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Sample records for early tumor progression

  1. Rate of local tumor progression following radiofrequency ablation of pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yoshiteru; Numata, Kazushi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakano, Masayuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2017-05-07

    To evaluate whether pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibited local tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) less often than typical HCC. Fifty pathologically early HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.8; range, 10-23; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1213; range, 216-2137] and 187 typical HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.6; range, 6-30; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1116; range, 190-2328] were enrolled in this retrospective study. The presence of stromal invasion (namely, tumor cell invasion into the intratumoral portal tracts) was considered to be the most important pathologic finding for the diagnosis of early HCCs. Typical HCC was defined as the presence of a hyper-vascular lesion accompanied by delayed washout using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3-mo intervals to monitor for signs of local tumor progression. The local tumor progression rates of pathologically early HCCs and typical HCCs were then determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. During the follow-up period for the 50 pathologically early HCCs, 49 (98%) of the nodules did not exhibit local tumor progression. However, 1 nodule (2%) was associated with a local tumor progression found 636 d after RFA. For the 187 typical HCCs, 46 (24.6%) of the nodules exhibited local recurrence after RFA. The follow-up period until the local tumor progression of typical HCC was a median of 605 d, ranging from 181 to 1741 d. Among the cases with typical HCCs, local tumor progression had occurred in 7.0% (7/187), 16.0% (30/187), 21.9% (41/187) and 24.6% (46/187) of the cases at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Pathologically early HCC was statistically associated with a lower rate of local tumor progression, compared with typical HCC, when evaluated using a log-rank test ( P = 0.002). The rate of local tumor progression for pathologically early HCCs after RFA was significantly lower

  2. Rate of local tumor progression following radiofrequency ablation of pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yoshiteru; Numata, Kazushi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakano, Masayuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate whether pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibited local tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) less often than typical HCC. METHODS Fifty pathologically early HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.8; range, 10-23; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1213; range, 216-2137] and 187 typical HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.6; range, 6-30; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1116; range, 190-2328] were enrolled in this retrospective study. The presence of stromal invasion (namely, tumor cell invasion into the intratumoral portal tracts) was considered to be the most important pathologic finding for the diagnosis of early HCCs. Typical HCC was defined as the presence of a hyper-vascular lesion accompanied by delayed washout using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3-mo intervals to monitor for signs of local tumor progression. The local tumor progression rates of pathologically early HCCs and typical HCCs were then determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS During the follow-up period for the 50 pathologically early HCCs, 49 (98%) of the nodules did not exhibit local tumor progression. However, 1 nodule (2%) was associated with a local tumor progression found 636 d after RFA. For the 187 typical HCCs, 46 (24.6%) of the nodules exhibited local recurrence after RFA. The follow-up period until the local tumor progression of typical HCC was a median of 605 d, ranging from 181 to 1741 d. Among the cases with typical HCCs, local tumor progression had occurred in 7.0% (7/187), 16.0% (30/187), 21.9% (41/187) and 24.6% (46/187) of the cases at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Pathologically early HCC was statistically associated with a lower rate of local tumor progression, compared with typical HCC, when evaluated using a log-rank test (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION The rate of local tumor progression for pathologically early HCCs after

  3. Selection of early-occurring mutations dictates hormone-independent progression in mouse mammary tumor lines.

    PubMed

    Gattelli, Albana; Zimberlin, María N; Meiss, Roberto P; Castilla, Lucio H; Kordon, Edith C

    2006-11-01

    Mice harboring three mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) variants develop pregnancy-dependent (PD) tumors that progress to pregnancy-independent (PI) behavior through successive passages. Herein, we identified 10 predominant insertions in PI transplants from 8 independent tumor lines. These mutations were also detected in small cell populations in the early PD passages. In addition, we identified a new viral insertion upstream of the gene Rspo3, which is overexpressed in three of the eight independent tumor lines and codes for a protein very similar to the recently described protein encoded by Int7. This study suggests that during progression towards hormone independence, clonal expansion of cells with specific mutations might be more relevant than the occurrence of new MMTV insertions.

  4. Selection of Early-Occurring Mutations Dictates Hormone-Independent Progression in Mouse Mammary Tumor Lines▿

    PubMed Central

    Gattelli, Albana; Zimberlin, María N.; Meiss, Roberto P.; Castilla, Lucio H.; Kordon, Edith C.

    2006-01-01

    Mice harboring three mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) variants develop pregnancy-dependent (PD) tumors that progress to pregnancy-independent (PI) behavior through successive passages. Herein, we identified 10 predominant insertions in PI transplants from 8 independent tumor lines. These mutations were also detected in small cell populations in the early PD passages. In addition, we identified a new viral insertion upstream of the gene Rspo3, which is overexpressed in three of the eight independent tumor lines and codes for a protein very similar to the recently described protein encoded by Int7. This study suggests that during progression towards hormone independence, clonal expansion of cells with specific mutations might be more relevant than the occurrence of new MMTV insertions. PMID:16971449

  5. Decursin inhibits vasculogenesis in early tumor progression by suppression of endothelial progenitor cell differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seok Yun; Choi, Jin Hwa; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Masuda, Haruchika; Asahara, Takayuki; Lee, You-Mie

    2012-05-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the tumor vasculature during tumor progression. Decursin isolated from the herb Angelica gigas is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported that decursin is a novel candidate for an angiogenesis inhibitor [Jung et al., 2009]. In this study, we investigated whether decursin regulates EPC differentiation and function to inhibit tumor vasculogenesis. We isolated AC133+ cells from human cord blood and decursin significantly decreased the number of EPC colony forming units of human cord blood-derived AC133+ cells that produce functional EPC progenies. Decursin dose-dependently decreased the cell number of EPC committing cells as demonstrated by EPC expansion studies. Decursin inhibited EPC differentiation from progenitor cells into spindle-shaped EPC colonies. Additionally, decursin inhibited proliferation and migration of early EPCs isolated from mouse bone marrow. Furthermore, decursin suppressed expression of angiopoietin-2, angiopoietin receptor Tie-2, Flk-1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in mouse BM derived EPCs in a dose-dependent manner. Decursin suppressed tube formation ability of EPCs in collaboration with HUVEC. Decursin (4 mg/kg) inhibited tumor-induced mobilization of circulating EPCs (CD34 + /VEGFR-2+ cells) from bone marrow and early incorporation of Dil-Ac-LDL-labeled or green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ EPCs into neovessels of xenograft Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in wild-type- or bone-marrow-transplanted mice. Accordingly, decursin attenuated EPC-derived endothelial cells in neovessels of Lewis lung carcinoma tumor masses grown in mice. Together, decursin likely affects EPC differentiation and function, thereby inhibiting tumor vasculogenesis in early tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Early impact of social isolation and breast tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelley S; Szpunar, Mercedes J; Brown, Edward B

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from cancer patients and animal models of cancer indicates that exposure to psychosocial stress can promote tumor growth and metastasis, but the pathways underlying stress-induced cancer pathogenesis are not fully understood. Social isolation has been shown to promote tumor progression. We examined the impact of social isolation on breast cancer pathogenesis in adult female severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice using the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, a high β-adrenergic receptor (AR) expressing line. When group-adapted mice were transferred into single housing (social isolation) one week prior to MB-231 tumor cell injection into a mammary fat pad (orthotopic), no alterations in tumor growth or metastasis were detected compared to group-housed mice. When social isolation was delayed until tumors were palpable, tumor growth was transiently increased in singly-housed mice. To determine if sympathetic nervous system activation was associated with increased tumor growth, spleen and tumor norepinephrine (NE) was measured after social isolation, in conjunction with tumor-promoting macrophage populations. Three days after transfer to single housing, spleen weight was transiently increased in tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice in conjunction with reduced splenic NE concentration and elevated CD11b+Gr-1+ macrophages. At day 10 after social isolation, no changes in spleen CD11b+ populations or NE were detected in singly-housed mice. In the tumors, social isolation increased CD11b+Gr-1+, CD11b+Gr-1-, and F4/80+ macrophage populations, with no change in tumor NE. The results indicate that a psychological stressor, social isolation, elicits dynamic but transient effects on macrophage populations that may facilitate tumor growth. The transiency of the changes in peripheral NE suggest that homeostatic mechanisms may mitigate the impact of social isolation over time. Studies are underway to define the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the

  7. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces expansion of intraepithelial tumor cells in a tissue model of early cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Adarsh V; Segal, Nadav; Andriani, Frank; Wang, Youai; Fusenig, Norbert E; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2003-07-01

    Ultraviolet B irradiation is thought to enable skin cancer progression as clones of genetically damaged keratinocytes escape apoptosis and expand at the expense of adjacent normal cells. Mechanisms through which potentially malignant cells in human skin undergo clonal expansion, however, are not well understood. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of ultraviolet B irradiation on the intraepithelial expansion of early stage human tumor cells in organotypic skin cultures. To accomplish this, we have studied the effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on organotypic cultures that were fabricated by mixing normal human keratinocytes with beta-galactosidase-marked, intraepithelial tumor cells (HaCaT-ras, clone II-4), which bear mutations in both p53 alleles and harbor an activated H-ras oncogene. We found that when organotypic mixtures were exposed to an ultraviolet B dose of 50 mJ per cm2, intraepithelial tumor cells underwent a significant degree of proliferative expansion compared to nonirradiated cultures. To understand this response, organotypic cultures of nor-mal keratinocytes were exposed to ultraviolet B and showed a dose-dependent increase in numbers of sunburn cells and TUNEL-positive cells although their proliferation was suppressed. In contrast, neither the apoptotic nor the proliferative response of II-4 cells was altered by ultraviolet B in organotypic cultures. The differential response of these cell types suggested that II-4 cells were resistant to ultraviolet-B-induced alterations, which allowed these intraepithelial tumor cells to gain a selective growth and survival advantage relative to neighboring normal cells. These findings demonstrate that ultraviolet B exposure can induce the intraepithelial expansion of apoptosis-resistant, p53-mutant, and ras-activated keratinocytes, suggesting that this agent can act to promote the early stages of epithelial carcinogenesis.

  8. New Approaches for Early Detection of Breast Tumor Invasion or Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    had. 17p. Samples from 10 women with prolapsed uteri (elongatio coli) without any required numerous surgeries. Immediately prior to hermalignant...Sanchez-Estevez, D Hardisson, MAndujar, A Do 872 Chromosome 10 Rearrangements in Uterine Leiomyomata Involve the L Lombardia, E Bussaglia, J Prat...Vill MA; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Lerida, Spain. Background: Benign uterine leiomyomata (UL) are the most common tumor in

  9. Assessment of early response to imatinib 800 mg after 400 mg progression by ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Matías; Eleta, Martín; Espindola, Adriel Rodríguez; Roca, Enrique; Méndez, Guillermo; Rojo, Sandra; Pupareli, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Imatinib is the standard first-line therapy for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) shows a faster response than computed tomography in nonpretreated patients. After disease progression on imatinib 400 mg, 16 patients were exposed to 800 mg. Tumor response was evaluated by FDG PET/CT on days 7 and 37. Primary objective was to correlate early metabolic response (EMR) with progression-free survival (PFS). EMR by FDG PET/CT scan was not predictive of PFS. Median PFS in these patients was 3 months. Overall survival was influenced by gastric primary site (p = 0.05). The assessment of EMR by FDG PET/CT in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor exposed to imatinib 800 mg was not predictive of PFS or overall survival.

  10. Integrin-Targeted Hybrid Fluorescence Molecular Tomography/X-ray Computed Tomography for Imaging Tumor Progression and Early Response in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaopeng; Phi Van, Valerie; Kimm, Melanie A; Prakash, Jaya; Kessler, Horst; Kosanke, Katja; Feuchtinger, Annette; Aichler, Michaela; Gupta, Aayush; Rummeny, Ernst J; Eisenblätter, Michel; Siveke, Jens; Walch, Axel K; Braren, Rickmer; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Wildgruber, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Integrins play an important role in tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a preclinical imaging approach applying ανβ3 integrin targeted hybrid Fluorescence Molecular Tomography/X-ray Computed Tomography (FMT-XCT) for monitoring tumor progression as well as early therapy response in a syngeneic murine Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) model. Lewis Lung Carcinomas were grown orthotopically in C57BL/6 J mice and imaged in-vivo using a ανβ3 targeted near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe. ανβ3-targeted FMT-XCT was able to track tumor progression. Cilengitide was able to substantially block the binding of the NIRF probe and suppress the imaging signal. Additionally mice were treated with an established chemotherapy regimen of Cisplatin and Bevacizumab or with a novel MEK inhibitor (Refametinib) for 2 weeks. While μCT revealed only a moderate slowdown of tumor growth, ανβ3 dependent signal decreased significantly compared to non-treated mice already at one week post treatment. ανβ3 targeted imaging might therefore become a promising tool for assessment of early therapy response in the future. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conditional Deletion of the Pten Gene in the Mouse Prostate Induces Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasms at Early Ages but a Slow Progression to Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunfang; Lee, Suk Hyung; Ye, Ding-Wei; Luong, Richard; Sun, Zijie

    2013-01-01

    The PTEN tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in human prostate cancer. Using Osr1 (odd skipped related 1)-Cre mice, we generated a novel conditional Pten knockout mouse strain, PtenLoxP:Osr1-Cre. Conditional biallelic and monoallelic Pten knockout mice were viable. Deletion of Pten expression was detected in the prostate of PtenLoxP/LoxP:Osr1-Cre mice as early as 2 weeks of age. Intriguingly, PtenLoxP/LoxP:Osr1-Cre mice develop high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PINs) with high penetrance as early as one-month of age, and locally invasive prostatic tumors after 12-months of age. PtenLoxP/+:Osr1-Cre mice show only mild oncogenic changes after 8-weeks of age. Castration of PtenLoxP/LoxP:Osr1-Cre mice shows no significant regression of prostate tumors, although a shift of androgen receptor (AR) staining from the nuclei to cytoplasm is observed in Pten null tumor cells of castrated mice. Enhanced Akt activity is observed in Pten null tumor cells of castrated PtenLoxP/LoxP:Osr1-Cre. This study provides a novel mouse model that can be used to investigate a primary role of Pten in initiating oncogenic transformation in the prostate and to examine other genetic and epigenetic changes that are required for tumor progression in the mouse prostate. PMID:23308230

  12. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef A.

    2014-03-01

    Already the Roman Celsus recognized rigid tissue as characteristic for solid tumors. Conversely, changes towards a weaker cytoskeleton have been described as a feature of cancer cells since the early days of tumor biology. It remains unclear if a carcinoma's rigid signature stems from more inflexible cells or is caused by the stroma. Despite that the importance of cell biomechanics for tumor progression becomes more and more evident the chicken-and-egg problem to what extent cancer cells already change their mechanical properties within the solid tumor in order to transgress its boundary or mechanical changes are induced by the microenvironment when the cell has left the tumor has been discussed highly controversial. Comprehensive clinical biomechanical measurements only exist from tumor tissue without the possibility to identify individual cells or from individual cancer cells from pleural effusions. Since the biomechanical properties of cells in carcinomas remain unknown measurements on individual cells that directly stem out of primary tumor samples are required, which we have conducted. We found in cervix and mammary carcinomas a distinctive increase of softer cells as well as contractile cells. A soft and contractile cell is like a strong elastic rope. The cell can generate a strong tensile tension to pull its self along and is soft against compression to avoid jamming.

  13. Imaging the morphological change of tissue structure during the early phase of esophageal tumor progression using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Successful strategies for primary prevention and early detection are critically needed to control this disease. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is becoming a novel optical tool of choice for imaging tissue architecture and cellular morphology by two-photon excited fluorescence. In this study, we used MPM to image microstructure of human normal esophagus, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and early invasive carcinoma in order to establish the morphological features to differentiate these tissues. The diagnostic features such as the appearance of cancerous cells, the significant loss of stroma, the absence of the basement membrane were extracted to distinguish between normal and cancerous esophagus tissue. These results correlated well with the paired histological findings. With the advancement of clinically miniaturized MPM and the multi-photon probe, combining MPM with standard endoscopy will therefore allow us to make a real-time in vivo diagnosis of early esophageal cancer at the cellular level.

  14. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  15. Chemokines in tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sarvaiya, Purvaba J.; Guo, Donna; Ulasov, Ilya; Gabikian, Patrik; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    Chemokines play a vital role in tumor progression and metastasis. Chemokines are involved in the growth of many cancers including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, gastric cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, colon cancer, non-small lung cancer and non-hodgkin's lymphoma among many others. The expression of chemokines and their receptors is altered in many malignancies and leads to aberrant chemokine receptor signaling. This review focuses on the role of chemokines in key processes that facilitate tumor progression including proliferation, senescence, angiogenesis, epithelial mesenchymal transition, immune evasion and metastasis. PMID:24259307

  16. Stromagenesis: the changing face of fibroblastic microenvironments during tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Beacham, Dorothy A; Cukierman, Edna

    2005-10-01

    During tumorigenesis, reciprocal changes in stromal fibroblasts and tumor cells induce changes to the neoplastic microenvironmental landscape. In stromagenesis, both the complex network of bi-directional stromal fibroblastic signaling pathways and the stromal extracellular matrix are modified. The presence of a 'primed' stroma during the early, reversible stage of tumorigenesis is optimal for stromal-directed therapeutic intervention. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems have been developed that mimic the in vivo microenvironment. These systems provide unique experimental tools to identify early alterations in stromagenesis that are supportive of tumor progression with the ultimate goal of blocking neoplastic permissiveness and restoring normal phenotypes.

  17. Regulation of Tumor Progression by Programmed Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyun Min; Jeong, Eui Kyong; Lee, Yig Ji; Kim, Cho Hee; Park, Hye Gyeong

    2018-01-01

    Rapidly growing malignant tumors frequently encounter hypoxia and nutrient (e.g., glucose) deprivation, which occurs because of insufficient blood supply. This results in necrotic cell death in the core region of solid tumors. Necrotic cells release their cellular cytoplasmic contents into the extracellular space, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which is a nonhistone nuclear protein, but acts as a proinflammatory and tumor-promoting cytokine when released by necrotic cells. These released molecules recruit immune and inflammatory cells, which exert tumor-promoting activity by inducing angiogenesis, proliferation, and invasion. Development of a necrotic core in cancer patients is also associated with poor prognosis. Conventionally, necrosis has been thought of as an unregulated process, unlike programmed cell death processes like apoptosis and autophagy. Recently, necrosis has been recognized as a programmed cell death, encompassing processes such as oncosis, necroptosis, and others. Metabolic stress-induced necrosis and its regulatory mechanisms have been poorly investigated until recently. Snail and Dlx-2, EMT-inducing transcription factors, are responsible for metabolic stress-induced necrosis in tumors. Snail and Dlx-2 contribute to tumor progression by promoting necrosis and inducing EMT and oncogenic metabolism. Oncogenic metabolism has been shown to play a role(s) in initiating necrosis. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic stress-induced programmed necrosis that promote tumor progression and aggressiveness. PMID:29636841

  18. Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Quail, DF; Joyce, JA

    2014-01-01

    Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend upon for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable, and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that reeducation of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here, we will discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, and recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:24202395

  19. [Treatment progress of gastrointestinal stromal tumor].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xin; Ji, Jia-fu

    2013-03-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. Its pathogenesis is defined by mutations within the KIT and PDGFRα gene. Surgical resection is the only radical treatment at present, but recurrence is common. In recent years, targeted therapy with imatinib mesylate, which inhibits KIT kinase activity, represents the other cornerstone for the treatment of GIST. For resectable GIST, operation combined with neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy with imatinib mesylate or other tyrosine kinase inhibitors can improve the prognosis of high-risk patients before or after complete resection. For unresectable GIST, targeted therapy with imatinib mesylate can effectively inhibit and ameliorate the progression of GIST.

  20. Mitochondrial Redox Signaling and Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxin; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang

    2016-03-25

    Cancer cell can reprogram their energy production by switching mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. However, mitochondria play multiple roles in cancer cells, including redox regulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptotic signaling. Moreover, these mitochondrial roles are integrated via multiple interconnected metabolic and redox sensitive pathways. Interestingly, mitochondrial redox proteins biphasically regulate tumor progression depending on cellular ROS levels. Low level of ROS functions as signaling messengers promoting cancer cell proliferation and cancer invasion. However, anti-cancer drug-initiated stress signaling could induce excessive ROS, which is detrimental to cancer cells. Mitochondrial redox proteins could scavenger basal ROS and function as "tumor suppressors" or prevent excessive ROS to act as "tumor promoter". Paradoxically, excessive ROS often also induce DNA mutations and/or promotes tumor metastasis at various stages of cancer progression. Targeting redox-sensitive pathways and transcriptional factors in the appropriate context offers great promise for cancer prevention and therapy. However, the therapeutics should be cancer-type and stage-dependent.

  1. The tumor macroenvironment and systemic regulation of breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Zafira; Tracy, Kristin; McAllister, Sandra S

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide and is the most common cause of death for women between 35 and 50 years of age. Women with breast cancer are at risk of developing metastases for their entire lifetime and, despite local and systemic therapies, approximately 30% of breast cancer patients will relapse (Jemal et al., 2010). Nearly all breast cancer related deaths are due to metastatic disease, even though metastasis is considered to be an inefficient process. In some cases, tumor cells disseminate from primary sites at an early stage, but remain indolent for protracted periods of time before becoming overt, life-threatening tumors. Little is known about the mechanisms that cause these indolent tumors to grow into malignant disease. Because of this gap in our understanding, we are unable to predict which breast cancer patients are likely to experience disease relapse or develop metastases years after treatment of their primary tumor. A better understanding of the mechanisms and signals involved in the exit of tumor cells from dormancy would not only allow for more accurate selection of patients that would benefit from systemic therapy, but could also lead to the development of more targeted therapies to inhibit the signals that promote disease progression. In this review, we address the systemic, or "macroenvironmental", contribution to tumor initiation and progression and what is known about how a pro-tumorigenic systemic environment is established.

  2. Microenvironmental independence associated with tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alexander R A; Hassanein, Mohamed; Branch, Kevin M; Lu, Jenny; Lobdell, Nichole A; Maier, Julie; Basanta, David; Weidow, Brandy; Narasanna, Archana; Arteaga, Carlos L; Reynolds, Albert B; Quaranta, Vito; Estrada, Lourdes; Weaver, Alissa M

    2009-11-15

    Tumor-microenvironment interactions are increasingly recognized to influence tumor progression. To understand the competitive dynamics of tumor cells in diverse microenvironments, we experimentally parameterized a hybrid discrete-continuum mathematical model with phenotypic trait data from a set of related mammary cell lines with normal, transformed, or tumorigenic properties. Surprisingly, in a resource-rich microenvironment, with few limitations on proliferation or migration, transformed (but not tumorigenic) cells were most successful and outcompeted other cell types in heterogeneous tumor simulations. Conversely, constrained microenvironments with limitations on space and/or growth factors gave a selective advantage to phenotypes derived from tumorigenic cell lines. Analysis of the relative performance of each phenotype in constrained versus unconstrained microenvironments revealed that, although all cell types grew more slowly in resource-constrained microenvironments, the most aggressive cells were least affected by microenvironmental constraints. A game theory model testing the relationship between microenvironment resource availability and competitive cellular dynamics supports the concept that microenvironmental independence is an advantageous cellular trait in resource-limited microenvironments.

  3. Tumor-derived exosomes in ovarian cancer – liquid biopsies for early detection and real-time monitoring of cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shayna; Zuñiga, Felipe; Rice, Gregory E.; Perrin, Lewis C.; Hooper, John D.; Salomon, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer usually has a poor prognosis because it predominantly presents as high stage disease. New approaches are required to develop more effective early detection strategies and real-time treatment response monitoring. Nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs, including exosomes) may provide an approach to enrich tumor biomarker detection and address this clinical need. Exosomes are membranous extracellular vesicles of approximately 100 nm in diameter that have potential to be used as biomarkers and therapeutic delivery tools for ovarian cancer. Exosomal content (proteins and miRNA) is often parent cell specific thus providing an insight or “fingerprint” of the intracellular environment. Furthermore, exosomes can aid cell-cell communication and have the ability to modify target cells by transferring their content. Additionally, via the capacity to evade the immune system and remain stable over long periods in circulation, exosomes have potential as natural drug agents. This review examines the potential role of exosomes in diagnosis, drug delivery and real-time monitoring in ovarian cancer. PMID:29262670

  4. Inflammation Fuels Tumor Progress and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyi; Lin, Pengnian Charles; Zhou, Binhua P.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is a beneficial response that can remove pathogens, repair injured tissue and restore homeostasis to damaged tissues and organs. However, increasing evidence indicate that chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in tumor development, as well as progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. We will review the current knowledge regarding the contribution of inflammation to epithelial mesenchymal transition. We will also provide some perspectives on the relationship between ER-stress signals and metabolism, and the role of these processes in the development of inflammation. PMID:26004407

  5. Tumor heterogeneity and progression: conceptual foundations for modeling.

    PubMed

    Greller, L D; Tobin, F L; Poste, G

    1996-01-01

    A conceptual foundation for modeling tumor progression, growth, and heterogeneity is presented. The purpose of such models is to aid understanding, test ideas, formulate experiments, and to model cancer 'in machina' to address the dynamic features of tumor cell heterogeneity, progression, and growth. The descriptive capabilities of such an approach provides a consistent language for qualitatively reasoning about tumor behavior. This approach provides a schema for building conceptual models that combine three key phenomenological driving elements: growth, progression, and genetic instability. The growth element encompasses processes contributing to changes in tumor bulk and is distinct from progression per se. The progression element subsumes a broad collection of processes underlying phenotypic progression. The genetics elements represents heritable changes which potentially affect tumor character and behavior. Models, conceptual and mathematical, can be built for different tumor situations by drawing upon the interaction of these three distinct driving elements. These models can be used as tools to explore a diversity of hypotheses concerning dynamic changes in cellular populations during tumor progression, including the generation of intratumor heterogeneity. Such models can also serve to guide experimentation and to gain insight into dynamic aspects of complex tumor behavior.

  6. Nitric Oxide in Mammary Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    and endothelial cells, and poor cent work utilizing live videomicroscopy has dem- in human macrophages [24]. onstrated that even after successful...AC: Steps in tumor metastasis: New tion. concepts in intravital videomicroscopy . Cancer Met Rev 14: 2. How universal is the phenomenon of NO-medi- 1279... videomicroscopy . It is shown phokine (IL-2) activated killer (LAK) cells can in- that endogenous NO (derived from tumor vascular flict direct damage to

  7. Molecular profiling of tumor progression in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Belbin, Thomas J; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Smith, Richard V; Socci, Nicholas D; Wreesmann, Volkert B; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Masterson, Jessica; Patel, Snehal; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Prystowsky, Michael B; Childs, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    To assess gene expression changes associated with tumor progression in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. A microarray containing 17 840 complementary DNA clones was used to measure gene expression changes associated with tumor progression in 9 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Samples were taken for analysis from the primary tumor, nodal metastasis, and "normal" mucosa from the patients' oral cavity. Tertiary care facility. Patients Nine patients with stage III or stage IV untreated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Our analysis to categorize genes based on their expression patterns has identified 140 genes that consistently increased in expression during progression from normal tissue to invasive tumor and subsequently to metastatic node (in at least 4 of the 9 cases studied). A similar list of 94 genes has been identified that decreased in expression during tumor progression and metastasis. We validated this gene discovery approach by selecting moesin (a member of the ezrin/radixin/moesin [ERM] family of cytoskeletal proteins) and one of the genes that consistently increased in expression during tumor progression for subsequent immunohistochemical analysis using a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissue array. A distinct pattern of gene expression, with progressive up- or down-regulation of expression, is found during the progression from histologically normal tissue to primary carcinoma and to nodal metastasis.

  8. Reduced glucocorticoid receptor expression predicts bladder tumor recurrence and progression.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Zheng, Yichun; Netto, George J; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    To assess the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in bladder tumors because the status and its prognostic value remain largely unknown. We immunohistochemically stained for GR in bladder tumor and matched non-neoplastic bladder tissue specimens. Overall, GR was positive in 129 (87%) of 149 urothelial tumors, which was significantly (P=.026) lower than in non-neoplastic urothelium (90 [96%] of 94). Forty-two (79%) of 53 low-grade tumors vs 45 (47%) of 96 high-grade carcinomas (P<.001) and 61 (73%) of 84 non-muscle-invasive (NMI) tumors vs 26 (40%) of 65 muscle-invasive (MI) carcinomas (P<.001) were moderately to strongly immunoreactive for GR. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests revealed that loss or weak positivity of GR significantly or marginally correlated with recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.025), progression of MI tumors (P=.082), and cancer-specific survival of MI tumors (P=.067). Multivariate analysis identified low GR expression as a strong predictor for recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.034). GR expression was downregulated in bladder tumors compared with nonneoplastic bladder tumors and in high-grade/MI tumors compared with low-grade/NMI tumors. Decreased expression of GR, as an independent prognosticator, predicted recurrence of NMI tumors. These results support experimental evidence suggesting an inhibitory role of GR signals in bladder cancer outgrowth. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  9. Sorafenib improved progression-free survival in desmoid tumor study

    Cancer.gov

    In an NCI-funded trial for patients with desmoid tumors or aggressive fibromatosis (DT/DF), rare sarcomas with limited treatment options, the drug sorafenib tosylate (Nexavar) extended progression-free survival compared with a placebo.

  10. Progressive Enrichment of Stemness Features and Tumor Stromal Alterations in Multistep Hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Eun; Kim, Young-Joo; Rhee, Hyungjin; Kim, Haeryoung; Ahn, Ei Yong; Choi, Jin Sub; Roncalli, Massimo; Park, Young Nyun

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subset of tumor cells, contribute to an aggressive biological behavior, which is also affected by the tumor stroma. Despite the role of CSCs and the tumor stroma in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of stemness have not yet been studied in relation to tumor stromal alterations in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated the expression status of stemness markers and tumor stromal changes in B viral carcinogenesis, which is the main etiology of HCC in Asia. Stemness features of tumoral hepatocytes (EpCAM, K19, Oct3/4, c-KIT, c-MET, and CD133), and tumor stromal cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD68, CD163, and IL-6 were analyzed in 36 low grade dysplastic nodules (DNs), 48 high grade DNs, 30 early HCCs (eHCCs), and 51 progressed HCCs (pHCCs) by immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR. Stemness features (EpCAM and K19 in particular) were progressively acquired during hepatocarcinogenesis in combination with enrichment of stromal cells (CAFs, TAMs, IL-6+ cells). Stemness features were seen sporadically in DNs, more consistent in eHCCs, and peaked in pHCCs. Likewise, stromal cells were discernable in DNs, showed up as consistent cell densities in eHCCs and peaked in pHCCs. The stemness features and tumor stromal alterations also peaked in less differentiated or larger HCCs. In conclusion, progression of B viral multistep hepatocarcinogenesis is characterized by an enrichment of stemness features of neoplastic hepatocytes and a parallel alteration of the tumor stroma. The modulation of neoplastic hepatocytes and stromal cells was at low levels in precancerous lesions (DNs), consistently increased in incipient cancer (eHCCs) and peaked in pHCCs. Thus, in B viral hepatocarcinogenesis, interactions between CSCs and the tumor stroma, although starting early, seem to play a major role in tumor progression.

  11. Loss of Desmocollin 3 in Skin Tumor Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangli; O’Shea, Charlene; Fitzpatrick, James E.; Koster, Maranke I.; Koch, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Desmocollin 3 (DSC3) is a desmosomal cadherin that is required for maintaining cell adhesion in the epidermis as demonstrated by the intra-epidermal blistering observed in Dsc3 null skin. Recently, it has been suggested that deregulated expression of DSC3 occurs in certain human tumor types. It is not clear whether DSC3 plays a role in the development or progression of cancers arising in stratified epithelia such as the epidermis. To address this issue, we generated a mouse model in which Dsc3 expression is ablated in K-Ras oncogene-induced skin tumors. Our results demonstrate that loss of Dsc3 leads to an increase in K-Ras induced skin tumors. We hypothesize that acantholysis-induced epidermal hyperplasia in the Dsc3 null epidermis facilitates Ras-induced tumor development. Further, we demonstrate that spontaneous loss of DSC3 expression is a common occurrence during human and mouse skin tumor progression. This loss occurs in tumor cells invading the dermis. Interestingly, other desmosomal proteins are still expressed in tumor cells that lack DSC3, suggesting a specific function of DSC3 loss in tumor progression. While loss of DSC3 on the skin surface leads to epidermal blistering, it does not appear to induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in tumor cells invading the dermis, most likely due to a protection of these cells within the dermis from mechanical stress. We thus hypothesize that DSC3 can contribute to the progression of tumors both by cell adhesion-dependent (skin surface) and likely by cell adhesion-independent (invading tumor cells) mechanisms. PMID:21681825

  12. Fibroblasts—a key host cell type in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Strell, Carina; Rundqvist, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Tumor initiation, growth, invasion, and metastasis occur as a consequence of a complex interplay between the host environment and cancer cells. Fibroblasts are now recognized as a key host cell type involved in host–cancer signaling. This review discusses some recent studies that highlight the roles of fibroblasts in tumor initiation, early progression, invasion, and metastasis. Some clinical studies describing the prognostic significance of fibroblast-derived markers and signatures are also discussed. PMID:22509805

  13. Collaborative and Defensive Fibroblasts in Tumor Progression and Therapy Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chiavarina, Barbara; Turtoi, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is a complex network of epithelial cancer cells and non-transformed stromal cells. Of the many stromal cell types, fibroblasts are the most numerous ones and are traditionally viewed as supportive elements of cancer progression. Many studies show that cancer cells engage in active crosstalk with associated fibroblasts in order to obtain key resources, such as growth factors and nutrients. The facets of fibroblast "complicity to murder" in cancer are multiple. However, recent therapeutic attempts aiming at depleting fibroblasts from tumors, perturbed rather simplistic picture. Contrary to the expectations, tumors devoid of fibroblasts accelerated their progression while patients faced poorer outcomes. These studies remind us of the physiologic roles fibroblasts have in maintaining tissue homeostasis even in the presence of cancer. It is becoming increasingly clear that our research focus on advanced tumors has biased our understanding of fibroblast role in tumor biology. The numerous events where the fibroblasts protect the tissue from malignant transformation remain largely unacknowledged, as the tumors are invisible. The present review has the ambition to offer a more balanced view of fibroblasts functions in cancer progression and therapy resistance. We will address the question whether it is possible to synergize the efforts with fibroblasts as the therapeutic concept against tumor progression and therapy resistance. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. An Organotypic Liver System for Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    a physiologically relevant microreactor that has proved suitable for organotypic liver culture to investigate metastatic seeding. The sub-millimeter...metastasis. Our objective is to utilize a physiologically relevant microreactor that has proved suitable for organotypic liver culture (3) to...C Yates, D B Stolz, L Griffith, A Wells (2004) Direct Visualization of Prostate Cancer Progression Utilizing a Bioreactor. American Association

  15. Evolutionary Game Theory Analysis of Tumor Progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Sturm, James; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory applied to two interacting cell populations can yield quantitative prediction of the future densities of the two cell populations based on the initial interaction terms. We will discuss how in a complex ecology that evolutionary game theory successfully predicts the future densities of strains of stromal and cancer cells (multiple myeloma), and discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression. Supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Cancer Institute.

  16. An Organotypic Liver System for Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    involvement and growth dynamics – in progress Additional tasks accepted after Year 1: 9. determine whether breast cancer cell E -cadherin form...heterotypic interactions – completed 10. determine whether hepatocytes modulate cancer cell E -cadherin expression – completed Wells, Alan W81XWH-04...cancer cells that express E - cadherin form heterotypic binding to a monolayer of hepatocytes as determined by centrifugal assay for cell adhesion

  17. KSHV-Mediated Angiogenesis in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Uppal, Timsy; Sarkar, Roni; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a malignant human oncovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus family. HHV-8 is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and two other B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). KS is an invasive tumor of endothelial cells most commonly found in untreated HIV-AIDS or immuno-compromised individuals. KS tumors are highly vascularized and have abnormal, excessive neo-angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation of infected endothelial cells. KSHV directly induces angiogenesis in an autocrine and paracrine fashion through a complex interplay of various viral and cellular pro-angiogenic and inflammatory factors. KS is believed to originate due to a combination of KSHV’s efficient strategies for evading host immune systems and several pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory stimuli. In addition, KSHV infection of endothelial cells produces a wide array of viral oncoproteins with transforming capabilities that regulate multiple host-signaling pathways involved in the activation of angiogenesis. It is likely that the cellular-signaling pathways of angiogenesis and lymph-angiogenesis modulate the rate of tumorigenesis induction by KSHV. This review summarizes the current knowledge on regulating KSHV-mediated angiogenesis by integrating the findings reported thus far on the roles of host and viral genes in oncogenesis, recent developments in cell-culture/animal-model systems, and various anti-angiogenic therapies for treating KSHV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:27447661

  18. Tumor Stiffening, a Key Determinant of Tumor Progression, is Reversed by Nanomaterial-Induced Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Marangon, Iris; Silva, Amanda A. K.; Guilbert, Thomas; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Marchiol, Carmen; Natkhunarajah, Sharuja; Chamming's, Foucault; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Bianco, Alberto; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Renault, Gilles; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Tumor stiffening, stemming from aberrant production and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM), has been considered a predictive marker of tumor malignancy, non-invasively assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE). Being more than a passive marker, tumor stiffening restricts the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the tumor and per se could modulate cellular mechano-signaling, tissue inflammation and tumor progression. Current strategies to modify the tumor extracellular matrix are based on ECM-targeting chemical agents but also showed deleterious systemic effects. On-demand excitable nanomaterials have shown their ability to perturb the tumor microenvironment in a spatiotemporal-controlled manner and synergistically with chemotherapy. Here, we investigated the evolution of tumor stiffness as well as tumor integrity and progression, under the effect of mild hyperthermia and thermal ablation generated by light-exposed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in an epidermoid carcinoma mouse xenograft. SWE was used for real-time mapping of the tumor stiffness, both during the two near infrared irradiation sessions and over the days after the treatment. We observed a transient and reversible stiffening of the tumor tissue during laser irradiation, which was lowered at the second session of mild hyperthermia or photoablation. In contrast, over the days following photothermal treatment, the treated tumors exhibited a significant softening together with volume reduction, whereas non-treated growing tumors showed an increase of tumor rigidity. The organization of the collagen matrix and the distribution of CNTs revealed a spatio-temporal correlation between the presence of nanoheaters and the damages on collagen and cells. This study highlights nanohyperthermia as a promising adjuvant strategy to reverse tumor stiffening and normalize the mechanical tumor environment. PMID:28042338

  19. Tumor-derived exosomes and their role in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Theresa L

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cells actively produce, release and utilize exosomes to promote tumor growth. Mechanisms through which tumor-derived exosomes subserve the tumor are under intense investigation. These exosomes are information carriers, conveying molecular and genetic messages from tumor cells to normal or other abnormal cells residing at close or distant sites. Tumor-derived exosomes are found in all body fluids. Upon the contact with target cells, they alter phenotypic and functional attributes of recipients, reprogramming them into active contributors to angiogenesis, thrombosis, metastasis and immunosuppression. Exosomes produced by tumors carry cargos that in part mimic contents of parent cells and are of potential interest as non-invasive biomarkers of cancer. Their role in inhibiting the host antitumor responses and in mediating drug resistance is important for cancer therapy. Tumor-derived exosomes may interfere with cancer immunotherapy, but they also could serve as adjuvants and antigenic components of antitumor vaccines. Their biological roles in cancer development or progression as well as cancer therapy suggest that tumor-derived exosomes are critical components of oncogenic transformation. PMID:27117662

  20. Tumor-Derived Exosomes and Their Role in Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Theresa L

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells actively produce, release, and utilize exosomes to promote tumor growth. Mechanisms through which tumor-derived exosomes subserve the tumor are under intense investigation. These exosomes are information carriers, conveying molecular and genetic messages from tumor cells to normal or other abnormal cells residing at close or distant sites. Tumor-derived exosomes are found in all body fluids. Upon contact with target cells, they alter phenotypic and functional attributes of recipients, reprogramming them into active contributors to angiogenesis, thrombosis, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Exosomes produced by tumors carry cargos that in part mimic contents of parent cells and are of potential interest as noninvasive biomarkers of cancer. Their role in inhibiting the host antitumor responses and in mediating drug resistance is important for cancer therapy. Tumor-derived exosomes may interfere with cancer immunotherapy, but they also could serve as adjuvants and antigenic components of antitumor vaccines. Their biological roles in cancer development or progression as well as cancer therapy suggest that tumor-derived exosomes are critical components of oncogenic transformation. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-01

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1

  2. Progress on the diagnosis and evaluation of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huile

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Brain tumors are one of the most challenging disorders encountered, and early and accurate diagnosis is essential for the management and treatment of these tumors. In this article, diagnostic modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging are reviewed. We mainly focus on the newly emerging, specific imaging probes, and their potential use in animal models and clinical settings. PMID:24334439

  3. CDC42 inhibition suppresses progression of incipient intestinal tumors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mutations in the APC or Beta-catenin genes are well-established initiators of colorectal cancer, yet modifiers that facilitate the survival and progression of nascent tumor cells are not well defined. Using genetic and pharmacologic approaches in mouse colorectal cancer and human colorectal cancer x...

  4. Role of immune system in tumor progression and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Shishir; Sharma, Nidhi; Gupta, Kunj Bihari; Dhiman, Monisha

    2018-07-01

    Tumor micro-environment has potential to customize the behavior of the immune cell according to their need. In immune-eliminating phase, immune cells eliminate transformed cells but after tumor establishment innate and adaptive immune cells synergistically provide shelter as well as fulfill their requirement that helps in progression. In between eliminating and establishment phase, equilibrium and escaping phase regulate the immune cells response. During immune-escaping, (1) the antigenic response generated is either inadequate, or focused entirely on tolerance, and (2) immune response generated is specific and effective, but the tumor skips immune recognition. In this review, we are discussing the critical role of immune cells and their cytokines before and after the establishment of tumor which might play a critical role during immunotherapy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  6. Radiomics biomarkers for accurate tumor progression prediction of oropharyngeal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cha, Kenny H.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Prince, Mark; Papagerakis, Silvana

    2017-03-01

    Accurate tumor progression prediction for oropharyngeal cancers is crucial for identifying patients who would best be treated with optimized treatment and therefore minimize the risk of under- or over-treatment. An objective decision support system that can merge the available radiomics, histopathologic and molecular biomarkers in a predictive model based on statistical outcomes of previous cases and machine learning may assist clinicians in making more accurate assessment of oropharyngeal tumor progression. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of developing individual and combined predictive models based on quantitative image analysis from radiomics, histopathology and molecular biomarkers for oropharyngeal tumor progression prediction. With IRB approval, 31, 84, and 127 patients with head and neck CT (CT-HN), tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs) and molecular biomarker expressions, respectively, were collected. For 8 of the patients all 3 types of biomarkers were available and they were sequestered in a test set. The CT-HN lesions were automatically segmented using our level sets based method. Morphological, texture and molecular based features were extracted from CT-HN and TMA images, and selected features were merged by a neural network. The classification accuracy was quantified using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Test AUCs of 0.87, 0.74, and 0.71 were obtained with the individual predictive models based on radiomics, histopathologic, and molecular features, respectively. Combining the radiomics and molecular models increased the test AUC to 0.90. Combining all 3 models increased the test AUC further to 0.94. This preliminary study demonstrates that the individual domains of biomarkers are useful and the integrated multi-domain approach is most promising for tumor progression prediction.

  7. [MUC4 research progress in tumor molecular markers].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; You, Jinhui

    2014-02-01

    Mucin antigen 4 (MUC4) is a molecular marker for some malignant tumors for early tumor diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. It provides a new research direction in tumor diagnosis and treatment that will have a wide application prospect. In recent years, there has been a large number of research reports on the basic and clini-a wide application prospect. In recent years, there has been a large number of research reports on the basic and clinical studies about MUC4, but the molecular imaging study about MUC4 is seldom reported. In this paper the recentcal studies about MUC4, but the molecular imaging study about MUC4 is seldom reported. In this paper the recent research about MUC4 on basic and clinical studies is briefly reviewed, and it is expected to promote the development of tumor molecular imaging.

  8. Effect of Pantethine on Ovarian Tumor Progression and Choline Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Penet, Marie-France; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Wildes, Flonne; Mironchik, Yelena; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Podo, Franca; de Reggi, Max; Gharib, Bouchra; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy among women in developed countries. New therapeutic strategies evaluated with relevant preclinical models are urgently needed to improve survival rates. Here, we have assessed the effect of pantethine on tumor growth and metabolism using magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a model of ovarian cancer. To evaluate treatment strategies, it is important to use models that closely mimic tumor growth in humans. Therefore, we used an orthotopic model of ovarian cancer where a piece of tumor tissue, derived from an ovarian tumor xenograft, is engrafted directly onto the ovary of female mice, to maintain the tumor physiological environment. Treatment with pantethine, the precursor of vitamin B5 and active moiety of coenzyme A, was started when tumors were ~100 mm 3 and consisted of a daily i.p. injection of 750 mg/kg in saline. Under these conditions, no side effects were observed. High-resolution 1 H MRS was performed on treated and control tumor extracts. A dual-phase extraction method based on methanol/chloroform/water was used to obtain lipid and water-soluble fractions from the tumors. We also investigated effects on metastases and ascites formation. Pantethine treatment resulted in slower tumor progression, decreased levels of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine, and reduced metastases and ascites occurrence. In conclusion, pantethine represents a novel potential, well-tolerated, therapeutic tool in patients with ovarian cancer. Further in vivo preclinical studies are needed to confirm the beneficial role of pantethine and to better understand its mechanism of action.

  9. Biomarkers of Renal Tumor Burden and Progression in TSC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Biomarkers of Renal Tumor Burden and Progression in TSC Dr. Elahna Paul 1...appearance and growth rates) and renal function parameters (e.g. blood pressure, serum chemistries, urinalysis and urine chemistries). (2) Measure...and renal function parameters (e.g. blood pressure, serum chemistries, urinalysis and urine chemistries). (2) Measure soluble growth factors

  10. Tumor cell-derived microparticles polarize M2 tumor-associated macrophages for tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruihua; Ji, Tiantian; Chen, Degao; Dong, Wenqian; Zhang, Huafeng; Yin, Xiaonan; Ma, Jingwei; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Guanxin; Qin, Xiaofeng; Huang, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Despite identification of macrophages in tumors (tumor-associated macrophages, TAM) as potential targets for cancer therapy, the origin and function of TAM in the context of malignancy remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that microparticles (MPs), as a by-product, released by tumor cells act as a general mechanism to mediate M2 polarization of TAM. Taking up tumor MPs by macrophages is a very efficient process, which in turn results in the polarization of macrophages into M2 type, not only leading to promoting tumor growth and metastasis but also facilitating cancer stem cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that the underlying mechanism involves the activation of the cGAS/STING/TBK1/STAT6 pathway by tumor MPs. Finally, in addition to murine tumor MPs, we show that human counterparts also possess consistent effect on human M2 polarization. These findings provide new insights into a critical role of tumor MPs in remodeling of tumor microenvironment and better understanding of the communications between tumors and macrophages.

  11. Decoy receptor 3 enhances tumor progression via induction of tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tai, Shyh-Kuan; Chang, Hsin-Chuan; Lan, Keng-Li; Lee, Chun-Ting; Yang, Chih-Ya; Chen, Nien-Jung; Chou, Teh-Ying; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Hsieh, Shie-Liang

    2012-03-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major component of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. TAMs are heterogeneous, with distinct phenotypes influenced by the microenvironment surrounding tumor tissues. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the TNFR superfamily, is overexpressed in tumor cells and is capable of modulating host immunity as either a neutralizing decoy receptor or an effector molecule. Upregulation of DcR3 has been observed to correlate with a poor prognosis in various cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying the DcR3-mediated tumor-promoting effect remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that DcR3 modulates macrophage activation toward an M2-like phenotype in vitro and that DcR3 downregulates MHC class II expression in TAMs via epigenetic control. To investigate whether DcR3 promotes tumor growth, CT26-DcR3 stable transfectants were established. Compared with the vector control clone, DcR3-transfectants grew faster and resulted in TAM infiltration. We further generated CD68 promoter-driven DcR3 transgenic (Tg) mice to investigate tumor growth in vivo. Compared with wild-type mice, macrophages isolated from DcR3-Tg mice displayed higher levels of IL-10, IL-1ra, Ym1, and arginase activity, whereas the expression of IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, NO, and MHC class II was downregulated. Significantly enhanced tumor growth and spreading were observed in DcR3-Tg mice, and the enhanced tumor growth was abolished by arginase inhibitor N-ω-hydroxy-l-norarginine and histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate. These results indicated that induction of TAMs is an important mechanism for DcR3-mediated tumor progression. Our findings also suggest that targeting DcR3 might help in the development of novel treatment strategies for tumors with high DcR3 expression.

  12. KITENIN is associated with tumor progression in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ho-Seong; Park, Young-Lan; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hee; Cho, Sung-Bum; Lee, Wan-Sik; Chung, Ik-Joo; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Joo, Young-Eun

    2010-09-01

    KAI1 COOH-terminal interacting tetraspanin (KITENIN) promotes tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis in colon, bladder, head and neck cancer. The aims of current study were to evaluate whether KITENIN affects tumor cell behavior in human gastric cancer cell line and to document the expression of KITENIN in a well-defined series of gastric tumors, including complete long-term follow-up, with special reference to patient prognosis. To evaluate the impact of KITENIN knockdown on behavior of a human gastric cancer cell line, AGS, migration, invasion and proliferation assays using small-interfering RNA were performed. The expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) target genes and AP-1 transcriptional activity were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and luciferase reporter assay. The expression of KITENIN and AP-1 target genes by RT-PCR and Western blotting or immunohistochemistry was also investigated in human gastric cancer tissues. The knockdown of KITENIN suppressed tumor cell migration, invasion and proliferation in AGS cells. The mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and CD44 was reduced by knockdown of KITENIN in AGS. AP-1 transcriptional activity was significantly decreased by knockdown of KITENIN in AGS cells. KITENIN expression was significantly increased in human cancer tissues at RNA and protein levels. Expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, COX-2 and CD44 were significantly increased in human gastric cancer tissues. Immunostaining of KITENIN was predominantly identified in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Expression of KITENIN was significantly associated with tumor size, Lauren classification, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and poor survival. These results indicate that KITENIN plays an important role in human gastric cancer progression by AP-1 activation.

  13. Loss of TRPV2 Homeostatic Control of Cell Proliferation Drives Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Liberati, Sonia; Morelli, Maria Beatrice; Amantini, Consuelo; Farfariello, Valerio; Santoni, Matteo; Conti, Alessandro; Nabissi, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; Santoni, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Herein we evaluate the involvement of the TRPV2 channel, belonging to the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid channel family (TRPVs), in development and progression of different tumor types. In normal cells, the activation of TRPV2 channels by growth factors, hormones, and endocannabinoids induces a translocation of the receptor from the endosomal compartment to the plasma membrane, which results in abrogation of cell proliferation and induction of cell death. Consequently, loss or inactivation of TRPV2 signaling (e.g., glioblastomas), induces unchecked proliferation, resistance to apoptotic signals and increased resistance to CD95-induced apoptotic cell death. On the other hand, in prostate cancer cells, Ca2+-dependent activation of TRPV2 induced by lysophospholipids increases the invasion of tumor cells. In addition, the progression of prostate cancer to the castration-resistant phenotype is characterized by de novo TRPV2 expression, with higher TRPV2 transcript levels in patients with metastatic cancer. Finally, TRPV2 functional expression in tumor cells can also depend on the presence of alternative splice variants of TRPV2 mRNA that act as dominant-negative mutant of wild-type TRPV2 channels, by inhibiting its trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. In conclusion, as TRP channels are altered in human cancers, and their blockage impair tumor progression, they appear to be a very promising targets for early diagnosis and chemotherapy. PMID:24709905

  14. Loss of TRPV2 Homeostatic Control of Cell Proliferation Drives Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Sonia; Morelli, Maria Beatrice; Amantini, Consuelo; Farfariello, Valerio; Santoni, Matteo; Conti, Alessandro; Nabissi, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; Santoni, Giorgio

    2014-02-19

    Herein we evaluate the involvement of the TRPV2 channel, belonging to the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid channel family (TRPVs), in development and progression of different tumor types. In normal cells, the activation of TRPV2 channels by growth factors, hormones, and endocannabinoids induces a translocation of the receptor from the endosomal compartment to the plasma membrane, which results in abrogation of cell proliferation and induction of cell death. Consequently, loss or inactivation of TRPV2 signaling (e.g., glioblastomas), induces unchecked proliferation, resistance to apoptotic signals and increased resistance to CD95-induced apoptotic cell death. On the other hand, in prostate cancer cells, Ca2+-dependent activation of TRPV2 induced by lysophospholipids increases the invasion of tumor cells. In addition, the progression of prostate cancer to the castration-resistant phenotype is characterized by de novo TRPV2 expression, with higher TRPV2 transcript levels in patients with metastatic cancer. Finally, TRPV2 functional expression in tumor cells can also depend on the presence of alternative splice variants of TRPV2 mRNA that act as dominant-negative mutant of wild-type TRPV2 channels, by inhibiting its trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. In conclusion, as TRP channels are altered in human cancers, and their blockage impair tumor progression, they appear to be a very promising targets for early diagnosis and chemotherapy.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Epithelial Ovarian Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other...Epithelial Ovarian Tumor Progression 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0054 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Felix O. Aikhionbare, Ph.D. 5d...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: faikhionbare@msm.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8

  16. Complex engagement of DNA damage response pathways in human cancer and in lung tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Nuciforo, Paolo Giovanni; Luise, Chiara; Capra, Maria; Pelosi, Giuseppe; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    Tumor initiation and progression provide a multitude of occasions for the generation of DNA damage and the consequent activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. DDR signaling involves the engagement of key factors such as ATM, CHK2, 53BP1 and the phosphorylation of histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX). The systematic study of DDR in human tumors and normal tissues by high-throughput tissue microarrays revealed that ATM and gamma-H2AX were engaged in cancer but the extent of their activation was strongly affected by the organ and cell type involved, whereas 53BP1 loss was the most consistent feature among the tumor studied. Unexpectedly, we also observed activated DDR markers in morphologically normal tissues, also in association with inflammation. Analysis of the dynamic engagement of DDR along the different stages of lung tumorigenesis showed that 53BP1 loss occurs early at the transition from normal to dysplastic change whereas the activated forms of ATM and CHK2, but not gamma-H2AX, initially accumulate in pre-invasive lesions and are then lost during tumor progression. In individual lung tumors, the activation of ATM, CHK2 and the presence of 53BP1 were consistently correlated, whereas gamma-H2AX did not correlate with activated ATM. Finally, the study of associations between critical clinicopathological parameters and activated DDR factors highlighted a statistically meaningful correlation between reduced local tumor extension and the phosphorylation of ATM, CHK2 and the presence of 53BP1, whereas no significant correlations with parameters such as survival or relapse of early-stage lung carcinomas were found.

  17. A Learning Progressions Approach to Early Algebra Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We detail a learning progressions approach to early algebra research and how existing work around learning progressions and trajectories in mathematics and science education has informed our development of a four-component theoretical framework consisting of: a curricular progression of learning goals across big algebraic ideas; an instructional…

  18. Melanoma: Genetic Abnormalities, Tumor Progression, Clonal Evolution and Tumor Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Testa, Ugo; Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2017-11-20

    Melanoma is an aggressive neoplasia issued from the malignant transformation of melanocytes, the pigment-generating cells of the skin. It is responsible for about 75% of deaths due to skin cancers. Melanoma is a phenotypically and molecularly heterogeneous disease: cutaneous, uveal, acral, and mucosal melanomas have different clinical courses, are associated with different mutational profiles, and possess distinct risk factors. The discovery of the molecular abnormalities underlying melanomas has led to the promising improvement of therapy, and further progress is expected in the near future. The study of melanoma precursor lesions has led to the suggestion that the pathway of tumor evolution implies the progression from benign naevi, to dysplastic naevi, to melanoma in situ and then to invasive and metastatic melanoma. The gene alterations characterizing melanomas tend to accumulate in these precursor lesions in a sequential order. Studies carried out in recent years have, in part, elucidated the great tumorigenic potential of melanoma tumor cells. These findings have led to speculation that the cancer stem cell model cannot be applied to melanoma because, in this malignancy, tumor cells possess an intrinsic plasticity, conferring the capacity to initiate and maintain the neoplastic process to phenotypically different tumor cells.

  19. Melanoma: Genetic Abnormalities, Tumor Progression, Clonal Evolution and Tumor Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive neoplasia issued from the malignant transformation of melanocytes, the pigment-generating cells of the skin. It is responsible for about 75% of deaths due to skin cancers. Melanoma is a phenotypically and molecularly heterogeneous disease: cutaneous, uveal, acral, and mucosal melanomas have different clinical courses, are associated with different mutational profiles, and possess distinct risk factors. The discovery of the molecular abnormalities underlying melanomas has led to the promising improvement of therapy, and further progress is expected in the near future. The study of melanoma precursor lesions has led to the suggestion that the pathway of tumor evolution implies the progression from benign naevi, to dysplastic naevi, to melanoma in situ and then to invasive and metastatic melanoma. The gene alterations characterizing melanomas tend to accumulate in these precursor lesions in a sequential order. Studies carried out in recent years have, in part, elucidated the great tumorigenic potential of melanoma tumor cells. These findings have led to speculation that the cancer stem cell model cannot be applied to melanoma because, in this malignancy, tumor cells possess an intrinsic plasticity, conferring the capacity to initiate and maintain the neoplastic process to phenotypically different tumor cells. PMID:29156643

  20. Tumor-derived exosomes in cancer progression and treatment failure

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo; Feng, Jifeng

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes have diameter within the range of 30-100nm and spherical to cup-shaped nanoparticles with specific surface molecular characteristics, such as CD9 and CD63. These vesicles are present in nearly all human body fluids, including blood plasma/serum, saliva, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, semen, and particularly enriched in tumor microenvironment. Exosomes contain multiple proteins, DNA, mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA, and even genetic materials of viruses/prions. These materials are biochemically and functionally distinct and can be transferred to a recipient cell where they regulate protein expression and signaling pathways. Recently, exosomes are demonstrated to have a close relationship with tumor development and metastasis. Exosomes influence therapeutic effect in cancer patients. In this review, we describe the biogenesis, composition, and function of exosomes. The mechanism on how tumor-derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression and clinical treatment failure is also described, with special focus on their potential applications in cancer therapy. PMID:26452221

  1. Tumor-derived exosomes in cancer progression and treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaorong; Cao, Haixia; Shen, Bo; Feng, Jifeng

    2015-11-10

    Exosomes have diameter within the range of 30-100 nm and spherical to cup-shaped nanoparticles with specific surface molecular characteristics, such as CD9 and CD63. These vesicles are present in nearly all human body fluids, including blood plasma/serum, saliva, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, semen, and particularly enriched in tumor microenvironment. Exosomes contain multiple proteins, DNA, mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA, and even genetic materials of viruses/prions. These materials are biochemically and functionally distinct and can be transferred to a recipient cell where they regulate protein expression and signaling pathways. Recently, exosomes are demonstrated to have a close relationship with tumor development and metastasis. Exosomes influence therapeutic effect in cancer patients. In this review, we describe the biogenesis, composition, and function of exosomes. The mechanism on how tumor-derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression and clinical treatment failure is also described, with special focus on their potential applications in cancer therapy.

  2. Early Detection | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Colorectal cancer: genetic abnormalities, tumor progression, tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution and tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Testa, Ugo; Pelosi, Elvira; Castelli, Germana

    2018-04-13

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Most colorectal cancer occurrences are sporadic, not related to genetic predisposition or family history; however, 20-30% of patients with colorectal cancer have a family history of colorectal cancer and 5% of these tumors arise in the setting of a Mendelian inheritance syndrome. In many patients, the development of a colorectal cancer is preceded by a benign neoplastic lesion: either an adenomatous polyp or a serrated polyp. Studies carried out in the last years have characterized the main molecular alterations occurring in colorectal cancers, showing that the tumor of each patient displays from two to eight driver mutations. The ensemble of molecular studies, including gene expression studies, has led to two proposed classifications of colorectal cancers, with the identification of four/five non-overlapping groups. The homeostasis of the rapidly renewing intestinal epithelium is ensured by few stem cells present at the level of the base of intestinal crypts. Various experimental evidence suggests that colorectal cancers may derive from the malignant transformation of intestinal stem cells or of intestinal cells that acquire stem cell properties following malignant transformation. Colon cancer stem cells seem to be involved in tumor chemoresistance, radioresistance and relapse.

  4. Recruited brain tumor-derived mesenchymal stem cells contribute to brain tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Behnan, Jinan; Isakson, Pauline; Joel, Mrinal; Cilio, Corrado; Langmoen, Iver A; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Badn, Wiaam

    2014-05-01

    The identity of the cells that contribute to brain tumor structure and progression remains unclear. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been isolated from normal mouse brain. Here, we report the infiltration of MSC-like cells into the GL261 murine glioma model. These brain tumor-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BT-MSCs) are defined with the phenotype (Lin-Sca-1+CD9+CD44+CD166+/-) and have multipotent differentiation capacity. We show that the infiltration of BT-MSCs correlates to tumor progression; furthermore, BT-MSCs increased the proliferation rate of GL261 cells in vitro. For the first time, we report that the majority of GL261 cells expressed mesenchymal phenotype under both adherent and sphere culture conditions in vitro and that the non-MSC population is nontumorigenic in vivo. Although the GL261 cell line expressed mesenchymal phenotype markers in vitro, most BT-MSCs are recruited cells from host origin in both wild-type GL261 inoculated into green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice and GL261-GFP cells inoculated into wild-type mice. We show the expression of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR6 on different recruited cell populations. In vivo, the GL261 cells change marker profile and acquire a phenotype that is more similar to cells growing in sphere culture conditions. Finally, we identify a BT-MSC population in human glioblastoma that is CD44+CD9+CD166+ both in freshly isolated and culture-expanded cells. Our data indicate that cells with MSC-like phenotype infiltrate into the tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we suggest that targeting BT-MSCs could be a possible strategy for treating glioblastoma patients. © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  5. In vivo imaging of an inducible oncogenic tumor antigen visualizes tumor progression and predicts CTL tolerance.

    PubMed

    Buschow, Christian; Charo, Jehad; Anders, Kathleen; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Jukica, Ana; Alsamah, Wisam; Perez, Cynthia; Willimsky, Gerald; Blankenstein, Thomas

    2010-03-15

    Visualizing oncogene/tumor Ag expression by noninvasive imaging is of great interest for understanding processes of tumor development and therapy. We established transgenic (Tg) mice conditionally expressing a fusion protein of the SV40 large T Ag and luciferase (TagLuc) that allows monitoring of oncogene/tumor Ag expression by bioluminescent imaging upon Cre recombinase-mediated activation. Independent of Cre-mediated recombination, the TagLuc gene was expressed at low levels in different tissues, probably due to the leakiness of the stop cassette. The level of spontaneous TagLuc expression, detected by bioluminescent imaging, varied between the different Tg lines, depended on the nature of the Tg expression cassette, and correlated with Tag-specific CTL tolerance. Following liver-specific Cre-loxP site-mediated excision of the stop cassette that separated the promoter from the TagLuc fusion gene, hepatocellular carcinoma development was visualized. The ubiquitous low level TagLuc expression caused the failure of transferred effector T cells to reject Tag-expressing tumors rather than causing graft-versus-host disease. This model may be useful to study different levels of tolerance, monitor tumor development at an early stage, and rapidly visualize the efficacy of therapeutic intervention versus potential side effects of low-level Ag expression in normal tissues.

  6. The Bladder Tumor Suppressor Protein TERE1 (UBIAD1)Modulates Cell Cholesterol: Implications for Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    McGarvey, Terry; Wang, Huiyi; Lal, Priti; Puthiyaveettil, Raghunath; Tomaszewski, John; Sepulveda, Jorge; Labelle, Ed; Weiss, Jayne S.; Nickerson, Michael L.; Kruth, Howard S.; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Malkowicz, S. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Convergent evidence implicates the TERE1 protein in human bladder tumor progression and lipid metabolism. Previously, reduced TERE1 expression was found in invasive urologic cancers and inhibited cell growth upon re-expression. A role in lipid metabolism was suggested by TERE1 binding to APOE, a cholesterol carrier, and to TBL2, a candidate protein in triglyceride disorders. Natural TERE1 mutations associate with Schnyder's corneal dystrophy, characterized by lipid accumulation. TERE1 catalyzes menaquinone synthesis, known to affect cholesterol homeostasis. To explore this relationship, we altered TERE1 and TBL2 dosage via ectopic expression and interfering RNA and measured cholesterol by Amplex red. Protein interactions of wild-type and mutant TERE1 with GST-APOE were evaluated by binding assays and molecular modeling. We conducted a bladder tumor microarray TERE1 expression analysis and assayed tumorigenicity of J82 cells ectopically expressing TERE1. TERE1 expression was reduced in a third of invasive specimens. Ectopic TERE1 expression in J82 bladder cancer cells dramatically inhibited nude mouse tumorigenesis. TERE1 and TBL2 proteins inversely modulated cellular cholesterol in HEK293 and bladder cancer cells from 20% to 50%. TERE1 point mutations affected APOE interactions, and resulted in cholesterol levels that differed from wild type. Elevated tumor cell cholesterol is known to affect apoptosis and growth signaling; thus, loss of TERE1 in invasive bladder cancer may represent a defect in menaquinone-mediated cholesterol homeostasis that contributes to progression. PMID:21740188

  7. High milk consumption does not affect prostate tumor progression in two mouse models of benign and neoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Bernichtein, Sophie; Pigat, Natascha; Capiod, Thierry; Boutillon, Florence; Verkarre, Virginie; Camparo, Philippe; Viltard, Mélanie; Méjean, Arnaud; Oudard, Stéphane; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Friedlander, Gérard; Goffin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies that have investigated whether dairy (mainly milk) diets are associated with prostate cancer risk have led to controversial conclusions. In addition, no existing study clearly evaluated the effects of dairy/milk diets on prostate tumor progression, which is clinically highly relevant in view of the millions of men presenting with prostate pathologies worldwide, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). We report here a unique interventional animal study to address this issue. We used two mouse models of fully penetrant genetically-induced prostate tumorigenesis that were investigated at the stages of benign hyperplasia (probasin-Prl mice, Pb-Prl) or pre-cancerous PIN lesions (KIMAP mice). Mice were fed high milk diets (skim or whole) for 15 to 27 weeks of time depending on the kinetics of prostate tumor development in each model. Prostate tumor progression was assessed by tissue histopathology examination, epithelial proliferation, stromal inflammation and fibrosis, tumor invasiveness potency and expression of various tumor markers relevant for each model (c-Fes, Gprc6a, activated Stat5 and p63). Our results show that high milk consumption (either skim or whole) did not promote progression of existing prostate tumors when assessed at early stages of tumorigenesis (hyperplasia and neoplasia). For some parameters, and depending on milk type, milk regimen could even exhibit slight protective effects towards prostate tumor progression by decreasing the expression of tumor-related markers like Ki-67 and Gprc6a. In conclusion, our study suggests that regular milk consumption should not be considered detrimental for patients presenting with early-stage prostate tumors.

  8. ENaC/DEG in Tumor Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cui; Zhu, Li-Li; Xu, Si-Guang; Ji, Hong-Long; Li, Xiu-Min

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial Na+ channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) superfamily, including the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), is characterized by a high degree of similarity in structure but highly diverse in physiological functions. These ion channels have been shown to be important in several physiological functions of normal epithelial cells, including salt homeostasis, fluid transportation and cell mobility. There is increasing evidence suggesting that ENaC/DEG channels are critically engaged in cancer cell biology, such as proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis, playing a role in tumor development and progression. In this review, we will discuss recent studies showing the role of ENaC and ASIC channels in epithelial cells and its relationship to the oncogenesis. PMID:27698929

  9. Mena deficiency delays tumor progression and decreases metastasis in polyoma middle-T transgenic mouse mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Evanthia T; Wang, Yarong; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Sellers, Rani S; Wang, Weigang; Li, Jiufeng; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Gertler, Frank B; Condeelis, John S

    2010-01-01

    The actin binding protein Mammalian enabled (Mena), has been implicated in the metastatic progression of solid tumors in humans. Mena expression level in primary tumors is correlated with metastasis in breast, cervical, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Cells expressing high Mena levels are part of the tumor microenvironment for metastasis (TMEM), an anatomical structure that is predictive for risk of breast cancer metastasis. Previously we have shown that forced expression of Mena adenocarcinoma cells enhances invasion and metastasis in xenograft mice. Whether Mena is required for tumor progression is still unknown. Here we report the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression, metastasis and on normal mammary gland development. To investigate the role of Mena in tumor progression and metastasis, Mena deficient mice were intercrossed with mice carrying a transgene expressing the polyoma middle T oncoprotein, driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus. The progeny were investigated for the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression via staging of primary mammary tumors and by evaluation of morbidity. Stages of metastatic progression were investigated using an in vivo invasion assay, intravital multiphoton microscopy, circulating tumor cell burden, and lung metastases. Mammary gland development was studied in whole mount mammary glands of wild type and Mena deficient mice. Mena deficiency decreased morbidity and metastatic dissemination. Loss of Mena increased mammary tumor latency but had no affect on mammary tumor burden or histologic progression to carcinoma. Elimination of Mena also significantly decreased epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced in vivo invasion, in vivo motility, intravasation and metastasis. Non-tumor bearing mice deficient for Mena also showed defects in mammary gland terminal end bud formation and branching. Deficiency of Mena decreases metastasis by slowing tumor progression and reducing tumor cell invasion and intravasation. Mena

  10. In vivo gene manipulation reveals the impact of stress-responsive MAPK pathways on tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyama, Miki; Naguro, Isao; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that tumor cells and normal stromal cells in the host environment coordinately modulate tumor progression. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are the representative stress-responsive cascades that exert proper cellular responses to divergent environmental stimuli. Genetically engineered mouse models and chemically induced tumorigenesis models have revealed that components of the MAPK pathway not only regulate the behavior of tumor cells themselves but also that of surrounding normal stromal cells in the host environment during cancer pathogenesis. The individual functions of MAPK pathway components in tumor initiation and progression vary depending on the stimuli and the stromal cell types involved in tumor progression, in addition to the molecular isoforms of the components and the origins of the tumor. Recent studies have indicated that MAPK pathway components synergize with environmental factors (e.g. tobacco smoke and diet) to affect tumor initiation and progression. Moreover, some components play distinct roles in the course of tumor progression, such as before and after the establishment of tumors. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted functions of MAPK pathway components in tumor initiation and progression is essential for the improvement of cancer therapy. In this review, we focus on the reports that utilized knockout, conditional knockout, and transgenic mice of MAPK pathway components to investigate the effects of MAPK pathway components on tumor initiation and progression in the host environment. PMID:25880821

  11. Tumor-associated macrophages drive spheroid formation during early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Tan, Shu; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Bellone, Stefania; Xu, Xiaocao; Zhang, Haifeng; Santin, Alessandro D.; Lou, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can influence ovarian cancer growth, migration, and metastasis, but the detailed mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer metastasis remain unclear. Here, we have shown a strong correlation between TAM-associated spheroids and the clinical pathology of ovarian cancer. Further, we have determined that TAMs promote spheroid formation and tumor growth at early stages of transcoelomic metastasis in an established mouse model for epithelial ovarian cancer. M2 macrophage–like TAMs were localized in the center of spheroids and secreted EGF, which upregulated αMβ2 integrin on TAMs and ICAM-1 on tumor cells to promote association between tumor cells and TAM. Moreover, EGF secreted by TAMs activated EGFR on tumor cells, which in turn upregulated VEGF/VEGFR signaling in surrounding tumor cells to support tumor cell proliferation and migration. Pharmacological blockade of EGFR or antibody neutralization of ICAM-1 in TAMs blunted spheroid formation and ovarian cancer progression in mouse models. These findings suggest that EGF secreted from TAMs plays a critical role in promoting early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer. As transcoelomic metastasis is also associated with many other cancers, such as pancreatic and colon cancers, our findings uncover a mechanism for TAM-mediated spheroid formation and provide a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer and other transcoelomic metastatic cancers. PMID:27721235

  12. Beyond Subprime Learning: Accelerating Progress in Early Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornfreund, Laura; McCann, Clare; Williams, Conor; Guernsey, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Earlier this year, in "Subprime Learning: Early Education in America since the Great Recession," the current state of early education in the U.S. was surveyed by examining progress over the last five years . It was found that while the public, political, and research consensus is stronger than ever, the field remains in dire need of…

  13. Tumor-propagating cells and Yap/Taz activity contribute to lung tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Allison N; Curtis, Stephen J; Fillmore, Christine M; Rowbotham, Samuel P; Mohseni, Morvarid; Wagner, Darcy E; Beede, Alexander M; Montoro, Daniel T; Sinkevicius, Kerstin W; Walton, Zandra E; Barrios, Juliana; Weiss, Daniel J; Camargo, Fernando D; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Kim, Carla F

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of morbidity for lung cancer patients. Here we demonstrate that murine tumor propagating cells (TPCs) with the markers Sca1 and CD24 are enriched for metastatic potential in orthotopic transplantation assays. CD24 knockdown decreased the metastatic potential of lung cancer cell lines resembling TPCs. In lung cancer patient data sets, metastatic spread and patient survival could be stratified with a murine lung TPC gene signature. The TPC signature was enriched for genes in the Hippo signaling pathway. Knockdown of the Hippo mediators Yap1 or Taz decreased in vitro cellular migration and transplantation of metastatic disease. Furthermore, constitutively active Yap was sufficient to drive lung tumor progression in vivo. These results demonstrate functional roles for two different pathways, CD24-dependent and Yap/Taz-dependent pathways, in lung tumor propagation and metastasis. This study demonstrates the utility of TPCs for identifying molecules contributing to metastatic lung cancer, potentially enabling the therapeutic targeting of this devastating disease. PMID:24497554

  14. Tumor suppressor Lzap regulates cell cycle progression, doming and zebrafish epiboly

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Wen-Der; Melville, David B.; Cha, Yong I.; Yin, Zhirong; Issaeva, Natalia; Knapik, Ela W.; Yarbrough, Wendell G.

    2012-01-01

    Initial stages of embryonic development rely on rapid, synchronized cell divisions of the fertilized egg followed by a set of morphogenetic movements collectively called epiboly and gastrulation. Lzap is a putative tumor suppressor whose expression is lost in 30% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Lzap activities include regulation of cell cycle progression and response to therapeutic agents. Here we explore developmental roles of the lzap gene during zebrafish morphogenesis. Lzap is highly conserved among vertebrates and is maternally deposited. Expression is initially ubiquitous during gastrulation, and later becomes more prominent in the pharyngeal arches, digestive tract and brain. Antisense morpholino-mediated depletion of Lzap resulted in delayed cell divisions and apoptosis during blastomere formation, resulting in fewer, larger cells. Cell cycle analysis suggested that Lzap loss in early embryonic cells resulted in a G2/M arrest. Furthermore, the Lzap-deficient embryos failed to initiate epiboly – the earliest morphogenetic movement in animal development – which has been shown to be dependent on cell adhesion and migration of epithelial sheets. Our results strongly implicate Lzap in regulation of cell cycle progression, adhesion and migratory activity of epithelial cell sheets during early development. These functions provide further insight into Lzap activity that may contribute not only to development, but also to tumor formation. PMID:21523853

  15. Progress with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio; Fiorino, Gionata

    2015-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a valid, effective and increasingly used option in inflammatory bowel disease management. Nevertheless, further knowledge and therapeutic indications regarding these drugs are still evolving. Anti-TNF therapy may be essential to achieve recently proposed end points, namely mucosal healing, prevention of bowel damage and prevention of patient's disability. Anti-TNF drugs are also suggested to be more effective in early disease, particularly in early Crohn's disease. Moreover, its efficacy for prevention of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease is still debated. Costs and adverse effects, the relevance of drug monitoring and the possibility of anti-TNF therapy withdrawal in selected patients are still debated issues. This review aimed to describe and discuss the most relevant data about the progress with anti-TNF therapy for the management of inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Early Detection of Progressive Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Severity Index.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Wafa; Vergari, Claudio; Ebermeyer, Eric; Courtois, Isabelle; Drevelle, Xavier; Kohler, Remi; Abelin-Genevois, Kariman; Dubousset, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Early detection of progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was assessed based on 3D quantification of the deformity. Based on 3D quantitative description of scoliosis curves, the aim is to assess a specific phenotype that could be an early detectable severity index for progressive AIS. Early detection of progressive scoliosis is important for adapted treatment to limit progression. However, progression risk assessment is mainly based on the follow up, waiting for signs of rapid progression that generally occur during the growth peak. Sixty-five mild scoliosis (16 boys, 49 girls, Cobb Angle between 10 and 20°) with a Risser between 0 and 2 were followed from their first examination until a decision was made by the clinician, either considering the spine as stable at the end of growth (26 patients) or planning to brace because of progression (39 patients). Calibrated biplanar x-rays were performed and 3D reconstructions of the spine allowed calculating six local parameters related to main curve deformity. For progressive curve 3D phenotype assessment, data were compared with those previously assessed for 30 severe scoliosis (Cobb Angle > 35°), 17 scoliosis before brace (Cobb Angle > 29°) and 53 spines of nonscoliosis subjects. A predictive discriminant analysis was performed to assess similarity of mild scoliosis curves either to those of scoliosis or nonscoliosis spines, yielding a severity index (S-index). S-index value at first examination was compared with clinical outcome. At the first exam, 53 out of 65 predictions (82%) were in agreement with actual clinical outcome. Approximately, 89% of the curves that were predicted as progressive proved accurate. Although still requiring large scale validation, results are promising for early detection of progressive curves. 2.

  17. TLR5 signaling, commensal microbiota and systemic tumor promoting inflammation: the three parcae of malignant progression.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-08-01

    We have reported that TLR5-mediated recognition of commensal microbiota modulates systemic tumor-promoting inflammation and malignant progression of tumors at distal locations. Approximately 7-10% of the general population harbors a deleterious single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR5, implicating a novel role for genetic variation during the initiation and progression of cancer.

  18. Early predicted time to normalization of tumor markers predicts outcome in poor-prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Fizazi, Karim; Culine, Stéphane; Kramar, Andrew; Amato, Robert J; Bouzy, Jeannine; Chen, Isan; Droz, Jean-Pierre; Logothetis, Christopher J

    2004-10-01

    The prognostic relevance of the rate of decline of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) during the first 3 weeks of chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) was studied in the context of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification. Data from 653 patients prospectively recruited in clinical trials were studied. Tumor markers were obtained before chemotherapy and 3 weeks later. Decline rates were calculated using a logarithmic formula and expressed as a predicted time to normalization (TTN). A favorable TTN was defined when both AFP and HCG had a favorable decline rate, including cases with normal values. The median follow-up was 50 months (range, 2 to 151 months). Tumor decline rate expressed as a predicted TTN was associated with both progression-free survival (PFS; P <.0001) and overall survival (OS; P <.0001). The 4-year PFS rates were 64% and 38% in patients from the poor-prognosis group who had a favorable and an unfavorable TTN, respectively. The 4-year OS rates were 83% and 58%, respectively. This effect was independent from the initial tumor marker values, the primary tumor site, and the presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastases: tumor marker decline rate remained a strong predictor for both PFS (hazard ratio = 2.5; P =.01) and OS (hazard ratio = 4.6; P =.002) in patients from the IGCCCG poor-prognosis group in multivariate analysis. Early predicted time to tumor marker normalization is an independent prognostic factor in patients with poor-prognosis NSGCT and may be a useful tool in the therapeutic management of these patients.

  19. [Research advance on role of Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in tumor progression].

    PubMed

    Fan, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Gang; Ma, Ding

    2009-03-01

    Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is originally identified as the cellular receptor of 2-and 5-type adenoviruses. Many researches have suggested that CAR can affect the growth, adhesive ability and cytoskeleton of tumor cells, and has complicated functions in metastasis and invasion of tumors. Moreover, the expression of CAR has close relationship with tumor prognosis and cytoreduction mediated by adenoviruses. CAR has become a new hotspot in the research on mechanism of tumor progression and gene therapy. Our review focuses on the structure and function of CAR and its role in mediating occurrence and progression of tumor.

  20. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue. PMID:27294158

  1. Renal Tumors: Technical Success and Early Clinical Experience with Radiofrequency Ablation of 18 Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, Rohan, E-mail: rohan50000@yahoo.com; Vladica, Philip

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and technical efficacy of image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of small peripheral renal tumors and to report our early results with this treatment modality. Methods. Twenty-two RFA sessions for 18 tumors were performed in 11 patients with renal tumors. Indications included coexistent morbidity, high surgical or anesthetic risk, solitary kidney, and hereditary predisposition to renal cell carcinoma. Ten patients had CT-guided percutaneous RFA performed on an outpatient basis. One patient had open intraoperative ultrasound-guided RFA. Technical success was defined as elimination of areas that enhanced at imaging within the entire tumor. Withmore » the exception of one patient with renal insufficiency who required gadolinium-enhanced MRI, the remaining patients underwent contrast-enhanced CT for post-treatment follow-up assessment. Follow-up was performed after 2-4 weeks and then at 3, 6, 12 months, and every 12 months thereafter. Results. Fourteen (78%) of 18 tumors were successfully ablated with one session. Three of the remaining four tumors required two sessions for successful ablation. One tumor will require a third session for areas of persistent enhancement. Mean patient age was 72.82 {+-} 10.43 years. Mean tumor size was 1.95 {+-} 0.79 cm. Mean follow-up time was 10.91 months. All procedures were performed without any major complications. Conclusions. Our early experience with percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation demonstrates it to be a feasible, safe, noninvasive, and effective treatment of small peripheral renal tumors.« less

  2. Modelling gene expression profiles related to prostate tumor progression using binary states

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer is a complex disease commonly characterized by the disrupted activity of several cancer-related genes such as oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. Previous studies suggest that the process of tumor progression to malignancy is dynamic and can be traced by changes in gene expression. Despite the enormous efforts made for differential expression detection and biomarker discovery, few methods have been designed to model the gene expression level to tumor stage during malignancy progression. Such models could help us understand the dynamics and simplify or reveal the complexity of tumor progression. Methods We have modeled an on-off state of gene activation per sample then per stage to select gene expression profiles associated to tumor progression. The selection is guided by statistical significance of profiles based on random permutated datasets. Results We show that our method identifies expected profiles corresponding to oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a prostate tumor progression dataset. Comparisons with other methods support our findings and indicate that a considerable proportion of significant profiles is not found by other statistical tests commonly used to detect differential expression between tumor stages nor found by other tailored methods. Ontology and pathway analysis concurred with these findings. Conclusions Results suggest that our methodology may be a valuable tool to study tumor malignancy progression, which might reveal novel cancer therapies. PMID:23721350

  3. Quantitative T2 mapping of recurrent glioblastoma under bevacizumab improves monitoring for non-enhancing tumor progression and predicts overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Hattingen, Elke; Jurcoane, Alina; Daneshvar, Keivan; Pilatus, Ulrich; Mittelbronn, Michel; Steinbach, Joachim P.; Bähr, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Background Anti-angiogenic treatment in recurrent glioblastoma patients suppresses contrast enhancement and reduces vasogenic edema while non-enhancing tumor progression is common. Thus, the importance of T2-weighted imaging is increasing. We therefore quantified T2 relaxation times, which are the basis for the image contrast on T2-weighted images. Methods Conventional and quantitative MRI procedures were performed on 18 patients with recurrent glioblastoma before treatment with bevacizumab and every 8 weeks thereafter until further tumor progression. We segmented the tumor on conventional MRI into 3 subvolumes: enhancing tumor, non-enhancing tumor, and edema. Using coregistered quantitative maps, we followed changes in T2 relaxation time in each subvolume. Moreover, we generated differential T2 maps by a voxelwise subtraction using the first T2 map under bevacizumab as reference. Results Visually segmented areas of tumor and edema did not differ in T2 relaxation times. Non-enhancing tumor volume did not decrease after commencement of bevacizumab treatment but strikingly increased at progression. Differential T2 maps clearly showed non-enhancing tumor progression in previously normal brain. T2 relaxation times decreased under bevacizumab without re-increasing at tumor progression. A decrease of <26 ms in the enhancing tumor following exposure to bevacizumab was associated with longer overall survival. Conclusions Combining quantitative MRI and tumor segmentation improves monitoring of glioblastoma patients under bevacizumab. The degree of change in T2 relaxation time under bevacizumab may be an early response parameter predictive of overall survival. The sustained decrease in T2 relaxation times toward values of healthy tissue masks progressive tumor on conventional T2-weighted images. Therefore, quantitative T2 relaxation times may detect non-enhancing progression better than conventional T2-weighted imaging. PMID:23925453

  4. Early Postoperative Perils of Intraventricular Tumors: An Observational Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Schär, Ralph T; Schwarz, Christa; Söll, Nicole; Raabe, Andreas; Z'Graggen, Werner J; Beck, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Early postoperative patient surveillance after removal of intraventricular tumors is often hindered by delayed awakening and prolonged somnolence. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of early critical postoperative events after elective craniotomy for intraventricular tumors in adults compared with extraventricular lesions. An observational comparative study was conducted on adult patients who had undergone first-time elective craniotomy between November 2011 and August 2016. Patients were stratified into extraventricular lesions (group 1) and intraventricular tumors (group 2). The rates of late extubation, early postoperative seizures, emergency head computed tomography (CT) scans, and urgent surgical intervention within 48 hours and mortality within 30 days of surgery were analyzed from a prospective database. A total of 977 elective craniotomies were analyzed, including 951 (97.3%) in group 1 and 26 (2.7%) in group 2. Emergency CT scans were ordered significantly more frequently in group 2 (34.6% vs. 8.4%; odds ratio, 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.49-13.35; P = 0.0002), and the incidence of urgent surgical intervention was significantly higher in group 2 (11.5% vs. 0.8%; odds ratio, 15.38; 95% CI, 3.83-61.72; P = 0.002). The main reason for urgent surgical intervention in group 2 was acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Overall surgical mortality after 30 days was 0.3% (3 cases in group 1, no cases in group 2). Intraventricular tumors are at significantly higher risk for early emergency head CT and urgent surgical intervention. This patient cohort might benefit from routine intraoperative and early postoperative imaging, as well as intraoperative extraventricular drain placement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The importance of melanoma inhibitory activity gene family in the tumor progression of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2018-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a high potential for locoregional invasion and nodal metastasis. Consequently, early detection of such malignancies is of immense importance. The melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) gene family comprises MIA, MIA2, transport and Golgi organization protein 1 (TANGO), and otoraplin (OTOR). These members of the MIA gene family have a highly conserved Src homology 3 (SH3)-like structure. Although the molecules of this family share 34-45% amino acid homology and 47-59% cDNA sequence homology, those members, excluding OTOR, play different tumor-associated functions. MIA has a pivotal role in the progression and metastasis of melanoma; MIA2 and TANGO have been suggested to possess tumor-suppressive functions; and OTOR is uniquely expressed in cochlea of the inner ear. Therefore, the definite functions of the MIA gene family in cancer cells remain unclear. Since the members of the MIA gene family are secreted proteins, these molecules might be useful tumor markers that can be detected in the body fluids, including serum and saliva. In this review, we described the molecular biological functions of the MIA gene family in oral cancer. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Nanotechnology-Based Strategies for Early Cancer Diagnosis Using Circulating Tumor Cells as a Liquid Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qinqin; Wang, Yin; Chen, Xingxiang; Wang, Yimeng; Li, Zhiqiang; Du, Shiming; Wang, Lianrong; Chen, Shi

    2018-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that shed from a primary tumor and circulate in the bloodstream. As a form of “tumor liquid biopsy”, CTCs provide important information for the mechanistic investigation of cancer metastasis and the measurement of tumor genotype evolution during treatment and disease progression. However, the extremely low abundance of CTCs in the peripheral blood and the heterogeneity of CTCs make their isolation and characterization major technological challenges. Recently, nanotechnologies have been developed for sensitive CTC detection; such technologies will enable better cell and molecular characterization and open up a wide range of clinical applications, including early disease detection and evaluation of treatment response and disease progression. In this review, we summarize the nanotechnology-based strategies for CTC isolation, including representative nanomaterials (such as magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, silicon nanopillars, nanowires, nanopillars, carbon nanotubes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and graphene oxide) and microfluidic chip technologies that incorporate nanoroughened surfaces and discuss their key challenges and perspectives in CTC downstream analyses, such as protein expression and genetic mutations that may reflect tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome. PMID:29291161

  7. Estrogen related receptor alpha in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells promotes tumor progression in bone

    PubMed Central

    Delliaux, Carine; Gervais, Manon; Kan, Casina; Benetollo, Claire; Pantano, Francesco; Vargas, Geoffrey; Bouazza, Lamia; Croset, Martine; Bala, Yohann; Leroy, Xavier; Rosol, Thomas J; Rieusset, Jennifer; Bellahcène, Akeila; Castronovo, Vincent; Aubin, Jane E; Clézardin, Philippe; Duterque-Coquillaud, Martine; Bonnelye, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are one of the main complications of prostate cancer and they are incurable. We investigated whether and how estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is involved in bone tumor progression associated with advanced prostate cancer. By meta-analysis, we first found that ERRα expression is correlated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), the hallmark of progressive disease. We then analyzed tumor cell progression and the associated signaling pathways in gain-of-function/loss-of-function CRPC models in vivo and in vitro. Increased levels of ERRα in tumor cells led to rapid tumor progression, with both bone destruction and formation, and direct impacts on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. VEGF-A, WNT5A and TGFβ1 were upregulated by ERRα in tumor cells and all of these factors also significantly and positively correlated with ERRα expression in CRPC patient specimens. Finally, high levels of ERRα in tumor cells stimulated the pro-metastatic factor periostin expression in the stroma, suggesting that ERRα regulates the tumor stromal cell microenvironment to enhance tumor progression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ERRα is a regulator of CRPC cell progression in bone. Therefore, inhibiting ERRα may constitute a new therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer skeletal-related events. PMID:27776343

  8. MUC1 enhances tumor progression and contributes toward immunosuppression in a mouse model of spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tinder, Teresa L; Subramani, Durai B; Basu, Gargi D; Bradley, Judy M; Schettini, Jorge; Million, Arefayene; Skaar, Todd; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2008-09-01

    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in >80% of human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has been elusive, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model. We report the characterization of a novel mouse model that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule (PDA.MUC1 mice). Pancreatic tumors arise in an appropriate MUC1-tolerant background within an immune-competent host. Significant enhancement in the development of pancreatic intraepithelial preneoplastic lesions and progression to adenocarcinoma is observed in PDA.MUC1 mice, possibly due to increased proliferation. Tumors from PDA.MUC1 mice express higher levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and IDO compared with PDA mice lacking MUC1, especially during early stages of tumor development. The increased proinflammatory milieu correlates with an increased percentage of regulatory T cells and myeloid suppressor cells in the pancreatic tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes. Data shows that during pancreatic cancer progression, MUC1-mediated mechanisms enhance the onset and progression of the disease, which in turn regulate the immune responses. Thus, the mouse model is ideally suited for testing novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer.

  9. MUC1 enhances tumor progression and contributes towards immunosuppression in a mouse model of spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tinder, Teresa L.; Subramani, Durai B.; Basu, Gargi D.; Bradley, Judy M.; Schettini, Jorge; Million, Arefayene; Skaar, Todd

    2008-01-01

    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in >80% of human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has been elusive, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model. We report the characterization of a novel mouse model that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule (PDA.MUC1 mice). Pancreatic tumors arise in an appropriate MUC1-tolerant background within an immune competent host. Significant enhancement in the development of pancreatic intraepithelial pre-neoplastic lesions (PanINs) and progression to adenocarcinoma is observed in PDA.MUC1 mice, possibly due to increased proliferation. Tumors from PDA.MUC1 mice express higher levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and indoleamine 2,3, dioxygenase compared to PDA mice lacking MUC1, especially during early stages of tumor development. The increased pro-inflammatory milieu correlates with an increased percentage of regulatory T cells and myeloid suppressor cells in the pancreatic tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes. Data shows that during pancreatic cancer progression, MUC1-mediated mechanisms enhance the onset and progression of the disease which in turn regulate the immune responses. Thus, the mouse model is ideally-suited for testing novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer. PMID:18713982

  10. Endogenous T cell responses to antigens expressed in lung adenocarcinomas delay malignant tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    DuPage, Michel; Cheung, Ann; Mazumdar, Claire; Winslow, Monte M.; Bronson, Roderick; Schmidt, Leah M.; Crowley, Denise; Chen, Jianzhu; Jacks, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Neoantigens derived from somatic mutations in tumors may provide a critical link between the adaptive immune system and cancer. Here we describe a system to introduce exogenous antigens into genetically engineered mouse lung cancers to mimic tumor neoantigens. We show that endogenous T cells respond to and infiltrate tumors, significantly delaying malignant progression. Despite continued antigen expression, T cell infiltration does not persist and tumors ultimately escape immune attack. Transplantation of cell lines derived from these lung tumors or prophylactic vaccination against the autochthonous tumors, however, results in rapid tumor eradication or selection of tumors that lose antigen expression. These results provide insight into the dynamic nature of the immune response to naturally arising tumors. PMID:21251614

  11. Early Childhood Education in Pakistan--Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shami, Pervez A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is on Early Childhood Education (ECE)--a goal of Education For All (EFA), assesses the progress of Pakistan's efforts and strategies mainly during post Dakar period 2001-02 to 2005-06 and the major challenges being encountered. The information includes analysis of National Educational Data on ECE in the light of policies and plans, EFA…

  12. Intratumor Heterogeneity in Evolutionary Models of Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Durrett, Rick; Foo, Jasmine; Leder, Kevin; Mayberry, John; Michor, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    With rare exceptions, human tumors arise from single cells that have accumulated the necessary number and types of heritable alterations. Each such cell leads to dysregulated growth and eventually the formation of a tumor. Despite their monoclonal origin, at the time of diagnosis most tumors show a striking amount of intratumor heterogeneity in all measurable phenotypes; such heterogeneity has implications for diagnosis, treatment efficacy, and the identification of drug targets. An understanding of the extent and evolution of intratumor heterogeneity is therefore of direct clinical importance. In this article, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of heterogeneity arising during exponential expansion of a tumor cell population, in which heritable alterations confer random fitness changes to cells. We obtain analytical estimates for the extent of heterogeneity and quantify the effects of system parameters on this tumor trait. Our work contributes to a mathematical understanding of intratumor heterogeneity and is also applicable to organisms like bacteria, agricultural pests, and other microbes. PMID:21406679

  13. Polo-like kinase 1 is essential for early embryonic development and tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin-Yu; Wood, Jamie L; Minter-Dykhouse, Katherine; Ye, Lin; Saunders, Thomas L; Yu, Xiaochun; Chen, Junjie

    2008-11-01

    Polo-like kinases (Plks) are serine/threonine kinases that are highly conserved in organisms from yeasts to humans. Previous reports have shown that Plk1 is critical for all stages of mitosis and may play a role in DNA replication during S phase. While much work has focused on Plk1, little is known about the physiological function of Plk1 in vivo. To address this question, we generated Plk1 knockout mice. Plk1 homozygous null mice were embryonic lethal, and early Plk1(-/-) embryos failed to survive after the eight-cell stage. Immunocytochemistry studies revealed that Plk1-null embryos were arrested outside the mitotic phase, suggesting that Plk1 is important for proper cell cycle progression. It has been postulated that Plk1 is a potential oncogene, due to its overexpression in a variety of tumors and tumor cell lines. While the Plk1 heterozygotes were healthy at birth, the incidence of tumors in these animals was threefold greater than that in their wild-type counterparts, demonstrating that the loss of one Plk1 allele accelerates tumor formation. Collectively, our data support that Plk1 is important for early embryonic development and may function as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor.

  14. Basic fibroblast growth factor in an animal model of spontaneous mammary tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Kao, Steven; Mo, Jeffrey; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P

    2012-06-01

    Although basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) was the first pro-angiogenic molecule discovered, it has numerous activities on the growth and differentiation of non-vascular cell types. FGF2 is both stimulatory and inhibitory, depending on the cell type evaluated, the experimental design used and the context in which it is tested. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulating endogenous FGF2 on the development of mammary cancer to determine whether its endogenous contribution in vivo is pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Specifically, we examined the effects of FGF2 gene dosing in a cross between a spontaneous breast tumor model (PyVT+ mice) and FGF2-/- (FGF KO) mice. Using these mice, the onset and progression of mammary tumors was determined. As predicted, female FGF2 WT mice developed mammary tumors starting around 60 days after birth and by 80 days, 100% of FGF2 WT female mice had mammary tumors. In contrast, 80% of FGF2 KO female mice had no palpable tumors until nearly three weeks later (85 days) at times when 100% of the WT cohort was tumor positive. All FGF KO mice were tumor-bearing by 115 days. When we compared the onset of mammary tumor development and the tumor progression curves between FGF het and FGF KO mice, we observed a difference, which suggested a gene dosing effect. Analysis of the tumors demonstrated that there were significant differences in tumor size depending on FGF2 status. The delay in tumor onset supports a functional role for FGF2 in mammary tumor progression, but argues against an essential role for FGF2 in overall mammary tumor progression.

  15. Differentiating Tumor Progression from Pseudoprogression in Patients with Glioblastomas Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Martinez-Lage, M; Sakai, Y; Chawla, S; Kim, S G; Alonso-Basanta, M; Lustig, R A; Brem, S; Mohan, S; Wolf, R L; Desai, A; Poptani, H

    2016-01-01

    Early assessment of treatment response is critical in patients with glioblastomas. A combination of DTI and DSC perfusion imaging parameters was evaluated to distinguish glioblastomas with true progression from mixed response and pseudoprogression. Forty-one patients with glioblastomas exhibiting enhancing lesions within 6 months after completion of chemoradiation therapy were retrospectively studied. All patients underwent surgery after MR imaging and were histologically classified as having true progression (>75% tumor), mixed response (25%-75% tumor), or pseudoprogression (<25% tumor). Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, linear anisotropy coefficient, planar anisotropy coefficient, spheric anisotropy coefficient, and maximum relative cerebral blood volume values were measured from the enhancing tissue. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best model for classification of true progression from mixed response or pseudoprogression. Significantly elevated maximum relative cerebral blood volume, fractional anisotropy, linear anisotropy coefficient, and planar anisotropy coefficient and decreased spheric anisotropy coefficient were observed in true progression compared with pseudoprogression (P < .05). There were also significant differences in maximum relative cerebral blood volume, fractional anisotropy, planar anisotropy coefficient, and spheric anisotropy coefficient measurements between mixed response and true progression groups. The best model to distinguish true progression from non-true progression (pseudoprogression and mixed) consisted of fractional anisotropy, linear anisotropy coefficient, and maximum relative cerebral blood volume, resulting in an area under the curve of 0.905. This model also differentiated true progression from mixed response with an area under the curve of 0.901. A combination of fractional anisotropy and maximum relative cerebral blood volume differentiated pseudoprogression from

  16. Kidney cancer progression linked to shifts in tumor metabolism

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have uncovered a connection between how tumor cells use energy from metabolic processes and the aggressiveness of the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  17. Early circulating tumor DNA dynamics and clonal selection with palbociclib and fulvestrant for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ben; Hrebien, Sarah; Morden, James P; Beaney, Matthew; Fribbens, Charlotte; Huang, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Koehler, Maria; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Bliss, Judith M; Turner, Nicholas C

    2018-03-01

    CDK4/6 inhibition substantially improves progression-free survival (PFS) for women with advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, although there are no predictive biomarkers. Early changes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) level may provide early response prediction, but the impact of tumor heterogeneity is unknown. Here we use plasma samples from patients in the randomized phase III PALOMA-3 study of CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib and fulvestrant for women with advanced breast cancer and show that relative change in PIK3CA ctDNA level after 15 days treatment strongly predicts PFS on palbociclib and fulvestrant (hazard ratio 3.94, log-rank p = 0.0013). ESR1 mutations selected by prior hormone therapy are shown to be frequently sub clonal, with ESR1 ctDNA dynamics offering limited prediction of clinical outcome. These results suggest that early ctDNA dynamics may provide a robust biomarker for CDK4/6 inhibitors, with early ctDNA dynamics demonstrating divergent response of tumor sub clones to treatment.

  18. P18 tumor suppressor gene and progression of oligodendrogliomas to anaplasia.

    PubMed

    He, J; Hoang-Xuan, K; Marie, Y; Leuraud, P; Mokhtari, K; Kujas, M; Delattre, J Y; Sanson, M

    2000-09-26

    P18INK4C is a good candidate to be the tumor suppressor gene involved in oligodendrogliomas on 1p32. Loss of heterozygosity on 1p, mutation(s), homozygous deletion(s), and expression of p18 in 30 oligodendroglial tumors were investigated. Loss of heterozygosity on 1p was found in 15 tumors. A p18 mutation was found at an recurrence of an anaplastic oligodendroglioma, but not in the primary, low-grade tumor. No homozygous deletions were found and p18 was expressed in all cases. These results show that p18 alteration is involved in tumor progression in a subset of oligodendrogliomas.

  19. IL17 Promotes Mammary Tumor Progression by Changing the Behavior of Tumor Cells and Eliciting Tumorigenic Neutrophils Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Benevides, Luciana; da Fonseca, Denise Morais; Donate, Paula Barbim; Tiezzi, Daniel Guimarães; De Carvalho, Daniel D; de Andrade, Jurandyr M; Martins, Gislaine A; Silva, João S

    2015-09-15

    The aggressiveness of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast is associated with increased IL17 levels. Studying the role of IL17 in invasive breast tumor pathogenesis, we found that metastatic primary tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes produced elevated levels of IL17, whereas IL17 neutralization inhibited tumor growth and prevented the migration of neutrophils and tumor cells to secondary disease sites. Tumorigenic neutrophils promote disease progression, producing CXCL1, MMP9, VEGF, and TNFα, and their depletion suppressed tumor growth. IL17A also induced IL6 and CCL20 production in metastatic tumor cells, favoring the recruitment and differentiation of Th17. In addition, IL17A changed the gene-expression profile and the behavior of nonmetastatic tumor cells, causing tumor growth in vivo, confirming the protumor role of IL17. Furthermore, high IL17 expression was associated with lower disease-free survival and worse prognosis in IDC patients. Thus, IL17 blockade represents an attractive approach for the control of invasive breast tumors. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Growth hormone treatment and risk of recurrence or progression of brain tumors in children: a review.

    PubMed

    Bogarin, Roberto; Steinbok, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Brain tumors are one of the most common types of solid neoplasm in children. As life expectancy of these patients has increased with new and improved therapies, the morbidities associated with the treatments and the tumor itself have become more important. One of the most common morbidities is growth hormone deficiency, and since recombinant growth hormone (GH) became available, its use has increased exponentially. There is concern that in the population of children with brain tumors, GH treatment might increase the risk of tumor recurrence or progression or the appearance of a second neoplasm. In the light of this ongoing concern, the current literature has been reviewed to provide an update on the risk of tumor recurrence, tumor progression, or new intracranial tumor formation when GH is used to treat GH deficiency in children, who have had or have intracranial tumors. On the basis of this review, the authors conclude that the use of GH in patients with brain tumor is safe. GH therapy is not associated with an increased risk of central nervous system tumor progression or recurrence, leukemia (de novo or relapse), or extracranial non-leukemic neoplasms.

  1. Resveratrol inhibits uveal melanoma tumor growth via early mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, Paul R; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati R; Sareen, Dhruv; Subramanian, Lalita; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Lindstrom, Mary J; Albert, Daniel M; Polans, Arthur S

    2008-04-01

    To test the efficacy of resveratrol, a nontoxic plant product, in the treatment of uveal melanoma. The effect of oral administration and peritumor injection of resveratrol was tested on tumor growth in two animal models of uveal melanoma. The mechanism of resveratrol action on uveal melanoma cells was studied in vitro in a cell-viability assay: with JC-1 dye, to measure mitochondrial membrane potential; by Western blot analysis, to analyze the cellular redistribution of cytochrome c and Smac/diablo; and in a fluorescence assay with specific substrates, to measure activation of different caspases. Resveratrol treatment inhibited tumor growth in animal models of uveal melanoma. Since oral administration resulted in relatively low bioavailability of resveratrol, the effect of increased local levels was tested by peritumor injection of the drug. This method resulted in tumor cell death and tumor regression. In vitro experiments with multiple uveal melanoma cell lines demonstrate that resveratrol causes a decrease in cell viability, resulting at least in part from an increase in apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway. An early event in drug action is the direct targeting of mitochondria by resveratrol, which leads to a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the eventual activation of caspase-3. These data suggest that resveratrol can inhibit tumor growth and can induce apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and that by further increasing bioavailability of resveratrol the potency of the drug can be increased, leading to tumor regression. The nontoxic nature of the drug at levels needed for therapy make resveratrol an attractive candidate for the treatment of uveal melanoma.

  2. PlGF/VEGFR-1 Signaling Promotes Macrophage Polarization and Accelerated Tumor Progression in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Incio, Joao; Tam, Josh; Rahbari, Nuh N; Suboj, Priya; McManus, Dan T; Chin, Shan M; Vardam, Trupti D; Batista, Ana; Babykutty, Suboj; Jung, Keehoon; Khachatryan, Anna; Hato, Tai; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Krop, Ian E; Puchner, Stefan B; Schlett, Christopher L; Hoffmman, Udo; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Shibuya, Masabumi; Carmeliet, Peter; Soares, Raquel; Duda, Dan G; Jain, Rakesh K; Fukumura, Dai

    2016-06-15

    Obesity promotes pancreatic and breast cancer progression via mechanisms that are poorly understood. Although obesity is associated with increased systemic levels of placental growth factor (PlGF), the role of PlGF in obesity-induced tumor progression is not known. PlGF and its receptor VEGFR-1 have been shown to modulate tumor angiogenesis and promote tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) recruitment and activity. Here, we hypothesized that increased activity of PlGF/VEGFR-1 signaling mediates obesity-induced tumor progression by augmenting tumor angiogenesis and TAM recruitment/activity. We established diet-induced obese mouse models of wild-type C57BL/6, VEGFR-1 tyrosine kinase (TK)-null, or PlGF-null mice, and evaluated the role of PlGF/VEGFR-1 signaling in pancreatic and breast cancer mouse models and in human samples. We found that obesity increased TAM infiltration, tumor growth, and metastasis in pancreatic cancers, without affecting vessel density. Ablation of VEGFR-1 signaling prevented obesity-induced tumor progression and shifted the tumor immune environment toward an antitumor phenotype. Similar findings were observed in a breast cancer model. Obesity was associated with increased systemic PlGF, but not VEGF-A or VEGF-B, in pancreatic and breast cancer patients and in various mouse models of these cancers. Ablation of PlGF phenocopied the effects of VEGFR-1-TK deletion on tumors in obese mice. PlGF/VEGFR-1-TK deletion prevented weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet, but exacerbated hyperinsulinemia. Addition of metformin not only normalized insulin levels but also enhanced antitumor immunity. Targeting PlGF/VEGFR-1 signaling reprograms the tumor immune microenvironment and inhibits obesity-induced acceleration of tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res; 22(12); 2993-3004. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Folic Acid Supplementation Promotes Mammary Tumor Progression in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Deghan Manshadi, Shaidah; Ishiguro, Lisa; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Medline, Alan; Renlund, Richard; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation may prevent the development of cancer in normal tissues but may promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic lesions. However, whether or not folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic mammary lesions is unknown. This is a critically important issue because breast cancer patients and survivors in North America are likely exposed to high levels of folic acid owing to folic acid fortification and widespread supplemental use after cancer diagnosis. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established mammary tumors. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control diet and mammary tumors were initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene at puberty. When the sentinel tumor reached a predefined size, rats were randomized to receive a diet containing the control, 2.5x, 4x, or 5x supplemental levels of folic acid for up to 12 weeks. The sentinel mammary tumor growth was monitored weekly. At necropsy, the sentinel and all other mammary tumors were analyzed histologically. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the expression of proteins involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and mammary tumorigenesis was determined in representative sentinel adenocarcinomas. Although no clear dose-response relationship was observed, folic acid supplementation significantly promoted the progression of the sentinel mammary tumors and was associated with significantly higher sentinel mammary tumor weight and volume compared with the control diet. Furthermore, folic acid supplementation was associated with significantly higher weight and volume of all mammary tumors. The most significant and consistent mammary tumor-promoting effect was observed with the 2.5x supplemental level of folic acid. Folic acid supplementation was also associated with an increased expression of BAX, PARP, and HER2. Our data suggest that folic acid supplementation may promote the progression

  4. A 3-D model of tumor progression based on complex automata driven by particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wcisło, Rafał; Dzwinel, Witold; Yuen, David A; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z

    2009-12-01

    The dynamics of a growing tumor involving mechanical remodeling of healthy tissue and vasculature is neglected in most of the existing tumor models. This is due to the lack of efficient computational framework allowing for simulation of mechanical interactions. Meanwhile, just these interactions trigger critical changes in tumor growth dynamics and are responsible for its volumetric and directional progression. We describe here a novel 3-D model of tumor growth, which combines particle dynamics with cellular automata concept. The particles represent both tissue cells and fragments of the vascular network. They interact with their closest neighbors via semi-harmonic central forces simulating mechanical resistance of the cell walls. The particle dynamics is governed by both the Newtonian laws of motion and the cellular automata rules. These rules can represent cell life-cycle and other biological interactions involving smaller spatio-temporal scales. We show that our complex automata, particle based model can reproduce realistic 3-D dynamics of the entire system consisting of the tumor, normal tissue cells, blood vessels and blood flow. It can explain phenomena such as the inward cell motion in avascular tumor, stabilization of tumor growth by the external pressure, tumor vascularization due to the process of angiogenesis, trapping of healthy cells by invading tumor, and influence of external (boundary) conditions on the direction of tumor progression. We conclude that the particle model can serve as a general framework for designing advanced multiscale models of tumor dynamics and it is very competitive to the modeling approaches presented before.

  5. Radionuclide-fluorescence Reporter Gene Imaging to Track Tumor Progression in Rodent Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Alessia; Man, Francis; Lim, Lindsay; Khoshnevisan, Alex; Blower, Julia; Blower, Philip J.; Fruhwirth, Gilbert O.

    2018-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for most cancer deaths. Despite extensive research, the mechanistic understanding of the complex processes governing metastasis remains incomplete. In vivo models are paramount for metastasis research, but require refinement. Tracking spontaneous metastasis by non-invasive in vivo imaging is now possible, but remains challenging as it requires long-time observation and high sensitivity. We describe a longitudinal combined radionuclide and fluorescence whole-body in vivo imaging approach for tracking tumor progression and spontaneous metastasis. This reporter gene methodology employs the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) fused to a fluorescent protein (FP). Cancer cells are engineered to stably express NIS-FP followed by selection based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Corresponding tumor models are established in mice. NIS-FP expressing cancer cells are tracked non-invasively in vivo at the whole-body level by positron emission tomography (PET) using the NIS radiotracer [18F]BF4-. PET is currently the most sensitive in vivo imaging technology available at this scale and enables reliable and absolute quantification. Current methods either rely on large cohorts of animals that are euthanized for metastasis assessment at varying time points, or rely on barely quantifiable 2D imaging. The advantages of the described method are: (i) highly sensitive non-invasive in vivo 3D PET imaging and quantification, (ii) automated PET tracer production, (iii) a significant reduction in required animal numbers due to repeat imaging options, (iv) the acquisition of paired data from subsequent imaging sessions providing better statistical data, and (v) the intrinsic option for ex vivo confirmation of cancer cells in tissues by fluorescence microscopy or cytometry. In this protocol, we describe all steps required for routine NIS-FP-afforded non-invasive in vivo cancer cell tracking using PET/CT and ex vivo confirmation of in vivo results. This protocol has

  6. Accessing key steps of human tumor progression in vivo by using an avian embryo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Martin; Javerzat, Sophie; Gilges, Delphine; Meyre, Aurélie; de Lafarge, Benjamin; Eichmann, Anne; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Experimental in vivo tumor models are essential for comprehending the dynamic process of human cancer progression, identifying therapeutic targets, and evaluating antitumor drugs. However, current rodent models are limited by high costs, long experimental duration, variability, restricted accessibility to the tumor, and major ethical concerns. To avoid these shortcomings, we investigated whether tumor growth on the chick chorio-allantoic membrane after human glioblastoma cell grafting would replicate characteristics of the human disease. Avascular tumors consistently formed within 2 days, then progressed through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-dependent angiogenesis, associated with hemorrhage, necrosis, and peritumoral edema. Blocking of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathways by using small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors abrogated tumor development. Gene regulation during the angiogenic switch was analyzed by oligonucleotide microarrays. Defined sample selection for gene profiling permitted identification of regulated genes whose functions are associated mainly with tumor vascularization and growth. Furthermore, expression of known tumor progression genes identified in the screen (IL-6 and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61) as well as potential regulators (lumican and F-box-only 6) follow similar patterns in patient glioma. The model reliably simulates key features of human glioma growth in a few days and thus could considerably increase the speed and efficacy of research on human tumor progression and preclinical drug screening. angiogenesis | animal model alternatives | glioblastoma

  7. AIP1 expression in tumor niche suppresses tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Weidong; Li, Yonghao; He, Yun; Yin, Mingzhu; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Boggon, Titus J.; Zhang, Haifeng; Min, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Studies from tumor cells suggest that tumor suppressor AIP1 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of AIP1 in the tumor microenvironment has not been examined. We show that a global or vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific deletion of the AIP1 gene in mice augments tumor growth and metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer models. AIP1-deficient vascular environment not only enhances tumor neovascularization and increases pre-metastatic niche formation, but also secrets tumor EMT-promoting factors. These effects from AIP1 loss are associated with increased VEGFR2 signaling in the vascular EC and could be abrogated by systemic administration of VEGFR2 kinase inhibitors. Mechanistically, AIP1 blocks VEGFR2-dependent signaling by directly binding to the phosphotyrosine residues within the activation loop of VEGFR2. Our data reveal that AIP1, by inhibiting VEGFR2-dependent signaling in tumor niche, suppresses tumor EMT switch, tumor angiogenesis and tumor pre-metastatic niche formation to limit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26139244

  8. Analysis of MYB oncogene in transformed adenoid cystic carcinomas reveals distinct pathways of tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana F; Altemani, Albina; García-Inclán, Cristina; Fresno, Florentino; Suárez, Carlos; Llorente, José L; Hermsen, Mario

    2014-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas can occasionally undergo dedifferentiation, a phenomenon also referred to as high-grade transformation. However, cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas have been described showing transformation to adenocarcinomas that are not poorly differentiated, indicating that high-grade transformation may not necessarily reflect a more advanced stage of tumor progression, but rather a transformation to another histological form, which may encompass a wide spectrum of carcinomas in terms of aggressiveness. The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the biology of this pathological phenomenon by means of genetic profiling of both histological components. Using microarray comparative genomic hybridization, we compared the genome-wide DNA copy-number changes of the conventional and transformed area of eight adenoid cystic carcinomas with high-grade transformation, comprising four with transformation into moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas and four into poorly differentiated carcinomas. In general, the poorly differentiated carcinoma cases showed a higher total number of copy-number changes than the moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma cases, and this correlated with a worse clinical course. Special attention was given to chromosomal translocation and protein expression of MYB, recently being considered to be an early and major oncogenic event in adenoid cystic carcinomas. Our data showed that the process of high-grade transformation is not always accompanied by an accumulation of genetic alterations; both conventional and transformed components harbored unique genetic alterations, which indicate a parallel progression. Our data further demonstrated that the MYB/NFIB translocation is not necessarily an early event or fundamental for the progression to adenoid cystic carcinoma with high-grade transformation.

  9. Antiphospholipid antibodies promote tissue factor-dependent angiogenic switch and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; V Nguyen, Andrew; Wu, Xiao-Xuan; Loh, Mingyu; Vu, Michelle; Zou, Yiyu; Liu, Qiang; Guo, Peng; Wang, Yanhua; Montgomery, Leslie L; Orlofsky, Amos; Rand, Jacob H; Lin, Elaine Y

    2014-12-01

    Progression to an angiogenic state is a critical event in tumor development, yet few patient characteristics have been identified that can be mechanistically linked to this transition. Antiphospholipid autoantibodies (aPLs) are prevalent in many human cancers and can elicit proangiogenic expression in several cell types, but their role in tumor biology is unknown. Herein, we observed that the elevation of circulating aPLs among breast cancer patients is specifically associated with invasive-stage tumors. By using multiple in vivo models of breast cancer, we demonstrated that aPL-positive IgG from patients with autoimmune disease rapidly accelerates tumor angiogenesis and consequent tumor progression, particularly in slow-growing avascular tumors. The action of aPLs was local to the tumor site and elicited leukocytic infiltration and tumor invasion. Tumor cells treated with aPL-positive IgG expressed multiple proangiogenic genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue factor (TF), and colony-stimulating factor 1. Knockdown and neutralization studies demonstrated that the effects of aPLs on tumor angiogenesis and growth were dependent on tumor cell-derived TF. Tumor-derived TF was essential for the development of pericyte coverage of tumor microvessels and aPL-induced tumor cell expression of chemokine ligand 2, a mediator of pericyte recruitment. These findings identify antiphospholipid autoantibodies as a potential patient-specific host factor promoting the transition of indolent tumors to an angiogenic malignant state through a TF-mediated pathogenic mechanism. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamical observation on biological progression of VX2 liver tumors to identify the optimal time for intervention in animal models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguang; Yang, Guangjie; Nie, Pei; Fu, Junhua; Wang, Xufu; Liu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Based on practice guideline of "management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): update" published by American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and "Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system (BCLC)," this study investigated how to enroll the optimal VX2 liver tumor model for HCC researches by dynamically observing the biological progression of the tumor. Thirty-two healthy New Zealand white rabbits were implanted VX2 liver tumor by cell suspension method (n=24) and tissue fragment method (n=8). All the rabbits underwent CT scans on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after implantation to observe the size of the tumors, the time when metastases and ascites occurred and the survival time. Appropriate intervention times were estimated corresponding to different clinical HCC stages by using tumor diameter-time curve. The VX2 liver tumors grew rapidly within 28 days after implantation. And the tumors in the cell suspension group grew faster than those of the tissue fragment group. The appropriate intervention time corresponding to very early stage, early stage and intermediate stage were <11 days, 11-16.9 days and >16.9 days, respectively in the cell suspension group, and <19.9 days, 19.9-25.5 days and >25.5 days, respectively in the tissue fragment group. Preclinical animal research needs to improve on different levels to yield best predictions for human patients. Researchers should seek for an individualized proposal to select optimal VX2 liver tumor models for their experiments. This approach may lead to a more accurate determination of therapeutic outcomes.

  11. Intravital imaging reveals new ancillary mechanisms co-opted by cancer cells to drive tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Morghan C.; Timpson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Intravital imaging is providing new insights into the dynamics of tumor progression in native tissues and has started to reveal the layers of complexity found in cancer. Recent advances in intravital imaging have allowed us to look deeper into cancer behavior and to dissect the interactions between tumor cells and the ancillary host niche that promote cancer development. In this review, we provide an insight into the latest advances in cancer biology achieved by intravital imaging, focusing on recently discovered mechanisms by which tumor cells manipulate normal tissue to facilitate disease progression. PMID:27239290

  12. Long-term ex vivo and in vivo monitoring of tumor progression by using dual luciferases.

    PubMed

    Morita, Naoki; Haga, Sanae; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Michitaka

    2016-03-15

    We propose a new concept of tumor progression monitoring using dual luciferases in living animals to reduce stress for small animals and the cost of luciferin. The secreted Cypridina luciferase (CLuc) was used as an ex vivo indicator to continuously monitor tumor progression. On the other hand, the non-secreted firefly luciferase was used as an in vivo indicator to analyze the spatial distribution of the tumor at suitable time points indicated by CLuc. Thus, the new monitoring systems that use dual luciferases are available, allowing long-term bioluminescence imaging under minimal stress for the experimental animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contrasting breast cancer molecular subtypes across serial tumor progression stages: biological and prognostic implications

    PubMed Central

    Kimbung, Siker; Kovács, Anikó; Danielsson, Anna; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Lövgren, Kristina; Stolt, Marianne Frostvik; Tobin, Nicholas P.; Lindström, Linda; Bergh, Jonas; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Fernö, Mårten; Hatschek, Thomas; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the intrinsic subtypes for clinical management of metastatic breast cancer is not comprehensively established. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of drifts in tumor molecular subtypes during breast cancer progression. A well-annotated cohort of 304 women with advanced breast cancer was studied. Tissue microarrays of primary tumors and synchronous lymph node metastases were constructed. Conventional biomarkers were centrally assessed and molecular subtypes were assigned following the 2013 St Gallen guidelines. Fine-needle aspirates of asynchronous metastases were transcriptionally profiled and subtyped using PAM50. Discordant expression of individual biomarkers and molecular subtypes was observed during tumor progression. Primary luminal-like tumors were relatively unstable, frequently adopting a more aggressive subtype in the metastases. Notably, loss of ER expression and a luminal to non-luminal subtype conversion was associated with an inferior post-recurrence survival. In addition, ER and molecular subtype assessed at all tumor progression stages were independent prognostic factors for post-recurrence breast cancer mortality in multivariable analyses. Our results demonstrate that drifts in tumor molecular subtypes may occur during tumor progression, conferring adverse consequences on outcome following breast cancer relapse. PMID:26375671

  14. Intracranial solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas: first report of malignant progression.

    PubMed

    Apra, Caroline; Mokhtari, Karima; Cornu, Philippe; Peyre, Matthieu; Kalamarides, Michel

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Meningeal solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas (MSFTs/HPCs) are rare intracranial tumors resembling meningiomas. Their classification was redefined in 2016 by the World Health Organization (WHO) as benign Grade I fibrohyaline type, intermediate Grade II hypercellular type, and malignant highly mitotic Grade III. This grouping is based on common histological features and identification of a common NAB2-STAT6 fusion. METHODS The authors retrospectively identified 49 cases of MSFT/HPC. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records, and all cases were analyzed according to this new 2016 WHO grading classification in order to identify malignant transformations. RESULTS Recurrent surgery was performed in 18 (37%) of 49 patients. Malignant progression was identified in 5 (28%) of these 18 cases, with 3 Grade I and 2 Grade II tumors progressing to Grade III, 3-13 years after the initial surgery. Of 31 Grade III tumors treated in this case series, 16% (5/31) were proved to be malignant progressions from lower-grade tumors. CONCLUSIONS Low-grade MSFTs/HPCs can transform into higher grades as shown in this first report of such progression. This is a decisive argument in favor of a common identity for MSFT and meningeal HPC. High-grade MSFTs/HPCs tend to recur more often and be associated with reduced overall survival. Malignant progression could be one mechanism explaining some recurrences or metastases, and justifying long-term follow-up, even for patients with Grade I tumors.

  15. [Progress in diagnosis and treatment of adrenal metastases tumor].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chu-jun; Qiu, Min; Ma, Lu-lin

    2015-08-18

    The adrenal gland is a common site of metastases, only second to pulmonary, liver and bone. The prevalence of adrenal metastases in patients with a history of cancer is between 10%-25%.The most common sites of origin are cancers of the lung, kidney, breast, gastrointestinal tract, and skin (melanoma).The mainstays of adrenal metastases diagnosis are computerized tomogramphy (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomogramphy (PET). All patients should undergo complete hormonal evaluation to rule out functional adrenal tumors. Adrenal biopsy should be reserved for cases in which the results of non-invasive techniques are equivocal. In patients with isolated adrenal metastases, adrenalectomy is recommended, because of improved overall survival. For the patient with unresectable adrenal metastases tumor, radiotherapy and ablative therapy are feasible and useful methods for controlling adrenal metastases and offer patients opportunities for improved survival.

  16. CXCR6: the role of environment in tumor progression. Challenges for therapy.

    PubMed

    La Porta, Caterina A M

    2012-12-01

    The role of chemokines in tumor progression is an essential event that leads to homing and metastasis of tumor cells in a receptor-dependent, organ specific manner. In recent years, the involvement of CXCR6 and its ligand CXCL16 in tumor progression is becoming more evident. Here I review the recent literature on CXCR6/CXCL16. Since CXCR6 was shown recently to be involved in stem cell self renewal and the same cytokine is expressed by a subpopulation of melanoma cells, I discuss new evidences on cancer stem cell theory and the involvement of CXCR6. In particular, in the effort to develop more specific strategies to stop the tumor growth, the present review proposes and discusses the possibility to modulate tumor self renewal affecting asymmetric/symmetric cell division targeting specific factors such as CXCR6.

  17. Composite implants coated with biodegradable polymers prevent stimulating tumor progression

    SciTech Connect

    Litviakov, N. V., E-mail: nvlitv72@yandex.ru; Tsyganov, M. M., E-mail: TsyganovMM@yandex.ru; Cherdyntseva, N. V., E-mail: nvch@oncology.tomsk.ru

    In this experiment we studied oncologic safety of model implants created using the solution blow spinning method with the use of the PURASORB PL-38 polylactic acid polymer and organic mineral filler which was obtained via laser ablation of a solid target made of dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate. For this purpose the implant was introduced into the area of Wistar rats’ iliums, and on day 17 after the surgery the Walker sarcoma was transplanted into the area of the implant. We evaluated the implant’s influence on the primary tumor growth, hematogenous and lymphogenous metastasis of the Walker sarcoma. In comparison withmore » sham operated animals the implant group demonstrated significant inhibition of hematogenous metastasis on day 34 after the surgery. The metastasis inhibition index (MII) equaled 94% and the metastases growth inhibition index (MGII) equaled 83%. The metastasis frequency of the Walker sarcoma in para aortic lymph nodes in the implant group was not statistically different from the control frequency; there was also no influence of the implant on the primary tumor growth noted. In case of the Walker sarcoma transplantation into the calf and the palmar pad of the ipsilateral limb to the one with the implant in the ilium, we could not note any attraction of tumor cells to the implant area, i.e. stimulation of the Walker sarcoma relapse by the implant. Thus, the research concluded that the studied implant meets the requirements of oncologic safety.« less

  18. Study Protocol: Early Stereotactic Gamma Knife Radiosurgery to Residual Tumor After Surgery of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma (Gamma-GBM).

    PubMed

    Brehmer, Stefanie; Grimm, Mario Alexander; Förster, Alex; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Welzel, Grit; Stieler, Florian; Wenz, Frederik; Groden, Christoph; Mai, Sabine; Hänggi, Daniel; Giordano, Frank Anton

    2018-04-24

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adult patients. Tumor recurrence commonly occurs around the resection cavity, especially after subtotal resection (STR). Consequently, the extent of resection correlates with overall survival (OS), suggesting that depletion of postoperative tumor remnants will improve outcome. To assess safety and efficacy of adding stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the standard treatment of GBM in patients with postoperative residual tumor. Gamma-GBM is a single center, open-label, prospective, single arm, phase II study that includes patients with newly diagnosed GBM (intraoperative via frozen sections) who underwent STR (residual tumor will be identified by native and contrast enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans). All patients will receive SRS with 15 Gy (prescribed to the 50% isodose enclosing all areas of residual tumor) early (within 24-72 h) after surgery. Thereafter, all patients undergo standard-of-care therapy for GBM (radiochemotherapy with 60 Gy external beam radiotherapy [EBRT] plus concomitant temozolomide and 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy). The primary outcome is median progression-free survival, secondary outcomes are median OS, occurrence of radiation induced acute (<3 wk), early delayed (<3 mo), and late (>3 mo post-SRS) neurotoxicity and incidence of symptomatic radionecrosis. We expect to detect efficacy and safety signals by the immediate application of SRS to standard-of-care therapy in newly diagnosed GBM. Early postoperative SRS to areas of residual tumor could bridge the therapeutic gap between surgery and adjuvant therapies.

  19. A Ketogenic Formula Prevents Tumor Progression and Cancer Cachexia by Attenuating Systemic Inflammation in Colon 26 Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tonouchi, Hidekazu; Sasayama, Akina

    2018-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (ketogenic diets) might prevent tumor progression and could be used as supportive therapy; however, few studies have addressed the effect of such diets on colorectal cancer. An infant formula with a ketogenic composition (ketogenic formula; KF) is used to treat patients with refractory epilepsy. We investigated the effect of KF on cancer and cancer cachexia in colon tumor-bearing mice. Mice were randomized into normal (NR), tumor-bearing (TB), and ketogenic formula (KF) groups. Colon 26 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into TB and KF mice. The NR and TB groups received a standard diet, and the KF mice received KF ad libitum. KF mice preserved their body, muscle, and carcass weights. Tumor weight and plasma IL-6 levels were significantly lower in KF mice than in TB mice. In the KF group, energy intake was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. Blood ketone body concentrations in KF mice were significantly elevated, and there was a significant negative correlation between blood ketone body concentration and tumor weight. Therefore, KF may suppress the progression of cancer and the accompanying systemic inflammation without adverse effects on weight gain, or muscle mass, which might help to prevent cancer cachexia. PMID:29443873

  20. Bone marrow-derived CD13+ cells sustain tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Non-malignant cells found within neoplastic lesions express alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP, best known as CD13), and CD13-null mice exhibit limited tumor growth and angiogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that a subset of bone marrow-derived CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells accumulate within neoplastic lesions in several murine models of transplantable cancer to promote angiogenesis. If these findings were confirmed in clinical settings, CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells could become a non-malignant target for the development of novel anticancer regimens. PMID:25339996

  1. Role of NuSAP in Prostate Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    12: R64. 14 Amemiya H, Menolascino F, Pena A. Role of the expression of c-Met receptor in the progression of gastric cancer. Invest Clin 2010; 51: 369... histopathologic effects and biochemical recurrence. Urology 2004; 63: 1184 - 1190. 25 Monge M, Colas E, Doll A, Gil-Moreno A, Castellvi J, Diaz B et al...protein 6, a proliferation marker superior to Ki-67 and independent predictor of survival in patients with mantle cell lymphoma . Br J Cancer 2005; 93

  2. Nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy: Progress and challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    Chemical imprints left by the first stars in the oldest stars of the Milky Way gives clues of the stellar nucleosynthesis responsible for the creation of elements heavier than iron. Recent progress in astronomical observations and in the modeling of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy have shown that multiple nucleosynthesis processes may operate at those early times. In this talk I will review some of that evidence along with the important role that nuclear reactions play in those processes. I will focus in progress in our understanding of the rapid neutron capture process (r-process) and in new results on nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and neutrino-driven winds that produce elements up to silver. I will show some examples of recent nuclear physics measurements addressing the need for better nuclear data and give an outlook of the remaining challenges and future plans to continue those measurements.

  3. Targeting galectin-1 inhibits pancreatic cancer progression by modulating tumor-stroma crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Carlos A; Martinez-Bosch, Neus; Guerrero, Pedro E; Vinaixa, Judith; Dalotto-Moreno, Tomás; Iglesias, Mar; Moreno, Mireia; Djurec, Magdolna; Poirier, Françoise; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Hwang, Rosa F; Guerra, Carmen; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Navarro, Pilar

    2018-04-17

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains one of the most lethal tumor types, with extremely low survival rates due to late diagnosis and resistance to standard therapies. A more comprehensive understanding of the complexity of PDA pathobiology, and especially of the role of the tumor microenvironment in disease progression, should pave the way for therapies to improve patient response rates. In this study, we identify galectin-1 (Gal1), a glycan-binding protein that is highly overexpressed in PDA stroma, as a major driver of pancreatic cancer progression. Genetic deletion of Gal1 in a Kras -driven mouse model of PDA ( Ela-Kras G12V p53 -/- ) results in a significant increase in survival through mechanisms involving decreased stroma activation, attenuated vascularization, and enhanced T cell infiltration leading to diminished metastasis rates. In a human setting, human pancreatic stellate cells (HPSCs) promote cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion via Gal1-driven pathways. Moreover, in vivo orthotopic coinjection of pancreatic tumor cells with Gal1-depleted HPSCs leads to impaired tumor formation and metastasis in mice. Gene-expression analyses of pancreatic tumor cells exposed to Gal1 reveal modulation of multiple regulatory pathways involved in tumor progression. Thus, Gal1 hierarchically regulates different events implicated in PDA biology including tumor cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis, highlighting the broad therapeutic potential of Gal1-specific inhibitors, either alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  4. White Adipose Tissue Cells Are Recruited by Experimental Tumors and Promote Cancer Progression in Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Daquinag, Alexes; Traktuev, Dmitry O.; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Simmons, Paul J.; March, Keith L.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2010-01-01

    The connection between obesity and accelerated cancer progression has been established, but the mediating mechanisms are not well understood. We have shown that stromal cells from white adipose tissue (WAT) cooperate with the endothelium to promote blood vessel formation through the secretion of soluble trophic factors. Here, we hypothesize that WAT directly mediates cancer progression by serving as a source of cells that migrate to tumors and promote neovascularization. To test this hypothesis, we have evaluated the recruitment of WAT-derived cells by tumors and the effect of their engraftment on tumor growth by integrating a transgenic mouse strain engineered for expansion of traceable cells with established allograft and xenograft cancer models. Our studies show that entry of adipose stromal and endothelial cells into systemic circulation leads to their homing to and engraftment into tumor stroma and vasculature, respectively. We show that recruitment of adipose stromal cells by tumors is sufficient to promote tumor growth. Finally, we show that migration of stromal and vascular progenitor cells from WAT grafts to tumors is also associated with acceleration of cancer progression. These results provide a biological insight for the clinical association between obesity and cancer, thus outlining potential avenues for preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19491274

  5. Bi-directional signaling: Extracellular Matrix and Integrin Regulation of Breast Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Gehler, Scott; Ponik, Suzanne M.; Riching, Kristin M; Keely, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Cell transformation and tumor progression involves a common set of acquired capabilities, including increased proliferation, failure of cell death, self-sufficiency in growth, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion and metastasis (1). The stromal environment consists of many cell types, including fibroblasts, macrophages, and endothelial cells, in addition to various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that function to support normal tissue maintenance, but have also been implicated in tumor progression (2). Both the chemical and mechanical properties of the ECM have been shown to influence normal and malignant cell behavior. For instance, mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into specific lineages that are dependent on matrix stiffness (3), while tumor cells undergo changes in cell behavior and gene expression in response to matrix stiffness (4). ECM remodeling is implicated in tumor progression and includes changes in both the chemical and mechanical properties of the ECM (5) that can be a result of 1.) increased deposition of stromal ECM, 2.) enhanced contraction of ECM fibrils, and 3.) altered collagen alignment and ECM stiffness. In addition, remodeling of the ECM may alter whether tumor cells employ proteolytic degradation mechanisms during invasion and metastasis. Tumor cells respond to such changes in ECM remodeling through altered intracellular signaling and cell cycle control that lead to enhanced proliferation, loss of normal tissue architecture, and local tumor cell migration and invasion into the surrounding stromal tissue (6). This review will focus on the bi-directional interplay between the mechanical properties of the ECM and changes in integrin-mediated signal transduction events in an effort to elucidate cell behaviors during tumor progression. PMID:23582036

  6. Estrogen receptor signaling in prostate cancer: Implications for carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bonkhoff, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the classical target for prostate cancer prevention and treatment, but more recently estrogens and their receptors have also been implicated in prostate cancer development and tumor progression. Recent experimental and clinical data were reviewed to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms how estrogens and their receptors may affect prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is the most prevalent ER in the human prostate, while the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is restricted to basal cells of the prostatic epithelium and stromal cells. In high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the ERα is up-regulated and most likely mediates carcinogenic effects of estradiol as demonstrated in animal models. The partial loss of the ERβ in HGPIN indicates that the ERβ acts as a tumor suppressor. The tumor promoting function of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, a major driver of prostate carcinogenesis, is triggered by the ERα and repressed by the ERβ. The ERβ is generally retained in hormone naïve and metastatic prostate cancer, but is partially lost in castration resistant disease. The progressive emergence of the ERα and ERα-regulated genes (eg, progesterone receptor (PR), PS2, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, and NEAT1) during prostate cancer progression and hormone refractory disease suggests that these tumors can bypass the AR by using estrogens and progestins for their growth. In addition, nongenomic estrogen signaling pathways mediated by orphan receptors (eg, GPR30 and ERRα) has also been implicated in prostate cancer progression. Increasing evidences demonstrate that local estrogen signaling mechanisms are required for prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Despite the recent progress in this research topic, the translation of the current information into potential therapeutic applications remains highly challenging and clearly warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. p53 regulates cytoskeleton remodeling to suppress tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Araki, Keigo; Ebata, Takahiro; Guo, Alvin Kunyao; Tobiume, Kei; Wolf, Steven John; Kawauchi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cells possess unique characteristics such as invasiveness, the ability to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and an inherent stemness. Cell morphology is altered during these processes and this is highly dependent on actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is, therefore, important for determination of cell fate. Mutations within the TP53 (tumor suppressor p53) gene leading to loss or gain of function (GOF) of the protein are often observed in aggressive cancer cells. Here, we highlight the roles of p53 and its GOF mutants in cancer cell invasion from the perspective of the actin cytoskeleton; in particular its reorganization and regulation by cell adhesion molecules such as integrins and cadherins. We emphasize the multiple functions of p53 in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling in response to the extracellular microenvironment, and oncogene activation. Such an approach provides a new perspective in the consideration of novel targets for anti-cancer therapy.

  8. Tumor Microenvironment, a Paradigm in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasebi Birgani, Maryam; Carloni, Vinicio

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Different etiological factors such as hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol and diabetes cause liver injury followed by inflammation, necrosis and hepatocytes proliferation. Continuous cycles of this destructive–regenerative process culminates in liver cirrhosis which is characterized by regenerating nodules that progress to dysplastic nodules and ultimately HCC. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms, and there are only limited therapeutic options. Therefore, the study of the involved molecular mechanisms can open a new insight to define more effective treatment strategies. A variety of alterations have been reported in HCC patients, particularly the cancer-associated microenvironment components including immune cells, fibroblast cells, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix can support the neoplastic cells to proliferate, growth and invade. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and highlights the principal challenges that are relevant to controlling this milieu. PMID:28216578

  9. S100A8/A9 activate key genes and pathways in colon tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Mie; Williams, Roy; Wang, Ling; Vogl, Thomas; Srikrishna, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in modulating tumor progression. We earlier showed that S100A8/A9 proteins secreted by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) present within tumors and metastatic sites promote an autocrine pathway for accumulation of MDSC. In a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer, we also showed that S100A8/A9 positive cells accumulate in all regions of dysplasia and adenoma. Here we present evidence that S100A8/A9 interact with RAGE and carboxylated glycans on colon tumor cells and promote activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Comparison of gene expression profiles of S100A8/A9-activated colon tumor cells versus unactivated cells led us to identify a small cohort of genes upregulated in activated cells, including Cxcl1, Ccl5 and Ccl7, Slc39a10, Lcn2, Zc3h12a, Enpp2 and other genes, whose products promote leukocyte recruitment, angiogenesis, tumor migration, wound healing, and formation of premetastatic niches in distal metastatic organs. Consistent with this observation, in murine colon tumor models we found that chemokines were up-regulated in tumors, and elevated in sera of tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Mice lacking S100A9 showed significantly reduced tumor incidence, growth and metastasis, reduced chemokine levels, and reduced infiltration of CD11b+Gr1+ cells within tumors and premetastatic organs. Studies using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that S100A8/A9 expression on myeloid cells is essential for development of colon tumors. Our results thus reveal a novel role for myeloid-derived S100A8/A9 in activating specific downstream genes associated with tumorigenesis and in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:21228116

  10. Doxycycline directly targets PAR1 to suppress tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuan; Gu, Ju; Sun, Bo; Liu, Yanrong; Jing, Xiangyan; Hu, Xuejiao; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Honggang; Sun, Tao; Yang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Doxycycline have been reported to exert anti-cancer activity and have been assessed as anti-cancer agents in clinical trials. However, the direct targets of doxycycline in cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, we used a chemical proteomics approach to identify the Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) as a specific target of inhibition of doxycycline. Binding assays and single-molecule imaging assays were performed to confirm the inhibition of doxycycline to PAR1. The effect of doxycycline on multi-omics and cell functions were assessed based on a PAR1/thrombin model. Molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations revealed that doxycycline interacts with key amino acids in PAR1. Mutation of PAR1 further confirmed the computation-based results. Moreover, doxycycline provides highly selective inhibition of PAR1 signaling in tumors in vitro and in vivo. Using pathological clinical samples co-stained for doxycycline and PAR1, it was found that doxycycline fluorescence intensity and PAR1 expression shown a clear positive correlation. Thus, doxycycline may be a useful targeted anti-cancer drug that should be further investigated in clinical trials. PMID:28187433

  11. Doxycycline directly targets PAR1 to suppress tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weilong; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Ting; Qin, Yuan; Gu, Ju; Sun, Bo; Liu, Yanrong; Jing, Xiangyan; Hu, Xuejiao; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Honggang; Sun, Tao; Yang, Cheng

    2017-03-07

    Doxycycline have been reported to exert anti-cancer activity and have been assessed as anti-cancer agents in clinical trials. However, the direct targets of doxycycline in cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, we used a chemical proteomics approach to identify the Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) as a specific target of inhibition of doxycycline. Binding assays and single-molecule imaging assays were performed to confirm the inhibition of doxycycline to PAR1. The effect of doxycycline on multi-omics and cell functions were assessed based on a PAR1/thrombin model. Molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations revealed that doxycycline interacts with key amino acids in PAR1. Mutation of PAR1 further confirmed the computation-based results. Moreover, doxycycline provides highly selective inhibition of PAR1 signaling in tumors in vitro and in vivo. Using pathological clinical samples co-stained for doxycycline and PAR1, it was found that doxycycline fluorescence intensity and PAR1 expression shown a clear positive correlation. Thus, doxycycline may be a useful targeted anti-cancer drug that should be further investigated in clinical trials.

  12. Contribution of galectin-1, a glycan-binding protein, to gastrointestinal tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bacigalupo, María L; Carabias, Pablo; Troncoso, María F

    2017-08-07

    Gastrointestinal cancer is a group of tumors that affect multiple sites of the digestive system, including the stomach, liver, colon and pancreas. These cancers are very aggressive and rapidly metastasize, thus identifying effective targets is crucial for treatment. Galectin-1 (Gal-1) belongs to a family of glycan-binding proteins, or lectins, with the ability to cross-link specific glycoconjugates. A variety of biological activities have been attributed to Gal-1 at different steps of tumor progression. Herein, we summarize the current literature regarding the roles of Gal-1 in gastrointestinal malignancies. Accumulating evidence shows that Gal-1 is drastically up-regulated in human gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues, both in tumor epithelial and tumor-associated stromal cells. Moreover, Gal-1 makes a crucial contribution to the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal malignancies, favoring tumor development, aggressiveness, metastasis, immunosuppression and angiogenesis. We also highlight that alterations in Gal-1-specific glycoepitopes may be relevant for gastrointestinal cancer progression. Despite the findings obtained so far, further functional studies are still required. Elucidating the precise molecular mechanisms modulated by Gal-1 underlying gastrointestinal tumor progression, might lead to the development of novel Gal-1-based diagnostic methods and/or therapies.

  13. The role of Fas ligand and transforming growth factor beta in tumor progression: molecular mechanisms of immune privilege via Fas-mediated apoptosis and potential targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ryungsa; Emi, Manabu; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Uchida, Yoko; Toge, Tetsuya

    2004-06-01

    Despite the fact that expression of Fas ligand (FasL) in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and in natural killer (NK) cells plays an important role in Fas-mediated tumor killing, During tumor progression FasL-expressing tumor cells are involved in counterattacking to kill tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Soluble FasL levels also increase with tumor progression in solid tumors, and this increase inhibits Fas-mediated tumor killing by CTLs and NK cells. The increased expression of FasL in tumor cells is associated with decreased expression of Fas; and the promoter region of the FASL gene is regulated by transcription factors, such as neuronal factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and AP-1, in the tumor microenvironment. Although the ratio of FasL expression to Fas expression in tumor cells is not strongly related to the induction of apoptosis in TILs, increased expression of FasL is associated with decreased Fas levels in tumor cells that can escape immune surveillance and facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a potent growth inhibitor and has tumor-suppressing activity in the early phases of carcinogenesis. During subsequent tumor progression, the increased secretion of TGF-beta by both tumor cells and, in a paracrine fashion, stromal cells, is involved in the enhancement of tumor invasion and metastasis accompanied by immunosuppression. Herein, the authors review the clinical significance of FasL and TGF-beta expression patterns as features of immune privilege accompanying tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment. Potential strategies for identifying which molecules can serve as targets for effective antitumor therapy also are discussed. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  14. A PDE approach for quantifying and visualizing tumor progression and regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintay, Benjamin J.; Bourland, J. Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of changes in tumor shape and size allows physicians the ability to determine the effectiveness of various treatment options, adapt treatment, predict outcome, and map potential problem sites. Conventional methods are often based on metrics such as volume, diameter, or maximum cross sectional area. This work seeks to improve the visualization and analysis of tumor changes by simultaneously analyzing changes in the entire tumor volume. This method utilizes an elliptic partial differential equation (PDE) to provide a roadmap of boundary displacement that does not suffer from the discontinuities associated with other measures such as Euclidean distance. Streamline pathways defined by Laplace's equation (a commonly used PDE) are used to track tumor progression and regression at the tumor boundary. Laplace's equation is particularly useful because it provides a smooth, continuous solution that can be evaluated with sub-pixel precision on variable grid sizes. Several metrics are demonstrated including maximum, average, and total regression and progression. This method provides many advantages over conventional means of quantifying change in tumor shape because it is observer independent, stable for highly unusual geometries, and provides an analysis of the entire three-dimensional tumor volume.

  15. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in tumor growth and progression: Lessons learned from pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Tilan, Jason; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter with pleiotropic actions, many of which are highly relevant to tumor biology. Consequently, the peptide has been implicated as a factor regulating the growth of a variety of tumors. Among them, two pediatric malignancies with high endogenous NPY synthesis and release - neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma - became excellent models to investigate the role of NPY in tumor growth and progression. The stimulatory effect on tumor cell proliferation, survival, and migration, as well as angiogenesis in these tumors, is mediated by two NPY receptors, Y2R and Y5R, which are expressed in either a constitutive or inducible manner. Of particular importance are interactions of the NPY system with the tumor microenvironment, as hypoxic conditions commonly occurring in solid tumors strongly activate the NPY/Y2R/Y5R axis. This activation is triggered by hypoxia-induced up-regulation of Y2R/Y5R expression and stimulation of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), which converts NPY to a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist, NPY(3-36). While previous studies focused mainly on the effects of NPY on tumor growth and vascularization, they also provided insight into the potential role of the peptide in tumor progression into a metastatic and chemoresistant phenotype. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of NPY in neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma and its interactions with the tumor microenvironment in the context of findings in other malignancies, as well as discusses future directions and potential clinical implications of these discoveries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How Numbers, Nature, and Immune Status of Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cells Shape the Early Immunological Events in Tumor Development

    PubMed Central

    Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume; Podsypanina, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The influence of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) on cancer progression has been demonstrated in a large number of preclinical models and confirmed in several types of malignancies. Neoplastic processes trigger an increase of Treg numbers in draining lymph nodes, spleen, blood, and tumors, leading to the suppression of anti-tumor responses. Treg-depletion before or early in tumor development may lead to complete tumor eradication and extends survival of mice and humans. However this strategy is ineffective in established tumors, highlighting the critical role of the early Treg-tumor encounters. In this review, after discussing old and new concepts of immunological tumor tolerance, we focus on the nature (thymus-derived vs. peripherally derived) and status (naïve or activated/memory) of the regulatory T-cells at tumor emergence. The recent discoveries in this field suggest that the activation status of Tregs and effector T-cells (Teffs) at the first encounter with the tumor are essential to shape the fate and speed of the immune response across a variety of tumor models. The relative timing of activation/recruitment of anti-tumor cells vs. tolerogenic cells at tumor emergence appears to be crucial in the identification of tumor cells as friend or foe, which has broad implications for the design of cancer immunotherapies. PMID:24133490

  17. Bisected, complex N-glycans and galectins in mouse mammary tumor progression and human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Hazuki E; Koba, Wade R; Fine, Eugene J; Giricz, Orsi; Kenny, Paraic A; Stanley, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Bisected, complex N-glycans on glycoproteins are generated by the glycosyltransferase MGAT3 and cause reduced cell surface binding of galectins. Previously, we showed that MGAT3 reduces growth factor signaling and retards mammary tumor progression driven by the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) expressed in mammary epithelium under the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. However, the penetrance of the tumor phenotype became variable in mixed FVB/N and C57BL/6 female mice and we therefore investigated a congenic C57BL/6 Mgat3−/−/MMTV-PyMT model. In the absence of MGAT3, C57BL/6 Mgat3−/−/MMTV-PyMT females exhibited accelerated tumor appearance and increased tumor burden, glucose uptake in tumors and lung metastasis. Nevertheless, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or protein kinase B (AKT) was reduced in ∼20-week C57BL/6 MMTV-PyMT tumors lacking MGAT3. Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), protein tyrosine kinase Src, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were similar to that of controls. All the eight mouse galectin genes were expressed in mammary tumors and tumor epithelial cells (TECs), but galectin-2 and -12 were not detected by western analysis in tumors, and galectin-7 was not detected in 60% of the TEC lines. From microarray data reported for human breast cancers, at least 10 galectin and 7 N-glycan N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc)-transferase (MGAT) genes are expressed in tumor tissue, and expression often varies significantly between different breast cancer subtypes. Thus, in summary, while MGAT3 and bisected complex N-glycans retard mouse mammary tumor progression, genetic background may modify this effect; identification of key galectins that promote mammary tumor progression in mice is not straightforward because all the eight galectin genes are expressed; and high levels of MGAT3, galectin-4, -8, -10, -13 and -14 transcripts correlate with better relapse-free survival in human breast cancer. PMID:24037315

  18. Synergistic Action of FOXP3 and TSC1 Pathways During Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    invasive carcinoma and, ultimately, metastatic disease [1-3]. Mouse models of PIN (mPIN) generated by a single- mutant gene in prostate do not progress...downstream target) is sufficient to significantly reduce the initiation of prostate cancer in the Pten conditional knockout mouse model [19-21...the possibility that these two genetic hits cooperate to promote tumor progression, and mouse models show that this cooperation accelerates

  19. Early intranasal insulin therapy halts progression of neurodegeneration: progress in Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

    PubMed

    de la Monte, Suzanne M

    Evaluation of Craft S, Baker LD, Montine TJ, Minoshima S, Watson GS, Claxton A, et al. Intranasal Insulin Therapy for Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Clinical Trial. Arch Neurol . 2011 Sep 12. Alzheimer's disease is associated with brain insulin deficiency and insulin resistance, similar to the problems in diabetes. If insulin could be supplied to the brain in the early stages of Alzheimer's, subsequent neurodegeneration might be prevented. Administering systemic insulin to elderly non-diabetics poses unacceptable risks of inadvertant hypoglycemia. However, intranasal delivery directs the insulin into the brain, avoiding systemic side-effects. This pilot study demonstrates both efficacy and safety of using intranasal insulin to treat early Alzheimer's and mild cognitive impairment, i.e. the precursor to Alzheimer's. Significant improvements in learning, memory, and cognition occured within a few months, but without intranasal insulin, brain function continued to deteriorate in measurable degrees. Intranasal insulin therapy holds promise for halting progression of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Carbidopa abrogates L-dopa decarboxylase coactivation of the androgen receptor and delays prostate tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Latif A; Cheng, Helen; Plaa, Nathan; Ghaidi, Fariba; Fukumoto, Takahiro; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin E; Cox, Michael E; Rennie, Paul S

    2012-06-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in prostate cancer progression to the castration-resistant (CR) lethal state. L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) is an AR coactivator that increases in expression with disease progression and is coexpressed with the receptor in prostate adenocarcinoma cells, where it may enhance AR activity. Here, we hypothesize that the DDC enzymatic inhibitor, carbidopa, can suppress DDC-coactivation of AR and retard prostate tumor growth. Treating LNCaP prostate cancer cells with carbidopa in transcriptional assays suppressed the enhanced AR transactivation seen with DDC overexpression and decreased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA levels. Carbidopa dose-dependently inhibited cell growth and decreased survival in LNCaP cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. The inhibitory effect of carbidopa on DDC-coactivation of AR and cell growth/survival was also observed in PC3 prostate cancer cells (stably expressing AR). In vivo studies demonstrated that serum PSA velocity and tumor growth rates elevated ∼2-fold in LNCaP xenografts, inducibly overexpressing DDC, were reverted to control levels with carbidopa administration. In castrated mice, treating LNCaP tumors, expressing endogenous DDC, with carbidopa delayed progression to the CR state from 6 to 10 weeks, while serum PSA and tumor growth decreased 4.3-fold and 5.4-fold, respectively. Our study is a first time demonstration that carbidopa can abrogate DDC-coactivation of AR in prostate cancer cells and tumors, decrease serum PSA, reduce tumor growth and delay CR progression. Since carbidopa is clinically approved, it may be readily used as a novel therapeutic strategy to suppress aberrant AR activity and delay prostate cancer progression. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  1. AZU-1: A Candidate Breast Tumor Suppressor and Biomarker for Tumor Progression

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Schmeichel, Karen L; Mian, I. Saira

    2000-02-04

    To identify genes misregulated in the final stages of breast carcinogenesis, we performed differential display to compare the gene expression patterns of the human tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells, HMT-3522-T4-2, with those of their immediate premalignant progenitors, HMT-3522-S2. We identified a novel gene, called anti-zuai-1 (AZU-1), that was abundantly expressed in non- and premalignant cells and tissues but was appreciably reduced in breast tumor cell types and in primary tumors. The AZU-1 gene encodes an acidic 571-amino-acid protein containing at least two structurally distinct domains with potential protein-binding functions: an N-terminal serine and proline-rich domain with a predicted immunoglobulin-like fold andmore » a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. In HMT-3522 cells, the bulk of AZU-1 protein resided in a detergent-extractable cytoplasmic pool and was present at much lower levels in tumorigenic T4-2 cells than in their nonmalignant counterparts. Reversion of the tumorigenic phenotype of T4-2 cells, by means described previously, was accompanied by the up-regulation of AZU-1. In addition, reexpression of AZU-1 in T4-2 cells, using viral vectors, was sufficient to reduce their malignant phenotype substantially, both in culture and in vivo. These results indicate that AZU-1 is a candidate breast tumor suppressor that may exert its effects by promoting correct tissue morphogenesis.« less

  2. Metabolic genes in cancer: their roles in tumor progression and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Eiji; Okuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Aya; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2010-01-01

    Re-programming of metabolic pathways is a hallmark of physiological changes in cancer cells. The expression of certain genes that directly control the rate of key metabolic pathways including glycolysis, lipogenesis and nucleotide synthesis are drastically altered at different stages of tumor progression. These alterations are generally considered as an adaptation of tumor cells; however, they also contribute to the progression of tumor cells to become more aggressive phenotypes. This review summarizes the recent information about the mechanistic link of these genes to oncogenesis and their potential utility as diagnostic markers as well as for therapeutic targets. We particularly focus on three groups of genes; GLUT1, G6PD, TKTL1 and PGI/AMF in glycolytic pathway, ACLY, ACC1 and FAS in lipogenesis and RRM1, RRM2 and TYMS for nucleotide synthesis. All these genes are highly up-regulated in a variety of tumor cells in cancer patients, and they play active roles in tumor progression rather than expressing merely as a consequence of phenotypic change of the cancer cells. Molecular dissection of their orchestrated networks and understanding the exact mechanism of their expression will provide a window of opportunity to target these genes for specific cancer therapy. We also reviewed existing database of gene microarray to validate the utility of these genes for cancer diagnosis. PMID:20122995

  3. Stimulatory versus suppressive effects of GM-CSF on tumor progression in multiple cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Hong, In-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, also called CSF-2) is best known for its critical role in immune modulation and hematopoiesis. A large body of experimental evidence indicates that GM-CSF, which is frequently upregulated in multiple types of human cancers, effectively marks cancer cells with a ‘danger flag' for the immune system. In this context, most studies have focused on its function as an immunomodulator, namely its ability to stimulate dendritic cell (DC) maturation and monocyte/macrophage activity. However, recent studies have suggested that GM-CSF also promotes immune-independent tumor progression by supporting tumor microenvironments and stimulating tumor growth and metastasis. Although some studies have suggested that GM-CSF has inhibitory effects on tumor growth and metastasis, an even greater number of studies show that GM-CSF exerts stimulatory effects on tumor progression. In this review, we summarize a number of findings to provide the currently available information regarding the anticancer immune response of GM-CSG. We then discuss the potential roles of GM-CSF in the progression of multiple types of cancer to provide insights into some of the complexities of its clinical applications. PMID:27364892

  4. Specific inhibition of fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-alpha prevents tumor progression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Teichgräber, Volker; Monasterio, Carmen; Chaitanya, Krishna; Boger, Regina; Gordon, Katrin; Dieterle, Thomas; Jäger, Dirk; Bauer, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Solid tumors modulate their environment to keep non-malignant stromal cells in a tumor-promoting state. The main cells in the stroma of epithelial derived tumors are cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) that are critical to tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. CAFs also supply the tumor cells with growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes. They are thus essential for tumor initiation as well as tumor progression and metastasis, suggesting that they represent an ideal cellular target of an integrative tumor therapy. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a well-defined marker, expressed at high levels on the cell surface of CAFs. FAP, a constitutively active serine peptidase with both dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) and collagenase/gelatinase activity, promotes malignant and invasive behavior of epithelial cancers. High stromal expression levels of FAP correlate with poor prognosis. FAP is difficult to detect in non-diseased adult tissue, but it is generally expressed at sites of tissue remodeling. In our experiments, we aimed for a reduction of the pro-tumorigenic activities of CAFs by depleting FAP from fibroblasts growing in a composite environment with epithelial tumor cells. FAP depletion was achieved by two therapeutically relevant approaches: a novel internalizing anti-FAP IgG1 antibody and FAP gene knock-down by siRNA delivery. The antibody effectively removed FAP from the cell surface and was capable of reversing the FAP mediated migratory and invasive capacity. FAP RNA interference was equally effective when compared to the antibody. Thus, targeting FAP on CAF suppresses pro-tumorigenic activities and may result in a clinically effective reduction of tumor progression and dissemination. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Deletion of tumor progression locus 2 attenuates alcohol induced hepatic inflammation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) involves the interaction of several inflammatory signaling pathways. Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), also known as Cancer Osaka Thyroid (COT) and MAP3K8, is a serine threonine kinase that functions as a critical regulator of inflammator...

  6. Hypoxia-Induced Signaling Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression: Exosomes Role as Messenger of Hypoxic Response in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Panigrahi, Gati K.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the leading malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Hypoxia (low O2 condition) is considered an early event in prostate carcinogenesis associated with an aggressive phenotype. In fact, clinically, hypoxia and hypoxia-related biomarkers are associated with treatment failure and disease progression. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is the key factor that is activated under hypoxia, and mediates adaptation of cells to hypoxic conditions through regulating the expression of genes associated with angiogenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, survival, proliferation, metabolism, stemness, hormone-refractory progression, and therapeutic resistance. Besides HIF-1, several other signaling pathways including PI3K/Akt/mTOR, NADPH oxidase (NOX), Wnt/β-catenin, and Hedgehog are activated in cancer cells under hypoxic conditions, and also contribute in hypoxia-induced biological effects in HIF-1-dependent and -independent manners. Hypoxic cancer cells cause extensive changes in the tumor microenvironment both local and distant, and recent studies have provided ample evidence supporting the crucial role of nanosized vesicles “exosomes” in mediating hypoxia-induced tumor microenvironment remodeling. Exosomes’ role has been reported in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, stemness, activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and EMT. Together, existing literature suggests that hypoxia plays a predominant role in PCA growth and progression, and PCA could be effectively prevented and treated via targeting hypoxia/hypoxia-related signaling pathways. PMID:27279239

  7. MicroRNA-187 regulates gastric cancer progression by targeting the tumor suppressor CRMP1

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Lian; Li, Fang; Di, Maojun

    Aberrant expression of microRNAs contributes to the initiation and progression of numerous human cancers. The underlying effects and molecular mechanisms of microRNA-187 (miR-187) in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. The present study reports that miR-187 was significantly overexpressed in GC tissues compared to that in non-tumor tissues and was associated with malignant clinical factors such as depth of invasion (P = 0.005), tumor size (P = 0.024), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.048), and TNM stage (P = 0.035). Additionally, miR-187 promoted tumor growth in vivo, and significantly increased migration, invasion, and proliferation, but inhibited apoptosis in GC cells. It was found that collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1),more » a tumor suppressor, was a direct downstream target of miR-187 in GC. Furthermore, CRMP1 silencing resulted in similar effects on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis as those of miR-187 overexpressing GC cells. Additionally, the effects of miR-187 inhibitor on cell migration and cell apoptosis were reversed by CRMP1 downregulation. In summary, miR-187 promotes tumor progression by regulating CRMP1 expression in GC and may thus be a potential prognostic marker and a therapeutic target in GC. - Highlights: • miR-187 was significantly overexpressed in GC tissues and associated with malignant clinical factors. • miR-187 significantly increased migration, invasion, and proliferation, but inhibited apoptosis in GC cells. • CRMP1 tumor suppressor is a direct target of miR-187 in GC. • Overexpression of miR-187 promoted GC progression by targeting tumor suppressor gene CRMP1.« less

  8. Understanding and Targeting Tumor Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer to Inhibit Tumor Progression and Castration Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Annual 3 . DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Understanding and Targeting Tumor Microenvironment in...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction………………………………………………………….4 2. Keywords…………………………………………………………….4 3 . Accomplishments...cells and extracellular matrix proteins and signaling molecules such as cytokines1- 3 . Among the infiltrating immune cells, MDSCs represent a

  9. The recent progress of the mechanism and regulation of tumor necrosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Chen, Lirong

    2016-02-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), despite the complex inducing and regulating mechanism in necrosis progress, the prognostic value of tumor necrosis has been reported. It is generally recognized that necrosis is associated with many process involving severe hypoxia, inflammatory responses and angiogenesis, all of which contribute to promote tumor growth and poor prognosis. In addition to local hypoxia, regulation by RIP kinase and the conversion from apoptosis to necrosis can result in necrosis also. Recent studies showed necrosis can be a histopathologic characteristic for special molecular phenotype of CRC. A novel and attractive complementary treatment, tumor necrosis therapy, using radiolabelled compounds avid for necrosis has emerged. However, the complicated regulatory mechanisms of tumor necrosis were rarely reported in CRC, and we collected and reviewed these effect and relevance in CRC.

  10. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Tumor Expression and Lethal Prostate Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Thomas U; Tchrakian, Nairi; Wilson, Kathryn M; Lis, Rosina; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Sesso, Howard D; Loda, Massimo; Giovannucci, Edward; Mucci, Lorelei A; Finn, Stephen; Shui, Irene M

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer metastases preferentially target bone, and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) may play a role in promoting this metastatic progression. We evaluated the association of prostate tumor CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. A validated CaSR immunohistochemistry assay was performed on tumor tissue microarrays. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor status were previously assessed in a subset of cases by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and body mass index at diagnosis, Gleason grade, and pathological tumor node metastasis stage were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. The investigation was conducted in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study. We studied 1241 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009. Participants were followed up or cancer-specific mortality or development of metastatic disease. On average, men were followed up 13.6 years, during which there were 83 lethal events. High CaSR expression was associated with lethal prostate cancer independent of clinical and pathological variables (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3). Additionally, there was evidence of effect modification by VDR expression; CaSR was associated with lethal progression among men with low tumor VDR expression (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.4-7.3) but not in cases with high tumor VDR expression (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.0). Tumor CaSR expression is associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer, particularly in tumors with low VDR expression. These results support further investigating the mechanism linking CaSR with metastases.

  11. Vitamin D Receptor Protein Expression in Tumor Tissue and Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Whitney K.; Flavin, Richard; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Fang, Fang; Lis, Rosina; Fiore, Christopher; Penney, Kathryn L.; Ma, Jing; Kantoff, Philip W.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Giovannucci, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Data suggest that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] interacts with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis for some malignancies, although evidence for prostate cancer is less clear. How VDR expression in tumor tissue may influence prostate cancer progression has not been evaluated in large studies. Patients and Methods We examined protein expression of VDR in tumor tissue among 841 patients with prostate cancer in relation to risk of lethal prostate cancer within two prospective cohorts, the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We also examined the association of VDR expression with prediagnostic circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and with two VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms, FokI and BsmI. Results Men whose tumors had high VDR expression had significantly lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis (P for trend < .001), lower Gleason score (P for trend < .001), and less advanced tumor stage (P for trend < .001) and were more likely to have tumors harboring the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (P for trend = .009). Compared with the lowest quartile, men whose tumors had the highest VDR expression had significantly reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.41). This association was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for Gleason score and PSA at diagnosis (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83) or, additionally, for tumor stage (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.94). Neither prediagnostic plasma vitamin D levels nor VDR polymorphisms were associated with VDR expression. Conclusion High VDR expression in prostate tumors is associated with a reduced risk of lethal cancer, suggesting a role of the vitamin D pathway in prostate cancer progression. PMID:21537045

  12. Glioblastoma progression is assisted by induction of immunosuppressive function of pericytes through interaction with tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Valdor, Rut; García-Bernal, David; Bueno, Carlos; Ródenas, Mónica; Moraleda, José M.; Macian, Fernando; Martínez, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of immune tolerance during Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) progression, is characterized by high levels expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, which suppress the function of tumor assocciated myeloid cells, and the activation and expansion of tumor antigen specific T cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the failed anti-tumor immune response around the blood vessels during GBM, are poorly understood. The consequences of possible interactions between cancer cells and the perivascular compartment might affect the tumor growth. In this work we show for the first time that GBM cells induce immunomodulatory changes in pericytes in a cell interaction-dependent manner, acquiring an immunosuppresive function that possibly assists the evasion of the anti-tumor immune response and consequently participates in tumor growth promotion. Expression of high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines was detected in vitro and in vivo in brain pericytes that interacted with GBM cells (GBC-PC). Furthermore, reduction of surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules and major histocompatibility complex molecules in GBC-PC correlated with a failure of antigen presentation to T cells and the acquisition of the ability to supress T cell responses. In vivo, orthotopic xenotransplant of human glioblastoma in an immunocompetent mouse model showed significant GBM cell proliferation and tumor growth after the establishment of interspecific immunotolerance that followed GMB interaction with pericytes. PMID:28978142

  13. Growth and Progression of TRAMP Prostate Tumors in Relationship to Diet and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bonorden, Melissa J. L.; Grossmann, Michael E.; Ewing, Sarah A.; Rogozina, Olga P.; Ray, Amitabha; Nkhata, Katai J.; Liao, D. Joshua; Grande, Joseph P.; Cleary, Margot P.

    2012-01-01

    To clarify effects of diet and body weight on prostate cancer development, three studies were undertaken using the TRAMP mouse model of this disease. In the first experiment, obesity was induced by injection of gold thioglucose (GTG). Age of prostate tumor detection (~33 wk) and death (~43 wk) was not significantly different among the groups. In the second study, TRAMP-C2 cells were injected into syngeneic C57BL6 mice and tumor progression was evaluated in mice fed either high-fat or low-fat diets. The high fat fed mice had larger tumors than did the low-fat fed mice. In the third study, tumor development was followed in TRAMP mice fed a high fat diet from 6 weeks of age. There were no significant effects of body weight status or diet on tumor development among the groups. When the tumors were examined for the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin, there was no correlation with either body weight or diet. However, there was a significant correlation of the expression of synaptophysin with earlier age to tumor detection and death. In summary, TRAMP-C2 cells grew faster when the mice were fed a high-fat diet. Further synaptophysin may be a marker of poor prognosis independent of weight and diet. PMID:23304522

  14. Androgen receptor status is highly conserved during tumor progression of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grogg, André; Trippel, Mafalda; Pfaltz, Katrin; Lädrach, Claudia; Droeser, Raoul A; Cihoric, Nikola; Salhia, Bodour; Zweifel, Martin; Tapia, Coya

    2015-11-09

    With the advent of new and more efficient anti-androgen drugs targeting androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is becoming an increasingly important area of investigation. This would potentially be most useful in triple negative BC (TNBC), where better therapies are still needed. The assessment of AR status is generally performed on the primary tumor even if the tumor has already metastasized. Very little is known regarding discrepancies of AR status during tumor progression. To determine the prevalence of AR positivity, with emphasis on TNBCs, and to investigate AR status during tumor progression, we evaluated a large series of primary BCs and matching metastases and recurrences. AR status was performed on 356 primary BCs, 135 matching metastases, and 12 recurrences using a next-generation Tissue Microarray (ngTMA). A commercially available AR antibody was used to determine AR-status by immunohistochemistry. AR positivity was defined as any nuclear staining in tumor cells ≥1 %. AR expression was correlated with pathological tumor features of the primary tumor. Additionally, the concordance rate of AR expression between the different tumor sites was determined. AR status was positive in: 87 % (307/353) of primary tumors, 86.1 % (105/122) of metastases, and in 66.7 % (8/12) of recurrences. TNBC tested positive in 11.4 %, (4/35) of BCs. A discrepant result was seen in 4.3 % (5/117) of primary BC and matching lymph node (LN) metastases. Three AR negative primary BCs were positive in the matching LN metastasis, representing 17.6 % of all negative BCs with lymph node metastases (3/17). Two AR positive primary BCs were negative in the matching LN metastasis, representing 2.0 % of all AR positive BCs with LN metastases (2/100). No discrepancies were seen between primary BC and distant metastases or recurrence (n = 17). Most primary (87 %) and metastasized (86.1 %) BCs are AR positive including a significant fraction of TNBCs (11.4 %). Further, AR status is

  15. Understanding and Targeting Tumor Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer to Inhibit Tumor Progression and Castration Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    report 3 . DATES COVERED 30Sep2015 - 29Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Understanding and Targeting Tumor Microenvironment in Prostate 5a. CONTRACT...Contents Page 1. Introduction………………………………………………………….4 2. Keywords…………………………………………………………….4 3 . Accomplishments………..…………………………………………...5 4. Impact...Organizations……………14 8. Special Reporting Requirements……………………………………14 9. Appendices……………………………………………………………15 Page 3 of 14 1. INTRODUCTION Prostate cancer

  16. GSTM3 and GSTP1: novel players driving tumor progression in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Checa-Rojas, Alberto; Delgadillo-Silva, Luis Fernando; Velasco-Herrera, Martín Del Castillo; Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés; Gil, Jeovanis; Santillán, Orlando; Lozano, Luis; Toledo-Leyva, Alfredo; Ramírez-Torres, Alberto; Talamas-Rohana, Patricia; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2018-04-24

    The molecular processes and proteomic markers leading to tumor progression (TP) in cervical cancer (CC) are either unknown or only partially understood. TP affects metabolic and regulatory mechanisms that can be identified as proteomic changes. To identify which proteins are differentially expressed and to understand the mechanisms of cancer progression, we analyzed the dynamics of the tumor proteome in CC cell lines. This analysis revealed two proteins that are up-regulated during TP, GSTM3 and GSTP1. These proteins are involved in cell maintenance, cell survival and the cellular stress response via the NF-κB and MAP kinase pathways during TP. Furthermore, GSTM3 and GSTP1 knockdown showed that evasion of apoptosis was affected, and tumor proliferation was significantly reduced. Our data indicate the critical role of GST proteins in the regulation and progression of cervical cancer cells. Hence, we suggest GSTM3 and GSTP1 as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for treating cervical cancer. CC is particularly hazardous in the advanced stages, and there are few therapeutic strategies specifically targeting these stages. We performed analyses on CC tumor proteome dynamics and identified GSTM3 and GSTP1 as novel potential therapeutic targets. Knockdown of these proteins showed that they are involved in cell survival, cell proliferation and cellular evasion of apoptosis.

  17. GSTM3 and GSTP1: novel players driving tumor progression in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Checa-Rojas, Alberto; Delgadillo-Silva, Luis Fernando; Velasco-Herrera, Martín del Castillo; Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés; Gil, Jeovanis; Santillán, Orlando; Lozano, Luis; Toledo-Leyva, Alfredo; Ramírez-Torres, Alberto; Talamas-Rohana, Patricia; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    The molecular processes and proteomic markers leading to tumor progression (TP) in cervical cancer (CC) are either unknown or only partially understood. TP affects metabolic and regulatory mechanisms that can be identified as proteomic changes. To identify which proteins are differentially expressed and to understand the mechanisms of cancer progression, we analyzed the dynamics of the tumor proteome in CC cell lines. This analysis revealed two proteins that are up-regulated during TP, GSTM3 and GSTP1. These proteins are involved in cell maintenance, cell survival and the cellular stress response via the NF-κB and MAP kinase pathways during TP. Furthermore, GSTM3 and GSTP1 knockdown showed that evasion of apoptosis was affected, and tumor proliferation was significantly reduced. Our data indicate the critical role of GST proteins in the regulation and progression of cervical cancer cells. Hence, we suggest GSTM3 and GSTP1 as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for treating cervical cancer. Significance CC is particularly hazardous in the advanced stages, and there are few therapeutic strategies specifically targeting these stages. We performed analyses on CC tumor proteome dynamics and identified GSTM3 and GSTP1 as novel potential therapeutic targets. Knockdown of these proteins showed that they are involved in cell survival, cell proliferation and cellular evasion of apoptosis. PMID:29774096

  18. Limited utility of tissue micro-arrays in detecting intra-tumoral heterogeneity in stem cell characteristics and tumor progression markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kündig, Pascale; Giesen, Charlotte; Jackson, Hartland; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Papassotirolopus, Bärbel; Freiberger, Sandra Nicole; Aquino, Catharine; Opitz, Lennart; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2018-05-08

    Intra-tumoral heterogeneity has been recently addressed in different types of cancer, including breast cancer. A concept describing the origin of intra-tumoral heterogeneity is the cancer stem-cell hypothesis, proposing the existence of cancer stem cells that can self-renew limitlessly and therefore lead to tumor progression. Clonal evolution in accumulated single cell genomic alterations is a further possible explanation in carcinogenesis. In this study, we addressed the question whether intra-tumoral heterogeneity can be reliably detected in tissue-micro-arrays in breast cancer by comparing expression levels of conventional predictive/prognostic tumor markers, tumor progression markers and stem cell markers between central and peripheral tumor areas. We analyzed immunohistochemical expression and/or gene amplification status of conventional prognostic tumor markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6), tumor progression markers (PTEN, PIK3CA, p53, Ki-67) and stem cell markers (mTOR, SOX2, SOX9, SOX10, SLUG, CD44, CD24, TWIST) in 372 tissue-micro-array samples from 72 breast cancer patients. Expression levels were compared between central and peripheral tumor tissue areas and were correlated to histopathological grading. 15 selected cases additionally underwent RNA sequencing for transcriptome analysis. No significant difference in any of the analyzed between central and peripheral tumor areas was seen with any of the analyzed methods/or results that showed difference. Except mTOR, PIK3CA and SOX9 (nuclear) protein expression, all markers correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with histopathological grading both in central and peripheral areas. Our results suggest that intra-tumoral heterogeneity of stem-cell and tumor-progression markers cannot be reliably addressed in tissue-micro-array samples in breast cancer. However, most markers correlated strongly with histopathological grading confirming prognostic information as expression profiles were independent on the site of the

  19. Extract of Vernonia condensata, Inhibits Tumor Progression and Improves Survival of Tumor-allograft Bearing Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Somasagara, Ranganatha R.; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are considered as one of the ideal sources for cancer therapy due to their bioactive contents and low toxicity to humans. Vernonia genus is one of the common medicinal plants, which has wide spread usage in food and medicine. However, there are limited studies to explore its anticancer properties. In the current study, we have used Vernonia condensata, to explore its anticancer activity using various approaches. Here, we show that extract prepared from Vernonia condensata (VCE) exhibits cytotoxic properties against various cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, when treated with VCE, there was no significant cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that although VCE induced cell death, arrest was not observed. VCE treatment led to disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in a concentration dependent manner resulting in activation of apoptosis culminating in cell death. Immunoblotting studies revealed that VCE activated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. More importantly, VCE treatment resulted in tumor regression leading to significant enhancement in life span in treated mice, without showing any detectable side effects. Therefore, for the first time our study reveals the potential of extract from Vernonia condensata to be used as an anticancer agent. PMID:27009490

  20. Challenges and progress in making DNA-based AIS early ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ability of DNA barcoding to find additional species in hard-to-sample locations or hard-to-identify samples is well established. Nevertheless, adoption of DNA barcoding into regular monitoring programs has been slow, in part due to issues of standardization and interpretation that need resolving. In this presentation, we describe our progress towards incorporating DNA-based identification into broad-spectrum aquatic invasive species early-detection monitoring in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Our work uses community biodiversity information as the basis for evaluating survey performance for various taxonomic groups. Issues we are tackling in bringing DNA-based data to bear on AIS monitoring design include: 1) Standardizing methodology and work flow from field collection and sample handling through bioinformatics post-processing; 2) Determining detection sensitivity and accounting for inter-species differences in DNA amplification and primer affinity; 3) Differentiating sequencing and barcoding errors from legitimate new finds when range and natural history information is limited; and 4) Accounting for the different nature of morphology- vs. DNA-based biodiversity information in subsequent analysis (e.g., via species accumulation curves, multi-metric indices). not applicable

  1. [A review of progress of real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy technology based on dynamic multi-leaf collimator].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fubo; Li, Guangjun; Shen, Jiuling; Li, Ligin; Bai, Sen

    2017-02-01

    While radiation treatment to patients with tumors in thorax and abdomen is being performed, further improvement of radiation accuracy is restricted by the tumor intra-fractional motion due to respiration. Real-time tumor tracking radiation is an optimal solution to tumor intra-fractional motion. A review of the progress of real-time dynamic multi-leaf collimator(DMLC) tracking is provided in the present review, including DMLC tracking method, time lag of DMLC tracking system, and dosimetric verification.

  2. Cysteine cathepsins: their role in tumor progression and recent trends in the development of imaging probes

    PubMed Central

    Löser, Reik; Pietzsch, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases bear an enormous potential as drug discovery targets for both infectious and systemic human diseases. The considerable progress in this field over the last two decades has also raised interest in the visualization of these enzymes in their native context, especially with regard to tumor imaging. After a short introduction to structure and general functions of human cysteine cathepsins, we highlight their importance for drug discovery and development and provide a critical update on the current state of knowledge toward their involvement in tumor progression, with a special emphasis on their role in therapy response. In accordance with a radiopharmaceutical point of view, the main focus of this review article will be the discussion of recently developed fluorescence and radiotracer-based imaging agents together with related molecular probes. PMID:26157794

  3. Dissociation of sensitivities to tumor promotion and progression in outbred and inbred SENCAR mice.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Conti, I B; Bianchi, A B; Fischer, S M; Reiners, J J; Conti, C J; Slaga, T J

    1992-06-15

    The sensitivity of outbred SENCAR mice and inbred SENCAR (SSIN) mice to multistage carcinogenesis was studied. Tumors were induced using either 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine as initiators and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or benzoyl peroxide as promoting agents. Although the number of papillomas per mouse was higher in SSIN than in outbred SENCAR mice, the number of carcinomas observed in the SSIN strain was significantly lower regardless of the initiator or promoter used. It was also observed that the expression of markers of premalignant progression (i.e., dysplasia, expression of keratin K13, and loss of keratin K1 expression) was markedly suppressed in SSIN papillomas. After 50 wk of promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, the pattern of expression of K13 and K1 in SSIN mice was comparable to the pattern observed in outbred SENCAR mice after 10 to 20 wk of promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. It was also observed that 67% of the tumors induced in SSIN mice by initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene exhibited a mutation in codon 61 of the Ha-ras-1 gene. This latter finding suggests that the differences observed in tumor progression between the inbred strain and the outbred stock are not related to a genetic alteration in the Ha-ras-1 gene but rather to an independent event that we have postulated to involve a putative suppressor gene. The data reported here suggest that the putative gene(s) that confers susceptibility to tumor promotion was segregated from the gene(s) involved in tumor progression during selection and inbreeding of the SENCAR mouse stock.

  4. IMPACT OF OBESITY ON DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF MAMMARY TUMORS IN PRECLINICAL MODELS OF BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Margot P.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and/or obesity are known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. More recently increased body weight has also been associated with poor prognosis for both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. This relationship has primarily been identified through epidemiological studies. Additional information from in vitro studies has also been produced in attempts to delineate mechanisms of action for the association of obesity and body weight and breast cancer. This approach has identified potential growth factors such as insulin, leptin, estrogen and IGF-I which are reported to be modulated by body weight changes. However, in vitro studies are limited in scope and frequently use non-physiological concentrations of growth factors, while long follow-up is needed for human studies. Preclinical animal models provide an intermediary approach to investigate the impact of body weight and potential growth factors on mammary/breast tumor development and progression. Here results of a number of studies addressing this issue are presented. In the majority of the studies either genetically-obese or diet-induced obese rodent models have been used to investigate spontaneous, transgenic and carcinogen-induced mammary tumor development. To study tumor progression the major focus has been allograft studies in mice with either genetic or dietary-induced obesity. In general, obesity has been demonstrated to shorten mammary tumor latency and to impact tumor pathology. However, in rodents with defects in leptin and other growth factors the impact of obesity is not as straightforward. Future studies using more physiologically relevant obesity models and clearly distinguishing diet composition from body weight effects will be important in continuing to understand the factors associated with body weight’s impact on the mammary/breast cancer development and progression. PMID:24122258

  5. Role of the Polarity Determinant Crumbs in Suppressing Mammalian Epithelial Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Cristina M.; Tan, Ting Ting; Mathew, Robin; Nelson, Deidre; Mukherjee, Chandreyee; Degenhardt, Kurt; Karantza-Wadsworth, Vassiliki; White, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Most tumors are epithelial-derived, and although disruption of polarity and aberrant cellular junction formation is a poor prognosticator in human cancer, the role of polarity determinants in oncogenesis is poorly understood. Using in vivo selection, we identified a mammalian orthologue of the Drosophila polarity regulator crumbs as a gene whose loss of expression promotes tumor progression. Immortal baby mouse kidney epithelial (iBMK) cells selected in vivo to acquire tumorigenicity displayed dramatic repression of crumbs3 (crb3) expression associated with disruption of tight junction formation, apicobasal polarity, and contact-inhibited growth. Restoration of crb3 expression restored junctions, polarity and contact inhibition, while suppressing migration and metastasis. These findings suggest a role for mammalian polarity determinants in suppressing tumorigenesis that may be analogous to the well-studied polarity tumor suppressor mechanisms in Drosophila. PMID:18519669

  6. Synergistic Action of FOXP3 and TSC1 Pathways During Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Tumor progression, Gene therapy, Transcriptional regulation, Post -translational modification ACCOMPLISHMENTS Our preliminary studies provide evidence...Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for...10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  7. Oncogenic LINE-1 Retroelements Sustain Prostate Tumor Cells and Promote Metastatic Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    elements in prostate cancer contribute to its progression by activating oncogenic DNA sequences, or silencing tumor suppressor like sequences. We have...prostate cancer cells. Experiments are ongoing to determine if PIWIL-1 expression in prostate cancer cells will reduce their growth, thereby providing...proof of principle for future gene-based therapeutics for this cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer , LINE-1, PIWIL-1, retrotransposons 16

  8. Evaluation of the effects of hyaluronic acid-carboxymethyl cellulose barrier on ovarian tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyaluronic acid is a prognostic factor in ovarian cancers. It is also a component of Hyaluronic Acid-Carboxymethyl Cellulose (HA-CMC) barrier, an anti-adhesion membrane widely used during abdominal surgeries in particular for ovarian carcinosis. 70% of patients who undergo ovarian surgery will relapse due to the persistence of cancer cells. This study’s objective was to determine the oncological risk from use of this material, in the presence of residual disease, despite the benefit gained by it decreasing post-surgical adhesions in order to provide an unambiguous assessment of its appropriateness for use in ovarian surgical management. Methods We assessed the effects of HA-CMC barrier on the in vitro proliferation of human ovarian tumor cell lines (OVCAR-3, IGROV-1 and SKOV-3). We next evaluated, in vivo in nude mice, the capacity of this biomaterial to regulate the tumor progression of subcutaneous and intraperitoneal models of ovarian tumor xenografts. Results We showed that HA-CMC barrier does not increase in vitro proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines compared to control. In vivo, HA-CMC barrier presence with subcutaneous xenografts induced neither an increase in tumor volume nor cell proliferation (Ki67 and mitotic index). With the exception of an increased murine carcinosis score in peritoneum, the presence of HA-CMC barrier with intraperitoneal xenografts modified neither macro nor microscopic tumor growth. Finally, protein analysis of survival (Akt), proliferation (ERK) and adhesion (FAK) pathways highlighted no activation on the xenografts imputable to HA-CMC barrier. Conclusions For the most part, our results support the lack of tumor progression activation due to HA-CMC barrier. We conclude that the benefits gained from using HA-CMC barrier membrane during ovarian cancer surgeries seem to outweigh the potential oncological risks. PMID:24739440

  9. Risk factors for progression to invasive carcinoma in patients with borderline ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Song, Taejong; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for progression to invasive carcinoma in patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs). We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated and followed for BOTs between 1996 and 2011. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for progression to invasive carcinoma. A total of 364 patients were identified. During the median follow-up of 53.8 months, 31 patients (8.5%) developed recurrent disease: 12 (3.3%) had recurrent disease with progression to invasive carcinoma, and 19 (5.2%) had recurrent disease with borderline histology. Disease-related deaths (7/364; 1.7%) were observed only in patients with progression to invasive carcinoma. The multivariate analysis showed that independent risk factors for progression to invasive carcinoma were advanced disease stage (hazard ratio [HR], 5.59; P = 0.005), age 65 years or older (HR, 5.13; P = 0.037), and the presence of microinvasion (HR, 3.71; P = 0.047). These 3 factors were also independently related to overall survival. Although patients with BOTs have an excellent prognosis, the risk of progression to invasive carcinoma and thereby death remains. Therefore, physicians should pay closer attention to BOT patients with these risk factors (ie, advanced disease stage, old age, and microinvasion), and more careful surveillance for progression to invasive carcinoma is needed.

  10. Early ultrasonographic evaluation of tumor thrombus level during sunitinib therapy for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sano, Futoshi; Fusayasu, Syusei; Otake, Shinji; Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Tatenuma, Tomoyuki; Sakata, Ryoko; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Yao, Masahiro; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2013-10-01

    A 72-year-old man presenting with a 14-cm left renal mass, an inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombus, and pulmonary metastases underwent renal mass biopsy that revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Because of metastases and the extent of the tumor thrombus, sunitinib was administered, which resulted in a marked reduction in the tumor thrombus (from level III to level II after 11 weeks of treatment). Ultrasonography, preceding computed tomography, showed a slight shrinkage of the tumor thrombus level in the first 2 weeks. Therefore, ultrasound may be advantageous to monitor the IVC tumor thrombus level during the early phase of targeted therapy.

  11. The angiotensin receptor blocker, Losartan, inhibits mammary tumor development and progression to invasive carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Rhiannon; Liew, Seng H.; Connelly, Angela A.; Yee, Nicholas S.; Deb, Siddhartha; Kumar, Beena; Vargas, Ana C.; O’Toole, Sandra A.; Parslow, Adam C.; Poh, Ashleigh; Putoczki, Tracy; Morrow, Riley J.; Alorro, Mariah; Lazarus, Kyren A.; Yeap, Evie F.W.; Walton, Kelly L.; Harrison, Craig A.; Hannan, Natalie J.; George, Amee J.; Clyne, Colin D.; Ernst, Matthias; Allen, Andrew M.; Chand, Ashwini L.

    2017-01-01

    Drugs that target the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) have recently come into focus for their potential utility as cancer treatments. The use of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors (ACEIs) to manage hypertension in cancer patients is correlated with improved survival outcomes for renal, prostate, breast and small cell lung cancer. Previous studies demonstrate that the Angiotensin Receptor Type I (AT1R) is linked to breast cancer pathogenesis, with unbiased analysis of gene-expression studies identifying significant up-regulation of AGTR1, the gene encoding AT1R in ER+ve/HER2−ve tumors correlating with poor prognosis. However, there is no evidence, so far, of the functional contribution of AT1R to breast tumorigenesis. We explored the potential therapeutic benefit of ARB in a carcinogen-induced mouse model of breast cancer and clarified the mechanisms associated with its success. Mammary tumors were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]antracene (DMBA) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in female wild type mice and the effects of the ARB, Losartan treatment assessed in a preventative setting (n = 15 per group). Tumor histopathology was characterised by immunohistochemistry, real-time qPCR to detect gene expression signatures, and tumor cytokine levels measured with quantitative bioplex assays. AT1R was detected with radiolabelled ligand binding assays in fresh frozen tumor samples. We showed that therapeutic inhibition of AT1R, with Losartan, resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden; and no mammary tumor incidence in 20% of animals. We observed a significant reduction in tumor progression from DCIS to invasive cancer with Losartan treatment. This was associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation and a significant reduction in IL-6, pSTAT3 and TNFα levels. Analysis of tumor immune cell infiltrates, however, demonstrated no significant differences in the recruitment of lymphocytes or tumour

  12. The WHAM Hα Magellanic Stream Survey: Progress and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kat; Krishnarao, Dhanesh

    2017-01-01

    We present early analysis of the Hα survey of the Magellanic Stream using the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM). The neutral component of the Stream extends some 200° across the sky (Nidever et al. 2010). However, the full extent of the ionized gas has not been mapped in detail. Previous studies (e.g., Putman et al. 2003; Weiner & Williams 1996) suggest that ionized gas is likely to be found all along the length of the Stream, and may extend beyond the current neutral boundaries as traced by 21 cm. Barger et al. (2013) used WHAM to map ionized gas throughout the Magellanic Bridge between the Magellanic Clouds. Although ionized emission tracks the neutral emission for the most part, it often spans a few degrees away from the H I at slightly offset velocities. Additionally, Fox et al. (2014) find evidence in an absorption line study that the tidal debris in the Magellanic System contains twice as much ionized gas as neutral material and may extend 30° away from 21-cm sensitivity boundaries. We are now compiling the first comprehensive picture of the ionized component of the Magellanic Stream using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to trace diffuse emission (~tens of mR), its velocity resolution (12 km/s) to separate the Stream from the Milky Way, and its multiwavelength capabilities (e.g., [S II] and [N II]) to examine the physical conditions of the gas. Much of the data along the primary axis of the Stream has been collected for the first phase of this extensive study, a complete kinematic Hα survey of the Stream. We present survey progress, challenges in extracting Stream emission, and first-look kinematic maps at select positions along the Stream.

  13. Mutations in Mitochondrial DNA From Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Associate With Survival Times of Patients and Accumulate as Tumors Progress.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Julia F; Denroche, Robert E; Aguiar, Jennifer A; Notta, Faiyaz; Connor, Ashton A; Wilson, Julie M; Stein, Lincoln D; Gallinger, Steven; Boutros, Paul C

    2018-05-01

    Somatic mutations have been found in the mitochondria in different types of cancer cells, but it is not clear whether these affect tumorigenesis or tumor progression. We analyzed mitochondrial genomes of 268 early-stage, resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues and paired non-tumor tissues. We defined a mitochondrial somatic mutation (mtSNV) as a position where the difference in heteroplasmy fraction between tumor and normal sample was ≥0.2. Our analysis identified 304 mtSNVs, with at least 1 mtSNV in 61% (164 of 268) of tumor samples. The noncoding control region had the greatest proportion of mtSNVs (60 of 304 mutations); this region contains sites that regulate mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. Frequently mutated genes included ND5, RNR2, and CO1, plus 29 mutations in transfer RNA genes. mtSNVs in 2 separate mitochondrial genes (ND4 and ND6) were associated with shorter overall survival time. This association appeared to depend on the level of mtSNV heteroplasmy. Non-random co-occurrence between mtSNVs and mutations in nuclear genes indicates interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In an analysis of primary tumors and metastases from 6 patients, we found tumors to accumulate mitochondrial mutational mutations as they progress. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Small Bowel Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Multidetector Computed Tomography Enhancement Pattern and Risk of Progression.

    PubMed

    Verde, Franco; Hruban, Ralph H; Fishman, Elliot K

    Small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumors (SB-GISTs) are rare lesions with a variable appearance on computed tomography (CT). This case series analyzes the CT enhancement pattern with the histologic risk assessment of tumor progression. Local institutional pathology database was searched for SB-GISTs from 2000 to 2015. Pathology reports and clinical notes were reviewed. Imaging was qualitatively reviewed for pattern of enhancement categorized into homogeneous or heterogeneous groups. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed comparing enhancement to segment of bowel involved, presence of necrosis, tumor size, histologic grade (ie, G1 or G2), and histologic risk of progression (ie low, moderate, high). For simplicity, risk of progression was binned into low-risk or non-low-risk groups. Twenty-six pathology-proven, first presentation, nonmetastatic SB-GISTs were included into study. Seventeen were located in duodenum, 7 in jejunum, and 2 within the ileum. Dual phase (arterial and venous) CT imaging was available for 22 cases. Four cases did not have dual phase (three venous phase and one arterial phase only). Seventeen cases demonstrated heterogeneous enhancement and 9 cases homogeneous enhancement. Statistically significant difference was found between size versus enhancement groups (3.1 cm for homogeneous versus 6.8 cm for heterogeneous) (Mann-Whitney U test, n = 26, P = 0.002). Presence of necrosis versus enhancement group was statistically significant (Pearson χ, P = 0.001). Low-risk and non-low-risk groups versus enhancement groups was very significant (P = 0.001). Bowel segment involvement and histologic grading versus enhancement group did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.174 and P = 0.07, respectively). This case series reveals an important significant association between heterogeneous enhancement and non-low risk (ie, moderate/high) SB-GISTs. Beyond just describing the tumor, using enhancing pattern, the interpreting radiologist can

  15. Expression of CD10 predicts tumor progression and unfavorable prognosis in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Oba, Junna; Nakahara, Takeshi; Hayashida, Sayaka; Kido, Makiko; Xie, Lining; Takahara, Masakazu; Uchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Shogo; Abe, Takeru; Hagihara, Akihito; Moroi, Yoichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-12-01

    CD10 expression in malignant melanoma (MM) has been reported to increase according to tumor progression and metastasis; however, its association with patient outcome has not been clarified. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of CD10 in MM to determine whether or not it could serve as a marker for tumor progression and prognosis. A total of 64 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of primary MM were immunostained for CD10. Similarly, 40 samples of melanocytic nevus and 20 of metastatic MM were analyzed for comparison. The following clinicopathologic variables were evaluated: age, gender, histologic type, tumor site, Breslow thickness, Clark level, the presence or absence of ulceration and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and survival. Statistical analyses were performed to assess for associations. Several parameters were analyzed for survival using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 34 of 64 cases (53%) of primary MM expressed CD10, compared with 15 of 20 cases (75%) of metastatic MM and only 4 of 40 cases (10%) of nevus. There was a significant positive relationship between CD10 expression and Breslow thickness, Clark level, and ulceration. Univariate analysis revealed 4 significant factors for shorter survival periods: CD10 expression, high Breslow thickness, high Clark level, and the presence of ulceration (P < .01 each). In multivariate analysis, CD10 expression was revealed to be a statistically significant and independent prognostic factor. The major limitation was the small sample size. CD10 expression may serve as a progression marker and can predict unfavorable prognosis in patients with MM. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors: Early Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@partners.or; Trofimov, Alexei; Safai, Sairos

    Purpose: To report early clinical outcomes for children with central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors treated with protons; to compare dose distributions for intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT), three-dimensional conformal proton radiation (3D-CPT), and intensity-modulated proton therapy with pencil beam scanning (IMPT) for whole-ventricular irradiation with and without an involved-field boost. Methods and Materials: All children with CNS germinoma or nongerminomatous germ cell tumor who received treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1998 and 2007 were included in this study. The IMRT, 3D-CPT, and IMPT plans were generated and compared for a representative case. Results: Twenty-two patients were treatedmore » with 3D-CPT. At a median follow-up of 28 months, there were no CNS recurrences; 1 patient had a recurrence outside the CNS. Local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival rates were 100%, 95%, and 100%, respectively. Comparable tumor volume coverage was achieved with IMRT, 3D-CPT, and IMPT. Substantial normal tissue sparing was seen with any form of proton therapy as compared with IMRT. The use of IMPT may yield additional sparing of the brain and temporal lobes. Conclusions: Preliminary disease control with proton therapy compares favorably to the literature. Dosimetric comparisons demonstrate the advantage of proton radiation over IMRT for whole-ventricle radiation. Superior dose distributions were accomplished with fewer beam angles utilizing 3D-CPT and scanned protons. Intensity-modulated proton therapy with pencil beam scanning may improve dose distribution as compared with 3D-CPT for this treatment.« less

  17. Lack of gp130 expression in hepatocytes attenuates tumor progression in the DEN model.

    PubMed

    Hatting, M; Spannbauer, M; Peng, J; Al Masaoudi, M; Sellge, G; Nevzorova, Y A; Gassler, N; Liedtke, C; Cubero, F J; Trautwein, C

    2015-03-05

    Chronic liver inflammation is a crucial event in the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Compelling evidence has shown that interleukin-6 (IL-6)/gp130-dependent signaling has a fundamental role in liver carcinogenesis. Thus, in the present study we aimed to investigate the role of gp130 in hepatocytes for the initiation and progression of HCC. Hepatocyte-specific gp130 knockout mice (gp130(Δhepa)) and control animals (gp130(f/f)) were treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The role of gp130 for acute injury (0-144 h post treatment), tumor initiation (24 weeks) and progression (40 weeks) was analyzed. After acute DEN-induced liver injury we observed a reduction in the inflammatory response in gp130(Δhepa) animals as reflected by decreased levels of IL-6 and oncostatin M. The loss of gp130 slightly attenuated the initiation of HCC 24 weeks after DEN treatment. In contrast, 40 weeks after DEN treatment, male and female gp130(Δhepa) mice showed smaller tumors and reduced tumor burden, indicating a role for hepatocyte-specific gp130 expression during HCC progression. Oxidative stress and DNA damage were substantially and similarly increased by DEN in both gp130(f/f) and gp130(Δhepa) animals. However, gp130(Δhepa) livers revealed aberrant STAT5 activation and decreased levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), pSMAD2/3 and SMAD2, whereas phosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr705 and Ser727 was absent. Our results indicate that gp130 deletion in hepatocytes reduces progression, but not HCC initiation in the DEN model. Gp130 deletion resulted in STAT3 inhibition but increased STAT5 activation and diminished TGF-dependent signaling. Hence, blocking gp130 in hepatocytes might be an interesting therapeutic target to inhibit the growth of HCC.

  18. Overlapping DNA Methylation Dynamics in Mouse Intestinal Cell Differentiation and Early Stages of Malignant Progression

    PubMed Central

    Forn, Marta; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Merlos-Suárez, Anna; Muñoz, Mar; Lois, Sergi; Carriò, Elvira; Jordà, Mireia; Bigas, Anna; Batlle, Eduard; Peinado, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal crypt cell differentiation and tumorigenesis have been used to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying both processes. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark and plays an important role in cell identity and differentiation programs and cancer. To get insights into the dynamics of cell differentiation and malignant transformation we have compared the DNA methylation profiles along the mouse small intestine crypt and early stages of tumorigenesis. Genome-scale analysis of DNA methylation together with microarray gene expression have been applied to compare intestinal crypt stem cells (EphB2high), differentiated cells (EphB2negative), ApcMin/+ adenomas and the corresponding non-tumor adjacent tissue, together with small and large intestine samples and the colon cancer cell line CT26. Compared with late stages, small intestine crypt differentiation and early stages of tumorigenesis display few and relatively small changes in DNA methylation. Hypermethylated loci are largely shared by the two processes and affect the proximities of promoter and enhancer regions, with enrichment in genes associated with the intestinal stem cell signature and the PRC2 complex. The hypermethylation is progressive, with minute levels in differentiated cells, as compared with intestinal stem cells, and reaching full methylation in advanced stages. Hypomethylation shows different signatures in differentiation and cancer and is already present in the non-tumor tissue adjacent to the adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice, but at lower levels than advanced cancers. This study provides a reference framework to decipher the mechanisms driving mouse intestinal tumorigenesis and also the human counterpart. PMID:25933092

  19. Spousal Recollections of Early Signs of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozzebon, Margaret; Douglas, Jacinta; Ames, David

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by progressive loss of language and communication skills, knowledge about the earliest emerging signs announcing the onset of this condition is limited. Aims: To explore spousal recollections regarding the earliest signs of PPA and to compare the nature of the earliest…

  20. A versatile mathematical work-flow to explore how Cancer Stem Cell fate influences tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Fornari, Chiara; Balbo, Gianfranco; Halawani, Sami M; Ba-Rukab, Omar; Ahmad, Ab Rahman; Calogero, Raffaele A; Cordero, Francesca; Beccuti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays multidisciplinary approaches combining mathematical models with experimental assays are becoming relevant for the study of biological systems. Indeed, in cancer research multidisciplinary approaches are successfully used to understand the crucial aspects implicated in tumor growth. In particular, the Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) biology represents an area particularly suited to be studied through multidisciplinary approaches, and modeling has significantly contributed to pinpoint the crucial aspects implicated in this theory. More generally, to acquire new insights on a biological system it is necessary to have an accurate description of the phenomenon, such that making accurate predictions on its future behaviors becomes more likely. In this context, the identification of the parameters influencing model dynamics can be advantageous to increase model accuracy and to provide hints in designing wet experiments. Different techniques, ranging from statistical methods to analytical studies, have been developed. Their applications depend on case-specific aspects, such as the availability and quality of experimental data, and the dimension of the parameter space. The study of a new model on the CSC-based tumor progression has been the motivation to design a new work-flow that helps to characterize possible system dynamics and to identify those parameters influencing such behaviors. In detail, we extended our recent model on CSC-dynamics creating a new system capable of describing tumor growth during the different stages of cancer progression. Indeed, tumor cells appear to progress through lineage stages like those of normal tissues, being their division auto-regulated by internal feedback mechanisms. These new features have introduced some non-linearities in the model, making it more difficult to be studied by solely analytical techniques. Our new work-flow, based on statistical methods, was used to identify the parameters which influence the tumor growth. The

  1. Lin28 sustains early renal progenitors and induces Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Urbach, Achia; Yermalovich, Alena; Zhang, Jin; Spina, Catherine S.; Zhu, Hao; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Shukrun, Rachel; Charlton, Jocelyn; Sebire, Neil; Mifsud, William; Dekel, Benjamin; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Daley, George Q.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms Tumor, the most common pediatric kidney cancer, evolves from the failure of terminal differentiation of the embryonic kidney. Here we show that overexpression of the heterochronic regulator Lin28 during kidney development in mice markedly expands nephrogenic progenitors by blocking their final wave of differentiation, ultimately resulting in a pathology highly reminiscent of Wilms tumor. Using lineage-specific promoters to target Lin28 to specific cell types, we observed Wilms tumor only when Lin28 is aberrantly expressed in multiple derivatives of the intermediate mesoderm, implicating the cell of origin as a multipotential renal progenitor. We show that withdrawal of Lin28 expression reverts tumorigenesis and markedly expands the numbers of glomerulus-like structures and that tumor formation is suppressed by enforced expression of Let-7 microRNA. Finally, we demonstrate overexpression of the LIN28B paralog in a significant percentage of human Wilms tumor. Our data thus implicate the Lin28/Let-7 pathway in kidney development and tumorigenesis. PMID:24732380

  2. Genotype tunes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissue tension to induce matricellular-fibrosis and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Laklai, Hanane; Miroshnikova, Yekaterina A.; Pickup, Michael W.; Collisson, Eric A.; Kim, Grace E.; Barrett, Alex S.; Hill, Ryan C.; Lakins, Johnathon N.; Schlaepfer, David D.; Mouw, Janna K.; LeBleu, Valerie S.; Roy, Nilotpal; Novitskiy, Sergey V.; Johansen, Julia S.; Poli, Valeria; Kalluri, Raghu; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Wood, Laura D.; Hebrok, Matthias; Hansen, Kirk; Moses, Harold L.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis compromises pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC) treatment and contributes to patient mortality yet anti-stromal therapies are controversial. We found that human PDACs with impaired epithelial transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling have elevated epithelial Stat3 activity and develop a stiffer, matricellular-enriched fibrosis associated with high epithelial tension and shorter patient survival. In several Kras-driven mouse models, both the loss of TGF-β signaling and elevated β1-integrin mechanosignaling engaged a positive feedback loop whereby Stat3 signaling promotes tumor progression by increasing matricellular fibrosis and tissue tension. In contrast, epithelial Stat3 ablation attenuated tumor progression by reducing the stromal stiffening and epithelial contractility induced by loss of TGF-β signaling. In PDAC patient biopsies, higher matricellular protein and activated Stat3 associated with SMAD4 mutation and shorter survival. The findings implicate epithelial tension and matricellular fibrosis in the aggressiveness of SMAD4 mutant pancreatic tumors, and highlight Stat3 and mechanics as key drivers of this phenotype. PMID:27089513

  3. Tissue Regeneration in the Chronically Inflamed Tumor Environment: Implications for Cell Fusion Driven Tumor Progression and Therapy Resistant Tumor Hybrid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dittmar, Thomas; Zänker, Kurt S.

    2015-01-01

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion in a cancer context is still a matter of controversial debates. Even though a plethora of in vitro and in vivo data have been published in the past decades the ultimate proof that tumor hybrid cells could originate in (human) cancers and could contribute to the progression of the disease is still missing, suggesting that the cell fusion hypothesis is rather fiction than fact. However, is the lack of this ultimate proof a valid argument against this hypothesis, particularly if one has to consider that appropriate markers do not (yet) exist, thus making it virtually impossible to identify a human tumor cell clearly as a tumor hybrid cell. In the present review, we will summarize the evidence supporting the cell fusion in cancer concept. Moreover, we will refine the cell fusion hypothesis by providing evidence that cell fusion is a potent inducer of aneuploidy, genomic instability and, most likely, even chromothripsis, suggesting that cell fusion, like mutations and aneuploidy, might be an inducer of a mutator phenotype. Finally, we will show that “accidental” tissue repair processes during cancer therapy could lead to the origin of therapy resistant cancer hybrid stem cells. PMID:26703575

  4. Tissue Regeneration in the Chronically Inflamed Tumor Environment: Implications for Cell Fusion Driven Tumor Progression and Therapy Resistant Tumor Hybrid Cells.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Thomas; Zänker, Kurt S

    2015-12-19

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion in a cancer context is still a matter of controversial debates. Even though a plethora of in vitro and in vivo data have been published in the past decades the ultimate proof that tumor hybrid cells could originate in (human) cancers and could contribute to the progression of the disease is still missing, suggesting that the cell fusion hypothesis is rather fiction than fact. However, is the lack of this ultimate proof a valid argument against this hypothesis, particularly if one has to consider that appropriate markers do not (yet) exist, thus making it virtually impossible to identify a human tumor cell clearly as a tumor hybrid cell. In the present review, we will summarize the evidence supporting the cell fusion in cancer concept. Moreover, we will refine the cell fusion hypothesis by providing evidence that cell fusion is a potent inducer of aneuploidy, genomic instability and, most likely, even chromothripsis, suggesting that cell fusion, like mutations and aneuploidy, might be an inducer of a mutator phenotype. Finally, we will show that "accidental" tissue repair processes during cancer therapy could lead to the origin of therapy resistant cancer hybrid stem cells.

  5. Monitoring Daily Dynamics of Early Tumor Response to Targeted Therapy by Detecting Circulating Tumor DNA in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Hatim; Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Kosco, Karena; Woodward, Brian; More, Soham; Pingle, Sandeep C.; Weihe, Elizabeth; Park, Ben Ho; Tewari, Muneesh; Erlander, Mark G.; Cohen, Ezra; Lippman, Scott M.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Non-invasive drug biomarkers for the early assessment of tumor response can enable adaptive therapeutic decision-making and proof-of-concept studies for investigational drugs. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is released into the circulation by tumor cell turnover and has been shown to be detectable in urine. Experimental Design We tested the hypothesis that dynamic changes in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating (exon 19del and L858R) and resistance (T790M) mutation levels detected in urine could inform tumor response within days of therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving osimertinib, a second line third generation anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Results Eight of nine evaluable NSCLC patients had detectable T790M-mutant DNA fragments in pre-treatment baseline samples. Daily monitoring of mutations in urine indicated a pattern of intermittent spikes throughout week 1 suggesting apoptosis with an overall decrease in fragment numbers between baselines to day 7 preceding radiographic response assessed at 6-12 weeks. Conclusions These findings suggest drug-induced tumor apoptosis within days of initial dosing. Daily sampling of ctDNA may enable early assessment of patient response and proof-of-concept studies for drug development. PMID:28420725

  6. Tumor Progression Is Mediated by Thymosin-β4 through a TGFβ/MRTF Signaling Axis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro

    2018-05-01

    Although enhanced thymosin β4 (TMSB4X/Tβ4) expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, its tumor-promoting functions remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that TGFβ facilitates Tβ4 expression and leads to the activation of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF), which are coactivators of serum response factor (SRF) and regulate the expression of genes critical for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. In murine mammary gland cells (NMuMG), Tβ4 upregulation is required for full induction of a MRTF-regulated EMT gene expression program after TGFβ stimulation. Tβ4 levels are transcriptionally regulated via the novel cis -acting element AGACAAAG, which interacts with Smad and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) to synergistically activate the Tβ4 promoter downstream of TGFβ. Murine skin melanoma cells (B16F0 and B16F1) also show the expression regulation of Tβ4 by Smad and TCF/LEF. Tβ4-knockout B16F1 (Tβ4 KO) clones show significantly diminished expression level of tumor-associated genes, which is regulated by the TGFβ/MRTFs pathway. In multiple human cancers, Tβ4 levels correlate positively with TGFβ1 and the tumor-associated gene expression levels through processes that respectively depend on TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFBR1) and MRTF expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrate that high Tβ4 expression associates with poor prognosis in an SRF expression-dependent manner in several cancers. In mice, Tβ4 KO clones show significantly decreased experimental metastatic potential; furthermore, ectopic expression of constitutively active MRTF-A fully restores the diminished metastatic activity. In conclusion, the TGFβ/Tβ4/MRTF/SRF pathway is critical for metastasis and tumor progression. Implications: These findings define a molecular mechanism underlying a tumor-promoting function of thymosin β4 through activation of MRTF/SRF signaling. Mol Cancer Res; 16(5); 880-93.

  7. Molecular cross-talk of IL-6 in tumors and new progress in combined therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuoqing; Ren, Dian; Xu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yuxin

    2018-06-01

    IL-6, a cytokine activated by type I interferons (IFNs), is encoded by the IL-6 gene, and secreted by T cells and macrophages. It serves many purposes in the human body and is significant to pathological and physiological activities, such as acute inflammatory responses, autoimmune diseases, and tumor formation. The wide range of IL-6 actions on tumors rely on more than one specific pathway. Advances in modern research have determined that to fulfill its complex physiological functions, IL-6 must be involved in cross-talk with a number of other molecular pathways. Therefore, it is important to clarify the comprehensive pathway network associated with IL-6 activity and to explore the mechanisms to inhibit its pathological activity in order to develop corresponding treatment plans. This study is a simple review of the pathological and physiological actions of IL-6 on the human body. It explains in detail the molecular pathways involved in cross-talk between IL-6 and tumors, summarizing and discussing the latest progress made in IL-6-related internal medicine treatments in recent years, including chemotherapies, targeted therapies, and immunotherapies. Our results provide new insight into the treatment of tumors. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Expression of BMP-4 in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its correlation with tumor invasion and progression.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaomei; Zhu, Peng; Li, Ning; Hu, Jinchen; Wang, Shaoguang; Pang, Shuguang; Wang, Jiahui

    2017-04-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) is a member of the BMP protein family. BMP-4 was reported to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promote tumor cell immigration and invasion. This study aimed to investigate the expression of BMP-4 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and its correlation with the patients' clinicophathological features and with tumor invasion and metastasis. Surgically resected PTC specimens from 82 patients admitted to the Department of Thyroid Surgery of Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital between Feb 1st and May 31st, 2016 were collected. The expression level of BMP-4 in PTC tissues was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The full clinical records of all patients were collected to analyze the relevance between BMP-4 expression and the clinical pathological features of PTC. Our result showed that BMP-4-positive cell rate and staining intensity were positively correlated with the patient's age (P=0.031, 0.037), tumor size (P=0.033, 0.019), capsular invasion (P=0.001, 0.002) and TNM stage (P=0.001, 0.004), while not correlated with gender, multicentricity of tumor or lymphatic metastasis. In conclusion, this study identified BMP-4 as a potential molecular marker for predicting the invasion and progression of PTC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Early progressive encephalopathy in boys and MECP2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kankirawatana, P; Leonard, H; Ellaway, C; Scurlock, J; Mansour, A; Makris, C M; Dure, L S; Friez, M; Lane, J; Kiraly-Borri, C; Fabian, V; Davis, M; Jackson, J; Christodoulou, J; Kaufmann, W E; Ravine, D; Percy, A K

    2006-07-11

    MECP2 mutations mainly occur in females with Rett syndrome. Mutations have been described in 11 boys with progressive encephalopathy: seven of nine with affected sisters and two de novo. The authors report four de novo occurrences: three pathogenic and one potentially pathogenic. Common features include failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, and abnormal motor control. MECP2 mutations should be assessed in boys with progressive encephalopathy and one or more of respiratory insufficiency, abnormal movements or tone, and intractable seizures.

  10. Increased Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Its Promoter Polymorphisms Correlate with Disease Progression and Higher Susceptibility towards Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Laddha, Naresh C.; Dwivedi, Mitesh; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases including vitiligo, as abnormal immune responses have frequently been observed in vitiligo patients. Moreover, vitiligo patients show higher lesion levels of TNF-α. Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter region of TNF-α are involved in the regulation of its expression. The present study explores TNF-α promoter polymorphisms and correlates them with TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients and controls of Gujarat along with its effect on disease onset and progression. PCR-RFLP technique was used for genotyping of these polymorphisms in 977 vitiligo patients and 990 controls. TNF-α transcript and protein levels were measured by Real time PCR and ELISA respectively. The genotype and allele frequencies for the investigated polymorphisms were significantly associated with vitiligo patients. The study revealed significant increase in TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients compared to controls. In particular, haplotypes: AATCC, AACCT, AGTCT, GATCT, GATCC and AGCCT were found to increase the TNF-α levels in vitiligo patients. Analysis of TNF-α levels based on the gender and disease progression suggests that female patients and patients with active vitiligo had higher levels of TNF-α. Also, the TNF-α levels were high in patients with generalized vitiligo as compared to localized vitiligo. Age of onset analysis of the disease suggests that the haplotypes: AACAT, AACCT, AATCC and AATCT had a profound effect in the early onset of the disease. Moreover, the analysis suggests that female patients had an early onset of vitiligo. Overall, our results suggest that TNF-α promoter polymorphisms may be genetic risk factors for susceptibility and progression of the disease. The up-regulation of TNF-α transcript and protein levels in individuals with susceptible haplotypes advocates

  11. Utility of Early Post-operative High Resolution Volumetric MR Imaging after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunal S.; Kazam, Jacob; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists over the utility of early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for macroadenomas. We investigate whether valuable information can be derived from current higher resolution scans. Methods Volumetric MRI scans were obtained in the early (<10 days) and late (>30 days) post-operative periods in a series of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The volume of the residual tumor, resection cavity, and corresponding visual field tests were recorded at each time point. Statistical analyses of changes in tumor volume and cavity size were calculated using the late MRI as the gold standard. Results 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pre-operative tumor volume averaged 8.8 cm3. Early postoperative assessment of average residual tumor volume (1.18 cm3) was quite accurate and did not differ statistically from late post-operative volume (1.23 cm3, p=.64), indicating the utility of early scans to measure residual tumor. Early scans were 100% sensitive and 91% specific for predicting ≥ 98% resection (p<.001, Fisher’s exact test). The average percent decrease in cavity volume from pre-operative MRI (tumor volume) to early post-operative imaging was 45% with decreases in all but 3 patients. There was no correlation between the size of the early cavity and the visual outcome. Conclusions Early high resolution volumetric MRI is valuable in determining the presence or absence of residual tumor. Cavity volume almost always decreases after surgery and a lack of decrease should alert the surgeon to possible persistent compression of the optic apparatus that may warrant re-operation. PMID:25045791

  12. First Report of Dramatic Tumor Responses with Ramucirumab and Paclitaxel After Progression on Pembrolizumab in Two Cases of Metastatic Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Sakti; Dong, Haidong; Paripati, Harshita R; Ross, Helen J; Yoon, Harry H

    2018-04-19

    Checkpoint inhibitors targeted at programmed cell death-1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) can result in significant benefit to a small proportion of patients with cancer, including those with tumors of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction. These drugs are now approved for several solid tumors, including the recent accelerated approval of pembrolizumab for gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas in the third-line setting and beyond based on the KEYNOTE-059 phase II trial. Data are lacking on the efficacy of chemotherapy after progression on PD-1 blockade in metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. This report describes the exceptional response of two patients who received ramucirumab plus paclitaxel after progressive disease on pembrolizumab. This early clinical observation suggests that the sequence of administration of PD-1 blockade and chemotherapy may be important in this disease. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  13. DEPTOR expression negatively correlates with mTORC1 activity and tumor progression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Er-Yong; Chen, Zhen-Guo; Zhou, Xuan; Fan, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Hua; Lai, Ping-Lin; Su, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Bai-Yu; Bai, Xiao-Chun; Li, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is upregulated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). DEPTOR is an mTOR inhibitor whose expression is negatively regulated by mTOR. However, the role of DEPTOR in the development of CRC is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of DEPTOR and mTORC1 activity (P-S6) in a subset of CRC patients and determine their relation to tumor differentiation, invasion, nodal metastasis and disease-free survival. Here, Immunohistochemical expression of P-S6 (S235/236) and DEPTOR were evaluated in 1.5 mm tumor cores from 90 CRC patients and in 90 samples of adjacent normal mucosa by tissue microarray. The expression of P-S6 (S235/236) was upregulated in CRC, with the positive rate of P-S6 (S235/236) in CRC (63.3%) significantly higher than that in control tissues (36.7%, 30%) (p<0.05). P-S6 (S235/236) also correlated with high tumor histologic grade (p=0.002), and positive nodal metastasis (p=0.002). In contrast, the expression level of DEPTOR was correlated with low tumor histological grade (p=0.006), and negative nodal metastasis (p=0.001). Interestingly, P-S6 (S235/236) expression showed a significant negative association with the expression of DEPTOR in CRC (p=0.011, R= -0.279). However, upregulation of P-S6 (S235/236) (p=0.693) and downregulation of DEPTOR (p=0.331) in CRC were not significantly associated with overall survival. Thus, we conclude that expression of DEPTOR negatively correlates with mTORC1 activity and tumor progression in CRC. DEPTOR is a potential marker for prognostic evaluation and a target for the treatment of CRC.

  14. Early Cerebral Blood Volume Changes Predict Progression After Convection-Enhanced Delivery of Topotecan for Recurrent Malignant Glioma.

    PubMed

    Surapaneni, Krishna; Kennedy, Benjamin C; Yanagihara, Ted K; DeLaPaz, Robert; Bruce, Jeffrey N

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether early changes in enhancing tumor volume (eTV) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) 1 month after convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan in patients with recurrent malignant glioma correlated with 6-month disease progression status. Sixteen patients were enrolled in a Phase Ib trial of convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan for recurrent malignant glioma. Each patient was evaluated with serial follow-up magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at 4- to 8-week intervals. Changes at 1 month compared with baseline in eTV and rCBV were evaluated as potential predictors of 6-month progression status, classified as either progressive disease or nonprogressive disease. Relationships between percent changes in eTV and rCBV at 1 month with the probability of progressive disease at 6 months were estimated by the use of logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves for varying percent change thresholds in eTV and rCBV were evaluated by the use of 6-month progressive disease as the reference. There was a significant difference in the percent change in rCBV at 1 month in patients with progressive disease compared with those with nonprogressive disease at 6 months (+12% vs. -29%, P = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated on average that a 10% increase in rCBV at 1 month after convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan was associated with 1.7 times the odds of developing progressive disease at 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-2.9 P = 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic analysis for determining progressive disease at 6 months showed a greater area under the curve with rCBV (0.867; 95% CI 0.66-1.00) than with change in enhancing tumor volume (0.767; 95% CI 0.51-1.00). In this selected population of patients with recurrent malignant glioma treated with convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan, early changes in rCBV at 4 weeks after therapy may help predict progression status at 6 months. Copyright

  15. p28 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Central Nervous System Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-03

    Teratoid Tumor, Atypical; Choroid Plexus Neoplasms; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brainstem Tumors; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Medulloblastoma; Neuroectodermal Tumor, Primitive

  16. Thermal ablation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Safety, efficacy, and factors affecting local tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Edwin A; Kinsman, Kristin A; Schmit, Grant D; Atwell, Thomas D; Schmitz, John J; Welch, Brian T; Callstrom, Matthew R; Geske, Jennifer R; Kurup, A Nicholas

    2018-06-04

    To evaluate the safety and oncologic efficacy of percutaneous thermal ablation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and identify risk factors for local tumor progression (LTP). Retrospective review of an institutional tumor ablation registry demonstrated that 20 patients (9 males, 11 females; mean age 62.5 ± 15.8 years) with 50 ICCs (mean size 1.8 ± 1.3 cm) were treated with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or microwave ablation (MWA) between 2006 and 2015. Thirty-eight of the treated ICCs (76%) were metastases that developed after surgical resection of the primary tumor. Patient demographics, procedure technical parameters, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the risk of LTP by ablation modality. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Mean imaging follow-up time was 41.5 ± 42.7 months. Forty-four (88%) ICCs were treated with RFA, and 6 (12%) with MWA. Eleven (22%) cases of LTP developed in 5 (25%) patients. The median time to LTP among these 11 tumors was 7.1 months (range, 2.3-22.9 months). Risk of LTP was not significantly different for ICCs treated with MWA compared to RFA (HR 2.72; 95% CI 0.58-12.84; p = 03.21). Median disease-free survival was 8.2 months (1.1-70.4 months), and median overall survival was 23.6 months (7.4-122.5 months). No major complication occurred. Percutaneous thermal ablation is a safe and effective treatment for patients with ICCs and may be particularly valuable in unresectable patients, or those who have already undergone hepatic surgery. Tumor size and ablation modality were not associated with LTP, whereas primary tumors and superficially located tumors were more likely to subsequently recur.

  17. The Progressive Development of Early Embodied Algebraic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this article I present some results from a 5-year longitudinal investigation with young students about the genesis of embodied, non-symbolic algebraic thinking and its progressive transition to culturally evolved forms of symbolic thinking. The investigation draws on a cultural-historical theory of teaching and learning--the theory of…

  18. Hypoxia induced EMT: A review on the mechanism of tumor progression and metastasis in OSCC.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joel P; Harishankar, M K; Pillai, Aruthra Arumugam; Devi, Arikketh

    2018-05-01

    Hypoxia, a condition of low oxygen tension in tissues, has emerged as a crucial factor in tumor pathophysiology. Hypoxic microenvironment gives rise to altered cellular metabolism and triggers varied molecular responses. These responses promote tumor progression and confer radiation resistance and chemo resistance to tumors. The predominant molecules that are associated with hypoxia research are the hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are known to regulate a large group of genes that are involved in cell survival, proliferation, motility, metabolism, pH regulation, extracellular matrix function, inflammatory cell recruitment and angiogenesis by inducing the expression of their downstream target genes. The process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with metastasis in cancer. Reports also suggest that hypoxia triggers EMT in several types of cancer including breast cancer, prostate cancer and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a predominant cancer in Central and South East Asia. However, in the recent times, the incidence rates of oral cancer have been increasing in Northern and Eastern Europe as well. This review articulates the role of hypoxia and the associated factors like HIFs in inducing EMT in oral cancer (OSCC). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Loss of ERβ expression as a common step in estrogen-dependent tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, Allison; Boulle, Nathalie; Lazennec, Gwendal; Vignon, Françoise; Pujol, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    The characterization of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) brought new insight into the mechanisms underlying estrogen signaling. Estrogen induction of cell proliferation is a crucial step in carcinogenesis of gynecologic target tissues and the mitogenic effects of estrogen in these tissues (e.g. breast, endometrium and ovary) are well documented both in vitro and in vivo. There is also an emerging body of evidence that colon and prostate cancer growth is influenced by estrogens. In all of these tissues, most studies have shown decreased ERβ expression in cancer as compared to benign tumors or normal tissues, whereas ERα expression persists. The loss of ERβ expression in cancer cells could reflect tumor cell dedifferentiation but may also represent a critical stage in estrogen-dependent tumor progression. Modulation of the expression of ERα target genes by ERβ, or ERβ specific gene induction could indicate that ERβ has a differential effect on proliferation as compared to ERα. ERβ may exert a protective effect and thus constitute a new target for hormone therapy, e.g. via ligand specific activation. The potential distinct roles of ERα and ERβ expression in carcinogenesis, as suggested by experimental and clinical data, are discussed in this review. PMID:15369453

  20. Mutant IDH1 Disrupts the Mouse Subventricular Zone and Alters Brain Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Pirozzi, Christopher J.; Carpenter, Austin B.; Waitkus, Matthew S.; Wang, Catherine Y.; Zhu, Huishan; Hansen, Landon J.; Chen, Lee H.; Greer, Paula K.; Feng, Jie; Wang, Yu; Bock, Cheryl B.; Fan, Ping; Spasojevic, Ivan; McLendon, Roger E.; Bigner, Darell D.; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai

    2017-01-01

    IDH1 mutations occur in the majority of low-grade gliomas and lead to the production of the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). To understand the effects of tumor-associated mutant IDH1 (IDH1-R132H) on both the neural stem cell (NSC) population and brain tumorigenesis, genetically faithful cell lines and mouse model systems were generated. Here, it is reported that mouse NSCs expressing Idh1-R132H displayed reduced proliferation due to p53-mediated cell cycle arrest as well as a decreased ability to undergo neuronal differentiation. In vivo, Idh1-R132H expression reduced proliferation of cells within the germinal zone of the subventricular zone (SVZ). The NSCs within this area were dispersed and disorganized in mutant animals, suggesting that Idh1-R132H perturbed the NSCs and the microenvironment from which gliomas arise. Additionally, tumor-bearing animals expressing mutant Idh1 displayed a prolonged survival and also overexpressed Olig2, features consistent with IDH1-mutated human gliomas. These data indicate that mutant Idh1 disrupts the NSC microenvironment and the candidate cell of origin for glioma; thus, altering the progression of tumorigenesis. Additionally, this study provides a mutant Idh1 brain tumor model that genetically recapitulates human disease, laying the foundation for future investigations on mutant IDH1-mediated brain tumorigenesis and targeted therapy. PMID:28148827

  1. Extending the Range of a BEV - Early Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, John; Agathocleous, Nicos; Kang, SH

    The 2015 BEV Kia Soul is available with either a Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) heater only or an air-source R134a heat pump with PTC heater combination. Hanon, HATCI, and NREL are jointly, with financial support from the DoE, working towards extending the driving range of the heat pump vehicle. This presentation will focus on the early findings of the project, including test data of the baseline vehicle, early data from a modified vehicle, and range extension goals of the project.

  2. Effects of Progress Monitoring Feedback on Early Literacy Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopuch, Jeremy Jon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of diagnostic formative assessment feedback on early literacy skills. The participants were 12 first-grade general education teachers and 51 of their students who were assigned to the following treatments, diagnostic feedback and skills feedback (control) which lasted for 10 weeks. During the…

  3. Minnesota Early Childhood Indicators of Progress: A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Stressing the importance of collective efforts among families, early childhood care and education programs, communities, and policymakers in supporting the learning and development of children, this resource guide provides a framework for understanding and communicating a common set of developmentally appropriate expectations for young children…

  4. Formative Evaluation of the Early Development Instrument: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a commentary for the special issue on the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a community tool to assess children's school readiness and developmental outcomes at a group level. The EDI is administered by kindergarten teachers, who assess their kindergarten students on 5 developmental domains: physical health and well-being, social…

  5. Barriers and Solutions to HE Progression for Early Years' Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Alexandra; Carey, Danielle; Cramp, Andy; Perkins, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in UK social and economic policy have focused on education and care in the Early Years as key to improving social inclusion, skills acquisition and longer term social and economic prosperity. The implications for practitioners in the sector have been significant as roles, functions and foci have been renegotiated through the processes of…

  6. Motor, cognitive, and functional declines contribute to a single progressive factor in early HD.

    PubMed

    Schobel, Scott A; Palermo, Giuseppe; Auinger, Peggy; Long, Jeffrey D; Ma, Shiyang; Khwaja, Omar S; Trundell, Dylan; Cudkowicz, Merit; Hersch, Steven; Sampaio, Cristina; Dorsey, E Ray; Leavitt, Blair R; Kieburtz, Karl D; Sevigny, Jeffrey J; Langbehn, Douglas R; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2017-12-12

    To identify an improved measure of clinical progression in early Huntington disease (HD) using data from prospective observational cohort studies and placebo group data from randomized double-blind clinical trials. We studied Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and non-UHDRS clinical measures and brain measures of progressive atrophy in 1,668 individuals with early HD followed up prospectively for up to 30 to 36 months of longitudinal clinical follow-up. The results demonstrated that a composite measure of motor, cognitive, and global functional decline best characterized clinical progression and was most strongly associated with brain measures of progressive corticostriatal atrophy. Use of a composite motor, cognitive, and global functional clinical outcome measure in HD provides an improved measure of clinical progression more related to measures of progressive brain atrophy and provides an opportunity for enhanced clinical trial efficiency relative to currently used individual motor, cognitive, and functional outcome measures. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of Hsp60 correlates with tumor progression and hormone resistance in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Carolina; Congregado, Belén; Conde, José M; Medina, Rafael; Torrubia, Francisco J; Japón, Miguel A; Sáez, Carmen

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the expression of Hsp60 protein in prostate cancer biopsy samples, and its association with prognostic clinical parameters and hormone resistance and survival. Molecular chaperones are involved in protein folding, protein degradation, and protein trafficking among subcellular compartments. We selected 107 patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer at our hospital from 1999 through 2004. We performed an analysis by western blot and immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Clinical data were used to determine associations between immunohistochemical expression of Hsp60 and tumor behavior. The expression level of Hsp60 was significantly increased in tumors with high Gleason score (P < .001). Hsp60 expression was also significantly associated with initial serum PSA levels (P < .01) and with the presence of lymph node metastasis (P < .003). In 50 locally advanced cancers treated by androgen ablation we found an association between high Hsp60-expressing tumors and an early onset of hormone refractory disease (P < .02) and reduced cancer-specific survival (P < .05). Hsp60 protein is overexpressed in poorly differentiated prostate cancers. Hsp60 expression is strongly associated with prognostic clinical parameters, such as Gleason score, initial serum PSA levels, and lymph node metastasis and with the onset of hormone-refractory disease and reduced cancer-specific survival. Identification of such markers could be of relevance in the clinical management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of acarbose to delay progression of carotid intima-media thickness in early diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y R; Kirkman, M S; Considine, R V; Hannon, T S; Mather, K J

    2013-10-01

    The anti-diabetic agent acarbose reduces postprandial glucose excursions. We have evaluated the effect of randomized treatment with acarbose on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in early diabetes. The Early Diabetes Intervention Program was a randomized trial of acarbose versus placebo in 219 participants with early diabetes characterized by glucose values over 11.1 mmol/L 2 h after a 75 g oral glucose load and a mean HbA1c of 6.3%. IMT was measured at baseline and yearly. Follow-up was discontinued if participants progressed to the study glucose endpoints; IMT readings were available for a median of 2 years, with 72 subjects followed for 5 years. Progressive increases in IMT were seen in both treatment groups, but progression was reduced in participants randomized to acarbose (p = 0.047). In age, sex and smoking-adjusted analyses, IMT progression was associated with greater fasting and oral glucose tolerance test-excursion glucose, fasting insulin, cholesterol and glycated low-density lipoprotein concentrations. IMT progression was reduced with study-related changes in weight, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids; these features were more strongly associated with reduced IMT progression than acarbose treatment. Despite strong associations of baseline glycemia with IMT progression, study-related changes in glucose were not important determinants of IMT progression. Acarbose can delay progression of carotid intima-media thickness in early diabetes defined by an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose, weight, insulin and lipids contributed to risk of progression but reductions in glycemia were not major determinants of reduced rate of IMT progression. Vascular benefits of acarbose may be independent of its glycemic effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Characterization of the expression of the pro-metastatic Mena(INV) isoform during breast tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Oudin, Madeleine J; Hughes, Shannon K; Rohani, Nazanin; Moufarrej, Mira N; Jones, Joan G; Condeelis, John S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    Several functionally distinct isoforms of the actin regulatory Mena are produced by alternative splicing during tumor progression. Forced expression of the Mena(INV) isoform drives invasion, intravasation and metastasis. However, the abundance and distribution of endogenously expressed Mena(INV) within primary tumors during progression remain unknown, as most studies to date have only assessed relative mRNA levels from dissociated tumor samples. We have developed a Mena(INV) isoform-specific monoclonal antibody and used it to examine Mena(INV) expression patterns in mouse mammary and human breast tumors. Mena(INV) expression increases during tumor progression and to examine the relationship between Mena(INV) expression and markers for epithelial or mesenchymal status, stemness, stromal cell types and hypoxic regions. Further, while Mena(INV) robustly expressed in vascularized areas of the tumor, it is not confined to cells adjacent to blood vessels. Altogether, these data demonstrate the specificity and utility of the anti-Mena(INV)-isoform specific antibody, and provide the first description of endogenous Mena(INV) protein expression in mouse and human tumors.

  10. Regorafenib inhibits tumor progression through suppression of ERK/NF-κB activation in hepatocellular carcinoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Mao-Chi; Wang, Mei-Hui; Tsai, Jai-Jen; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Chang; Hsu, Fei-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2018-06-29

    Regorafenib has been demonstrated in our previous study to trigger apoptosis through suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SK-Hep1 cells in vitro However, the effect of regorafenib on NF-κB-modulated tumor progression in HCC in vivo is ambiguous. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of regorafenib on NF-κB-modulated tumor progression in HCC bearing mouse model. pGL4.50 luciferase reporter vector transfected SK-Hep1 (SK-Hep1/ luc2 ) and Hep3B 2.1-7 tumor bearing mice were established and used for the present study. Mice were treated with vehicle or regorafenib (20 mg/kg/day by gavage) for 14 days. Effects of regorafenib on tumor growth and protein expression together with toxicity of regorafenib were evaluated with digital caliper and bioluminescence imaging (BLI), ex vivo Western blotting immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and measurement of body weight and pathological examination of liver tissue, respectively, in SK-Hep1/ luc2 and Hep3B 2.1-7 tumor bearing mice. The results indicated regorafenib significantly reduced tumor growth and expression of phosphorylated ERK, NF-κB p65 (Ser536), phosphorylated AKT, and tumor progression-associated proteins. In addition, we found regorafenib induced both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Body weight and liver morphology were not affected by regorafenib treatment. Our findings present the mechanism of tumor progression inhibition by regorafenib is linked to suppression of ERK/NF-κB signaling in SK-Hep1/ luc2 and Hep3B 2.1-7 tumor bearing mice. © 2018 The Author(s).

  11. A comparative study of two prediction models for brain tumor progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqi; Tran, Loc; Wang, Jihong; Li, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique together with traditional T1 or T2 weighted MRI scans supplies rich information sources for brain cancer diagnoses. These images form large-scale, high-dimensional data sets. Due to the fact that significant correlations exist among these images, we assume low-dimensional geometry data structures (manifolds) are embedded in the high-dimensional space. Those manifolds might be hidden from radiologists because it is challenging for human experts to interpret high-dimensional data. Identification of the manifold is a critical step for successfully analyzing multimodal MR images. We have developed various manifold learning algorithms (Tran et al. 2011; Tran et al. 2013) for medical image analysis. This paper presents a comparative study of an incremental manifold learning scheme (Tran. et al. 2013) versus the deep learning model (Hinton et al. 2006) in the application of brain tumor progression prediction. The incremental manifold learning is a variant of manifold learning algorithm to handle large-scale datasets in which a representative subset of original data is sampled first to construct a manifold skeleton and remaining data points are then inserted into the skeleton by following their local geometry. The incremental manifold learning algorithm aims at mitigating the computational burden associated with traditional manifold learning methods for large-scale datasets. Deep learning is a recently developed multilayer perceptron model that has achieved start-of-the-art performances in many applications. A recent technique named "Dropout" can further boost the deep model by preventing weight coadaptation to avoid over-fitting (Hinton et al. 2012). We applied the two models on multiple MRI scans from four brain tumor patients to predict tumor progression and compared the performances of the two models in terms of average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision. The quantitative performance metrics were

  12. Tumor location is a strong predictor of tumor progression and survival in T2 gallbladder cancer: an international multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Shindoh, Junichi; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Aloia, Thomas A.; Carlos Roa, Juan; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Javle, Milind; Conrad, Claudius; Maru, Dipen M.; Aoki, Taku; Vigano, Luca; Ribero, Dario; Roa, Ivan; Kokudo, Norihiro; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prognostic impact of tumor location in gallbladder cancer. Summary Background Data Depth of tumor is a strong predictor of survival after curative resection of gallbladder cancer. However, the gallbladder has a unique anatomical relationship with the liver, and the clinical significance of tumor location remains unclear. Methods For 437 patients with gallbladder cancer resected at 4 international institutions, clinicopathologic characteristics and their association with survival were analyzed. Tumor location was defined as “hepatic side” or “peritoneal side”, and the prognostic significance of tumor location was evaluated. Results Among the 252 patients with T2 disease, patients with tumors on the hepatic side (T2h, n=99) had higher rates of vascular invasion, neural invasion, and nodal metastasis than patients with tumors on the peritoneal side (T2p, n=153) (51% vs. 19%, 33% vs. 8%, and 40% vs. 17%, respectively, P<0.01 for all). After a median follow-up of 58.9 months, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 52.1% and 42.6%, respectively, for T2h tumors and 73.7% and 64.7%, respectively, for T2p tumors (P=0.0006). No such differences were observed in T1 or T3 tumors. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent association of hepatic-side location with survival in T2 tumors (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7 to 4.2; P<0.001). This subclassification of T2 tumors predicted recurrence in the liver (23% vs. 3%, P=0.003) and distant lymph nodes (16% vs. 3%, P=0.019) even after radical resection. Conclusions After curative resection of T2 gallbladder cancer, tumor location predicts the pattern of recurrence and survival. PMID:24854451

  13. Tumor location is a strong predictor of tumor progression and survival in T2 gallbladder cancer: an international multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Shindoh, Junichi; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Aloia, Thomas A; Roa, Juan Carlos; Roa, Ivan; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Javle, Milind; Conrad, Claudius; Maru, Dipen M; Aoki, Taku; Vigano, Luca; Ribero, Dario; Kokudo, Norihiro; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prognostic impact of tumor location in gallbladder cancer. Depth of tumor is a strong predictor of survival after curative resection of gallbladder cancer. However, the gallbladder has a unique anatomical relationship with the liver, and the clinical significance of tumor location remains unclear. For 437 patients with gallbladder cancer who underwent resection at 4 international institutions, clinicopathologic characteristics and their association with survival were analyzed. Tumor location was defined as "hepatic side" or "peritoneal side," and the prognostic significance of tumor location was evaluated. Among the 252 patients with T2 disease, patients with tumors on the hepatic side (T2h, n = 99) had higher rates of vascular invasion, neural invasion, and nodal metastasis than patients with tumors on the peritoneal side (T2p, n = 153) (51% vs 19%, 33% vs 8%, and 40% vs 17%, respectively; P < 0.01 for all). After a median follow-up of 58.9 months, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 52.1% and 42.6%, respectively, for T2h tumors and 73.7% and 64.7%, respectively, for T2p tumors (P = 0.0006). No such differences were observed in T1 or T3 tumors. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent association of hepatic-side location with survival in T2 tumors (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.2; P < 0.001). This subclassification of T2 tumors predicted recurrence in the liver (23% vs 3%; P = 0.003) and distant lymph nodes (16% vs 3%; P = 0.019) even after radical resection. After curative resection of T2 gallbladder cancer, tumor location predicts the pattern of recurrence and survival.

  14. Examining the Technical Adequacy of Progress Monitoring Using Early Writing Curriculum-Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, David D.; Lembke, Erica S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine 4 early writing measures used to monitor the early writing progress of 1st-grade students. We administered the measures to 23 1st-grade students biweekly for a total of 16 weeks. We obtained 3-min samples and conducted analyses for each 1-min increment. We scored samples using 2 different methods: correct…

  15. Effects of Acarbose to Delay Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Early Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, YR; Kirkman, MS; Considine, RV; Hannon, TS; Mather, KJ

    2014-01-01

    Background The antidiabetic agent acarbose reduces postprandial glucose excursions. We have evaluated the effect of randomized treatment with acarbose on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in early diabetes. Methods The Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) was a randomized trial of acarbose versus placebo, in 219 participants with early diabetes characterized by glucose values over 11.1 mmol/L 2 hours after a 75g oral glucose load, and mean HbA1c 6.3%. IMT was measured at baseline and yearly. Follow-up was discontinued if participants progressed to the study glucose endpoints; IMT readings were available for a median of 2 years, with 72 subjects followed for 5 years. Results Progressive increases in IMT were seen in both treatment groups, but this was reduced in participants randomized to acarbose (p=0.047). In age, sex and smoking-adjusted analyses IMT progression was associated with greater fasting and OGTT-excursion glucose, fasting insulin, cholesterol, and glycated LDL concentrations. IMT progression was reduced with study-related changes in weight, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids; these features were more strongly associated with reduced IMT progression than acarbose treatment. Despite strong associations of baseline glycemia with IMT progression, study-related changes in glucose were not important determinants of IMT progression. Conclusions Acarbose can delay progression of carotid intima-media thickness in early diabetes defined by an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose, weight, insulin and lipids contributed to risk of progression but reductions in glycemia were not major determinants of reduced rate of IMT progression. Vascular benefits of acarbose may be independent of its glycemic effects. PMID:23908125

  16. The Progressive Development of Early Embodied Algebraic Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Luis

    2014-06-01

    In this article I present some results from a 5-year longitudinal investigation with young students about the genesis of embodied, non-symbolic algebraic thinking and its progressive transition to culturally evolved forms of symbolic thinking. The investigation draws on a cultural-historical theory of teaching and learning—the theory of objectification. Within this theory, thinking is conceived of as a form of reflection and action that is simultaneously material and ideal: It includes inner and outer speech, sensuous forms of imagination and visualisation, gestures, rhythm, and their intertwinement with material culture (symbols, artifacts, etc.). The theory articulates a cultural view of development as an unfolding dialectic process between culturally and historically constituted forms of mathematical knowing and semiotically mediated classroom activity. Looking at the experimental data through these theoretical lenses reveals a developmental path where embodied forms of thinking are sublated or subsumed into more sophisticated ones through the mediation of properly designed classroom activity.

  17. Early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System for the treatment of mediastinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Taira, Masahiro; Yoshida, Koichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Usuda, Jitsuo; Uchida, Osamu; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2011-10-01

    The da Vinci Surgical System has been used in only a few cases for treating mediastinal tumors in Japan. Recently, we used the da Vinci Surgical System for various types of anterior and middle mediastinal tumors in clinical practice. We report our early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System. Seven patients gave written informed consent to undergo robotic surgery for mediastinal tumor dissection using the da Vinci Surgical System. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of this system for the surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors. Two specialists in thoracic surgery who are certified to use the da Vinci S Surgical System and another specialist acted as an assistant performed the tumor dissection. We were able to access difficult-to-reach areas, such as the mediastinum, safely. All the resected tumors were classified as benign tumors histologically. The average da Vinci setting time was 14.0 min, the average working time was 55.7 min, and the average overall operating time was 125.9 min. The learning curve for the da Vinci setup and manipulation time was short. Robotic surgery enables mediastinal tumor dissection in certain cases more safely and easily than conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and less invasively than open thoracotomy.

  18. [Rapidly progressive pulmonary malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Shi, X Y; Long, F; Liang, B; Su, L L; Li, H C; Jiang, S J

    2016-10-12

    Objective: To analyze the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumor(PEComa). Methods: The clinical features, auxiliary examinations and diagnosis of a case with rapidly progressive pulmonary malignant PEComa were reported and the related literatures were reviewed.The literature review was carried out respectively in Wanfang Data, CNKI and PubMed from Jan. 1975 to Jul. 2015 with "pulmonary malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor" and "PEComa" being the search terms. Results: A 50 year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital on September 4, 2014 because of cough and dyspnea for 60 days, hemoptysis for 40 days and fever for 7 days.Chest CT scan showed diffuse small nodules with infiltrative border and multiple pure and mixed ground-glass opacity. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) was performed and the pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of primary pulmonary malignant PEComa. The patient declined further specific therapy, but followed by rapidly progressive respiratory failure, and died two weeks after the diagnosis. A total of 8 literatures were retrieved from Wanfang Data, CNKI and PubMed and all of them were case reports.There were 3 male and 5 female patients, aging from 50 to 79 years.Radiographically, the previously reported cases presented as round and well-circumscribed masses with or without multiple nodules in both lungs. The symptoms had no specificity. Conclusions: Pulmonary malignant PEComa is a rare disease.It is easily misdiagnosed because of non-specific clinical and imaging manifestations.The final diagnosis depends on pathological biopsy.TBLB is an effective diagnostic method.

  19. Imiquimod Induces Apoptosis in Human Endometrial Cancer Cells In vitro and Prevents Tumor Progression In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Almomen, Aliyah; Jarboe, Elke A.; Dodson, Mark K.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Owen, Shawn C.; Janát-Amsbury, Margit M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The increasing incidence of endometrial cancer (EC), in younger age at diagnosis, calls for new tissue-sparing treatment options. This work aims to evaluate the potential of imiquimod (IQ) in the treatment of low-grade EC. Methods Effects of IQ on the viabilities of Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells were evaluated using MTT assay. The ability of IQ to induce apoptosis was evaluated by testing changes in caspase 3/7 levels and expression of cleaved caspase-3, using luminescence assay and western blot. Apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometry and the expression of cleaved PARP. Western blot was used to evaluate the effect of IQ on expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and BAX. Finally, the in vivo efficacy of IQ was tested in an EC mouse model. Results There was a decrease in EC cell viability following IQ treatment as well as increased caspase 3/7 activities, cleaved caspase-3 expression, and Annexin-V/ 7AAD positive cell population. Western blot results showed the ability of IQ in cleaving PARP, decreasing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expressions, but not affecting BAX expression. In vivo study demonstrated IQ’s ability to inhibit EC tumor growth and progression without significant toxicity. Conclusions IQ induces apoptosis in low-grade EC cells in vitro, probably through its direct effect on Bcl-2 family protein expression. In, vivo, IQ attenuates EC tumor growth and progression, without an obvious toxicity. Our study provides the first building block for the potential role of IQ in the non-surgical management of low-grades EC and encouraging further investigations. PMID:27245465

  20. Deficient expression of DNA repair enzymes in early progression to sporadic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    crypts near cancers and TVAs suggests that the tumors arose in field defects that were deficient in DNA repair and that deficiencies in Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf are early steps, often occurring together, in progression to colon cancer. PMID:22494821

  1. Progressive Decrease of Peripapillary Angioflow Vessel Density During Structural and Visual Field Progression in Early Primary Open-angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Holló, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    To present a case of early primary open-angle glaucoma in which retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and visual field progression were accompanied with significant progression of peripapillary angioflow vessel density (PAFD) measured with optical coherence tomographic angiography. A 68-year-old female patient who was under topical intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering medication for 20 years for ocular hypertension of the right and preperimetric primary open-angle glaucoma of the left eye (with reproducible inferotemporal and superotemporal neuroretinal rim and RNFL loss) was prospectively imaged with the AngioVue OCT for RNFLT, GCC thickness, and PAFD, and investigated with the Octopus Normal G2 visual field test on the same days at 6-month intervals for 18 months, while the IOP of the left eye escaped from control. IOP of the left eye fluctuated between 14 and 30 mm Hg in the study period. RNFLT, GCC thickness, and peripapillary PAFD all decreased significantly (linear regression analysis, P=0.030, 0.040, and 0.020, respectively), and a significant 2.1 dB/y progression was seen for a superior visual field cluster. The RNFLT, peripapillary PAFD, and visual field of the right eye remained normal and unchanged. In our case IOP elevation, glaucomatous visual field conversion, and structural progression were accompanied with significant progressive decrease of peripapillary PAFD. The simultaneous thinning of RNFLT and GCC and decrease of peripapillary PAFD suggest that PAFD may potentially be an additional indicator of early progression in primary open-angle glaucoma.

  2. Duct- and Acinar-Derived Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Show Distinct Tumor Progression and Marker Expression.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rute M M; Sancho, Rocio; Messal, Hendrik A; Nye, Emma; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Stone, Richard K; Stamp, Gordon; Rosewell, Ian; Quaglia, Alberto; Behrens, Axel

    2017-10-24

    The cell of origin of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been controversial. Here, we show that identical oncogenic drivers trigger PDAC originating from both ductal and acinar cells with similar histology but with distinct pathophysiology and marker expression dependent on cell of origin. Whereas acinar-derived tumors exhibited low AGR2 expression and were preceded by pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), duct-derived tumors displayed high AGR2 and developed independently of a PanIN stage via non-mucinous lesions. Using orthotopic transplantation and chimera experiments, we demonstrate that PanIN-like lesions can be induced by PDAC as bystanders in adjacent healthy tissues, explaining the co-existence of mucinous and non-mucinous lesions and highlighting the need to distinguish between true precursor PanINs and PanIN-like bystander lesions. Our results suggest AGR2 as a tool to stratify PDAC according to cell of origin, highlight that not all PanIN-like lesions are precursors of PDAC, and add an alternative progression route to the current model of PDAC development. Copyright © 2017 Francis Crick Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolome progression during early gut microbial colonization of gnotobiotic mice

    PubMed Central

    Marcobal, Angela; Yusufaly, Tahir; Higginbottom, Steven; Snyder, Michael; Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Mias, George I.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome has been implicated directly in host health, especially host metabolic processes and development of immune responses. These are particularly important in infants where the gut first begins being colonized, and such processes may be modeled in mice. In this investigation we follow longitudinally the urine metabolome of ex-germ-free mice, which are colonized with two bacterial species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bifidobacterium longum. High-throughput mass spectrometry profiling of urine samples revealed dynamic changes in the metabolome makeup, associated with the gut bacterial colonization, enabled by our adaptation of non-linear time-series analysis to urine metabolomics data. Results demonstrate both gradual and punctuated changes in metabolite production and that early colonization events profoundly impact the nature of small molecules circulating in the host. The identified small molecules are implicated in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolic processes, and offer insights into the dynamic changes occurring during the colonization process, using high-throughput longitudinal methodology. PMID:26118551

  4. Creatine supplementation prevents hyperhomocysteinemia, oxidative stress and cancer-induced cachexia progression in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Deminice, Rafael; Cella, Paola Sanches; Padilha, Camila S; Borges, Fernando H; da Silva, Lilian Eslaine Costa Mendes; Campos-Ferraz, Patrícia L; Jordao, Alceu Afonso; Robinson, Jason Lorne; Bertolo, Robert F; Cecchini, Rubens; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the impact of tumor growth on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism, liver oxidative stress and cancer cachexia and, (2) the potential benefits of creatine supplementation in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Three experiments were conducted. First, rats were killed on days 5 (D5), 10 (D10) and 14 (D14) after tumor implantation. In experiment 2, rats were randomly assigned to three groups designated as control (C), tumor-bearing (T) and tumor-bearing supplemented with creatine (TCr). A life span experiment was conducted as the third experiment. Creatine was supplied in drinking water for 21 days (8 g/L) in all cases. Tumor implantation consisted of a suspension of Walker-256 cells (8.0 × 10(7) cells in 0.5 mL of PBS). The progressive increase (P < 0.05) in tumor mass coincided with a progressively lower body weight and higher hepatic oxidative stress; plasma Hcy concentration was 80 % higher (P < 0.05) by 10 days of tumor implantation. Impaired Hcy metabolism was evidenced by decreased hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (Bhmt), glycine N-methyltransferase (Gnmt) and cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) gene expression. In contrast, creatine supplementation promoted a 28 % reduction of tumor weight (P < 0.05). Plasma Hcy (C 6.1 ± 0.6, T 10.3 ± 1.5, TCr 6.3 ± 0.9, µmol/L) and hepatic oxidative stress were lower in the TCr group compared to T. Creatine supplementation was unable to decrease Hcy concentration and to increase SAM/SAH ratio in tumor tissue. These data suggest that creatine effects on hepatic impaired Hcy metabolism promoted by tumor cell inoculation are responsible to decrease plasma Hcy in tumor-bearing rats. In conclusion, Walker-256 tumor growth is associated with progressive hyperhomocysteinemia, body weight loss and liver oxidative stress in rats. Creatine supplementation, however, prevented these tumor-associated perturbations.

  5. Transarterial chemoembolization for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma decrease local tumor control and overall survival compared to radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Hocquelet, Arnaud; Seror, Olivier; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Frulio, Nora; Salut, Cécile; Nault, Jean-Charles; Hervé Trillaud

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims To compare treatment failure and survival associated with ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for early-stage HCC in Child-Pugh A cirrhosis patients. Methods 122 cirrhotic patients (RFA: 61; TACE: 61) were well matched according to cirrhosis severity; tumor size and serum alpha-fetoprotein. TACE was performed in case of inconspicuous nodule on US or nodule with “at risk location”. Treatment failure was defined as local tumor progression (LTP) and primary treatment failure (failing to obtain complete response after two treatment session). Treatment failure and overall survival (OS) were compared after coarsened exact matching. Cox proportional model to assess independent predictive factors was performed. Results No significant difference was seen for baseline characteristics between the two groups. Mean tumor size was 3cm in both group with 41% HCC>3cm. Treatment failure rates after TACE was 42.6% (14 primary treatment failures and 12 LTP) and 9.8% after RFA (no primary treatment failure and 6 LTP) P < 0.001. TACE was the only predictive factor of treatment failure (Hazard ratio: 5.573). The 4-years OS after RFA and TACE were 54.1% and 31.5% (P = 0.042), respectively. Conclusion For Child-Pugh A patients with early-stage HCC, alternative treatment as supra-selective TACE to RFA regarded as too challenging using common US guidance decrease significantly the local tumor control and overall survival. Efforts to improve feasibility of RFA especially for inconspicuous target have to be made. PMID:27793027

  6. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of LDHA reverses tumor progression of pediatric osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Tu, Dan-Na; Li, Heng; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Cao, Xin; You, Jin-Bin; Zhou, Xiao-Qin

    2016-07-01

    Reprogrammed energy metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key enzyme involved in anaerobic glycolysis, is frequently deregulated in human malignancies. However, limited knowledge is known about its roles in the progression of osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, we found that LDHA is commonly upregulated in four OS cell lines compared with the normal osteoblast cells (hFOB1.19). Treatment with FX11, a specific inhibitor of LDHA, significantly reduced LDHA activity, and inhibited cell proliferation and invasive potential in a dose dependent manner. Genetic silencing of LDHA resulted in a decreased lactate level in the culture medium, reduced cell viability and decreased cell invasion ability. Meanwhile, silencing of LDHA also compromised tumorigenesis in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of LDHA remarkably reduced extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) as well as glucose consumption. In the presence of 2-DG, a glycolysis inhibitor, LDHA-mediated cell proliferation and invasion were completely blocked, indicating the oncogenic activities of LDHA may dependent on Warburg effect. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of c-Myc or HIF1α significantly attenuated LDHA expression. Taken together, upregulated LDHA facilitates tumor progression of OS and might be a potential target for OS treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Collagen VI Ablation Retards Brain Tumor Progression Due to Deficits in Assembly of the Vascular Basal Lamina

    PubMed Central

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Bonaldo, Paolo; Stallcup, William B.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the vascular basal lamina in tumor blood vessel morphogenesis and function, we compared vessel development, vessel function, and progression of B16F10 melanoma tumors in the brains of wild-type and collagen VI-null mice. In 7-day tumors in the absence of collagen VI, the width of the vascular basal lamina was reduced twofold. Although the ablation of collagen VI did not alter the abundance of blood vessels, a detailed analysis of the number of either pericytes or endothelial cells (or pericyte coverage of endothelial cells) showed that collagen VI-dependent defects during the assembly of the basal lamina have negative effects on both pericyte maturation and the sprouting and survival of endothelial cells. As a result of these deficits, vessel patency was reduced by 25%, and vessel leakiness was increased threefold, resulting in a 10-fold increase in tumor hypoxia along with a fourfold increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression. In 12-day collagen VI-null tumors, vascular endothelial growth factor expression was increased throughout the tumor stroma, in contrast to the predominantly vascular pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wild-type tumors. Vessel size was correspondingly reduced in 12-day collagen VI-null tumors. Overall, these vascular deficits produced a twofold decrease in tumor volume in collagen VI-null mice, confirming that collagen VI-dependent basal lamina assembly is a critical aspect of vessel development. PMID:22200614

  8. Phase II Study of Intraventricular Methotrexate in Children With Recurrent or Progressive Malignant Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-01

    Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Embryonal Tumor With Abundant Neuropil and True Rosettes; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm to the Leptomeninges

  9. Secretory IgM Exacerbates Tumor Progression by Inducing Accumulations of MDSCs in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chih-Hang Anthony; Chang, Shiun; Hashimoto, Ayumi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Kang, Chang Won; Mato, Anthony R; Del Valle, Juan R; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells can secrete immunoglobulin M. However, it is not clear whether secretory IgM (sIgM) plays a role in disease progression. We crossed the Eμ-TCL1 mouse model of CLL, in which the expression of human TCL1 oncogene was driven by the V(H) promoter-Ig(H)-Eμ enhancer, with MD4 mice whose B cells produced B-cell receptor (membrane-bound IgM) and sIgM with specificity for hen egg lysozyme (HEL). CLL cells that developed in these MD4/Eμ-TCL1 mice reactivated a parental Ig gene allele and secreted IgM, and did not recognize HEL. The MD4/Eμ-TCL1 mice had reduced survival, increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and decreased numbers of T cells. We tested whether sIgM could contribute to the accumulation of MDSCs by crossing μS -/- mice, which could not produce sIgM, with Eμ-TCL1 mice. The μS -/- /Eμ-TCL1 mice survived longer than Eμ-TCL1 mice and developed decreased numbers of MDSCs which were less able to suppress proliferation of T cells. We targeted the synthesis of sIgM by deleting the function of XBP-1s and showed that targeting XBP-1s genetically or pharmacologically could lead to decreased sIgM, accompanied by decreased numbers and reduced functions of MDSCs in MD4/Eμ-TCL1 mice. Additionally, MDSCs from μS -/- mice grafted with Lewis lung carcinoma were inefficient suppressors of T cells, resulting in slower tumor growth. These results demonstrate that sIgM produced by B cells can upregulate the functions of MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice to aggravate cancer progression. In a mouse model of CLL, production of secretory IgM led to more MDSCs, fewer T cells, and shorter survival times for the mice. Thus, secretory IgM may aggravate the progression of this cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(6); 696-710. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Progress and prospects of early detection in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blandin Knight, Sean; Crosbie, Phil A.; Balata, Haval; Chudziak, Jakub; Hussell, Tracy; Dive, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. It is broadly divided into small cell (SCLC, approx. 15% cases) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, approx. 85% cases). The main histological subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, with the presence of specific DNA mutations allowing further molecular stratification. If identified at an early stage, surgical resection of NSCLC offers a favourable prognosis, with published case series reporting 5-year survival rates of up to 70% for small, localized tumours (stage I). However, most patients (approx. 75%) have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis (stage III/IV) and despite significant developments in the oncological management of late stage lung cancer over recent years, survival remains poor. In 2014, the UK Office for National Statistics reported that patients diagnosed with distant metastatic disease (stage IV) had a 1-year survival rate of just 15–19% compared with 81–85% for stage I. PMID:28878044

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Early Response to a Vascular-Disrupting Agent with Dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Guo, Jinxia; Lang, Lixin; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Li, Quanzheng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the early response of tumors to a vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) VEGF121/recombinant toxin gelonin (rGel) using dynamic [(18)F]FPPRGD2 positron emission tomography (PET) and kinetic parameter estimation. Two tumor xenograft models: U87MG (highly vascularized) and A549 (moderately vascularized), were selected, and both were randomized into treatment and control groups. Sixty-minute dynamic PET scans with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 that targets to integrin αvβ3 were performed at days 0 (baseline), 1, and 3 since VEGF121/rGel treatment started. Dynamic PET-derived binding potential (BPND) and parametric maps were compared with tumor uptake (%ID/g) and the static PET image at 1 h after the tracer administration. The growth of U87MG tumor was obviously delayed upon VEGF121/rGel treatment. A549 tumor was not responsive to the same treatment. BPND of treated U87MG tumors decreased significantly at day 1 (p < 0.05), and the difference was more significant at day 3 (p < 0.01), compared with the control group. However, the tracer uptake (%ID/g) derived from static images at 1-h time point did not show significant difference between the treated and control tumors until day 3. Little difference in tracer uptake (%ID/g) or BPND was found between treated and control A549 tumors. Considering the tracer retention in tumor and the slower clearance due to damaged tumor vasculature after treatment, BPND representing the actual specific binding portion appears to be more sensitive and accurate than the semiquantitative parameters (such as %ID/g) derived from static images to assess the early response of tumor to VDA treatment. Quantitative analysis based on dynamic PET with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 shows advantages in distinguishing effective from ineffective treatment during the course of VEGF121/rGel therapy at early stage and is therefore more sensitive in assessing therapy response than static PET.

  12. Early treatment with metformin induces resistance against tumor growth in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Trombini, Amanda B; Franco, Claudinéia CS; Miranda, Rosiane A; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; Prates, Kelly V; de Souza, Aline A; Pavanello, Audrei; Malta, Ananda; Almeida, Douglas L; Tófolo, Laize P; Rigo, Kesia P; Ribeiro, Tatiane AS; Fabricio, Gabriel S; de Sant’Anna, Juliane R; Castro-Prado, Marialba AA; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Morais, Hely; Mathias, Paulo CF

    2015-01-01

    It is known that antidiabetic drug metformin, which is used worldwide, has anti-cancer effects and can be used to prevent cancer growth. We tested the hypothesis that tumor cell growth can be inhibited by early treatment with metformin. For this purpose, adult rats chronically treated with metformin in adolescence or in adulthood were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Adult rats that were treated with metformin during adolescence presented inhibition of tumor growth, and animals that were treated during adult life did not demonstrate any changes in tumor growth. Although we do not have data to disclose a molecular mechanism to the preventive metformin effect, we present, for the first time, results showing that cancer growth in adult life is dependent on early life intervention, thus supporting a new therapeutic prevention for cancer. PMID:26024008

  13. Retinoblastoma and Phosphate and Tensin Homolog Tumor Suppressors: Impact on Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Progression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A subset of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) will progress to invasive breast cancer. However, there are currently no markers to differentiate women at high risk from those at lower risk of developing invasive disease. Methods The association of two major tumor suppressor genes, retinoblastoma (RB) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), with risk of any ipsilateral breast event (IBE) or progression to invasive breast cancer (IBC) was analyzed using data from 236 DCIS patients treated with breast conserving surgery with long-term follow-up. RB and PTEN expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry. The functional effects of RB and/or PTEN loss were modeled in MCF10A cells. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with univariate and multivariable Cox regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Loss of RB immunoreactivity in DCIS was strongly associated with risk of IBE occurrence (HR = 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.64 to 4.25) and IBC recurrence (HR = 4.66; 95% CI = 2.19 to 9.93). The prognostic power of RB loss remained statistically significant in multivariable analyses. PTEN loss occurred frequently in DCIS but was not associated with recurrence or progression. However, patients with DCIS lesions that were both RB and PTEN deficient were at further increased risk for IBEs (HR = 3.39; 95% CI = 1.92 to 5.99) and IBC recurrence (HR = 6.1, 95% CI = 2.5 to 14.76). Preclinical modeling in MCF10A cells demonstrated that loss of RB and PTEN impacted proliferation, motility, and invasive properties. Conclusions These studies indicate that RB and PTEN together have prognostic utility and could be used to target aggressive treatment for patients with the greatest probability of benefit. PMID:23197489

  14. Downregulation of GLUT4 contributes to effective intervention of estrogen receptor-negative/HER2-overexpressing early stage breast disease progression by lapatinib

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Sunil; Xu, Jia; Wang, Xiao; Jain, Shalini; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Qingling; Chang, Chia-Chi; Bower, Joseph; Arun, Banu; Seewaldt, Victoria; Yu, Dihua

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have shown efficacy in prevention of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer; however, there exists no proven prevention strategy for estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. Up to 40% of ER- breast cancers have human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression (HER2+), suggesting HER2 signaling might be a good target for chemoprevention for certain ER- breast cancers. Here, we tested the feasibility of the HER2-targeting agent lapatinib in prevention and/or early intervention of an ER-/HER2+ early-stage breast disease model. We found that lapatinib treatment forestalled the progression of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH)-like acini to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)-like acini in ER-/HER2+ human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) in 3D culture. Mechanistically, we found that inhibition of HER2/Akt signaling by lapatinib led to downregulation of GLUT4 and a reduced glucose uptake in HER2-overexpressing cells, resulting in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of these cells in 3D culture. Additionally, our data suggest that HER2-driven glycolytic metabolic dysregulation in ER-/HER2+ HMECs might promote early-stage breast disease progression, which can be reversed by lapatinib treatment. Furthermore, low-dose lapatinib treatment, starting at the early stages of mammary grand transformation in the MMTV-neu* mouse model, significantly delayed mammary tumor initiation and progression, extended tumor-free survival, which corresponded to effective inhibition of HER2/Akt signaling and downregulation of GLUT4 in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that lapatinib, through its inhibition of key signaling pathways and tumor-promoting metabolic events, is a promising agent for the prevention/early intervention of ER-/HER2+ breast cancer progression. PMID:27293993

  15. Tumor Marker Usage and Medical Care Costs Among Older Early-Stage Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Henry, N. Lynn; Gralow, Julie R.; Mirick, Dana K.; Barlow, William; Etzioni, Ruth; Mummy, David; Thariani, Rahber; Veenstra, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines discourage the use of tumor marker assessment for routine surveillance in nonmetastatic breast cancer, their use in practice is uncertain. Our objective was to determine use of tumor marker tests such as carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 15-3/CA 27.29 and associated Medicare costs in early-stage breast cancer survivors. Methods By using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare records for patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 2001 and 2007, tumor marker usage within 2 years after diagnosis was identified by billing codes. Logistic regression models were used to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with use of tumor markers. To determine impact on costs of care, we used multivariable regression, controlling for other factors known to influence total medical costs. Results We identified 39,650 eligible patients. Of these, 16,653 (42%) received at least one tumor marker assessment, averaging 5.7 tests over 2 years, with rates of use per person increasing over time. Factors significantly associated with use included age at diagnosis, diagnosis year, stage at diagnosis, race/ethnicity, geographic region, and urban/rural status. Rates of advanced imaging, but not biopsies, were significantly higher in the assessment group. Medical costs for patients who received at least one test were approximately 29% greater than costs for those who did not, adjusting for other factors. Conclusion Breast cancer tumor markers are frequently used among women with early-stage disease and are associated with an increase in both diagnostic procedures and total cost of care. A better understanding of factors driving the use of and the potential benefits and harms of surveillance-based tumor marker testing is needed. PMID:25332254

  16. Retinopathy predicts progression of fasting plasma glucose: An Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yash R.; Kirkman, M. Sue; Considine, Robert V; Hannon, Tamara S; Mather, Kieren J

    2017-01-01

    Background Retinopathy is increasingly recognized in prediabetic populations, and may herald increased risk of metabolic worsening. The Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) evaluated worsening of glycemia in screen-detected Type 2 diabetes, following participants for up to 5 years. Here we have evaluated whether the presence of retinopathy at the time of detection of diabetes was associated with accelerated progression of glycemia. Methods We prospectively studied 194 participants from EDIP with available baseline retinal photographs. Retinopathy was determined at baseline using 7-field fundus photography and defined as an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study Scale grading score of ≥20. Results At baseline, 12% of participants had classical retinal lesions indicating retinopathy. In univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, the presence of retinopathy at baseline was associated with a doubled risk of progression of fasting plasma glucose (HR 2.02; 95% CI 1.05–3.89). The retinopathy effect was robust to individual adjustment for age and glucose, the most potent determinants of progression in EDIP. Conclusion Retinopathy was associated with increased risk of progression of fasting plasma glucose among adults with screen-detected, early diabetes. Early detection of retinopathy may help individualize more aggressive therapy to prevent progressive metabolic worsening in early diabetes. PMID:28003103

  17. Identification of a prospective early motor progression cluster of Parkinson's disease: Data from the PPMI study.

    PubMed

    Vavougios, George D; Doskas, Triantafyllos; Kormas, Constantinos; Krogfelt, Karen A; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G; Stefanis, Leonidas

    2018-04-15

    The aim of our study is to phenotype PD motor progression, and to detect whether serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging biomarkers and neuropsychological measures characterize PD motor progression phenotypes. We defined motor progression as a difference of at least one point in the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale between the baseline (Visit 0, V0), 12 months (Visit 04, V04) and 36 months (Visit 08, V08) milestones of the Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study. H&Y progression events were recorded at each milestone in order to be used as cluster analysis variables, in order to produce progression phenotypes. Subsequently, cross-cluster comparisons prior to and following (pairwise) propensity score matching were performed in order to assess phenotype - defining characteristics. Four progression clusters where identified: SPPD: Secondarily Progressive PD, H&Y progression between V04 and V08; EPPD: Early Progressive PD. H&Y progression between V0 and V04; NPPD: Non Progressive PD, no H&Y progression; MIPD: Minimally Improving PD, i.e. Minimal H&Y improvement H&Y progression between V04 and V08;. Independent Samples Mann Whitney U tests determined CSF aSyn (p = 0.006, adj p-value = 0.036. I) and Semantic Animal fluency T-score (SFT, p = 0.003, adjusted p-value = 0.016.) as statistically significant cross-cluster characteristics. Following Propensity Score Matching, SFT, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (Retention/Recall), Serum IGF1, CSF aSyn, DaT-SPECT binding ratios (SBRs) and the Benton Judgement of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT) were determined as statistically significant predictors of cluster differentiation (p < 0.05). SFT, Serum IGF1, CSF aSyn and DaT-SPECT-derived, basal ganglia Striatal Binding Ratios warrant further investigation as possible motor progression biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical significance of tumor cavitation in surgically resected early-stage primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Shigeki; Ohara, Shuta; Fujino, Toshio; Nishino, Masaya; Sesumi, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Katsuaki; Chiba, Masato; Shimoji, Masaki; Suda, Kenichi; Takemoto, Toshiki; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2017-10-01

    The prognostic impact of tumor cavitation is unclear in patients with early-stage primary lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients with pathological stage I-IIA (p-stage I-IIA) primary lung cancers harboring tumor cavitation. This study was conducted according to the eighth edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. We examined 602 patients with p-stage I-IIA primary lung cancer out of 890 patients who underwent pulmonary resection from January 2007 through March 2014 and searched for the presence of tumor cavitation, which is defined as the presence of air space within the primary tumor. A total of 59 out of the 602 patients had tumor cavitation (10%). Compared with patients without tumor cavitation, those with tumor cavitation had a significantly higher frequency of the following characteristics: high serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (≥5ng/ml, p=0.027), interstitial pneumonia (p=0.0001), high SUVmax value on FDG-PET scan (≥4.2, p=0.023), tumors located in the lower lobe (p=0.024), large tumor size (>3cm, p=0.002), vascular invasion (66% vs 17%, p<0.0001) and non-adenocarcinoma histology (p=0.025). The overall survival period of patients with tumor cavitation was significantly shorter than that of patients without tumor cavitation (log-rank test: p<0.0001, 5-year OS rate: 56% vs 81%). Tumor cavitation was found to be an independent and significant factor associated with poor prognosis in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-3.10, p=0.042). Tumor cavitation is an independent factor for poor prognosis in patients with resected p-stage I-IIA primary lung cancer. Based on our analyses, patients with tumor cavitation should be regarded as a separate cohort that requires more intensive follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Losartan Slows Pancreatic Tumor Progression and Extends Survival of SPARC-Null Mice by Abrogating Aberrant TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Shanna A.; Rivera, Lee B.; Carbon, Juliet G.; Toombs, Jason E.; Chang, Chi-Lun; Bradshaw, Amy D.; Brekken, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a desmoplastic disease, is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world due, in large part, to locally invasive primary tumor growth and ensuing metastasis. SPARC is a matricellular protein that governs extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and maturation during tissue remodeling, particularly, during wound healing and tumorigenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which lack of host SPARC alters the tumor microenvironment and enhances invasion and metastasis of an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. We identified that levels of active TGFβ1 were increased significantly in tumors grown in SPARC-null mice. TGFβ1 contributes to many aspects of tumor development including metastasis, endothelial cell permeability, inflammation and fibrosis, all of which are altered in the absence of stromal-derived SPARC. Given these results, we performed a survival study to assess the contribution of increased TGFβ1 activity to tumor progression in SPARC-null mice using losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist that diminishes TGFβ1 expression and activation in vivo. Tumors grown in SPARC-null mice progressed more quickly than those grown in wild-type littermates leading to a significant reduction in median survival. However, median survival of SPARC-null animals treated with losartan was extended to that of losartan-treated wild-type controls. In addition, losartan abrogated TGFβ induced gene expression, reduced local invasion and metastasis, decreased vascular permeability and altered the immune profile of tumors grown in SPARC-null mice. These data support the concept that aberrant TGFβ1-activation in the absence of host SPARC contributes significantly to tumor progression and suggests that SPARC, by controlling ECM deposition and maturation, can regulate TGFβ availability and activation. PMID:22348081

  20. The axon guidance molecule semaphorin 3F is a negative regulator of tumor progression and proliferation in ileal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vercherat, Cécile; Blanc, Martine; Lepinasse, Florian; Gadot, Nicolas; Couderc, Christophe; Poncet, Gilles; Walter, Thomas; Joly, Marie-Odile; Hervieu, Valérie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Roche, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, frequently metastatic, raising difficult clinical and therapeutic challenges due to a poor knowledge of their biology. As neuroendocrine cells express both epithelial and neural cell markers, we studied the possible involvement in GI-NETs of axon guidance molecules, which have been shown to decrease tumor cell proliferation and metastatic dissemination in several tumor types. We focused on the role of Semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F) in ileal NETs, one of the most frequent subtypes of GI-NETs. SEMA3F expression was detected in normal neuroendocrine cells but was lost in most of human primary tumors and all their metastases. SEMA3F loss of expression was associated with promoter gene methylation. After increasing endogenous SEMA3F levels through stable transfection, enteroendocrine cell lines STC-1 and GluTag showed a reduced proliferation rate in vitro. In two different xenograft mouse models, SEMA3F-overexpressing cells exhibited a reduced ability to form tumors and a hampered liver dissemination potential in vivo. This resulted, at least in part, from the inhibition of mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. This study demonstrates an anti-tumoral role of SEMA3F in ileal NETs. We thus suggest that SEMA3F and/or its cellular signaling pathway could represent a target for ileal NET therapy. PMID:26447612

  1. Genetic characterization drives personalized therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and survivors with metachronous second primary tumor (MST): A case report.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingchen; Wang, Linlin; Liu, Xijun; Sun, Xindong; Yu, Jinming; Meng, Xue

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer is a complicated process in which many genes take part. But molecular gene testing is typically only performed in advanced-stage non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The value of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) administration is not widely recognized with respect to early-stage NSCLC. Here, we present a case of a man, heavy smoker who initially presented with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Three years after a lung lobectomy, he was diagnosed with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), according to laboratory, imaging, and pathological examinations. The case initially had an early-stage LADC with an L858R epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. A subsequent advanced SCC bearing EGFR L858R/T790M mutations occurred 3 years after surgery. The comprehensive therapy we utilized, including surgical resection for the early-stage lesion and GP chemotherapy and local radiotherapy as the first line therapy along with gefitinib maintenance treatment for the advanced metachronous second primary tumors (MST). The synthetical therapy, have resulted in our patient with remaining alive and progression free for 4.5 years. This case suggests that changes in molecular pathology should be monitored closely throughout cancer progression to guide personalized therapy and improve prognosis. We further review administration of TKI to early-stage NSCLC and to the metachronous second primary tumors (MST) in survivors.

  2. Tumor progression locus 2 ablation suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma development by inhibiting hepatic inflammation and steatosis in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), a serine threonine kinase, functions as a critical regulator of inflammatory pathways and mediates oncogenic events. The potential role of Tpl2 in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development remains unkn...

  3. Diffuse optical measurements of head and neck tumor hemodynamics for early prediction of chemoradiation therapy outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Irwin, Daniel; Chen, Li; Kumar, Sameera; Shang, Yu; Huang, Chong; Johnson, Ellis L.; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2016-08-01

    This study used a hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument to monitor tumor hemodynamic responses to chemoradiation therapy for early prediction of treatment outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. Forty-seven patients were measured once per week to evaluate the hemodynamic status of clinically involved cervical lymph nodes as surrogates for the primary tumor response. Patients were classified into two groups: complete response (CR) (n=29) and incomplete response (IR) (n=18). Tumor hemodynamic responses were found to be associated with clinical outcomes (CR/IR), wherein the associations differed depending on human papillomavirus (HPV-16) status. In HPV-16 positive patients, significantly lower levels in tumor oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) at weeks 1 to 3, total hemoglobin concentration at week 3, and blood oxygen saturation (StO2) at week 3 were found in the IR group. In HPV-16 negative patients, significantly higher levels in tumor blood flow index and reduced scattering coefficient (μs‧) at week 3 were observed in the IR group. These hemodynamic parameters exhibited significantly high accuracy for early prediction of clinical outcomes, within the first three weeks of therapy, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.83 to 0.96.

  4. Ultrasonic RF time series for early assessment of the tumor response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingguang; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Qing; Lin, Chunyi; Guo, Zhixing; Zheng, Wei; Yan, Cuiju; Li, Anhua; Zhou, Jianhua

    2018-01-05

    Ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) time series have been shown to carry tissue typing information. To evaluate the potential of RF time series for early prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy, 50MCF-7 breast cancer-bearing nude mice were randomized to receive cisplatin and paclitaxel (treatment group; n = 26) or sterile saline (control group; n = 24). Sequential ultrasound imaging was performed on days 0, 3, 6, and 8 of treatment to simultaneously collect B-mode images and RF data. Six RF time series features, slope, intercept, S1, S2, S3 , and S4 , were extracted during RF data analysis and contrasted with microstructural tumor changes on histopathology. Chemotherapy administration reduced tumor growth relative to control on days 6 and 8. Compared with day 0, intercept, S1 , and S2 were increased while slope was decreased on days 3, 6, and 8 in the treatment group. Compared with the control group, intercept, S1, S2, S3 , and S4 were increased, and slope was decreased, on days 3, 6, and 8 in the treatment group. Tumor cell density decreased significantly in the latter on day 3. We conclude that ultrasonic RF time series analysis provides a simple way to noninvasively assess the early tumor response to chemotherapy.

  5. Diffuse optical measurements of head and neck tumor hemodynamics for early prediction of chemoradiation therapy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Irwin, Daniel; Chen, Li; Kumar, Sameera; Shang, Yu; Huang, Chong; Johnson, Ellis L.; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This study used a hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument to monitor tumor hemodynamic responses to chemoradiation therapy for early prediction of treatment outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. Forty-seven patients were measured once per week to evaluate the hemodynamic status of clinically involved cervical lymph nodes as surrogates for the primary tumor response. Patients were classified into two groups: complete response (CR) (n=29) and incomplete response (IR) (n=18). Tumor hemodynamic responses were found to be associated with clinical outcomes (CR/IR), wherein the associations differed depending on human papillomavirus (HPV-16) status. In HPV-16 positive patients, significantly lower levels in tumor oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) at weeks 1 to 3, total hemoglobin concentration at week 3, and blood oxygen saturation (StO2) at week 3 were found in the IR group. In HPV-16 negative patients, significantly higher levels in tumor blood flow index and reduced scattering coefficient (μs′) at week 3 were observed in the IR group. These hemodynamic parameters exhibited significantly high accuracy for early prediction of clinical outcomes, within the first three weeks of therapy, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.83 to 0.96. PMID:27564315

  6. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells expand during breast cancer progression and promote tumor-induced bone destruction

    PubMed Central

    Danilin, Sabrina; Merkel, Alyssa R.; Johnson, Joshua R.; Johnson, Rachelle W.; Edwards, James R.; Sterling, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), identified as Gr1+CD11b+ cells in mice, expand during cancer and promote tumor growth, recurrence and burden. However, little is known about their role in bone metastases. We hypothesized that MDSCs may contribute to tumor-induced bone disease, and inoculated breast cancer cells into the left cardiac ventricle of nude mice. Disease progression was monitored weekly by X-ray and fluorescence imaging and MDSCs expansion by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. To explore the contribution of MDSCs to bone metastasis, we co-injected mice with tumor cells or PBS into the left cardiac ventricle and Gr1+CD11b+ cells isolated from healthy or tumor-bearing mice into the left tibia. MDSCs didn’t induce bone resorption in normal mice, but increased resorption and tumor burden significantly in tumor-bearing mice. In vitro experiments showed that Gr1+CD11b+ cells isolated from normal and tumor-bearing mice differentiate into osteoclasts when cultured with RANK ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and that MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice upregulate parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) mRNA levels in cancer cells. PTHrP upregulation is likely due to the 2-fold increase in transforming growth factor β expression that we observed in MDSCs isolated from tumor-bearing mice. Importantly, using MDSCs isolated from GFP-expressing animals, we found that MDSCs differentiate into osteoclast-like cells in tumor-bearing mice as evidenced by the presence of GFP+TRAP+ cells. These results demonstrate that MDSCs expand in breast cancer bone metastases and induce bone destruction. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that MDSCs are able to differentiate into osteoclasts in vivo and that this is stimulated in the presence of tumors. PMID:23264895

  7. Circulating tumor DNA profiling reveals clonal evolution and real-time disease progression in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhi-Xiong; Chen, Geng; Zeng, Yong-Yi; Dong, Xiu-Qing; Lin, Min-Jie; Huang, Xin-Hui; Zhang, Da; Liu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Jing-Feng

    2017-09-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) provides a potential non-invasive biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, but whether it could reflect tumor heterogeneity and monitor therapeutic responses in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Focusing on 574 cancer genes known to harbor actionable mutations, we identified the mutation repertoire of HCC tissues, and monitored the corresponding ctDNA features in blood samples to evaluate its clinical significance. Analysis of 3 HCC patients' mutation profiles revealed that ctDNA could overcome tumor heterogeneity and provide information of tumor burden and prognosis. Further analysis was conducted on the 4th HCC case with multiple lesion samples and sequential plasma samples. We identified 160 subclonal SNVs in tumor tissues as well as matched peritumor tissues with PBMC as control. 96.9% of this patient's tissue mutations could be also detected in plasma samples. These subclonal SNVs were grouped into 9 clusters according to their trends of cellular prevalence shift in tumor tissues. Two clusters constituted of tumor stem somatic mutations showed circulating levels relating with cancer progression. Analysis of tumor somatic mutations revealed that circulating level of such tumor stem somatic mutations could reflect tumor burden and even predict prognosis earlier than traditional strategies. Furthermore, HCK (p.V174M), identified as a recurrent/metastatic related mutation site, could promote migration and invasion of HCC cells. Taken together, study of mutation profiles in biopsy and plasma samples in HCC patients showed that ctDNA could overcome tumor heterogeneity and real-time track the therapeutic responses in the longitudinal monitoring. © 2017 UICC.

  8. How much tumor surgery do early-career orthopaedic oncologists perform?

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin J; Rajani, Rajiv; Leddy, Lee; Carmody Soni, Emily E; White, Jeremy R

    2015-02-01

    There are few data on the types of procedures orthopaedic oncologists perform in their first years of practice. Because fellowships are graduating fellows each year and the number of tumor patients is limited, defining the practice patterns of early-career orthopaedic oncologists may help diminish early employment discontent and enhance workforce discussions. The aim of the study was to use the objective case log volumes of a cross-section of early career orthopaedic oncologists to describe (1) the number of operations performed annually; (2) the proportion of tumor, trauma, adult reconstruction, and other operations for individual participants, (3) individual practice characteristics that were associated with the number of tumor procedures; and (4) the sources of satisfaction and challenges in each individual's career and surgical practice. Fifteen fellowship-trained orthopaedic oncologists out of a potential pool of 33 (45%) in their first 4 years of practice responded to a survey by submitting complete operative case lists for a 2-year period. We recorded the type of procedure and determined associations between the annual number of tumor operations and total operative caseload, years in practice, and some details of individual practice patterns. Each participant completed a survey regarding practice-related sources of stress and satisfaction. A total of 5611 surgical cases were available for review. For the entire cohort, there were 3303 (59%) tumor procedures, 973 (17%) trauma, 890 (16%) adult reconstruction, and 445 (8%) other. The median annual number of total operations was 214 (range, 63-356) and median annual number of tumor operations was 135 (range, 47-216). The median proportion of tumor operations in an individual practice was 56% (range, 43%-94%). The annual number of tumor operations correlated with the total annual number of operations (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). Sources of stress and satisfaction were similar to the general membership of the

  9. Primordial odontogenic tumor: Subepithelial expression of Syndecan-1 and Ki-67 suggests origin during early odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bologna-Molina, R; Mikami, T; Pereira-Prado, V; Tapia-Repetto, G; Pires, F R; Carlos, R; Mosqueda-Taylor, A

    2018-03-01

    Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) is composed of variably cellular myxoid connective tissue, surrounded by cuboidal to columnar odontogenic epithelium resembling the inner epithelium of the enamel organ, which often invaginates into the underlying connective tissue. The tumor is delimited at least partially by a thin fibrous capsule. It derives from the early stages of tooth development. Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that has a physiological role in several cellular functions, including maintenance of the epithelial architecture, cell-to-cell adhesion and interaction of cells with extracellular matrix, and with diverse growth factors, stimulating cell proliferation. Ki-67 is considered the gold standard as a cell proliferation marker. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of Syndecan-1 and Ki-67 proliferation index in POT and normal tooth germs to better understand the biological behavior of this tumor. Results showed that Syndecan-1 was more intensely expressed in subepithelial mesenchymal areas of POT, in a pattern that resembles the early stages of tooth development. The cell proliferation index (4.1%) suggests that POT is a slow growing tumor. Syndecan-1 expression in tooth germs in late cap and early bell stages was similar to POT, showing immunopositivity in subepithelial mesenchymal condensed areas. The immunohistochemical findings showed a pattern in which the population of subepithelial mesenchymal cells exhibited greater proliferative activity than the central portion of the dental papilla. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High CD49f expression is associated with osteosarcoma tumor progression: a study using patient-derived primary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Penfornis, Patrice; Cai, David Z; Harris, Michael R; Walker, Ryan; Licini, David; Fernandes, Joseph D A; Orr, Griffin; Koganti, Tejaswi; Hicks, Chindo; Induru, Spandana; Meyer, Mark S; Khokha, Rama; Barr, Jennifer; Pochampally, Radhika R

    2014-08-01

    Overall prognosis for osteosarcoma (OS) is poor despite aggressive treatment options. Limited access to primary tumors, technical challenges in processing OS tissues, and the lack of well-characterized primary cell cultures has hindered our ability to fully understand the properties of OS tumor initiation and progression. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cell cultures derived from four central high-grade human OS samples. Furthermore, we used the cell cultures to study the role of CD49f in OS progression. Recent studies have implicated CD49f in stemness and multipotency of both cancer stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of CD49f in osteosarcomagenesis. First, single cell suspensions of tumor biopsies were subcultured and characterized for cell surface marker expression. Next, we characterized the growth and differentiation properties, sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs, and anchorage-independent growth. Xenograft assays showed that cell populations expressing CD49f(hi) /CD90(lo) cell phenotype produced an aggressive tumor. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that inhibiting CD49f decreased the tumor-forming ability. Furthermore, the CD49f(hi) /CD90(lo) cell population is generating more aggressive OS tumor growth and indicating this cell surface marker could be a potential candidate for the isolation of an aggressive cell type in OSs. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Angiotensin converting enzyme: the antigenic properties of the domain, role in Alzheimer's disease and tumor progression].

    PubMed

    Kugaevskaya, E V; Timoshenko, O S; Solovyeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) was discovered and characterized in the Laboratory of biochemistry and chemical pathology of proteins under the direction of academician V.N. Orekhovich, where its physiological function, associated with a key role in the regulation of the renin-angiotensin (RAS) and the kallikrein-kinin systems that control blood flow in the body and homeostasis was first deciphered. We carried out a search for structural differences between the two highly homologous domains (N- and C-domains) of somatic ACE (sACE); it was based on a comparative analysis of antigenic determinants (or B-epitopes) of both domains. The revealed epitopes were classified with variable and conserved regions and functionally important sites of the molecule ACE. Essential difference was demonstrated between locations of the epitopes in the N- and C-domains. These data indicate the existence of structural differences between the domains of sACE. We studied the role of the domains of ACE in the metabolism of human amyloid beta peptide (Ab) - the main component of senile plaques, found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our results demonstrated that only N-domain ACE cleaved the Ab between residues R5-H6, while, the C-domain of ACE failed to hydrolyze this region. In addition, the effect of post-translational modifications of Ab on its hydrolysis by the ACE was investigated. We show that isomerization of residue D7, a common non-enzymatic age-related modification found in AD-associated species, does not reduce the affinity of the peptide to the N-domain of ACE, and conversely, it increases. According to our data, the role of ACE in the metabolism of Ab becomes more significant in the development of AD. RAS is involved in malignant transformation and tumor progression. RAS components, including ACE and angiotensin II receptors type 1 (AT1R) are expressed in various human tumors. We found a significant increase in the level of ACE activity

  12. Smad4 is dispensable for normal pancreas development yet critical in progression and tumor biology of pancreas cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bardeesy, Nabeel; Cheng, Kuang-hung; Berger, Justin H.; Chu, Gerald C.; Pahler, Jessica; Olson, Peter; Hezel, Aram F.; Horner, James; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Hanahan, Douglas; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    SMAD4 is inactivated in the majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) with concurrent mutational inactivation of the INK4A/ARF tumor suppressor locus and activation of the KRAS oncogene. Here, using genetically engineered mice, we determined the impact of SMAD4 deficiency on the development of the pancreas and on the initiation and/or progression of PDAC—alone or in combination with PDAC-relevant mutations. Selective SMAD4 deletion in the pancreatic epithelium had no discernable impact on pancreatic development or physiology. However, when combined with the activated KRASG12D allele, SMAD4 deficiency enabled rapid progression of KRASG12D-initiated neoplasms. While KRASG12D alone elicited premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) that progressed slowly to carcinoma, the combination of KRASG12D and SMAD4 deficiency resulted in the rapid development of tumors resembling intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN), a precursor to PDAC in humans. SMAD4 deficiency also accelerated PDAC development of KRASG12D INK4A/ARF heterozygous mice and altered the tumor phenotype; while tumors with intact SMAD4 frequently exhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), PDAC null for SMAD4 retained a differentiated histopathology with increased expression of epithelial markers. SMAD4 status in PDAC cell lines was associated with differential responses to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in vitro with a subset of SMAD4 wild-type lines showing prominent TGF-β-induced proliferation and migration. These results provide genetic confirmation that SMAD4 is a PDAC tumor suppressor, functioning to block the progression of KRASG12D-initiated neoplasms, whereas in a subset of advanced tumors, intact SMAD4 facilitates EMT and TGF-β-dependent growth. PMID:17114584

  13. Tumor progression: chance and necessity in Darwinian and Lamarckian somatic (mutationless) evolution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sui

    2012-09-01

    Current investigation of cancer progression towards increasing malignancy focuses on the molecular pathways that produce the various cancerous traits of cells. Their acquisition is explained by the somatic mutation theory: tumor progression is the result of a neo-Darwinian evolution in the tissue. Herein cells are the units of selection. Random genetic mutations permanently affecting these pathways create malignant cell phenotypes that are selected for in the disturbed tissue. However, could it be that the capacity of the genome and its gene regulatory network to generate the vast diversity of cell types during development, i.e., to produce inheritable phenotypic changes without mutations, is harnessed by tumorigenesis to propel a directional change towards malignancy? Here we take an encompassing perspective, transcending the orthodoxy of molecular carcinogenesis and review mechanisms of somatic evolution beyond the Neo-Darwinian scheme. We discuss the central concept of "cancer attractors" - the hidden stable states of gene regulatory networks normally not occupied by cells. Noise-induced transitions into such attractors provide a source for randomness (chance) and regulatory constraints (necessity) in the acquisition of novel expression profiles that can be inherited across cell divisions, and hence, can be selected for. But attractors can also be reached in response to environmental signals - thus offering the possibility for inheriting acquired traits that can also be selected for. Therefore, we face the possibility of non-genetic (mutation-independent) equivalents to both Darwinian and Lamarckian evolution which may jointly explain the arrow of change pointing toward increasing malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Argonaute, Dicer, and Drosha are up-regulated along tumor progression in serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vaksman, Olga; Hetland, Thea Eline; Trope', Claes G; Reich, Reuven; Davidson, Ben

    2012-11-01

    MicroRNAs are posttranscriptional regulators of messenger RNA synthesis that are intracellularly processed and transferred by the microRNA-regulating machinery consisting of Drosha, Dicer, and Argonaute. The present study analyzed the expression and clinical role of the microRNA-regulating machinery in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma. Drosha, Dicer, Argonaute 1, and Argonaute 2 messenger RNA levels were analyzed in 144 specimens (82 effusions, 33 primary carcinomas, and 29 solid metastases) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Dicer, Argonaute 1, and Argonaute 2 protein levels were analyzed in 103 of the above specimens by Western blotting. Argonaute 1, Argonaute 2, and Drosha messenger RNAs were overexpressed in effusions compared with primary carcinomas and solid metastases (P<.001), whereas Argonaute 1 protein expression was highest in solid metastases (P=.004). Significantly higher expression of all 4 messenger RNAs was found in effusions compared with primary carcinomas (P<.001 to P=.006), whereas Argonaute 2 messenger RNA (P=.002), Drosha messenger RNA (P=.009), and Dicer protein (P=.006) were overexpressed in solid metastases compared with primary carcinomas. Drosha, Dicer, Argonaute 1, and Argonaute 2 messenger RNAs and protein levels in effusions were unrelated to clinicopathologic parameters. In primary carcinomas, higher levels of 3 messenger RNAs were significantly associated with high-grade histology (P=.003 for Dicer and P=.01 for Drosha and Argonaute 1). Higher Argonaute 2 messenger RNA levels in prechemotherapy effusions were related to shorter progression-free survival (P=.049), a finding that retained its significance in multivariate Cox analysis (P=.046). In conclusion, Drosha, Dicer, Argonaute 1, and Argonaute 2 are differentially expressed at different metastatic sites in ovarian carcinoma compared with primary carcinomas, suggesting a role for these molecules in tumor progression. Their clinical role in metastatic ovarian carcinoma

  15. Versican Promotes Tumor Progression, Metastasis and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Renal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yozo; Shiina, Hiroaki; Kato, Taku; Maekawa, Shigekatsu; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shiina, Marisa; Imai-Sumida, Mitsuho; Kulkarni, Priyanka; Dasgupta, Pritha; Wong, Ryan Kenji; Hiraki, Miho; Arichi, Naoko; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Yamamura, Soichiro; Majid, Shahana; Saini, Sharanjot; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Nakajima, Koichi; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2017-07-01

    The proteoglycan versican (VCAN) promotes tumor progression and enhances metastasis in several cancers; however, its role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unknown. Recent evidence suggests that VCAN is an important target of chromosomal 5q gain, one of the most prevalent genetic abnormalities in ccRCC. Thus, we investigated whether VCAN expression is associated with the pathogenesis of ccRCC. VCAN expression was analyzed using three RCC and normal kidney cell lines as well as a clinical cohort of 84 matched ccRCC and normal renal tissues. Functional analyses on growth and progression properties were performed using VCAN-depleted ccRCC cells. Microarray expression profiling was employed to investigate the target genes and biologic pathways involved in VCAN-mediated ccRCC carcinogenesis. ccRCC had elevated VCAN expression in comparison with normal kidney in both cell lines and clinical specimens. The elevated expression of VCAN was significantly correlated with metastasis ( P < 0.001) and worse 5-year overall survival after radical nephrectomy ( P = 0.014). In vitro , VCAN knockdown significantly decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in Caki-2 and 786-O cells, and this was associated with alteration of several TNF signaling-related genes such as TNFα, BID , and BAK Furthermore, VCAN depletion markedly decreased cell migration and invasion which correlated with reduction of MMP7 and CXCR4. These results demonstrate that VCAN promotes ccRCC tumorigenesis and metastasis and thus is an attractive target for novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies. Implications: This study highlights the oncogenic role of VCAN in renal cell carcinogenesis and suggests that this gene has therapeutic and/or biomarker potential for renal cell cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 15(7); 884-95. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy with diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Vlachos, Fotios; Kim, Hyun Keol; Sirsi, Shashank R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Hernandez, Sonia L.; Johung, Tessa B.; Gander, Jeffrey W.; Reichstein, Ari R.; Lampl, Brooke S.; Wang, Antai; Borden, Mark A.; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Kandel, Jessica J.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Although anti-angiogenic agents have shown promise as cancer therapeutics, their efficacy varies between tumor types and individual patients. Providing patient-specific metrics through rapid noninvasive imaging can help tailor drug treatment by optimizing dosages, timing of drug cycles, and duration of therapy--thereby reducing toxicity and cost and improving patient outcome. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging modality that has been shown to capture physiologic changes in tumors through visualization of oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations, using non-ionizing radiation with near-infrared light. We employed a small animal model to ascertain if tumor response to bevacizumab (BV), an anti-angiogenic agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could be detected at early time points using DOT. We detected a significant decrease in total hemoglobin levels as soon as one day after BV treatment in responder xenograft tumors (SK-NEP-1), but not in SK-NEP-1 control tumors or in non-responder control or BV-treated NGP tumors. These results are confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry and lectin perfusion studies. Noninvasive DOT imaging may allow for earlier and more effective control of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  17. Unfolded Protein Response of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Tumor Progression and Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yoon Seon; Han, Hye Gyeong

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a pivotal regulator of folding, quality control, trafficking, and targeting of secreted and transmembrane proteins, and accordingly, eukaryotic cells have evolved specialized machinery to ensure that the ER enables these proteins to acquire adequate folding and maturation in the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic insults. This adaptive capacity of the ER to intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations is important for maintaining protein homeostasis, which is termed proteostasis. Failure in adaptation to these perturbations leads to accumulation of misfolded or unassembled proteins in the ER, which is termed ER stress, resulting in the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) of the ER and the execution of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) to restore homeostasis. Furthermore, both of the two axes play key roles in the control of tumor progression, inflammation, immunity, and aging. Therefore, understanding UPR of the ER and subsequent ERAD will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of many human diseases and contribute to therapeutic intervention in these diseases. PMID:29430279

  18. Fetal alcohol exposure increases susceptibility to carcinogenesis and promotes tumor progression in prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Dipak K

    2015-01-01

    The idea that exposure to adverse environmental conditions and lifestyle choices during pregnancy can result in fetal programming that underlies disease susceptibility in adulthood is now widely accepted. Fetal alcohol exposed offspring displays many behavioral and physiological abnormalities including neuroendocrine-immune functions, which often carry over into their adult life. Since the neuroendocrine-immune system plays an important role in controlling tumor surveillance, fetal alcohol exposed offspring can be vulnerable to develop cancer. Animal studies have recently showed increased cancer growth and progression in various tissues of fetal alcohol exposed offspring. I will detail in this chapter the recent evidence for increased prostate carcinogenesis in fetal alcohol exposed rats. I will also provide evidence for a role of excessive estrogenization during prostatic development in the increased incidence of prostatic carcinoma in these animals. Furthermore, I will discuss the additional possibility of the involvement of impaired stress regulation and resulting immune incompetence in the increased prostatic neoplasia in the fetal alcohol exposed offspring.

  19. Combination of hTERT knockdown and interferon-γ treatment inhibited angiogenesis and tumor progression in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    George, Joseph; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The limitless invasive and proliferative capacities of tumor cells are associated with telomerase and expression of its catalytic component, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) modulates several cellular activities including signaling pathways and cell cycle through transcriptional regulation. Experimental Design Using a recombinant plasmid with hTERT siRNA cDNA, we down regulated hTERT during IFN-γ treatment in human glioblastoma SNB-19 and LN-18 cell lines and examined whether such a combination could inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in nude mice. In vitro angiogenesis assay was performed using co-culture of tumor cells with human microvascular endothelial cells. In vivo angiogenesis assay was performed using diffusion chambers under the dorsal skin of nude mice. In vivo imaging of intracerebral tumorigenesis and longitudinal solid tumor development studies were conducted in nude mice. Results In vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays demonstrated inhibition of capillary-like network formation of microvascular endothelial cells and neovascularization under dorsal skin of nude mice, respectively. We observed inhibition of intracerebral tumorigenesis and subcutaneous solid tumor formation in nude mice after treatment with combination of hTERT siRNA and IFN-γ. Western blotting of solid tumor samples demonstrated significant down regulation of the molecules that regulate cell invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that combination of hTERT siRNA and IFN-γ effectively inhibited angiogenesis and tumor progression through down regulation of molecules involved in these processes. Therefore, combination of hTERT siRNA and IFN-γ is a promising therapeutic strategy for controlling growth of human glioblastoma. PMID:19934306

  20. IRF-8 Controls Melanoma Progression by Regulating the Cross Talk between Cancer and Immune Cells within the Tumor Microenvironment12

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Fabrizio; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Sestili, Paola; Spadaro, Francesca; Fragale, Alessandra; Sistigu, Antonella; Lucarini, Valeria; Spada, Massimo; Sanchez, Massimo; Scala, Stefania; Battistini, Angela; Belardelli, Filippo; Gabriele, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8) is crucial for myeloid cell development and immune response and also acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Here, we analyzed the role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma cells and tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. B16-F10 melanoma cells transplanted into IRF-8-deficient (IRF-8-/-) mice grow more rapidly, leading to higher numbers of lung metastasis, with respect to control animals. These events correlated with reduced dendritic cell and T cell infiltration, accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and a chemokine/chemokine receptor expression profile within the tumor microenvironment supporting tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Noticeably, primary tumors developing in IRF-8-/- mice displayed a clear-cut inhibition of IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells. Injection of the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine into melanoma-bearing IRF-8-/- animals induced intratumoral IRF-8 expression and resulted in the re-establishment of a chemokine/ chemokine receptor pattern favoring leukocyte infiltration and melanoma growth arrest. Importantly, intrinsic IRF-8 expression was progressively down-modulated during melanoma growth in mice and in human metastatic melanoma cells with respect to primary tumors. Lastly, IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells was directly modulated by soluble factors, among which interleukin-27 (IL-27), released by immune cells from tumor-bearing mice. Collectively, these results underscore a key role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma and immune cells, thus revealing its critical function within the tumor microenvironment in regulating melanoma progression and invasiveness. PMID:23308054

  1. High cyclin A expression, but not Ki67, is associated with early recurrence in desmoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Santti, Kirsi; Ihalainen, Hanna; Rönty, Mikko; Böhling, Tom; Karlsson, Christina; Haglund, Caj; Tarkkanen, Maija; Blomqvist, Carl

    2018-06-07

    Desmoid tumors are soft-tissue tumors originating from myofibroblasts with a tendency to recur after surgery. High expression of proliferation markers is associated with shortened progression-free and/or overall survival in many neoplasms, including soft-tissue sarcomas. We investigated the prognostic role of cyclin A and Ki67 in desmoid tumors by immunohistochemistry. The study included 76 patients with desmoid tumor operated at Helsinki University Hospital between 1987 and 2011. A tissue micro array (TMA) was constructed and the TMA sections were immunostained with cyclin A and Ki67 antibodies. A computer-assisted image analysis was performed. Cyclin A expression was evaluable in 74 and Ki67 in 70 patients. Cyclin A immunopositivity varied from 0% to 9.9%, with a mean of 1.9%. Cyclin A expression correlated significantly with Ki67. Cyclin A expression was associated with recurrence-free survival (HR 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2, P = .02), as were positive margin (HR 6.0, 95% CI = 1.6-22.5, P = .008) and extremity location (HR 5.3, 95% CI = 1.7-16.8, P = 0.005). Ki67 immunopositivity varied from 0.33% to 13.8%, with a mean of 4.6%, but had no significant prognostic impact (HR 1.1, P = .2). Our study indicates that cyclin A may be a new prognostic biomarker in surgically treated desmoid tumors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Homocysteine Is an Oncometabolite in Breast Cancer, Which Promotes Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    increase in breast cancer, which results in changes in gene expression in tumor cells helping the tumors to grow and metastasize. The molecular basis...in changes in gene expression in tumor cells helping the tumors to grow and metastasize. The molecular basis for the increase in the levels of this...diseases and also a pregnancy disorder known as preeclampsia . Polymorphisms in MTHFR that decrease the catalytic activity of the enzyme are common in the

  3. Tumor laterality in early ovarian cancer: influence on left-right asymmetry of pelvic lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Mujezinović, Faris; Takac, Iztok

    2010-01-01

    AIM AND BACKGROUND.:To determine whether left-right asymmetry was present in cases of early ovarian cancer and whether or not the difference between number of removed lymph nodes on both sides of the pelvis is associated with tumor laterality. We extracted from the medical data base cases of early ovarian cancer with lymphadenectomy who had been treated between 1994 and 2008. The sample was divided in three groups according to the left-right laterality of the tumor in the pelvis (bilateral, left sided, right sided). For each case, we subtracted the number of dissected lymph nodes on the left side from the number of dissected lymph nodes on the right side of the pelvis (N(Right side) - N(Left side)). We used one sample t test to determine whether the mean of differences for each group was different from zero. Results. We extracted 48 cases with early ovarian cancer who had undergone lymphadenectomy. The average number of dissected lymph nodes was 24 (SD, 12). In 3 cases, we confirmed the presence of lymph node metastasis (6.3%). In 2 of the upstaged cases, tumor and involved lymph nodes were on the right side of the pelvis. In the third case, the tumor was on the left side, whereas involved lymph nodes were on both sides of the pelvis. For bilateral tumors, tumors on the left, and those on the right side of the pelvis, the mean difference was -0.5 (95% CI, -9.9 to 8.9; t, -0.137; P = 0.90), 0.32 (95% CI, -3.8 to 4.5; t, 0.16; P = 0.87) and 3.5 (95% CI, 0.03 to 7.01; t, 2.09; P = 0.048), respectively. When the tumor was on the left or on both sides of the pelvis, there was no significant difference in the number of removed lymph nodes. In contrast, when the tumor was on the right side, the number of removed lymph nodes was significantly higher on the right hemipelvis than on the left hemipelvis.

  4. TGF-β induced PAR-1 expression promotes tumor progression and osteoclast differentiation in giant cell tumor of bone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Wang; Li, Zhenxi; Han, Shuai; Wang, Jing; Yang, Xinghai; Huang, Quan; Wu, Zhipeng; Yan, Wangjun; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-10-15

    Although protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been confirmed as an oncogene in many cancers, the role of PAR-1 in giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone has been rarely reported. The mechanism of PAR-1 in tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis still remains unclear. In the present study, we detected that PAR-1 was significantly upregulated in GCT of bone compared to normal tissues, while TGF-β was also overexpressed in GCT tissues and could promote the expression of PAR-1 in a dose and time dependent manner. Using the luciferase reporter assay, we found that two downstreams of TGF-β, Smad3 and Smad4, could activate the promoter of PAR-1, which might explain the mechanism of TGF-β induced PAR-1 expression. Meanwhile, PAR-1 was also overexpressed in microvesicles from stromal cells of GCT (GCTSCs), and might be transported from GCTSCs to monocytes through microvesicles. In addition, knockout of PAR-1 by TALENs in GCTSCs inhibited tumor growth, angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in GCT in vitro. Using the chick CAM models, we further showed that inhibition of PAR-1 suppressed tumor growth and giant cell formation in vivo. Using microarray assay, we detected a number of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis as the possible downstreams of PAR-1, which may partly explain the mechanism of PAR-1 in GCT. In brief, for the first time, these results reveal an upstream regulatory role of TGF-β in PAR-1 expression, and PAR-1 expression promotes tumor growth, angiogenesis and osteoclast differentiation in GCT of bone. Hence, PAR-1 represents a novel potential therapeutic target for GCT of bone. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Assessment of the Continuous Progress Report for the Early Learning Years (An Examination of Scale Construction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Kathy D.

    An evaluation was conducted to examine the structure and design of the Continuous Progress Report (CPR), an observation scale used to measure students' early developmental skills in the District of Columbia public schools. Item construction and the relative consistency of measurement constructs in the CPR were the specific focus of the evaluation.…

  6. B cells promote tumor progression in a mouse model of HPV-mediated cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alexandre; Dadaglio, Gilles; Oberkampf, Marine; Di Carlo, Selene; Peduto, Lucie; Laubreton, Daphné; Desrues, Belinda; Sun, Cheng-Ming; Montagutelli, Xavier; Leclerc, Claude

    2016-09-15

    Enhancing anti-tumor immunity and preventing tumor escape are efficient strategies to increase the efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines. However, the treatment of advanced tumors remains difficult, mainly due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been extensively studied, and their role in suppressing tumor immunity is now well established. In contrast, the role of B lymphocytes in tumor immunity remains unclear because B cells can promote tumor immunity or display regulatory functions to control excessive inflammation, mainly through IL-10 secretion. Here, in a mouse model of HPV-related cancer, we demonstrate that B cells accumulated in the draining lymph node of tumor-bearing mice, due to a prolonged survival, and showed a decreased expression of MHC class II and CD86 molecules and an increased expression of Ly6A/E, PD-L1 and CD39, suggesting potential immunoregulatory properties. However, B cells from tumor-bearing mice did not show an increased ability to secrete IL-10 and a deficiency in IL-10 production did not impair tumor growth. In contrast, in B cell-deficient μMT mice, tumor rejection occurred due to a strong T cell-dependent anti-tumor response. Genetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms identified genetic variants associated with tumor rejection in μMT mice, which could potentially affect reactive oxygen species production and NK cell activity. Our results demonstrate that B cells play a detrimental role in anti-tumor immunity and suggest that targeting B cells could enhance the anti-tumor response and improve the efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines. © 2016 UICC.

  7. Total enbloc spondylectomy for metastatic high grade spinal tumors: Early results

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sanganagouda S; Nene, Abhay M

    2016-01-01

    Background: High grade metastatic spinal tumors are most common and are invasive. These patients can succumb to disease progression if not treated timely. Although considered as invasive and morbid, total enbloc spondylectomy (TES) in selected cases has better survival rates. The authors describe the results of TES for high grade metastatic spinal tumors. Materials and Methods: Five patients (four females and one male) underwent TES for solitary metastatic vertebral lesion between November 2012 and January 2014. These patients presented to us with spinal instability, unrelenting severe spinal pain and/or with severe progressive radiculopathy. Average age was 46.2 years (range 39–62 years). After complete investigations, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scan, it was confirmed that these patients had high grade solitary vertebral metastatic tumor. Results: Average duration of followup was 18 months (range 16–20 months). The average preoperative visual analog scale score of 9.4 (range 9–10) improved to 2 (range 1–4) at last followup. Average blood loss was 1440 mL (range 1000–2000 mL). Average duration of surgery was 198 min (range 180–240 min). Significant pain relief was noticed in each patient in the immediate postoperative period and during followups. These patients attained complete functional activities of daily living with in a month. The imaging showed implants in situ, no recurrence of tumor, and no activity on PET scan at the final followup. Conclusion: The present series shows favorable short term results of TES for solitary, metastatic, high grade vertebral body tumors by a team approach. PMID:27512215

  8. Lenalidomide in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory CNS Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  9. Autophagy-deficient breast cancer shows early tumor recurrence and escape from dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Aqbi, Hussein F.; Tyutyunyk-Massey, Liliya; Keim, Rebecca C.; Butler, Savannah E.; Thekkudan, Theresa; Joshi, Supriya; Smith, Timothy M.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Idowu, Michael O.; Bear, Harry D.; Payne, Kyle K.; Gewirtz, David A.; Manjili, Masoud H.

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer patients who initially respond to cancer therapies often succumb to distant recurrence of the disease. It is not clear why people with the same type of breast cancer respond to treatments differently; some escape from dormancy and relapse earlier than others. In addition, some tumor clones respond to immunotherapy while others do not. We investigated how autophagy plays a role in accelerating or delaying recurrence of neu-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma (MMC) following adriamycin (ADR) treatment, and in affecting response to immunotherapy. We explored two strategies: 1) transient blockade of autophagy with chloroquine (CQ), which blocks fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes during ADR treatment, and 2) permanent inhibition of autophagy by a stable knockdown of ATG5 (ATG5KD), which inhibits the formation of autophagosomes in MMC during and after ADR treatment. We found that while CQ prolonged tumor dormancy, but that stable knockdown of autophagy resulted in early escape from dormancy and recurrence. Interestingly, ATG5KD MMC contained an increased frequency of ADR-induced polyploid-like cells and rendered MMC resistant to immunotherapy. On the other hand, a transient blockade of autophagy did not affect the sensitivity of MMC to immunotherapy. Our observations suggest that while chemotherapy-induced autophagy may facilitate tumor relapse, cell-intrinsic autophagy delays tumor relapse, in part, by inhibiting the formation of polyploid-like tumor dormancy. PMID:29774126

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid conjugated near infrared flourescence probe for in vivo early tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siwen; Cao, Jie; Qin, Jingyi; Zhang, Xin; Achilefu, Samuel; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) is an omega-3 C22 natural fatty acid with six cis double bonds and as a constituent of membranes used as a precursor for metabolic and biochemical path ways. In this manuscript,we describe the synthesis of near-infrared(NIR) flourescence ICG-Der-01 labeled DHA for in vitro and vivo tumor targeting.The structure of the probe was intensively characterized by UV and MS. The in vitro and vivo tumor targeting abilities of the DHA-based NIR probes were investigeted in MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 xenograft mice model differently by confocal microscopy and CCD camera. The cell cytotoxicity were tested in tumor cells MCF-7 .The results shows that the DHA-based NIR probes have high affinity with the tumor both in vitro and vivo.In addition ,we also found that the DHA-based NIR probes have the apparent cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells .which demonstrated that DHA was conjugated with other antitumor drug could increase the abilities of antirumor efficacy .So DHA-ICG-Der-01 is a promising optical agent for diagnosis of tumors especially in their early stage.

  11. Tumor Progression Locus 2 (TPL2) Regulates Obesity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Perfield, James W.; Lee, Yunkyoung; Shulman, Gerald I.; Samuel, Varman T.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Chang, Eugene; Xie, Chen; Tsichlis, Phillip N.; Obin, Martin S.; Greenberg, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity-associated low-grade systemic inflammation resulting from increased adipose mass is strongly related to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes as well as other metabolic complications. Recent studies have demonstrated that the obese metabolic state can be improved by ablating certain inflammatory signaling pathways. Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), a kinase that integrates signals from Toll receptors, cytokine receptors, and inhibitor of κ-B kinase-β is an important regulator of inflammatory pathways. We used TPL2 knockout (KO) mice to investigate the role of TPL2 in mediating obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Male TPL2KO and wild-type (WT) littermates were fed a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet to investigate the effect of TPL2 deletion on obesity, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity. RESULTS We demonstrate that TPL2 deletion does not alter body weight gain or adipose depot weight. However, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies revealed improved insulin sensitivity with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and increased suppression of hepatic glucose output in obese TPL2KO mice compared with obese WT mice. Consistent with an improved metabolic phenotype, immune cell infiltration and inflammation was attenuated in the adipose tissue of obese TPL2KO mice coincident with reduced hepatic inflammatory gene expression and lipid accumulation. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide the first in vivo demonstration that TPL2 ablation attenuates obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction. These data suggest TPL2 is a novel target for improving the metabolic state associated with obesity. PMID:21346175

  12. Trefoil factors: Tumor progression markers and mitogens via EGFR/MAPK activation in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kosriwong, Kanuengnuch; Menheniott, Trevelyan R; Giraud, Andrew S; Jearanaikoon, Patcharee; Sripa, Banchob; Limpaiboon, Temduang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate trefoil factor (TFF) gene copy number, mRNA and protein expression as potential biomarkers in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). METHODS: TFF mRNA levels, gene copy number and protein expression were determined respectively by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in bile duct epithelium biopsies collected from individuals with CCA, precancerous bile duct dysplasia and from disease-free controls. The functional impact of recombinant human (rh)TFF2 peptide treatment on proliferation and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was assessed in the CCA cell line, KMBC, by viable cell counting and immunoblotting, respectively. RESULTS: TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 mRNA expression was significantly increased in CCA tissue compared to disease-free controls, and was unrelated to gene copy number. TFF1 immunoreactivity was strongly increased in both dysplasia and CCA, whereas TFF2 immunoreactivity was increased only in CCA compared to disease-free controls. By contrast, TFF3 immunoreactivity was moderately decreased in dysplasia and further decreased in CCA. Kaplan-Meier analysis found no association of TFF mRNA, protein and copy number with age, gender, histological subtype, and patient survival time. Treatment of KMBC cells with rhTFF2 stimulated proliferation, triggered phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream extracellular signal related kinase (ERK), whereas co-incubation with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PD153035, blocked rhTFF2-dependent proliferation and EGFR/ERK responses. CONCLUSION: TFF mRNA/protein expression is indicative of CCA tumor progression, but not predictive for histological sub-type or survival time. TFF2 is mitogenic in CCA via EGFR/MAPK activation. PMID:21472131

  13. Hemochromatosis Enhances Tumor Progression via Upregulation of Intracellular Iron in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lenarduzzi, Michelle; Hui, Angela B. Y.; Yue, Shijun; Ito, Emma; Shi, Wei; Williams, Justin; Bruce, Jeff; Sakemura-Nakatsugawa, Noriko; Xu, Wei; Schimmer, Aaron; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite improvements in treatment strategies for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), outcomes have not significantly improved; highlighting the importance of identifying novel therapeutic approaches to target this disease. To address this challenge, we proceeded to evaluate the role of iron in HNSCC. Experimental Design Expression levels of iron-related genes were evaluated in HNSCC cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR. Cellular phenotypic effects were assessed using viability (MTS), clonogenic survival, BrdU, and tumor formation assays. The prognostic significance of iron-related proteins was determined using immunohistochemistry. Results In a panel of HNSCC cell lines, hemochromatosis (HFE) was one of the most overexpressed genes involved in iron regulation. In vitro knockdown of HFE in HNSCC cell lines significantly decreased hepcidin (HAMP) expression and intracellular iron level. This in turn, resulted in a significant decrease in HNSCC cell viability, clonogenicity, DNA synthesis, and Wnt signalling. These cellular changes were reversed by re-introducing iron back into HNSCC cells after HFE knockdown, indicating that iron was mediating this phenotype. Concordantly, treating HNSCC cells with an iron chelator, ciclopirox olamine (CPX), significantly reduced viability and clonogenic survival. Finally, patients with high HFE expression experienced a reduced survival compared to patients with low HFE expression. Conclusions Our data identify HFE as potentially novel prognostic marker in HNSCC that promotes tumour progression via HAMP and elevated intracellular iron levels, leading to increased cellular proliferation and tumour formation. Hence, these findings suggest that iron chelators might have a therapeutic role in HNSCC management. PMID:23991213

  14. Canine tumor cross-species genomics uncovers targets linked to osteosarcoma progression

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pulmonary metastasis continues to be the most common cause of death in osteosarcoma. Indeed, the 5-year survival for newly diagnosed osteosarcoma patients has not significantly changed in over 20 years. Further understanding of the mechanisms of metastasis and resistance for this aggressive pediatric cancer is necessary. Pet dogs naturally develop osteosarcoma providing a novel opportunity to model metastasis development and progression. Given the accelerated biology of canine osteosarcoma, we hypothesized that a direct comparison of canine and pediatric osteosarcoma expression profiles may help identify novel metastasis-associated tumor targets that have been missed through the study of the human cancer alone. Results Using parallel oligonucleotide array platforms, shared orthologues between species were identified and normalized. The osteosarcoma expression signatures could not distinguish the canine and human diseases by hierarchical clustering. Cross-species target mining identified two genes, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 3 (SLC1A3), which were uniformly expressed in dog but not in all pediatric osteosarcoma patient samples. Expression of these genes in an independent population of pediatric osteosarcoma patients was associated with poor outcome (p = 0.020 and p = 0.026, respectively). Validation of IL-8 and SLC1A3 protein expression in pediatric osteosarcoma tissues further supported the potential value of these novel targets. Ongoing evaluation will validate the biological significance of these targets and their associated pathways. Conclusions Collectively, these data support the strong similarities between human and canine osteosarcoma and underline the opportunities provided by a comparative oncology approach as a means to improve our understanding of cancer biology and therapies. PMID:20028558

  15. Imbalance of tumor necrosis factor receptors during progression in bovine leukemia virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Konnai, Satoru; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ikeda, Manabu

    2005-09-01

    Previously, we found an up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-{alpha} and an imbalance of TNF receptors in sheep experimentally infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). In order to investigate the different TNF-{alpha}-induced responses, in this study we examined the TNF-{alpha}-induced proliferative response and the expression levels of two distinct TNF receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from BLV-uninfected cattle and BLV-infected cattle that were aleukemic (AL) or had persistent lymphocytosis (PL). The proliferative response of PBMC isolated from those cattle with PL in the presence of recombinant bovine TNF-{alpha} (rTNF-{alpha}) was significantly higher than those from ALmore » cattle and uninfected cattle and the cells from PL cattle expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of TNF receptor type II (TNF-RII) than those from AL and BLV-uninfected cattle. No difference was found in TNF-RI mRNA levels. Most cells expressing TNF-RII in PL cattle were CD5{sup +} or sIgM{sup +} cells and these cells showed resistance to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Additionally, there were significant positive correlations between the changes in provirus load and TNF-RII mRNA levels, and TNF-{alpha}-induced proliferation and TNF-RII mRNA levels. These data suggest that imbalance in the expression of TNF receptors could at least in part contribute to the progression of lymphocytosis in BLV infection.« less

  16. The role of osteopontin in tumor progression and metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lígia R; Teixeira, José A; Schmitt, Fernando L; Paulsson, Marie; Lindmark-Mänsson, Helena

    2007-06-01

    The use of cancer biomarkers to anticipate the outlines of disease has been an emerging issue, especially as cancer treatment has made such positive steps in the last few years. Progress in the development of consistent malignancy markers is imminent because advances in genomics and bioinformatics have allowed the examination of immense amounts of data. Osteopontin is a phosphorylated glycoprotein secreted by activated macrophages, leukocytes, and activated T lymphocytes, and is present in extracellular fluids, at sites of inflammation, and in the extracellular matrix of mineralized tissues. Several physiologic roles have been attributed to osteopontin, i.e., in inflammation and immune function, in mineralized tissues, in vascular tissue, and in kidney. Osteopontin interacts with a variety of cell surface receptors, including several integrins and CD44. Binding of osteopontin to these cell surface receptors stimulates cell adhesion, migration, and specific signaling functions. Overexpression of osteopontin has been found in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, and melanoma. Moreover, osteopontin is present in elevated levels in the blood and plasma of some patients with metastatic cancers. Therefore, suppression of the action of osteopontin may confer significant therapeutic activity, and several strategies for bringing about this suppression have been identified. This review looks at the recent advances in understanding the possible mechanisms by which osteopontin may contribute functionally to malignancy, particularly in breast cancer. Furthermore, the measurement of osteopontin in the blood or tumors of patients with cancer, as a way of providing valuable prognostic information, will be discussed based on emerging clinical data.

  17. Aspirin delays mesothelioma growth by inhibiting HMGB1-mediated tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Pellegrini, L; Napolitano, A; Giorgi, C; Jube, S; Preti, A; Jennings, C J; De Marchis, F; Flores, E G; Larson, D; Pagano, I; Tanji, M; Powers, A; Kanodia, S; Gaudino, G; Pastorino, S; Pass, H I; Pinton, P; Bianchi, M E; Carbone, M

    2015-06-11

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an inflammatory molecule that has a critical role in the initiation and progression of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is the most widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that reduces the incidence, metastatic potential and mortality of many inflammation-induced cancers. We hypothesized that ASA may exert anticancer properties in MM by abrogating the carcinogenic effects of HMGB1. Using HMGB1-secreting and -non-secreting human MM cell lines, we determined whether aspirin inhibited the hallmarks of HMGB1-induced MM cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrated that ASA and its metabolite, salicylic acid (SA), inhibit motility, migration, invasion and anchorage-independent colony formation of MM cells via a novel HMGB1-mediated mechanism. ASA/SA, at serum concentrations comparable to those achieved in humans taking therapeutic doses of aspirin, and BoxA, a specific inhibitor of HMGB1, markedly reduced MM growth in xenograft mice and significantly improved survival of treated animals. The effects of ASA and BoxA were cyclooxygenase-2 independent and were not additive, consistent with both acting via inhibition of HMGB1 activity. Our findings provide a rationale for the well documented, yet poorly understood antitumorigenic activity of aspirin, which we show proceeds via HMGB1 inhibition. Moreover, the use of BoxA appears to allow a more efficient HMGB1 targeting while eluding the known gastrointestinal side effects of ASA. Our findings are directly relevant to MM. Given the emerging importance of HMGB1 and its tumor-promoting functions in many cancer types, and of aspirin in cancer prevention and therapy, our investigation is poised to provide broadly applicable information.

  18. Learning from Children: Learning from Caroline Pratt (1867-1954). Early Progressives in Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…

  19. Class A1 scavenger receptor modulates glioma progression by regulating M2-like tumor-associated macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanwen; Zhang, Wenbin; Sun, Xuan; Dang, Ruoyu; Zhou, Rongmei; Bai, Hui; Ben, Jingjing; Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Qing; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages enhance glioma development and progression by shaping the tumor microenvironment. Class A1 scavenger receptor (SR-A1), a pattern recognition receptor primarily expressed in macrophages, is up-regulated in many human solid tumors. We found that SR-A1 expression in 136 human gliomas was positively correlated with tumor grade (P<0.01), but not prognosis or tumor recurrence. SR-A1-expressing macrophages originated primarily from circulating monocytes attracted to tumor tissue, and were almost twice as numerous as resident microglia in glioma tissues (P<0.001). The effects of SR-A1 on glioma proliferation and invasion were assessed in vivo using an SR-A1-deficient murine orthotopic glioma model. SR-A1 deletion promoted M2-like tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) polarization in mice by activating STAT3 and STAT6, which resulted in robust orthotopic glioma proliferation and angiogenesis. Finally, we found that HSP70 might be an endogenous ligand that activates SR-A1-dependent anti-tumorigenic pathways in gliomas, although its expression does not appear informative for diagnostic purposes. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between TAMs, SR-A1 expression and glioma growth and provide new insights into the pathogenic role of TAMs in glioma. PMID:27367025

  20. miRNA-27b Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C to Inhibit Tumor Progression and Angiogenesis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dang; Wu, Pin; Ni, Chao; Zhang, Zhigang; Chen, Zhigang; Qiu, Fuming; Xu, Jinghong; Huang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers globally and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths due to therapy resistance and metastasis. Understanding the mechanism underlying colorectal carcinogenesis is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. microRNAs (miRNAs) can act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors in many cancers. A tumor suppressor role for miR-27b has recently been reported in neuroblastoma, while no information about miR-27b in CRC is available. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-27b expression is decreased in most CRC tissues and determined that overexpression of miR-27b represses CRC cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) as a novel target gene of miR-27b and determined that miR-27b functioned as an inhibitor of tumor progression and angiogenesis through targeting VEGFC in CRC. We further determined that DNA hypermethylation of miR-27b CpG islands decreases miR-27b expression. In summary, an anti-tumor role for miR-27b and its novel target VEGFC in vivo could lead to tumor necrosis and provide a rationale for developing miR-27b as a therapeutic agent. PMID:23593282

  1. Downregulation of SASH1 correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    REN, XIAOYAN; LIU, YIFEI; TAO, YUMEI; ZHU, GUOXIANG; PEI, MEILAN; ZHANG, JIANGUO; LIU, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    SAM- and SH3-domain containing 1 (SASH1) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that is required in the tumorigenesis of breast and other solid carcinomas. The SASH1 protein contains SH3 and SAM domains, indicating that it may serve an important role in intracellular signal transduction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of SASH1 in ovarian carcinoma and the correlation between its expression with clinical pathological features and clinical significance, and the effect of SASH1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration of ovarian SKOV3 cells. The human ovarian carcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected following surgery. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of SASH1 mRNA and protein, respectively. The expression levels of SASH1 mRNA and protein in ovarian carcinoma tissues were significantly lower than that observed in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The expression levels of SASH1 in samples from patients without lymph nodes metastasis and patients with early FIGO stage was lower than those with lymph nodes metastasis and patients with advanced FIGO stage (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis and Transwell invasion chamber experiments were used to investigate the effect of SASH1 on the cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration of SKOV3 cells. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-SASH1 was constructed and transfected into SKOV3 cells. In addition, the SKOV3 cells in the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group exhibited significantly reduced cell growth, proliferation, and migration ability compared to the empty vector group and normal group (P<0.01). There were a greater number of apoptotic cells in the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group compared to the empty vector group and normal group (P<0.01). Taken together, these results indicated that SASH1 may be a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian carcinoma, and SASH1 expression inhibited growth

  2. Downregulation of SASH1 correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yifei; Tao, Yumei; Zhu, Guoxiang; Pei, Meilan; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    SAM- and SH3-domain containing 1 (SASH1) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that is required in the tumorigenesis of breast and other solid carcinomas. The SASH1 protein contains SH3 and SAM domains, indicating that it may serve an important role in intracellular signal transduction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of SASH1 in ovarian carcinoma and the correlation between its expression with clinical pathological features and clinical significance, and the effect of SASH1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration of ovarian SKOV3 cells. The human ovarian carcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected following surgery. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of SASH1 mRNA and protein, respectively. The expression levels of SASH1 mRNA and protein in ovarian carcinoma tissues were significantly lower than that observed in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The expression levels of SASH1 in samples from patients without lymph nodes metastasis and patients with early FIGO stage was lower than those with lymph nodes metastasis and patients with advanced FIGO stage (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis and Transwell invasion chamber experiments were used to investigate the effect of SASH1 on the cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration of SKOV3 cells. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-SASH1 was constructed and transfected into SKOV3 cells. In addition, the SKOV3 cells in the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group exhibited significantly reduced cell growth, proliferation, and migration ability compared to the empty vector group and normal group (P<0.01). There were a greater number of apoptotic cells in the pcDNA3.1-SASH1 group compared to the empty vector group and normal group (P<0.01). Taken together, these results indicated that SASH1 may be a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian carcinoma, and SASH1 expression inhibited growth

  3. Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries.

    PubMed

    Wall, Kristin M; Rida, Wasima; Haddad, Lisa B; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Yang, Annie H; Latka, Mary H; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Edward, Vinodh A; Price, Matt A

    2017-03-01

    Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. From 2006 to 2011, women less than age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μl, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Immunologic progression was defined as two consecutive CD4s ≤350 cells/μl or a single CD4 ≤350 cells/μl followed by non-PMTCT ART initiation. Generalized estimating equations assessed changes in CD4 before and after pregnancy. Among 222 women, 63 experienced clinical progression during 783.5 person-years at risk (8.0/100). Among 205 women, 87 experienced immunologic progression during 680.1 person-years at risk (12.8/100). The association between pregnancy and clinical progression was adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.8. The association between pregnancy and immunologic progression was aHR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3. Models controlled for age; human leukocyte antigen alleles A*03:01, B*45, B*57; CD4 set point; and HIV-1 subtype. CD4 measurements before versus after pregnancies were not different. In this cohort, pregnancy was not associated with increased clinical or immunologic HIV progression. Similarly, we did not observe meaningful deleterious associations of pregnancy with CD4s. Our findings suggest that HIV-positive women may become pregnant without harmful health effects occurring during the pregnancy. Evaluation of longer-term impact of pregnancy on progression is warranted.

  4. A functional in vivo screen for regulators of tumor progression identifies HOXB2 as a regulator of tumor growth in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Boimel, Pamela J; Cruz, Cristian; Segall, Jeffrey E

    2011-09-01

    Microarray profiling in breast cancer patients has identified genes correlated with prognosis whose functions are unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vivo assay for functionally screening regulators of tumor progression using a mouse model. Transductant shRNA cell lines were made in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line. A pooled population of 25 transductants was injected into the mammary fat pads and tail veins of mice to evaluate tumor growth, and experimental metastasis. The proportions of transductants were evaluated in the tumor and metastases using barcodes specific to each shRNA transductant. We characterized the homeobox 2 transcription factor as a negative regulator, decreasing tumor growth in MDA-MB-231, T47D, and MTLn3 mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. Homeobox genes have been correlated with cancer patient prognosis and tumorigenesis. Here we use a novel in vivo shRNA screen to identify a new role for a homeobox gene in human mammary adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A functional in vivo screen for regulators of tumor progression identifies HOXB2 as a regulator of tumor growth in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boimel, Pamela J.; Cruz, Cristian; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Microarray profiling in breast cancer patients have identified genes correlated with prognosis whose functions are unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vivo assay for functionally screening regulators of tumor progression using a mouse model. Transductant shRNA cell lines were made in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line. A pooled population of 25 transductants was injected into the mammary fat pads and tail veins of mice to evaluate tumor growth, and experimental metastasis. The proportions of transductants were evaluated in the tumor and metastases using barcodes specific to each shRNA transductant. We characterized the homeobox 2 transcription factor as a negative regulator, decreasing tumor growth in MDA-MB-231, T47D, and MTLn3 mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. Homeobox genes have been correlated with cancer patient prognosis and tumorigenesis. Here we use a novel in vivo shRNA screen to identify a new role for a homeobox gene in human mammary adenocarcinoma. PMID:21672623

  6. Model-based prediction of progression-free survival in patients with first-line renal cell carcinoma using week 8 tumor size change from baseline.

    PubMed

    Claret, Laurent; Zheng, Jenny; Mercier, Francois; Chanu, Pascal; Chen, Ying; Rosbrook, Brad; Yazdi, Pithavala; Milligan, Peter A; Bruno, Rene

    2016-09-01

    To assess the link between early tumor shrinkage (ETS) and progression-free survival (PFS) based on historical first-line metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) data. Tumor size data from 921 patients with first-line mRCC who received interferon-alpha, sunitinib, sorafenib or axitinib in two Phase III studies were modeled. The relationship between model-based estimates of ETS at week 8 as well as the baseline prognostic factors and PFS was tested in multivariate log-logistic models. Model performance was evaluated using simulations of PFS distributions and hazard ratio (HR) across treatments for the two studies. In addition, an external validation was conducted using data from an independent Phase II RCC study. The relationship between expected HR of an investigational treatment vs. sunitinib and the differences in ETS was simulated. A model with a nonlinear ETS-PFS link was qualified to predict PFS distribution by ETS quartiles as well as to predict HRs of sunitinib vs. interferon-alpha and axitinib vs. sorafenib. The model also performed well in simulations of an independent study of axitinib (external validation). The simulations suggested that if a new investigational treatment could further reduce the week 8 ETS by 30 % compared with sunitinib, an expected HR [95 % predictive interval] of the new treatment vs. sunitinib would be 0.59 [0.46, 0.79]. A model has been developed that uses early changes in tumor size to predict the HR for PFS differences between treatment arms for first-line mRCC. Such a model may have utility in predicting the outcome of ongoing studies (e.g., as part of interim futility analyses), supporting early decision making and future study design for investigational agents in development for this indication.

  7. Targeting ADAM17 inhibits human colorectal adenocarcinoma progression and tumor-initiating cell frequency.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Joseph; Ziemke, Elizabeth; Wan, Shanshan; Luker, Kathryn; Welling, Theodore; Hardiman, Karin; Fearon, Eric; Thomas, Suneetha; Flynn, Matthew; Rios-Doria, Jonathan; Hollingsworth, Robert; Herbst, Ronald; Hurt, Elaine; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith

    2017-09-12

    ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17)/TACE (TNFα converting enzyme) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in colorectal cancer (CRC) and other cancers, due in part to its role in regulating various tumor cell surface proteins and growth factors and cytokines in the tumor microenvironment. The emergence of MEDI3622, a highly potent and specific antibody-based ADAM17 inhibitor, has allowed testing of the concept that targeting ADAM17 may be an important new therapeutic approach for CRC patients. We demonstrate that MEDI3622 is highly efficacious on tumor growth in multiple human CRC PDX models, resulting in improved survival of animals bearing tumor xenografts. MEDI3622 was further found to impact Notch pathway activity and tumor-initiating cells. The promising preclinical activity seen here supports further clinical investigation of this treatment approach to improve therapeutic outcome for patients diagnosed with metastatic CRC, including patients with KRAS-mutant tumors for whom other therapeutic options are currently limited.

  8. Overexpression of paxillin induced by miR-137 suppression promotes tumor progression and metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The deregulation of paxillin (PXN) has been involved in the progression and metastasis of different malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). miR-137 is frequently suppressed in CRC. PXN is predicted to be a direct target of miR-137 in CRC cells. On this basis, we hypothesized that overexpression of PXN induced by suppression of miR-137 may promote tumor progression and metastasis and predicts poor prognosis. We detected the expression of PXN and miR-137 in clinical tumor tissues by immunohistochemical analysis and real-time PCR, positive PXN staining was observed in 198 of the 247 (80.1%) cases, whereas no or weak PXN staining was observed in the adjacent non-cancerous area. Higher level of PXN messenger RNA (mRNA) and lower level of miR-137 was observed in cancer tissues than adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High expression of PXN and low expression of miR-137 was associated with aggressive tumor phenotype and adverse prognosis. Moreover, the expression of PXN was negatively correlated with miR-137 expression. A dual-luciferase reporter gene assay validated that PXN was a direct target of miR-137. The use of miR-137 mimics or inhibitor could decrease or increase PXN mRNA and protein levels in CRC cell lines. Knockdown of PXN or ectopic expression of miR-137 could markedly inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and repress tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrated that overexpression of PXN induced by suppression of miR-137 promotes tumor progression and metastasis and could serve as an independent prognostic indicator in CRC patients. PMID:23275153

  9. The prognostic role of tumor size in early breast cancer in the era of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Kasangian, Anaid Anna; Gherardi, Giorgio; Biagioli, Elena; Torri, Valter; Moretti, Anna; Bernardin, Elena; Cordovana, Andrea; Farina, Gabriella; Bramati, Annalisa; Piva, Sheila; Dazzani, Maria Chiara; Paternò, Emanuela; La Verde, Nicla Maria

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis of early breast cancer (EBC) depends on patient and tumor characteristics. The association between tumor size, the largest diameter in TNM staging, and prognosis is well recognized. According to TNM, tumors classified as T2, could have very different volumes; e.g. a tumor of 2.1 cm has a volume of 4500 mm3, while a tumor of 4.9 cm has a volume of 60.000 mm3 even belonging to the same class. The aim of the study is to establish if the prognostic role of tumor size, expressed as diameter and volume, has been overshadowed by other factors. The primary objective is to evaluate the association between tumor dimensions and overall survival (OS) / disease free survival (DFS), in our institution from January 1st 2005 to September 30th 2013 in a surgical T1-T2 population. Volume was evaluated with the measurement of three half-diameters of the tumor (a, b and c), and calculated using the following formula: 4/3π x a x b x c. 341 patients with T1-T2 EBC were included. 86.5% were treated with conservative surgery. 85.1% had a Luminal subtype, 9.1% were Triple negative and 7.4% were HER2 positive. Median volume was 942 mm3 (range 0.52-31.651.2). 44 patients (12.9%) relapsed and 23 patients died. With a median follow-up of 6.5 years, the univariate analysis for DFS showed an association between age, tumor size, volume, histological grading and molecular subtype. The multivariate analysis confirmed the statistically significant association only for molecular subtype (p 0.005), with a worse prognosis for Triple negative and HER2 positive subtypes compared with Luminal (HR: 2.65; 95%CI: 1.34-5.22). Likewise for OS, an association was shown by the multivariate analysis solely for molecular subtype (HER2 and Triple negative vs. Luminal. HR: 2.83; 95% CI:1.46-5.49; p 0.002). In our study, the only parameter that strongly influences survival is molecular subtype. These findings encourage clinicians to choose adjuvant treatment not based on dimensional criteria but on

  10. Myristoylation of Src kinase mediates Src-induced and high-fat diet-accelerated prostate tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjin; Yang, Xiangkun; Li, Qianjin; Wu, Meng; Costyn, Leah; Beharry, Zanna; Bartlett, Michael G; Cai, Houjian

    2017-11-10

    Exogenous fatty acids provide substrates for energy production and biogenesis of the cytoplasmic membrane, but they also enhance cellular signaling during cancer cell proliferation. However, it remains controversial whether dietary fatty acids are correlated with tumor progression. In this study, we demonstrate that increased Src kinase activity is associated with high-fat diet-accelerated progression of prostate tumors and that Src kinases mediate this pathological process. Moreover, in the in vivo prostate regeneration assay, host SCID mice carrying Src(Y529F)-transduced regeneration tissues were fed a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet and treated with vehicle or dasatinib. The high-fat diet not only accelerated Src-induced prostate tumorigenesis in mice but also compromised the inhibitory effect of the anticancer drug dasatinib on Src kinase oncogenic potential in vivo We further show that myristoylation of Src kinase is essential to facilitate Src-induced and high-fat diet-accelerated tumor progression. Mechanistically, metabolism of exogenous myristic acid increased the biosynthesis of myristoyl CoA and myristoylated Src and promoted Src kinase-mediated oncogenic signaling in human cells. Of the fatty acids tested, only exogenous myristic acid contributed to increased intracellular myristoyl CoA levels. Our results suggest that targeting Src kinase myristoylation, which is required for Src kinase association at the cellular membrane, blocks dietary fat-accelerated tumorigenesis in vivo Our findings uncover the molecular basis of how the metabolism of myristic acid stimulates high-fat diet-mediated prostate tumor progression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Novel methylation panel for the early detection of colorectal tumors in stool DNA.

    PubMed

    Azuara, Daniel; Rodriguez-Moranta, Francisco; de Oca, Javier; Soriano-Izquierdo, Antonio; Mora, Josefina; Guardiola, Jordi; Biondo, Sebastiano; Blanco, Ignacio; Peinado, Miguel Angel; Moreno, Victor; Esteller, Manel; Capellá, Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies showed that the assessment of promoter hypermethylation of a limited number of genes in tumor biopsies may identify the majority of colorectal tumors. This study aimed to assess the clinical usefulness of a panel of methylation biomarkers in stool DNA in the identification of colorectal tumors, using methylation-specific melting curve analysis (MS-MCA), a technique that simultaneously analyzes all cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) residues within a promoter. The promoter methylation status of 4 tumor-related genes (RARB2, p16INK4a, MGMT, and APC) was analyzed in DNA stool samples and corresponding tissues in an initial set of 12 patients with newly diagnosed primary colorectal carcinomas and 20 patients with newly diagnosed colorectal adenomas, using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results were replicated in a set of 82 patients (20 healthy subjects, 16 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 20 patients with adenomas, and 26 patients with carcinomas), using MS-MCA analyses. In the initial set, >or= 1 positive methylation marker was detected in the stools of 9 of 12 patients (75%) with carcinomas and 12 of 20 patients (60%) with adenomas, with no false-positive results. Stool analyses missed 7 methylated lesions (25%). In the replication set, stool DNA testing detected 16 of 26 carcinomas (62%) and 8 of 20 adenomas (40%). The MS-MCAs missed 14 methylated tumors (37%). No aberrant methylation was evident in healthy subjects, but the RARB2 marker was positive in 2 of 15 stool samples (13%) of patients with IBD. Analysis via MS-MCA of a panel of methylation markers in stool DNA may offer a good alternative in the early, noninvasive detection of colorectal tumors.

  12. Thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) overexpression associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Gengyan; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Qing; Hong, Lei; Shen, Yuangbing; Zhao, Chenling; Gong, Xiaomeng; Chen, Yuqing; Zhou, Jihong

    2018-05-15

    Thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) is an AAA + -ATPase that plays a key role in mitotic checkpoint complex inactivation and is associated with the progression of several cancers. However, its role in lung adenocarcinogenesis remains unknown. Here, we report that TRIP13 is highly overexpressed in multiple lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and tumor tissues. Clinically, TRIP13 expression is positively associated with tumor size, T-stage, and N-stage, and Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that heightened TRIP13 expression is associated with lower overall survival. TRIP13 promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and migration while inhibiting apoptosis and G2/M phase shift in vitro. Accordingly, TRIP13-silenced xenograft tumors displayed significant growth inhibition in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that TRIP13 interacts with a protein network associated with dsDNA break repair and PI3K/Akt signaling. TRIP13 upregulatesAkt Ser473 and downregulatesAkt Thr308 /mTOR Ser2448 activity, which suppresses accurate dsDNA break repair. TRIP13 also downregulates pro-apoptotic Bad Ser136 and cleaved caspase-3 while upregulating survivin. In conclusion, heightened TRIP13 expression appears to promote lung adenocarcinoma tumor progression and displays potential as a therapeutic target or biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Macroscopy predicts tumor progression in gastric cancer: A retrospective patho-historical analysis based on Napoleon Bonaparte's autopsy report.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Heather; Novotny, Alexander; Becker, Karen; Reim, Daniel; Langer, Rupert; Gullo, Irene; Svrcek, Magali; Niess, Jan H; Tutuian, Radu; Truninger, Kaspar; Diamantis, Ioannis; Blank, Annika; Zlobec, Inti; Riddell, Robert H; Carneiro, Fatima; Fléjou, Jean-François; Genta, Robert M; Lugli, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    The cause of Napoleon Bonaparte's death remains controversial. Originally suggested to be gastric cancer, whether this was truly neoplastic or a benign lesion has been recently debated. To interpret findings of original autopsy reports in light of the current knowledge of gastric cancer and to highlight the significance of accurate macroscopy in modern-day medicine. Using original autopsy documents, endoscopic images and data from current literature, Napoleon's gastric situation was reconstructed. In a multicenter collection of 2071 gastric cancer specimens, the relationship between tumor size and features of tumor progression was assessed. Greater tumor size was associated with advanced pT, nodal metastases and Borrmann types 3-4 (p<0.001). The best cut-off for predicting pT3-4 tumors was 6.5cm (AUC 0.8; OR 1.397, 95% CI 1.35-1.446), and 6cm for lymph node metastases (AUC 0.775; OR 1.389, 95% CI 1.338-1.442). The 6cm cut-off of had a positive predictive value of 0.820 for nodal metastases and a negative predictive value of 0.880 for distant metastases. This analysis combines Napoleon's autopsy with present-day knowledge to support gastric cancer as his terminal illness and emphasizes the role of macroscopy, which may provide valuable information on gastric cancer progression and aid patient management. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of neurotensin and NT1 receptor in human breast cancer: a potential role in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Souazé, Frédérique; Dupouy, Sandra; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Bruyneel, Erik; Attoub, Samir; Gespach, Christian; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia

    2006-06-15

    Emerging evidence supports neurotensin as a trophic and antiapoptotic factor, mediating its control via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor (NT1 receptor) in several human solid tumors. In a series of 51 patients with invasive ductal breast cancers, 34% of all tumors were positive for neurotensin and 91% positive for NT1 receptor. We found a coexpression of neurotensin and NT1 receptor in a large proportion (30%) of ductal breast tumors, suggesting a contribution of the neurotensinergic signaling cascade within breast cancer progression. Functionally expressed NT1 receptor, in the highly malignant MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line, coordinated a series of transforming functions, including cellular migration, invasion, induction of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 transcripts, and MMP-9 gelatinase activity. Disruption of NT1 receptor signaling by silencing RNA or use of a specific NT1 receptor antagonist, SR48692, caused the reversion of these transforming functions and tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted in nude mice. Our findings support the contribution of neurotensin in human breast cancer progression and point out the utility to develop therapeutic molecules targeting neurotensin or NT1 receptor signaling cascade. These strategies would increase the range of therapeutic approaches and be beneficial for specific patients.

  15. Pleiotrophin and N-syndecan promote perineural invasion and tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Zhang, Lu-Lin; Huang, Xu-Mei; Li, Wen-Yao; Gao, She-Gan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To detect the expression of pleiotrophin (PTN) and N-syndecan in pancreatic cancer and analyze their association with tumor progression and perineural invasion (PNI). METHODS An orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer was created by injecting tumor cells subcapsularly in a root region of the pancreas beneath the spleen. Pancreatic cancer tissues were taken from 36 mice that survived for more than 90 d. PTN and N-syndecan proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for their correlation with pathological features, PNI, and prognosis. RESULTS The expression rates of PTN and N-syndecan proteins were 66.7% and 61.1%, respectively, in cancer tissue. PTN and N-syndecan expression was associated with PNI (P = 0.019 and P = 0.032, respectively). High PTN expression was closely associated with large bloody ascites (P = 0.009), liver metastasis (P = 0.035), and decreased survival time (P = 0.022). N-syndecan expression was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.025), but not with survival time (P = 0.539). CONCLUSION High PTN and N-syndecan expression was closely associated with metastasis and poor prognosis, suggesting that they may promote tumor progression and PNI in the orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. PMID:28638231

  16. Pleiotrophin and N-syndecan promote perineural invasion and tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Zhang, Lu-Lin; Huang, Xu-Mei; Li, Wen-Yao; Gao, She-Gan

    2017-06-07

    To detect the expression of pleiotrophin (PTN) and N-syndecan in pancreatic cancer and analyze their association with tumor progression and perineural invasion (PNI). An orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer was created by injecting tumor cells subcapsularly in a root region of the pancreas beneath the spleen. Pancreatic cancer tissues were taken from 36 mice that survived for more than 90 d. PTN and N-syndecan proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for their correlation with pathological features, PNI, and prognosis. The expression rates of PTN and N-syndecan proteins were 66.7% and 61.1%, respectively, in cancer tissue. PTN and N-syndecan expression was associated with PNI ( P = 0.019 and P = 0.032, respectively). High PTN expression was closely associated with large bloody ascites ( P = 0.009), liver metastasis ( P = 0.035), and decreased survival time ( P = 0.022). N-syndecan expression was significantly associated with tumor size ( P = 0.025), but not with survival time ( P = 0.539). High PTN and N-syndecan expression was closely associated with metastasis and poor prognosis, suggesting that they may promote tumor progression and PNI in the orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

  17. [A Case of Early Gastric Cancer with Nodular Tumor-like Scalp Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Song, Young Wook; Kim, Woo Sub; Yun, Gee Young; Park, Sun Wook; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-07-25

    Many neoplasms, including lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, and gastrointestinal tract malignancy, possess potential for skin metastasis. Skin metastases can represent the first presentation of such malignancies and may be observed incidentally during routine exam. Skin metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma are uncommon, with a prevalence rate of 0.04-0.8%. Cutaneous metastases from gastric cancer are generally observed as the initial symptom of advanced gastric cancer. Early detection and treatment can increase patient survival. A 42-year-old woman visited our department with nodule about 1 cm in size on the right frontal scalp noticed incidentally after laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy and adjuvant systemic chemo-therapy for early gastric cancer about 16 months prior. The patient was diagnosed with skin metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma. Complete excision of the skin lesion and additional chemotherapy were performed. Herein, we report a case of nodular tumor-like scalp metastasis from early gastric cancer with a brief review of the literature.

  18. Cysts mark the early stage of metastatic tumor development in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Chitra; Rapp, Ulf R.; Rudel, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Identifying metastatic tumor growth at an early stage has been one of the biggest challenges in the treatment of lung cancer. By genetic lineage tracing approach in a conditional model of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in mice, we demonstrate that cystic lesions represent an early stage of metastatic invasion. We generated a mouse model for NSCLC which incorporated a heritable DsRed fluorescent tag driven by the ubiquitous CAG promoter in the alveolar type II cells of the lung. We found early cystic lesions in a secondary organ (liver) that lacked the expression of bona fide lung makers namely Scgb1a1 and surfactant protein C Sftpc and were DsRed positive hence identifying lung as their source of origin. This demonstrates the significant potential of alveolar type II cells in orchestrating the process of metastasis, rendering it as one of the target cell types of the lung of therapeutic importance in human NSCLC. PMID:29464089

  19. Use of early tumor shrinkage to predict long-term outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Piessevaux, Hubert; Buyse, Marc; Schlichting, Michael; Van Cutsem, Eric; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Heeger, Steffen; Tejpar, Sabine

    2013-10-20

    Early tumor shrinkage (ETS) is associated with long-term outcome in patients with chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving cetuximab. This association was investigated in the first-line setting in the randomized CRYSTAL and OPUS mCRC trials, after controlling for KRAS tumor mutation status. Radiologic assessments at week 8 were used to calculate the relative change in the sum of the longest diameters of the target lesions. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristics provided Cτ-indices (time-dependent c-index). Cox regression models and subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot analysis investigated associations between ETS (radiologic tumor size decrease at week 8) and survival and progression-free survival (PFS). In both trials, in patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC, Cτ values for PFS and survival were higher (P < .001) in those receiving chemotherapy plus cetuximab versus chemotherapy alone, indicating a stronger predictive value of ETS for long-term outcome in these patients. In the CRYSTAL and OPUS trials, respectively, the cutoff value of ETS ≥ 20% (v < 20%) identified patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC receiving chemotherapy plus cetuximab with longer PFS (medians 14.1 v 7.3 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.32; P < .001, and medians 11.9 v 5.7 months, HR = 0.22; P < .001) and survival (medians 30.0 v 18.6 months, HR = 0.53; P < .001 and medians 26.0 v 15.7 months, HR = 0.43; P = .006). ETS was significantly associated with long-term outcome in patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC treated first-line with chemotherapy plus cetuximab. Validation in prospective trials is required to assess the value of this on-treatment marker in the clinical decision-making process.

  20. Gene editing of the extra domain A positive fibronectin in various tumors, amplified the effects of CRISPR/Cas system on the inhibition of tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wan-Qi; Wang, Hai-Cheng; Peng, Jing; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Jiang, Jiu-Hui; Li, Cui-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The low efficiency of clustered, regularly interspaced, palindromic repeats-associated Cas (CRISPR/Cas) system editing genes in vivo limits the application. A components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the extra domain A positive fibronectin (EDA+FN), may be a target for CRISPR/Cas system for the pro-oncogenic effects. The exclusion of EDA exon would alter the microenvironment and inhibit tumor progression, even the frequency of gene editing is still limited. The pro-oncogenic effects were confirmed by the exclusion of EDA exon from the fibronectin gene, as illustrated by the down-regulated proliferation, migration and invasion of CNE-2Z or SW480 cells (P<0.05). Furthermore, although the efficacy of EDA exon knockout through CRISPR/Cas system was shown to be low in vivo , the EDA+FN protein levels decrease obviously, inhibiting the tumor growth rate significantly (P<0.05), which was accompanied by a decrease in Ki-67 expression and microvessel numbers, and increased E-cadherin or decreased Vimentin expression (P<0.05). Human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2Z, and the colorectal carcinoma cell line SW480 were transfected with CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids targeting EDA exon. The effects of the exclusion of EDA on the cell proliferation, motility and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated, and the western blot and real-time PCR were performed to analyze the underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids were injected into xenograft tumors to knockout EDA exon in vivo , and tumor growth, cell proliferation, EMT rate, or vascularization were investigated using western blot, PCR and immunohistochemistry. CRISPR/Cas system targeting ECM components was shown to be an effective method for the inhibition of tumor progression, as these paracrine or autocrine molecules are necessary for various tumor cells. This may represent a novel strategy for overcoming the drug evasion or resistance, in addition, circumventing the low efficiency of CRISPR

  1. Colon Tumors with the Simultaneous Induction of Driver Mutations in APC, KRAS, and PIK3CA Still Progress through the Adenoma-to-carcinoma Sequence.

    PubMed

    Hadac, Jamie N; Leystra, Alyssa A; Paul Olson, Terrah J; Maher, Molly E; Payne, Susan N; Yueh, Alexander E; Schwartz, Alexander R; Albrecht, Dawn M; Clipson, Linda; Pasch, Cheri A; Matkowskyj, Kristina A; Halberg, Richard B; Deming, Dustin A

    2015-10-01

    Human colorectal cancers often possess multiple mutations, including three to six driver mutations per tumor. The timing of when these mutations occur during tumor development and progression continues to be debated. More advanced lesions carry a greater number of driver mutations, indicating that colon tumors might progress from adenomas to carcinomas through the stepwise accumulation of mutations following tumor initiation. However, mutations that have been implicated in tumor progression have been identified in normal-appearing epithelial cells of the colon, leaving the possibility that these mutations might be present before the initiation of tumorigenesis. We utilized mouse models of colon cancer to investigate whether tumorigenesis still occurs through the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence when multiple mutations are present at the time of tumor initiation. To create a model in which tumors could concomitantly possess mutations in Apc, Kras, and Pik3ca, we developed a novel minimally invasive technique to administer an adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase to a focal region of the colon. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of these additional driver mutations at the time of tumor initiation results in increased tumor multiplicity and an increased rate of progression to invasive adenocarcinomas. These cancers can even metastasize to retroperitoneal lymph nodes or the liver. However, despite having as many as three concomitant driver mutations at the time of initiation, these tumors still proceed through the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Colon tumors with the simultaneous induction of driver mutations in APC, KRAS, and PIK3CA still progress through the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hadac, Jamie N.; Leystra, Alyssa A.; Olson, Terrah J. Paul; Maher, Molly E.; Payne, Susan N; Yueh, Alexander E.; Schwartz, Alexander R.; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Clipson, Linda; Pasch, Cheri A.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Halberg, Richard B.; Deming, Dustin A.

    2015-01-01

    Human colorectal cancers often possess multiple mutations, including 3–6 driver mutations per tumor. The timing of when these mutations occur during tumor development and progression continues to be debated. More advanced lesions carry a greater number of driver mutations, indicating that colon tumors might progress from adenomas to carcinomas through the stepwise accumulation of mutations following tumor initiation. However, mutations that have been implicated in tumor progression have been identified in normal-appearing epithelial cells of the colon, leaving the possibility that these mutations might be present prior to the initiation of tumorigenesis. We utilized mouse models of colon cancer to investigate whether tumorigenesis still occurs through the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence when multiple mutations are present at the time of tumor initiation. To create a model in which tumors could concomitantly possess mutations in Apc, Kras, and Pik3ca, we developed a novel minimally invasive technique to administer an adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase to a focal region of the colon. Here we demonstrate that the presence of these additional driver mutations at the time of tumor initiation results in increased tumor multiplicity and an increased rate of progression to invasive adenocarcinomas. These cancers can even metastasize to retroperitoneal lymph nodes or the liver. However, despite having as many as three concomitant driver mutations at the time of initiation, these tumors still proceed through the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence. PMID:26276752

  3. Predictive Value of Early Tumor Shrinkage and Density Reduction of Lung Metastases in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Treated With Regorafenib.

    PubMed

    Vanwynsberghe, Hannes; Verbeke, Xander; Coolen, Johan; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2017-12-01

    The benefit of regorafenib in colorectal cancer is not very pronounced. At present, there is lack of predictive biological or radiological markers. We studied if density reduction or small changes in size of lung metastases could be a predictive marker. We retrospectively measured density in size of lung metastases of all patients included in the CORRECT and CONSIGN trials at our center. Contrast-enhanced CT scan at baseline and at week 8 were compared. Data of progressive-free survival and overall survival were collected from the CORRECT and CONSIGN trials. A significant difference in progressive-free survival was seen in 3 groups: response or stable disease in size (5.36 vs. 3.96 months), response in density (6.03 vs. 2.72 months), and response in corrected density (6.14 vs. 3.08 months). No difference was seen for response in size versus stable disease or progressive disease in size. For overall survival, a difference was observed in the same 3 groups: response or stable disease in size (9.89 vs. 6.44 months), response in density (9.59 vs. 7.04 months), and response in corrected density (9.09 vs. 7.16 months). No difference was seen for response in size versus stable disease or progressive disease in size. Density reduction in lung metastases might be a good predictive parameter to predict outcome for regorafenib. Early tumor progression might be a negative predictive factor. If further validated, density reduction and early tumor progression might be useful to ameliorate the cost-benefit of regorafenib. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. LYSOPHOSPHATIDIC ACID INHIBITS CD8 T CELL ACTIVATION AND CONTROL OF TUMOR PROGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Shannon K.; Strauch, Pamela; Fujiwara, Yuko; Al-Shami, Amin; Oravecz, Tamas; Tigyi, Gabor; Pelanda, Roberta; Torres, Raul M.

    2013-01-01

    CD8 T lymphocytes are able to eliminate nascent tumor cells through a process referred to as immune surveillance. However, multiple inhibitory mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment have been described that impede tumor rejection by CD8 T cells, including increased signaling by inhibitory receptors. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that has been shown repeatedly to promote diverse cellular processes benefiting tumorigenesis. Accordingly, the increased expression of LPA and LPA receptors is a common feature of diverse tumor cell lineages and can result in elevated systemic LPA levels. LPA is recognized by at least 6 distinct G-protein-coupled receptors and several of which are expressed by T cells, although the precise role of LPA signaling in CD8 T cell activation and function has not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that LPA signaling via the LPA5 receptor expressed by CD8 T cells suppresses antigen receptor signaling, cell activation and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, in a mouse melanoma model tumor-specific CD8 T cells that are LPA5-deficient are able to control tumor growth significantly better than wild-type tumor-specific CD8 T cells. Together, these data suggest that the production of LPA by tumors serves not only in an autocrine manner to promote tumorigenesis but also as a mechanism to suppress adaptive immunity and highlights a potential novel target for cancer treatment. PMID:24455753

  5. Progress estimating incidence rates of tumors and deformities in St. Louis River white sucker

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC) was listed for the Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) of Fish Tumors and Other Deformities without the benefit of histological information. Information on the fish tumor incidence rate is important for the future removal of the BUI. Two year...

  6. Colonoscopic screening shows increased early incidence and progression of adenomas in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Niccum, David E.; Billings, Joanne L.; Dunitz, Jordan M.; Khoruts, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is an emerging problem in cystic fibrosis (CF). The goal of this study was to evaluate adenoma detection by systematic colonoscopic screening and surveillance. Methods We analyzed prospectively collected results of colonoscopies initiated at age 40 years from 88 CF patients at a single Cystic Fibrosis Center. We also reviewed results of diagnostic colonoscopies from 27 patients aged 30–39 years performed during the same time period at the Center. Results The incidence of polyp detection increased markedly after age 40 in CF patients. Greater than 50% were found to have adenomatous polyps; approximately 25% had advanced adenomas as defined by size and/or histopathology; 3% were found to have colon cancer. Multivariate analysis demonstrated specific risk factors for adenoma formation and progression. Conclusions Early screening and more frequent surveillance should be considered in patients with CF due to early incidence and progression of adenomas in this patient population. PMID:26851188

  7. Ku Protein Levels, Localization and Association to Replication Origins in Different Stages of Breast Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Abdelbaqi, Khalil; Di Paola, Domenic; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Human origins of DNA replication are specific sequences within the genome whereby DNA replication is initiated. A select group of proteins, known as the pre-replication (pre-RC) complex, in whose formation the Ku protein (Ku70/Ku86) was shown to play a role, bind to replication origins to initiate DNA replication. In this study, we have examined the involvement of Ku in breast tumorigenesis and tumor progression and found that the Ku protein expression levels in human breast metastatic (MCF10AC1a) cells were higher in the chromatin fraction compared to hyperplastic (MCF10AT) and normal (MCF10A) human breast cells, but remained constant in both the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In contrast, in human intestinal cells, the Ku expression level was relatively constant for all cell fractions. Nascent DNA abundance and chromatin association of Ku70/86 revealed that the c-myc origin activity in MCF10AC1a is 2.5 to 5-fold higher than in MCF10AT and MCF10A, respectively, and Ku was bound to the c-myc origin more abundantly in MCF10AC1a, by approximately 1.5 to 4.2-fold higher than in MCF10AT and MCF10A, respectively. In contrast, similar nascent DNA abundance and chromatin association was found for all cell lines for the lamin B2 origin, associated with the constitutively active housekeeping lamin B2 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) performed on the nuclear extracts (NEs) of the three cell types revealed the presence of protein-DNA replication complexes on both the c-myc and lamin B2 origins, but an increase in binding activity was observed from normal, to transformed, to cancer cells for the c-myc origin, whereas no such difference was seen for the lamin B2 origin. Overall, the results suggest that increased Ku chromatin association, beyond wild type levels, alters cellular processes, which have been implicated in tumorigenesis. PMID:23781282

  8. The cortical damage, early relapses, and onset of the progressive phase in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Scalfari, Antonio; Romualdi, Chiara; Nicholas, Richard S; Mattoscio, Miriam; Magliozzi, Roberta; Morra, Aldo; Monaco, Salvatore; Muraro, Paolo A; Calabrese, Massimiliano

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the relationship among cortical radiologic changes, the number of early relapses (ERs), and the long-term course of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cohort study, we assessed the number of cortical lesions (CLs) and white matter (WM) lesions and the cortical thickness (Cth) at clinical onset and after 7.9 mean years among 219 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS with 1 (Low-ER), 2 (Mid-ER), and ≥3 (High-ER) ERs during the first 2 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses investigated early factors influencing the risk of secondary progressive (SP) MS. Fifty-nine patients (27%) converted to SPMS in 6.1 mean years. A larger number of CLs at onset predicted a higher risk of SPMS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 4.79, and 12.3 for 2, 5, and 7 CLs, respectively, p < 0.001) and shorter latency to progression. The High-ER compared to the Low-ER and Mid-ER groups had a larger volume of WM lesions and CLs at onset, accrued more CLs, experienced more severe cortical atrophy over time, and entered the SP phase more rapidly. In the multivariate model, older age at onset (HR 1.97, p < 0.001), a larger baseline CL (HR 2.21, p = 0.005) and WM lesion (HR 1.32, p = 0.03) volume, early changes of global Cth (HR 1.36, p = 0.03), and ≥3 ERs (HR 6.08, p < 0.001) independently predicted a higher probability of SP. Extensive cortical damage at onset is associated with florid inflammatory clinical activity and predisposes to a rapid occurrence of the progressive phase. Age at onset, the number of early attacks, and the extent of baseline focal cortical damage can identify groups at high risk of progression who may benefit from more active therapy. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Protective Effect of Perindopril on Tumor Progression and Angiogenesis in Animal Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Snehal S; Nakka, Surender

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that the renin angiotensin system via angiogenesis is involved in tumor development. Therefore, objective of the present study was to examine the effect of perindopril on tumor growth and angiogenesis in animal models of breast cancer. In the present study, the effect of perindopril on tumor development of mammary gland cancer induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, mouse tumor xenograft and corneal micropocket model has been investigated. Anti-angiogenic effect by chick yolk sac membrane assay has also been studied. In the present study, it has been found that perindopril produced a significant inhibition of tumor growth, in DMBA induced breast cancer. Treatment also produced significant suppression of cancer biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transferase and inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Histopathological analysis also showed that perindopril was able to inhibit tumor development by the inhibition of hyperplastic lesions. Perindopril produced significant inhibition of tumor growth, in a mouse xenograft model and caused inhibition of neovascularization in the corneal micropocket model. In chick yolk sac membrane assay, perindopril showed inhibition of vascular growth and reduced blood vessel formation. Therefore, perindopril is widely used in clinical practice, may represent a neo-adjuvant therapy for treatment of breast cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. 3-D photoacoustic and pulse echo imaging of prostate tumor progression in the mouse window chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Daniel R.; Olafsson, Ragnar; Montilla, Leonardo G.; Witte, Russell S.

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the tumor microenvironment is critical to characterizing how cancers operate and predicting their response to treatment. We describe a novel, high-resolution coregistered photoacoustic (PA) and pulse echo (PE) ultrasound system used to image the tumor microenvironment. Compared to traditional optical systems, the platform provides complementary contrast and important depth information. Three mice are implanted with a dorsal skin flap window chamber and injected with PC-3 prostate tumor cells transfected with green fluorescent protein. The ensuing tumor invasion is mapped during three weeks or more using simultaneous PA and PE imaging at 25 MHz, combined with optical and fluorescent techniques. Pulse echo imaging provides details of tumor structure and the surrounding environment with 100-μm3 resolution. Tumor size increases dramatically with an average volumetric growth rate of 5.35 mm3/day, correlating well with 2-D fluorescent imaging (R = 0.97, p < 0.01). Photoacoustic imaging is able to track the underlying vascular network and identify hemorrhaging, while PA spectroscopy helps classify blood vessels according to their optical absorption spectrum, suggesting variation in blood oxygen saturation. Photoacoustic and PE imaging are safe, translational modalities that provide enhanced depth resolution and complementary contrast to track the tumor microenvironment, evaluate new cancer therapies, and develop molecular contrast agents in vivo.

  11. Rapamycin prevents the development and progression of mutant epidermal growth factor receptor lung tumors with the acquired resistance mutation T790M.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shigeru; Mercado-Matos, José R; Hollander, M Christine; Donahue, Danielle; Wilson, Willie; Regales, Lucia; Butaney, Mohit; Pao, William; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Jänne, Pasi A; Dennis, Phillip A

    2014-06-26

    Lung cancer in never-smokers is an important disease often characterized by mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), yet risk reduction measures and effective chemopreventive strategies have not been established. We identify mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as potentially valuable target for EGFR mutant lung cancer. mTOR is activated in human lung cancers with EGFR mutations, and this increases with acquisition of T790M mutation. In a mouse model of EGFR mutant lung cancer, mTOR activation is an early event. As a single agent, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevents tumor development, prolongs overall survival, and improves outcomes after treatment with an irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). These studies support clinical testing of mTOR inhibitors in order to prevent the development and progression of EGFR mutant lung cancers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal-induced theta activity supports early directed-attention network deficits in progressive MCI.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Ibañez, Vicente; Missonnier, Pascal; Herrmann, François; Fazio-Costa, Lara; Gold, Gabriel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2009-09-01

    The electroencephalography (EEG) theta frequency band reacts to memory and selective attention paradigms. Global theta oscillatory activity includes a posterior phase-locked component related to stimulus processing and a frontal-induced component modulated by directed attention. To investigate the presence of early deficits in the directed attention-related network in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), time-frequency analysis at baseline was used to assess global and induced theta oscillatory activity (4-6Hz) during n-back working memory tasks in 29 individuals with MCI and 24 elderly controls (EC). At 1-year follow-up, 13 MCI patients were still stable and 16 had progressed. Baseline task performance was similar in stable and progressive MCI cases. Induced theta activity at baseline was significantly reduced in progressive MCI as compared to EC and stable MCI in all n-back tasks, which were similar in terms of directed attention requirements. While performance is maintained, the decrease of induced theta activity suggests early deficits in the directed-attention network in progressive MCI, whereas this network is functionally preserved in stable MCI.

  13. Subjective cognitive concerns and neuropsychiatric predictors of progression to the early clinical stages of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Nancy J; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Zoller, Amy S; Rudel, Rebecca K; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Blacker, Deborah; Hyman, Bradley T; Locascio, Joseph J; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Marshall, Gad A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2014-12-01

    To examine neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological predictors of progression from normal to early clinical stages of Alzheimer disease (AD). From a total sample of 559 older adults from the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center longitudinal cohort, 454 were included in the primary analysis: 283 with clinically normal cognition (CN), 115 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 56 with subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) but no objective impairment, a proposed transitional group between CN and MCI. Two latent cognitive factors (memory-semantic, attention-executive) and two neuropsychiatric factors (affective, psychotic) were derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Centers' Uniform Data Set neuropsychological battery and Neuropsychiatric Inventory brief questionnaire. Factors were analyzed as predictors of time to progression to a worse diagnosis using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with backward elimination. Covariates included baseline diagnosis, gender, age, education, prior depression, antidepressant medication, symptom duration, and interaction terms. Higher/better memory-semantic factor score predicted lower hazard of progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.4 for 1 standard deviation [SD] increase, p <0.0001), and higher/worse affective factor score predicted higher hazard (HR = 1.3 for one SD increase, p = 0.01). No other predictors were significant in adjusted analyses. Using diagnosis as a sole predictor of transition to MCI, the SCC diagnosis carried a fourfold risk of progression compared with CN (HR = 4.1, p <0.0001). These results identify affective and memory-semantic factors as significant predictors of more rapid progression from normal to early stages of cognitive decline and highlight the subgroup of cognitively normal elderly with SCC as those with elevated risk of progression to MCI. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of Dasatinib With Progression-Free Survival Among Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Resistant to Imatinib.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Scott M; Bolejack, Vanessa; Thomas, Dafydd G; von Mehren, Margaret; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Samuels, Brian; Choy, Edwin; D'Amato, Gina; Staddon, Arthur P; Ganjoo, Kristen N; Chow, Warren A; Rushing, Daniel A; Forscher, Charles A; Priebat, Dennis A; Loeb, David M; Chugh, Rashmi; Okuno, Scott; Reinke, Denise K; Baker, Laurence H

    2018-04-26

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are life-threatening when metastatic or not amenable to surgical removal. In a few patients with advanced GISTs refractory to imatinib mesylate, treatment with sunitinib malate followed by regorafenib provides tumor control; however, additional active treatments are needed for most patients. To evaluate the 6-month progression-free survival (PFS), tumor objective response, and overall survival rates in patients with GISTs treated with dasatinib. This single-arm clinical trial used a Bayesian design to enroll patients 13 years or older with measurable imatinib-refractory metastatic GISTs treated at 14 sarcoma referral centers from June 1, 2008, through December 31, 2009. A control group was not included. Patients were followed up for survival for a minimum of 5 years from date of enrollment. Tumor imaging using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was performed every 8 weeks for the first 24 weeks and every 12 weeks thereafter. Tumor response was assessed by local site using the Choi criteria. Treatment was continued until tumor progression, unacceptable toxic effects after reduction in drug dose, or patient or physician decision. Archival tumor tissue was evaluated for expression of the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (SRC), phosphorylated SRC (pSRC), and succinate dehydrogenase complex iron sulfur subunit B (SDHB) proteins and for mutation in the V-Kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) genes. Data analysis was performed from May 19, 2017, through December 20, 2017. Dasatinib, 70 mg orally twice daily. The primary end point was the 6-month PFS estimate using greater than 30% as evidence of an active drug and less than 10% as evidence of inactive treatment. In this study, 50 patients were enrolled (median age, 60 years; age range, 19-78 years; 31 [62%] male and 19 [38%] female; 41 [82%] white), and 48 were evaluable for

  15. AZD2171 in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Primary CNS Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  16. Effects of deep brain stimulation on rest tremor progression in early stage Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Mallory L; DeLong, Mahlon R; Turchan, Maxim; Heusinkveld, Lauren E; Ostrem, Jill L; Molinari, Anna L; Currie, Amanda D; Konrad, Peter E; Davis, Thomas L; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Cannard, Kevin R; Drye, Lea T; Sternberg, Alice L; Shade, David M; Tonascia, James; Charles, David

    2018-06-29

    To evaluate whether the progression of individual motor features was influenced by early deep brain stimulation (DBS), a post hoc analysis of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) score (after a 7-day washout) was conducted from the 2-year DBS in early Parkinson disease (PD) pilot trial dataset. The prospective pilot trial enrolled patients with PD aged 50-75 years, treated with PD medications for 6 months-4 years, and no history of dyskinesia or other motor fluctuations, who were randomized to receive optimal drug therapy (ODT) or DBS plus ODT (DBS + ODT). At baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, all patients stopped all PD therapy for 1 week (medication and stimulation, if applicable). UPDRS-III "off" item scores were compared between the ODT and DBS + ODT groups (n = 28); items with significant between-group differences were analyzed further. UPDRS-III "off" rest tremor score change from baseline to 24 months was worse in patients receiving ODT vs DBS + ODT ( p = 0.002). Rest tremor slopes from baseline to 24 months favored DBS + ODT both "off" and "on" therapy ( p < 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively). More ODT patients developed new rest tremor in previously unaffected limbs than those receiving DBS + ODT ( p = 0.001). These results suggest the possibility that DBS in early PD may slow rest tremor progression. Future investigation in a larger cohort is needed, and these findings will be tested in the Food and Drug Administration-approved, phase III, pivotal, multicenter clinical trial evaluating DBS in early PD. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with early PD, DBS may slow the progression of rest tremor. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Technical Insights into Highly Sensitive Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Fixed and Live Circulating Tumor Cells for Early Detection of Tumor Invasion.

    PubMed

    Laget, Sophie; Broncy, Lucile; Hormigos, Katia; Dhingra, Dalia M; BenMohamed, Fatima; Capiod, Thierry; Osteras, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent; Jackson, Stephen; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) and Circulating Tumor Microemboli (CTM) are Circulating Rare Cells (CRC) which herald tumor invasion and are expected to provide an opportunity to improve the management of cancer patients. An unsolved technical issue in the CTC field is how to obtain highly sensitive and unbiased collection of these fragile and heterogeneous cells, in both live and fixed form, for their molecular study when they are extremely rare, particularly at the beginning of the invasion process. We report on a new protocol to enrich from blood live CTC using ISET® (Isolation by SizE of Tumor/Trophoblastic Cells), an open system originally developed for marker-independent isolation of fixed tumor cells. We have assessed the impact of our new enrichment method on live tumor cells antigen expression, cytoskeleton structure, cell viability and ability to expand in culture. We have also explored the ISET® in vitro performance to collect intact fixed and live cancer cells by using spiking analyses with extremely low number of fluorescent cultured cells. We describe results consistently showing the feasibility of isolating fixed and live tumor cells with a Lower Limit of Detection (LLOD) of one cancer cell per 10 mL of blood and a sensitivity at LLOD ranging from 83 to 100%. This very high sensitivity threshold can be maintained when plasma is collected before tumor cells isolation. Finally, we have performed a comparative next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of tumor cells before and after isolation from blood and culture. We established the feasibility of NGS analysis of single live and fixed tumor cells enriched from blood by our system. This study provides new protocols for detection and characterization of CTC collected from blood at the very early steps of tumor invasion.

  18. Technical Insights into Highly Sensitive Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Fixed and Live Circulating Tumor Cells for Early Detection of Tumor Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Laget, Sophie; Dhingra, Dalia M.; BenMohamed, Fatima; Capiod, Thierry; Osteras, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent; Jackson, Stephen; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) and Circulating Tumor Microemboli (CTM) are Circulating Rare Cells (CRC) which herald tumor invasion and are expected to provide an opportunity to improve the management of cancer patients. An unsolved technical issue in the CTC field is how to obtain highly sensitive and unbiased collection of these fragile and heterogeneous cells, in both live and fixed form, for their molecular study when they are extremely rare, particularly at the beginning of the invasion process. We report on a new protocol to enrich from blood live CTC using ISET® (Isolation by SizE of Tumor/Trophoblastic Cells), an open system originally developed for marker-independent isolation of fixed tumor cells. We have assessed the impact of our new enrichment method on live tumor cells antigen expression, cytoskeleton structure, cell viability and ability to expand in culture. We have also explored the ISET® in vitro performance to collect intact fixed and live cancer cells by using spiking analyses with extremely low number of fluorescent cultured cells. We describe results consistently showing the feasibility of isolating fixed and live tumor cells with a Lower Limit of Detection (LLOD) of one cancer cell per 10 mL of blood and a sensitivity at LLOD ranging from 83 to 100%. This very high sensitivity threshold can be maintained when plasma is collected before tumor cells isolation. Finally, we have performed a comparative next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of tumor cells before and after isolation from blood and culture. We established the feasibility of NGS analysis of single live and fixed tumor cells enriched from blood by our system. This study provides new protocols for detection and characterization of CTC collected from blood at the very early steps of tumor invasion. PMID:28060956

  19. Detection of early pregnancy factor-like activity in women with gestational trophoblastic tumors.

    PubMed

    Mehta, A R; Shahani, S K

    1987-07-01

    The presence of immunosuppressive early pregnancy factor (EPF) in the maternal serum has so far been associated with gestation. Its presence in the serum of women with gestational trophoblastic tumors was investigated. The results indicate that while EPF activity was detected in the serum of women with choriocarcinoma, no such activity was detected in the serum of women with hydatidiform mole, leading to the novel use of EPF as a marker to distinguish these two clinical situations. Results of the experiments also suggest that EPF moiety present in the maternal serum during pregnancy may be of different molecular entity than that present in the serum of women with choriocarcinoma.

  20. An "elite hacker": breast tumors exploit the normal microenvironment program to instruct their progression and biological diversity.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Aaron; van't Veer, Laura J; Bissell, Mina J

    2012-01-01

    The year 2011 marked the 40 year anniversary of Richard Nixon signing the National Cancer Act, thus declaring the beginning of the "War on Cancer" in the United States. Whereas we have made tremendous progress toward understanding the genetics of tumors in the past four decades, and in developing enabling technology to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cancer at unprecedented resolution, it is only recently that the important role of the stromal microenvironment has been studied in detail. Cancer is a tissue-specific disease, and it is becoming clear that much of what we know about breast cancer progression parallels the biology of the normal breast differentiation, of which there is still much to learn. In particular, the normal breast and breast tumors share molecular, cellular, systemic and microenvironmental influences necessary for their progression. It is therefore enticing to consider a tumor to be a "rogue hacker"--one who exploits the weaknesses of a normal program for personal benefit. Understanding normal mammary gland biology and its "security vulnerabilities" may thus leave us better equipped to target breast cancer. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the heterotypic cellular and molecular interactions within the microenvironment of the developing mammary gland that are necessary for functional differentiation, provide evidence suggesting that similar biology--albeit imbalanced and exaggerated--is observed in breast cancer progression particularly during the transition from carcinoma in situ to invasive disease. Lastly we will present evidence suggesting that the multigene signatures currently used to model cancer heterogeneity and clinical outcome largely reflect signaling from a heterogeneous microenvironment-a recurring theme that could potentially be exploited therapeutically.

  1. Modeling Freedom From Progression for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma: A Mathematical Tumor Control Model With Multiple Modes of Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Brodin, N. Patrik, E-mail: nils.patrik.brodin@rh.dk; Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen; Vogelius, Ivan R.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: As pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) is a relatively rare disease, it is important to extract the maximum information from trials and cohort studies. Here, a framework was developed for modeling tumor control with multiple modes of failure and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB, using published pattern of failure data. Methods and Materials: Outcome data for standard-risk MB published after 1990 with pattern of relapse information were used to fit a tumor control dose-response model addressing failures in both the high-dose boost volume and the elective craniospinal volume. Estimates of 5-year event-free survival from 2 large randomized MB trials were used tomore » model the time-to-progression distribution. Uncertainty in freedom from progression (FFP) was estimated by Monte Carlo sampling over the statistical uncertainty in input data. Results: The estimated 5-year FFP (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for craniospinal doses of 15, 18, 24, and 36 Gy while maintaining 54 Gy to the posterior fossa was 77% (95% CI, 70%-81%), 78% (95% CI, 73%-81%), 79% (95% CI, 76%-82%), and 80% (95% CI, 77%-84%) respectively. The uncertainty in FFP was considerably larger for craniospinal doses below 18 Gy, reflecting the lack of data in the lower dose range. Conclusions: Estimates of tumor control and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB provides a data-driven setting for hypothesis generation or power calculations for prospective trials, taking the uncertainties into account. The presented methods can also be applied to incorporate further risk-stratification for example based on molecular biomarkers, when the necessary data become available.« less

  2. Combined modality treatment improves tumor control and overall survival in patients with early stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed A.; Brillant, Corinne; Bohlius, Julia; Skoetz, Nicole; Schulz, Holger; Monsef, Ina; Specht, Lena; Engert, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Combined modality treatment (CMT) of chemotherapy followed by localized radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, the role of radiotherapy has been questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication. We thus performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma with respect to response rate, tumor control and overall survival (OS). We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library as well as conference proceedings from January 1980 to February 2009 for randomized controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone versus the same chemotherapy regimen plus radiotherapy. Progression free survival and similar outcomes were analyzed together as tumor control. Effect measures used were hazard ratios for OS and tumor control as well as relative risks for complete response (CR). Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan5. Five randomized controlled trials involving 1,245 patients were included. The hazard ratio (HR) was 0.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 to 0.66) for tumor control and 0.40 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.59) for OS for patients receiving CMT compared to chemotherapy alone. CR rates were similar between treatment groups. In sensitivity analyses another 6 trials were included that did not fulfill the inclusion criteria of our protocol but were considered relevant to the topic. These trials underlined the results of the main analysis. In conclusion, adding radiotherapy to chemotherapy improves tumor control and OS in patients with early stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:19951972

  3. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-27

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  4. Tumor cell-driven extracellular matrix remodeling drives haptotaxis during metastatic progression

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Madeleine J.; Jonas, Oliver; Kosciuk, Tatsiana; Broye, Liliane C.; Guido, Bruna C.; Wyckoff, Jeff; Riquelme, Daisy; Lamar, John M.; Asokan, Sreeja B.; Whittaker, Charlie; Ma, Duanduan; Langer, Robert; Cima, Michael J.; Wisinski, Kari B.; Hynes, Richard O.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Keely, Patricia J.; Bear, James E.; Gertler, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a major component of the tumor microenvironment, but its role in promoting metastasis is incompletely understood. Here we show that FN gradients elicit directional movement of breast cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Haptotaxis on FN gradients requires direct interaction between α5β1 integrin and Mena, an actin regulator, and involves increases in focal complex signaling and tumor-cell-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Compared to Mena, higher levels of the pro-metastatic MenaINV isoform associate with α5, which enables 3D haptotaxis of tumor cells towards the high FN concentrations typically present in perivascular space and in the periphery of breast tumor tissue. MenaINV and FN levels were correlated in two breast cancer cohorts, and high levels of MenaINV were significantly associated with increased tumor recurrence as well as decreased patient survival. Our results identify a novel tumor-cell-intrinsic mechanism that promotes metastasis through ECM remodeling and ECM guided directional migration. PMID:26811325

  5. Long non-coding RNA HOXD-AS1 promotes tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Zhao, Xinhan; Yang, Binhui; Li, Yuqing; Liu, Tao; Pang, Linyuan; Fan, Zhigang; Ma, Wu; Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Zeng

    2018-07-01

    Mounting evidence has indicated that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNA) serve important roles in tumor development. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lncRNA HOXD cluster antisense RNA 1 (HOXD‑AS1) promotes tumor progression in numerous types of cancer; however, the role of HOXD‑AS1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In the present study, the expression levels of HOXD‑AS1 were detected in CRC tissues and cell lines using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the biological effects of HOXD‑AS1 on CRC were evaluated in vitro by cell counting kit‑8, colony formation and Transwell assays, and in vivo by tumorigenesis and metastasis assays. The results demonstrated that HOXD‑AS1 was upregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines, and that overexpression of HOXD‑AS1 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with CRC. Furthermore, knockdown of HOXD‑AS1 inhibited cell proliferation, cell invasion, epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and stem cell formation in vitro, as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, HOXD‑AS1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA for miR‑217. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that HOXD‑AS1 may promote CRC progression and metastasis by competing for miR‑217. In addition, HOXD‑AS1 may be considered an indicator of prognosis in patients with CRC.

  6. BCL2 expression in CD105 positive neoangiogenic cells and tumor progression in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Philippe; Leboeuf, Christophe; Wang, Li; Brière, Josette; Loisel-Ferreira, Irmine; Thiéblemont, Catherine; Zhao, Wei-Li; Janin, Anne

    2012-06-01

    The angiogenic microenvironment has been known to be a component of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma since its initial characterization. We have shown that angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma endothelial cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA), and participate in lymphoma progression. In squamous cell carcinoma, endothelial BCL2 expression induces a crosstalk with tumor cells through VEGFA, a major mediator of tumoral angiogenesis. In the present study, we analyzed BCL2 and VEGFA in 30 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, using triple immunofluorescence to identify protein coexpression in well-characterized lymphoma cells and microenvironment neoangiogenic endothelial cells. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed mRNA expression levels in laser-microdissected endothelial and lymphoma cells. In lymphoma cells, as in endothelial cells, BCL2 and VEGFA proteins were coexpressed. BCL2 was expressed only in neoangiogenic CD34(+)CD105(+) endothelial cells. In laser-microdissected cells, mRNA studies showed a significant relationship between BCL2 and VEGFA levels in CD34(+) endothelial cells, but not in CD3(+)CD10(+)lymphoma cells, or in CD34(+) endothelial cells from lymph node hyperplasia. Further study showed that, in AITL, BCL2 mRNA levels in CD34(+)CD105(+) neoangiogenic endothelial cells also correlated with microvessel density, International Prognostic Index, Ann Arbor stage, bone marrow involvement and elevated LDH. BCL2 expression by CD105(+) neoangiogenic endothelial cells is related to tumor progression in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

  7. Norepinephrine upregulates VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 expression in human melanoma tumor cell lines: implications for stress-related enhancement of tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eric V.; Kim, Seung-jae; Donovan, Elise L.; Chen, Min; Gross, Amy C.; Webster Marketon, Jeanette I.; Barsky, Sanford H.; Glaser, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that stress can be a co-factor for the initiation and progression of cancer. The catecholamine stress hormone, norepinephrine (NE), may influence tumor progression by modulating the expression of factors implicated in angiogenesis and metastasis. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of NE on the expression of VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 by the human melanoma cell lines, C8161, 1174MEL, and Me18105. Cells were treated with NE and levels of VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 were measured using ELISA and real-time PCR. The expression of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) mRNA and protein were also assessed. Finally, immunohistochemitry was utilized to examine the presence of β1- and β2-AR in primary and metastatic human melanoma biopsies. We show that NE treatment upregulated production of VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 in C8161 cells and to a lesser extent 1174MEL and Me18105 cells. The upregulation was associated with induced gene expression. The effect on C8161 cells was mediated by both β1- and β2-ARs. Furthermore, 18 of 20 melanoma biopsies examined expressed β2-AR while 14 of 20 melanoma biopsies expressed β1-AR. Our data support the hypothesis that NE can stimulate the aggressive potential of melanoma tumor cells, in part, by inducing the production VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6. This line of research further suggests that interventions targeting components of the activated sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axis, or the utilization of β-AR blocking agents, may represent new strategies for slowing down the progression of malignant disease and improving cancer patients’ quality of life. PMID:18996182

  8. A multiantigen vaccine targeting neu, IGFBP-2, and IGF-IR prevents tumor progression in mice with preinvasive breast disease.

    PubMed

    Disis, Mary L; Gad, Ekram; Herendeen, Daniel R; Lai, Vy Phan-; Park, Kyong Hwa; Cecil, Denise L; O'Meara, Megan M; Treuting, Piper M; Lubet, Ronald A

    2013-12-01

    A multiantigen multipeptide vaccine, targeting proteins expressed in preinvasive breast lesions, can stimulate type I CD4(+) T cells which have been shown to be deficient in both patients with breast cancer and mice that develop mammary tumors. Transgenic mice (TgMMTV-neu) were immunized with a multiantigen peptide vaccine specific for neu, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 and insulin-like growth factor receptor-I at a time when some of the animals already had preinvasive lesions (18 weeks of age). Although immunization with each individual antigen was partially effective in inhibiting tumor growth, immunization with the multiantigen vaccine was highly effective, blocking development of palpable lesions in 65% of mice and slowing tumor growth in the infrequent palpable tumors, which did arise. Protection was mediated by CD4(+) T cells, and the few slow-growing tumors that did develop demonstrated a significant increase in intratumoral CD8(+) T cells as compared with controls (P = 0.0007). We also combined the vaccine with agents that were, by themselves, partially effective inhibitors of tumor progression in this model; lapatinib and the RXR agonist bexarotene. Although the combination of lapatinib and vaccination performed similarly to vaccination alone (P = 0.735), bexarotene and vaccination significantly enhanced disease-free survival (P < 0.0001), and approximately 90% of the mice showed no pathologic evidence of carcinomas at one year. The vaccine also demonstrated significant clinical efficacy in an additional transgenic model of breast cancer (TgC3(I)-Tag). Chemoimmunoprevention combinations may be an effective approach to breast cancer prevention even when the vaccine is administered in the presence of subclinical disease.

  9. Poor Prognosis Indicated by Venous Circulating Tumor Cell Clusters in Early-Stage Lung Cancers.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Reddy, Rishindra M; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Zhao, Lili; Ishikawa, Martin K; Grabauskiene, Svetlana; Zhang, Zhuo; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C; Carrott, Philip; Lynch, William R; Orringer, Mark B; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Beer, David G; Wicha, Max S; Ramnath, Nithya; Azizi, Ebrahim; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2017-09-15

    Early detection of metastasis can be aided by circulating tumor cells (CTC), which also show potential to predict early relapse. Because of the limited CTC numbers in peripheral blood in early stages, we investigated CTCs in pulmonary vein blood accessed during surgical resection of tumors. Pulmonary vein (PV) and peripheral vein (Pe) blood specimens from patients with lung cancer were drawn during the perioperative period and assessed for CTC burden using a microfluidic device. From 108 blood samples analyzed from 36 patients, PV had significantly higher number of CTCs compared with preoperative Pe ( P < 0.0001) and intraoperative Pe ( P < 0.001) blood. CTC clusters with large number of CTCs were observed in 50% of patients, with PV often revealing larger clusters. Long-term surveillance indicated that presence of clusters in preoperative Pe blood predicted a trend toward poor prognosis. Gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR revealed enrichment of p53 signaling and extracellular matrix involvement in PV and Pe samples. Ki67 expression was detected in 62.5% of PV samples and 59.2% of Pe samples, with the majority (72.7%) of patients positive for Ki67 expression in PV having single CTCs as opposed to clusters. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of cell migration and immune-related pathways in CTC clusters, suggesting survival advantage of clusters in circulation. Clusters display characteristics of therapeutic resistance, indicating the aggressive nature of these cells. Thus, CTCs isolated from early stages of lung cancer are predictive of poor prognosis and can be interrogated to determine biomarkers predictive of recurrence. Cancer Res; 77(18); 5194-206. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. The homeoprotein DLX3 and tumor suppressor p53 co-regulate cell cycle progression and squamous tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Palazzo, Elisabetta; Kellett, Meghan; Cataisson, Christophe; Gormley, Anna; Bible, Paul W.; Pietroni, Valentina; Radoja, Nadezda; Hwang, Joonsung; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Morasso, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal homeostasis depends on the coordinated control of keratinocyte cell cycle. Differentiation and the alteration of this balance can result in neoplastic development. Here we report on a novel DLX3-dependent network that constrains epidermal hyperplasia and squamous tumorigenesis. By integrating genetic and transcriptomic approaches, we demonstrate that DLX3 operates through a p53-regulated network. DLX3 and p53 physically interact on the p21 promoter to enhance p21 expression. Elevating DLX3 in keratinocytes produces a G1-S blockade associated with p53 signature transcriptional profiles. In contrast, DLX3 loss promotes a mitogenic phenotype associated with constitutive activation of ERK. DLX3 expression is lost in human skin cancers and is extinquished during progression of experimentally induced mouse squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Reinstatement of DLX3 function is sufficient to attenuate the migration of SCC cells, leading to decreased wound closure. Our data establish the DLX3-p53 interplay as a major regulatory axis in epidermal differentiation and suggest that DLX3 is a modulator of skin carcinogenesis. PMID:26522723

  11. The homeoprotein DLX3 and tumor suppressor p53 co-regulate cell cycle progression and squamous tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, E; Kellett, M; Cataisson, C; Gormley, A; Bible, P W; Pietroni, V; Radoja, N; Hwang, J; Blumenberg, M; Yuspa, S H; Morasso, M I

    2016-06-16

    Epidermal homeostasis depends on the coordinated control of keratinocyte cell cycle. Differentiation and the alteration of this balance can result in neoplastic development. Here we report on a novel DLX3-dependent network that constrains epidermal hyperplasia and squamous tumorigenesis. By integrating genetic and transcriptomic approaches, we demonstrate that DLX3 operates through a p53-regulated network. DLX3 and p53 physically interact on the p21 promoter to enhance p21 expression. Elevating DLX3 in keratinocytes produces a G1-S blockade associated with p53 signature transcriptional profiles. In contrast, DLX3 loss promotes a mitogenic phenotype associated with constitutive activation of ERK. DLX3 expression is lost in human skin cancers and is extinguished during progression of experimentally induced mouse squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Reinstatement of DLX3 function is sufficient to attenuate the migration of SCC cells, leading to decreased wound closure. Our data establish the DLX3-p53 interplay as a major regulatory axis in epidermal differentiation and suggest that DLX3 is a modulator of skin carcinogenesis.

  12. Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rida, Wasima; Haddad, Lisa B.; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Yang, Annie H.; Latka, Mary H.; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Edward, Vinodh A.; Price, Matt A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. Methods: From 2006 to 2011, women less than age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μl, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Immunologic progression was defined as two consecutive CD4s ≤350 cells/μl or a single CD4 ≤350 cells/μl followed by non-PMTCT ART initiation. Generalized estimating equations assessed changes in CD4 before and after pregnancy. Results: Among 222 women, 63 experienced clinical progression during 783.5 person-years at risk (8.0/100). Among 205 women, 87 experienced immunologic progression during 680.1 person-years at risk (12.8/100). The association between pregnancy and clinical progression was adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.8. The association between pregnancy and immunologic progression was aHR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3. Models controlled for age; human leukocyte antigen alleles A*03:01, B*45, B*57; CD4 set point; and HIV-1 subtype. CD4 measurements before versus after pregnancies were not different. Conclusions: In this cohort, pregnancy was not associated with increased clinical or immunologic HIV progression. Similarly, we did not observe meaningful deleterious associations of pregnancy with CD4s. Our findings suggest that HIV-positive women may become pregnant without harmful health effects occurring during the pregnancy. Evaluation of longer-term impact of pregnancy on progression is warranted. PMID:27893488

  13. Comprehensive modulation of tumor progression and regression with periodic fasting and refeeding circles via boosting IGFBP-3 loops and NK responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiancheng; Lin, Xiaojuan; Li, Meng

    2012-10-01

    Progressive tumor-bearing patients deserve to benefit from more realistic approaches. Here, a study revealed the impact of modified periodic fasting and refeeding regimen on tumor progression or regression with little or no loss of food intake and body weight. Human A549 lung, HepG-2 liver, and SKOV-3 ovary progressive tumor-bearing mice were established and subjected to 4 wk of periodic fasting/refeeding cycles (PFRC), including periodic 1-d fasting/6-d refeeding weekly (protocol 1) and periodic 2-d fasting/5-d refeeding weekly (P2DF/5DR, protocol 2), with ad libitum (AL)-fed hosts as controls. Afterwards, PFRC groups exhibited tumor growth arrest with some tendency towards regression; especially, complete regression of progressive tumors and metastases comprised between 43.75 and 56.25% of tumor-challenged hosts in P2DF/5DR group (P < 0.05). AL controls, in contrast, showed continuous tumor progression and metastasis. Finally, 100% hosts in P2DF/5DR and 62.5-68.75% in periodic 1-d fasting/6-d refeeding weekly groups survived a 4-month study period vs. only 31.25-37.5% in AL control group. Immunological assays and Luminex microarray revealed that tumor growth remission is mainly via natural killer cell (NK) reactivity and cross-regulation of IGF-binding protein-3, IGF/IGF-receptor, and megakaryocyte growth and development factor autocrine and paracrine loops. In vivo cellular and humoral assays indicated that tumor-regressive induction by PFRC protocols could be partly terminated by NK cell and IGF-binding protein-3 blockade or replenishment of IGF-I/-II and megakaryocyte growth and development factor. These findings offer a better understanding of comprehensive modulation of periodic fasting/refeeding strategy on the balance between tumor progression and regression.

  14. Epigenetic changes in localized gastric cancer: the role of RUNX3 in tumor progression and the immune microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ibarrola-Villava, Maider; Peña-Chilet, María; Mongort, Cristina; Martinez-Ciarpaglini, Carolina; Navarro, Lara; Gambardella, Valentina; Castillo, Josefa; Roselló, Susana; Navarro, Samuel; Ribas, Gloria; Cervantes, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) pathogenesis involves genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation are considered pivotal in the inactivation of tumor-related genes. We assessed a methylation panel of 5 genes to study their association to GC progression and microsatellite instability (MSI), and studied the role of RUNX3 in GC pathogenesis and the tumor immune microenvironment. The methylation status of 47 promoter-CpG islands was studied through MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis in 35 Microsatellite stable (MSS) GC, 26 MSI, and 18 cancer-free samples (CFS), and 6 MSS GC and 4 MSI GC cell lines. We also studied RUNX3 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 40 samples, and validated differences in methylation levels between tumor, normal, and immune tissue in 14 additional samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of methylation levels revealed no distinct subgroups between MSI and MSS samples or cell lines. CFSs clustered together showing higher levels of RUNX3 methylation compared to GC samples. RUNX3 showed protein silencing in cancer and normal mucosa, compared to inflammatory peritumoural infiltrate in almost all cases, showing a non-lymphocytic predominant pattern and being correlated with epigenetic silencing. Our results show aberrant promoter's methylation in APC, CDH1, CDKN2A, MLH1 and RUNX3 associated with GC, as well as a non-lymphocytic predominant infiltrate with high expression of RUNX3. Deep study of RUNX3 inflammation signaling could help in understanding inflammation and immune activation in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27566570

  15. Serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in early breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; Georgoulias, Vasilios; Souglakos, John; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Samonis, George; Bagci, Ulas; Makrigiannakis, Antonis; Zoras, Odysseas

    2017-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis is involved in human oncogenesis and metastasis development for various solid tumors including breast cancer. Aim of this study was to assess the association between IGF-1, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) serum levels and the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of women diagnosed with early breast cancer (EBC), before and after adjuvant chemotherapy. 171 patients with early-stage breast adenocarcinomas were retrospectively evaluated. Immunoradiometric (IRMA) assays were employed for the in-vitro determination of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels in blood samples collected after surgical treatment and before initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy. CTCs' presence was assessed through detection of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA transcripts using quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IGF-1, IGFBP-3 serum levels were correlated with CTCs' presence before and after adjuvant chemotherapy as well as with tumor characteristics including tumor size, axillary lymph node status, oestrogen (ER)/progestorene (PR) and human epidermural growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor status. Log-rank test was applied to investigate possible association between IGF-1, IGFBP-3 serum levels and disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS). Before initiation of adjuvant therapy IGF-1, IGFBP-3 serum levels were moderately associated (Spearman's rho=0.361, p<0.001) with each other, while presenting significant differences across age groups (all p values<0.05). IGF-1 serum levels did not correlate with the presence of CTCs before initiation (p=0.558) or after completion (p=0.474) of adjuvant chemotherapy. Similarly, IGFBP-3 serum levels did not show significant association with detectable CTCs either before (p=0.487) or after (p=0.134) completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no statistically significant association between the clinical outcome of patients in terms of DFI, OS

  16. Germline Mutations of Inhibins in Early-Onset Ovarian Epithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tournier, Isabelle; Marlin, Régine; Walton, Kelly; Charbonnier, Françoise; Coutant, Sophie; Théry, Jean-Christophe; Charbonnier, Camille; Spurrell, Cailyn; Vezain, Myriam; Ippolito, Lorena; Bougeard, Gaëlle; Roman, Horace; Tinat, Julie; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caron, Olivier; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Vaur, Dominique; King, Mary-Claire; Harrison, Craig; Frebourg, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    To identify novel genetic bases of early-onset epithelial ovarian tumors, we used the trio exome sequencing strategy in a patient without familial history of cancer who presented metastatic serous ovarian adenocarcinomas at 21 years of age. We identified a single de novo mutation (c.1157A>G/p.Asn386Ser) within the INHBA gene encoding the βA-subunit of inhibins/activins, which play a key role in ovarian development. In vitro, this mutation alters the ratio of secreted activins and inhibins. In a second patient with early-onset serous borderline papillary cystadenoma, we identified an unreported germline mutation (c.179G>T/p.Arg60Leu) of the INHA gene encoding the α-subunit, the partner of the βA-subunit. This mutation also alters the secreted activin/inhibin ratio, by disrupting both inhibin A and inhibin B biosynthesis. In a cohort of 62 cases, we detected an additional unreported germline mutation of the INHBA gene (c.839G>A/p.Gly280Glu). Our results strongly suggest that inhibin mutations contribute to the genetic determinism of epithelial ovarian tumors. PMID:24302632

  17. Stochastic modelling of slow-progressing tumors: Analysis and applications to the cell interplay and control of low grade gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Clara Rojas; Fernández Calvo, Gabriel; Ramis-Conde, Ignacio; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan

    2017-08-01

    Tumor-normal cell interplay defines the course of a neoplastic malignancy. The outcome of this dual relation is the ultimate prevailing of one of the cells and the death or retreat of the other. In this paper we study the mathematical principles that underlay one important scenario: that of slow-progressing cancers. For this, we develop, within a stochastic framework, a mathematical model to account for tumor-normal cell interaction in such a clinically relevant situation and derive a number of deterministic approximations from the stochastic model. We consider in detail the existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the deterministic model and study the stability analysis. We then focus our model to the specific case of low grade gliomas, where we introduce an optimal control problem for different objective functionals under the administration of chemotherapy. We derive the conditions for which singular and bang-bang control exist and calculate the optimal control and states.

  18. Cystic fibrosis in young children: A review of disease manifestation, progression, and response to early treatment.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, Donald R; Kahle, Jennifer S; O'Sullivan, Amy K; Sikirica, Slaven; Hodgkins, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Studies have described illness associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) early in life, but there is no comprehensive accounting of the prevalence and ages of disease manifestation and progression described in individual studies. We searched for peer-reviewed English-language studies of the health of children ≤6years old with CF (published 1990-2014). Structural abnormalities and dysfunction of the digestive and respiratory systems were summarized across relevant studies by system and age group. Primary studies (125 total) from 22 countries described abnormalities, dysfunction, and disease progression in infancy and early childhood. Improved health was consistently observed in association with diagnosis via newborn screening compared with cohorts diagnosed later by symptomatic presentation. The peer-reviewed literature is remarkably consistent: CF-associated growth impairment and airway abnormalities are reported at birth, and disease progression is reported in infancy and throughout childhood. Earlier access to routine CF management is associated with improved subsequent health status. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [A Comparison Study on Early Damage Detection of Left Ventricular Function Based on Doppler Imaging Method for Children with Tumor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Haowei; Zhang, Hang

    2015-12-01

    The early damage detection and evaluation are of great significance in treatment and prognosis to the left ventricular function for children with tumor. In this paper, it is reported that the early damage of the left ventricular function was observed by pulsed wave Doppler (PWD) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in our laboratory. Eighty children half a year to fourteen years old were included in this study. The cardiac function indices in chemotherapy group and control group were measured and compared. The results showed that there was significant difference in mitral and tricuspid annulus flow spectrum between the two groups. Compared with PWD,TDI is more prompt, objective and accurate in detecting early damage of left ventricular function in children with tumor. And TDI is a good method for early identification of ventricular function damage in children with tumor.

  20. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsifer, Margaret B., E-mail: mpulsifer@mgh.harvard.edu; Sethi, Roshan V.; Kuhlthau, Karen A.

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiationmore » (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.« less

  1. Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression in transgenic mice for Cre-inducible overexpression of Cul4A gene

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Zhidong; Mao, Jian -Hua; ...

    2015-06-08

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Although the available lung cancer animal models have been informative and further propel our understanding of human lung cancer, they still do not fully recapitulate the complexities of human lung cancer. The pathogenesis of lung cancer remains highly elusive because of its aggressive biologic nature and considerable heterogeneity, compared to other cancers. The association of Cul4A amplification with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis has been suggested. Our previous study suggested that Cul4A is oncogenic in vitro, but its oncogenic role in vivo has not been studied. Methods:more » Viral delivery approaches have been used extensively to model cancer in mouse models. In our experiments, we used Cre-recombinase induced overexpression of the Cul4A gene in transgenic mice to study the role of Cul4A on lung tumor initiation and progression and have developed a new model of lung tumor development in mice harboring a conditionally expressed allele of Cul4A. Results: Here we show that the use of a recombinant adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase (“AdenoCre”) to induce Cul4A overexpression in the lungs of mice allows controls of the timing and multiplicity of tumor initiation. Following our mouse models, we are able to study the potential role of Cul4A in the development and progression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma as well. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo, and this mouse model is a tool in understanding the mechanisms of Cul4A in human cancers and for testing experimental therapies targeting Cul4A.« less

  2. Analysis of lung tumor initiation and progression in transgenic mice for Cre-inducible overexpression of Cul4A gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Zhidong; Mao, Jian -Hua

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Although the available lung cancer animal models have been informative and further propel our understanding of human lung cancer, they still do not fully recapitulate the complexities of human lung cancer. The pathogenesis of lung cancer remains highly elusive because of its aggressive biologic nature and considerable heterogeneity, compared to other cancers. The association of Cul4A amplification with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis has been suggested. Our previous study suggested that Cul4A is oncogenic in vitro, but its oncogenic role in vivo has not been studied. Methods:more » Viral delivery approaches have been used extensively to model cancer in mouse models. In our experiments, we used Cre-recombinase induced overexpression of the Cul4A gene in transgenic mice to study the role of Cul4A on lung tumor initiation and progression and have developed a new model of lung tumor development in mice harboring a conditionally expressed allele of Cul4A. Results: Here we show that the use of a recombinant adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase (“AdenoCre”) to induce Cul4A overexpression in the lungs of mice allows controls of the timing and multiplicity of tumor initiation. Following our mouse models, we are able to study the potential role of Cul4A in the development and progression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma as well. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo, and this mouse model is a tool in understanding the mechanisms of Cul4A in human cancers and for testing experimental therapies targeting Cul4A.« less

  3. Neuroblastoma cells undergo transcriptomic alterations upon dissemination into the bone marrow and subsequent tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Rifatbegovic, Fikret; Frech, Christian; Abbasi, M Reza; Taschner-Mandl, Sabine; Weiss, Tamara; Schmidt, Wolfgang M; Schmidt, Iris; Ladenstein, Ruth; Ambros, Inge M; Ambros, Peter F

    2018-01-15

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. The vast majority of metastatic (M) stage patients present with disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) at diagnosis and relapse. Although these cells represent a major obstacle in the treatment of neuroblastoma patients, insights into their expression profile remained elusive. The present RNA-Seq study of stage 4/M primary tumors, enriched BM-derived diagnostic and relapse DTCs, as well as the corresponding BM-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) from 53 patients revealed 322 differentially expressed genes in DTCs as compared to the tumors (q < 0.001, |log 2 FC|>2). Particularly, the levels of transcripts encoded by mitochondrial DNA were elevated in DTCs, whereas, for example, genes involved in angiogenesis were downregulated. Furthermore, 224 genes were highly expressed in DTCs and only slightly, if at all, in MNCs (q < 8 × 10 -75 log 2 FC > 6). Interestingly, we found the transcriptome of relapse DTCs largely resembling those of diagnostic DTCs with only 113 differentially expressed genes under relaxed cut-offs (q < 0.01, |log 2 FC|>0.5). Notably, relapse DTCs showed a positional enrichment of 31 downregulated genes on chromosome 19, including five tumor suppressor genes: SIRT6, BBC3/PUMA, STK11, CADM4 and GLTSCR2. This first RNA-Seq analysis of neuroblastoma DTCs revealed their unique expression profile in comparison to the tumors and MNCs, and less pronounced differences between diagnostic and relapse DTCs. The latter preferentially affected downregulation of genes encoded by chromosome 19. As these alterations might be associated with treatment failure and disease relapse, further functional studies on DTCs should be considered. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  4. Human breast adipose tissue: characterization of factors that change during tumor progression in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Sabrina Johanna; Sacca, Paula Alejandra; Pistone-Creydt, Mercedes; Coló, Federico Andrés; Serra, María Florencia; Santino, Flavia Eliana; Sasso, Corina Verónica; Lopez-Fontana, Constanza Matilde; Carón, Rubén Walter; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Pistone-Creydt, Virginia

    2017-02-07

    Adipose microenvironment is involved in signaling pathways that influence breast cancer. We aim to characterize factors that are modified: 1) in tumor and non tumor human breast epithelial cell lines when incubated with conditioned media (CMs) from human breast cancer adipose tissue explants (hATT) or normal breast adipose tissue explants (hATN); 2) in hATN-CMs vs hATT-CMs; 3) in the tumor associated adipocytes vs. non tumor associated adipocytes. We used hATN or hATT- CMs on tumor and non-tumor breast cancer cell lines. We evaluated changes in versican, CD44, ADAMTS1 and Adipo R1 expression on cell lines or in the different CMs. In addition we evaluated changes in the morphology and expression of these factors in slices of the different adipose tissues. The statistical significance between different experimental conditions was evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Tukey's post-hoc tests were performed within each individual treatment. hATT-CMs increase versican, CD44, ADAMTS1 and Adipo R1 expression in breast cancer epithelial cells. Furthermore, hATT-CMs present higher levels of versican expression compared to hATN-CMs. In addition, we observed a loss of effect in cellular migration when we pre-incubated hATT-CMs with chondroitinase ABC, which cleaves GAGs chains bound to the versican core protein, thus losing the ability to bind to CD44. Adipocytes associated with the invasive front are reduced in size compared to adipocytes that are farther away. Also, hATT adipocytes express significantly higher amounts of versican, CD44 and Adipo R1, and significantly lower amounts of adiponectin and perilipin, unlike hATN adipocytes. We conclude that hATT secrete a different set of proteins compared to hATN. Furthermore, versican, a proteoglycan that is overexpressed in hATT-CMs compared to hATN-CMs, might be involved in the tumorogenic behavior observed in both cell lines employed. In addition, we may conclude that adipocytes from the tumor microenvironment show a less differentiated

  5. Serum Carotenoids Reduce Progression of Early Atherosclerosis in the Carotid Artery Wall among Eastern Finnish Men

    PubMed Central

    Karppi, Jouni; Kurl, Sudhir; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Kauhanen, Jussi; Laukkanen, Jari A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several previous epidemiologic studies have shown that high blood levels of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis, but results have been inconsistent. We assessed the association between atherosclerotic progression, measured by intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall, and serum levels of carotenoids. Methods We studied the effect of carotenoids on progression of early atherosclerosis in a population-based study. The association between concentrations of serum carotenoids, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall was explored in 840 middle-aged men (aged 46–65 years) from Eastern Finland. Ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries were performed at baseline and 7-year follow-up. Serum levels of carotenoids were analyzed at baseline. Changes in mean and maximum intima media thickness of carotid artery wall were related to baseline serum carotenoid levels in covariance analyses adjusted for covariates. Results In a covariance analysis with adjustment for age, ultrasound sonographer, maximum intima media thickness, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, physical activity, serum LDL cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease, antihypertensive medication and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, 7-year change in maximum intima media thickness was inversely associated with lycopene (p = 0.005), α-carotene (p = 0.002) and β-carotene (p = 0.019), respectively. Conclusions The present study shows that high serum concentrations of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis. PMID:23700460

  6. Secondary Glioblastoma: Molecular and Clinical Factors That Affect Outcome After Malignant Progression of a Lower Grade Tumor.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Florian; Zappi, Johannes; Konczalla, Juergen; Bernstock, Joshua D; Forster, Marie-Therese; Wagner, Marlies; Mittelbronn, Michel; Seifert, Volker; Senft, Christian

    2017-06-01

    There is limited information on prognostic factors and outcomes in patients with secondary glioblastoma (sGBM). Herein we report on the outcomes of patients with sGBM and identify clinically relevant prognostic factors. We retrospectively analyzed our institutional database for patients with histologic evidence of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II-III gliomas that went on to develop WHO grade IV sGBM. The assessment of the isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) R132H mutation was performed by immunohistochemical staining. Forty-five patients with sGBM were included within our analysis (median age, 41 years). Mutated IDH1 (R132H) protein was present within the gliomas of 24 patients and was absent in 17. Immunohistochemistry assessment could not be performed for 4 patients. The median time between first diagnosis of glioma and sGBM was 158.9 weeks. Median overall survival (OS) after a diagnosis of sGBM was 63.6 weeks. When assessing patient-specific (i.e., therapy-independent) factors, mutated IDH1 (R132H) protein (P = 0.01; hazard ratio (HR), 0.54; confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.87), WHO grade II tumor as precursor lesion (P = 0.05; HR, 0.49; CI 0.25-0.97), and a frontal tumor location (P = 0.04; HR, 0.48; CI 0.23-0.99) were found to be associated with better OS by multivariate analysis. Our data further indicate that complete tumor removal is associated with better patient survival in sGBM patients within certain risk groups (time period to development of sGBM, >104 weeks; initial WHO grade II tumor, IDH1 mutation, and time period to development of sGBM, >104 weeks; initial WHO grade II or III tumor, IDH1 wild type, frontal lobe localization). Our retrospective analysis suggested that the presence of an IDH1 (R132H) mutation, frontal tumor location, and WHO grade of the initial tumor are associated with OS after progression to sGBM. In addition, some patients with sGBM may benefit from complete tumor resection depending on these patient-specific parameters

  7. p21ras independent down-regulation of ras-induced increases in natural antibody binding during tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Tough, D F; Feng, X; Chow, D A

    1995-01-01

    Selective outgrowth of v-H-ras-infected 10T1/2 cells based on the cointroduction of a gene for resistance to geneticin (G418), yielded cells which exhibited an increased capacity to bind polyclonal serum natural antibody (NAb). This demonstrated an NAb-susceptible phase of tumor development which would be a basic requirement for NAb-mediated surveillance of tumors. The ras-oncogene dependence of the high-NAb-binding phenotype provided a model for assessing NAb resistance against ras transformants in vivo and for a comparative analysis of phenotypic and genetic alterations contributing to the progression of ras transformants. Variants were developed through in vitro and in vivo models of tumor progression. T24-H-ras and v-H-ras transformants were isolated in vitro through more rigorous growth conditions, focus formation in the presence of untransformed cells with no selecting drug. These clones expressed p21ras but exhibited little or no increase in NAb binding. Variants recovered following growth from intravenous or threshold subcutaneous (s.c.) inocula of high-NAb-binding ras transformants in syngeneic C3H/HeN mice exhibited decreases in NAb binding but no uniform change in p21ras. Concurring inverse correlations between NAb binding and s.c. tumorigenicity were exhibited by the T24-H-ras transformant clones, the ras transformants grown in vivo, and the v-H-ras-transformed clones isolated in the presence versus the absence of untransformed cells. This consistent inverse correlation, together with the reduced NAb binding of the ras transformants grown in vivo, provides strong evidence that NAb participates in the defense against ras-transformed cells in vivo. The lack of any direct correlation between p21ras expression and the reduction in NAb binding or the increase in tumorigenicity of cells generated through progression in vivo suggested the regulatory action of additional genes. Hybridization studies between high- and low-NAb-binding clones implicated the

  8. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 σ, an early event of malignant transformation of respiratory epithelium, also facilitates progression of squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nan; Wu, Yongkai; Huang, Bo; Liu, Qian; Dong, Yinan; Ding, Jianqiao; Liu, Yongyu

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been shown that 14-3-3 σ serves as a tumor suppressor gene, and is downregulated in various tumor tissues. However, the role of 14-3-3 σ during the initiation and progression of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is not well understood. Methods The expression status of 14-3-3 σ in archival tissue samples from 40 lung SqCC patients (36 with normal bronchia, 19 squamous metaplasia, and 17 dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, in their tissue samples) was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The proliferation rate and tumor formation ability of the H520 cell transfected with 14-3-3 σ was tested with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and nude mice subcutaneous injection, respectively. Results In the normal bronchial epithelia, 14-3-3 σ was highly expressed, whereas it was significantly decreased in precancerous and cancerous tissues. Compared with matched invasive cancer tissues, the expression level of 14-3-3 σ in squamous metaplasia was significantly higher (P = 0.049), while that in dysplasia/carcinoma in situ showed no significant changes (P = 0.135). Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of 14-3-3 σ in tumor tissue was associated with the differentiation grade of the tumor (P = 0.001) and the prognosis of the patient (P = 0.003). The overexpression of 14-3-3 σ significantly suppressed the proliferation of H520 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion The inactivation of 14-3-3 σ may be a very early event in tumorigenesis and could facilitate the initiation and progression of lung SqCC in a sustainable way. PMID:26557909

  9. Progress

    Cancer.gov

    Through its Annual Report to the Nation and other reports and publications, the National Cancer Institute – leader of the National Cancer Program – marks the progress that’s been made by the cancer research community.

  10. Ovarian Cancers: Genetic Abnormalities, Tumor Heterogeneity and Progression, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Testa, Ugo; Petrucci, Eleonora; Pasquini, Luca; Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2018-02-01

    Four main histological subtypes of ovarian cancer exist: serous (the most frequent), endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell; in each subtype, low and high grade. The large majority of ovarian cancers are diagnosed as high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGS-OvCas). TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HGS-OvCas; about 50% of these tumors displayed defective homologous recombination due to germline and somatic BRCA mutations, epigenetic inactivation of BRCA and abnormalities of DNA repair genes; somatic copy number alterations are frequent in these tumors and some of them are associated with prognosis; defective NOTCH, RAS/MEK, PI3K and FOXM1 pathway signaling is frequent. Other histological subtypes were characterized by a different mutational spectrum: LGS-OvCas have increased frequency of BRAF and RAS mutations; mucinous cancers have mutation in ARID1A , PIK3CA , PTEN , CTNNB1 and RAS . Intensive research was focused to characterize ovarian cancer stem cells, based on positivity for some markers, including CD133, CD44, CD117, CD24, EpCAM, LY6A, ALDH1. Ovarian cancer cells have an intrinsic plasticity, thus explaining that in a single tumor more than one cell subpopulation, may exhibit tumor-initiating capacity. The improvements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of ovarian cancers should lead to more efficacious treatments.

  11. Autocrine Complement Inhibits IL10-Dependent T-Cell Mediated Antitumor Immunity to Promote Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Sheng-Nan; Liu, Qing; Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Jian; Wang, Kun; Xing, Bao-Cai; Zheng, Qing-Feng; Campa, Michael J.; Patz, Edward F.; Li, Shi-You; He, You-Wen

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to its inhibitory effects on many cells, IL-10 activates CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and enhances their antitumor activity. However, CD8+ TILs do not routinely express IL-10 as autocrine complement C3 inhibits IL-10 production through complement receptors C3aR and C5aR. CD8+ TILs from C3-deficient mice, however, express IL-10 and exhibit enhanced effector function. C3-deficient mice are resistant to tumor development in a T cell- and IL-10-dependent manner; human TILs expanded with IL-2 plus IL-10 increase the killing of primary tumors in vitro compared to IL-2 treated TILs. Complement-mediated inhibition of antitumor immunity is independent of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway. Our findings suggest that complement receptors C3aR and C5aR expressed on CD8+ TILs represent a novel class of immune checkpoints that could be targeted for tumor immunotherapy. Moreover, incorporation of IL-10 in the expansion of TILs and in gene-engineered T cells for adoptive cell therapy enhances their antitumor efficacy. PMID:27297552

  12. Research Progress in Reversal of Tumor Multi-drug Resistance via Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Cao, Hongyan; Qi, Xianghui; Li, Huikai; Ye, Peizhi; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Danqiao; Sun, Mingyu

    2017-11-24

    Multidrug resistance occurs when a tumor develops resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs, which may include antitumor drugs with different chemical structures and mechanisms. Multidrug resistance limits the treatment effects of antitumor drugs, and is the main cause of chemotherapy failure. Multidrug resistance is caused by numerous factors including changes in ATP-binding cassette transporters, target proteins, detoxification, deoxyribonucleic acid repair, drug metabolic enzymes, and signal pathways of apoptosis. Clinical research indicates that natural products have great potential to treat tumors and reverse multidrug resistance. Natural products, which often have multiple targets, could play an important role in tumor treatment, have beneficial effects on tumor inhibition, improve symptoms, reduce radiotherapy and chemotherapy side effects, enhance immunity, and prolong survival. Because natural products often have few adverse reactions and less drug resistance, the antitumor activities of natural products have attracted extensive research. We aimed to review the basic research and clinical application of natural products in the reversal of multidrug resistance. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Ovarian Cancers: Genetic Abnormalities, Tumor Heterogeneity and Progression, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2018-01-01

    Four main histological subtypes of ovarian cancer exist: serous (the most frequent), endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell; in each subtype, low and high grade. The large majority of ovarian cancers are diagnosed as high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGS-OvCas). TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HGS-OvCas; about 50% of these tumors displayed defective homologous recombination due to germline and somatic BRCA mutations, epigenetic inactivation of BRCA and abnormalities of DNA repair genes; somatic copy number alterations are frequent in these tumors and some of them are associated with prognosis; defective NOTCH, RAS/MEK, PI3K and FOXM1 pathway signaling is frequent. Other histological subtypes were characterized by a different mutational spectrum: LGS-OvCas have increased frequency of BRAF and RAS mutations; mucinous cancers have mutation in ARID1A, PIK3CA, PTEN, CTNNB1 and RAS. Intensive research was focused to characterize ovarian cancer stem cells, based on positivity for some markers, including CD133, CD44, CD117, CD24, EpCAM, LY6A, ALDH1. Ovarian cancer cells have an intrinsic plasticity, thus explaining that in a single tumor more than one cell subpopulation, may exhibit tumor-initiating capacity. The improvements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of ovarian cancers should lead to more efficacious treatments. PMID:29389895

  14. Beneficial Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Early Burn-Wound Progression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song Xue; Jin, Yun Yun; Fang, Quan; You, Chuan Gang; Wang, Xin Gang; Hu, Xin Lei; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deep burn wounds undergo a dynamic process known as wound progression that results in a deepening and extension of the initial burn area. The zone of stasis is more likely to develop more severe during wound progression in the presence of hypoperfusion. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate injury triggered by ischaemia/reperfusion and burns in various organs by selectively quenching oxygen free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of hydrogen against early burn-wound progression. Methods Deep-burn models were established through contact with a boiled, rectangular, brass comb for 20 s. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, burn plus saline, and burn plus hydrogen-rich saline (HS) groups with sacrifice and analysis at various time windows (6 h, 24 h, 48 h) post burn. Indexes of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were measured in each group. The zone of stasis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and Western blot to explore the underlying effects and mechanisms post burn. Results The burn-induced increase in malondialdehyde was markedly reduced with HS, while the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, HS treatment attenuated increases in apoptosis and autophagy postburn in wounds, according to the TUNEL staining results and the expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 proteins. Additionally, HS lowered the level of myeloperoxidase and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the zone of stasis while augmenting IL-10. The elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB p65 expression post burn were also downregulated by HS management. Conclusion Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-κB signalling pathway may be

  15. Systematic review: Tumor-associated antigen autoantibodies and ovarian cancer early detection.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Damms-Machado, Antje; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-11-01

    Tumor-associated autoantibodies (AAbs), produced as an immune response to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), are a novel pathway of early detection markers. We conducted a systematic review on AAbs and ovarian cancer to summarize the diagnostic performance of individual AAbs and AAb panels. A total of 29 studies including 85 AAbs were included; 27 of the studies were conducted in prevalent cases and cancer-free controls and 2 investigations included pre-diagnosis samples. The majority of studies were hypothesis-driven, evaluating AAbs to target TAAs; 10 studies used screening approaches such as serological expression cloning (SEREX) and nucleic acid-programmable protein arrays (NAPPA). The highest sensitivities for individual AAbs were reported for RhoGDI-AAbs (89.5%) and TUBA1C-AAbs (89%); however, specificity levels were relatively low (80% and 75%, respectively). High sensitivities at high specificities were reported for HOXA7-AAbs for detection of moderately differentiated ovarian tumors (66.7% sensitivity at 100% specificity) and IL8-AAbs in stage I-II ovarian cancer (65.5% sensitivity at 98% specificity). A panel of 11 AAbs (ICAM3, CTAG2, p53, STYXL1, PVR, POMC, NUDT11, TRIM39, UHMK1, KSR1, and NXF3) provided 45% sensitivity at 98% specificity for serous ovarian cancer, when at least 2 AAbs were above a threshold of 95% specificity. Twelve of the AAbs identified in this review were investigated in more than one study. Data on diagnostic discrimination by tumor histology and stage at diagnosis are sparse. Limited data suggest select AAb markers improve diagnostic discrimination when combined with markers such as CA125 and HE4. AAbs for ovarian cancer early detection is an emerging area, and large-scale, prospective investigations considering histology and stage are required for discovery and validation. However, data to date suggests panels of AAbs may eventually reach sufficient diagnostic discrimination to allow earlier detection of disease as a complement to

  16. Detection of Wilms' tumor antigen--specific CTL in tumor-draining lymph nodes of patients with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Roopinder; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; Kaeda, Jaspal; Hadjiminas, Dimitri; Healy, Vourneen; Dina, Roberto; Parry, Suzanne C; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Ghani, Yasmeen; Coombes, R Charles; Waxman, Jonathan; Stauss, Hans J

    2006-01-01

    The Wilms' tumor antigen (WT1) is overexpressed in approximately 90% of breast tumors and, thus, is a potential target antigen for the immunotherapy of breast cancer. We have tested the working hypotheses that WT1 can be immunogenic in patients with breast cancer and can stimulate CTL of sufficient avidity to kill tumor cells. Paired tumor-draining lymph node and peripheral blood samples were analyzed from five HLA-A2-positive patients with stage I/II breast cancer. Fluorescent HLA-A*0201/WT1 tetramers were used to quantify WT1-specific CTL and the functional capacity of the CTL was assessed using cytotoxicity assays and intracellular cytokine staining. WT1 tetramer-binding T cells expanded from all lymph node samples but none of the corresponding peripheral blood samples. Functional assays were carried out on T cells from the patient who had yielded the highest frequency of HLA-A*0201/WT1 tetramer-positive cells. The cytotoxicity assays showed WT1 peptide--specific killing activity of the CTL, whereas intracellular cytokine staining confirmed that the tetramer--positive T cells produced IFN-gamma after stimulation with WT1 peptide. These WT1-specific T cells killed HLA-A2-positive breast cancer cell lines treated with IFN-gamma but no killing was observed with untreated tumor cells. These results show that WT1-specific CTL can be expanded from the tumor-draining lymph nodes of breast cancer patients and that they can display peptide-specific effector function. However, the CTL only killed IFN-gamma-treated tumor targets expressing high levels of HLA-A2 and not tumor cells with low HLA expression. This suggests that induction of autologous WT1-specific CTL may offer only limited tumor protection and that strategies that allow a high level of peptide/MHC complex presentation and/or improve CTL avidity may be required.

  17. Early Increases in Superantigen-Specific Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells during Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Infection▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Gabriel; Burzyn, Dalia; Mundiñano, Juliana; Courreges, M. Cecilia; Camicia, Gabriela; Lorenzo, Daniela; Costa, Héctor; Ross, Susan R.; Nepomnaschy, Irene; Piazzon, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-borne betaretrovirus that has developed strategies to exploit and subvert the host immune system. Here, we show in a natural model of MMTV infection that the virus causes early and progressive increases in superantigen (SAg)-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in Peyer's patches (PP). These increases were shown to be dependent on the presence of dendritic cells. CD4+ CD25+ T cells from the PP of infected mice preferentially suppress the proliferative response of T cells to SAg-expressing antigen-presenting cells ex vivo. We investigated the influence of the depletion of CD25+ cells at different stages of the infection. When CD25+ cells were depleted before MMTV infection, an increase in the number of PP SAg-cognate Foxp3− T cells was found at day 6 of infection. Since the SAg response is associated with viral amplification, the possibility exists that Treg cells attenuate the increase in viral load at the beginning of the infection. In contrast, depletion of CD25+ cells once the initial SAg response has developed caused a lower viral load, suggesting that at later stages Treg cells may favor viral persistence. Thus, our results indicated that Treg cells play an important and complex role during MMTV infection. PMID:18495774

  18. Characterizing Tumor Heterogeneity With Functional Imaging and Quantifying High-Risk Tumor Volume for Early Prediction of Treatment Outcome: Cervical Cancer as a Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, Nina A., E-mail: Nina.Mayr@osumc.edu; Huang Zhibin; Wang, Jian Z.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Treatment response in cancer has been monitored by measuring anatomic tumor volume (ATV) at various times without considering the inherent functional tumor heterogeneity known to critically influence ultimate treatment outcome: primary tumor control and survival. This study applied dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) functional MRI to characterize tumors' heterogeneous subregions with low DCE values, at risk for treatment failure, and to quantify the functional risk volume (FRV) for personalized early prediction of treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: DCE-MRI was performed in 102 stage IB{sub 2}-IVA cervical cancer patients to assess tumor perfusion heterogeneity before and during radiation/chemotherapy. FRV represents the totalmore » volume of tumor voxels with critically low DCE signal intensity (<2.1 compared with precontrast image, determined by previous receiver operator characteristic analysis). FRVs were correlated with treatment outcome (follow-up: 0.2-9.4, mean 6.8 years) and compared with ATVs (Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analyses). Results: Before and during therapy at 2-2.5 and 4-5 weeks of RT, FRVs >20, >13, and >5 cm{sup 3}, respectively, significantly predicted unfavorable 6-year primary tumor control (p = 0.003, 7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) and disease-specific survival (p = 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, respectively). The FRVs were superior to the ATVs as early predictors of outcome, and the differentiating power of FRVs increased during treatment. Discussion: Our preliminary results suggest that functional tumor heterogeneity can be characterized by DCE-MRI to quantify FRV for predicting ultimate long-term treatment outcome. FRV is a novel functional imaging heterogeneity parameter, superior to ATV, and can be clinically translated for personalized early outcome prediction before or as early as 2

  19. Biomarkers of Progression after HIV Acute/Early Infection: Nothing Compares to CD4+ T-cell Count?

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Yanina; Hormanstorfer, Macarena; Coloccini, Romina; Salido, Jimena; Trifone, César; Ruiz, María Julia; Falivene, Juliana; Caruso, María Paula; Figueroa, María Inés; Salomón, Horacio; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Pando, María de los Ángeles; Gherardi, María Magdalena; Rabinovich, Roberto Daniel; Sued, Omar

    2018-01-01

    Progression of HIV infection is variable among individuals, and definition disease progression biomarkers is still needed. Here, we aimed to categorize the predictive potential of several variables using feature selection methods and decision trees. A total of seventy-five treatment-naïve subjects were enrolled during acute/early HIV infection. CD4+ T-cell counts (CD4TC) and viral load (VL) levels were determined at enrollment and for one year. Immune activation, HIV-specific immune response, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) genotypes, and plasma levels of 39 cytokines were determined. Data were analyzed by machine learning and non-parametric methods. Variable hierarchization was performed by Weka correlation-based feature selection and J48 decision tree. Plasma interleukin (IL)-10, interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, soluble IL-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels correlated directly with baseline VL, whereas IL-2, TNF-α, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β correlated directly with CD4+ T-cell activation (p < 0.05). However, none of these cytokines had good predictive values to distinguish “progressors” from “non-progressors”. Similarly, immune activation, HIV-specific immune responses and HLA/CCR5 genotypes had low discrimination power. Baseline CD4TC was the most potent discerning variable with a cut-off of 438 cells/μL (accuracy = 0.93, κ-Cohen = 0.85). Limited discerning power of the other factors might be related to frequency, variability and/or sampling time. Future studies based on decision trees to identify biomarkers of post-treatment control are warrantied. PMID:29342870

  20. Gadolinium-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a Tumor-Absorbable Contrast Agent for Early Diagnosis of Colorectal Tumors Using Magnetic Resonance Colonography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jihong; Zhang, Shizheng; Jiang, Shaojie; Bai, Weixian; Liu, Fei; Yuan, Hong; Ji, Jiansong; Luo, Jingfeng; Han, Guocan; Chen, Lumin; Jin, Yin; Hu, Peng; Yu, Lei; Yang, Xiaoming

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents focusing on special functions are required to improve cancer diagnosis, particularly in the early stages. Here, we designed multifunctional solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with simultaneous loading of gadolinium (Gd) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and octadecylamine fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to obtain Gd-FITC-SLNs as a tumor-absorbable nanoparticle contrast agent for the histological confirmation of MR imaging (MRI) findings. Colorectal tumors were evaluated in vitro and in vivo via direct uptake of this contrast agent, which displayed reasonable T1 relaxivity and no significant cytotoxicity at the experimental concentrations in human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) and mouse colon carcinoma cells (CT26). In vitro cell uptake experiments demonstrated that contrast agent absorption by the two types of cancer cells was concentration-dependent in the safe concentration range. During in vivo MRI, transrectal infusion of Gd-FITC-SLNs showed more significant enhancement at the tumor site compared with the infusion of Gd-DTPA in female C57/BL mice with azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colorectal highgrade intraepithelial neoplasia. Subsequent confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated Gd-FITC-SLNs as highly concentrated green fluorescent spots distributed from the tumor capsule into the tumor. This study establishes the "proof-of-principle" of a new MRI technique wherein colorectal tumors are enhanced via direct absorption or uptake of the nanoparticle contrast agent.

  1. Circulating Tumor Cell Count Correlates with Colorectal Neoplasm Progression and Is a Prognostic Marker for Distant Metastasis in Non-Metastatic Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Shao, Hung-Jen; Wu, Jen-Chia; Lai-Ming, Jr.; Lu, Si-Hong; Hung, Tsung-Fu; Chiu, Yen-Chi; You, Jeng-Fu; Hsieh, Pao-Shiu; Yeh, Chien-Yuh; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Chiang, Sum-Fu; Lin, Geng-Ping; Tang, Reiping; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-01

    Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been proven as a prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer (m-CRC) patients. However, the currently available techniques for capturing and enumerating CTCs lack of required sensitivity to be applicable as a prognostic marker for non-metastatic patients as CTCs are even more rare. We have developed a microfluidic device utilizing antibody-conjugated non-fouling coating to eliminate nonspecific binding and to promote the multivalent binding of target cells. We then established the correlation of CTC counts and neoplasm progression through applying this platform to capture and enumerate CTCs in 2 mL of peripheral blood from healthy (n = 27), benign (n = 21), non-metastatic (n = 95), and m-CRC (n = 15) patients. The results showed that the CTC counts progressed from 0, 1, 5, to 36. Importantly, after 2-year follow-up on the non-metastatic CRC patients, we found that those who had ≥5 CTCs were 8 times more likely to develop distant metastasis within one year after curable surgery than those who had <5. In conclusion, by employing a sensitive device, CTC counts show good correlation with colorectal neoplasm, thus CTC may be as a simple, independent prognostic marker for the non-metastatic CRC patients who are at high risk of early recurrence.

  2. Lung Cancer: A Classic Example of Tumor Escape and Progression While Providing Opportunities for Immunological Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jadus, Martin R.; Natividad, Josephine; Mai, Anthony; Ouyang, Yi; Lambrecht, Nils; Szabo, Sandor; Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil; Dacosta-Iyer, Maria G.

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancers remain one of the most common and deadly cancers in the world today (12.5% of newly diagnosed cancers) despite current advances in chemo- and radiation therapies. Often, by the time these tumors are diagnosed, they have already metastasized. These tumors demonstrate the classic hallmarks of cancer in that they have advanced defensive strategies allowing them to escape various standard oncological treatments. Immunotherapy is making inroads towards effectively treating other fatal cancers, such as melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and castrate-resistant prostate cancers. This paper will cover the escape mechanisms of bronchogenic lung cancer that must be overcome before they can be successfully treated. We also review the history of immunotherapy directed towards lung cancers. PMID:22899945

  3. Biology of MET: a double life between normal tissue repair and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MNNG HOS transforming gene (MET) is a class IV receptor tyrosine kinase, expressed on the surface of epithelial cells. The interaction with the hepatocyte grow factor (HGF) induces MET dimerization and the activation of multiple intracellular pathways leading to cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, morphogenic differentiation, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis. Knock out mice have demonstrated that MET is necessary for normal embryogenesis including the formation of striate muscles, liver and trophoblastic structures. The overexpression of MET and HGF are common in solid tumors and contribute to determine their growth. Indeed, MET has been cloned as a transforming gene from a chemically induced human osteosarcoma cell line and therefore is considered a proto-oncogene. Germline MET mutations are characteristic of hereditary papillary kidney cancers and MET amplification is observed in tumors including lung and gastric adenocarcinomas. The inhibition of MET signaling is the target for specific drugs that are raising exciting expectation for medical treatment of cancer. PMID:25992381

  4. The role of tumor microenvironment in development and progression of malignant melanomas - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Beleaua, Marius Alexandru; Jung, Ioan

    2018-01-01

    To reveal the particular aspects of the tumor microenvironment of malignant melanomas, a systematic review including 34 representative papers was performed. The review took into account the aspects related the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) versus mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and melanoma cells, as possible tools for understanding genesis and evolution of malignant melanoma. The possible reversible features of EMT and the role of tumor microenvironment in the metastatic process were also analyzed. A particular issue was related on the cancer stem cells that include melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) and multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). As the McSCs embryological development in mouse is not similar to human development, the role of stem cells in genesis and development of human melanoma should be proved in human melanoma cells only. For further development of targeted therapy, a better understanding of melanomagenesis pathways and its microenvironment particularities is necessary.

  5. High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with Early-Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0371 TITLE: High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with Early- Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2013 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with...presenting with metastatic prostate cancer at a young age (before age 60 years). Whole exome sequencing identified a panel of germline variants that have

  6. Loss of alleles from the distal short arm of chromosome 1 occurs late in melanoma tumor progression

    SciTech Connect

    Dracopoli, N.C.; Harnett, P.; Bale, S.J.

    The gene for familial malignant melanoma and its precursor lesion, the dysplastic nevus, has been assigned to a region of the distal short arm of chromosome 1, which is frequently involved in karyotypic abnormalities in melanoma cells. The authors have examined loci on chromosome 1p for loss-of-constitutional heterozygosity in 35 melanomas and 21 melanoma cell lines to analyze the role of these abnormalities in melanocyte transformation. Loss-of-heterozygosity at loci on chromosome 1p was identified in 15/35 (43%) melanomas and 11/21 (52%) melanoma cell lines. Analysis of multiple metastases derived from the same patient and of melanoma and lymphoblastoid samples frommore » a family with hereditary melanoma showed that the loss-of-heterozygosity at loci on distal 1p is a late event in tumor progression, rather than the second mutation that would occur if melanoma were due to a cellular recessive mechanism. Comparisons with neuroblastoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN2) suggest that the frequent 1p loss-of-heterozygosity in these malignancies is a common late event of neuroectodermal tumor progression.« less

  7. Collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 promotes pancreatic cancer progression by regulating migration and adhesion of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Hye; Kim, Seokho; Jo, Ji Yoon; Kim, Su Jin; Hwang, Yeonsil; Kim, Jin-Man; Song, Si Young; Lee, Dong-Ki; Koh, Sang Seok

    2013-03-01

    Collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) is a secreted protein involved in vascular remodeling, bone formation and developmental morphogenesis. CTHRC1 has recently been shown to be expressed in human cancers such as breast cancer and melanoma. In this study, we show that CTHRC1 is highly expressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and plays a role in the progression and metastasis of the disease. CTHRC1 promoted primary tumor growth and metastatic spread of cancer cells to distant organs in orthotopic xenograft tumor mouse models. Overexpression of CTHRC1 in cancer cells resulted in increased motility and adhesiveness, whereas these cellular activities were diminished by down-regulation of the protein. CTHRC1 activated several key signaling molecules, including Src, focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Rac1. Treatment with chemical inhibitors of Src, MEK or Rac1 and expression of dominant-negative Rac1 attenuated CTHRC1-induced cell migration and adhesion. Collectively, our results suggest that CTHRC1 has a role in pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis by regulating migration and adhesion activities of cancer cells.

  8. FOXA1 promotes tumor progression in prostate cancer and represents a novel hallmark of castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Josefine; Montani, Matteo; Wild, Peter; Beer, Marc; Huber, Fabian; Hermanns, Thomas; Müntener, Michael; Kristiansen, Glen

    2012-02-01

    Forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) modulates the transactivation of steroid hormone receptors and thus may influence tumor growth and hormone responsiveness in prostate cancer. We therefore investigated the correlation of FOXA1 expression with clinical parameters, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival, and hormone receptor expression in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients at different disease stages. FOXA1 expression did not differ significantly between benign glands from the peripheral zone and primary peripheral zone prostate carcinomas. However, FOXA1 was overexpressed in metastases and particularly in castration-resistant cases, but was expressed at lower levels in both normal and neoplastic transitional zone tissues. FOXA1 levels correlated with higher pT stages and Gleason scores, as well as with androgen (AR) and estrogen receptor expression. Moreover, FOXA1 overexpression was associated with faster biochemical disease progression, which was pronounced in patients with low AR levels. Finally, siRNA-based knockdown of FOXA1 induced decreased cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, in vitro tumorigenicity was inducible by ARs only in the presence of FOXA1, substantiating a functional cooperation between FOXA1 and AR. In conclusion, FOXA1 expression is associated with tumor progression, dedifferentiation of prostate cancer cells, and poorer prognosis, as well as with cellular proliferation and migration and with AR signaling. These findings suggest FOXA1 overexpression as a novel mechanism inducing castration resistance in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long noncoding RNA LINC01296 promotes tumor growth and progression by sponging miR-5095 in human cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Li, Haiyan; Xie, Juping; Jiang, Decan; Cao, Liangqi; Yang, Xuewei; Xue, Ping; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether, and how, long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1296 (LINC01296) is involved in the modulation of human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) development and progression. Microarray data analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that LINC01296 was significantly upregulated in human CCA compared with nontumor tissues. Furthermore, the expression of LINC01296 in human CCA was positively associated with tumor severity and clinical stage. Knockdown of LINC01296 dramatically suppressed the viability, migration and invasion of RBE and CCLP1 cells, and promoted cell apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, LINC01296 knockdown inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model. Mechanistically, LINC01296 was demonstrated to sponge microRNA-5095 (miR-5095), which targets MYCN proto-oncogene bHLH transcription factor (MYCN) mRNA in human CCA. By inhibition of miR-5095, LINC01296 overexpression upregulated the expression of MYCN and promoted cell viability, migration and invasion in CCA cells. The results reveal that the axis of LINC01296/miR-5095/MYCN may be a mechanism to regulate CCA development and progression.

  10. MDM2 copy numbers in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcoma: characterizing progression to high-grade tumors.

    PubMed

    Ware, Patrick L; Snow, Anthony N; Gvalani, Maya; Pettenati, Mark J; Qasem, Shadi A

    2014-03-01

    MDM2 gene amplification is associated with well-differentiated (WDL) and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDL). Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we sought to characterize various patterns of MDM2 amplification among the morphologic spectrum of liposarcoma. Forty-six cases of liposarcoma in various sites were examined and included 22 WDLs, 14 DLLs, and 10 negative control subjects. The MDM2 amplification ratio (MDM2/CEP12) was lower in WDL (10.2) compared with DDL (18.3) cases (P = .0000002). An amplification ratio of 16 showed optimal sensitivity (0.86) and specificity (0.96) as a cutoff point for progression to DDL. Borderline areas, defined as tumors with increased cellularity and atypia but with preserved lipomatous differentiation, showed a significantly higher MDM2 ratio (17.5; P = .0007) compared with WDL. Central (retroperitoneal and intra-abdominal) tumors also showed a significantly higher MDM2 ratio than peripheral ones (P = .02). Differences in MDM2 amplification profiles among liposarcomas could help further define and predict progression to high-grade neoplasia.

  11. Tumor-selective proteotoxicity of verteporfin inhibits colon cancer progression independently of YAP1#

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huabing; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Triner, Daniel; Centofanti, Brook; Maitra, Dhiman; Győrffy, Balázs; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S.; Dame, Michael K.; Varani, James; Brenner, Dean E.; Fearon, Eric R.; Omary, M. Bishr; Shah, Yatrik M.

    2016-01-01

    Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a transcriptional coactivator in the Hippo signaling pathway. Increased YAP1- activity promotes the growth of tumors, including that of colorectal cancer (CRC). Verteporfin, a drug that enhances phototherapy to treat neovascular macular degeneration, is an inhibitor of YAP1. Here, we found that verteporfin inhibited tumor growth independently of its effects on YAP1 or the related protein TAZ in genetic or chemical-induced mouse models of CRC, in patient-derived xenografts and in enteroid models of CRC. Instead, verteporfin exhibited in vivo selectivity for killing tumor cells in part by impairing the global clearance of high molecular weight oligomerized proteins, particularly p62 (a sequestrome involved in autophagy) and STAT3 (a transcription factor). Verteporfin inhibited cytokine-induced STAT3 activity and cell proliferation and reduced the viabilty of cultured CRC cells. Although verteporfin accumulated to a greater extent in normal cells than in tumor cells in vivo, experiments with cultured cells indicated that the normal cells efficiently cleared verteporfin-induced protein oligomers through autophagic and proteasomal pathways. Culturing CRC cells in hypoxic or nutrient-deprived conditions (modeling a typical CRC microenvironment) impaired the clearance of protein oligomers and resulted in cell death; whereas culturing cells in normoxic or glucose-replete conditions protected cell viability and proliferation in the presence of verteporfin. Furthermore, verteporfin suppressed the proliferation of other cancer cell lines even in the absence of YAP1, suggesting that verteporfin may be effective against multiple types of solid cancers. PMID:26443705

  12. Autocrine Complement Inhibits IL10-Dependent T-cell-Mediated Antitumor Immunity to Promote Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Sheng-Nan; Liu, Qing; Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Jian; Wang, Kun; Xing, Bao-Cai; Zheng, Qing-Feng; Campa, Michael J; Patz, Edward F; Li, Shi-You; He, You-Wen

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to its inhibitory effects on many cells, IL10 activates CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and enhances their antitumor activity. However, CD8(+) TILs do not routinely express IL10, as autocrine complement C3 inhibits IL10 production through complement receptors C3aR and C5aR. CD8(+) TILs from C3-deficient mice, however, express IL10 and exhibit enhanced effector function. C3-deficient mice are resistant to tumor development in a T-cell- and IL10-dependent manner; human TILs expanded with IL2 plus IL10 increase the killing of primary tumors in vitro compared with IL2-treated TILs. Complement-mediated inhibition of antitumor immunity is independent of the programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immune checkpoint pathway. Our findings suggest that complement receptors C3aR and C5aR expressed on CD8(+) TILs represent a novel class of immune checkpoints that could be targeted for tumor immunotherapy. Moreover, incorporation of IL10 in the expansion of TILs and in gene-engineered T cells for adoptive cell therapy enhances their antitumor efficacy. Our data suggest novel strategies to enhance immunotherapies: a combined blockade of complement signaling by antagonists to C3aR, C5aR, and anti-PD-1 to enhance anti-PD-1 efficacy; a targeted IL10 delivery to CD8(+) TILs using anti-PD-1-IL10 or anti-CTLA4-IL10 fusion proteins; and the addition of IL10 in TIL expansion for adoptive cellular therapy. Cancer Discov; 6(9); 1022-35. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Peng et al., p. 953This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 932. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Intracranial glioblastoma models in preclinical neuro-oncology: neuropathological characterization and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Candolfi, Marianela; Curtin, James F.; Stephen Nichols, W.; Muhammad, AKM. G.; King, Gwendalyn D.; Elizabeth Pluhar, G.; McNiel, Elizabeth A.; Ohlfest, John R.; Freese, Andrew B.; Moore, Peter F.; Lerner, Jonathan; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2008-01-01

    Although rodent glioblastoma (GBM) models have been used for over 30 years, the extent to which they recapitulate the characteristics encountered in human GBMs remains controversial. We studied the histopathological features of dog GBM and human xenograft GBM models in immune-deficient mice (U251 and U87 GBM in nude Balb/c), and syngeneic GBMs in immune-competent rodents (GL26 cells in C57BL/6 mice, CNS-1 cells in Lewis rats). All GBMs studied exhibited neovascularization, pleomorphism, vimentin immunoreactivity, and infiltration of T-cells and macrophages. All the tumors showed necrosis and hemorrhages, except the U87 human xenograft, in which the most salient feature was its profuse neovascularization. The tumors differed in the expression of astrocytic intermediate filaments: human and dog GBMs, as well as U251 xenografts expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, while the U87 xenograft and the syngeneic rodent GBMs were GFAP− and vimentin+. Also, only dog GBMs exhibited endothelial proliferation, a key feature that was absent in the murine models. In all spontaneous and implanted GBMs we found histopathological features compatible with tumor invasion into the non-neoplastic brain parenchyma. Our data indicate that murine models of GBM appear to recapitulate several of the human GBM histopathological features and, considering their reproducibility and availability, they constitute a valuable in vivo system for preclinical studies. Importantly, our results indicate that dog GBM emerges as an attractive animal model for testing novel therapies in a spontaneous tumor in the context of a larger brain. PMID:17874037

  14. Nitrilase 1 modulates lung tumor progression in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong Antican; Sun, Yunguang; Le Blanc, Justin M.; Solomides, Charalambos; Zhan, Tingting; Lu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering novel growth modulators for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may lead to new therapies for these patients. Previous studies suggest Nit1 suppresses chemically induced carcinogenesis of the foregut in a mouse model. In this study we aimed to determine the role of Nit1 in a transgenic mouse lung cancer model driven by a G12D Kras mutation. Nit1 knockout mice (Nit1−/−) were crossed with KrasG12D/+ mice to investigate whether a G12D Kras mutation and Nit1 inactivation interact to promote or inhibit the development of NSCLC. We found that lung tumorigenesis was suppressed in the Nit1-null background (Nit1−/−:KrasG12D/+). Micro-CT scans and gross tumor measurements demonstrated a 5-fold reduction in total tumor volumes compared to Nit1+/+KrasG12D/+ (p<0.01). Furthermore, we found that Nit1 is highly expressed in human lung cancer tissues and cell lines and use of siRNA against Nit1 decreased overall cell survival of lung cancer cells in culture. In addition, cisplatin response was enhanced in human lung cancer cells when Nit1 was knocked down and Nit1−/−:KrasG12D/+ tumors showed increased sensitivity to cisplatin in vivo. Together, our data indicate that Nit1 may play a supportive role in the modulation of lung tumorigenesis and represent a novel target for NSCLCs treatment. PMID:26967383

  15. Advances in Wilms Tumor Treatment and Biology: Progress Through International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Dome, Jeffrey S; Graf, Norbert; Geller, James I; Fernandez, Conrad V; Mullen, Elizabeth A; Spreafico, Filippo; Van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2015-09-20

    Clinical trials in Wilms tumor (WT) have resulted in overall survival rates of greater than 90%. This achievement is especially remarkable because improvements in disease-specific survival have occurred concurrently with a reduction of therapy for large patient subgroups. However, the outcomes for certain patient subgroups, including those with unfavorable histologic and molecular features, bilateral disease, and recurrent disease, remain well below the benchmark survival rate of 90%. Therapy for WT has been advanced in part by an increasingly complex risk-stratification system based on patient age; tumor stage, histology, and volume; response to chemotherapy; and loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 1p and 16q. A consequence of this system has been the apportionment of patients into such small subgroups that only collaboration between large international WT study groups will support clinical trials that are sufficiently powered to answer challenging questions that move the field forward. This article gives an overview of the Children's Oncology Group and International Society of Pediatric Oncology approaches to WT and focuses on four subgroups (stage IV, initially inoperable, bilateral, and relapsed WT) for which international collaboration is pressing. In addition, biologic insights resulting from collaborative laboratory research are discussed. A coordinated expansion of international collaboration in both clinical trials and laboratory science will provide real opportunity to improve the treatment and outcomes for children with renal tumors on a global level. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Gene Expression Signatures Based on Variability can Robustly Predict Tumor Progression and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Dinalankara, Wikum; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression signatures are commonly used to create cancer prognosis and diagnosis methods, yet only a small number of them are successfully deployed in the clinic since many fail to replicate performance on subsequent validation. A primary reason for this lack of reproducibility is the fact that these signatures attempt to model the highly variable and unstable genomic behavior of cancer. Our group recently introduced gene expression anti-profiles as a robust methodology to derive gene expression signatures based on the observation that while gene expression measurements are highly heterogeneous across tumors of a specific cancer type relative to the normal tissue, their degree of deviation from normal tissue expression in specific genes involved in tissue differentiation is a stable tumor mark that is reproducible across experiments and cancer types. Here we show that constructing gene expression signatures based on variability and the anti-profile approach yields classifiers capable of successfully distinguishing benign growths from cancerous growths based on deviation from normal expression. We then show that this same approach generates stable and reproducible signatures that predict probability of relapse and survival based on tumor gene expression. These results suggest that using the anti-profile framework for the discovery of genomic signatures is an avenue leading to the development of reproducible signatures suitable for adoption in clinical settings. PMID:26078586

  17. PACE4 inhibitors and their peptidomimetic analogs block prostate cancer tumor progression through quiescence induction, increased apoptosis and impaired neovascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Christine; Couture, Frédéric; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Desjardins, Roxane; Guérin, Brigitte; Neugebauer, Witold A.; Day, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the leading cancer in North American men. Current pharmacological treatments are limited to anti-androgen strategies and the development of new therapeutic approaches remains a challenge. As a fundamentally new approach, we propose the inhibition of PACE4, a member of the proprotein convertases family of enzymes, as a therapeutic target in prostate cancer. We developed an inhibitor named the Multi-Leu peptide, with potent in vitro anti-proliferative effects. However, the Multi-Leu peptide has not been tested under in vivo conditions and its potency under such conditions is most likely limited, due to the labile characteristics of peptides in general. Using a peptidomimetic approach, we modified the initial scaffold, generating the analog Ac-[DLeu]LLLRVK-Amba, which demonstrates increased inhibitory potency and stability. The systemic administration of this peptidomimetic significantly inhibits tumor progression in the LNCaP xenograft model of prostate cancer by inducing tumor cell quiescence, increased apoptosis and neovascularization impairment. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles of this inhibitor confirm adequate tumor delivery properties of the compound. We conclude that PACE4 peptidomimetic inhibitors could result in stable and potent drugs for a novel therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer. PMID:25682874

  18. Downregulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 is a metabolic hallmark of tumor progression and aggressiveness in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jeong Mo; Kim, Jung Ho; Oh, Hyeon Jeong; Park, Hye Eun; Lee, Tae Hun; Cho, Nam-Yun; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 is an emerging key enzyme for cancer metabolism, which supplies acetyl-CoA for tumor cells by capturing acetate as a carbon source under stressed conditions. However, implications of acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 in colorectal carcinoma may differ from other malignancies, because normal colonocytes use short-chain fatty acids as an energy source, which are supplied by fermentation of the intestinal flora. Here we analyzed acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR in paired normal mucosa and tumor tissues of 12 colorectal carcinomas, and subsequently evaluated acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 157 premalignant colorectal lesions, including 60 conventional adenomas and 97 serrated polyps, 1,106 surgically resected primary colorectal carcinomas, and 23 metastatic colorectal carcinomas in the liver. In reverse-transcription quantitative PCR analysis, acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in tumor tissues compared with corresponding normal mucosa tissues. In acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 immunohistochemistry analysis, all 157 colorectal polyps showed moderate-to-strong expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase-2. However, cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 expression was downregulated (acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 low expression) in 771 (69.7%) of 1,106 colorectal carcinomas and 21 (91.3%) of 23 metastatic lesions. The colorectal carcinomas with acetyl-CoA synthetase-2-low expression were significantly associated with advanced TNM stage, poor differentiation, and frequent tumor budding. Regarding the molecular aspect, acetyl-CoA synthetase-2-low expression exhibited a tendency of frequent KRT7 expression and decreased KRT20 and CDX2 expression. In survival analysis, acetyl-CoA synthetase-2-low expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor 5-year progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.79; P=0.01). In conclusion

  19. IB-11PSEUDO-PROGRESSION (PsdPg) IS A HARBINGER OF A MORE EFFECTIVE ANTI-TUMOR RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Sturla, Lisa; Donahue, John; Machan, Jason; Delamonte, Suzanne; Jeyapalan, Suriya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: PsdPg is the increased contrast enhancement, high choline/creatine ratio and increased perfusion observed in the residual tumor bed of high-grade glioma patients after completion of temozolomide/radiation. It resolves within 3-6 months and incidence ranges from 10 - 31%. Though correlated with longer patient survival, its pathological basis is unclear. We used a cytokine/chemokine focused approach to compare the tumor microenvironment in pre- and post-treatment tumor tissue from patients with PsdPg to patients with true progression (TP). METHODS: We obtained pre-treatment formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue from 35 GBM patients and post-treatment FFPE tissue from five patients with PsdPg and TP. A quantitative PCR array and custom Quantigene 2.0 multiplex was used to quantify gene expression corresponding to major cytokines/chemokines. An 18-gene signature was used to determine the macrophage polarization score (cumulative M2-associated cytokine expression - cumulative M1-associated cytokine expression). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to confirm significantly different targets at the protein level. RESULTS: IHC revealed 7-fold higher B-cell infiltration in TP patients as compared to patients with PsdPg (p = 0.003). Macrophage and T-cell infiltration were not significantly different between the two groups. Nevertheless, the cytokines associated with macrophage polarization indicated pro-tumorigenic (M2) polarization in TP patients while PsdPg patients exhibited classical anti-tumorigenic (M1) polarization. TP patients had a 10-fold higher M2 score (p = 0.03) compared to PsdPg patients. The M1 score of tissue from PsdPg patients post-treatment was 25-fold higher than their pre-treatment tissue (p = 0.01). Analysis of a 7-gene signature associated with natural killer (NK) cell recruitment and activation showed a 8-fold higher expression in pre-treatment tissue from PsdPg patients compared to TP patients (p = 0.009) suggesting that NK cells

  20. Inhibition of prostate cancer osteoblastic progression with VEGF121/rGel, a single agent targeting osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and tumor neovasculature

    PubMed Central

    Mohamedali, Khalid A.; Li, Zhi Gang; Starbuck, Michael W.; Wan, Xinhai; Yang, Jun; Kim, Sehoon; Zhang, Wendy; Rosenblum, Michael G.; Navone, Nora M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa) progression is the development of osteoblastic bone metastases, which respond poorly to available therapies. We previously reported that VEGF121/rGel targets osteoclast precursors and tumor neovasculature. Here we tested the hypothesis that targeting non-tumor cells expressing these receptors can inhibit tumor progression in a clinically relevant model of osteoblastic PCa. Experimental Design Cells from MDA PCa 118b, a PCa xenograft obtained from a bone metastasis in a patient with castrate-resistant PCa, were injected into the femurs of mice. Osteoblastic progression was monitored following systemic administration of VEGF121/rGel. Results VEGF121/rGel was cytotoxic in vitro to osteoblast precursor cells. This cytotoxicity was specific as VEGF121/rGel internalization into osteoblasts was VEGF121 receptor driven. Furthermore, VEGF121/rGel significantly inhibited PCa-induced bone formation in a mouse calvaria culture assay. In vivo, VEGF121/rGel significantly inhibited the osteoblastic progression of PCa cells in the femurs of nude mice. Microcomputed tomography analysis revealed that VEGF121/rGel restored the bone volume fraction of tumor-bearing femurs to values similar to those of the contralateral (non–tumor bearing) femurs. VEGF121/rGel significantly reduced the number of tumor-associated osteoclasts but did not change the numbers of peritumoral osteoblasts. Importantly, VEGF121/rGel-treated mice had significantly less tumor burden than control mice. Our results thus indicate that VEGF121/rGel inhibits osteoblastic tumor progression by targeting angiogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and bone formation. Conclusions Targeting VEGFR-1 – or VEGFR-2–expressing cells is effective in controlling the osteoblastic progression of PCa in bone. These findings provide the basis for an effective multitargeted approach for metastatic PCa. PMID:21343372

  1. Early and progressive sensorimotor anomalies in mice overexpressing wild-type human alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sheila M; Salcedo, Jonathan; Fernagut, Pierre-Olivier; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Levine, Michael S; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2004-10-20

    Accumulation of alpha-synuclein in brain is a hallmark of synucleinopathies, neurodegenerative diseases that include Parkinson's disease. Mice overexpressing alpha-synuclein under the Thy-1 promoter (ASO) show abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain, including the substantia nigra. We examined the motor deficits in ASO mice with a battery of sensorimotor tests that are sensitive to alterations in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Male wild-type and ASO mice were tested every 2 months for 8 months for motor performance and coordination on a challenging beam, inverted grid, and pole, sensorimotor deficits in an adhesive removal test, spontaneous activity in a cylinder, and gait. Fine motor skills were assessed by the ability to grasp cotton from a bin. ASO mice displayed significant impairments in motor performance and coordination and a reduction in spontaneous activity as early as 2 months of age. Motor performance and coordination impairments became progressively worse with age and sensorimotor deficits appeared at 6 months. Fine motor skills were altered at 4 months and worsened at 8 months. These data indicate that overexpression of alpha-synuclein induced an early and progressive behavioral phenotype that can be detected in multiple tests of sensorimotor function. These behavioral deficits provide a useful way to assess novel drug therapy in genetic models of synucleinopathies.

  2. β4-Integrin/PI3K Signaling Promotes Tumor Progression through the Galectin-3-N-Glycan Complex.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Yukiko; Oyama, Midori; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Gu, Jianguo; Kariya, Yoshinobu

    2018-06-01

    Malignant transformation is associated with aberrant N -glycosylation, but the role of protein N -glycosylation in cancer progression remains poorly defined. β4-integrin is a major carrier of N -glycans and is associated with poor prognosis, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Here, N -glycosylation of β4-integrin contributes to the activation of signaling pathways that promote β4-dependent tumor development and progression. Increased expression of β1,6GlcNAc-branched N -glycans was found to be colocalized with β4-integrin in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma tissues, and that the β1,6GlcNAc residue was abundant on β4-integrin in transformed keratinocytes. Interruption of β1,6GlcNAc-branching formation on β4-integrin with the introduction of bisecting GlcNAc by N -acetylglucosaminyltransferase III overexpression was correlated with suppression of cancer cell migration and tumorigenesis. N -Glycan deletion on β4-integrin impaired β4-dependent cancer cell migration, invasion, and growth in vitro and diminished tumorigenesis and proliferation in vivo The reduced abilities of β4-integrin were accompanied with decreased phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signals and were restored by the overexpression of the constitutively active p110 PI3K subunit. Binding of galectin-3 to β4-integrin via β1,6GlcNAc-branched N -glycans promoted β4-integrin-mediated cancer cell adhesion and migration. In contrast, a neutralizing antibody against galectin-3 attenuated β4-integrin N -glycan-mediated PI3K activation and inhibited the ability of β4-integrin to promote cell motility. Furthermore, galectin-3 knockdown by shRNA suppressed β4-integrin N -glycan-mediated tumorigenesis. These findings provide a novel role for N -glycosylation of β4-integrin in tumor development and progression, and the regulatory mechanism for β4-integrin/PI3K signaling via the galectin-3- N -glycan complex. Implications: N -Glycosylation of β4-integrin plays a functional role in promoting

  3. First follow-up radiographic response is one of the predictors of local tumor progression and radiation necrosis after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayur; Jia, Xuefei; Ahluwalia, Manmeet; Barnett, Gene H; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Chao, Samuel T; Suh, John H; Murphy, Erin S; Yu, Jennifer S; Angelov, Lilyana; Mohammadi, Alireza M

    2017-09-01

    Local progression (LP) and radiation necrosis (RN) occur in >20% of cases following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases (BM). Expected outcomes following SRS for BM include tumor control/shrinkage, local progression and radiation necrosis. 1427 patients with 4283 BM lesions were treated using SRS at Cleveland Clinic from 2000 to 2012. Clinical, imaging and radiosurgery data were collected from the database. Local tumor progression and RN were the primary end points and correlated with patient and tumor-related variables. 5.7% of lesions developed radiographic RN and 3.6% showed local progression at 6 months. Absence of new extracranial metastasis (P < 0.001), response to SRS at first follow-up scan (local progression versus stable size (P < 0.001), partial resolution versus complete resolution at first follow up [P = 0.009]), prior SRS to the same lesion (P < 0.001), IDL% (≤55; P < 0.001), maximum tumor diameter (>0.9 cm; P < 0.001) and MD/PD gradient index (≤1.8, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of high risk of local tumor progression. Absence of systemic metastases (P = 0.029), good neurological function at 1st follow-up (P ≤ 0.001), no prior SRS to other lesion (P = 0.024), low conformity index (≤1.9) (P = 0.009), large maximum target diameter (>0.9 cm) (P = 0.003) and response to SRS (tumor progression vs. stable size following SRS [P < 0.001]) were independent predictors of high risk of radiographic RN. Complete tumor response at first follow-up, maximum tumor diameter <0.9 cm, tumor volume <2.4 cc and no prior SRS to the index lesion are good prognostic factors with reduced risk of LP following SRS. Complete tumor response to SRS, poor neurological function at first follow-up, prior SRS to other lesions and high conformity index are favorable factors for not developing RN. Stable or partial response at first follow-up after SRS have same impact on local progression and RN compared to those with

  4. Tumor microenvironment is multifaceted.

    PubMed

    Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Cherfils-Vicini, Julien; Damotte, Diane; Fisson, Sylvain; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Cremer, Isabelle; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline

    2011-03-01

    Cancer initiation, progression, and invasion occur in a complex and dynamic microenvironment which depends on the hosts and sites where tumors develop. Tumors arising in mucosal tissues may progress in an inflammatory context linked to local viral and/or bacterial infections. At the opposite, tumors developing in immunoprivileged sites are protected from microorganisms and grow in an immunosuppressive environment. In the present review, we summarize and present our recent data on the influence of infectious context and immune cell infiltration organization in human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers (NSCLC) progression. We show that stimulation of tumor cells by TLR for viral ssRNA, such as TLR7/8, or bacteria, such as TLR4, promotes cell survival and induces chemoresistance. On the opposite, stimulation by TLR3, receptor for double-stranded viral RNA, decreases tumor cell viability and induces chemosensitivity in some lung tumor cell lines. Since fresh lung tumor cells exhibit a gene expression profile characteristic of TLR-stimulated lung tumor cell lines, we suspect that viral and bacterial influence may not only act on the host immune system but also directly on tumor growth and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The stroma of NSCLC contains tertiary lymphoid structures (or Tumor-induced Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (Ti-BALT)) with mature DC, follicular DC, and T and B cells. Two subsets of immature DC, Langerhans cells (LC) and interstitial DC (intDC), were detected in the tumor nests and the stroma, respectively. Here, we show that the densities of the three DC subsets, mature DC, LC, and intDC, are highly predictive of disease-specific survival in a series of 74 early-stage NSCLC patients. We hypothesize that the mature DC may derive from local activation and migration of the immature DC--and especially LC which contact the tumor cells--to the tertiary lymphoid structures, after sampling and processing of the tumor antigens. In view of the prominent role of DC in

  5. Evidence for early neurodegeneration in the cervical cord of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Torben; Solanky, Bhavana S.; Yiannakas, Marios C.; Altmann, Dan R.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Peters, Amy L.; Day, Brian L.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which reflect spinal cord pathology more closely than conventional clinical tests, we explored the potential for spinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging to detect early spinal neurodegeneration that may be responsible for clinical disability. Data from 21 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis within 6 years of disease onset, and 24 control subjects were analysed. Patients were clinically assessed on grip strength, vibration perception thresholds and postural stability, in addition to the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, and Modified Ashworth Scale. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging of the cervical cord and conventional brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Multivariate analyses and multiple regression models were used to assess the differences in imaging measures between groups and the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging measures and clinical scores, correcting for age, gender, spinal cord cross-sectional area, brain T2 lesion volume, and brain white matter and grey matter volume fractions. Although patients did not show significant cord atrophy when compared with healthy controls, they had significantly lower total N-acetyl-aspartate (mean 4.01 versus 5.31 mmol/l, P = 0.020) and glutamate-glutamine (mean 4.65 versus 5.93 mmol/l, P = 0.043) than controls. Patients showed an increase in q

  6. Evidence for early neurodegeneration in the cervical cord of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Khaled; Schneider, Torben; Solanky, Bhavana S; Yiannakas, Marios C; Altmann, Dan R; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Peters, Amy L; Day, Brian L; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-06-01

    Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which reflect spinal cord pathology more closely than conventional clinical tests, we explored the potential for spinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging to detect early spinal neurodegeneration that may be responsible for clinical disability. Data from 21 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis within 6 years of disease onset, and 24 control subjects were analysed. Patients were clinically assessed on grip strength, vibration perception thresholds and postural stability, in addition to the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, and Modified Ashworth Scale. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging of the cervical cord and conventional brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Multivariate analyses and multiple regression models were used to assess the differences in imaging measures between groups and the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging measures and clinical scores, correcting for age, gender, spinal cord cross-sectional area, brain T2 lesion volume, and brain white matter and grey matter volume fractions. Although patients did not show significant cord atrophy when compared with healthy controls, they had significantly lower total N-acetyl-aspartate (mean 4.01 versus 5.31 mmol/l, P = 0.020) and glutamate-glutamine (mean 4.65 versus 5.93 mmol/l, P = 0.043) than controls. Patients showed an increase in q

  7. Influence of patient and tumor characteristics on early therapy persistence with letrozole in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: results of the prospective Evaluate-TM study with 3941 patients.

    PubMed

    Nabieva, N; Kellner, S; Fehm, T; Häberle, L; de Waal, J; Rezai, M; Baier, B; Baake, G; Kolberg, H-C; Guggenberger, M; Warm, M; Harbeck, N; Wuerstlein, R; Deuker, J-U; Dall, P; Richter, B; Wachsmann, G; Brucker, C; Siebers, J W; Fersis, N; Kuhn, T; Wolf, C; Vollert, H-W; Breitbach, G-P; Janni, W; Landthaler, R; Kohls, A; Rezek, D; Noesselt, T; Fischer, G; Henschen, S; Praetz, T; Heyl, V; Kühn, T; Krauss, T; Thomssen, C; Hohn, A; Tesch, H; Mundhenke, C; Hein, A; Rauh, C; Bayer, C M; Jacob, A; Schmidt, K; Belleville, E; Brucker, S Y; Kümmel, S; Beckmann, M W; Wallwiener, D; Hadji, P; Fasching, P A

    2018-01-01

    Patients' compliance and persistence with endocrine treatment has a significant effect on the prognosis in early breast cancer (EBC). The purpose of this analysis was to identify possible reasons for non-persistence, defined as premature cessation of therapy, on the basis of patient and tumor characteristics in individuals receiving adjuvant treatment with letrozole. The EvAluate-TM study is a prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study in which treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole was evaluated in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive EBC in the early therapy phase. Treatment persistence was evaluated at two pre-specified study visits after 6 and 12 months. As a measure of early therapy persistence the time from the start to the end of treatment (TTEOT) was analyzed. Cox regression analyses were carried out to identify patient characteristics and tumor characteristics predicting TTEOT. Out of the total population of 3941 patients with EBC, 540 (13.7%) events involving treatment cessation unrelated to disease progression were observed. This was due to drug-related toxicity in the majority of cases (73.5%). Persistence rates were 92.2%, 86.9%, and 86.3% after 6, 12, and 15 months, respectively. The main factors influencing premature treatment discontinuation were older age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.02/year], comorbidities (HR 1.06 per comorbidity), low body mass index, and lower tumor grade (HR 0.85 per grade unit). These results support the view that older, multimorbid patients with low tumor grade and low body mass index are at the greatest risk for treatment discontinuation and might benefit from compliance and support programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Hepatitis B virus X protein shifts human hepatic transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling from tumor suppression to oncogenesis in early chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Murata, Miki; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Yoshida, Katsunori; Sekimoto, Go; Tahashi, Yoshiya; Mori, Shigeo; Uemura, Yoshiko; Sakaida, Noriko; Fujisawa, Junichi; Seki, Toshihito; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Yokote, Koutaro; Koike, Kazuhiko; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein is suspected to participate in oncogenesis during chronic hepatitis B progression. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling involves both tumor suppression and oncogenesis. TGF-beta activates TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which differentially phosphorylate the mediator Smad3 to become C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C) and linker-phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L). Reversible shifting of Smad3-mediated signaling between tumor suppression and oncogenesis in HBx-expressing hepatocytes indicated that TbetaRI-dependent pSmad3C transmitted a tumor-suppressive TGF-beta signal, while JNK-dependent pSmad3L promoted cell growth. We used immunostaining, immunoblotting, and in vitro kinase assay to compare pSmad3L- and pSmad3C-mediated signaling in biopsy specimens representing chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from 90 patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) with signaling in liver specimens from HBx transgenic mice. In proportion to plasma HBV DNA levels, early chronic hepatitis B specimens showed prominence of pSmad3L in hepatocytic nuclei. HBx-activated JNK/pSmad3L/c-Myc oncogenic pathway was enhanced, while the TbetaRI/pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) tumor-suppressive pathway was impaired as human and mouse HBx-associated hepatocarcinogenesis progressed. Of 28 patients with chronic hepatitis B who showed strong oncogenic pSmad3L signaling, six developed HCC within 12 years; only one of 32 patients showing little pSmad3L developed HCC. In contrast, seven of 30 patients with little Smad3C phosphorylation developed HCC, while no patient who retained hepatocytic tumor-suppressive pSmad3C developed HCC within 12 years. HBx shifts hepatocytic TGF-beta signaling from the tumor-suppressive pSmad3C pathway to the oncogenic pSmad3L pathway in early carcinogenic process. Hepatocytic pSmad3L and pSmad3C assessment in HBV-infected liver specimens should prove

  9. Acquisition of Malay word recognition skills: lessons from low-progress early readers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both syllable awareness and phoneme blending were significant predictors of word recognition, suggesting that both syllable and phonemic grain-sizes are important in Malay word recognition. Item analysis revealed a hierarchical pattern of difficulty based on the syllable and the phonic structure of the words. Error analysis identified the sources of errors to be errors due to inefficient syllable segmentation, oversimplification of syllables, insufficient grapheme-phoneme knowledge and inefficient phonemic code assembly. Evidence also suggests that direct instruction in syllable segmentation, phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme correspondence is necessary for low-progress readers to acquire word recognition skills. Finally, a logical sequence to teach grapheme-phoneme decoding in Malay is suggested. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Spatiotemporal proteomic analyses during pancreas cancer progression identifies serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) as a novel candidate biomarker for early stage disease.

    PubMed

    Mirus, Justin E; Zhang, Yuzheng; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Solan, Joell L; Lampe, Paul D; Hingorani, Sunil R

    2014-12-01

    Pancreas cancer, or pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is the deadliest of solid tumors, with a five-year survival rate of <5%. Detection of resectable disease improves survival rates, but access to tissue and other biospecimens that could be used to develop early detection markers is confounded by the insidious nature of pancreas cancer. Mouse models that accurately recapitulate the human condition allow disease tracking from inception to invasion and can therefore be useful for studying early disease stages in which surgical resection is possible. Using a highly faithful mouse model of pancreas cancer in conjunction with a high-density antibody microarray containing ∼2500 antibodies, we interrogated the pancreatic tissue proteome at preinvasive and invasive stages of disease. The goal was to discover early stage tissue markers of pancreas cancer and follow them through histologically defined stages of disease using cohorts of mice lacking overt clinical signs and symptoms and those with end-stage metastatic disease, respectively. A panel of seven up-regulated proteins distinguishing pancreas cancer from normal pancreas was validated, and their levels were assessed in tissues collected at preinvasive, early invasive, and moribund stages of disease. Six of the seven markers also differentiated pancreas cancer from an experimental model of chronic pancreatitis. The levels of serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) increased between preinvasive and invasive stages, suggesting its potential as a tissue biomarker, and perhaps its involvement in progression from precursor pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry of STK4 at different stages of disease revealed a dynamic expression pattern further implicating it in early tumorigenic events. Immunohistochemistry of a panel of human pancreas cancers confirmed that STK4 levels were increased in tumor epithelia relative to normal tissue. Overall, this integrated approach

  11. Etiology and early pathogenesis of malignant testicular germ cell tumors: towards possibilities for preinvasive diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Elzinga-Tinke, Jenny E; Dohle, Gert R; Looijenga, Leendert HJ

    2015-01-01

    Malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequent cancers in Caucasian males (20–40 years) with an 70% increasing incidence the last 20 years, probably due to combined action of (epi)genetic and (micro)environmental factors. It is expected that TGCT have carcinoma in situ (CIS) as their common precursor, originating from an embryonic germ cell blocked in its maturation process. The overall cure rate of TGCT is more than 90%, however, men surviving TGCT can present long-term side effects of systemic cancer treatment. In contrast, men diagnosed and treated for CIS only continue to live without these long-term side effects. Therefore, early detection of CIS has great health benefits, which will require an informative screening method. This review described the etiology and early pathogenesis of TGCT, as well as the possibilities of early detection and future potential of screening men at risk for TGCT. For screening, a well-defined risk profile based on both genetic and environmental risk factors is needed. Since 2009, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been published, reporting on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant associations in or near the genes KITLG, SPRY4, BAK1, DMRT1, TERT, ATF7IP, HPGDS, MAD1L1, RFWD3, TEX14, and PPM1E, likely to be related to TGCT development. Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors also influence the onset of CIS. A noninvasive early detection method for CIS would be highly beneficial in a clinical setting, for which specific miRNA detection in semen seems to be very promising. Further research is needed to develop a well-defined TGCT risk profile, based on gene-environment interactions, combined with noninvasive detection method for CIS. PMID:25791729

  12. Fibroblast growth factor-2-induced host stroma reaction during initial tumor growth promotes progression of mouse melanoma via vascular endothelial growth factor A-dependent neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2007-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 has been considered to play a critical role in neovascularization in several tumors; however, its precise role in tumor progression is not fully understood. In the present study, we have characterized the role of FGF-2 in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells, focusing on effects during the initial phase of tumor growth. FGF-2 was injected at the tumor inoculation site of dorsal skin during the initial phase. FGF-2 induced marked tumor growth and lymph node metastasis. This was well correlated with an increase in neovascularization in the host stroma. FGF-2 also recruited inflammatory and mesenchymal cells in host stroma. Marked tumor growth, pulmonary metastasis and intensive neovascularization in tumor parenchyma were also observed after a single injection of FGF-2 into the footpad inoculation site. In contrast, repeated injections of FGF-2 at a site remote from the footpad tumor were ineffective in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. These promoting activities of FGF-2 were blocked by local injections of a glucocorticoid hormone, suggesting that host inflammatory responses induced by FGF-2 are associated with FGF-2-induced tumor progression. In addition, although FGF-2 did not promote cellular proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA expression in B16-BL6 cells in vitro, FGF-2 induced VEGFA expression in host stroma rather than tumor tissue, and local injections of a neutralizing antibody against VEGFA inhibited these activities of FGF-2 in vivo. These results indicate that abundant FGF-2 during the initial phase of tumor growth induces VEGFA-dependent intensive neovascularization in host stroma, and supports marked tumor growth and metastasis.

  13. Interleukin-34 promotes tumor progression and metastatic process in osteosarcoma through induction of angiogenesis and macrophage recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ségaliny, Aude I; Mohamadi, Amel; Dizier, Blandine; Lokajczyk, Anna; Brion, Régis; Lanel, Rachel; Amiaud, Jérôme; Charrier, Céline; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was recently characterized as the M-CSF "twin" cytokine, regulating the proliferation/differentiation/survival of myeloid cells. The implication of M-CSF in oncology was initially suspected by the reduced metastatic dissemination in knock-out mice, due to angiogenesis impairment. Based on this observation, our work studied the involvement of IL-34 in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. The in vivo effects of IL-34 were assessed on tissue vasculature and macrophage infiltration in a murine preclinical model based on a paratibial inoculation of human osteosarcoma cells overexpressing or not IL-34 or M-CSF. In vitro investigations using endothelial cell precursors and mature HUVEC cells were performed to analyse the involvement of IL-34 in angiogenesis and myeloid cell adhesion. The data revealed that IL-34 overexpression was associated with the progression of osteosarcoma (tumor growth, lung metastases) and an increase of neo-angiogenesis. In vitro analyses demonstrated that IL-34 stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and vascular cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells by chondroitinases/heparinases reduced the formation of vascular tubes and abolished the associated cell signalling. In addition, IL-34 increased the in vivo recruitment of M2 tumor-associated macrophages into the tumor tissue. IL-34 increased in vitro monocyte/CD34(+) cell adhesion to activated HUVEC monolayers under physiological shear stress conditions. This work also demonstrates that IL-34 is expressed by osteosarcoma cells, is regulated by TNF-α, IL-1β, and contributes to osteosarcoma growth by increasing the neo-angiogenesis and the recruitment of M2 macrophages. By promoting new vessel formation and extravasation of immune cells, IL-34 may play a key role in tumor development and inflammatory diseases. © 2014 UICC.

  14. EMMPRIN/CD147 up-regulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator: implications in oral tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds An elevated level of EMMPRIN in cancer tissues have been correlated with tumor invasion in numerous cancers including oral cavity and larynx. Although EMMPRIN's effect has been generally attributed to its MMP inducing activity, we have previously demonstrated in breast cancer model that EMMPRIN can also enhance invasion by upregulating uPA. In this study, the role of EMMPRIN in regulating uPA and invasion was investigated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression. Methods Precancerous and invasive oral tumoral tissues were used as well as the corresponding cell lines, DOK and SCC-9 respectively. The paracrine regulation of uPA by EMMPRIN was investigated by treating culture cells with EMMPRIN-enriched membrane vesicles. UPA expression was analyzed by qPCR and immunostaining and the consequence on the invasion capacity was studied using modified Boyden chamber assay, in the presence or absence of EMMPRIN blocking antibody, the uPA inhibitor amiloride or the MMP inhibitor marimastat. Results OSCC tumors were shown to express more EMMPRIN and uPA compared to dysplastic lesions. The corresponding cell models, SCC-9 and DOK cells, displayed similar expression pattern. In both cell types EMMPRIN upregulated the expression of uPA as well as that of MMP-2 and MMP-9. EMMPRIN treatment led to a significant increase in cell invasion both in the invasive SCC-9 and in the less invasive dysplastic DOK cells, in an MMP and uPA dependent manner. Conclusions Our results suggest that the upregulation of uPA contributes to EMMPRIN's effect in promoting oral tumor invasion. PMID:22443116

  15. EMMPRIN/CD147 up-regulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator: implications in oral tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Lescaille, Géraldine; Menashi, Suzanne; Cavelier-Balloy, Bénédicte; Khayati, Farah; Quemener, Cathy; Podgorniak, Marie Pierre; Naïmi, Benyoussef; Calvo, Fabien; Lebbe, Céleste; Mourah, Samia

    2012-03-23

    An elevated level of EMMPRIN in cancer tissues have been correlated with tumor invasion in numerous cancers including oral cavity and larynx. Although EMMPRIN's effect has been generally attributed to its MMP inducing activity, we have previously demonstrated in breast cancer model that EMMPRIN can also enhance invasion by upregulating uPA. In this study, the role of EMMPRIN in regulating uPA and invasion was investigated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression. Precancerous and invasive oral tumoral tissues were used as well as the corresponding cell lines, DOK and SCC-9 respectively. The paracrine regulation of uPA by EMMPRIN was investigated by treating culture cells with EMMPRIN-enriched membrane vesicles. UPA expression was analyzed by qPCR and immunostaining and the consequence on the invasion capacity was studied using modified Boyden chamber assay, in the presence or absence of EMMPRIN blocking antibody, the uPA inhibitor amiloride or the MMP inhibitor marimastat. OSCC tumors were shown to express more EMMPRIN and uPA compared to dysplastic lesions. The corresponding cell models, SCC-9 and DOK cells, displayed similar expression pattern. In both cell types EMMPRIN upregulated the expression of uPA as well as that of MMP-2 and MMP-9. EMMPRIN treatment led to a significant increase in cell invasion both in the invasive SCC-9 and in the less invasive dysplastic DOK cells, in an MMP and uPA dependent manner. Our results suggest that the upregulation of uPA contributes to EMMPRIN's effect in promoting oral tumor invasion.

  16. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Swanepoel, De Wet; Chapchap, Mônica J; Castillo, Salvador; Habib, Hamed; Mukari, Siti Z; Martinez, Norberto V; Lin, Hung-Ching; McPherson, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. Results Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. Conclusion Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development partners need to complement

  17. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown.

  18. Creating an Ofsted Story: The Role of Early Years Assessment Data in Schools' Narratives of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, Alice; Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the growing importance of measures of progress in judgements of schools' effectiveness in England, with a focus on the role of the early years (settings for children aged 2-5) in providing data for these measures. Qualitative data from a research project involving three diverse school-based and pre-compulsory early years…

  19. Adolescent Deviant Peer Clustering as an Amplifying Mechanism Underlying the Progression from Early Substance Use to Late Adolescent Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early substance use co-occurs with youths' self-organization into deviant peer groups in which substance use is central to social interaction. We hypothesized that the social dynamics of deviant peer groups amplify the risk of progressing from early use to later dependence, and that this influence occurs over and above escalations…

  20. Embolotherapy for Neuroendocrine Tumor Liver Metastases: Prognostic Factors for Hepatic Progression-Free Survival and Overall Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James X.; Rose, Steven; White, Sarah B.

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate prognostic factors for survival outcomes following embolotherapy for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) liver metastases.Materials and MethodsThis was a multicenter retrospective study of 155 patients (60 years mean age, 57 % male) with NET liver metastases from pancreas (n = 71), gut (n = 68), lung (n = 8), or other/unknown (n = 8) primary sites treated with conventional transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, n = 50), transarterial radioembolization (TARE, n = 64), or transarterial embolization (TAE, n = 41) between 2004 and 2015. Patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors were evaluated for prognostic effect on hepatic progression-free survival (HPFS) and overall survival (OS) using unadjusted and propensity score-weighted univariate and multivariate Coxmore » proportional hazards models.ResultsMedian HPFS and OS were 18.5 and 125.1 months for G1 (n = 75), 12.2 and 33.9 months for G2 (n = 60), and 4.9 and 9.3 months for G3 tumors (n = 20), respectively (p < 0.05). Tumor burden >50 % hepatic volume demonstrated 5.5- and 26.8-month shorter median HPFS and OS, respectively, versus burden ≤50 % (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in HPFS or OS between gut or pancreas primaries. In multivariate HPFS analysis, there were no significant differences among embolotherapy modalities. In multivariate OS analysis, TARE had a higher hazard ratio than TACE (unadjusted Cox model: HR 2.1, p = 0.02; propensity score adjusted model: HR 1.8, p = 0.11), while TAE did not differ significantly from TACE.ConclusionHigher tumor grade and tumor burden prognosticated shorter HPFS and OS. TARE had a higher hazard ratio for OS than TACE. There were no significant differences in HPFS among embolotherapy modalities.« less

  1. Early detection of tumor cells by innate immune cells leads to T(reg) recruitment through CCL22 production by tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Faget, Julien; Biota, Cathy; Bachelot, Thomas; Gobert, Michael; Treilleux, Isabelle; Goutagny, Nadège; Durand, Isabelle; Léon-Goddard, Sophie; Blay, Jean Yves; Caux, Christophe; Ménétrier-Caux, Christine

    2011-10-01

    In breast carcinomas, patient survival seems to be negatively affected by the recruitment of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) within lymphoid aggregates by CCL22. However, the mechanisms underpinning this process, which may be of broader significance in solid tumors, have yet to be described. In this study, we determined how CCL22 production is controlled in tumor cells. In human breast carcinoma cell lines, CCL22 was secreted at low basal levels that were strongly increased in response to inflammatory signals [TNF-α, IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β], contrasting with CCL17. Primary breast tumors and CD45(+) infiltrating immune cells appeared to cooperate in driving CCL22 secretion, as shown clearly in cocultures of breast tumor cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or their supernatants. We determined that monocyte-derived IL-1β and TNF-α are key players as monocyte depletion or neutralization of these cytokines attenuated secretion of CCL22. However, when purified monocytes were used, exogenous human IFN-γ was also required to generate this response suggesting a role for IFN-γ-producing cells within PBMCs. In this setting, we found that human IFN-γ could be replaced by the addition of (i) IL-2 or K562-activated natural killer (NK) cells or (ii) resting NK cells in the presence of anti-MHC class I antibody. Taken together, our results show a dialogue between NK and tumor cells leading to IFN-γ secretion, which in turn associates with monocyte-derived IL-1β and TNF-α to drive production of CCL22 by tumor cells and subsequent recruitment of T(reg). As one validation of this conclusion in primary breast tumors, we showed that NK cells and macrophages tend to colocalize within tumors. In summary, our findings suggest that at early times during tumorigenesis, the detection of tumor cells by innate effectors (monocytes and NK cells) imposes a selection for CCL22 secretion that recruits T(reg) to evade this early antitumor immune response.

  2. Progression of early features of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 in individuals at risk: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Montero, Jacqueline Medrano; Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Almaguer-Mederos, Luis E; Laffita-Mesa, José M

    2014-05-01

    The effects of ATXN2 expansion on the nervous system arise before the cerebellar syndrome can be diagnosed; however, progression of the underlying early clinical manifestations is unknown. We aimed to assess progression of the main clinical features in early stages of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). We did this longitudinal study between Aug 12, 1986, and Sept 3, 2013, in carriers and non-carriers of the SCA2 mutation. We enrolled participants aged 6-60 years who were asymptomatic offspring or siblings of patients with SCA2. Participants were repeatedly assessed (two to seven times) until they presented definite cerebellar syndrome. All participants underwent standardised neurological examinations and electrophysiological (nerve conduction tests and somatosensory evoked potentials) and genetic assessments. We enrolled 40 (73%) of 55 eligible participants to the baseline assessment, of whom 21 (13 women and eight men) were carriers of the SCA2 mutation, and 19 (14 women and five men) were non-carriers. Muscle cramps and sensory abnormalities were the most common clinical features in carriers (n=17 [81%] for both features) compared with controls (n=3 [16%] and n=4 [21%], respectively; χ(2)=84·58; p<0.0001, and χ(2)=72·03; p<0·0001, respectively) Both features showed a notable worsening over time and, in 17 (81%) carriers, age at onset was inversely correlated to CAG repeats (cramps: r -0·76, p=0·0004; sensory abnormalities: r -0·77, p=0·0004). Hyper-reflexia was associated with long time to ataxia onset (mean 5·71 years [SD 5·03]), whereas hyporeflexia was associated with short time (median 1·29 years [range 1-3]). Electrophysiological recordings obtained between 5 and 8 years before ataxia in 11 (52%) carriers showed reduced sensory amplitudes for median nerve (10·34 uV [SD 5·07]) and prolonged mean P40 latency (39·31 ms [2·40]) compared with age-matched and sex-matched controls (20·72 uV [9·08 uV]; p=0·0085, and 35·60 ms [2·05]; p=0

  3. New Approaches for Early Detection of Breast Tumor Invasion or Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF \\ Breast Disease PRIMARY LESIONS OF BREAST EPITHELIAL February 13-16, 2003 INVASION INTO BLOOD VESSELS Ritz - Carlton , Amelia...Programs, The Idea Award (BCOOI 187) and Career Development m ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ wr g .••• m Vol 16,’ No MEETING March 22 - 28, 2003 Marriott Wardman Park Hotel

  4. Carcinogen-induced mutations in the mouse c-Ha-ras gene provide evidence of multiple pathways for tumor progression.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K; Buchmann, A; Balmain, A

    1990-01-01

    A number of mouse skin tumors initiated by the carcinogens N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), methylnitrosourea (MNU), 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA), and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) have been shown to contain activated Ha-ras genes. In each case, the point mutations responsible for activation have been characterized. Results presented demonstrate the carcinogen-specific nature of these ras mutations. For each initiating agent, a distinct spectrum of mutations is observed. Most importantly, the distribution of ras gene mutations is found to differ between benign papillomas and carcinomas, suggesting that molecular events occurring at the time of initiation influence the probability with which papillomas progress to malignancy. This study provides molecular evidence in support of the existence of subsets of papillomas with differing progression frequencies. Thus, the alkylating agents MNNG and MNU induced exclusively G ---- A transitions at codon 12, with this mutation being found predominantly in papillomas. MCA initiation produced both codon 13 G ---- T and codon 61 A ---- T transversions in papillomas; only the G ---- T mutation, however, was found in carcinomas. These findings provide strong evidence that the mutational activation of Ha-ras occurs as a result of the initiation process and that the nature of the initiating event can affect the probability of progression to malignancy. Images PMID:2105486

  5. Extracellular Acidic pH Activates the Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein 2 to Promote Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Ayano; Yamamoto, Shogo; Nakaki, Ryo; Shimamura, Teppei; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Yoshida, Tetsuo; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Osawa, Tsuyoshi

    2017-02-28

    Conditions of the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia and nutrient starvation, play critical roles in cancer progression. However, the role of acidic extracellular pH in cancer progression is not studied as extensively as that of hypoxia. Here, we show that extracellular acidic pH (pH 6.8) triggered activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) by stimulating nuclear translocation and promoter binding to its targets, along with intracellular acidification. Interestingly, inhibition of SREBP2, but not SREBP1, suppressed the upregulation of low pH-induced cholesterol biosynthesis-related genes. Moreover, acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2), a direct SREBP2 target, provided a growth advantage to cancer cells under acidic pH. Furthermore, acidic pH-responsive SREBP2 target genes were associated with reduced overall survival of cancer patients. Thus, our findings show that SREBP2 is a key transcriptional regulator of metabolic genes and progression of cancer cells, partly in response to extracellular acidification. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous detection of circulating immunological parameters and tumor biomarkers in early stage breast cancer patients during adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rovati, B; Mariucci, S; Delfanti, S; Grasso, D; Tinelli, C; Torre, C; De Amici, M; Pedrazzoli, P

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced immune suppression has mainly been studied in patients with advanced cancer, but the influence of chemotherapy on the immune system in early stage cancer patients has so far not been studied systematically. The aim of the present study was to monitor the immune system during anthracycline- and taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage breast cancer patients, to assess the impact of circulating tumor cells on selected immune parameters and to reveal putative angiogenic effects of circulating endothelial cells. Peripheral blood samples from 20 early stage breast cancer patients were analyzed using a flow cytometric multi-color of antibodies to enumerate lymphocyte and dendritic cell subsets, as well as endothelial and tumor cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the levels of various serological factors. During chemotherapy, all immunological parameters and angiogenesis surrogate biomarkers showed significant decreases. The numbers of circulating tumor cells showed significant inverse correlations with the numbers of T helper cells, a lymphocyte subset directly related to effective anti-tumor responses. Reduced T helper cell numbers may contribute to systemic immunosuppression and, as such, the activation of dormant tumor cells. From our results we conclude that adjuvant chemotherapy suppresses immune function in early stage breast cancer patients. In addition, we conclude that the presence of circulating tumor cells, defined as pan-cytokeratin(+), CD326(+), CD45(-) cells, may serve as an important indicator of a patient's immune status. Further investigations are needed to firmly define circulating tumor cells as a predictor for the success of breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy.

  7. Inhibition of progression of androgen-dependent prostate LNCaP tumors to androgen independence in SCID mice by oral caffeine and voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Liu, Yue; Wagner, George C; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Conney, Allan H

    2012-01-01

    The effect of oral caffeine or voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) alone or in combination on the progression of human androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate tumors to androgen independence in male severe combined immunodeficiency mice was determined. The mice were injected subcutaneously with LNCaP cells, and when the tumors reached a moderate size, the mice were surgically castrated and treated with caffeine (0.40 mg/ml drinking water) or RW alone or in combination for 42 days. We found that caffeine administration or RW inhibited the progression and growth of androgen-dependent LNCaP tumors to androgen independence, and a combination of the 2 regimens was more effective than the individual regimens alone. The ratios of the percent mitotic cells/caspase-3 positive cells in tumors from the caffeine-treated, RW-treated, or combination-treated mice were decreased by 34%, 38%, and 52%, respectively. Caffeine treatment increased the percentage of mitotic tumor cells undergoing apoptosis (lethal mitosis) whereas RW inhibited the increase in interleukin-6 that occurred during the progression of LNCaP tumors from androgen dependence to androgen independence. Our results indicate that oral administration of caffeine in combination with voluntary exercise may be an effective strategy for the prevention of prostate cancer progression from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  8. Parkin targets HIF-1α for ubiquitination and degradation to inhibit breast tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Zhang, Cen; Zhao, Yuhan; Yue, Xuetian; Wu, Hao; Huang, Shan; Chen, James; Tomsky, Kyle; Xie, Haiyang; Khella, Christen A; Gatza, Michael L; Xia, Dajing; Gao, Jimin; White, Eileen; Haffty, Bruce G; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2017-11-28

    Mutations in E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin have been linked to familial Parkinson's disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that Parkin is a tumor suppressor, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). Parkin interacts with HIF-1α and promotes HIF-1α degradation through ubiquitination, which in turn inhibits metastasis of breast cancer cells. Parkin downregulation in breast cancer cells promotes metastasis, which can be inhibited by targeting HIF-1α with RNA interference or the small-molecule inhibitor YC-1. We further identify lysine 477 (K477) of HIF-1α as a major ubiquitination site for Parkin. K477R HIF-1α mutation and specific cancer-associated Parkin mutations largely abolish the functions of Parkin to ubiquitinate HIF-1α and inhibit cancer metastasis. Importantly, Parkin expression is inversely correlated with HIF-1α expression and metastasis in breast cancer. Our results reveal an important mechanism for Parkin in tumor suppression and HIF-1α regulation.

  9. Lipid nanocapsules loaded with rhenium-188 reduce tumor progression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Lacoeuille, Franck; Roux, Jérôme; Aubé, Christophe; Garcion, Emmanuel; Lepareur, Nicolas; Oberti, Frédéric; Bouchet, Francis; Noiret, Nicolas; Garin, Etienne; Benoît, Jean-Pierre; Couturier, Olivier; Hindré, François

    2011-03-07

    Due to their nanometric scale (50 nm) along with their biomimetic properties, lipid nanocapsules loaded with Rhenium-188 (LNC(188)Re-SSS) constitute a promising radiopharmaceutical carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment as its size may improve tumor penetration in comparison with microspheres devices. This study was conducted to confirm the feasibility and to assess the efficacy of internal radiation with LNC(188)Re-SSS in a chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma rat model. Animals were treated with an injection of LNC(188)Re-SSS (80 MBq or 120 MBq). The treated animals (80 MBq, n = 12; 120 MBq, n = 11) were compared with sham (n = 12), blank LNC (n = 7) and (188)Re-perrhenate (n = 4) animals. The evaluation criteria included rat survival, tumor volume assessment, and vascular endothelial growth factor quantification. Following treatment with LNC(188)Re-SSS (80 MBq) therapeutic efficiency was demonstrated by an increase in the median survival from 54 to 107% compared with control groups with up to 7 long-term survivors in the LNC(188)Re-SSS group. Decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the treated rats could indicate alterations in the angiogenesis process. Overall, these results demonstrate that internal radiation with LNC(188)Re-SSS is a promising new strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

  10. Lipid Nanocapsules Loaded with Rhenium-188 Reduce Tumor Progression in a Rat Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Lacoeuille, Franck; Roux, Jérôme; Aubé, Christophe; Garcion, Emmanuel; Lepareur, Nicolas; Oberti, Frédéric; Bouchet, Francis; Noiret, Nicolas; Garin, Etienne; Benoît, Jean-Pierre; Couturier, Olivier; Hindré, François

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to their nanometric scale (50 nm) along with their biomimetic properties, lipid nanocapsules loaded with Rhenium-188 (LNC188Re-SSS) constitute a promising radiopharmaceutical carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment as its size may improve tumor penetration in comparison with microspheres devices. This study was conducted to confirm the feasibility and to assess the efficacy of internal radiation with LNC188Re-SSS in a chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma rat model. Methodology/Principal Findings Animals were treated with an injection of LNC188Re-SSS (80 MBq or 120 MBq). The treated animals (80 MBq, n = 12; 120 MBq, n = 11) were compared with sham (n = 12), blank LNC (n = 7) and 188Re-perrhenate (n = 4) animals. The evaluation criteria included rat survival, tumor volume assessment, and vascular endothelial growth factor quantification. Following treatment with LNC188Re-SSS (80 MBq) therapeutic efficiency was demonstrated by an increase in the median survival from 54 to 107% compared with control groups with up to 7 long-term survivors in the LNC188Re-SSS group. Decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the treated rats could indicate alterations in the angiogenesis process. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these results demonstrate that internal radiation with LNC188Re-SSS is a promising new strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID:21408224

  11. Bi-model processing for early detection of breast tumor in CAD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mughal, Bushra; Sharif, Muhammad; Muhammad, Nazeer

    2017-06-01

    Early screening of skeptical masses in mammograms may reduce mortality rate among women. This rate can be further reduced upon developing the computer-aided diagnosis system with decrease in false assumptions in medical informatics. This method highlights the early tumor detection in digitized mammograms. For improving the performance of this system, a novel bi-model processing algorithm is introduced. It divides the region of interest into two parts, the first one is called pre-segmented region (breast parenchyma) and other is the post-segmented region (suspicious region). This system follows the scheme of the preprocessing technique of contrast enhancement that can be utilized to segment and extract the desired feature of the given mammogram. In the next phase, a hybrid feature block is presented to show the effective performance of computer-aided diagnosis. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method, a database provided by the society of mammographic images is tested. Our experimental outcomes on this database exhibit the usefulness and robustness of the proposed method.

  12. Label-free nanoplasmonic sensing of tumor-associate autoantibodies for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Soler, Maria; Estevez, M-Carmen; Villar-Vazquez, Roi; Casal, J Ignacio; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-08-03

    Colorectal cancer is treatable and curable when detected at early stages. However there is a lack of less invasive and more specific screening and diagnosis methods which would facilitate its prompt identification. Blood circulating autoantibodies which are immediately produced by the immune system at tumor appearance have become valuable biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer. In this work, we present the rapid and label-free detection of colorectal cancer autoantibodies directly in blood serum or plasma using a recently developed nanoplasmonic biosensor. Our nanoplasmonic device offers sensitive and real-time quantification of autoantibodies with excellent selectivity and reproducibility, achieving limits of detection around 1 nM (150-160 ng mL(-1)). A preliminary evaluation of clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients has shown good correlation with ELISA. These results demonstrate the reliability of the nanobiosensor strategy and pave the way towards the achievement of a sensitive diagnostic tool for early detection of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early career choices and successful career progression in surgery in the UK: prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Goldacre, Michael J; Laxton, Louise; Harrison, Ewen M; Richards, Jennifer M J; Lambert, Trevor W; Parks, Rowan W

    2010-11-02

    before medical school or by their future financial prospects. Surgery is a popular specialty choice in the UK. The great majority of doctors who progressed in a surgical career made an early and definitive decision to do so.

  14. Early career choices and successful career progression in surgery in the UK: prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    men by their inclinations before medical school or by their future financial prospects. Conclusions Surgery is a popular specialty choice in the UK. The great majority of doctors who progressed in a surgical career made an early and definitive decision to do so. PMID:21044317

  15. Inhibition of prostate cancer osteoblastic progression with VEGF121/rGel, a single agent targeting osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and tumor neovasculature.

    PubMed

    Mohamedali, Khalid A; Li, Zhi Gang; Starbuck, Michael W; Wan, Xinhai; Yang, Jun; Kim, Sehoon; Zhang, Wendy; Rosenblum, Michael G; Navone, Nora M

    2011-04-15

    A hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa) progression is the development of osteoblastic bone metastases, which respond poorly to available therapies. We previously reported that VEGF(121)/rGel targets osteoclast precursors and tumor neovasculature. Here we tested the hypothesis that targeting nontumor cells expressing these receptors can inhibit tumor progression in a clinically relevant model of osteoblastic PCa. Cells from MDA PCa 118b, a PCa xenograft obtained from a bone metastasis in a patient with castrate-resistant PCa, were injected into the femurs of mice. Osteoblastic progression was monitored following systemic administration of VEGF(121)/rGel. VEGF(121)/rGel was cytotoxic in vitro to osteoblast precursor cells. This cytotoxicity was specific as VEGF(121)/rGel internalization into osteoblasts was VEGF(121) receptor driven. Furthermore, VEGF(121)/rGel significantly inhibited PCa-induced bone formation in a mouse calvaria culture assay. In vivo, VEGF(121)/rGel significantly inhibited the osteoblastic progression of PCa cells in the femurs of nude mice. Microcomputed tomographic analysis revealed that VEGF(121)/rGel restored the bone volume fraction of tumor-bearing femurs to values similar to those of the contralateral (non-tumor-bearing) femurs. VEGF(121)/rGel significantly reduced the number of tumor-associated osteoclasts but did not change the numbers of peritumoral osteoblasts. Importantly, VEGF(121)/rGel-treated mice had significantly less tumor burden than control mice. Our results thus indicate that VEGF(121)/rGel inhibits osteoblastic tumor progression by targeting angiogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and bone formation. Targeting VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1- or VEGFR-2-expressing cells is effective in controlling the osteoblastic progression of PCa in bone. These findings provide the basis for an effective multitargeted approach for metastatic PCa. ©2011 AACR.

  16. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Si-Jian; Wu, Yue-Bing; Cai, Shang

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitromore » proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation.« less

  17. Targeting CDH17 Suppresses Tumor Progression in Gastric Cancer by Downregulating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chao; Zeng, Zhao-lei; Wu, Wen-jing; Luo, Hui-yan; Zhou, Zhi-wei; Xu, Rui-hua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Patients usually present late with local invasion or metastasis, for which there are no effective therapies available. Following previous studies that identified the adhesion molecule Cadherin-17(CDH17) as a potential marker for gastric carcinoma, we performed proof-of-principle studies to develop rational therapeutic approaches targeting CDH17 for treating this disease. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of CDH17 in 156 gastric carcinomas, and the relationship between survival and CDH17 expression was studied by multivariate analyses. The effect of RNA interference–mediated knockdown of CDH17 on proliferation of gastric carcinoma cell lines was examined in vitro and in vivo, as well as the effects on downstream signaling by immunoblotting. Results CDH17 was consistently up-regulated in human gastric cancers, and overall survival in patients with CDH17 upregulation was poorer than in those without expression of this gene (5 yrs overall survival rate 29.0% vs. 45.0%, P<0.01). Functional assays demonstrated that CDH17 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, clonogenicity and induce G0/G1 arrest. In mice, shRNA-mediated CDH17 knockdown markedly inhibits tumor growth; intratumoral injection of CDH17 shRNAs results in significant antitumor effects on transplanted tumor models. The antitumor mechanisms underlying CDH17 inhibition involve inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Conclusion Our results identify CDH17 as a biomarker of gastric carcinoma and attractive therapeutic target for this aggressive malignancy. PMID:23554857

  18. Alterations of 3p21.31 tumor suppressor genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Correlation with progression and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Susmita; Ghosh, Amlan; Maiti, Guru Prasad; Alam, Neyaz; Roy, Anup; Roy, Bidyut; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2008-12-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the alterations of some candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) viz. LIMD1, LTF, CDC25A, SCOTIN, RASSF1A and CACNA2D2 located in the chromosomal region 3p21.31 associated with the development of early dysplastic lesions of head and neck. In analysis of 72 dysplastic lesions and 116 squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, both deletion and promoter methylation have been seen in these genes except for CDC25A and SCOTIN where no methylation has been detected. The alteration of LIMD1 was highest (50%) in the mild dysplastic lesions and did not change significantly during progression of tumor indicating its association with this stage of the disease. It was evident that alterations of LTF, CDC25A and CACNA2D2 were associated with development of moderate dysplastic lesions, while alterations in RASSF1A and CACNA2D2 were needed for progression. Novel somatic mutations were seen in exon 1 of LIMD1 (7%), intron 3/exon4 splice junction of LTF (2%) and exon 7 of cdc25A (10%). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed mean reduced expression of the genes in the following order: LTF (67.6 +/- 16.8) > LIMD1 (53.2 +/- 20.1) > CACNA2D2 (23.7 +/- 7.1) > RASSF1A (15.1 +/- 5.6) > CDC25A (5.3 +/- 2.3) > SCOTIN (0.58 +/- 0.54). Immunohistochemical analysis of CDC25A showed its localization both in cytoplasm and nucleus in primary lesions and oral cancer cell lines. In absence of HPV infection, LTF and RASSF1A alterations jointly have adverse impact on survival of tobacco addicted patients. Thus, our data suggested that multiple candidate TSGs in the chromosomal 3p21.31 region were differentially associated with the early dysplastic lesions of head and neck. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Biomedical Computing Technology Information Center: introduction and report of early progress

    SciTech Connect

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Henne, R.L.; McClain, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    In July 1975, the Biomedical Computing Technology Information Center (BCTIC) was established by the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. BCTIC collects, organizes, evaluates, and disseminates information on computing technology pertinent to biomedicine, providing needed routes of communication between installations and serving as a clearinghouse for the exchange of biomedical computing software, data, and interface designs. This paper presents BCTIC's functions and early progress to the MUMPS Users' Group in order to stimulate further discussion and cooperation between the two organizations. (BCTIC services aremore » available to its sponsors and their contractors and to any individual/group willing to participate in mutual exchange.) 1 figure.« less

  20. Progress in the Early Solar System Chronology: A Sketch of an Ever-Changing Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amelin, Yuri; Yin, Q.-Z.; Krot, A. N.; Bouvier, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Kleine, T.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    The years since the Workshop on the Chronology of Meteorites and the Early Solar System, are marked with ongoing progress in cosmochronology. Rapid improvements in techniques, discovery of new meteorites unlike any previously known, and findings that what was deemed well established constants are actually variables, will be reflected in an updated review of the solar system chronology we are currently preparing. Along with updating the database of meteorite ages, it will involve development of a set of criteria for evaluation of accuracy and consistency of isotopic dates across the entire range of meteorite classes and isotope chronometer systems. Here we present some ideas on what we think is important in meteorite chronology, and invite the cosmochemistry community to discuss them.

  1. Harvey Cushing's Approaches to Tumors in His Early Career: From the Skull Base to the Cranial Vault

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, Courtney; Raza, Shaan M.; Gallia, Gary L.; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we review Dr. Cushing's early surgical cases at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, revealing details of his early operative approaches to tumors of the skull base and cranial vault. Following Institutional Review Board approval, and through the courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Archives, we reviewed the Johns Hopkins Hospital surgical files from 1896 to 1912. Participants included four adult patients and one child who underwent surgical resection of bony tumors of the skull base and the cranial vault. The main outcome measures were operative approach and condition recorded at the time of discharge. The indications for surgery included unspecified malignant tumor of the basal meninges and temporal bone, basal cell carcinoma, osteoma of the posterior skull base, and osteomas of the frontal and parietofrontal cranial vault. While Cushing's experience with selected skull base pathology has been previously reported, the breadth of his contributions to operative approaches to the skull base has been neglected. PMID:22470271

  2. Historical time to disease progression and progression-free survival in patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma treated in the modern era on Children's Oncology Group early-phase trials.

    PubMed

    London, Wendy B; Bagatell, Rochelle; Weigel, Brenda J; Fox, Elizabeth; Guo, Dongjing; Van Ryn, Collin; Naranjo, Arlene; Park, Julie R

    2017-12-15

    Early-phase trials in patients with recurrent neuroblastoma historically used an objective "response" of measureable disease (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors [RECIST], without bone/bone marrow assessment) to select agents for further study. Historical cohorts may be small and potentially biased; to the authors' knowledge, disease recurrence studies from international registries are outdated. Using a large recent cohort of patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma from Children's Oncology Group (COG) modern-era early-phase trials, the authors determined outcome and quantified parameters for designing future studies. The first early-phase COG trial enrollment (sequential) of 383 distinct patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma on 23 phase 1, 3 phase 1/2, and 9 phase 2 trials (August 2002 to January 2014) was analyzed for progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and time to disease progression (TTP). Planned frontline therapy for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma included hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (approximately two-thirds of patients underwent ≥1 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation); 13.2% of patients received dinutuximab. From the time of the patient's first early-phase trial enrollment (383 patients), the 1-year and 4-year PFS rates ( ± standard error) were 21% ± 2% and 6% ± 1%, respectively, whereas the 1-year and 4-year OS rates were 57% ± 3% and 20% ± 2%, respectively. The median TTP was 58 days (interquartile range, 31-183 days [350 patients]); the median follow-up was 25.3 months (33 patients were found to be without disease recurrence/progression). The median time from diagnosis to first disease recurrence/progression was 18.7 months (range, 1.4-64.8 months) (176 patients). MYCN amplification and 11q loss of heterozygosity were prognostic of worse PFS and OS (P = .003 and P<.0001, respectively, and P = .02 and P = .03, respectively) after early-phase trial

  3. Protein Biomarkers for Early Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Progress and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Root, Alex; Allen, Peter; Tempst, Paul; Yu, Kenneth

    2018-03-07

    Approximately 75% of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are diagnosed with advanced cancer, which cannot be safely resected. The most commonly used biomarker CA19-9 has inadequate sensitivity and specificity for early detection, which we define as Stage I/II cancers. Therefore, progress in next-generation biomarkers is greatly needed. Recent reports have validated a number of biomarkers, including combination assays of proteins and DNA mutations; however, the history of translating promising biomarkers to clinical utility suggests that several major hurdles require careful consideration by the medical community. The first set of challenges involves nominating and verifying biomarkers. Candidate biomarkers need to discriminate disease from benign controls with high sensitivity and specificity for an intended use, which we describe as a two-tiered strategy of identifying and screening high-risk patients. Community-wide efforts to share samples, data, and analysis methods have been beneficial and progress meeting this challenge has been achieved. The second set of challenges is assay optimization and validating biomarkers. After initial candidate validation, assays need to be refined into accurate, cost-effective, highly reproducible, and multiplexed targeted panels and then validated in large cohorts. To move the most promising candidates forward, ideally, biomarker panels, head-to-head comparisons, meta-analysis, and assessment in independent data sets might mitigate risk of failure. Much more investment is needed to overcome these challenges. The third challenge is achieving clinical translation. To moonshot an early detection test to the clinic requires a large clinical trial and organizational, regulatory, and entrepreneurial know-how. Additional factors, such as imaging technologies, will likely need to improve concomitant with molecular biomarker development. The magnitude of the clinical translational challenge is uncertain, but interdisciplinary

  4. Melphalan, Carboplatin, Mannitol, and Sodium Thiosulfate in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Progressive CNS Embryonal or Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-02

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Embryonal Tumor With Multilayered Rosettes, C19MC-Altered; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Supratentorial Embryonal Tumor, Not Otherwise Specified; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Embryonal Tumor With Multilayered Rosettes, C19MC-Altered; Medulloepithelioma; Ototoxicity; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Embryonal Tumor, Not Otherwise Specified

  5. Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression with Tumor Angiogenesis and with Early Relapse in Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoshina, Seigo; Takayanagi, Toshiaki; Tominaga, Takeshi

    1994-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. In this report, the relationship between expression of vascular endothclial growth factor (VEGF; a selective mitogen for endothelial cells) and the microvessel density was examined in 103 primary breast cancers. The expression of VEGF was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining using anti‐VEGF antibody. The microvessel density, which was determined by immunostaining for factor VIII antigen, in VEGF‐rich tumors was clearly higher than that in VEGF‐poor tumors (P<0.01). There was a good correlation between VEGF expression and the increment of microvessel density. Furthermore, postoperative survey demonstrated that the relapse‐free survival rate of VEGF‐rich tumors was significantly worse than that of VEGF‐poor tumors. It was suggested that the expression of VEGF is closely associated with the promotion of angiogenesis and with early relapse in primary breast cancer. PMID:7525523

  6. Involvement of FFA1 and FFA4 in the regulation of cellular functions during tumor progression in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kaede; Fukushima, Kaori; Onishi, Yuka; Minami, Kanako; Otagaki, Shiho; Ishimoto, Kaichi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2018-08-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) and FFA4 mediate a variety of biological responses through binding of medium- and long-chain free fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate an involvement of FFA1 and FFA4 in the regulation of cellular functions during tumor progression in colon cancer cells. The long-term fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) treated cells were generated from DLD1 cells (DLD-5FU and DLD-CDDP cells, respectively). FFAR1 expressions were lower in DLD-5FU and DLD-CDDP cells than in DLD1 cells. In contrast, DLD-5FU and DLD-CDDP cells showed the high FFAR4 expressions, compared with DLD1 cells. The cell motile activities of DLD-5FU and DLD-CDDP cells were reduced by GW9508 which is an agonist of FFA1 and FFA4. Moreover, GW1100, an antagonist of FFA1, inhibited the cell motile activities of DLD-5FU and DLD-CDDP cells. To evaluate whether FFA1 and FFA4 regulate the enhancement of cell motility, invasion and colony formation, highly migratory (hmDLD1) cells were established from DLD1 cells. FFAR1 expression was significantly higher in hmDLD1 cells than in DLD1 cells, but no change of FFAR4 expression was observed. The elevated cell motile and invasive activities and colony formation of hmDLD1 cells were suppressed by FFA1 inhibition. These results suggest that FFA1 and FFA4 are involved in the regulation of cellular functions during tumor progression in colon cancer DLD1 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High NUCB2 expression level is associated with metastasis and may promote tumor progression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Chen, Lina; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-06-01

    Nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) is mainly expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei and has a proven role in energy homeostasis. It has also been recently reported to have a key role in tumor progression. However, the clinical significance of NUCB2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. In the present study, the level of NUCB2 mRNA was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in 34 paired fresh tissues from patients with CRC. RT-qPCR was followed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of NUCB2 protein in tissue microarrays of 251 samples to evaluate the clinical significance of NUCB2 in CRC. The RT-qPCR indicated an upregulation of NUCB2 mRNA in CRC tissues compared with normal tissues (P=0.027). IHC staining indicated a positive association between elevated NUCB2 expression and lymph node metastasis or tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Patients with CRC and lymph node metastasis demonstrated a higher expression of NUCB2 (49.5%, 50/101) compared with those without lymph node metastasis (36.7%, 55/150; P=0.043). Furthermore, NUCB2 expression was also higher in patients with CRC and TNM stage III-IV compared with those with TNM stage I-II (50.9% vs. 35.0%; P=0.011). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated no significant association between NUCB2 expression and disease-free survival of patients. Additionally, multivariate analysis did not identify the upregulation of NUCB2 as an independent prognostic predictor in patients with CRC (P=0.755). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that upregulation of NUCB2 is significantly associated with CRC metastasis, indicating that NUCB2 may be a cancer-associated oncogene associated with the aggressive progression of CRC.

  8. From Cheerleader to Coach: The Developmental Progression of Bedside Teachers in Giving Feedback to Early Learners.

    PubMed

    Wenrich, Marjorie D; Jackson, Molly Blackley; Maestas, Ramoncita R; Wolfhagen, Ineke H A P; Scherpbier, Albert J J

    2015-11-01

    Medical students learn clinical skills at the bedside from teaching clinicians, who often learn to teach by teaching. Little is known about the process of becoming an effective clinical teacher. Understanding how teaching skills and approaches change with experience may help tailor faculty development for new teachers. Focusing on giving feedback to early learners, the authors asked: What is the developmental progression of clinician-teachers as they learn to give clinical skills feedback to medical students? This qualitative study included longitudinal interviews with clinician-teachers over five years in a new clinical skills teaching program for preclinical medical students. Techniques derived from grounded theory were used for initial analyses. The current study focused on one theme identified in initial analyses: giving feedback to students. Transcript passages were organized by interview year, coded, and discussed in year clusters; thematic codes were compared and emergent codes developed. Themes related to giving feedback demonstrated a dyadic structure: characteristic of less experienced teachers versus characteristic of experienced teachers. Seven dominant dyadic themes emerged, including teacher as cheerleader versus coach, concern about student fragility versus understanding resilience, and focus on creating a safe environment versus challenging students within a safe environment. With consistent teaching, clinical teachers demonstrated progress in giving feedback to students in multiple areas, including understanding students' developmental trajectory and needs, developing tools and strategies, and adopting a dynamic, challenging, inclusive team approach. Ongoing teaching opportunities with targeted faculty development may help improve clinician-teachers' feedback skills and approaches.

  9. Characterization of an Early-Onset, Autosomal Recessive, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in Bengal Cats.

    PubMed

    Ofri, Ron; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J; Fitzgerald, Paul G; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Good, Kathryn L; Grahn, Robert A; Splawski, Danielle D; Lyons, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A form of retinal degeneration suspected to be hereditary was discovered in a family of Bengal cats. A breeding colony was established to characterize disease progression clinically, electrophysiologically, and morphologically, and to investigate the mode of inheritance. Affected and related cats were donated by owners for breeding trials and pedigree analysis. Kittens from test and complementation breedings underwent ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examinations and ERG, and globes were evaluated using light microscopy. Pedigree analysis, along with test and complementation breedings, indicated autosomal recessive inheritance and suggested that this disease is nonallelic to a retinal degeneration found in Persian cats. Mutation analysis confirmed the disease is not caused by CEP290 or CRX variants found predominantly in Abyssinian and Siamese cats. Ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal degeneration were noted at 9 weeks of age and became more noticeable over the next 4 months. Visual deficits were behaviorally evident by 1 year of age. Electroretinogram demonstrated reduced rod and cone function at 7 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Rod responses were mostly extinguished at 14 weeks of age; cone responses were minimal by 26 weeks. Histologic degeneration was first observed at 8 weeks, evidenced by reduced photoreceptor numbers, then rapid deterioration of the photoreceptor layer and, subsequently, severe outer retinal degeneration. A recessively inherited primary photoreceptor degeneration was characterized in the Bengal cat. The disease is characterized by early onset, with histologic, ophthalmoscopic, and electrophysiological signs evident by 2 months of age, and rapid progression to blindness.

  10. Characterization of an Early-Onset, Autosomal Recessive, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in Bengal Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ofri, Ron; Reilly, Christopher M.; Maggs, David J.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Good, Kathryn L.; Grahn, Robert A.; Splawski, Danielle D.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A form of retinal degeneration suspected to be hereditary was discovered in a family of Bengal cats. A breeding colony was established to characterize disease progression clinically, electrophysiologically, and morphologically, and to investigate the mode of inheritance. Methods Affected and related cats were donated by owners for breeding trials and pedigree analysis. Kittens from test and complementation breedings underwent ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examinations and ERG, and globes were evaluated using light microscopy. Results Pedigree analysis, along with test and complementation breedings, indicated autosomal recessive inheritance and suggested that this disease is nonallelic to a retinal degeneration found in Persian cats. Mutation analysis confirmed the disease is not caused by CEP290 or CRX variants found predominantly in Abyssinian and Siamese cats. Ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal degeneration were noted at 9 weeks of age and became more noticeable over the next 4 months. Visual deficits were behaviorally evident by 1 year of age. Electroretinogram demonstrated reduced rod and cone function at 7 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Rod responses were mostly extinguished at 14 weeks of age; cone responses were minimal by 26 weeks. Histologic degeneration was first observed at 8 weeks, evidenced by reduced photoreceptor numbers, then rapid deterioration of the photoreceptor layer and, subsequently, severe outer retinal degeneration. Conclusions A recessively inherited primary photoreceptor degeneration was characterized in the Bengal cat. The disease is characterized by early onset, with histologic, ophthalmoscopic, and electrophysiological signs evident by 2 months of age, and rapid progression to blindness. PMID:26258614

  11. Interleukin-22 promotes aerobic glycolysis associated with tumor progression via targeting hexokinase-2 in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulin; Xiang, Fan; Huang, Yongming; Shi, Liang; Hu, Chaojie; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Di; He, Nan; Tao, Kaixiong; Wu, Ke; Wang, Guobin

    2017-04-11

    Interleukin-22 has been explored extensively in human cancer, but its functions and underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we show that aberrant interleukin-22 expression facilitates aerobic glycolysis in colon cancer cells. Elevated interleukin-22 mRNA expression was observed and positively correlated with hexokinase-2 in colon cancer tissues. In vitro, interleukin-22 enhanced glucose consumption and lactate production via targeting hexokinase-2 in colon cancer cells. Moreover, the transcriptional factor c-Myc and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 were involved in interleukin-22-induced up-regulation of hexokinase-2. We further demonstrated that hexokinase-2 partly accounted for interleukin-22-mediated cellular proliferation in DLD-1 cells. In vivo, our data demonstrated that interleukin-22 significantly promoted tumor growth along with elevated expression of c-Myc and hexokinase-2 in mice. In summary, our findings provide a new perspective on the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-22 in promoting aerobic glycolysis associated with tumor progression in human colon cancer cells.

  12. Intersection of FOXO- and RUNX1-mediated gene expression programs in single breast epithelial cells during morphogenesis and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixin; Brugge, Joan S; Janes, Kevin A

    2011-10-04

    Gene expression networks are complicated by the assortment of regulatory factors that bind DNA and modulate transcription combinatorially. Single-cell measurements can reveal biological mechanisms hidden by population averages, but their value has not been fully explored in the context of mRNA regulation. Here, we adapted a single-cell expression profiling technique to examine the gene expression program downstream of Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors during 3D breast epithelial acinar morphogenesis. By analyzing patterns of mRNA fluctuations among individual matrix-attached epithelial cells, we found that a subset of FOXO target genes was jointly regulated by the transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Knockdown of RUNX1 causes hyperproliferation and abnormal morphogenesis, both of which require normal FOXO function. Down-regulating RUNX1 and FOXOs simultaneously causes widespread oxidative stress, which arrests proliferation and restores normal acinar morphology. In hormone-negative breast cancers lacking human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification, we find that RUNX1 down-regulation is strongly associated with up-regulation of FOXO1, which may be required to support growth of RUNX1-negative tumors. The coordinate function of these two tumor suppressors may provide a failsafe mechanism that inhibits cancer progression.

  13. Changes in the microvascular structure of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and their significance in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Swangsri, Jirawat; Nakajima, Yasuaki; Kawada, Kenro; Tokairin, Yutaka; Suzuki, Tomoyoshi; Miyawaki, Yutaka; Hoshino, Akihiro; Okada, Takuya; Ota, Shunsuke; Ryotokuji, Tairo; Fujiwara, Naoto; Nishikage, Tetsuro; Nagai, Kagami; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Kawano, Tatsuyuki

    2014-01-17

    To identify the clinical T stage by endoscopy is a major diagnostic goal for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The completion of a microvascular morphological study of mucosal lesions is necessary to optimize therapy. Images of 197 intra-papillary capillary loops (IPCLs) captured by magnified endoscopy from 15 esophagectomy specimens were studied for their morphological features and IPCL dimensions. The microvascular morphology was classified into four basic major patterns: 1. spiral loop, 2. wide loop (WL), 3. globular (G) and 4. reticular pattern. The microvascular features and dimensions differed according to the depth of tumor invasion. Especially the mean bundle outline (IPCL diameter) showed significant changes as 20.02, 22.32, and 27.08 μm, respectively, for M1, M2 and M3, respectively (M1:M2 P < 0.05, M2:M3 P < 0.01). During tumor stage p