latter means. We calculate both ??CFS and the maximum positive value of ??CFS(t) (peak ??CFS(t)) using a reflectivity program. Input parameters are constrained by modeling Landers displacement seismograms. We quantify the correlation between maps of seismicity rate changes and maps of modeled ??CFS and peak ??CFS(t) and find agreement for both models. However, rupture directivity, which does not affect ??CFS, creates larger peak ??CFS(t) values northwest of the main shock. This asymmetry is also observed in seismicity rate changes but not in ??CFS. This result implies that dynamic stress changes are as effective as static stress changes in triggering aftershocks and may trigger earthquakes long after the waves have passed.

  17. Personal and Professional Emotional Characteristics of Early Childhood Teachers and Their Proneness to Communicate with Parents and Colleagues about Children's Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea; Toselli, Monica; Denham, Susanne A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Early childhood teachers represent important socializers of children's emotions providing professional practices, such as communication about children's emotions, influencing children's development. According to an ecological framework, early childhood teachers' emotional practices are guided by both their personal and professional…

  18. Classic Russet: A Potato Cultivar with Excellent Fresh Market Characteristics and High Yields of U.S. No. 1 Tubers Suitable for Early Harvest or Full-Season Production.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Classic Russet is a medium maturing potato cultivar with rapid tuber bulking making it suitable for early harvest, as well as full-season production. Classic Russet is notable for its attractive tubers with medium russet skin and excellent culinary characteristics. It resulted from a 1995 cross bet...

  19. The effect of implementation of an early detection team: A nationwide register-based study of characteristics and help-seeking behavior in first-episode schizophrenia in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Nordgaard, Julie; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-04-26

    In an effort to make people with signs of psychosis seek help as early as possible, Region Zealand launched in 2012 an early detection team project as the first and only in Denmark. The project consisted of a combination of easy access and an information campaign targeting the public. This nation-wide study examined characteristics and help-seeking behavior of patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) in the early detection region in comparison with other Danish regions. Data from the Danish National Schizophrenia register on all Danish patients diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia during 2012 to 2015 were linked to demographic and health care data drawn from official national registers. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the difference between the early detection region and other regions controlling for demographic characteristics and utilization of mental health care services and contacts to general practitioner (GP). Patients in the early detection region were younger (OR = 0.51; CI: 0.42-0.62; p < 0.000) than in regions without early detection teams. Furthermore, they were more likely to be of Danish origin, and less likely to have contact with mental health services and GPs prior to FES. The study suggests that implementing an early detection team in combination with an information campaign contributed to detecting patients with first-episode schizophrenia earlier than in regions without the early detection team. The study gives an indication of different pathways among patients in the early detection region. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A hardware fast tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbah, Nedaa

    2016-09-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC already started with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project. It is a hardware processor that will provide, at every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance. FTK exploits hardware technologies with massive parallelism, combining Associative Memory ASICs, FPGAs and high-speed communication links.

  1. Induced and triggered earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lane R.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2017-05-01

    The Geysers geothermal reservoir in northern California is the site of numerous studies of both seismicity induced by injection of fluids and seismicity triggered by other earthquakes. Data from a controlled experiment in the northwest part of The Geysers in the time period 2011 to 2015 are used to study these induced and triggered earthquakes and possible differences between them. Causal solutions to the elastic equations for a porous medium show how fluid injection generates fast elastic and diffusion waves followed by a much slower diffusive wake. Calculations of fluid increment, fluid pressure and elastic stress are used to investigate both when and why seismic failure takes place. Taking into account stress concentrations caused by material heterogeneity leads to the conclusion that fluid injection by itself can cause seismic activity with no need for tectonic forces. Induced events that occur at early times are best explained by changes in stress rate, while those that occur at later times are best explained by changes in stress. While some of the seismic activity is clearly induced by injection of fluids, also present is triggered seismicity that includes aftershock sequences, swarms of seismicity triggered by other earthquakes at The Geysers and clusters of multiple earthquakes. No basic differences are found between the source mechanisms of these different types of earthquakes.

  2. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  3. Infectious Agents Trigger Trophic Cascades.

    PubMed

    Buck, Julia C; Ripple, William J

    2017-09-01

    Most demonstrated trophic cascades originate with predators, but infectious agents can also cause top-down indirect effects in ecosystems. Here we synthesize the literature on trophic cascades initiated by infectious agents including parasitoids, pathogens, parasitic castrators, macroparasites, and trophically transmitted parasites. Like predators, infectious agents can cause density-mediated and trait-mediated indirect effects through their direct consumptive and nonconsumptive effects respectively. Unlike most predators, however, infectious agents are not fully and immediately lethal to their victims, so their consumptive effects can also trigger trait-mediated indirect effects. We find that the frequency of trophic cascades reported for different consumer types scales with consumer lethality. Furthermore, we emphasize the value of uniting predator-prey and parasite-host theory under a general consumer-resource framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    ScienceCinema

    Johnson, Paul

    2018-01-16

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  5. Acoustic localization of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, Rene O.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Edens, Harald E.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Rison, William

    2011-05-01

    We use acoustic (3.3-500 Hz) arrays to locate local (<20 km) thunder produced by triggered lightning in the Magdalena Mountains of central New Mexico. The locations of the thunder sources are determined by the array back azimuth and the elapsed time since discharge of the lightning flash. We compare the acoustic source locations with those obtained by the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) from Langmuir Laboratory, which is capable of accurately locating the lightning channels. To estimate the location accuracy of the acoustic array we performed Monte Carlo simulations and measured the distance (nearest neighbors) between acoustic and LMA sources. For close sources (<5 km) the mean nearest-neighbors distance was 185 m compared to 100 m predicted by the Monte Carlo analysis. For far distances (>6 km) the error increases to 800 m for the nearest neighbors and 650 m for the Monte Carlo analysis. This work shows that thunder sources can be accurately located using acoustic signals.

  6. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  7. Accuracy of self-reported family history of cancer, mutation status and tumor characteristics in patients with early onset breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Augustinsson, Annelie; Ellberg, Carolina; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Borg, Åke; Olsson, Håkan

    2018-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the concordance between self-reported and registry-reported information regarding family history of breast cancer (BC), ovarian cancer (OvC) and other types of cancer in first-degree relatives of patients with early onset BC, and to determine the frequency of mutation carriers and non-mutation carriers. The secondary objective was to describe tumor characteristics for each mutation group. Between 1993 and 2013, 231 women who were ≤35 years old when diagnosed with BC were registered at the Oncogenetic Clinic at Skåne University Hospital in Lund, Sweden. Self-reported and registry-reported information regarding first-degree family history of cancer was collected together with information regarding tumor characteristics. Almost perfect agreement was observed between self-reported and registry-reported information regarding first-degree family history of BC (κ = 0.92) and OvC (κ = 0.86). Lesser agreement was observed between reports regarding family history of other types of cancer (κ = 0.51). Mutation screening revealed pathogenic germline mutations in 30.4%; 18.8% in BRCA1, 7.1% in BRCA2 and 4.5% in other genes. Compared with other mutation groups, BRCA1 mutation carriers were more likely to be diagnosed with high-grade, ER-, PR- and triple-negative tumors. Our results demonstrate that physicians and genetic counselors can rely on self-reported information regarding BC and OvC in first-degree relatives. However, self-reported information regarding other types of cancer is not communicated as effectively, and there should be more focus on retrieving the correct information regarding family history of all tumor types. Furthermore, we observed that even though all BC patients fulfilled the criteria for genetic counseling and testing, a large number of patients diagnosed at ≤35 years of age did not receive genetic counseling at the Oncogenetic Clinic. This finding merits further elucidation.

  8. Triggers for Violent Criminality in Patients With Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sariaslan, Amir; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2016-08-01

    Absolute and relative risks of violence are increased in patients with psychotic disorders, but the contribution of triggers for violent acts to these risks is uncertain. To examine whether a range of triggers for violent acts are associated with risks of violence in patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders and in individuals without a psychiatric diagnosis. Using a sample of all individuals born in Sweden between 1958 and 1988 (N = 3 123 724), we identified patients in the National Patient Register who were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n = 34 903) and bipolar disorder (n = 29 692), as well as unaffected controls (n = 2 763 012). We then identified, within each subsample, persons who had experienced any of the following triggers for violent acts between January 1, 2001, and December 15, 2013: exposure to violence, parental bereavement, self-harm, traumatic brain injury, unintentional injuries, and substance intoxication. By using within-individual models, we conducted conditional logistic regression to compare the risk of the individual engaging in violent acts in the week following the exposure to a trigger with the risk during earlier periods of equivalent length. All time-invariant confounders (eg, genetic and early environmental influences) were controlled for by this research design and we further adjusted for time-varying sociodemographic factors. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of violent crime occurring in the week following the exposure to a trigger event compared with earlier periods. Among the sample of 2 827 607 individuals (1 492 186 male and 1 335 421 female), all of the examined trigger events were associated with increased risk of violent crime in the week following exposure. The largest 1-week absolute risk of violent crime was observed following exposure to violence (70-177 violent crimes per 10 000 persons). For most triggers, the relative risks did not vary significantly by diagnosis

  9. Early family-based intervention in the path to alcohol problems: rationale and relationship between treatment process characteristics and child and parenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nye, C L; Zucker, R A; Fitzgerald, H E

    1999-03-01

    Risk for subsequent development of alcohol problems is not uniform across the population of alcoholic families, but varies with parental comorbidity and family history. Recent studies have also identified disruptive child behavior problems in the preschool years as predictive of alcoholism in adulthood. Given the quality of risk structure in highest risk families, prevention programming is more appropriately family based rather than individual. A family-based intervention program for the prevention of conduct problems among preschool-age sons of alcoholic fathers was implemented to change this potential mediating risk structure. A population-based recruitment strategy enrolled 52 alcoholic families in a 10-month intervention involving parent training and marital problem solving. The study examined the interplay between parent treatment investment and parent and therapist expectations and satisfaction in predicting change in child behavior and authoritative parenting style during the program, and for 6 months afterward among the 29 families whose sustained involvement allowed these effects to be evaluated. Parent expectations at pretreatment influenced their early investment in the program, which in turn predicted child and parenting outcomes. Parent and therapist satisfaction ratings during treatment were associated with one another and with expectations that the program would continue to promote changes in their child. Parent investment was a particularly salient influence on outcome, as higher investment throughout the program was associated with improvement in child behavior and authoritative parenting at termination. Findings indicate that treatment process characteristics mediate the influence of baseline parent functioning on treatment success and that treatment changes themselves predict later child outcomes.

  10. Follow-up of a low cost latrine promotion programme in one district of Amhara, Ethiopia: characteristics of early adopters and non-adopters.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Rosalyn; Fentie, Gashu; Flannery, Brendan; Emerson, Paul M

    2006-09-01

    To verify reported construction of 22 385 household latrines in 2004, after community mobilization, as part of a trachoma control programme in one district of Amhara, Ethiopia, and to explore characteristics of early latrine adopters and non-adopters. We used a two-stage cluster sample survey design to randomly select eight sub-districts and 160 households listed as having built a latrine, and visited them to verify presence and use. Household heads were interviewed to determine latrine cost and knowledge, attitude and practice regarding latrines. Non-latrine adopting neighbours were interviewed for comparison. We estimated district latrine ownership and calculated adjusted odds ratios for factors associated with latrine use. Latrines were present in 87% (95% CI 77-97) of listed households; 90% (81-99) were in use. Among all district residents we estimated ownership as 50.2% (44-56) and use as 45.2% (36-55). Of latrine owners who had built in 2004, 69% (53/77) had spent nothing on their latrine, those who paid spent an average of US$4.0 [standard deviation (SD) US$3.6]; overall the median cost was US$0 and the mean US$0.80 (SD US$1.7). Household heads adopting latrines were 1.9 times (95% CI 1.3-2.8) more likely to have any education and 1.5 times (95% CI 1.1-2.0) more likely to have a larger family than non-adopting neighbours. Cleanliness (48%, 56/116) and health benefits (42%, 49/116) were the most frequently reported advantages of latrines. The latrine promotion programme dramatically increased latrine access and use at very low cost. The method of community mobilization used could be an effective way of reaching millennium development sanitation targets.

  11. Clinical characteristics of children with severe visual impairment but favorable retinal structural outcomes from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ETROP) study.

    PubMed

    Siatkowski, R Michael; Good, William V; Summers, C Gail; Quinn, Graham E; Tung, Betty

    2013-04-01

    To describe visual function and associated characteristics at the 6-year examination in children enrolled in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study who had unfavorable visual outcomes despite favorable structural outcomes in one or both eyes. The clinical examination records of children completing the 6-year follow-up examination were retrospectively reviewed. Eligible subjects were those with visual acuity of ≤20/200 in each eye (where recordable) and a normal fundus or straightening of the temporal retinal vessels with or without macular ectopia in at least one eye. Data regarding visual function, retinal structure, presence of nystagmus, optic atrophy, optic disk cupping, seizures/shunts, and Functional Independence Measure for Children (ie, WeeFIM: pediatric functional independence measure) developmental test scores were reviewed. Of 342 participants who completed the 6-year examination, 39 (11%) met inclusion criteria. Of these, 29 (74%) had normal retinal structure, 18 (46%) had optic atrophy, and 3 (8%) had increased cupping of the optic disk in at least one eye. Latent and/or manifest nystagmus occurred in 30 children (77%). The presence of nystagmus was not related to the presence of optic atrophy. Of the 39 children, 28 (72%) had a below-normal WeeFIM score. In 25 participants (7%) completing the 6-year examination, cortical visual impairment was considered the primary cause of visual loss. The remainder likely had components of both anterior and posterior visual pathway disease. Clinical synthesis of ocular anatomy and visual and neurologic function is required to determine the etiology of poor vision in these children. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of local and landscape-level characteristics on the abundance of forest birds in early-successional habitats during the post-fledging season in western Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Labbe, Michelle A; King, David I

    2014-01-01

    Many species of mature forest-nesting birds ("forest birds") undergo a pronounced shift in habitat use during the post-fledging period and move from their forest nesting sites into areas of early-successional vegetation. Mortality is high during this period, thus understanding the resource requirements of post-fledging birds has implications for conservation. Efforts to identify predictors of abundance of forest birds in patches of early-successional habitats have so far been equivocal, yet these previous studies have primarily focused on contiguously forested landscapes and the potential for landscape-scale influences in more fragmented and modified landscapes is largely unknown. Landscape composition can have a strong influence on the abundance and productivity of forest birds during the nesting period, and could therefore affect the number of forest birds in the landscape available to colonize early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. Therefore, the inclusion of landscape characteristics should increase the explanatory power of models of forest bird abundance in early-successional habitat patches during the post-fledging period. We examined forest bird abundance and body condition in relation to landscape and habitat characteristics of 15 early-successional sites during the post-fledging season in Massachusetts. The abundance of forest birds was influenced by within-patch habitat characteristics, however the explanatory power of these models was significantly increased by the inclusion of landscape fragmentation and the abundance of forest birds in adjacent forest during the nesting period for some species and age groups. Our findings show that including factors beyond the patch scale can explain additional variation in the abundance of forest birds in early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. We conclude that landscape composition should be considered when siting early-successional habitat to maximize its benefit to forest

  13. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  15. Which psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics predict changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2017-01-01

    Background In the context of healthy ageing, it is necessary to identify opportunities to implement health interventions in order to develop an active lifestyle with sufficient physical activity and limited sedentary time in middle-aged and older adults. The transition to retirement is such an opportunity, as individuals tend to establish new routines at the start of retirement. Before health interventions can be developed, the psychological, social and physical environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement should be identified, ideally with longitudinal studies. The aim of this paper was first to examine whether psychological, social and physical environmental factors at the start of retirement predict longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the first years of retirement. Second, moderating effects of gender and educational levels were examined. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 180 recently retired (>1 month, <2 years at baseline) adults completed a postal questionnaire twice (in 2012–2013 and two years later in 2014–2015). The validated questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics. Multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results Higher perceived residential density (p < 0.001) and lower aesthetics (p = 0.08) predicted an increase in active transportation (adjusted R2 = 0.18). Higher baseline self-efficacy was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.13). A more positive perception of old age (p = 0.04) and perceiving less street connectivity (p = 0.001) were associated with an increase in screen time (adjusted R2 = 0.06). Finally, higher baseline levels of modeling from friends (p = 0.06) and lower perceived land

  16. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  17. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Sang-Gue; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application. Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors. Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches) were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (p<0.001), headache-related disability (p<0.001), abortive medication use (p = 0.02), and the proportion of migraine (p < 0.001), relative to those without trigger factors. Traveling (odd ratios [OR]: 6.4), hormonal changes (OR: 3.5), noise (OR: 2.8), alcohol (OR: 2.5), overeating (OR: 2.4), and stress (OR:1.8) were significantly associated with migraines compared to non-migraine headaches. The headaches that were associated with hormonal changes or noise were more often migraines, regardless of the preventive medication. The headaches due to stress, overeating, alcohol, and traveling were more often migraines without preventive medication, but it was not evident with preventive medication. Smartphone headache diary application is an effective tool to assess migraine trigger

  18. Analysis of Trigger Factors in Episodic Migraineurs Using a Smartphone Headache Diary Applications

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Sang-Gue; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Various stimuli can trigger migraines in susceptible individuals. We examined migraine trigger factors by using a smartphone headache diary application. Method Episodic migraineurs who agreed to participate in our study downloaded smartphone headache diary application, which was designed to capture the details regarding headache trigger factors and characteristics for 3 months. The participants were asked to access the smartphone headache diary application daily and to confirm the presence of a headache and input the types of trigger factors. Results Sixty-two participants kept diary entries until the end of the study. The diary data for 4,579 days were analyzed. In this data set, 1,099 headache days (336 migraines, 763 non-migraine headaches) were recorded; of these, 772 headache events had with trigger factors, and 327 events did not have trigger factors. The common trigger factors that were present on headache days included stress, fatigue, sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and weather changes. The likelihood of a headache trigger was 57.7% for stress, 55.1% for sleep deprivation, 48.5% for fatigue, and 46.5% for any trigger. The headaches with trigger factors were associated with greater pain intensity (p<0.001), headache-related disability (p<0.001), abortive medication use (p = 0.02), and the proportion of migraine (p < 0.001), relative to those without trigger factors. Traveling (odd ratios [OR]: 6.4), hormonal changes (OR: 3.5), noise (OR: 2.8), alcohol (OR: 2.5), overeating (OR: 2.4), and stress (OR:1.8) were significantly associated with migraines compared to non-migraine headaches. The headaches that were associated with hormonal changes or noise were more often migraines, regardless of the preventive medication. The headaches due to stress, overeating, alcohol, and traveling were more often migraines without preventive medication, but it was not evident with preventive medication. Conclusion Smartphone headache diary application is an

  19. Triggers for Preeclampsia Onset: a Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jane B; Schemann, Kathrin; Patterson, Jillian A; Morris, Jonathan; Herbert, Robert D; Roberts, Christine L

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for preeclampsia are well established, whereas, the triggers associated with timing of preeclampsia onset are not. The aim of this study was to establish whether recent infection or other triggers were associated with timing of preeclampsia onset. We used a case-crossover design with preeclampsia cases serving as their own controls. Women with singleton pregnancies of ≥20 weeks gestation presenting at three hospitals were eligible for inclusion. Exposures to potential triggers were identified via guided questionnaire. Infective episodes included symptoms lasting >24 h. Preeclampsia was defined as hypertension (BP ≥140 mmHg and/or ≥90 mmHg) and proteinuria (protein/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/mmol). Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the odds of exposure to potential triggers in the case windows (1-7 days preceding diagnosis of preeclampsia) and control windows (8-14 days prior to diagnosis); unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) are reported. Among 286 recruited women, 25 (8.7%) reported a new infection in the 7 days prior to preeclampsia onset and 21 (7.3%) in the 8-14 days prior. There was no significant association between onset of infection in the 7 days prior and preeclampsia diagnosis (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.65, 2.34). Consumption of caffeine (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33, 0.77), spicy food (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.81), and alcohol (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10, 0.71) were strongly inversely associated with preeclampsia onset. Recent infection does not appear to trigger preeclampsia. Decreased consumption of caffeine, spicy food, and alcohol may be prodromal markers. Such behaviours may be early markers of imminent preeclampsia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.

  1. The Design and Validation of a Parent-Report Questionnaire for Assessing the Characteristics and Quality of Early Intervention over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Alys; Gascon-Ramos, Maria; Campbell, Malcolm; Bamford, John

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns a parent-report repeat questionnaire to evaluate the quality of multiprofessional early intervention following early identification of deafness. It discusses the rationale for the design of the instrument, its theoretical underpinnings, its psychometric properties, and its usability. Results for the validity and reliability…

  2. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele; ...

    2017-08-18

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ~ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such ‘soft bomb’ events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a ‘belt of fire’: a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy ormore » lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for ‘Higgs bombs’ triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.« less

  3. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean J.

    2017-08-01

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ˜ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such `soft bomb' events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a `belt of fire': a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy or lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for `Higgs bombs' triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.

  4. Reflecting on Functioning in Trigger Happy America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfsdorf, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Trigger warnings are posing serious threats to the ways that English educators can teach at the university level. If Aristotle--and Hillis-Miller years later--argue that literature must arouse and bring about catharsis, then proponents of trigger warnings are anaesthetising the power of words and watering down their ability to incite emotional…

  5. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ~ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such ‘soft bomb’ events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a ‘belt of fire’: a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy ormore » lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for ‘Higgs bombs’ triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.« less

  6. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.; LHCb Trigger Group

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  7. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  8. Jasmonate-triggered plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Campos, Marcelo L; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom.

  9. Source properties of earthquakes near the Salton Sea triggered by the 16 October 1999 M 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Kanamori, H.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the source properties of a sequence of triggered earthquakes that occurred near the Salton Sea in southern California in the immediate aftermath of the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake of 16 October 1999. The sequence produced a number of early events that were not initially located by the regional network, including two moderate earthquakes: the first within 30 sec of the P-wave arrival and a second approximately 10 minutes after the mainshock. We use available amplitude and waveform data from these events to estimate magnitudes to be approximately 4.7 and 4.4, respectively, and to obtain crude estimates of their locations. The sequence of small events following the initial M 4.7 earthquake is clustered and suggestive of a local aftershock sequence. Using both broadband TriNet data and analog data from the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), we also investigate the spectral characteristics of the M 4.4 event and other triggered earthquakes using empirical Green's function (EGF) analysis. We find that the source spectra of the events are consistent with expectations for tectonic (brittle shear failure) earthquakes, and infer stress drop values of 0.1 to 6 MPa for six M 2.1 to M 4.4 events. The estimated stress drop values are within the range observed for tectonic earthquakes elsewhere. They are relatively low compared to typically observed stress drop values, which is consistent with expectations for faulting in an extensional, high heat flow regime. The results therefore suggest that, at least in this case, triggered earthquakes are associated with a brittle shear failure mechanism. This further suggests that triggered earthquakes may tend to occur in geothermal-volcanic regions because shear failure occurs at, and can be triggered by, relatively low stresses in extensional regimes.

  10. Effect of a weak CW trigger on optical rogue waves in the femtosecond supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Duan, Xiaoqi

    2015-06-15

    We numerically study the characteristics of optical rogue waves in the femtosecond supercontinuum (SC) generation and use the CW triggering mechanism to control the SC generation. Detailed simulation results show for the first time that a weak CW trigger can manipulate the behaviors of optical rogue waves in the femtosecond SC regime. For the proposed CW triggering technique which requires only wavelength tuning and is a handy approach for the active control of SC, the resultant spectrum can be greatly broadened, and the noise properties of the SC can be significantly improved in terms of both of the coherence and intensity stability.

  11. Trigger events: enviroclimatic coupling of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.; Wilson, James M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Arthur, Ray; Jahrling, Peter B.; Formenty, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    We use spatially continuous satellite data as a correlate of precipitation within tropical Africa and show that the majority of documented Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks were closely associated with sharply drier conditions at the end of the rainy season. We propose that these trigger events may enhance transmission of Ebola virus from its cryptic reservoir to humans. These findings suggest specific directions to help understand the sylvatic cycle of the virus and may provide early warning tools to detect possible future outbreaks of this enigmatic disease.

  12. First macrobiota biomineralization was environmentally triggered

    PubMed Central

    Ivantsov, Andrey Yu

    2017-01-01

    Why large and diverse skeletons first appeared ca 550 Ma is not well understood. Many Ediacaran skeletal biota show evidence of flexibility, and bear notably thin skeletal walls with simple, non-hierarchical microstructures of either aragonite or high-Mg calcite. We present evidence that the earliest skeletal macrobiota, found only in carbonate rocks, had close soft-bodied counterparts hosted in contemporary clastic rocks. This includes the calcareous discoidal fossil Suvorovella, similar to holdfasts of Ediacaran biota taxa previously known only as casts and moulds, as well as tubular and vase-shaped fossils. In sum, these probably represent taxa of diverse affinity including unicellular eukaryotes, total group cnidarians and problematica. Our findings support the assertion that the calcification was an independent and derived feature that appeared in diverse groups where an organic scaffold was the primitive character, which provided the framework for interactions between the extracellular matrix and mineral ions. We conclude that such skeletons may have been acquired with relative ease in the highly saturated, high alkalinity carbonate settings of the Ediacaran, where carbonate polymorph was further controlled by seawater chemistry. The trigger for Ediacaran biomineralization may have been either changing seawater Mg/Ca and/or increasing oxygen levels. By the Early Cambrian, however, biomineralization styles and the range of biominerals had significantly diversified, perhaps as an escalating defensive response to increasing predation pressure. Indeed skeletal hardparts had appeared in clastic settings by Cambrian Stage 1, suggesting independence from ambient seawater chemistry where genetic and molecular mechanisms controlled biomineralization and mineralogy had become evolutionarily constrained. PMID:28356454

  13. Climatic triggers for peatland initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Paul J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Valdes, Paul J.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Smith, Mark W.; Tarasov, Lev; Haywood, Alan M.; Bacon, Karen L.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are carbon-dense wetlands characterised by waterlogged, organic-rich soils. Modern-day peatlands have formed mainly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and despite covering only 3 % of the Earth's land surface are thought to store more than a third of all global soil carbon in the form of poorly decomposed plant detritus. Concern exists that this globally important carbon store may be vulnerable to near-future warming and changes in precipitation patterns, although the links between peatland development and climate are contested. The climatic and other environmental conditions that facilitate the initiation of peat are particularly poorly understood. We present the results of a novel, global study into the climate space of peat initiation since the LGM. We compiled a catalogue of radiocarbon dates of peat initiation from 942 sites that span a range of latitudes and biomes. We used the locations and ages of these peatlands to interrogate downscaled climate hindcasts at 500-yr intervals from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model, HadCM3. This powerful combination of modelling and observational data provides a globally-consistent, temporally-extensive estimate of the climate spaces of peat initiation. In particular, it allows us to identify local and regional climatic changes that may have acted as triggers for peat formation. Peatlands in mid- and high-latitudes of both hemispheres, particularly in maritime locations, developed shortly after local increases in the time integral of growing season temperatures, and were seemingly not influenced by rainfall regime. Peat initiation at such sites appears to have been stimulated by temperature-driven increases in plant productivity in cold, postglacial landscapes, and was not water limited. The exception is the large peatland complex of the Western Siberian Lowlands, which was not glaciated during the last glacial period, and which appears to have been prompted instead by a strong

  14. Tremors Triggered along the Queen Charlotte Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, deep tectonic tremors have been observed in numerous tectonic environments surrounding the Pacific and Caribbean plates. In these regions, tremors triggered by both regional and distant earthquakes have also been observed. Despite the ubiquitous observations of triggered tremors, tremors triggered in differing strike-slip environments are less understood. Here, we conduct a preliminary search of tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes along the transpressive Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) located between the Cascadia subduction zone and Alaska. Tectonic tremors have not been previously reported along the QCF. We select teleseismic earthquakes during the 1990-2012 period as having magnitude M ≥ 6.5 and occurring at least 1,000 km away from the region. We reduce the number of mainshocks by selecting those that generate greater than 1 kPa dynamic stress estimated from surface-wave magnitude equations [e.g. van der Elst and Brodsky, 2010]. Our mainshock waveforms are retrieved from the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN), processed, and filtered for triggered tremor observations. We characterize triggered tremors as high-frequency signals visible among several stations and coincident with broadband surface wave peaks. So far, we have found tremors triggered along the QCF by surface waves of five great earthquakes - the 2002/11/03 Mw7.9 Denali Fault, 2004/12/26 Mw9.0 Sumatra, 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Chile, 2011/03/11 Mw9.0 Japan, and 2012/04/11 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquakes. We compare our results to tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes on strike-slip faults in central and southern California, as well as Cuba [Peng et al., 2012]. Among strike-slip faults in these regions, we also compare triggered tremor amplitudes to peak ground velocities from the mainshocks and compute dynamic stresses to determine a triggering threshold for the QCF. We find that in most cases tremors in the QCF are triggered primarily by the Love waves, and additional

  15. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  16. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor "sweet spots"—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (< 0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  17. Prediction of earthquake-triggered landslide event sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Anika; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Schlögel, Romy

    2016-04-01

    Seismically induced landslides are a major environmental effect of earthquakes, which may significantly contribute to related losses. Moreover, in paleoseismology landslide event sizes are an important proxy for the estimation of the intensity and magnitude of past earthquakes and thus allowing us to improve seismic hazard assessment over longer terms. Not only earthquake intensity, but also factors such as the fault characteristics, topography, climatic conditions and the geological environment have a major impact on the intensity and spatial distribution of earthquake induced landslides. We present here a review of factors contributing to earthquake triggered slope failures based on an "event-by-event" classification approach. The objective of this analysis is to enable the short-term prediction of earthquake triggered landslide event sizes in terms of numbers and size of the affected area right after an earthquake event occurred. Five main factors, 'Intensity', 'Fault', 'Topographic energy', 'Climatic conditions' and 'Surface geology' were used to establish a relationship to the number and spatial extend of landslides triggered by an earthquake. The relative weight of these factors was extracted from published data for numerous past earthquakes; topographic inputs were checked in Google Earth and through geographic information systems. Based on well-documented recent earthquakes (e.g. Haiti 2010, Wenchuan 2008) and on older events for which reliable extensive information was available (e.g. Northridge 1994, Loma Prieta 1989, Guatemala 1976, Peru 1970) the combination and relative weight of the factors was calibrated. The calibrated factor combination was then applied to more than 20 earthquake events for which landslide distribution characteristics could be cross-checked. One of our main findings is that the 'Fault' factor, which is based on characteristics of the fault, the surface rupture and its location with respect to mountain areas, has the most important

  18. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  20. Characteristics of patient portals developed in the context of health information exchanges: early policy effects of incentives in the meaningful use program in the United States.

    PubMed

    Otte-Trojel, Terese; de Bont, Antoinette; van de Klundert, Joris; Rundall, Thomas G

    2014-11-21

    In 2014, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in the United States launched the second stage of its Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, providing financial incentives to providers to meaningfully use their electronic health records to engage patients online. Patient portals are electronic means to engage patients by enabling secure access to personal medical records, communication with providers, various self-management tools, and administrative functionalities. Outcomes of patient portals have mainly been reported in large integrated health systems. This may now change as the EHR Incentive Program enables and supports the use of patient portals in other types of health systems. In this paper, we focus on Health Information Exchanges (HIE): entities that facilitate data exchange within networks of independent providers. In response to the EHR Incentive Program, some Health Information Exchanges in the United States are developing patient portals and offering them to their network of providers. Such patient portals hold high value for patients, especially in fragmented health system contexts, due to the portals' ability to integrate health information from an array of providers and give patients one access point to this information. Our aim was to report on the early effects of the EHR incentives on patient portal development by HIEs. Specifically, we describe the characteristics of these portals, identify factors affecting adoption by providers during the 2013-2014 time frame, and consider what may be the primary drivers of providers' adoption of patient portals in the future. We identified four HIEs that were developing patient portals as of spring 2014. We collected relevant documents and conducted interviews with six HIE leaders as well as two providers that were implementing the portals in their practices. We performed content analysis on these data to extract information pertinent to our study objectives. Our findings suggest that there

  1. Miocene and early Pliocene epithermal gold-silver deposits in the northern Great Basin, western United States: Characteristics, distribution, and relationship to Magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous important Miocene and early Pliocene epithermal Au-Ag deposits are present in the northern Great Basin. Most deposits are spatially and temporally related to two magmatic assemblages: bimodal basalt-rhyolite and western andesite. These magmatic assemblages are petrogenetic suites that reflect variations in tectonic environment of magma generation. The bimodal assemblage is a K-rich tholeiitic series formed during continental rifting. Rocks in the bimodal assemblage consist mostly of basalt to andesite and rhyolite compositions that generally contain anhydrous and reduced mineral assemblages (e.g., quartz + fayalite rhyolites). Eruptive forms include mafic lava flows, dikes, cinder and/or spatter cones, shield volcanoes, silicic flows, domes, and ash-flow calderas. Fe-Ti oxide barometry indicates oxygen fugacities between the magnetite-wustite and fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen buffers for this magmatic assemblage. The western andesite assemblage is a high K calc-alkaline series that formed a continental-margin are related to subduction of oceanic crust beneath the western coast of North America. In the northern Great Basin, most of the western andesite assemblage was erupted in the Walker Lane belt, a zone of transtension and strike-slip faulting. The western andesite assemblage consists of stratovolcanoes, dome fields, and subvolcanic plutons, mostly of andesite and dacite composition. Biotite and hornblende phenocrysts are abundant in these rocks. Oxygen fugacities of the western andesite assemblage magmas were between the nickel-nickel oxide and hematite-magnetite buffers, about two to four orders of magnitude greater than magmas of the bimodal assemblage. Numerous low-sulfidation Au-Ag deposits in the bimodal assemblage include deposits in the Midas (Ken Snyder), Sleeper, DeLamar, Mule Canyon, Buckhorn, National, Hog Ranch, Ivanhoe, and Jarbidge districts; high-sulfidation gold and porphyry copper-gold deposits are absent. Both high- and low

  2. Event-triggered attitude control of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Baolin; Shen, Qiang; Cao, Xibin

    2018-02-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude stabilization control system with limited communication and external disturbances is investigated based on an event-triggered control scheme. In the proposed scheme, information of attitude and control torque only need to be transmitted at some discrete triggered times when a defined measurement error exceeds a state-dependent threshold. The proposed control scheme not only guarantees that spacecraft attitude control errors converge toward a small invariant set containing the origin, but also ensures that there is no accumulation of triggering instants. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.

  3. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  4. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  5. Towards a Systematic Search for Triggered Seismic Events in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, V.; Chao, K.; Van der Lee, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic triggering of small earthquakes and tectonic tremor by small stress variations associated with passing surface waves from large-magnitude teleseismic earthquakes have been observed in seismically active regions in the western US. Local stress variations as small as 5 10 kPa can suffice to advance slip on local faults. Observations of such triggered events share certain distinct characteristics. With an eye towards an eventual application of machine learning, we began a systematic search for dynamically triggered seismic events in the USA that have these characteristics. Such a systematic survey has the potential to help us to better understand the fundamental process of dynamic triggering and hazards implied by it. Using visual inspection on top of timing and frequency based selection criteria for these seismic phenomena, our search yielded numerous false positives, indicating the challenge posed by moving from ad-hoc observations of dynamic triggering to a systematic search that also includes a catalog of non-triggering, even when sufficient stress variations are supplied. Our search includes a dozen large earthquakes that occurred during the tenure of USArray. One of these earthquakes (11 April 2012 Mw8.6 Sumatra), for example, was observed by USArray-TA stations in the Midwest and other station networks (such as PB and UW), and yielded candidate-triggered events at 413 stations. We kept 79 of these observations after closer visual inspection of the observed events suggested distinct P and S arrivals from a local earthquake, or a tremor modulation with the same period as the surface wave, among other criteria. We confirmed triggered seismic events in 63 stations along the western plate boundary where triggered events have previously been observed. We also newly found triggered tremor sources in eastern Oregon and Yellowstone, and candidate-triggered earthquake sources in New Mexico and Minnesota. Learning whether 14 of remaining candidates are confirmed

  6. The Effect of Local and Landscape-Level Characteristics on the Abundance of Forest Birds in Early-Successional Habitats during the Post-Fledging Season in Western Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Labbe, Michelle A.; King, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Many species of mature forest-nesting birds (“forest birds”) undergo a pronounced shift in habitat use during the post-fledging period and move from their forest nesting sites into areas of early-successional vegetation. Mortality is high during this period, thus understanding the resource requirements of post-fledging birds has implications for conservation. Efforts to identify predictors of abundance of forest birds in patches of early-successional habitats have so far been equivocal, yet these previous studies have primarily focused on contiguously forested landscapes and the potential for landscape-scale influences in more fragmented and modified landscapes is largely unknown. Landscape composition can have a strong influence on the abundance and productivity of forest birds during the nesting period, and could therefore affect the number of forest birds in the landscape available to colonize early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. Therefore, the inclusion of landscape characteristics should increase the explanatory power of models of forest bird abundance in early-successional habitat patches during the post-fledging period. We examined forest bird abundance and body condition in relation to landscape and habitat characteristics of 15 early-successional sites during the post-fledging season in Massachusetts. The abundance of forest birds was influenced by within-patch habitat characteristics, however the explanatory power of these models was significantly increased by the inclusion of landscape fragmentation and the abundance of forest birds in adjacent forest during the nesting period for some species and age groups. Our findings show that including factors beyond the patch scale can explain additional variation in the abundance of forest birds in early-successional habitats during the post-fledging period. We conclude that landscape composition should be considered when siting early-successional habitat to maximize its benefit to

  7. The luteal phase after GnRH-agonist triggering of ovulation: present and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Humaidan, Peter; Papanikolaou, E G; Kyrou, D; Alsbjerg, B; Polyzos, N P; Devroey, P; Fatemi, Human M

    2012-02-01

    In stimulated IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, the luteal phase is disrupted, necessitating luteal-phase supplementation. The most plausible reason behind this is the ovarian multifollicular development obtained after ovarian stimulation, resulting in supraphysiological steroid concentrations and consecutive inhibition of LH secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. With the introduction of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-(GnRH) antagonist, an alternative to human chorionic gonadotrophin triggering of final oocyte maturation is the use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) which reduces or even prevents ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Interestingly, the current regimens of luteal support after HCG triggering are not sufficient to secure the early implanting embryo after GnRHa triggering. This review discusses the luteal-phase insufficiency seen after GnRHa triggering and the various trials that have been performed to assess the most optimal luteal support in relation to GnRHa triggering. Although more research is needed, GnRHa triggering is now an alternative to HCG triggering, combining a significant reduction in OHSS with high ongoing pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, David R.; Peng, Zhigang; Hill, David P.; Aiken, Chastity

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Length of stay for childbirth in Trentino (North-East of Italy): the impact of maternal characteristics and organizational features of the maternity unit on the probability of early discharge of healthy, term infants.

    PubMed

    Pertile, Riccardo; Pavanello, Lucia; Soffiati, Massimo; Manica, Laura; Piffer, Silvano

    2018-01-01

    Early discharge (ED) of healthy term infants has become a common practice due to current social and economic needs. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate trends in early discharge of healthy term neonates (≥ 37 gestational weeks) by delivery method (cesarean and vaginal) in maternity units in the Province of Trento. The secondary objective was to identify the socio-demographic characteristics (including the area of residence and distance from the designated hospital) and clinical characteristics of mothers whose infants were discharged early. This retrospective study reviewed records of live births from 2006 to 2016, for a total of 45, 314 healthy term infants. The trend for ED grew significantly during the period 2006-2016, for both cesarean and vaginal deliveries. The multiple logistic regression analysis shows how the determinants of ED are maternal age, birth order, citizenship of mother, maternal smoking, maternal employment status, and the number of births at the hospital on the day of birth. The post-partum length of stay should be adjusted based on the characteristics and needs of the mother-infant dyad, identifying the criteria for safe discharge. In Trento, various procedures and programs are becoming more uniform today with the intention to provide family assistance service. What is Known: • Admission for childbirth is one of the primary causes of hospitalization in industrialized countries. • The length of stay for childbirth has been steadily declining in recent decades, with the aim of reducing costs while also demedicalizing pregnancy. What is New: • A higher rate of early discharge (ED) was recorded for neonates of women having foreign citizenship, < 30 years, pluriparous, smoked during pregnancy, housewife, and, if emplyed, entrepreneurs, self-employed professionals or managers. • ED was more common when the new mother gave birth on a day in which there was a higher number of births at the hospital, indicating

  10. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  11. The dangers of being trigger-happy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.; Haworth, T. J.; Bressert, E.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the evidence offered for triggered star formation against the backdrop provided by recent numerical simulations of feedback from massive stars at or below giant molecular cloud sizescales. We compile a catalogue of 67 observational papers, mostly published over the last decade, and examine the signposts most commonly used to infer the presence of triggered star formation. We then determine how well these signposts perform in a recent suite of hydrodynamic simulations of star formation including feedback from O-type stars performed by Dale et al. We find that none of the observational markers improve the chances of correctly identifying a given star as triggered by more than factors of 2 at most. This limits the fidelity of these techniques in interpreting star formation histories. We therefore urge caution in interpreting observations of star formation near feedback-driven structures in terms of triggering.

  12. Spark gaps synchronization using electrical trigger pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Ritu; Saroj, P.C.; Sharma, Archana

    In pulse power systems, it is required to have synchronized triggering of two or more high voltage spark gaps capable of switching large currents, using electrical trigger pulses. This paper intends to study the synchronization of spark gaps using electrical trigger. The trigger generator consists of dc supply, IGBT switch and driver circuit which generates 8kV, 400ns (FWHM) pulses. The experiment was carried out using two 0.15uF/50kV energy storage capacitors charged to 12kV and discharged through stainless steel spark gaps of diameter 9 mm across 10 ohm non inductive load. The initial experiment shows that synchronization has been achieved withmore » jitter of 50 to 100ns. Further studies carried out to reduce the jitter time by varying various electrical parameters will be presented. (author)« less

  13. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  14. Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15-30-sec periods and peak amplitudes 5 km). The latter is consistent with the observation that extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes are more susceptible to remote triggering by Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems.

  15. Tremor, remote triggering and earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Deep tectonic tremor and episodic slow-slip events have been observed at major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. These events have much longer source durations than regular earthquakes, and are generally located near or below the seismogenic zone where regular earthquakes occur. Tremor and slow-slip events appear to be extremely stress sensitive, and could be instantaneously triggered by distant earthquakes and solid earth tides. However, many important questions remain open. For example, it is still not clear what are the necessary conditions for tremor generation, and how remote triggering could affect large earthquake cycle. Here I report a global search of tremor triggered by recent large teleseismic earthquakes. We mainly focus on major subduction zones around the Pacific Rim. These include the southwest and northeast Japan subduction zones, the Hikurangi subduction zone in New Zealand, the Cascadia subduction zone, and the major subduction zones in Central and South America. In addition, we examine major strike-slip faults around the Caribbean plate, the Queen Charlotte fault in northern Pacific Northwest Coast, and the San Andreas fault system in California. In each place, we first identify triggered tremor as a high-frequency non-impulsive signal that is in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves. We also calculate the dynamic stress and check the triggering relationship with the Love and Rayleigh waves. Finally, we calculate the triggering potential with the local fault orientation and surface-wave incident angles. Our results suggest that tremor exists at many plate-boundary faults in different tectonic environments, and could be triggered by dynamic stress as low as a few kPas. In addition, we summarize recent observations of slow-slip events and earthquake swarms triggered by large distant earthquakes. Finally, we propose several mechanisms that could explain apparent clustering of large earthquakes around the world.

  16. Global Search of Triggered Tectonic Tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Chao, K.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Wang, B.; Ojha, L.; Yang, H.

    2013-05-01

    Deep tectonic tremor has been observed at major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. While regular or ambient tremor occurs spontaneously or accompanies slow-slip events, tremor could be also triggered by large distant earthquakes and solid earth tides. Because triggered tremor occurs on the same fault patches as ambient tremor and is relatively easy to identify, a systematic global search of triggered tremor could help to identify the physical mechanisms and necessary conditions for tremor generation. Here we conduct a global search of tremor triggered by large teleseismic earthquakes. We mainly focus on major faults with significant strain accumulations where no tremor has been reported before. These includes subduction zones in Central and South America, strike-slip faults around the Caribbean plate, the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and the Denali fault in the western Canada and Alaska, the Sumatra-Java subduction zone, the Himalaya frontal thrust faults, as well as major strike-slip faults around Tibet. In each region, we first compute the predicted dynamic stresses σd from global earthquakes with magnitude>=5.0 in the past 20 years, and select events with σd > 1 kPa. Next, we download seismic data recorded by stations from local or global seismic networks, and identify triggered tremor as a high-frequency non-impulsive signal that is in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves. In cases where station distributions are dense enough, we also locate tremor based on the standard envelope cross-correlation techniques. Finally, we calculate the triggering potential for the Love and Rayleigh waves with the local fault orientation and surface-wave incident angles. So far we have found several new places that are capable of generating triggered tremor. We will summarize these observations and discuss their implications on physical mechanisms of tremor and remote triggering.

  17. Rainfall and snow-melt triggered glacial lake outbursts: a systematic analysis of the Kedarnath (Uttarakhand, India), June 2013 disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Simon; Rastner, Philipp; Arora, Manohar; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Heavy rainfall in early June 2013 triggered flash flooding and landslides throughout the Indian Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, killing more than 6000 people. The destruction of roads and trekking routes left around 100,000 pilgrims and tourists stranded. Most fatalities and damages resulted directly from a lake outburst and debris flow disaster originating from above the village of Kedarnath on June 16 and 17. Here we provide a first systematic analysis of the contributing factors leading to the Kedarnath disaster, both in terms of hydro-meteorological triggering (rainfall, snowmelt, and temperature) and topographic predisposition. Specifically, the topographic characteristics of the Charobari lake watershed above Kedarnath are compared with other glacial lakes across the northwestern Indian Himalayan states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and implications for glacier lake outburst hazard assessment in a changing climate are discussed. Our analysis suggests that the early onset of heavy monsoon rainfall (390 mm, June 10 - 17) immediately following a prolonged four week period of unusually rapid snow cover depletion and elevated streamflow is the crucial hydro-meteorological factor, resulting in slope saturation and significant runoff into the small seasonal glacial lake. Over a four week period the MODIS-derived snow covered area above Kedarnath decreased nearly 50%, from above average coverage in mid-May to well below average coverage by the second week of June. Such a rapid decrease has not been observed in the previous 13-year record, where the average decrease in snow covered area over the same four week window is only 15%. The unusual situation of the lake being dammed in a steep, unstable paraglacial environment, but fed entirely from snow-melt and rainfall within a fluvial dominated watershed is important in the context of this disaster. A simple scheme enabling large-scale recognition of such an unfavorable topographic setting is presented, and on the

  18. EMIC triggered chorus emissions in Cluster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grison, B.; SantolíK, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Robert, P.; Nomura, R.

    2013-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered chorus emissions have recently been a subject of several experimental, theoretical and simulation case studies, noting their similarities with whistler-mode chorus. We perform a survey of 8 years of Cluster data in order to increase the database of EMIC triggered emissions. The results of this is that EMIC triggered emissions have been unambiguously observed for only three different days. These three events are studied in detail. All cases have been observed at the plasmapause between 22 and 24 magnetic local time (MLT) and between - 15° and 15° magnetic latitude (λm). Triggered emissions are also observed for the first time below the local He+ gyrofrequency (fHe+). The number of events is too low to produce statistical results, nevertheless we point out a variety of common properties of those waves. The rising tones have a high level of coherence and the waves propagate away from the equatorial region. The propagation angle and degree of polarization are related to the distance from the equator, whereas the slope and the frequency extent vary from one event to the other. From the various spacecraft separations, we determine that the triggering process is a localized phenomenon in space and time. However, we are unable to determine the occurrence rates of these waves. Small frequency extent rising tones are more common than large ones. The newly reported EMIC triggered events are generally observed during periods of large AE index values and in time periods close to solar maximum.

  19. Triggering active galactic nuclei in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Madeline A.; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Krause, Martin G. H.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Croton, Darren J.; Owers, Matt S.

    2018-03-01

    We model the triggering of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in galaxy clusters using the semi-analytic galaxy formation model SAGE. We prescribe triggering methods based on the ram pressure galaxies experience as they move throughout the intracluster medium, which is hypothesized to trigger star formation and AGN activity. The clustercentric radius and velocity distribution of the simulated active galaxies produced by these models are compared with those of AGN and galaxies with intense star formation from a sample of low-redshift relaxed clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The ram pressure triggering model that best explains the clustercentric radius and velocity distribution of these observed galaxies has AGN and star formation triggered if 2.5 × 10-14 Pa < Pram < 2.5 × 10-13 Pa and Pram > 2Pinternal; this is consistent with expectations from hydrodynamical simulations of ram-pressure-induced star formation. Our results show that ram pressure is likely to be an important mechanism for triggering star formation and AGN activity in clusters.

  20. "Build Me a Male Role Model!" A Critical Exploration of the Perceived Qualities/Characteristics of Men in the Early Years (0-8) in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Young boys' "underachievement" and their disaffection with learning continue to dominate education agendas [Francis, B. 2006. "Stop That Sex Drive." "Times Educational Supplement" 30; Peeters, J. 2007. "Including Men in Early Childhood Education: Insights from the European Experience." "NZ Research in…

  1. Mountain Gem Russet: A medium to late season potato variety with high early and full season yield potential and excellent fresh market characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mountain Gem Russet is a medium to late maturing variety with both high early and full season yields of oblong-long, medium-russeted tubers having higher protein content than those of standard potato varieties. Mountain Gem Russet has greater resistance to tuber late blight, tuber malformations and ...

  2. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  3. FPGA Based Wavelet Trigger in Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Szadkowska, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Experiments which show coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are designed for a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio detectors can operate with 100 % up time as, e.g., surface detectors based on water-Cherenkov tanks. They are being developed for ground-based experiments (e.g., the Pierre Auger Observatory) as another type of air-shower detector in addition to fluorescence detectors, which operate with only ˜10 % of duty on dark nights. The radio signals from air showers are caused by coherent emission from geomagnetic radiation and charge-excess processes. The self-triggers in radio detectors currently in use often generate a dense stream of data, which is analyzed afterwards. Huge amounts of registered data require significant manpower for off-line analysis. Improvement of trigger efficiency is a relevant factor. The wavelet trigger, which investigates on-line the power of radio signals (˜ V2/ R), is promising; however, it requires some improvements with respect to current designs. In this work, Morlet wavelets with various scaling factors were used for an analysis of real data from the Auger Engineering Radio Array and for optimization of the utilization of the resources in an FPGA. The wavelet analysis showed that the power of events is concentrated mostly in a limited range of the frequency spectrum (consistent with a range imposed by the input analog band-pass filter). However, we found several events with suspicious spectral characteristics, where the signal power is spread over the full band-width sampled by a 200 MHz digitizer with significant contribution of very high and very low frequencies. These events may not originate from cosmic ray showers but could be the result of human contamination. The engine of the wavelet analysis can be implemented in the modern powerful FPGAs and can remove suspicious events on-line to reduce the trigger rate.

  4. Endotoxins and other sepsis triggers.

    PubMed

    Opal, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxin, or more accurately termed bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is recognized as the most potent microbial mediator implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. Yet despite its discovery well over a century ago, the fundamental role of circulating endotoxin in the blood of most patients with septic shock remains enigmatic and a subject of considerable controversy. LPS is the most prominent 'alarm molecule' sensed by the host's early warning system of innate immunity presaging the threat of invasion of the internal milieu by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. In small doses within a localized tissue space, LPS signaling is advantageous to the host in orchestrating an appropriate antimicrobial defense and bacterial clearance mechanisms. Conversely, the sudden release of large quantities of LPS into the bloodstream is clearly deleterious to the host, initiating the release of a dysregulated and potentially lethal array of inflammatory mediators and procoagulant factors in the systemic circulation. The massive host response to this single bacterial pattern recognition molecule is sufficient to generate diffuse endothelial injury, tissue hypoperfusion, disseminated intravascular coagulation and refractory shock. Numerous attempts to block endotoxin activity in clinical trials with septic patients have met with inconsistent and largely negative results. Yet the groundbreaking discoveries within the past decade into the precise molecular basis for LPS-mediated cellular activation and tissue injury has rekindled optimism that a new generation of therapies that specifically disrupt LPS signaling might succeed. Other microbial mediators found in Gram-positive bacterial and viral and fungal pathogens are now appreciated to activate many of the same host defense networks induced by LPS. This information is providing novel interventions in the continuing effots to improve the care of septic patients. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, R.; Mazin, D.; Paoletti, R.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Cortina, J.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light (the so-called Night Sky Background NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99% of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ~ 8%. The selection algorithm was tested on real MAGIC data taken with the current trigger configuration and no γ-like events were found to be lost.

  6. Aftershocks and triggering processes in rock fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of our understanding of seismicity in nature is the importance of triggering processes, which makes the forecasting of seismic activity feasible. These triggering processes by which one earthquake induces (dynamic or static) stress changes leading to potentially multiple other earthquakes are at the core relaxation processes. A specic example of triggering are aftershocks following a large earthquake, which have been observed to follow certain empirical relationships such as the Omori-Utsu relation. Such an empirical relation should arise from the underlying microscopic dynamics of the involved physical processes but the exact connection remains to be established. Simple explanations have been proposed but their general applicability is unclear. Many explanations involve the picture of an earthquake as a purely frictional sliding event. Here, we present experimental evidence that these empirical relationships are not limited to frictional processes but also arise in fracture zone formation and are mostly related to compaction-type events. Our analysis is based on tri-axial compression experiments under constant displacement rate on sandstone and granite samples using spatially located acoustic emission events and their focal mechanisms. More importantly, we show that event-event triggering plays an important role in the presence of large-scale or macrocopic imperfections while such triggering is basically absent if no signicant imperfections are present. We also show that spatial localization and an increase in activity rates close to failure do not necessarily imply triggering behavior associated with aftershocks. Only if a macroscopic crack is formed and its propagation remains subcritical do we observe significant triggering.

  7. Remote Triggering of Microseismicity in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, M.; Li, C.; Peng, Z.; Walter, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that large distant earthquakes can trigger microearthquakes/tectonic tremors during or immediately following their surface waves. Globally, triggered seismicity is mostly found in active plate boundary regions. Recent studies have shown that icequakes in Antartica can also be triggered by teleseismic events. However, it is still not clear how widespread this phenomenon is and whether there are any connections between large earthquakes and subsequent glacial movements. In this study, we conduct a systematic search for remotely triggered activity in Antarctica following recent large earthquakes, including the 2004 Mw9.1 Sumatra, 2011 Mw9.1 Tohoku, 2012 Mw8.6 Indian Ocean and 2014-2015 Chile earthquakes. We download seismic data recorded at the POLENET (YT) and the Argentina Antarctica Network (AI) from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). We apply a 2-8 Hz band-pass-filter to the continuous waveforms and visually identify local events during and immediately after the large amplitude surface waves. Spectrograms are computed as additional tools to identify triggered seismicity and are further confirmed by comparing the signals before and after the distant mainshocks. So far we have identified possible triggered seismicity in both networks' area following the 2010 Chile and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes. Our next step is to apply a waveform matching method to automatically detect possible triggered seismicity and check through all the available networks in Antarctica for the last decades, which should help to better understand the potential interaction between large earthquakes and icequakes in this region.

  8. Socio-economic, environmental and nutritional characteristics of urban and rural South Indian women in early pregnancy: findings from the South Asian Birth Cohort (START).

    PubMed

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Vasudevan, Anil; Thomas, Tinku; Anand, Sonia S; Desai, Dipika; Gupta, Milan; Menezes, Gladys; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2018-06-01

    High frequency of low birth weight (LBW) is observed in rural compared with urban Indian women. Since maternal BMI is known to be associated with pregnancy outcomes, the present study aimed to investigate factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy of urban and rural South Indian women. Prospective observational cohort. A hospital-based study conducted at an urban and a rural health centre in Karnataka State. Pregnant women (n 843) aged 18-40 years recruited in early pregnancy from whom detailed sociodemographic, environmental, anthropometric and dietary intake information was collected. A high proportion of low BMI (32 v. 26 %, P<0·000) and anaemia (48 v. 23 %, P<0·000) was observed in the rural v. the urban cohort. Rural women were younger, had lower body weight, tended to be shorter and less educated. They lived in poor housing conditions, had less access to piped water and good sanitation, used unrefined fuel for cooking and had lower standard of living score. The age (β=0·21, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·29), education level of their spouse (β=1·36, 95 % CI 0·71, 2·71) and fat intake (β=1·24, 95 % CI 0·20, 2·28) were positively associated with BMI in urban women. Our findings indicate that risk factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy are different in rural and urban settings. It is important to study population-specific risk factors in relation to perinatal health.

  9. Family and Teacher Characteristics as Predictors of Parent Involvement in Education during Early Childhood among Afro-Caribbean and Latino Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzada, Esther J.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Hernandez, Miguel; Soriano, Erika; Acra, C. Francoise; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement is a robust predictor of academic achievement, but little is known about school- and home-based involvement in immigrant families. Drawing on ecological theories, the present study examined contextual characteristics as predictors of parent involvement among Afro-Caribbean and Latino parents of young students in urban public…

  10. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-02-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  11. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton isolation. Reconstructed tracks are also used to distinguish the primary vertex, which identifies the hard interaction process, from the pileup ones. This task is particularly important in the LHC environment given the large number of interactions per bunch crossing: on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II. We will present the performance of HLT tracking algorithms, discussing its impact on CMS physics program, as well as new developments done towards the next data taking in 2015.

  12. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 and the diagnosis of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Barati, Mitra; Bashar, Farshid Rahimi; Shahrami, Reza; Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein Jarrah; Taher, Mahshid Talebi; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2010-06-01

    Early diagnosis and assessment of the systemic inflammatory response to infection are difficult with usual markers (fever, leukocytosis, C-reactive protein [CRP]). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) expression on phagocytes is up-regulated by microbial products. We studied the ability of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) to identify patients with sepsis. Plasma samples were obtained on intensive care unit admission from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome for sTREM-1 measurement. Soluble TREM-1, CRP concentrations and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were higher in the sepsis group (n = 52) than in the non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome group (n = 43; P = .00, .02, and .001, respectively). Soluble TREM-1, CRP concentrations, white blood cell count and ESR were higher in the sepsis group than in the non SIRS group (n = 37; P = .04, .00, .01, and .00, respectively). In a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, ESR, CRP and sTREM-1 had an area under the curve larger than 0.65 (P = .00), in distinguishing between septic and non-infectious SIRS patients. CRP, ESR, sTREM-1 had a sensitivity of 60%, 70% and 70% and a specificity of 60%, 69% and, 60% respectively in diagnosing infection in SIRS. C-reactive protein and ESR performed better than sTREM-1 and white blood cell count in diagnosing infection. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing [Albany, NY; Tekletsadik, Kasegn [Rexford, NY

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  14. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  15. Early College Entrance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jae Yup; Young, Marie; Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2015-01-01

    Early college entry is an educational intervention that is being increasingly used in Australia. Following a review of the current Australian literature on early college entry, an overview is provided of the characteristics of, and the procedures associated with, one formal Australian early college entry program (the Early Admission for…

  16. Contemporary Sex-Based Differences by Age in Presenting Characteristics, Use of an Early Invasive Strategy, and Inhospital Mortality in Patients With Non-ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tanush; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Agarwal, Nayan; Villablanca, Pedro A; Goel, Kashish; Patel, Kavisha; Aronow, Wilbert S; Wiley, Jose; Bortnick, Anna E; Aronow, Herbert D; Abbott, J Dawn; Pyo, Robert T; Panza, Julio A; Menegus, Mark A; Rihal, Charanjit S; Fonarow, Gregg C; Garcia, Mario J; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies have reported higher inhospital mortality in women versus men with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Whether this is because of worse baseline risk profile compared with men or sex-based disparities in treatment is not completely understood. We queried the 2003 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample databases to identify all hospitalizations in patients aged ≥18 years with the principal diagnosis of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Complex samples multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine sex differences in use of an early invasive strategy and inhospital mortality. Of 4 765 739 patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, 2 026 285 (42.5%) were women. Women were on average 6 years older than men and had a higher comorbidity burden. Women were less likely to be treated with an early invasive strategy (29.4% versus 39.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.94). Women had higher crude inhospital mortality than men (4.7% versus 3.9%; unadjusted odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.25). After adjustment for age (adjusted odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-0.98) and additionally for comorbidities, other demographics, and hospital characteristics, women had 10% lower odds of inhospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.92). Further adjustment for differences in the use of an early invasive strategy did not change the association between female sex and lower risk-adjusted inhospital mortality. Although women were less likely to be treated with an early invasive strategy compared with men, the lower use of an early invasive strategy was not responsible for the higher crude inhospital mortality in women, which could be entirely explained by older age and higher comorbidity burden. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): understanding the triggers.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Emma L; Spence, Charles; Davis, Nick J

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  18. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): understanding the triggers

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Emma L.; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction. PMID:29018601

  19. Photosynthetic and Canopy Characteristics of Different Varieties at the Early Elongation Stage and Their Relationships with the Cane Yield in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Yuye; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Rukai

    2014-01-01

    During sugarcane growth, the Early Elongation stage is critical to cane yield formation. In this study, parameters of 17 sugarcane varieties were determined at the Early Elongation stage using CI-301 photosynthesis measuring system and CI-100 digital plant canopy imager. The data analysis showed highly significant differences in leaf area index (LAI), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for diffused light penetration (TD), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), leaf distribution (LD), net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (GS) among sugarcane varieties. Based on the photosynthetic or canopy parameters, the 17 sugarcane varieties were classified into four categories. Through the factor analysis, nine parameters were represented by three principal factors, of which the cumulative rate of variance contributions reached 85.77%. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 0.05, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = −27.19 − 1.69 × PN + 0.17 ×  E + 90.43 × LAI − 408.81 × LD + 0.0015 × NSH + 101.38 ×  D (R 2 = 0.928**). This study helps provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the screening of new sugarcane varieties with high net photosynthetic rate and ideal canopy structure. PMID:25045742

  20. Characteristics of seroconversion and implications for diagnosis of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: acute and convalescent serology among a prospective cohort of early Lyme disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rebman, Alison W; Crowder, Lauren A; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Aucott, John N

    2015-03-01

    Two-tier serology is often used to confirm a diagnosis of Lyme disease. One hundred and four patients with physician diagnosed erythema migrans rashes had blood samples taken before and after 3 weeks of doxycycline treatment for early Lyme disease. Acute and convalescent serologies for Borrelia burgdorferi were interpreted according to the 2-tier antibody testing criteria proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Serostatus was compared across several clinical and demographic variables both pre- and post-treatment. Forty-one patients (39.4%) were seronegative both before and after treatment. The majority of seropositive individuals on both acute and convalescent serology had a positive IgM western blot and a negative IgG western blot. IgG seroconversion on western blot was infrequent. Among the baseline variables included in the analysis, disseminated lesions (p < 0.0001), a longer duration of illness (p < 0.0001), and a higher number of reported symptoms (p = 0.004) were highly significantly associated with positive final serostatus, while male sex (p = 0.05) was borderline significant. This variability, and the lack of seroconversion in a subset of patients, highlights the limitations of using serology alone in identifying early Lyme disease. Furthermore, these findings underline the difficulty for rheumatologists in identifying a prior exposure to Lyme disease in caring for patients with medically unexplained symptoms or fibromyalgia-like syndromes.

  1. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  2. Alcohol's effect on triggered displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Fredy; Earleywine, Mitchell; Pollock, Vicki; Stratton, Joy; Miller, Norman

    2005-03-01

    The authors examined alcohol's effect on triggered displaced aggression, the hostile reaction to a second provoking person after provocation from a first. Participants consumed an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic beverage. Subsequently, one individual provoked all of them with moderate intensity. Then, 2 groups were studied: those who received or who failed to receive a second provocation of minimal intensity. Consistent with prior research, participants who received a second, minimal provocation displayed more aggression than those who did not. After participants drank alcohol, the magnitude of this difference was significantly greater, indicating that alcohol increases triggered displaced aggression. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. More About The Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents additional information about system described in "Video Event Trigger" (LEW-15076). Digital electronic system processes video-image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change, such as motion, or appearance, disappearance, change in color, brightness, or dilation of object. Potential uses include monitoring of hallways, parking lots, and other areas during hours when supposed unoccupied, looking for fires, tracking airplanes or other moving objects, identification of missing or defective parts on production lines, and video recording of automobile crash tests.

  4. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  5. Popular sweetner sucralose as a migraine trigger.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajendrakumar M; Sarma, Rakesh; Grimsley, Edwin

    2006-09-01

    Sucralose (trichlorogalactosucrose, or better known as Splenda) is an artificial sweetener from native sucrose that was approved by the FDA on April 1, 1998 (April Fool's Day). This observation of a potential causal relationship between sucralose and migraines may be important for physicians to remember this can be a possible trigger during dietary history taking. Identifying further triggers for migraine headaches, in this case sucralose, may help alleviate some of the cost burden (through expensive medical therapy or missed work opportunity) as well as provide relief to migraineurs.

  6. EVERREST prospective study: a 6-year prospective study to define the clinical and biological characteristics of pregnancies affected by severe early onset fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca; Ambler, Gareth; Brodszki, Jana; Diemert, Anke; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard; Hansson, Stefan R; Hecher, Kurt; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Marsál, Karel; Morsing, Eva; Peebles, Donald; Rossi, Carlo; Sebire, Neil J; Timms, John F; David, Anna L

    2017-01-23

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious obstetric condition for which there is currently no treatment. The EVERREST Prospective Study has been designed to characterise the natural history of pregnancies affected by severe early onset FGR and establish a well phenotyped bio-bank. The findings will provide up-to-date information for clinicians and patients and inform the design and conduct of the EVERREST Clinical Trial: a phase I/IIa trial to assess the safety and efficacy of maternal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy in severe early onset FGR. Data and samples from the EVERREST Prospective Study will be used to identify ultrasound and/or biochemical markers of prognosis in pregnancies with an estimated fetal weight (EFW) <3rd centile between 20+0 and 26+6 weeks of gestation. This is a 6 year European multicentre prospective cohort study, recruiting women with a singleton pregnancy where the EFW is <3rd centile for gestational age and <600 g at 20+0 to 26+6 weeks of gestation. Detailed data are collected on: maternal history; antenatal, peripartum, and postnatal maternal complications; health economic impact; psychological impact; neonatal condition, progress and complications; and infant growth and neurodevelopment to 2 years of corrected age in surviving infants. Standardised longitudinal ultrasound measurements are performed, including: fetal biometry; uterine artery, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry; and uterine artery and umbilical vein volume blood flow. Samples of maternal blood and urine, amniotic fluid (if amniocentesis performed), placenta, umbilical cord blood, and placental bed (if caesarean delivery performed) are collected for bio-banking. An initial analysis of maternal blood samples at enrolment is planned to identify biochemical markers that are predictors for fetal or neonatal death. The findings of the EVERREST Prospective Study will support the development of a novel

  7. Demographic Characteristics, Survival and Prognostic Factors of Early Breast Cancer Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Hospital-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Bita; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Sadighi, Sanambar

    2017-09-27

    Objective: With increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and breast cancer in Iran, we aimed to search hospital registries of breast cancer patients to investigate type 2 diabetes mellitus association with survival outcomes of early breast cancer after adjustment of confounding factors. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study conducted from July 2003 to Feb 2014 and followed up until death or December 2016, female patients with early breast cancer who have been treated for the first time at the Cancer Institute of Iran, were divided to diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Primary and secondary outcomes were relapse free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). SPSS version 23 was used for analysis of data. Other variables included age, tumor stage, hormone receptor status, tumor subtype, and patient’s body mass index (BMI). Result: From a total of 1021 patients, 218 (21.4%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients had a higher mean age (53.31 vs 47.00), higher mean BMI (31.13 vs 29.15), lower HER2 expression (20.8% vs 32.1%) and higher frequency of luminal A subtype (61.1% vs 51.0). Overall, after adjustment of other variables, diabetes status did not affect RFS or OS independently. However, in luminal A subgroup, patients with diabetes mellitus had significantly lower survival outcomes of OS (135.277 vs 154.701) and RFS (114.107 vs 133.612) as well as OS higher hazard ratio of 1.830 and RFS hazard ratio of 1.663 compared to non-diabetic patients. BMI, hormone receptor status and tumor stage significantly affected the survival of the patients. Conclusion: In the present study, in addition to known breast cancer risk factors, BMI and type 2 diabetes mellitus had an independent impact on survival of the patients, highlighting the importance of health issues such as obesity and diabetes suboptimal performance in the treatment outcomes of early breast cancer patients in Iran. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Stress/strain changes and triggered seismicity following the MW7.3 Landers, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of dynamic stresses and strains, constrained by broadband seismograms, are used to investigate their role in generating the remotely triggered seismicity that followed the June 28, 1992, MW7.3 Landers, California earthquake. I compare straingrams and dynamic Coulomb failure functions calculated for the Landers earthquake at sites that did experience triggered seismicity with those at sites that did not. Bounds on triggering thresholds are obtained from analysis of dynamic strain spectra calculated for the Landers and MW,6.1 Joshua Tree, California, earthquakes at various sites, combined with results of static strain investigations by others. I interpret three principal results of this study with those of a companion study by Gomberg and Davis [this issue]. First, the dynamic elastic stress changes themselves cannot explain the spatial distribution of triggered seismicity, particularly the lack of triggered activity along the San Andreas fault system. In addition to the requirement to exceed a Coulomb failure stress level, this result implies the need to invoke and satisfy the requirements of appropriate slip instability theory. Second, results of this study are consistent with the existence of frequency- or rate-dependent stress/strain triggering thresholds, inferred from the companion study and interpreted in terms of earthquake initiation involving a competition of processes, one promoting failure and the other inhibiting it. Such competition is also part of relevant instability theories. Third, the triggering threshold must vary from site to site, suggesting that the potential for triggering strongly depends on site characteristics and response. The lack of triggering along the San Andreas fault system may be correlated with the advanced maturity of its fault gouge zone; the strains from the Landers earthquake were either insufficient to exceed its larger critical slip distance or some other critical failure parameter; or the faults failed stably as

  9. Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1.

    PubMed

    Gudipaty, S A; Lindblom, J; Loftus, P D; Redd, M J; Edes, K; Davey, C F; Krishnegowda, V; Rosenblatt, J

    2017-03-02

    Despite acting as a barrier for the organs they encase, epithelial cells turn over at some of the fastest rates in the body. However, epithelial cell division must be tightly linked to cell death to preserve barrier function and prevent tumour formation. How does the number of dying cells match those dividing to maintain constant numbers? When epithelial cells become too crowded, they activate the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 to trigger extrusion of cells that later die. However, it is unclear how epithelial cell division is controlled to balance cell death at the steady state. Here we show that mammalian epithelial cell division occurs in regions of low cell density where cells are stretched. By experimentally stretching epithelia, we find that mechanical stretch itself rapidly stimulates cell division through activation of the Piezo1 channel. To stimulate cell division, stretch triggers cells that are paused in early G2 phase to activate calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, thereby activating the cyclin B transcription that is necessary to drive cells into mitosis. Although both epithelial cell division and cell extrusion require Piezo1 at the steady state, the type of mechanical force controls the outcome: stretch induces cell division, whereas crowding induces extrusion. How Piezo1-dependent calcium transients activate two opposing processes may depend on where and how Piezo1 is activated, as it accumulates in different subcellular sites with increasing cell density. In sparse epithelial regions in which cells divide, Piezo1 localizes to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, whereas in dense regions in which cells extrude, it forms large cytoplasmic aggregates. Because Piezo1 senses both mechanical crowding and stretch, it may act as a homeostatic sensor to control epithelial cell numbers, triggering extrusion and apoptosis in crowded regions and cell division in sparse regions.

  10. Perceived Triggers of Asthma: Key to Symptom Perception and Management

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Thomas; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this paper, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targets for behavioral interventions that aim to improve the accuracy of asthma trigger identification and thereby enhance asthma control. PMID:23957335

  11. Family and Teacher Characteristics as Predictors of Parent Involvement in Education During Early Childhood Among Afro-Caribbean and Latino Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Esther J.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Hernandez, Miguel; Soriano, Erika; Acra, C. Francoise; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement is a robust predictor of academic achievement, but little is known about school- and home-based involvement in immigrant families. Drawing on ecological theories, the present study examined contextual characteristics as predictors of parent involvement among Afro-Caribbean and Latino parents of young students in urban public schools. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with lower home-based involvement. Several factors were associated with higher involvement, including parents’ connection to their culture of origin and to U.S. culture, engagement practices by teachers and parent–teacher ethnic consonance (for Latinos only). Findings have implications for promoting involvement among immigrant families of students in urban schools. PMID:26417116

  12. Family and Teacher Characteristics as Predictors of Parent Involvement in Education During Early Childhood Among Afro-Caribbean and Latino Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Hernandez, Miguel; Soriano, Erika; Acra, C Francoise; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie

    2015-10-01

    Parent involvement is a robust predictor of academic achievement, but little is known about school- and home-based involvement in immigrant families. Drawing on ecological theories, the present study examined contextual characteristics as predictors of parent involvement among Afro-Caribbean and Latino parents of young students in urban public schools. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with lower home-based involvement. Several factors were associated with higher involvement, including parents' connection to their culture of origin and to U.S. culture, engagement practices by teachers and parent-teacher ethnic consonance (for Latinos only). Findings have implications for promoting involvement among immigrant families of students in urban schools.

  13. Impacts of the Affordable Care Act on Community Health Centers: Characteristics of New Patients and Early Changes in Delivery of Care.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Brigit; Smith, Ning; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Quach, Thu; Mayer, Kenneth H; Dunne, Mary J; Cottrell, Erika

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on community health centers (CHCs). Using electronic health records from the Community Health Applied Research Network, we assessed new patient characteristics, office visit volume, and payer distribution among CHC patients before and after ACA implementation, 2011-2014 (n = 442 455). New patients post-ACA were younger, more likely to be female and have chronic health conditions, and utilized more primary care (P < .05 for each). Post-ACA, clinics delivered 19% more office visits and more visits were reimbursed by Medicaid. The support of CHCs is needed to meet increased demand post-ACA.

  14. Natural and unnatural triggers of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Previous analyses have suggested that factors that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and catecholamine release can trigger acute myocardial infarction. The wake-up time, Mondays, winter season, physical exertion, emotional upset, overeating, lack of sleep, cocaine, marijuana, anger, and sexual activity are some of the more common triggers. Certain natural disasters such as earthquakes and blizzards have also been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Certain unnatural triggers may play a role including the Holiday season. Holiday season cardiac events peak on Christmas and New Year. A number of hypotheses have been raised to explain the increase in cardiac events during the holidays, including overeating, excessive use of salt and alcohol, exposure to particulates, from fireplaces, a delay in seeking medical help, anxiety or depression related to the holidays, and poorer staffing of health care facilities at this time. War has been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Data regarding an increase in cardiac events during the 9/11 terrorist attack have been mixed. Understanding the cause of cardiovascular triggers will help in developing potential therapies.

  15. Moisture-triggered physically transient electronics

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xu; Sim, Kyoseung; Liu, Jingshen; Chen, Ji; Feng, Xue; Xu, Hangxun; Yu, Cunjiang

    2017-01-01

    Physically transient electronics, a form of electronics that can physically disappear in a controllable manner, is very promising for emerging applications. Most of the transient processes reported so far only occur in aqueous solutions or biofluids, offering limited control over the triggering and degradation processes. We report novel moisture-triggered physically transient electronics, which exempt the needs of resorption solutions and can completely disappear within well-controlled time frames. The triggered transient process starts with the hydrolysis of the polyanhydride substrate in the presence of trace amounts of moisture in the air, a process that can generate products of corrosive organic acids to digest various inorganic electronic materials and components. Polyanhydride is the only example of polymer that undergoes surface erosion, a distinct feature that enables stable operation of the functional devices over a predefined time frame. Clear advantages of this novel triggered transience mode include that the lifetime of the devices can be precisely controlled by varying the moisture levels and changing the composition of the polymer substrate. The transience time scale can be tuned from days to weeks. Various transient devices, ranging from passive electronics (such as antenna, resistor, and capacitor) to active electronics (such as transistor, diodes, optoelectronics, and memories), and an integrated system as a platform demonstration have been developed to illustrate the concept and verify the feasibility of this design strategy. PMID:28879237

  16. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2017-01-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ13C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ13C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations.

  17. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2017-01-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ13C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ13C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations. PMID:28106091

  18. Environmental triggers in IBD: a review of progress and evidence.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Bernstein, Charles N; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Macpherson, Andrew; Neurath, Markus F; Ali, Raja A Raja; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    A number of environmental factors have been associated with the development of IBD. Alteration of the gut microbiota, or dysbiosis, is closely linked to initiation or progression of IBD, but whether dysbiosis is a primary or secondary event is unclear. Nevertheless, early-life events such as birth, breastfeeding and exposure to antibiotics, as well as later childhood events, are considered potential risk factors for IBD. Air pollution, a consequence of the progressive contamination of the environment by countless compounds, is another factor associated with IBD, as particulate matter or other components can alter the host's mucosal defences and trigger immune responses. Hypoxia associated with high altitude is also a factor under investigation as a potential new trigger of IBD flares. A key issue is how to translate environmental factors into mechanisms of IBD, and systems biology is increasingly recognized as a strategic tool to unravel the molecular alterations leading to IBD. Environmental factors add a substantial level of complexity to the understanding of IBD pathogenesis but also promote the fundamental notion that complex diseases such as IBD require complex therapies that go well beyond the current single-agent treatment approach. This Review describes the current conceptualization, evidence, progress and direction surrounding the association of environmental factors with IBD.

  19. Remote Dynamic Earthquake Triggering in Shale Gas Basins in Canada and Implications for Triggering Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Wang, Bei; Kao, Honn; Yu, Hongyu

    2017-04-01

    Here we investigate the occurrence of remote dynamic triggering in three sedimentary basins in Canada where recent fluid injection activity is correlated with increasing numbers of earthquakes. In efforts to count as many small, local earthquakes as possible for the statistical test of triggering, we apply a multi-station matched-filter detection method to continuous waveforms to detect uncataloged local earthquakes in 10-day time windows surrounding triggering mainshocks occurring between 2013-2015 with an estimated local peak ground velocity exceeding 0.01 cm/s. We count the number of earthquakes in 24-hour bins and use a statistical p-value test to determine if the changes in seismicity levels after the mainshock waves have passed are statistically significant. The p-value tests show occurrences of triggering following transient stress perturbations of < 10 kPa at all three sites that suggest local faults may remain critically stressed over periods similar to the time frame of our study ( 2 years) or longer, potentially due to maintained high pore pressures in tight shale formations following injection. The time window over which seismicity rates change varies at each site, with more delayed triggering occurring at sites where production history is longer. The observations combined with new modeling results suggest that the poroelastic response of the medium may be the dominant factor influencing instantaneous triggering, particularly in low-permeability tight shales. At sites where production history is longer and permeabilities have been increased, both pore pressure diffusion and the poroelastic response of the medium may work together to promote both instantaneous and delayed triggering. Not only does the interplay of the poroelastic response of the medium and pore pressure diffusion have implications for triggering induced earthquakes near injection sites, but it may be a plausible explanation for observations of instantaneous and delayed earthquake

  20. On near-source earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Velasco, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    When one earthquake triggers others nearby, what connects them? Two processes are observed: static stress change from fault offset and dynamic stress changes from passing seismic waves. In the near-source region (r ??? 50 km for M ??? 5 sources) both processes may be operating, and since both mechanisms are expected to raise earthquake rates, it is difficult to isolate them. We thus compare explosions with earthquakes because only earthquakes cause significant static stress changes. We find that large explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not trigger earthquakes at rates comparable to similar magnitude earthquakes. Surface waves are associated with regional and long-range dynamic triggering, but we note that surface waves with low enough frequency to penetrate to depths where most aftershocks of the 1992 M = 5.7 Little Skull Mountain main shock occurred (???12 km) would not have developed significant amplitude within a 50-km radius. We therefore focus on the best candidate phases to cause local dynamic triggering, direct waves that pass through observed near-source aftershock clusters. We examine these phases, which arrived at the nearest (200-270 km) broadband station before the surface wave train and could thus be isolated for study. Direct comparison of spectral amplitudes of presurface wave arrivals shows that M ??? 5 explosions and earthquakes deliver the same peak dynamic stresses into the near-source crust. We conclude that a static stress change model can readily explain observed aftershock patterns, whereas it is difficult to attribute near-source triggering to a dynamic process because of the dearth of aftershocks near large explosions.

  1. Rate of Change in Lake Level and its Impact on Reservoir-triggered Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    With recent interest in increased seismicity related to fluid injection, it is useful to review cases of reservoir-triggered earthquakes to explore common characteristics and seek ways to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic impacts. Three reservoirs - Koyna, India; Nurek, Tajikistan; and Aswan, Egypt - are well-documented cases of triggered earthquakes with recorded time series of seismicity and water levels that extend for more than 30 years. The geological setting, regional tectonics and modes of reservoir utilization, along with the characteristics of the reservoir-seismicity interaction, are distinctly different in each of these three cases. Similarities and differences between these three cases point to regional and local geological and hydrological structures and the rate of changes in reservoir water level as important factors controlling the presence and timing of triggered seismicity. In a manner similar to the way in which the rate of fluid injection influences injection-related seismicity, the rate of change in reservoir water level is a significant factor in determining whether or not reservoir-triggered seismicity occurs. The high rate of annual water level rise may be important in sustaining the exceptionally long sequence of earthquakes at Koyna. In addition to the rate of filling being a determining factor in whether or not earthquakes are triggered, changes in the rate of filling may influence the time of occurrence of individual earthquakes.

  2. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  3. Early sexual maturity in local boars of Northeastern India: age-related changes in testicular growth, epididymal sperm characteristics and peripheral testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Kadirvel, G; Khargharia, G; Sarma, Rumi G; Goswami, J; Basumatary, Rantu; Palaniappan, Kavitha; Bardoloi, R K

    2011-03-01

    The present study reports the age related changes in the peripheral testosterone levels, testicular and epididymal growth and development and cauda epididymal spermiogram in local pigs of Northeastern India, which attain sexual maturity around 3 months of age. Local boars (n = 20) were castrated at monthly intervals from 2 to 6 months of age (4 boars per month) to study the testicular growth and development and the epididymal spermiogram. Blood samples, collected from local boars (n = 6) at monthly intervals from 2 to 6 months of age, were analyzed for testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay. Compared to Hampshire boars, significantly (P < 0.05) high testosterone levels were observed in the local boars as early as 2 months of age. The mean (± SEM) level of testosterone in the local boars at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was 11.89 ± 1.52, 20.45 ± 1.33 and 20.38 ± 2.0 ngml(-1), respectively. Though there was consistently significant (P < 0.05) difference in the body weight between Hampshire and local pigs, the same was not observed in case of testicular weight except at 3 and 6 months of age. In line with the above observation, the testis:body weight ratio (gram testis per kg body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the local boars compared to the Hampshire boars at any time of observation, which ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 in case of Hampshire and from 2.3 to 3.0 in local boars. The sperm concentration in the cauda epididymal fluid of local boars at 2, 3 and 6 months of age was 2255 ± 186.6, 3685 ± 103.8 and 4325 ± 146.2 million/ml, respectively and the sperm motility, viability and total abnormality was 73.3, 75.2 and 6.2%, respectively at 3 months of age. Taken together, the testosterone level, testicular growth and development and epididymal spermiogram indicate the trait of early sexual maturity in the local pigs as compared to Hampshire. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sedimentology and Reservoir Characteristics of Early Cretaceous Fluvio-Deltaic and Lacustrine Deposits, Upper Abu Gabra Formation, Sufyan Sub-basin, Muglad Rift Basin, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassin, Mohamed; Abdullatif, Osman; Hariri, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Sufyan Sub-basin is an East-West trending Sub-basin located in the northwestern part of the Muglad Basin (Sudan), in the eastern extension of the West and Central Africa Rift System (WCARS). The Early Cretaceous Abu Gabra Formation considered as the main source rock in the Muglad Basin. In Sufyan Sub-basin the Early Cretaceous Upper Abu Gabra Formation is the main oil-producing reservoir. It is dominated by sandstone and shales deposited in fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine environment during the first rift cycle in the basin. Depositional and post-depositional processes highly influenced the reservoir quality and architecture. This study investigates different scales of reservoir heterogeneities from macro to micro scale. Subsurface facies analysis was analyzed based on the description of six conventional cores from two wells. Approaches include well log analysis, thin sections and scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations, grain-size, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the Abu Gabra sandstone. The cores and well logs analyses revealed six lithofacies representing fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine depositional environment. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately sorted and sub-angular to subrounded, Sub-feldspathic arenite to quartz arenite. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies within Abu Gabra reservoir where it shows progressive coarsening upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The upper part of the reservoir showed well connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to lower parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenesis.The XRD and SEM analyses show that kaolinite and chlorite clay are the common clay minerals in the studied samples. Clay matrix and quartz overgrowth have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability, while the dissolution of feldspars

  5. The use of surgery in the treatment of ER+ early stage breast cancer in England: Variation by time, age and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Richards, P; Ward, S; Morgan, J; Lagord, C; Reed, M; Collins, K; Wyld, L

    2016-04-01

    To assess whether the proportion of patients aged 70 and over with ER+ operable breast cancer in England who are treated with surgery has changed since 2002, and to determine whether age and individual level factors including tumour characteristics and co-morbidity influence treatment choice. A retrospective cohort analysis of routinely collected cancer registration data from two English regions (West Midlands, Northern & Yorkshire) was carried out (n = 17,129). Trends in surgical use over time for different age groups were assessed graphically and with linear regression. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of age, comorbidity, deprivation and disease characteristics on treatment choice. Missing data was handled using multiple imputation. There is no evidence of a change in the proportion of patients treated surgically over time. The multivariable model shows that age remains an important predictor of whether or not a woman with ER+ operable breast cancer receives surgery after covariate adjustment (Odds ratio of surgery vs no surgery, 0.82 (per year over 70)). Co-morbidity, deprivation, symptomatic presentation, later stage at diagnosis and low grade are also associated with increased probability of non-surgical treatment. Contrary to current NICE guidance in England, age appears to be an important factor in the decision to treat operable ER+ breast cancer non-surgically. Further research is needed to assess the role of other age-related factors on treatment choice, and the effect that current practice has on survival and mortality from breast cancer for older women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effector-triggered immunity: from pathogen perception to robust defense.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haitao; Tsuda, Kenichi; Parker, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    In plant innate immunity, individual cells have the capacity to sense and respond to pathogen attack. Intracellular recognition mechanisms have evolved to intercept perturbations by pathogen virulence factors (effectors) early in host infection and convert it to rapid defense. One key to resistance success is a polymorphic family of intracellular nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) receptors that detect effector interference in different parts of the cell. Effector-activated NLRs connect, in various ways, to a conserved basal resistance network in order to transcriptionally boost defense programs. Effector-triggered immunity displays remarkable robustness against pathogen disturbance, in part by employing compensatory mechanisms within the defense network. Also, the mobility of some NLRs and coordination of resistance pathways across cell compartments provides flexibility to fine-tune immune outputs. Furthermore, a number of NLRs function close to the nuclear chromatin by balancing actions of defense-repressing and defense-activating transcription factors to program cells dynamically for effective disease resistance.

  7. Food Allergy and Atopic Dermatitis: Fellow Travelers or Triggers?

    PubMed

    Tom, Wynnis L

    2016-03-01

    Many children with atopic dermatitis also have an allergy to one or more foods, but the presence of these two conditions in an individual does not necessarily indicate a causal link between them. Testing and interpretation, sometimes with specialist consultation, may be required to discern whether food allergy is present in a child with atopic dermatitis and-if it is present-whether the food is triggering or exacerbating signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Recent milestone trials have demonstrated that early introduction of peanuts can reduce the development of peanut allergy in at-risk children. Parents may benefit from education about current revised guidelines that now recommend offering peanut-containing foods to most children at the time he or she is ready for solid food. Semin Cutan Med Surg 36(supp4):S95-S97. 2017 published by Frontline Medical Communications.

  8. Emergence of Secondary Trigger Sites after Primary Migraine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Ayesha; Brown, Matthew; Guyuron, Bahman

    2016-04-01

    Surgical decompression of a migraine headache may unmask headaches originating from secondary sites. A retrospective chart review investigated the incidence and characteristics of secondary trigger sites to identify clinical patterns that could aid in predicting and perhaps reducing postoperative migraines. One hundred eighty-five charts for migraine patients who underwent surgery at the senior author's (B.G.) practice were reviewed. Sites from which migraine headaches initiated or occurred independently were considered primary. The sites that were not active at the time of preoperative evaluation but became active after surgery were considered secondary. Bivariate analysis was performed to characterize postoperative migraines. Of 185 patients, 33 (17.8 percent) developed secondary migraine headache trigger sites. Of patients with primary site I (frontal) symptoms, 20.83 percent had site III (septonasal) symptoms unmasked after surgery (versus 7 percent for patients with other primary sites; p = 0.04). Of the patients with site II (temporal) migraines, 17.14 percent had secondary frontal symptoms (versus 5.68 percent; p = 0.04). Primary site II symptoms predicted postoperative site IV (occipital) symptoms (11.43 versus 1.1 percent; p = 0.008), and primary occipital symptoms predicted postoperative temporal symptoms (11.1 versus 2.33 percent; p = 0.04). The authors observed that 17.8 percent of patients develop postoperative migraine headache triggers that are not reported during the initial assessment. Knowledge of secondary migraine emergence patterns, and the presence of some preoperative symptoms, can aid in predicting the migraines that will arise from a new site postoperatively. Therapeutic, IV.

  9. The Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes Under Certain Circum